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Disturbing pschoanalytic origins

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Disturbing pschoanalytic origins a Derridean reading of Freudian theory
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2000.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 384-391).
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by Eric W. Anders.

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DISTURBING PSYCHOANALYTIC ORIGINS:
A DERRIDEAN READING OF FREUDIAN THEORY















By

ERIC W. ANDERS















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2000




DISTURBING PSYCHOANALYTIC ORIGINS:
A DERRIDEAN READING OF FREUDIAN THEORY
By
ERIC W. ANDERS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2000


Copyright 2000
by
Eric W. Anders


To my parents in appreciation of their support:
Valerie E. Anders
and
William A. Anders


TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
1. THE (DIS)POSITION OF A PET MONSTER 1
Double Games 5
Responding to Freud and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis 11
Supposing Psychoanalysis 15
Disturbing Psychoanalytic Origins 26
Filling Gaps 31
"To Post or Not to Post?" 40
2. PROBLEMATIZING "HYSTERIA" AND THE
ORIGIN OF PSYCHO ANALYSIS 44
Historia 47
Hysteria and Hysterization 57
Feminism and the Hysteric 62
Hom(m)osexual Pornographies and the Performing Hysteric 66
Psychoanalysis/Hysteria 79
The Lacanian Hysteric's Essential Question of Lack 88
3. (UN)EASILY CONTAINED ELEMENTS 101
Suffering Reminiscences: Reading Derrida's Reading
of the Project 106
The Basics of the Project and Derrida's Reading of It 108
Limiting the Effects of Memory and Chance in
Freud's Work with "Hysterics" 116
My Reading of Derrida's "Freud and the Scene of Writing" 127
From Memory to Fantasy 138
Disturbing Origins: The Interpretation of Dreams 143
Overdetermination and Chance 145
The Interpretation of Dreams: Rand and Torok 156
The Interpretation of Dreams: Weber 162
From Primary Process to Primal Phantasies 169
tv


4. FREUD'S MASTERPLOTTING 186
The Beyonds of Freud's Case Work: From Ontogenetic to
Phylogenetic 199
The Wolf Man Case History 205
Primal Phantasies: Freud as the Archeologist of the Mind 211
Freud's Masterplot Revisited 222
Narratology and the Wolf Man 222
Freud's Oedipal Masterplot 232
'To Speculate on 'Freud'" and Beyond 247
Extending Freud's Masterplot: A Reading of
Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety 259
5. UNCANNY (WO)MAN: THE HOME/SECRETS OF
PSYCHOANALYSIS 288
The Lack of "The 'Uncanny'" I: Primary Femininity 299
The Lack of "The Uncanny"' II: Freud and Lac(k)an 313
'The Uncanny"'and Superstition 318
Home Secrets 332
6. WHAT REMAINS: PSYCHOANALYSES,DECONSTRUCTIONS,
AND FEMINISMS 344
The Analysis of a Repression 344
Post(al)-Psychoanalysis 364
Phallocentrism and Logocentrism: Relating to Feminisms 370
WORKS CITED 384
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 392
v


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
DISTURBING PSYCHOANALYTIC ORIGINS:
A DERRIDEAN READING OF FREUDIAN THEORY
By
Eric W. Anders
December 2000
Chair: John P. Leavey, Jr., Ph.D.
Major Department: English
This Derridean reading of Freud asks the question of how we should
read Freud with respect to sexual difference and what Derrida considers a
radicalized concept of trace, a "scene of writing" of diffrartcethat is, how we
should read Freud with respect to phallogocentrism. Throughout I consider
the possible relationships among the "mainstyles" (Derrida) of various
psychoanalyses, deconstructions, and feminisms. By analyzing what is most
original for Freudthe cause of hysteria, the navel of the dream, the
perceptual identity, the primal phantasies, for exampleI find that Freud
consistently seeks a single origin, a "caput Nili," on which to base a grand
narrative. At first this narrative is an etiology of hysteria, but it evolves into a
masterplot of sexual development and later into one of humanity. The
establishment of an oedipal origin and telos, and the masterplot based on
them, moves psychoanalysis toward a totalizing theory, and therefore its
vi


openness to chance and something beyond what that theory can master is
greatly reduced.
I approach these topics in terms of a question of the ethics of
psychoanalysis. This appropriative or reductive process of Freud's
masterplotting is based on what Derrida calls "castration-truth" in his
reading of Lacan, "Lefacteur de la vrit." In contrast to some theorists who
appeal to the radical spirit of Freudian theory as a basis for their
radicalization of psychoanalysisspecifically Barnaby B. Barratt's
Psychoanalysis and the Postmodern ImpulseI argue that Lacan's
phallogocentric "return to Freud" is actually a more faithful one since I find
both "mainstyles" of these psychoanalyses based on a logic of lack or
"castration-truth." I argue throughout that the radical spirit of Freud is at
times overemphasized or exaggerated by Derridean theoristsand even
Derrida himself, though rarelyand that the dominant specter of Freud is an
"establishment" or appropriative one, rather than one which is radical or
"other-wise." I connect this trend of Derridean thinkers claiming too much
debt to psychoanalysis to these thinkers not taking seriously Freud's
commitment to and interest in an idealized phylogenetics: "phylo-'genetics."'
Since my establishment of this establishment specter of Freud as the
"mainstyle" of Freudian theory itself risks reproducing exactly the kind of
appropriative discourse I hope to problematize, I attempt to avoid such a
reproduction by considering what remains of the radical spirit of Freudian
theory in what might be called a deconstructive "technology of iterability," a
"cyborg-analysis," or what 1 call "post(al)-psychoana!ysis."
vii


CHAPTER 1
THE (DIS)POSITION OF A PET MONSTER
Psychoanalysis, supposedly, is found.
When one finds it, it is psychoanalysis itself, supposedly, that finds itself.
When it finds, supposedly, it finds itself/is foundsomething. (Der87a 413)
Jacques Derrida1
It's extraordinary what happens when you get rid of the centrality of the concept of the
phallus. I mean, you get rid of the unconscious, get rid of sexuality, get rid of the
original psychoanalytic point. (Mit82 15)
Juliet Mitchell
In "Some Statements and Truisms about Neologisms, Newisms, Postisms,
Parasitisms, and Other Small Seismisms," Jacques Derrida argues that those
"within the university and elsewhere who aren't completely asleep know that"
titles of academic discourses such as psychoanalysis, deconstruction, or feminism
"do not correspond to any classifiable identity, to any corpus which can be
delimited. However, for all that, this doesn't make those titles empty or
insignificant. What they name is the mainstyle of each jetty" (67).
Psychoanalysis is thus the "mainstyle" of one "theoretical jetty" in "the open and
1 Alan Bass, the translator of The Post Card, writes the following note to the above: "La
psychamlyse; a supposer, se trouve. Quand on croit la trouver, c'est elle, a supposer, quise trouve.
Quand elle trouve, d supposer, elle se trouvequelque chose. The double meaning of reflexive verbs in
French is being played on here. Se trouver can mean both to find itself and to be found. Thus,
these are three or four statements, since the third sentence must be read in two ways. The
passage from three to four via irreducible doubleness is a constant theme in Derrida's works"
(413n2).
1


2
nonunified" field of forces that the doxa tries to stabilize and objectify in order to
fit into a neat and orderly taxonomy of discourses (65-67 passim). Here 1 will
attempt to establish the "mainstyle" of Freudian theory, if not of psychoanalysis
in general, with respect to my version of the "mainstyle" deconstruction. A
guiding question throughout this project is what is the relationship between
these two "mainstyle" theoretical jetties? And what is the "mainstyle" spirit of
Freudian theory of the incalculable "specters of Freud" that haunt the
"mainstyle" deconstruction and other academic discourses under consideration
here?
The "quasi-concept" (94) of "jetty," according to Derrida, "has no status"
in "theory," but is used here to refer "to the force of that movement which is not
yet subject, project, or object, not even rejection, but in which takes place any
production and any determination, which finds its possibility in the jetty" (65).
"Each theoretical jetty," Derrida continues, "enters a priori, originally, into
conflict and competition" (ibid.) with other theoretical jetties: a "convergent
competition" (72) of unstable and destabilizing pseudo-identities where "each
jetty, far from being the part included in the whole, is only a theoretical jetty
inasmuch as it claims to comprehend itself by comprehending all the others"
(65), and "each species in this table constitutes its own identity only by
incorporating other identitiesby contamination, parasitism, grafts, organ
transplants, incorporation etc." (66). Derrida states that this process of
convergent competition and incorporation is based on a "principle of taxonomic
disorder" (67) and he wonders "to what kinds of monsters these combinatory
operations must give birth, considering the fact that theories incorporate
opposing theorems, which have themselves incorporated other ones" (ibid.).


3
According to Derrida, "Monsters cannot be announced. One cannot say: 'Here
are our monsters/ without immediately turning them into pets" (80). The
present study attempts to be, I announce here, a monstrous pet project that
combines various styles of the theoretical jetties of psychoanalysis,
deconstruction, and feminism. In English departments in North America, this
type of combinatory pet monster, known as "theory," is the norm of the "trans-,
inter-, and above all ultra-disciplinary approaches, which, up to now [1990], met
nowhere, in no department, in no area of any discipline" (82).
The present study is monstrous because its corpus tries to be of indefinite
locale with respect to traditional disciplines, to eschew traditional axiomatic
boundaries by embracing a certain litarariness found in deconstruction and some
styles of feminism; a pet because, beyond announcing itself as a monster using
predicative clauses and being required to meet the institutional standards of the
university, it also attempts to be a (transferential) testament to my position as the
proper legatee, a legitimate son, of a complex parentage that would seem quite
familiar to those doing the "theory" of English departments in North American
research universities. The parentage consists of what I will argue are generally
misunderstood elements of psychoanalysis that are too rare or too unsupported
to constitute a "mainstyle," a certain "ms. en abyme" feminism (Elam), and a
Derrida who I hope is not too simplified, especially by making him one who
would be less resistant to any such paternity or any genealogy than he actually
is. It is monstrous because this complex parentage resists being an oedipal
complex. It could also be considered a pet, however, because there are traces of
what I call, borrowing from Luce Irigaray, "hom(m)osexuality" (Iri85 98), since
the feminism here, which might be construed as occupying the position of the


4
theoretical mother, is significantly Derrideanbut this type of critique would
require the most essentialist, phallogocentric assumptions, which are the very
assumptions I try to disrupt here. It is also monstrous because its attempt to
privilege a literariness of open-endedness and Keatsian negative capability will
endeavor to resist forming into a "corpus of philosophicalhence
phallogocentricaxioms" (Der90 84) as Derrida describes what he sees as the
"mainstyle" of feminism. It is a pet because it will also be called upon to form
just such a corpus, not just in order to be recognized by the university as a proper
dissertation, but in order to develop a somewhat cohesive, though necessarily
partial, hybrid of so-called literary, psychoanalytic, feminist, and
deconstructionist axioms of a certain ethics and undecidability that would allow
for tactical political praxis. Psychoanalysis, according to its orthodox origin
myths, was born from Freud's work with hysterics: the potentially monstrous
offspring of a diseased womb. Yet this supposed offspring, as I will argue,
would have been very much a pet if we supposed such a birth.
Freud considered psychoanalysis to be one of the "three severe blows"
received by "the universal narcissism of men ... from the researches of science"
(XVII139). The first blow, according to Freud, was cosmological and associated
with Copernicus: the decentering of the earth in the cosmos. The second he
considered biological and associated with Darwin: the association of "man" with
the rest of the animal kingdom, and therefore the problematization of the notion
that what separated "man" out was "his" possession of a soul. The thirdwhich
Freud associated with himself and psychoanalysis, and referred to as
"psychological in nature" and "probably the most wounding" (XVII141)was
the subordination of the ego to the forces of the unconscious. Contrary to this


5
positioning of psychoanalysis as such a blow, something monstrous with respect
to god-like man at the center of the cosmos, I read psychoanalysis as a powerful
mode of maintaining what Derrida calls the "system" of "phallogocentrism"
(Der87b 196): a pet as watch dog with respect to a different slant on "the
universal narcissism of men." My question throughout is how much monstrous
potential, if any, remains in this pet. The disposition of my pet monster is to be
highly skeptical of any such monstrous potential of psychoanalysis: watching out
for watch dogs.
Double Games
My positioning of the present study negotiates this phantasmatic
boundary between monsters and pets by attempting to play a double game
appropriate to the singularity of the Freudian texts I read here. In "The Double
Game: An Introduction," an essay in Taking Chances: Derrida, Psychoanalysis, and
Literature, Alan Bass calls the affirmation of the irreducibility of division the
"affirmation of doubleness":
I would call [the affirmation of doubleness] the essence of
psychoanalysis if I had not learned from Derrida that the concept of
essence is designed to denigrate the play of doubleness. Thus, I
will call the affirmation of doubleness the metaphor that imposes
itself upon any conception of the analytic situation, and will say
that this metaphor is no more secondary and exterior to such
concepts as transference and resistance, ego and id, than writing is
to speech. (82)


6
Though Bass reads the mainstyle of the psychoanalytic jetty as being akin to the
mainstyle of the jetty of deconstructionreflecting more the way I wish I could
read psychoanalysis than how I read it here as a mode of repressing "the
affirmation of doubleness"I want to focus here on Bass's concept of doubleness
and Derrida's concept of "disseminal alterity" (Der90 72), what I call irreducible
division. Bass's doubleness is not the doubleness of oppositional binaries, but
the doubleness of an infinity of the Otheras Emmanuel Levinas might put
itthat the doubleness of oppositional binaries dissimulate. This is the
doubleness of what Derrida calls the "disseminal alterity ... which would make
impossible pure identity" and the "convergent competition" (ibid.) of forces that
allow for the space where there is the possibility of some provisional identity
emerging. In other words, this is not the doubleness of a particular identity and
its other as two stable identities (binarisms, dualisms), and especially not the
doubleness of a One and its repressed other, but the doubleness of the possibility
of the act of establishing some unstable identity and of the "otherwise other" to
identity, the radical alterity, the space from whence this possibility emerges.2
Derrida also describes a certain doubleness of theoretical jetties, what he
calls "typical consequencesi.e., general and regular consequences" (Der90 84).
He distinguishes
on the one hand, the force of the movement which throws
something or throws itself (jette or se jette) forward and backwards
at the same time, prior to any subject, object, or project, prior to any
rejection or abjection, from, on the other hand, its institutional and
2 "Act of establishment" and "otherwise other" come from Barratt's Psychoanalysis and the
Postmodern Impulse.


7
protective consolidation, which can be compared to the jetty, the
pier in a harbor meant to break the waves and maintain low tide for
boats at anchor or for swimmers, (ibid.)
Derrida calls the former jetty "the destabilizing jetty or even more artificially the
devastating jetty" (ibid.), which he aligns with a certain deconstruction that refers
neither to "specific texts nor to specific authors, and above all not to this
formation which disciplines the process and effect of deconstruction into a
theory or a critical method called deconstructionism or deconstructionisms"
(Der90 83). This deconstruction "is neither a theory nor a philosophy. It is
neither a school nor a method. It is not even a discourse, nor an act, nor a
practice. It is what happens ..." (Der90 85). The latter jetty Derrida calls "the
stabilizing, establishing, or simply stating jetty" (Der90 84), which "proceeds with
predicative clauses, reassures with assertory statements, with assertions, with
statements such as 'this is that'" (ibid.), as when Derrida writes, "deconstruction
is neither...." That the stating or static jetty is a phallic metaphor, a piece of terra
firma jutting into, or breaking the waves of, the ocean, suggests that either getting
beyond phallocentrism is difficult even for Derrida, one of the most vigilant
theorists, or his metaphor is an example of what he sees as the phallic
establishment.3
In as much as the doubleness of transference and resistance of the
psychoanalytic unconscious happens in any setting, including and especially the
analytic setting, we can say that "psychoanalysis happens," or better,
"psychoanalysis happens." I will argue, however, that Freudand Lacan who
3 The latter ideathat Derrida's phallic metaphor of a jetty might be a self-conscious example of
the phallic establishmentwas suggested to me by John P. Leavey, Jr.


8
follows in his "pas-de-marche" (Derrida) footstepsconsistently reduces this
doubleness or irreducible division to "castration-truth" (Der81 441) and its
phallic One that transforms the difference of (op)positionality into identity, and
therefore the notion that "psychoanalysis happens/' or that there would be a
need to put "psychoanalysis" under erasure, that it would have a "devastating"
jetty, which it would recognize as "psychoanalysis" without trying to tame it or
reappropriate it back into the terms of the "stating" jetty of "psychoanalysis," is
problematic, if not a moot point. In this respect, I argue here that
"psychoanalysis" does not simply happen. It must be established; it is
identitarian and not otherwise; it represses its own "devastating" tendencies in
order to secure its "stating" position.
The stating or "state" forms of psychoanalysis, what I call "establishment
psychoanalysis" or "psychoanalysis proper," are axiomatic, where particular and
somewhat distorted forms of the Oedipus myth occupy the position of the truth
of the unconscious, the basis for a symbolist approach to psychoanalytic
interpretation, the fundament of phylogenetic primal fantasies, the "patrix" of
the pleasure principle (which, as Derrida makes clear, Freud never goes beyond),
the "destination" of the phallic letter, and the foundation of "castration-truth."
In the (non)origin myth of establishment psychoanalysis I tell here, oedipal
psychoanalysis is a theoretical fantasy employed as a defense against the Other.
We might call it a reaction to the trauma of Freud's encounter with so-called
"hysterical" patients, his unethical "face to face" with the Other, if the categories
and concepts of hysteria and trauma were not so embedded in psychoanalysis
itself. The devastating jetty of psychoanalysis, which (under erasure) is the effect
of the deconstruction that happens with any mainstyle jetty, a "typical


9
consequence," has a different relationship to the stating jetty of psychoanalysis
than the devastating jetty of "deconstruction" has to its stating jetty: the latter
recognizes its devastating jetty, even actively subverts its stating jetty by working
not to repress the devastating one. I will argue here that "deconstruction," as a
mainstyle, stating jetty, points to its devastating jetty, whereas establishment
psychoanalysis, though it makes some motions toward such a recognition and
has certain elements with devastating potential as what seem to be its
foundational "discoveries," ultimately actively represses those elements,
especially with respect to its own discourse. My double game reading of
psychoanalysis is more about problematizing my own reading, my own position,
by taking seriously the irreducibility of division, than modeling my reading on
the supposed devastating aspects, or "the affirmation of doubleness" of
psychoanalysis. In other words, my reading is more deconstructive than
psychoanalytic.
In general what follows is an attempt to take seriously several texts by
Freud and several Derridean readings of Freud, especially Derrida's early essay
"Freud and the Scene of Writing" in Writing and Difference, his later 'To
Speculateon 'Freud'" in The Post Card, and Samuel Weber's The Legend of Freud.
Bamaby B. Barratt's Psychoanalysis and the Postmodern Impulse has had a
significant influence on how I approach these readings, despite the fact that his
privileging of the radical or monstrous spirit of Freud ends up a repression of the
establishment Freud. Barratt reads what are typically considered Freud's
"devastating" moments as the essence of Freudian theory, and "Oedipus" and
"fantasy" (either spelling) are not listed in the index of this book. In Legends of
Freud, Samuel Weber highlights certain "devastating" moments of Freudian


10
theory overlooked by Freudian scholars (except Derrida), and often by Freud
himself. Derrida and Weber are closer in their readings of Freud. Weber more
than Derrida speculates on possible points of overlap between psychoanalysis
and his deconstructive theories, but, unlike Barratt, refrains from positioning
psychoanalysis as an authority for establishing a type of postmodern theory. Of
the three, Derrida seems the most reticent to give psychoanalysis undue "credit"
for not repressing its "devastating" moments, to acknowledge more debt for
deconstruction to psychoanalysis than necessary. In "Freud and the Scene of
Writing," Derrida explains his work on psychoanalysis preceding this early essay
as
An attempt to justify a theoretical reticence to utilize Freudian
concepts, otherwise than in quotation marks: all these concepts,
without exception, belong to the history of metaphysics, that is, to
the system of logocentric repression which was organized in order
to exclude or to lower (to put outside or below), the body of the
written trace as a didactic and technical metaphor, as servile matter
or excrement. (197)
Logocentrism, and its reduction of the Other to its terms of the Same, would be
an ethical category for Derrida. Despite his reticence, he does find potentially
"devastating" elements of Freudian theory:
Our aim is limited: to locate in Freud's text several points of
reference, and to isolate, on the threshold of a systematic
examination, those elements of psychoanalysis which can only
uneasily be contained within logocentric closure, as this closure


11
limits not only the history of philosophy but also the orientation of
the "human sciences/' notably a certain linguistics. (198-99)
The "certain linguistics" is a reference to Saussure and Lacanian psychoanalysis,
and much of what follows touches on whether Lacan's "return" to Freud was in
fact a return and not a betrayal, as Barratt argues it was (see Bar84 and Bar93).
Beyond problematizing Barratt's "return" to a "devastating" or postmodern
Freud, I attempt to problematize Derrida's and Weber's location of only uneasily
contained elements of Freudian theory, particularly with respect to psychoanalytic
origins. What is at stake here is not only how to read Freud, but what would
constitute a good reading of him with respect to the issues forefronted in what
has been too-vaguely called the linguistic turn in the humanities. Is the Freudian
unconscious structured like a destinational language, or unstructuring like an
adestinational language? What remains of psychoanalysis after a deconstructive
reading? What debt does "deconstruction" owe to "psychoanalysis"? What, if
anything, might be considered a "Freudian breakthrough"? As Derrida suggests
in Resistances with respect to Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, what is at stake
here is not just psychoanalytic conceptions of "sense and truth" (Der98 18), but
sense and truth in general.
Responding to Freud and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis
For me, deconstructing psychoanalysis is like an imperative, but one
without foundation in some supposed moral code. Derrida argues that this
"obligation to protect the other's otherness is not merely a theoretical
imperative" (Der91 111) suggesting that this obligation is also an ethical one, and


12
that this ethics cannot be bound by the strictures of theory. According to
Derrida, "there is a duty in deconstruction" (Der91 108), and I understand this
duty as being related to Derrida's reading of Levinas in "Violence and
Metaphysics," and the former's notion of "the call that comes from nowhere"
(Der91110). According to Colin Davis, the "thought of Emmanuel Levinas is
governed by one simple yet far-reaching idea: Western philosophy has
consistently practiced a suppression of the Other" (1). Levinas's ethics is
interested in protecting the Other from the violence of the Same's (or Selfs)
reappropriations. In contrast to moral philosophy, which claims to be grounded
in ontological truths, Levinas's ethics attempts a certain groundlessness in this
respect. Levinas tries to argue for the priority of ethics to ontology, but his
project is complicated by the fact that the notions of grounds and priorities
belong to ontology. In his otherwise deconstructive reading of Levinas in
"Violence and Metaphysics," Derrida critiques Levinas for not recognizing the
necessity of working within the logocentrism of language and philosophy.
Levinas's project requires the playing of double games. Derrida finds Levinas's
intentions of positioning himself outside of Western ontology in conflict with the
ontological dependence of his philosophical discourse. Levinas's concern is for
developing a sense of justice and responsibility with respect to encounters with
the Other, and to do this while resisting the totalizing foundationalism of
establishing an ontological moral order. "Something of this call of the other,"
according to Derrida, "must remain nonreappropriable, nonsubjectivable, and in
a certain way nonidentifiable, a sheer supposition, so as to remain other, a
singular call to response or to responsibility" (Der91 110-111). Diane Elam's
type of feminism, as argued in Feminism and Deconstruction: Ms. en Abyme, is


13
"based" on such a "groundless" ethics. Political activity for her should grow out
of "groundless solidarity" where political actions stem from necessary ethical
judgements that "are always threatened by the displacing action of other
judgements" (115), and not from ethical judgments supposedly grounded in
ontotheological or phallogocentric truths of identity and morality.
The significance of such an ethics for psychoanalytic theory and practice is
great, especially if Freud's conception of "the unconscious" is read as a radical
alterity or an "otherwise other" to the meanings and structures of the ego or "I-
now-is," as Barratt reads it. "The unconscious" then would be akin to Levinas's
Other; the egowhat Barratt formulates as the "I-now-is" (Bar93 101)would be
akin to Levinas's the Same, Self, or self-Same. The duty in psychoanalysis would
then be to avoid reducing the "otherwise other" to the self-Same of the ego of the
analysand or the analyst. If the duty in deconstruction is the protection of "the
other's otherness," it achieves this while still allowing for meaning, as would this
"otherwise" psychoanalysis, through the playing of a double game. Meaning or
readability require some reduction of the diffrance of language to the self-Same;
the stating game of a double game, where the other game is a devastating one.
Beyond there being an ethical quality of such double games, they also avoid the
pitfalls of embracing irrationalisms and the simple reversing of the Same/Other
binarism. Derrida's employment of deconstructive double games allows him to
work within logocentrism while opening up spaces to make it otherwise: he
respects the otherness of the text he is deconstructingthat is, he respects
diffrance, he responds to the singularity of the textand is able to form a reading


14
of and argument about this text and its radical alterity that is potentially
meaningful.
Insofar as I have not reduced the Other of Freud's texts to more of my
Same, I have responded to the singularity of Freud's texts, and I have resisted
transforming my understanding of "deconstruction" into some "monolith" of
"deconstructionism" (Der90 88). The ethics I describe here have not only
informed my theorization of my approach, if not the approach itself, it has also
informed my understanding of what makes these texts readable. I suppose
Freud's readability with regard to his encounters with what Levinas would call
the Other. Often Freud's reappropriations of the Other in a way follow what
would otherwise be an ethical encounter with the Other. Practically invariably,
Freud either transforms these "other-wise" moments into "establishment"
theories by establishing an origin of identity prior to the "theory" or "time" of
these moments, or he represses these moments via neglect or obfuscation. Freud
even uses what seems to be something "otherwise" about a theory (for example,
the "contradictoriness" [Barratt] of the unconscious) to support his
"establishment" conclusions or closure (such as what I will call the seemingly
contradictory "trauma"-structure trope of "castration-truth"). My theory of
readability with respect to Freudian texts is in some ways a generalization of
Derrida's reading of Beyond the Pleasure Principle in terms of what he calls Freud's
"pas de marche" (Der81 283), where the step beyond is always taken back or
transformed into a non-step. One possible difference between Derrida's "pas de
marche" and my theory of readability is that I want to focus more on how Freud's
most "otherwise" concepts are sometimes more than taken back or transformed
into their absence, but are redeployed as part of the "establishment" arsenal in


15
the defensive war of maintaining a proper identity, institution, and legacy. I am
interested in connecting Freud's readabilitythe necessary stating game of any
deconstructive double-gameto a Levinasian and Derridean type of ethics.
Supposing Psychoanalysis
What is at stake when one supposes psychoanalysis? To suppose
psychoanalysisto hypothesize that it exists as one thing, identical to itself, self
samewould mean to disregard the divisions, conflicts, aporias, and to decide
undecidables "within" psychoanalysis. To suppose psychoanalysis as a
unifiable, delimitable theoretical identity is also to disregard the competitive,
conflictual, and differential process by which it comes into being and sustains
itself in relation to other discursive forces: to decide undecidables regarding its
relation to what is "without" psychoanalysis. Yet my questioning of the
supposition of psychoanalysis is also a questioning of the very boundaries that
would allow for a "within" and a "without," a problematization of the notion of
psychoanalysis as having secure and identifiable boundaries: an identification, a
locale, an inside and outside. Moreover, to write of psychoanalysis as coming
into being and sustaining itself, to assume that it is ever a simple presence in the
present, or a simple re-presentation, that it is simply demarcated in opposition to
other discourses, other locales, is to miss the aspect of deferral and the
relatedness and imbrication of differences in the generation of any pseudo
identitythat is, to disregard the generative powers involved in what Jacques
Derrida calls "diffrance." Among other things, to suppose psychoanalysis is to
mark an inside and an outside of psychoanalysis, then to make cohesive what
could only be an aporetic inside, and to make the outside separate and passive


16
with regard to the creation of this identity. In other words, the creation of a
binaryinside/outsidethat constitutes a certain repression of undecidables, of
diffrance, is at stake in the supposition of an identity psychoanalysis." Some
might argue that this supposition would be unpsychoanalytic, but this argument
itself requires a supposition of psychoanalysis as essentially about the
problematization of certain identities achieved via the repression of
undecidables. I suppose a psychoanalysis here, on the contrary, that is very
much about this kind of repression.
What is at stake when one does not suppose psychoanalysis? Without
such a supposition any treatment of "psychoanalysis"whether it be a critique,
a so-called "deconstruction," or some other mode of readingwould be
impossible. The stakes would be not to question the traditional suppositions of
psychoanalysis as found truth. Some mode of questioning is required to disrupt
these types of suppositions. While critique is a single game that simply assumes
the subject position for the critic and the object position for what is being
criticized, a deconstructive reading plays a double game where the subject-object
positions of critique are problemetized as they are assumed. This
problematization of the subject-object split subverts any simple inside/outside
for both the supposed subject and the supposed object, yet even a deconstructive
reading of "psychoanalysis" would be difficult, if not impossible, without the
supposition of "psychoanalysis" as its simple, unified object. In his 1991 lecture
"To Do Justice to Freud/ The History of Madness in the Age of Psychoanalysis,"
Derrida asks his audience to allow him to "provisionally assume that there is
indeed a psychoanalysis that is a single whole: as if it were not, already in Freud,
sufficiently divided to make its localization and identification more than


17
problematic" (Der98 76-77). As always with Derrida, that the assumption is
provisional is a crucial part of any double game. My provisional assumptions of
"Freud" and "psychoanalysis" do not ultimately assume them as single wholes: I
attempt to show here how they are irreducibly divided. But to do so, I do
provisionally assume a single or basic tactic or strategy of
"Freud"/"psychoanalysis" of securing a position of undividedness for
himself/itself. The "Freud" and "psychoanalysis" I suppose are both
"interested" in their own unity even though, in significant ways, they position
themselves as the Truth of universal "division"-or "division" as castration,
which is why the quotes are needed.
With respect to Derrida's quotation above, it must also be asked to assume
provisionally that there is indeed an author, a "Derrida," as subject that is single
and whole, separate from the assumed object: as if he were not, already with
respect to Freud and to himself, already divided to make his localization and
identification more than problematic. Also, the assumed "objects" of "Freud"
and "psychoanalysis" are not only divided but "within" the "author" in that
he/I cannot simply step outside "Freud" in order to make it his/my object.
Inasmuch as my reading becomes a critique unawaresa single game of simple
insides and outsides, simple subjects and objects, repressing the irredudbility of
division from my awarenessmy reading becomes an example of what I am
trying to disrupt in "Freud": the identitarian force or "interest" I call
(op)positionality. Simply put, (op)positionality is a mode of securing a position,
and therefore a subject identity, by establishing the separate identity of the
object, and the subject's mastery of that object. To whatever degree my work
here is a reading in this mode, a critique, I am suspect of securing my "I," of


18
finding myself with respect to an "object" I suppose and oppose:
"Freud"/"psychoanalysis." Insofar as this mode of positioning is unavoidable,
especially in the highly formalized mode of a dissertation, the question of
awareness of "one's"the "subject's," the "author's"own division, and the
effect of this division on the supposed "object," becomes a crucial focal point for
differentiating types of discourses, particularly between critiques and
deconstructive readings. The provisional and the playing of double games
becomes crucial. Some might argue, as Barnaby B. Barratt suggests in
Psychoanalysis and the Postmodern Impulse, that (op)positionality and critical
modes of reading that stem from this type of identitarian logic would be
unpsychoanalytic. But this argument is itself dependent on a supposition of
psychoanalysis as essentially about revealing identities and subjects (egos) as
essentially divided. Again, this is another version of the supposition I mentioned
above, and which 1 want to disrupt here.
From such a (supposed) Freudian perspective this argument might hold
up for everything and everyone except Freud himself/psychoanalysis
itselfthat is, Freud/psychoanalysis reveals all other identities to be divided
except for himself/itself. Herein lies a significant difference between what is
signed by Derrida and what is signed by Freud: the texts signed by Freud lack a
certain awareness of the irreducible division of the Freudian text, its signature,
and its signator, whereas the double games of so-called "deconstruction" are the
manifestation of this type of awareness. Psychoanalysis claims to be a method, a
science, based on a discovery of Truth. Derrida resists deconstruction as a
method since it is a mode of reading that treats every text singularly, according
to its own readability: a response to the text, rather than an application of some


19
Truth of deconstruction. We might paraphrase the pun of the title of Shoshana
Felman's book questioning applied psychoanalytic readings of literary texts,
Literature and Psychoanalysis: The Question of Reading: Otherwise, and call this
reading mode, this responsive (non)methodology, "reading other-wise."
Following Derrida's Le facteur de la vrit," his reading of Jacques Lacan's
"Seminar on The Purloined Letter,"' I argue here that Freud/psychoanalysis
attempts to establish himself/itself as that unity that stops the incessant sliding
of the "en abyme" effects of disruptions to the simple subject-object, a simple
inside/outside, caused by irreducible division. As the discoverer of the Truth of
psychoanalysis, Freud positions himself as the unified subject. He is supposedly
beyond the obvious en abyme effects of "the unconscious," his supposed
discovery, in his self analysis. Derrida asks, "how can an autobiographical
writing, in the abyss of an unterminated self-analysis, give to a worldwide
institution its birth?" (Der81 305). As the Truth discovered, psychoanalysis is
established as the unified object: a strangely material-ideal object, a stereotomy,
an "point de capitn" (Lacan). The self-sameness and immediacy of this "act of
establishment" require the repetitive repression of the differences and endless
deferrals of meaning in the creation of any signifying system: diffrance. Derrida
calls this strangely material-ideal subject-object positioning the metaphysics of
presence or logocentrism: the found "object" of psychoanalysis is part of the
"object world" and the signifying system at the same time, the centering
idea/matter, the idea that matters, or logos. This repression of diffrance is
logocentric repression. We might say that the unconscious of
Freud/psychoanalysis is this diffrance, kept out of awareness as part of the "act
of establishment" of an identity, an institution, a legacythat is, if the word


20
"unconscious" were not so imbricated in the very identities of Freud and
psychoanalysis I wish to disrupt. My use of "unconscious" under erasure can be
read as an example of how T" cannot be simply inside or outside
psychoanalysis.
Though "Freud" (op)poses himself as subject to the object of
psychoanalysis, there is also a unity of subject and object here, which sends the
phenomenology "en abyme": "When one finds it, it is psychoanalysis itself,
supposedly, that finds itself" (ibid.). One doesn't just find oneself with respect to
the object, but in the object. (Op)positionality, as a mode of stabilizing the
dizzying movement of diffrance, is itself unstable: the unification of "Freud" is
"discovered" through the discovery of the Truth of the unconscious,
"psychoanalysis," which "then" "sutures" (Miller) the "Freud" who was
previously divided between his conscious and unconscious self, which "then"
allows the unified "Freud" to discover psychoanalysis unencumbered by his
own division.... This process of "positioning" beyond (op)positioning, where
the subject and object are no longer opposed in a simple phenomenology, which
moves toward a totality of the Self via Truth, an identity of subject and object, I
call, following Derrida, "self-posting," where the self sends itself a post of its
own identity. For Lacan in "The Seminar on The Purloined Letter," as Derrida
argues in "Lefacteur de la vrit," posts always arrive at their destination. For
Derrida, there is always the chance that something otherwise could happen. For
Lacan, the Truth of psychoanalysis is the Truth of a destinational linguistics:
"Quand elle trouve, supposer, elle se trouvequelque chose." The sending (envoi) of
the post, which is supposedly identical with the self-sender, in fact reveals the
presence of something totally other that causes the sending. Derrida reads Lacan


21
as positing the truth as "something" found, and a cause of the "eternal return"
(Nietzsche): a destinational linguistics based on a theory of the postal system
without a dead letter office. For Derrida, the "eternal return" cannot be reduced
to a thing or a transcendental structure centered on an absence or a veiled
presence (the phallus as an always already absent presence)a negative
theology (Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy) or a "Negative Concord"
(Kermode)but is something radically other, which subverts ontology
(conceptions of thingness, centers, structures) and Lacan's synchronic
transcendent structures: a (non)origin of repetition and an adestinational postal
system. That letters are repetitively sent and may end up in the dead letter office
suggests the system is related to and part of something totally other.
Lacan stresses the detour the letter takes, the division its detour signifies.
But this detour is quite specific, and it is necessary in order to allow for the
proper return. Division is reduced to presence/absence where the absence is
always the absence of a very specific presence. Psychoanalysis a la Lacan and
Lacan himself are unified in the truth of the proper detour of the letter, the
proper division. Derrida calls this truth "castration-truth" (Der81 441). The
metaphysics of presence, the logocentrism of Lacanian psychoanalysis is
phallogocentrism, where the material-ideal letter is the penis-phallus. Castration
as the proper division, the proper detour of the letter, reduces the binary of
male/female to one-sex system in terms of presence/absence of the phallus:
male/not-male. The not-male secures the phallus as transcendental Truth by
reducing division to an absence, or lack. In Lacanian psychoanalysis, according
to Derrida, "(s]omething is missing from its place, but the lack is never missing
from it" (Der81 441). The "something" that psychoanalysis finds when it finds


22
itself is lack as the "central place," the familiar locale, and also the center of a
structural system, a logic of lack: what Derrida refers to as the psychoanalytic
oikos, where the Greek word suggests both home and economy. This lack
signifies the transcendence of the phallus and therefore its uncastratability.
According to Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy, "the ultimate effect of the Lacanian
strategy thus turns out to be a surprising but vigorous repetition of negative
theology" (Nan92 xviii).
For Derrida, division is that which disrupts the concept of truth by
disrupting the signifying system that might support such a concept.
"Dissemination" is one word Derrida uses with respect to irreducible division:
dis-semination as not allowing for a stable semantics, which is supposedly the
spawn (semen) of phallic truth. The spreading and dispersal of seeds suggested
by dissemination suggest the dispersal of meaning of diffrance, the disruption of
any economy, any logic. No "central place" of absence, no castration home, is
allowed by dissemination: "the lack does not have its place in dissemination"
(Der81 441). Following Derrida's reading of Lacan, this project contrasts a logic
of lack with a "logic" of dissemination with respect to Freud. Is Freud another
"facteur de la vrit" of a destinational postal system? Is Freudian theory based on
"castration-truth," where "Femininity is the Truth (of) castration" (Der81 442)?
Like Lacan, who positions himself as the mystic who has mastered the
cosmology of the Real-Symbolic-Imaginary or "RSI," Freud often positions
himself as undivided, in possession of the whole story, properly analyzed.
In chapter two, "Problematizing Hysteria and the Origins of
Psychoanalysis," I explore how the theme of Freud's lack of awareness of the
irreducibility of division, and how division would apply to oneself and one's


23
theories, is reflected in the large role his self-analysis plays in his claims to have
access to truth and in the orthodox origin myths of psychoanalysis which he
invented and fostered. Freud, the undivided subject, the subject that "sutures"
his own divisionthat is, cures the "hysteria" that marks this
divisionsupposedly discovers Freud/psychoanalysis. He/it is found, a solid
whole, a stereotomy, a something. The something Freud initially finds are gaps
in narratives, which he fills first with phallic memories of "seduction" and then
later with fantasies of phallic wholeness when "hysteria" is replaced by
"femininity" as the privileged object and "gaps" are replaced by "castration" as
the lack that secures the oikos of Truth. Freud secures an undivided, phallic
subject position by creating an object of lack: the hysteric and her narratives full
of gaps. I will explore in chapter two whether Freud's writing on so-called
"hysteria" is an example of what Barratt calls the "phenomenology of fucking":
"the operation of T as the (aggressing or aggressed) subject of
(phallo)logocentric discourse" (Bar93 150). Foreshadowing the "castration-truth"
of psychoanalysis proper, the division of the object, the so-called hysteric, was
reduced to a specific absence, a specific gap. I argue that the phenomenology is a
sort of mixture of (op)positionality and self-posting, and is ultimately unstable
because it depends on cure: as with woman in Freud's later theory, the so-called
hysteric exists as gap to be filled and as what must disappear as cured.
One question I want to privilege in this study is whether Freudian theory
can get beyond its phallocentrismthat is, what, if anything, remains of
Freudian theory once Derrida's project is accomplished: "the Freudian concept of
trace must be radicalized and extracted from the metaphysics of presence which
still retains it" (Der78 229)? Is Freud's logocentrism the same as his


24
phallocentrism: phallogocentrism? Since Barratt's book lacks an entry in its
index for anything related to Oedipusthe expanded oikos of castration-
truthand his book sets forth a general metapsychology of sorts, it seems that he
would answer yes to this query, and his theory of "genitality" reflects an attempt
at such a distancing from phallocentrism while remaining "within" his supposed
psychoanalysis. Barratt suggests that Freud's phallocentrism, the oedipal aspects
of psychoanalysis, are in fact a betrayal of what is essential about psychoanalysis.
Certainly Derrida has shown that one cannot simply step outside the
metaphysics of presence of logocentrism. In "Violence and Metaphysics,"
Derrida argues for the necessity of "lodging oneself within traditional
conceptuality in order to destroy it" (111). But is phallocentrism unavoidable?
Since the Freud I suppose here is one of "castration-truth" and the logic of
lackarguing that Freud, like Lacan, is a "facteur de la vrit" of a phallocentric
and destinational postal systemI conclude that little would remain of Freudian
theory to constitute a radical spirit of Freud if its oikos lost its privileged place.
Barratt's Freud represents something closer to what I wish Freud would be,
rather than how I actually read him. To "suppose" is not only to assume or to
hypothesize, but to suspect too.
The function of "castration-truth" is to theorize division in terms of what
secures identity. Phallocentrism, therefore, is the mode of logocentrism of
psychoanalysis in its Lacanian mode, as Derrida argues, and in its Freudian
mode, as I argue here. The Lacanian "phallic function," according to Bruce Fink,
author of The Lacanian Subject, is the function that institutes lack (103). In Lacan's
own words, the "phallus is the privileged signifier of that mark in which the role
of the logos is joined with the advent of desire" (Lac77b 287). Since Lacanian


25
desire is never in relation to an object but to lack, the joining point or "point de
capitn" of desire to the logos would be a "mark" of lack. The phallus is that
magical signifier/mark, the letter, that sets the Symbolic in motion but also keeps
it centered enough to write "Symbolic" with a captol "S."
One central question for me here is how well does Lacan read Freud?
How faithful is Lacan's return to Freud? I argue that Lacan's "phallic function"
can be generalized and theorized as what I call the "actual phallic function,"
another way of naming phallogocentrism and its one-sex self-posting, what I will
later call, co-opting Irigaray's pun, "hom(m)osexuality," which Lacan attempts to
address in Encore (Lac98 84). The series of acts of self-posting constituting the
actual phallic function comprise what I call a "triple (self-)deception": the first
deception is the dissimulation of difference and chance behind the binarism of
Man/Woman (dissimulating the Other), the second is the dissimulation of the
significance of woman's role in establishing the identity of man (dissimulating
the other), and the third is the dissimulation of all previous dissimulations. With
the actual phallic function, as with Derrida's conception of phallogocentrism,
presence is established by reducing the Other to absence, binary difference is
effaced by erecting one term (the phallus) to identify difference, the binary is
always already a hierarchy, and these processes are naturalized via the
repression of repression and the supplementarity of what remains. I argue that
Lacan's phallogocentrism suggests a faithful return to Freud since Freud
consistently reverts to the "actual phallic function" in his theorizing. I argue in
chapter three, "(Un)Easily Contained Elements," that many of the concepts of
psychoanalysis that are traditionally read as the "otherwise" elements of
psychoanalysisfor example, overdetermination, free-association, memory, and


26
the primary processeither are actually more dependent or related to
"castration-truth," or are simply not as "otherwise," as previously thought.
Disturbing Psychoanalytic Origins
What does psychoanalysis risk by being logocentric? Is there any other
kind of psychoanalysis? Can there be an-other kind, a non-logocentric
psychoanalysis, an "other-wise" psychoanalysis? Can psychoanalysis afford not
to assume that it masters the truth it supposedly finds and is? Psychoanalysis as
truth must master especially itself, and then all other. Can it afford not to
assume that it has a privileged access to this truth and the totality it implies?
How can it master this truth, itself, if this truth is the division of self? As I argue
in chapter two, one way is to repress how this truth applies to itself, to repress
how the found disrupts trust in the finding and founder. Self-analysis as
repression: a (non)origin since this repression would be required to attain this
truth. Doesn't the unconscious as, not a self-absence, but a se\-diffrancea
deferral, dispersal, dissemination of the selfobliterate the possibility of self
presence? Yet the self-present founder is the primary figure of the orthodox
myth: Freud's self-presence is the result of a successful self-analysis, where it
seems all of the Es (Other) was transformed into Ich (Same), his "hysteria" cured.
Through the inspiration of genius, so the myth goes, Freud is able to simply step
outside of the truth that he supposedly founded, achieve a self-presence
uncorrupted by the unconscious forces he supposedly discovers, and he is then
able to perceive this truth (himself, his unconscious, psychoanalysis) without
distortion, without transference or resistance. He is thus able to be the founding
father of psychoanalysis, a primal father as in Totem and Taboo, with his legatees


27
establishing institutes with reportable training analyses that supposedly assure
the reproduction of this founding perception in the form of the proper paternal
transference. I cite Derrida's question again, "how can an autobiographical
writing, in the abyss of an unterminated self-analysis, give to a worldwide
institution its birth?" (Der81 305).
Or, turning the question above around, can psychoanalysis be anything
but otherwise than logocentric since what is supposedly found disrupts the
possibility of finding? Does Freud take seriously the unconscious as what Barratt
calls an "otherwise other"? In chapter three, I argue that Freud does not sustain
the fragments of conceptualizations that might constitute theorizing the
unconscious in terms of something totally other, an "otherwise other," or Other,
but that he consistently reduces its origin ultimately to a simple presence (with
respect to a "specific" absence, a lack that has its place) that he then treats as
oikos, home and economy (the logic of lack). Yet does not the unconscious, the
traditional "object" of psychoanalysis, supposedly the site of unreason, promote
a "logic" where contradiction is tolerated? Can the unconscious be both the site
of unreason and the validating center for psychoanalysis's logocentrism, the
center of the logos, the site of the organizing principle of reason, of the finding of
the truth found? Building on the disturbances of psychoanalytic myths of origins
in chapters two and three, I attempt to show in chapter four, "Freud's
Masterplotting," that there is a progression in Freudian theory, one repressed by
the psychoanalytic orthodoxy and others, where the ego transforms from the site
of order to the site of disorder and contradiction, and its beyondthe
unconscious, and then the idtransforms from the site of disorder and
contradiction to the site of a priori order. I will show that this progression is


28
connected to the ascendancy of Freuds plotting of his master narratives of
human kind, and the descendancy in his interest in etiologies of neurosis and
cure.
Is a logocentric psychoanalysis contradicted if the truth that it finds/is
found is posited as the unconscious as the site of unreason? Is it contradicted if
this truth is posited as the truth of Freud's Oedipus complex? "Unreason" could
be construed, and is construed by Freud, as the absence of reason. I will argue
that Oedipus is construed as that Truth whose repression allows for reason, and
therefore Oedipus can be conceptualized as the unreason (phallic absence) that
allows for reason (transcendental phallic presence): the lack which assures the
place of the phallus, "castration-truth." In this way, Oedipus as the truth of the
unconscious secures the totality of psychoanalysis as truth that establishes reason
and therefore goes beyond reason. Freud's supposed discovery, the truth he
supposedly found, is therefore prior to reason. Because this "prior to" is also a
beyond, Lacan positions himself as within but also beyond reason or his
Symbolic. He calls himself both an hysteric and a mystic. But the "prior to" does
not really work for Lacan's structuralist psychoanalysis: his structures are
outside of time, transcendent more than synchronic. In chapter four, I will
attempt to show that the origins that Freud developed with respect to his
dominant masterplot of the war years are also more transcendent and structural
in this way, even though he uses the diachronic term "genetic" to describe them.
Freud's "before" becomes a "beyond" and then a type of "always already." I
argue that he pushes his origins beyond the ontogenetic and "into" an "always
already" he calls "phylogenetic." I will attempt to show how Freud posits the
truth he discovered as Oedipus in terms of this "always already" phylo-


29
"genesis," and that the "uneasily contained elements" (Derrida) of Freudian
theory were consistently employed theoretically to sustain this truth as the truth
beyond reason, the truth that supposedly secures reason and science. Like
Lacan's Symbolic, this structure becomes a totality as what is Other to itfor
Lacan the Realis reduced to the absence of the structure. For Freud, any
potential Other, all the beyonds he considers, are ultimately reduced to the
absence of the structure of his masterplot: gaps in the narrative or "trauma."
Specifically the "logic" of oedipal and logocentric Freudian theory
positions the truth Freud found as the "Urphantasien,"4 the oedipal "origin of
origins" (Bro84 276), the primal fantasies of the primal scene, castration, and
seduction, which Laplanche and Pontalis equate with the Oedipus complex: "The
universality of these [primal fantasy] structures should be related to the
universality that Freud accords to the Oedipus complex as a nuclear complex
whose structuring a priori role he often stressed" (Lap67 333na). Primal
fantasies, according to Laplanche and Pontalis, are "[t]ypical phantasy structures
... which psychoanalysis reveals to be responsible for the organization of
phantasy life, regardless of personal experiences of different subjects; according
to Freud, the universality of these phantasies is explained by the fact that they
constitute a phylogenetically transmitted inheritance" (Lap67 331). Freud
posited these structures at the same time that he held that the unconscious was
the site of unreason that could tolerate contradiction. One wonders how these
structures, these a priori organizing principles of the unconscious, could tolerate
4 Sigmund Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Ed.
and trans. J. Strachey et at. Volume XIV (London: Hogarth Press, 1953-74), 269. Hereafter the
Standard Edition will be cited by volume using Roman numerals.


30
contradiction, and, as theorized, they could not. Freud argues in his 1918
addendum to the Wolf Man case that they supercede any conflict with anything
ontogenetic. Thus we have the makings of an aporia with respect to what truth
psychoanalysis finds and to what truth it is founded on: the oedipal unconscious
versus the unconscious of contradiction, that which secures the Same or reason
versus that which is radically other to reason. I will also show how Freud's
phylo"genetic" "origin of origins" conflicts with his foundation, his origin of
psychoanalytic authority: the differentiation of the normal and the neurotic, or
the answering of the question, "whence the neurosis?," via a cure and an etiology
based on that cure. Many readers of Freudian theory have repressed the
significance of phylo"genetics" for Freud, including the readers of Freud I am
concerned with here. The "mainstyle" psychoanalysis I suppose is one that takes
seriously Freud's oedipal masterplot, and this focus will differentiate me to
different degrees from these other readers of Freud who attempt to take seriously
the ethical imperative to be "otherwise."
The primal phantasies naturalize "castration-truth" as the center of its
logic, its oikos (home and economy). According to Derrida, "castration-truth" is
"the very antidote for fragmentation" since "that which is missing from its place
has in castration a fixed central place, freed from all substitution (Der87a 441).
With Lacan, Freud's primal fantasies are transformed into an inevitably
phallocentric language: the Symbolic. According to Derrida, the absence of the
penis-phallus sets in place the phallogocentric signifying chain of Lacanian
psychoanalysis, the destination at which all sliding arrives: "truth-unveiled-
woman-castration-shame" (Der87a 416) or simply "castration-truth." This
absence, he argues, is "that which contracts itself (stricture of the ring) in order to


31
bring the phallus, the signifier, the letter, or the fetish back into their oikos, their
familiar dwelling, their proper place" (Der87a 441).
Filling Gaps
In the spirit of intertextuality, I cite Weber citing Freud citing Heine.
Weber argues that Freud contrasts his theories with what the former calls the
"phobosophie" of the philosopher whose approach Freud compares to the making-
cohesive function of the secondary revision of dreams:
This function behaves in the manner which the poet maliciously
ascribes to philosophers: it fills up the gaps in the dream-structure
with shreds and patches. As a result of its efforts, the dream loses
its appearance of absurdity and disconnectedness and
approximates to the model of an intelligible experience. (XXII161)
The "shreds and patches" are references to two lines in Heine's "Die Heimkehr,"
which Freud cites in full at the beginning of his final "New Introductory Lecture"
in 1933: "Mil seinen Nachtmiitzen und Schlafrockfetzen / Stopft er die Liicken des
iNeltenbaus." Strachey translates these lines as follows: "With his nightcaps and
the tatters of his dressing-gown he patches up the gaps in the structure of the
universe" (ibid.). Whereas our nightcaps and dressing-gowns bring us comfort
during sleep, secondary revision is that which brings us comfort after we awake,
that which transforms the "absurdity and disconnectedness" of the primary
processes as experienced in dreams into what is an "intelligible experience" for
the awake consciousness. The "primary revision" would be the dreamwork of
the dream, the condensation and displacement of the primary processes: the
"dissimulating function" which allows the ideational materialwhich would


32
otherwise remain unconsciousto slip by the sleeping censors of consciousness.
Secondary revision is thus a re-establishment of consciousness, its corresponding
sense of self, and their censors after they have been vulnerable to the disruptive
forces of the unconscious material during sleep.
The unconscious is thus theorized here by Freud as being a locus of
disruptive forces with respect to consciousness, forces radically other to
consciousness and its systems. Freud also associates the unconscious with "the
gaps in the structure of the universe," gaps which cannot be filled despite the
systematic "pretensions" of "phobosophers" or anyone else:
The secondary revision of the product of dream-activity is an
admirable example of the nature and pretensions of a system.
There is an intellectual function in us which demands unity,
connection and intelligibility from any material, whether of
perception or thought, that comes within its grasp; and if, as a
result of special circumstances, it is unable to establish a true
connection, it does not hesitate to fabricate a false one. (XII95)
System making therefore can have a defensive quality, and, in Levinasian terms,
an unethical quality inasmuch as it attempts to move toward totality by reducing
what is totally other to the system's logicthat is, inasmuch as it denies the
necessity for partiality, provisionality, and openness as a system, and inasmuch
as it denies the irreducibility of division as a unity. Following Freud, Weber
makes the connection explicit between theory (speculations, system making) and
narcissism:
The "expectation of an intelligible whole" described by Freud, the
expectation of a coherent meaning, appears thus to denote the


33
reaction of an ego seeking to defend its conflict-ridden cohesion
against equally endemic centripetal tendencies. The pursuit of
meaning; the activity of construction, synthesis, unification; the
incapacity to admit anything irreducibly alien, to leave any residue
unexplainedall this indicates the struggle of the ego to establish
and to maintain an identity that is all the more precarious and
vulnerable to the extent that it depends on what it must exclude. In
short, speculative, systematic thinking draws its force from the
effort of the ego to appropriate an exteriority of which, as Freud
will later put it, it is only the "organized part." (Web82 13-14)
Thus there is something "phobosophic" and narcissistic, if not unpsychoanalytic,
about theorizing in general, if that which is opposed to the ego, that against
which it organizes itself"the" unconscious, the id, or that which simply
happensis posited as that which cannot be organized in terms of the ego, that
which resists theory, that which is radically other to intelligible wholes, coherent
meaning, sense, organization. "For speculation," Weber continues, "which
Freud associates with narcissism, systematization, and secondary revision,
would be a form of thought ill-suited to 'judge unconscious material' inasmuch
as it is driven precisely to deny the influence of its own unconscious" (14).
Hence Freud's criticism of Adlerian theory: "The Adlerian theory was from the
very beginning a 'system'which psychoanalysis was careful to avoid
becoming" (XIV 50). I will argue in later chapters that the year Freud made this
statement, 1914, he was on the verge of making the move toward primal
phantasies as the basis of his masterplotting, his ultimate system based on


34
"castration-truth." With this system, the identity of Narcissus and Oedipus is
established.
Freud decries all system making that is different from his own, and yet,
there are moments when Freud approaches taking seriously his own criticisms of
"phobosophie." In "Resistances," Derrida discusses one of these moments in a
note Freud makes to his interpretation of the Irma dream in The Interpretation of
Dreams where "Freud confesses a feeling, a premonition (Ich ahne, he writes)" (4)
that "something exceeds [his] analysis" (5):
I had a feeling that the interpretation of this part of the dream was
not carried far enough to make it possible to follow the whole of its
concealed meaning.... There is at least one spot in every dream at
which it is unplumbablea navel, as it were, that is its point of
contact with the unknown. (IV f f lnl)
Towards the end of The Interpretation of Dreams Freud reiterates this point:
There is often a passage in even the most thoroughly interpreted
dream which has to be left obscure; this is because we become
aware during the work of interpretation that at that point there is a
tangle of dream-thoughts which cannot be unraveled and which
moreover adds nothing to our knowledge of the content of the
dream. This is the dream's navel, the spot where it reaches down
into the unknown. The dream-thoughts to which we are led by
interpretation cannot, from the nature of things, have any definite
endings; they are bound to branch out in every direction into the
intricate network of our world of thought. (V 525)


35
These might be the dream-thoughts that take detour and never return to some
notion of the proper destinationone might say an adestinational theory of the
unconscious. This would make the "unknown" the "unknowable." Freud
seems to be arguing that the system-making of philosophy will necessarily be
incomplete due to "the unknown" of the most entangled roots of the
unconscious, and that any attempt to create a unity, eine Weltanschauung, as
Freud says, is similar to the folly of secondary revision: a projection of the need
for unity. It would seem that we have a Freud here that demands that certain
holes or gaps remain unfilled: open spaces.
Yet, Derrida argues, "Freud seems to have no doubts that this hidden
thing has a sense," that "the secret" (4) is unknown but not unknowable, and that
the open spaces are gaps where a certain presence is missing from its place. For
Freud, if the interpreter could do the impossible and accomplish just the right
unraveling of the tangle of dream-thoughts, and follow all the myriad detours,
sense could be made of the dream:
The inaccessible secret is some sense, it is full of sense. In other
words, for the moment the secret refuses analysis, but as sense it is
analyzable; it is homogeneous to the order of the analyzable. It comes
under psychoanalytic reason. Psychoanalytic reason as hermeneutic
reason, (ibid.)
We might argue that Freud becomes split regarding the sense of the navel of the
dream into two Freuds: one is the Freud of the inaccessible secret, the unknown
as exceeding the analysis, but as ultimately knowable and "homogeneous to the
order of the analyzable"; and the second is the Freud, not of the unplumbable
unknown, or not-yet-known, but of the unplumbable and therefore unknowable,


36
the abyssal. One Freud would be of system-making grounded in truth; the other
would recognize that all systems will fall short of a totality and have spaces open
up within due to the irreducibility of the Other to the Same. I will argue that
there is little evidence of this latter Freud, and abundant evidence of former.
Moreover, what is the not-yet-known for Freud here becomes that which
grounds all of his later theory.
Both Weber and Derrida draw attention to the maternal connections of
Freud's navel metaphor. As will be even more the case as the "castration-truth"
system of oedipal psychoanalysis develops, the center of the structure, its navel,
will be associated with an absence (the "unknown") related to woman, the
absence of woman, and the mother's absence (as in the fort/da game of Beyond the
Pleasure Principle). At one point in his treatment of this note to the Irma dream,
Weber argues that the navel of the dream would not necessarily be a site of
destabilizing mystery:
What could be more reassuring and familiar, more primordial and
powerful than this reference to the place where the body was last
joined to its maternal origins. That this place is also the site of a
trace and of a separation, but also of a knot, is a reflection that
carries little force next to the reassuring sense of continuity,
generation, and originality connoted by the figure. (76)
The question of Freud's "navel of the dream" becomes: is it a "gap" that can be
filled by discovering the correct sense that would then correspond to this
dream's truth, or an infinity of ever-returning spaces that do not allow for a
totality, a system (something that simply happens)? And what is the relationship
of these gaps/spaces to the mother, femininity, and woman?


37
What is at stake here seems to be the status of (psychoanalytic) knowledge
and the very nature of the unconscious: whether it has a nature and whether that
nature can be expressed in a form that might be meaningful. Discussing related
issues, Derrida states matter-of-factly in Resistance of Psychoanalysis that what is at
stake "are sense and truth" (18). In "Lefacteur de la vrit, Derrida argues that
Lacan treats the navel simply as a fillable gap. According to Lacan, "[w]hat
Freud calls the navelthe navel of the dreams, he writes, to designate their
ultimately unknown centre ... is simply, like the same anatomical navel that
represents it, that gap of which I have already spoken" (Lac77b 23). Lacan's
interest in what Derrida calls "the gap and the carved-out localization of the
umbilical hole" (Der96 11) is a repetition of the "castration-truth" Derrida finds
to be the basis of Lacan's reading of "The Purloined Letter," and of Lacan's
"destinational" theory of language. More simply, Lacan's rendering of the navel
as a center reveals his penchant for idealist structures with centers. It is a
philosophy or "phobosophie" that "fills up the gaps in the dream-structure with
shreds and patches," but Lacan fills it with a supposedly material and, at the
same time, indivisible letter, what I call a material-ideal letter. Again the
question becomes: how well does Lacan read Freud? Or does psychoanalysis
itself, despite Freud's criticisms of philosophers, attempt to be a Weltanschauung?
Freud's transformation of open spaces into specific absences, and making
these absences the center of a grand system, begins with his treatment of
hysterics and ends with the "castration-truth" of psychoanalysis proper. In "A
Fragment of a Case of Hysteria," Freud's 1901 case commonly known as the Dora
case, Freud states clearly that "[n]o one who disdains the key will ever be able to
unlock the door (VII115). At this point in his theorizing, the gaps in hysterical


38
narratives are the locks supposedly unlocked by Freud's, and later Lacan's,
phallic keys. When Dora recounts her narrative of being assaulted by Herr K. at
fourteen, the absence of Dora's desire for Herr K.'s advances is for Freud a
telltale bit of the "unconscious disingenuousness" (17) that leaves "gaps
unfilled" (16) in the narratives of hysterics. Effecting an abreaction, according to
the Freud of the Dora case, would supposedly require a catharsis of the
repressed ideational content via its dialogical reconstruction from the
analysand's free associations and the analyst's interpretations. Freud, however,
does not report filling this supposed gap in Dora's narrative with a
reconstruction that is at all dialogical. Rather, Freud, as he often does, employs
his own associations: "I believe that during the man's passionate embrace she felt
not merely his kiss upon her lips but also the pressure of his erect member
against her body" (30). Freud's primary key to the supposed hysteria of his
female patients up to and including Dora, the absent presence of every gap, is
often an "erect member," which he uses to know his patients, to penetrate their
unconscious desires.
The hysteric with her gaps ready to be filled by the phallocentric master
narratives of Freudian theory provides the initial small-"o" other. Freud
assumes a position of the narrative totality from whence he can see gaps. Later,
this position would be one of a masterplot, a metapsychology, rather than an
etiological narrative totality. Freud's initial system is based on cure, etiological,
and provides the foundation of truth on which psychoanalysis is supposedly
based. Psychoanalysis proper would be theorized according to the terms of
universal fantasies rather than the traumatic memories from which hysterics


39
supposedly suffered during the "seduction"5 theory: "hysterics suffer mainly from
reminiscences" (II 7). Supposedly, Freud was right about the truth he found, but,
he would later rationalize, this truth was in the form of universal fantasies rather
than traumatic memories. Freud's movement from his system of filling gaps in
phallic narratives to the "castration-truth" of totalizing masterplots is
complicated by a question that ultimately remains unanswered by Freud after
the movement: whence the neurosis? Though Freud's theorization, treatment,
and cure of hysteria are supposedly the authoritative foundation of
psychoanalytic truth, Freud would argue in The Interpretation of Dreams that
psychoanalysis finds "no fundamental, but only quantitative, distinctions
between normal and neurotic life" (V 373). Freud thus clearly differentiates a
nascent psychoanalysis proper from his earlier etiology of hysteria here. The
latter posited a structural difference between hysteria, one form of neurosis, and
normalcy: the hysteric, according to the Freud of around 1895 and 1896, suffered
from the pathogenic repression of traumatic memories of incestuous violence,
whereas the normal female did not. The Freud of the Dora case, written as an
addendum to The Interpretation of Dreams, had no clear etiology: this Freud could
not answer, "whence the neurosis?," and he avoided answering the question in
this mere "fragment of an analysis."
One of the dominant themes in my study is the possibility of chance in
Freud's system making. During the "seduction" theory, the difference between
5 Freud's theory was called the seduction" theory only later and not by Freud. It is quite a
misnomer given that the theory is really one of child molestation or rape. The idea of
"seduction," however, seems to support the contention of psychoanalysis proper that there is a
desire in the child for the parent, which seems to be a retroactive rhetorical move to make the
child rape theory more cohesive with psychoanalysis proper.


40
neurotic and normal development was dependent on the chance occurrence of
the rape, molestation, or "seduction." In this sense, trauma, chance, and memory
are clearly linked in the answering of the question, "whence the neurosis?"
Freud's initial truth, his supposed "discovery," is the answering of this question
as part of a more general question of cure and the nature of the unconscious.
Narratives as etiologies, chance as part of that narrative, answering the question,
and cure are all the basis of establishing this truth. In one of his last essays,
"Analysis Terminable and Interminable," Freud argues that the way
psychoanalysis has come to understand the nature of resistance means that cure
is hard to come by. But cure is supposedly how psychoanalysis came to
understand the nature of resistance. What Freud is doing in this essay written in
1938, the year before the year of his death, and forty-three years after the
publication of Studies on Hysteria, is privileging metapsychology (metanarratives)
over technique (etiologies, cure) as the central concern of his theorizing and
forgetting that all of his appeals to the authority in his metapsychology are
ultimately based on cure. I return to the theme of chance in chapter three, and
again in chapter five, where I link it to the (non)position of woman in mainstyle
psychoanalysis.
"To Post or Not to Post?"
This project attempts to show how the masterplotting of psychoanalysis
proper reduces "open spaces" to the specific absences of "castration-truth," and,
as I quote Derrida above, this psychoanalytic absence is "that which contracts
itself (stricture of the ring) in order to bring the phallus, the signifier, the letter, or
the fetish back into their oikos, their familiar dwelling, their proper place"


41
(Der87a 441). As 1 argue in chapter five, "Uncanny (Wo)Man," the double games
of deconstructive readings should be differentiated from the phallocentric fetish
and its disavowal, where doubleness is dissimulated in order to achieve the
illusion of a One, rather than the explicit acknowledgment of fragmentationnot
as castration, but as "difference as division" (Der96 33)when a double game is
played. I read the "castration-truth," the phallogocentrism of Freudian theory, as
such a logic of disavowal: divided not by its simultaneous belief in the
presence/absence of the phallus, a fetish, but in the simultaneous belief in the
presence/absence of woman. Contrary to those psychoanalyses that reduce
woman to desire for the phallus, the question regarding "woman" of the present
study is not the truth of woman, but the way psychoanalysis posits Truth of
woman in terms of the presence/absence of woman: first the hysterical gaps in
narratives and the cured hysteric (chapter two), then (op)positionality of
Freudian sexual theories, and finally the phallic One via the actual phallic
function and "castration-truth" (chapter five). Through my reading of Freud's
essay "The 'Uncanny'" in chapter five, I attempt to bring together many of the
questions and themes of the previous chapters in relation to Freud's treatment of
his formulation of the question of woman, especially the theme of the possibility
of chance in Freud's theory, which stems from my reading of Derrida's essay,
"My Chances/Mes Chances: A Rendezvous with Some Epicurean Stereophonies."
I argue that Freud's strong superstitious tendencies are related to his desire to
extend his deterministic psychology into a cosmology. I connect these themes to
Freud's repression of the importance of the mother. The question for me in this
chapter is not the question of woman revisited, and especially not Freud's
question, "Was will das Weib?" The question here is of psychoanalysis: the


42
question of psychoanalysis and its uses of truth, determinism, castration,
woman, and hysteria as the basis of its phallogocentrism and destinational
linguistics.
Derrida argues that "deconstruction has developed itself as a
deconstruction of a system which is called phallogocentrism, which is a whole
structure, which is a system so to speak" (Der87b 196). As Derrida attempts to
"open a space within which we can make philosophy otherwise" (Der78 178), I
hope to do so here with psychoanalysis. I imagine psychoanalysis proper would
see the opened spaces for making psychoanalysis otherwise as Freud saw the
narratives of the so-called hysterics he treated: as gaps in what would be a
complete narrative, Freud's oedipal narrative of totality, his masterplot. Seen
from psychoanalysis proper, such a deconstructive reading of psychoanalysis
would appear to be an hysterical reading. For Lacan, the structure of hysteria is
centered on the question, "What is it to be a woman?" (Lac93 175). Here the
opened spaces of deconstruction would be seen as evidence of certain semantic
castration. The other neurotic structure Lacan theorizes is the obsessional
structure, and its question is Hamlet's: "to be or not to be?" (Lac93 179-180).
Since castration is equated with not being according to Lacan's "castration-
truth," we can equate the two questions: to be a woman is not to be, or as Lacan
says, "Woman doesn't ex-sist" (Lac90 38). I read Freud's texts as stuck in what
might be called an obsessional structure if I were not so interested in
problematizing such psychoanalytic categories and the structures on which they
depend. Not to be in this structure would mean not to have mastery over
woman, and woman here, according to the actual phallic function, is a way of
reducing the Other to a specific absence. In other words, psychoanalysis


43
obsessionally attempts to master the trauma of the Other by reducing whatever
spaces open up"deconstruction happens"to castration.
The question on which the structure of this project is provisionally
centered with respect to one of its double games is what remains after the
phallogocentrism, the "castration-truth," of psychoanalysis is deconstructed, and
whether these remains can or should be called "psychoanalysis," or if the
remains of this deconstruction would in some way constitute a posting of
psychoanalysis: "post-psychoanalysis." In a section of chapter six I call "Postfall-
Psychoanalysis," I attempt to problematize such a posting, if not embrace it.
Besides the obvious drawbacks of such a trendy move, a simplistic posting, a
putting behind of psychoanalysis, of course, seems to assume that one can
simply step outside and in front of psychoanalysis: moves I try to problematize
here. As with post-Marxism, for example, this posting, if it is one, would be one
where the emphasis would remain ambiguous: is it posf-psychoanalysis or post-
psychoamlysis? Adding an "al" in parentheses is intended to problematize any
reading of the title of the conclusion as such a simple posting of psychoanalysis
and to associate this problematized posting with Derrida's problematization of
postal systems.


CHAPTER 2
PROBLEMATIZING "HYSTERIA" AND THE
ORIGIN OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
In this chapter I show how Freud's system-making begins very much in
terms of gap filling, a process at least related to what I have described, following
Barratt, as the "phenomenology of fucking." The Other to Freud's system
making is consistently transformed from Other into other, from the unconscious
or the unknown (the open spaces, the remains of the system) into femininity,
woman, or, as I will discuss here, hysteria (gaps, specific absences). Because the
traditional myth of psychoanalytic origins is that psychoanalysis was discovered
during Freud's work with hysterics, hysteria becomes a privileged category for
any project interested in disturbing these origins and the myths based on them. I
posit here what I think has been a repressed binary, psychoanalysis/hysteria,
where, analogous to the male/female of psychoanalysis, this binary reduces the
Other to a simple other, "hysteria," in order to establish itself, "psychoanalysis,"
in a mode of self-posting "auto-bio-graphy" (Derrida). My goal in this chapter is
to deconstruct this binary and therefore problematize psychoanalysis at what the
orthodoxy considers to be its origin: its analysis and cure of hysteria. By
focusing on Freud's own "hysteria" and his impossible "self-analysis," I hope to
further problematize these myths by (dis)placing them en abyme, and, in general,
to show that Freud's own "phobosophie" is consistently mixed with misogyny.
This latter theme is treated in chapter five below.
44


45
What is hysteria? Or should I ask, what was it? In Feminism and
Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary, Ellie Ragland-Sullivan's Lacanian entry for
hysteria is typical in its acceptance of certain myths of hysteria:
Psychoanalysis was born with Freud's treatment of the illness then
named "hysteria" (from the Greek hysteros 'womb'), a uterus
thought to be "wandering," a malady as old as Hippocrates and the
subject of the oldest known medical text. (163)
Ragland-Sullivan's acceptance of this so-called "illness" as one is a typical
psychoanalytic assumption, one on which the myth of the birth of
psychoanalysis depends. Moreover, she seems unquestioning that this "illness"
indeed had something to do with a reality related to actual diseased wombs. The
womb Qiystera) has been consistently established as the essence of women
throughout Western history, and from this determination came the various
discourses of medicine, biology, sexuality, religion, etc., which gave birth to
many forms of sexism stemming from the notion that "anatomy is destiny."
Of course, we are investing ourselves in a "certain linguistics" when we
speak of "maladies" with ancient histories and their realities. And this
linguistics and its essentialism and reality, as I will argue, create this "illness"
and the misogyny associated with it in order to sustain itself. This linguistics
and its phallogocentrism need this "illness." Yet, even within the context of such
a linguistics, the symptomatology of what was called "hysteria" has a long,
unwieldy, and inconsistent history, though not nearly as long as presumed by
Ragland-Sullivan, nor as is usually presumed. The orthodox mythology of the
birth of psychoanalysis depends on the objective existence of hysteria as a
disease entity that psychoanalysis cures. What I argue here is that even within a


46
logocentric episteme, hysteria can make no claim to being a proper disease.
Freud constructs his "hysteria" and its cure to father psychoanalysis and
"Freud," and Lacan and Lacanians, such as Ragland-Sullivan, will assume its
existence within a "certain linguistics" of phallo-phono-logocentrism. I will
argue that psychoanalytic hysteria constitutes a magical detour-destination,
which allows the letter to be properly purloined so that it will always properly
arrive back at its proper destination. Psychoanalysis and "hysteria" are one:
psychoanalysis/hysteria. All detours must be construed as circles leading back
to the proper destination, and the sending of the self-post must be appropriated
as the proper detour, instead of indicating something radically other that might
account for the compulsion to repeat the sending.
In Womanizing Nietzsche, Kelly Oliver argues that "woman and the
feminine" (5) are the excluded other in the discourse of Western philosophy, but
that this excluded other is also an other within. Oliver urges philosophy to
"engage in a dialogue with the other within it, the other out of which it was
born" (4). Certainly this approach could be applied to Freudian theory and
psychoanalysis in general: hysteria was indeed repressed as a psychoanalytic
concern after the Dora case, and the cure of hysteria has been considered the
womb out of which psychoanalysis was born. Yet the way Oliver sets up her
problem reinscribes the (op)positionality of the binary philosophy/woman in
order to create a dialogue, and, as with any (op)positionality, the binary
dissimulates difference and division behind opposed identities or ideal
categories. I do not ascribe to a project where psychoanalysis would "engage in
a dialogue with the [hysterical] other within it, the other out of which it was
born" since to do so would be to risk reinscribing the binary I reveal/construct


47
here in order to destabilize: psychoanalysis/hysteria. My hope in this chapter is
to show how this binary acts as a mode of defense against the radical alterity
Freud encounters in this initial phase of his theorizing. I do this after showing
how the history and the histories of this supposed disease support the repression
of what is totally other via this supposition. Because of the tradition of how this
word "hysteria" was used to support a variety of patriarchies, it seems to me that
any attempt at any "reappropriation" (a making proper to a discourse interested
in subversion of the proper)for example, hystericizing hysteria or hystericizing
psychoanalysiseven if successful, would run the risk of reproducing the
reification of "hysteria" and all of the misogynistic baggage this reification
carries with it, and it would do so without any clear gain with respect to
problematizing how "hysteria" was used to create this baggage or how
psychoanalysis/hysteria was used by Freud and his followers as the basis of an
origin myth.
Historia
Sweeping histories of this supposed disease, this supposed
singularitysuch as liza Veith's classic, Hysteria: The History of a Diseaseare
flawed in that they create what Mark Micale, author of Approaching Hysteria, calls
"a remote and venerable historical heritage" (Mic95 46) rooted in the Hippocratic
texts. In "Once upon a Text: Hysteria and Hippocrates," Helen King undercuts
traditional histories of hysteria in three crucial ways: (1) by problematizing the
similarity between popular conceptions of hysteria in its modern forms and the
hysterike pnix, or "suffocation by the womb" (Gil93 28-9), which Hippocrates
described; (2) by arguing that anything recognizable as a modern form of


48
hysteria was not recorded until the 16th century; and (3) by pointing out that the
diagnosis "hysteria" was not coined until 1801 (G193 73). According to Micale,
the common type of mythical historical heritage of a disease entity for something
"as elusive and mysterious as hysteria ... implies the universality of the disorder,
establishes the validity of the diagnostic category, and bolsters the scientific
status of psychiatric medicine itself' (Mic95 46). Even during the latter part of
the nineteenth century, which Fulgence Raymond called "la priode hroique de
l'hystrie" (qtd. in Mic95 3), hysteria's symptomatology could not sustain what
most nosologists, then or now, would consider proper disease status. Jean-
Martin Charcot's conceptions of hysteria in his writings of the 1870s and 1880s
reveal a dizzying polysymptomatology despite his efforts to make the diagnosis
functional through a delimiting classification system. Basically any behavioral
abnormality in a woman was suspect of being a sign of hysteria during "la priode
hroique de l'hystrie."
Contemporary symptomatologies for hysteriaa diagnosis unfortunately
still in useare also extremely vague and general. The very recently outdated
Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third EditionRevised) or
DSM-III-R lists "paralysis, aphonia, seizures, coordination disturbance, akinesia,
dyskinesia, blindness, tunnel vision, anosmia, anesthesia, and paresthesia ...
[disturbances of the] autonomic and endocrine systems ... [and vjomiting" (257)
as symptoms of the more specific category of "Hysterical Neurosis, Conversion
Type." The DSM-III-R also lists the dissociative type of hysterical neurosis,
hysterical personality (histrionic personality disorder), and various kinds of
hysterical psychoses. The updated and current DSM-IV does not list hysteria at
all, I hope in recognition of the nosological chaos of the history of this diagnosis


49
and, more importantly, the often violent misogyny of the history of "hysteria's"
theorizations and treatments. Since the term remains a common element of
psychoanalytic discourse, it seems that the psychoanalytic community is far from
acknowledging this history of misogyny and nosological chaos. To do so would
be to undercut the origin myth and therefore the very foundation of the
supposed scientific status of psychoanalysisnot to mention the complicity of
psychoanalysis in the latter part of this misogynistic history.
As with many psychoanalytic feminists who write about hysteria, many
Freudian faithful attempt to limit hysteria to symptoms of "conversion," the
somatic expression of psychical conflict, as Freud, early in his career, claimed
should be done (see 141-52 passim). Reducing the vast polysymptomatology of
hysteria to its merely broad psychosomatic component appeals to psychoanalytic
feminists because the metaphorics of the silenced women who can only express
their dis-ease with(in) the patriarchy through their culturally hypercathected
bodies is indeed powerful. This reduction appeals to the Freudian faithful
because the mythologies surrounding Freud's supposed cure of hysterics, and
hysteria as the womb of psychoanalysis, comprise the origin myths of
psychoanalysis (Freud cures/anchors the womb that gives birth to
psychoanalysis as anchor). Freud's own symptomatologies and theorizations
with respect to hysteria, however, were varied, inconsistent, contradictory, and
usually conflated with female homosexuality after the initial writing of the Dora
casea far cry from the "gross, florid motor and sensory somatizations" (Mic95
4) we associate with Freud's earlier work on hysteria with Breuer. At the same
time that Freud would try to limit the symptomatology of hysteria in order to
make it manageable, he would also bring in many other symptoms from the


50
dizzying polysymptomatology when they would suit his particular purposes at
that time.
If hysteria could be said to have been one thing, something that might
constitute a categorization, it was simply a diagnosis, one that was historically
made by males in positions of authorityprimarily nineteenth-century
physiciansabout women who were somehow beyond the boundaries of what
was contemporaneously considered proper womanhood. The diagnosis of
hysteria itself may be a symptom of a patriarchal "dis-ease"that is, the
patriarchy's dis-ease with those bodies classified as female that did not conform
to, were in excess of, its dictates of proper womanhood. Many of the feminists
who make this argument or similar ones, however, treat hysteria as if it were
something beyond a diagnosis. If they don't explicitly do this, and even if they at
times argue against such a position, their common unproblematized use of
"hysteria" suggests just such an assumption (see Showalter, Kahane, Matlock,
Smith-Rosenberg, among others). In other words, many feminist theorists often
use "hysteria" as an unproblematized denotation of an actual disease even
though these feminists suggest that the word "hysteria" itself cannot be anything
but the discursive manifestations of a variety of related patriarchal defensive
strategies, especially with its unavoidable anatomical etymology of a diseased
womb. There seems to be an understandable, if unfortunate, need to figure out
the causes of hysteria-the-disease at the same time that some feminists argue for
hysteria as a part of a reappropriative discourse of nineteenth century physicians
made insecure by the changes happening with respect to women and their roles
in society, in the family, and in their personal and sexual relations.


51
Histories such as Veith'snot a "hys-story" as much as a case of
"historia"if not histories of a disease entity, may be useful as histories of what
Elaine Showalter calls "the pervasive association of women and madness" (Sch85
4), if their use of "hysteria" is retroactively problematized. For two reasons I
hesitate to say that such histories might be considered histories of female
madness. First of all, Showalter would see this as a redundancy since she argues
"madness is a female malady" (Sch85 3). Second, Derrida might argue that this
would be an "infeasible" (Der78 33) categorization for the same reasons that
Foucault's intention of writing his History of Madness from the position, as
Foucault said, "of madness itself ... before being captured by knowledge" (qtd.
in Der78 34), is for Derrida infeasible, or even "the maddest aspect of his project"
(ibid.). Any history is on the side of reason, thus making a history of madness a
reduction of the Other of "madness" to reason's more of the Same. Indeed,
madness can be read as the (op)position that allows for reason.
What these "hys-stories" mask as aspects of this general reduction of the
Other to the Same with respect to reason /madness, are the undecidables of
certain boundaries that make up the dualisms or (op)positionalities that have
played major roles in the West's representational histories. This masking is a
process of naturalization of dualisms such as male/female and reason/madness,
a deciding of undecidables along traditional lines. A third dualism, mind/body,
is also a major player in the general representational histories of the West. On
one level, what is at stake with these hys-stories, and the many questions of
hysteria in general, is the reproduction of what Showalter calls "the fundamental
alliance between 'woman' and 'madness'" (Sch85 3) and "how women, within
our dualistic systems of language and representation, are typically situated on


52
the side of irrationality, silence, nature, and body, while men are situated on the
side of reason, discourse, culture, and mind" (Sch85 3-4). These dualisms have
been hierarchies in practice, and they mask the undecidablesthe radical alterity
of what is Other, the instability of the sameand the futility of the various
patriarchies' attempts to reduce what is Other to its dualistic codes and
hierarchies once and for all.
Showalter's feminism itself seems to be based on the self-evidence or
naturalness of such a dualism, male/female, and therefore it risks reproducing
the phallogocentric reduction of what is Other to more of the Samethat is,
inasmuch as such an assumption necessarily leads to such a reproduction, and
inasmuch as feminism necessarily makes such an assumption. In,
"Deconstruction in America," Derrida suggests that feminisms are necessarily
phallogocentric:
So I would say that deconstruction is a deconstruction of feminism,
from the start, in so far as feminism is a formno doubt a
necessary form at a certain momentbut a form of
phallogocentrism among many others. (Der85 30)
Psychoanalysis, of course, would also be one of these phallogocentric forms. The
appeal of psychoanalysis for some feminisms seems to be what these forms of
feminism read as its anti-essentialism, which gets away from "anatomy is
destiny." And yet, since Derrida argues both psychoanalysis and feminism are
forms of phallogocentrism, the source of this attraction may also be that they
share phallogocentric assumptions. In so far as phallogocentrism prescribes a
destiny, a destinational linguistics, ultimately "anchored" to the letter of
anatomy, the two "lures" of psychoanalysis for certain feminismsanti-


53
essentialism and sharing phallogocentric assumptionsbecome mutually
exclusive. Without getting embroiled in the intricacies of the relationship
between deconstruction and feminism at this point, 1 am interested in suggesting
here that the conflicted strategies of treating hysteria as a discursive formation
and attempting to theorize the origins and essence of hysteriathat is, treating it
as a "real" illnesscan be understood in relation to the certain feminisms'
conflicted relationship to phallogocentrism and the mainstyles of psychoanalysis
and deconstruction. 1 return to these issues in the concluding chapter.
The primary function of hysteria is to bolster and reproduce the
aforementioned hierarchical dualismsmind over body, reason over madness,
and male over female. Even when the diagnosis of hysteria was used for men, as
in the late nineteenth century by Charcot and Freudand though the diagnosis
was severed here from its history of connecting the pathology to a diseased
wombthe diagnosis was used figuratively to suggest that the male had
succumbed to a feminine type of madness, a "female malady." Freud returns to
this type of metaphoricsthe type where Freud must cure himself of his
hysterical symptoms, his femininityin the late essay, "Analysis Terminable and
Interminable," where he stresses the difficulty of curing his male patients of their
residual femininity (though he never theorizes this source of femininity beyond
simply stating the universality of bisexuality).
The discursive formation "hysteria," the diagnosis, was used to justify
oppressive practices in the service of the stability of various patriarchies. Prior to
the inception of "hysteria" as a diagnosis in 1801, the theories, speculations, and
"treatments" of aberrant forms of femininity were also used oppressively, often
violently. I will refer to all aberrant forms of femininity I deal with here that


54
various Western patriarchies felt the need to classify or diagnose to defend
against their disruptive potential, borrowing from Showalter, "the female
malady"though I use this phrase, not as a synonym for madness in general,
but as a way of denoting the paradoxical imbrications of femininity and madness
from the perspective of a hom(m)osexual patriarchythat is, the malady of
being female, and, furthermore, the malady of not being female enough.
Psychoanalysis continues this treatment of the themes of femininity in terms of a
malady for both men (see "Analysis Terminable and Interminable") and women
(the "peculiar" sex, penis envy), and this contradictory treatment of the feminine
malady as not being female enough (either hysteria or female homosexuality
with respect to Freud's "three lines of development"). With respect to
terminology, my hope here is to differentiate the broader term, "the female
malady," from its subset "hysteria," and therefore to historicize "hysteria" as a
diagnosis made after 1800. This allows me to maintain the broad strokes of
related histories of female oppression associated with female madness without
reifying hysteria and making the error of assuming that nineteenth-century
hysteria has a "remote and venerable historical heritage" (Mic95 46) rooted in the
Hippocratic texts. In fact, I would say that a "remote and (un)venerable
historical heritage" of the imbrication of femininity and madness would be less
vulnerable to "historia" than a comparable hys-story.
The theories and treatments for the female malady were aspects of varied
though similar forms of patriarchal reappropriation, where the aberrancy of
things femininethat is, associated with femininity yet in excess of its proper
formis reappropriated by establishing that which is aberrant as the abject form
of the proper in a name-game of mastery that re-establishes the One and the


55
same in the face of the Other. As usual, the aberrancythe transgression,
perversionwas used as limit and negative in order to establish and center the
proper, the norm, the law. In the Timaeus, Plato wrote:
the womb is an animal which longs to generate children. When it
remains barren too long after puberty, it is distressed and sorely
disturbed, and straying about in the body and cutting off the
passages of the breath, it impedes respiration and brings the
sufferer into the extremist anguish and provokes all manner of
diseases besides, (qtd. in Mic95 19)
With proper femininity in Plato's Greece, the womb is irrigated and inseminated;
the happy womb does not wander as it is anchored by the penis. A proper
sexuality, a proper relation of womb to penis, therefore, is the cure and antithesis
of the diseased womb, the symptom of aberrant femininity. The themes of
proper sexuality and the curative penis/phallus would recur throughout the
history of the female malady. For example, Rudolph Chrobak sent along the
following course of treatment with a patient he had diagnosed as hysterical and
had sent to Freud: "penis normalis dosim repetatur" (Gay 92).
Another recurring theme in histories of the female malady is violent
misogyny. Despite what seems like what should have been the sound security of
Western patriarchies throughout history due to their rootedness and
overwhelming power, violent misogyny regarding the treatment and
theorization of the female malady has been common and often virulent, which
suggests that these patriarchies were not as stable as they were powerful, and
that the threat of what is Other associated with the phantasmatic feminine was
consistently great. After St. Augustine, who attributed all illness to "a


56
manifestation of innate evil" (Mic95 20), the female malady became synonymous
with witchcraft and possession by the devil:
During the late medieval and Renaissance periods, the scene of
diagnosis of the hysteric [sic] shifted from the hospital to the
church and the courtroom, which now became the loci of
spectacular interrogations. Official manuals for the detection of
witches, often virulently misogynistic, supplied instructions for the
detection, torture, and at times execution of the witch/hysteric.
The number of such inquisitions remains unknown but is believed
to be high. (Mic95 20-1)
The violence of the nineteenth-century patriarchal reactions to what was named
"hysteria" is consistent with the violence of previous eras' patriarchal reactions
to the demonic female malady, such as the uncountable murders of women
deemed to be witches. Nineteenth century forms of violence were often
medicalized and sexualized in keeping with its less religious Enlightenment
ethos. The seventeenth century would see the beginning of a neurological model
used to theorize the female malady, one that would evolve until the present time.
A revival of uterine theories would occur in the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth century, hence the womb-oriented diagnosis of "hysteria" for what
were considered materialist maladies circa 1801. As examples of this
combination of medicalization and sexualization, treatments that stemmed from
a combinatory, neuro-uterine model of "hysteria" included "intrauterine
injections, the cervical and vulvar application of leeches, and clitoral
cauterizations," and recalcitrant "cases were occasionally subjected to
amputative and extirpative gynecological surgery, including bilateral


57
ovariotomies" (Mic95 24). Though a pioneer in getting away from physically
violent forms of treatment, Freud in 1896 volunteered one of his "hysterical"
patients, Emma Eckstein, for a procedure developed by his friend Wilhelm Fliess,
who posited that the cauterization of the turbinate bone of the nasal cavity could
supposedly cure sexually related neurotic and physiological ailments such as
hysteria. By Freud's own account, the operation had disastrous effects: the
patient nearly bled to death because of bone chips and a meter of gauze left in
her nose after the operation. As late as 1920, Freud would consider an
overidectomy as a potential therapy for one of his patient's homosexuality and
the hysteria Freud associated with it (XVIII172). Whether neurological or
uterine/sexual, there are clear connections between "hysteria," the female
malady, aberrant forms of femininity, proper forms of femininity, feminine
sexuality, patriarchal insecurity, and the violence to which this insecurity led.
Hysteria and Hysterization
Differentiating my conception of hysteria from Foucault's "hysterization
of women's bodies" (Fou78 104)one of his "four great strategic unities which,
beginning in the eighteenth century, formed specific mechanisms of knowledge
and power centering on sex" (Fou78 103)will help to expand my own
treatment of the questions of hysteria I have raised here. According to Joan
Matlock, author of Scenes of Seduction: Prostitution, Hysteria, and Reading Difference
in Nineteenth-Century France, hysteria "is far less the diagnostic name for a set
symptoms than a category for perceptions":
While doctors with radically different views reported similar
phenomenaparalyses, fainting, coughing fits, convulsions,


58
impressionability, and hypersensitivity to physical and emotional
stimulationthe range of symptoms for this disorder [sic] was so
great that some doctors refused to categorize it at all except as an
exacerbation of whatever made women different from men. (3)
Except for Matlock's unproblematized assumption that hysteria is a "disorder,"
so far so good. Matlock continues by incorporating her reading of Foucault:
What Foucault called the hysterization of women's bodies was
achieved in the nineteenth century by differentiating orderly bodies
from those perceived as disorderly. The hysteric and the prostitute
provided opposite models against which an orderly body could be
measuredthe one tormented by desires welling up from the
inside, the other transformed into a holding tank for desires that
might contaminate society from the outside. (4)
What Foucault called the hysterization of those bodies called female, however,
was not achieved through any differentiation among these bodies. On the
contrary, his anti-essentialist take on hysteria and sexuality posits the
hysterization of those bodies called female as a "strategy" of "the deployment of
sexuality," and, according to Foucault, it would not have excluded any "women"
from the category of the potentially threatening to the hegemonic patriarchal
order: all "women" were deemed "thoroughly saturated with sexuality" (Fou78
104), therefore they were all disorderly, and this disorderliness was used as an
alibi for policing by being "integrated into the sphere of medical practices, by
reason of a pathology intrinsic to" sexuality (ibid.). In other words, hysterization
allowed for the policing of all women, but Foucault does not address the
differentiation between proper women and hysterics in the first volume of the


59
History of Sexuality. Lacan's conception of hysteria can be seen as an example of
Foucault's hysterization since Lacan's "hysteric" cannot be differentiated from
his "woman."
Besides the anti-essentialism of Foucault's take on the hysterization of
women, another strength of his formulation is the imbrication of women and
madness with respect to sexuality, which seems to have been the source of Elaine
Showalter's notion of "the female malady" in her book by that name, despite the
critique of Foucault we find there:
Although anyone who writes about the history of madness must
owe an intellectual debt to Michel Foucault, his critique of
institutional power in Madness and Civilization (1961) does not take
account of sexual difference. (6)
Foucault's notion of the hysterization of women's bodies, published seven years
before The Female Malady, does take into consideration something akin to what
Showalter calls "the pervasive cultural association of women and madness"
(4)that is, how being designated female equals suspicion of being laden with a
malady, since the female is defined as being saturated with supposedly
pathogenic sexuality. Where Showalter truly differs from Foucaultand what
seems to be the source of her misunderstanding of Foucault's anti-
essentialismis her acceptance of hysteria as a disease, and her other essentialist
notions concerning "the feminine":
While he exposed the repressive ideologies that lay behind the
reform of the asylum, Foucault did not explore the possibility that
the irrationality and difference the asylum silenced and confined is
also the feminine. (6)


60
In other words, Showalter does not acknowledge that such an essentialist
exploration in relation to an a priori feminine is contrary to the anti-essentialist
thrust of Foucault's work, and, accordingly, she does not problematize her
essentialist notion of hysteria.
Where I differ with Foucault begins with his tendency toward a
monolithic conception of power. According to Lois McNay, author of Feminism
and Foucault,
What Foucault's account of power does not explain is how, even
within the intensified process of the hysterization of female bodies,
women did not slip easily and passively into socially prescribed
feminine roles. (41)
Accordingly, Foucault's first volume of The History of Sexuality argues against the
psychoanalytic idea of repression. Repression and resistance, which Freud and
Derrida argue are two sides of the same coin, fall away when power is
monolithic: without something otherwise to the discursive constructs that make
up the ego and other institutions of power, what is there to repress or resist?
Where or how do the discursive constructs and what is otherwise to them meet
without the aporetic "logic" of what Barratt calls the "in but not of" (Bar93 133)
relation of the "otherwise other" to the "I-now-is" (Bar93 passim)? When
Foucault does posit an Other, it is either completely passiveas with the silence
of madness in Madness and Civilizationor it betrays his anti-essentialist creed, as
with the notions of "plebs," "subjugated knowledges," and "disqualified
knowledges" in his later work. Whereas all authors who write about some form
of what is totally other, or "the Other," struggle to avoid the reduction of this
"subject" to the more of the Sameas Derrida argues in his analysis of Levinas


61
in "Violence and Metaphysics"Foucault is a special case since he is one theorist
who seems to understand such struggles and their significancefor example,
when he writes that madness is "the absence of the work" (qtd. in Der78 43) in
reference to Madness and Civilization. Unfortunately, he sometimes passes over
these difficulties as he posits the Other as the simple opposite of the Same
(Madness and Reason in Madness and Civilization), or ontologizes and
essentializes the Other (plebs, Madness), or makes it an a priori in the form of the
Same (disqualified and subjugated knowledges).
The passivity that characterizes some of the conceptions of a non-
reductive encounter with what is Otherfor example, the silence of
Madnessaccounts for neither the instability of the Same, nor the necessary
exclusion of what is Other (repression and resistance) that allows for the
establishment of the Same and its logic. In other words, Foucault does not
account for the role the Other plays in the "acts of establishment" (Bar93 12) that
constitute the Same, and how the Other is "in but not of" the Same. The
energetics of Foucault's discursive power, what he calls "biopower" in his later
theorizing, is all on the side of the Same: the power of the Same determines the
modes of the "bio," as with the hysterization of women's bodies. Foucault seems
to have been unable to conceptualize a type of power, what might be called an
otherwise energetics (that is, an otherwise "energetics" under erasure), which is
"of" the Other yet constitutive of, or "in," the Same (that is, "in but not of" the
same). According to Foucault,
Sexuality must not be thought of as a kind of natural given which
power tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which
knowledge tries gradually to uncover. It is the name that can be


62
given to a historical construct: not a furtive reality that is difficult to
grasp, but a great surface network in which the stimulation of
bodies, the intensification of pleasures, the incitement to discourse,
the formation of special knowledges, the strengthening of controls
and resistances, are linked to one another, in accordance with a few
major strategies of knowledge and power. (Fou78 105-6)
With this monolithic "deployment of sexuality," repression of the Other that
allows for an "act of establishment" of the Same would not be needed since it is a
totality of the Same. Derrida refers to Foucault's use of "The Decision" for
Foucault's separating of "sexuality" and the energetics of discursive power
(Der78 38). Is this evidence of a certain avoidance by Foucualt of the problem of
the relationship between language and what makes it unstable, what it represses
and resists? Derrida asks how Foucault could write about madness as an Other
within a history of reason. I would add: whence the madness with respect to
such a monolithic power of reason? Foucault gestures toward letting madness
speak for itself, which is a gesture towards writing ethically in the Levinasian
sense. Ethics, in this sense, seems to preclude "The Decision," a distinct
delimitation between the Other and the Same, which would be different than
Barratt's "in but not of" and Derridas "dissension" where "the exterior (is) the
interior, is the fission that produces and divides it along the lines of the Hegelian
Entzweiung" (Der78 38-39).
Feminism and the Hysteric
Foucault's concept of hysterization theorizes a pathologizing of all
women's bodies, employed to justify all policing, but it does not account for the


63
use of the diagnosis as a means of appropriation or reappropriation of the
disorderly bodies labeled as hysterics. The difference between the normal female
body and the hysterical one, in a pseudo-Foucauldian sense, might be construed
as the difference between the always potentially disruptive body (in need of
policing) and the actually disruptive body (in need of a type of incarceration, a
diagnosis as incarceration). It would be "pseudo" because Foucault did not
theorize anything beyond the body as a discursive formation: nothing to repress,
and nothing otherwise to the power that might create a dissension within
discursvity. Furthermore, Foucault's hysterization does not account for the
difference between the normal and hysterical positions of "woman" within
patriarchies that used the diagnosis of hysteria, and it does not account for the
deployment of "hysteria" as a reappropriative measure. As with Lacan's
hysteric, Foucauldian "hysterized body" is synonymous with "female body."
Whatever created the dissension within the strictures of proper womanhood, or
within the hysterized body, would have been radically other to the identitarian
logics of these discursive formations, and therefore would have been threatening
to the stability of these logics and the powers of the patriarchies in question. To
call this source of dissension "hysteria," however, would reduce what is radically
otherwise to that logic, to make it recognizable and therefore masterable within
that logic and its possible bodily positions. "Hysteria" marks what is otherwise
to a particular phallic order, while providing one of many feminine positions
within that order, and a mode of defense against what is radically other to that
order. In all cases "hysteria" is a reappropriative tool of these orders.
The hysteric as proto-feminist would be oxymoronic if hysteria is
understood only as a patriarchal tool of appropriation, and if feminism is


64
understood as being about problematizing, if not disrupting or destroying,
traditional positions which would be in the service of patriarchy. Dianne
Hunter's assertion that "feminism is transformed hysteria, or more precisely, that
hysteria is feminism lacking a social network in the outer world" (Hun83 68)
would thus seem to be contrary to my position, as Hunter's position seems to
associate hysteria with what is otherwise to the patriarchy, rather than with
patriarchy's appropriation or totalization processes, its identitarian or
(op)positional logics of the Same. Some feminisms might aspire for feminism to
be the transformation of the disruption of whatever it is that creates Derrida's
"dissension," and by definition this (non)source or source would lack a social
network. Again, to call this disruption "hysteria" is to risk legitimizing the
patriarchal tool that associates any deviation from proper womanhood with an
essentialist notion of a diseased wombeven if "hysteria" is used in a way that
attempts to destabilize what is proper by "reappropriating" "hysteria."
Derrida might argue that both "hysteria" and feminism are both part of a
phallogocentric social network. We might ask, how much is the
phallogocentrism of "hysteria" linked to the phallogocentrism of feminism? The
larger question becomes how much is feminism invested in the "social network
of the outer world," its logic of the Same, its essentialism, and its use of
"hysteria." Limiting the scope of my inquiry, I want to focus on the problematic
relation of certain feminisms to essentialist conceptions of hysteria. These
conceptions might be seen as the lure of phallogocentrism for these feminisms.
As I stated above, Derrida reduces feminism to a phallogocentric discourse, and
feminisms' inability to give up essentialist conceptions of hysteria seem to be
evidence supporting Derrida's reduction. Yet Derrida's reduction of feminism to


65
phallogocentrism is just that, a reduction. It assumes that, like logocentrism,
phallocentrism is inescapable, thus all logocetrism would be phallogocentrism.
In Spurs, Derrida writes probably his most infamous lines for feminists:
And in truth, they too are men, those women feminists so derided
by Nietzsche. Feminism is nothing but the operation of a woman
who aspires to be like a man. And in order to resemble the
masculine dogmatic philosopher this woman lays claimjust as
much claim as heto truth, science and objectivity in all their
castrated delusions of virility. Feminism too seeks to castrate. It
wants a castrated woman. Gone the style. (Der79 62-65)
Derrida assumes that all feminists assume only two positions available to bodies:
male or female. Most feminists do just this, particularly psychoanalytic
feminists, who seem to be the most invested in this fundamental aspect of
phallogocentrism. In Feminism and Deconstruction: Ms. en Abyme, however, Diane
Elam writes,
If feminism is merely a form of phallogocentrism, then Derrida,
however much he gestures at historical necessity, would be
equating all of feminism with a teleological search for the essence
of woman. Thus, he would be reducing all feminisms to one and
the same feminism. Lost the style, for Derrida as well. (16-17)
Derrida also reduces all male/female binaries to its phallogocentric form:
presence/absence of the penis-phallus by assuming that all searches for truth or
logocentrism are necessarily phallogocentrism. Since Derrida wrote Spurs in
1978, many feminists have attempted to theorize bodies, genders, and sexualities
beyond the limitations of phallogocentrism and its male/female. For me the


66
question remains open whether logocentrism, which seems to be inescapable for
theory, is necessarily phallocentric. Logocentrism seems inescapable for any
theory of bodily or sexual positioning. But why would phallocentrism be
inescapable? What seems to be at stake here is the relationship between the
traditional binary of sexual difference, male/female, and the traditional binaries
of presence/absence. Which is primary? Is logocentrism, the metaphysics of
presence, always phallogocentrism? Can we have logocentrism without
phallocentrism? I return to this question in the concluding chapter.
Hom(m)osexual Pornographies and the Performing Hysteric
The hysteric as an individual seems to disappear, not only with Foucault's
hysterization, but also with the reduction of hysteria to a reappropriative
discursive strategy of patriarchy. The potential drawback of this disappearance
is that certain feminists portray the hysteric as a potential revolutionary figure, or
as a proto-feminist and resister to the misogynistic violence of patriarchy.
Though I argue that the feminist-hysteric is oxymoronic given the way I define
hysteria, the hysteric as an individual does not necessarily fall away: there were
individuals, mostly women, who performed a masquerade of hysteria la the
supposedly anti-essentialist line of theory that grew out of feminist readings of
Joan Riviere's 1929 essay, "Womanliness as a Masquerade." I write
"supposedly" because this line of theory has become essentially an extension of
Lacanian theory, which, as I have argued, following Derrida, is ultimately
essentialist with its phallogocentrism. Can the performance of the so-called
"hysteric" legitimate the use of "hysteric" within an anti-essentialist argument
that attempts to problematize traditional uses of "hysteria"?


67
To address this question I turn to Catherine Clment's and Hlne Cixous'
The Newly Born Woman. It follows from my conceptualization of "hysteria" as
being a patriarchal tool that I would feel more kinship with Clment's position
than with Hlne Cixous' in the part of their "Exchange" dealing with
conceptualizing "the hysteric" as an individual:
H: ... Dora seemed to me the one who resists the system.... And
this girllike all hysterics, deprived of the possibility of saying
directly what she perceived ... still had the strength to make it
known. It is the nuclear example of women's power to protest. It
happened in 1899; it happens today wherever women have not
been able to speak differently from Dora, but have spoken so
effectively that it bursts the family into pieces.... The hysteric is, to
my eyes, the typical woman in all her force....
C: ... but when you say "that bursts the family into pieces," no. It
mimics, it metaphorizes destruction, but the family reconstitutes
itself around it.... The analysis I make of hysteria comes through
my reflection on the place of deviants who are not hysterics but
clowns, charlatans, crazies, all sorts of odd people. They all occupy
challenging positions foreseen by the social bodies, challenging
functions within the scope of all cultures. That doesn't change the
structures, however. On the contrary, it makes them more
comfortable.... In that position, they are part of one of the deepest
reinforcements of the superstructure, of the Symbolic. (154-55).
Clment seems to struggle in her exchange with Cixous because she accepts that
the hysteric as an individual, and hysteria as a reified disease entity, rather than


68
focus her attention on how the name-game of the diagnosis hysteria, the
discursive construction of hysteria, is what reinforces what she calls "the
Symbolic""the Symbolic" as what this name game might call itself, under the
spell of an 'Imaginary" and structuralist delusion, since language cannot be
"anchored" in order to justify the capital "S." Cixous seems to privilege the
disruptive alterity of what "hysteria" tries to name and master, but then errs, like
Clment, by reifying "hysteria." This reification follows, as with Lacan, from the
assumption of a "Symbolic" and the "certain linguistics" that is connected to this
assumption.
Cixous also disregards those individuals deemed hysterics who
performed in a way that colluded with the patriarchy in question, and whose
performance was therefore antithetical to any disruptive force that might be
construed as feminist. This patriarchy-friendly version of the hysteric, who I call
the performing hysteric, seems to be the version of the hysteric Clment
privileges in her theorizations. The performing hysteric would hardly be
considered a protofeminist. With respect to Clment's position, I am hesitant to
criticize her essentialist and unproblematized use of "hysteric" since her
privileged version of the hysteric, it might be argued, exists as much as any body
who performs an identity exists. The performing hysteric would be an hysteric
whose positionality is in collaboration with the patriarchy in question, and with
its appropriative categories or roles for women. Calling this positionality an
"hysteric" does not betray some disruptive force as I have argued the figure of
the hysteric as proto-feminist potentially would do. Clement's use of the word
"hysteric" risks essentialismand, again, this essentialism seems to be the crux
of her struggle in the exchangebut her argument is still powerful since she


69
relates the hysteric to those deviants who are "the deepest reinforcements of the
superstructure." The potential essentialism of her argument is undermined by
her focus on the hysteric as performing a patriarchal function, since essentialism
and performance are potentially at odds.
Showalter's description of a fifteen-year-old patient in Charcot's Salpctrire
named Augustine provides an almost archetypal illustration of the performing
hysteric:
Intelligent, coquettish, and eager to please, Augustine was an apt
pupil of the atelier. All of her poses suggest the exaggerated
gestures of the French classical style, or stills from silent movies.
Some photographs of Augustine with flowing locks and white
hospital gown also seem to imitate poses in nineteenth-century
paintings.... Among her gifts was her ability to time and divide
her hysterical performances into scenes, acts, tableaux, and
intermissions, to perform on cue and on schedule with the click of
the camera. (153-54)
Actually, the cameras of that time didn't click: the lenses were held open and the
subjects would have to hold their poses for fifteen seconds or so, which would
have been exceedingly demanding during what would have been the expected
stages of the hysterical attack. Showalter explains that in "Charcot's own
lifetime, one of his assistants admitted that some of the women had been coached
in order to produce attacks that would please the maitre," which confirmed
suspicions that the hysterics' performances were "the result of suggestion,
imitation, or even fraud" (150).


70
I would add that these performances were also the result of a strong
unconscious desire of the performing hysteric to be something, some-body
recognized by the patriarchy after "the cult of true womanhood" became in some
way untenable. That Augustine reported being raped by her mother's lover
suggests that Augustine was probably seeking a safe role she could play that
would be recognized and appreciated by the patriarchy. Her masquerade would
then be similar to the masquerade in Riviere's essay, where the woman puts on a
mask to avert the violence of the patriarchy. What was masked here, however,
was not the essentialist masculinity of Riviere's essay, and what was feared here
was not the "reprisals" of the patriarchy that discovered a female possessing this
masculinity. What was masked was a radical alterity no longer able to transform
and channel its otherwise energetics into the structures of "the cult of true
womanhood" since this cult had become too dangerous and therefore untenable.
What was feared was the abyss of not having a mode of channeling and
transforming this otherwise energetics that would have been recognizable to
others, and therefore unable to support an object relating ego. To the identitarian
ego, constantly re-establishing itself in the "face to face" with this abyss, the
radical alterity of falling into the abyss, of being "uniterable"that is, of not
"being"would be the ultimate horror. Therefore the pleasure of the
performing hysteric would be the eschewal of the pain of this abyss: a certain
unpleasure principle.
The structures of the hysteric might have provided Augustine a
temporary asylum, so to speak, from this horrific abyss. The maitre's pleasure
would assure her recognition as an hysteric. The female body in this scenario is
mastered by the patriarch in question and by performing for his pleasure; the


71
patriarch is displaying his scientific (mental) mastery by solving a riddle of
female sexuality gone awry, as Freud would do later. The hierarchies of
hysteriamind/body, reason/madness, and male/femaleare re-established
by her performance, whence the pleasure of the male, and of the performing
hysteric, who now has an identity and a body where otherwise energetics are
channeled by/into that identity. Within the Salptrire, the male maitre displays
that mastery among a forum of voyeuristic "subjects," most of them identified as
male, and within a hom(m)osexual economy of scientific-sexual pleasureswhat
Barratt would associate with the patriarchal "phenomenology of fucking," a
violent and phallic way of knowing what is deemed feminine nature via the
penetration of feminine mysteries (Bar93 150).
I also see here a parallel between the hysteric/s position among the male
physicians of the Salptrire and the position of the female porn star with respect
to the men involved with pornographyconsumers and producers. According
to Stephen Heath,
... pornography is a relation between men, nothing to do with a
relation to women except by a process of phallic conversion that
sets them as terms of male exchange. (Hea87 2)
The hysteric mastered would have been the colonized "dark continent" of
science, the discovery of the caput Nili. Though formerly a "sexual threat" to the
male's sense of mastery and the limits of the domain of that mastery, the hysteric
would be domesticated via "the phenomenology of fucking," often violently
brought back into what Derrida calls the oikos. The Salptrire and its performing
hysterics, who were coached to please the voyeuristic crowds, suggest a possible
parallel between the prostitute and the hysteric: both provide ever-ready


72
supports for a pornographic economy for the channeling of otherwise energetics
into the "patrix" of a hom(m)osexually-reproductive patriarchy.
The hom(m)osexual pornographies of hysteria was not limited to the
Salptrire, as evidenced by Chrobak's recommendation to Freud for the patient
he sent himpenis normalis dosim repetatur" (Gay 92)which can be read in a
new light along the lines of the themes introduced above: the patients passed
between the physicians can be interpreted as the products of a "phallic
conversion that sets them as terms of male exchange." Carroll Smith-Rosenberg,
author of Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America, was a pioneer
of hysteria studies in that she treated the doctor-hysteric relationship as sexual.
She points out how the physician legitimized the hysteric, and how he was often
the replacement of the husband as the woman in question went from the typical
domestic relationship structures of the home to those of the doctor(s)-hysteric of
the clinic, hospital, or doctor's office (209). Though many had theorized the
hysteric's role in this relationship as sexual, Smith-Rosenberg also recognizes the
potential sexuality of the doctor's role:
In a number of cases, the physician could have played the role of
Oedipal father figure to the patient's child-woman role, and in such
instances his complicity [with the hysteric's disruption of the
family] was not only moral and intellectual but sexual as well.
These doctors had become part of a domestic trianglea husband's
rival, the fatherly attendant of a daughter. (209)
Smith-Rosenberg is also suggestive regarding the sexuality of the supposed cure:
"Her cure demonstrated that he had mastered her will and body" (211). Smith-
Rosenberg's analysis, however, suffers from understatement. What is missing


73
from it is the sexuality or even the pornographies of this masteryhow the cure
was often the climax of a scientific "phenomenology of fucking." In 1888, Freud
most likely wrote the following in a contribution to Villaret's encyclopaedia
entitled "Hysteria" (the contribution was unsigned but mentioned in Freud's
letters): "In the face of no other illness can the physician perform such miracles or
remain so impotent" (153). Switching Freud's causation where the potency
provided the miracle cure, I would argue that the cure provided the miracles of
potency.
There is one potential disruption to my perhaps too-neat demarcation
between performing hysterics and the disorderly bodies that resist the diagnosis
of hysteria, and therefore the reappropriative name-game of patriarchy: the
protean symptomatology of hysteria that would frustrate physicians. This
frustration was one source of the violence of physicians mentioned above, and
would be contrary to the physicians' pleasure, which equaled recognition. I
interpret protean symptomatology as a potential aspect of the sexualized and
unstable relationship between the performing hysteric and the physician, and as
a way of the performing hysteric to have some control over that relationship.
I see at least three possibilities for reasons why this relationship is
unstable. First, the doctor could not tolerate his own sexuality coming to
consciousness in a recognizable, non-scientific form. This might have been the
case with Brueur's treatment of Bertha Pappenheim (Anna O.), though this can
only be speculation (see Api92 83). It certainly was the case often with Freud.
Second, in overly simplistic terms, the position of hysteric was probably
inadequate for the task of channeling what I am calling under erasure "otherwise
energetics." Third, and I believe most significantly, the physician would lose


74
interest in the mastered hysteric once mastered, like the Don Juan who loses
interest in a conquest after he is sexually satisfied. Protean symptomatology
would be a vehicle for allowing the physician a miracle or two, while not
allowing him to reach the final satisfaction that would threaten the performing
hysteric with his departure.
Freud's comment in an 1895 letter to Wilhelm Fliess reveals his awareness
of the sexualization of the doctor-patient relationship: "There are two kinds of
women patients: one kind who are loyal to their doctors as to their husbands, the
other kind who change their doctors as often as their lovers" (FF110). He would,
however, consistently deny his own investment in this sexualized structure. An
illustration of my argument with respect to the protean symptoms of a
performing hysteric and the role this type of symptomatology plays in the
sexualized doctor-patient relationship would be Freud's first extensive case
study of Fanny Moser as presented in Studies on Hysteria as the case of Emmy
von N. According to Appignanesi and Forrester, authors of Freud's Women,
Fanny Moser was the latter type of patient: changing her doctors and lovers with
regularity. Freud seemed to share this opinion of her when in 1895 he looked
back at the case that spanned about three years starting in 1889. During the case,
however, Appignanesi and Forrester show that Freud sees her as the former,
loyal kind of patient. Freud would secure his husband-like position with her by
establishing that he had what Appignanesi and Forrester call "exclusive hypnotic
rights over her" (97). Freud writes at the close of his description of the case:
... in the summer of 1893,1 had a short note from [Fanny Moser]
asking my permission for her to be hypnotized by another doctor,


75
since she was ill again and could not come to Vienna. At first I did
not understand why my permission was necessary, till I
remembered that in 18901 had, at her own request, protected her
against being hypnotized by anyone else, so that there should be no
danger of her being distressed by coming under the control of a
doctor who was antipathetic to her, as had happened at -berg (-tal, -
wald). I accordingly renounced my exclusive prerogative in
writing. (II85)
Appignanesi and Forrester also show that Freud is aware of "how much the
power of suggestion [in hypnosis] places him in the role of an ex-lover" (97):
It may be remarked, by the way, that, outside hypnosis and in real
life, credulity such as the subject has in relation to his hypnotist is
shown only by a child towards his beloved parents, and that an
attitude of similar subjection on the part of one person towards
another has only one parallel, though a complete onenamely in
certain love-relationships where there is extreme devotion. A
combination of exclusive attachment and credulous obedience is in
general among the characteristics of love. (VII296)
Freud would play the authoritative master to Frau Moser's subservient slave,
who would give him exclusive reign in the netherworlds of her psychological
interior. He even isolated her from her daughters, who seemed to him to pose a
threat to the doctor-patient bond. Freud, in relation to other doctors-suitors,
jealously guards his exclusive rights to his patient and attempts to secure her
loyalty. His hypnotic mastery and competitiveness with other doctors would


76
combine, according to Appignanesi and Forrester, as Freud would use his power
as hypnotist to perform tricks on Frau Moser "to demonstrate the stupidity,
cruder hypnotic skills and less amicable effectiveness of the other doctors who
had tended to Fanny" (96)at Frau Moser's expense. According to Appignanesi
and Forrester, Frau Moser cooperated with Freud with respect to attaining
exclusive rights over her and with respect to isolating her from her family, a plan
which she agreed to, according to Freud, "without raising the slightest objection"
(II50):
Fanny's body collaborated in Freud's plan of isolating her so that
only he had influence over her, in particular by erupting in a flurry
of symptoms whenever the resident house-physician entered her
room. (Api92 94)
Freud's initial treatment met with some successes, but Frau Moser's symptoms
returned after she left his care and returned to her home in Switzerland. During
the second phase of treatment Freud had to deal with a new and initially
recalcitrant symptom: anorexia. His treatment was based on Frau Moser's
valuing their relationship more than this relatively dangerous symptom, and,
like much of this case, had little to do with Freud's future methodologies:
Freud put their future relationship on the line: he threatened to
leave if she did not accept within twenty-four hours that it was her
fear, rather than her constitution, which made it impossible for her
to eat and drink normally. Give up your symptom, or give up your
masterly doctor! (95)


77
When Frau Moser wanted Freud to visit her, rather than her usual visit to
Vienna, she produced another new symptom: a phobia of trains (a case of
mimicking her doctor). Frau Moser would use her polysymptomatology to keep
Freud near her in three ways: first, by intensifying her symptoms when other
doctors would attempt to treat her while she was initially isolated from her
family; second, by giving him small "miracles," enough to keep him interested
and feeling like a man; and third, by coming up with new symptoms when she
either wanted him near or wanted to renew the treatmentand even when she
wanted to check his cock-assuredness or to stage a protest. Freud would not
only deny his sexual investment in the relationship, but hers too. He saw the
source of her neurosis as abstinence even though, as Appignanesi and Forrester,
put it: "People in the neighborhood remembered her particularly for her erotic
extravagance" (98).
The eroticism, sexuality, and pornographies of "hysteria" bring together
two themes I explore throughout this chapter, and particularly in the fifth
chapter on "The TJncanny'": the relationship of questions of "sexuality" to
questions of positionality, or, as is almost invariably the case with Freud,
(op)positionality. Returning to Matlock and the relation of the positions of the
hysteric and the prostitute to the position of proper womanhood, Matlock argues
that
The hysteric and the prostitute provided opposite models against
which an orderly body could be measuredthe one tormented by
desires welling up from the inside, the other transformed into a
holding tank for desires that might contaminate society from the
outside. (4)


78
Yet neither the hysteric nor the prostitute would constitute a disorderly body in
the terms I am trying to establish here: both are integral parts of the phallocratic
deployment of power in relation to what has been deemed feminine. They
would have provided the boundaries of the "cult of true womanhood": an
(op)positionality within "womanhood." The difference between the prostitute
and the performing hysteric might be theorized as follows: the prostitute is not
associated with any Other that might threaten the stability of the same, whereas
the performing hysteric would be associated with those "bodies" resistant to any
of these established forms of womanhood. The performing hysteric, the site of
scientific "miracles" in a context of hom(m)osexual pornographies, would thus
be associated with a potentially castrating form of "sexuality" or "bodiliness,"
the site of "impotence." But both forms of womanhood are used as boundaries
of proper womanhood in terms of sexual positioning, and both forms are subject
to the violence associated with the potential disruptions of "sexuality," and
particularly of the "sexuality" of "woman." Moreover, both forms of
womanhood can be theorized as integral parts of a hom(m)osexual pornographic
economy. Hysteria and the hysteric, like Foucault's "hysterization," should be
associated with the appropriation or totalization processes fueled by the
identitarian energetics of phallocracieswhat Derrida calls "the drive of the
proper," which I discuss belowrather than with the Other and its otherwise
energetics, which would be "in but not of" identitarian energetics. Unlike
Foucault"s "hysterization," however, hysteria and the hysteric should be
understood with respect to processes of repression and resistance, where these
and other identities are established via repression of/resistance to that which is
otherwise.


79
Psychoanalysis/Hysteria
In 1977, Lacan mourned the loss of traditional hysterics: "Where have they
gone, the hysterics of the past, these marvelous womenthe Anna O's, the Doras
..." (qtd. in Nas97 1). Juan-David Nasio, opening his book on Lacan and hysteria,
Hysteria: the Splendid Child of Psychoanalysis, with this quotation from Lacan
above, adds to it: "... all those women who provided the womb from which
psychoanalysis was born" (1). Is psychoanalysis the splendid child of hysteria?
Or is it a monstrous offspring of a diseased womb? Did psychoanalysis explain
and cure hysteria? Did it master hysteria? Supposedly psychoanalysis is the
child of a diseased womb that it cures through its conception and birth.
According to the orthodox origin myth, psychoanalysis itself is bom through the
cure psychoanalysis provides for hysteria. But how can it be both provider of the
cure and bom of the cure? Is this a form of self-posting? Freud's cure filled the
gaps he supposedly discovered in the personal narratives of the patients he
diagnosed as hysterics. At first this filler was theorized as the repressed memory
of the (father's) phallus, and then later as the repressed fantasy of possessing that
phallus: castration, penis-envy, and refusing to give up masculine sexuality.
Freud thus positions psychoanalysis and himself as the phallic father of the cure,
what restores health to the diseased womb: a "penis-child" (Freud) as
"anchoring point" (Lacan) for the wandering womb similar to the one described
by Plato in the Timaeus. Just as Freud identified with both his grandson and as
grandfather in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, psychoanalysis is both father and
child of this process: woman as hysteric disappears as "she" becomes a conduit
for this androcentric economy. With Freud's grandson, "fort" was associated


80
with the absent or bad mother (hysteric), and "da" was associated with the
present or good mother (cured hysteric). The origin myth of psychoanalysis can
therefore be read as a similar fort/da game where the hysteric (fort) is cured (da)
and baby and theorist (psychoanalysis and Freud) is master. Psychoanalysis
arrives at its destinationbut it arrives, it returns, at the origin.
The logocentric repression of self-posting reveals the uncanny remains of
a ghostly inheritance due to the necessity of dispatching the self to the self in this
postal relay, and the necessary impropriety of this relay's proper, and its
(non)origin. These are the destabilizing, anti-identitarian (anti-self) remains of
the original repetition, essential division, and the logic of dissemination of what
Derrida calls iterability, a concept to which I will return in the concluding
chapter. This particular self-posting of the fort/da game with hysteria and the
origin myth of psychoanalysis is one of masculine positioning that both uses the
mother-woman-hysteric as simple other and denies her significance in the game
by establishing a father-son identity: an (op)positionality of mastery and
disavowal. Since self-posting "acts out" the impropriety of the propermise en
abyme where, according to Derrida, the "proper is not the proper, and if it
appropriates itself it is that it disappropriates itself-properly, improperly"
(Der87 357)it is unstable and requires repetitive "acts of establishment"
(Barratt), an interminable play.
The self or identity establishing itself simultaneously (in a mode of
disavowal) against the (op)positions of "woman" in abject form (absent mother,
hysteric, fort') and then in proper form (present mother, cured hysteric, da!) can
be seen as two of three acts in the "triple (self-)deception" of the "actual phallic
function." The "actual phallic function" is another way of theorizing Derrida's


81
conception of phallogocentrism and Freud's unconscious inasmuch as it is
phallogocentric: presence is established by reducing the Other to absence, binary
difference is effaced by erecting one term (the phallus) to identify difference, the
binary becomes a hierarchy, woman is abjected and disavowed, the One or
phallic presence is established and secured by transforming what is radically
other to the One into a "specific" absence, this specific absence is put at the
center of this Negative Concord (Kermode), and these processes are naturalized
via the repression of all repressions and of all that remains.
With respect to psychoanalysis proper, man/woman is in the form of
male/female sexuality and masculinity/femininity, and the magical term of
difference-into-identity is castration. Castration had not been established as the
oikos when Freud was transitioning from his more memory-based theories
focused on hysteria to his more fantasy-based psychoanalysis proper. The
trajectory of Freudian theory from this transition to his final work should be seen
as a movement away from the unstable self-posting of psychoanalysis/hysteria
to the more stable ground of "castration-truth" and its general theories of
subjectivitymasterplots of being, metapsychologiesrather than etiologies of
neurosis. One enigma of "hysteria studies" is the supposed disappearance of
hysteria during the beginning of the twentieth century. Regardless if this
disappearance should be theorized in terms of changing diagnostics and
nosology, or if it should be theorized in terms of a change in the patriarchal
orders' relations to women and madness, hysteria was no longer in the limelight
after The Interpretation of Dreams. Judging from his own writings, even Freud's
interest in the topic waned after 1897: Freud saw the Dora case more as an
extension of his "dream book" than as a proof of a new, psychoanalytic etiology


82
of hysteria. Freud's two psychoanalytic case studies of hysteria, Dora (1905) and
"Psychogenesis" (1920), were both fragments of case studies. Between the two
cases Freud wrote only sporadically about hysteria (see especially his works
form 1905,1908,1915,1927, and 1933).
Freud's and the psychiatric community's waning interest in hysteriathat
is, the theorization and diagnosis of this supposed psychological illnesswould
mean that the cure of hysteria could not provide a stable foundation for the
claims of psychoanalysis to being a revolutionary science. But this waning is not
the only reason hysteria was an unstable foundation for psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis/hysteria is also unstable because it lacks a magical term of
difference-into-identity and simply because it was based on curing the so-called
hysterics' symptoms. Much of what is groundbreaking about psychoanalysis
relates to the absence of this difference-into-identity term. During the early years
of psychoanalysis proper the primary process, the pleasure principle, and the
navel of the dream had yet to be reduced to a logic of the Same via phylogenetics
and castration. Though Freud showed leanings towards a Symbolic based on
castration during this time, he was also able to leavehe even insisted on
leavingsomething fundamental as ambiguous, such as the navel of the dream.
Cure was always an unreliable proof for the efficacy of psychoanalysis
and therefore an unstable foundation. For example, the Wolf Man haunted
Freud: for all of Freud's life and well into the 1970s, the Wolf Man's symptoms
continued and at times got worse, and, for years after Freud published his case
study, the Wolf Man was easily found in Vienna: a ghostly remains during the
ascendancy of psychoanalysis to international stature. "Analysis Terminable and
Interminable," with its pessimism regarding the efficacy of the psychoanalytic


83
cure, can be read as Freud privileging the truth of his metapsychology over his
technique and separating this truth from cure. For Freud to make such an
argument, such a rhetorical move, Freud would have to once again flip-flop from
what I argue in chapter four is his flip-flopped position in Inhibitions, Symptoms
and Anxiety regarding the ego's relative strength in relation to the id: in "Analysis
Terminable and Interminable," cure cannot be counted on since the id is
recalcitrant, and its strength in relation to the ego is, once again, theorized as
being great.
The scientific status of psychoanalysis also depends on the efficacy of a
particular analysis: Freud's own self-analysis. Freud and psychoanalysis seem to
have a relationship to cure based on the logic of disavowal and fetishism: cure is
both crucial (origin myth) and insignificant (as argued in "Analysis Terminable
and Interminable"). Given that metaphorically cure is often theorized in terms of
filling gaps with phallocentric etiologies and/or fantasiesin terms of the
phallus both being and not being in its proper placeI see psychoanalysis as, if
not fetishistic, since the concept of fetish is phallocentric, then very much
dependent on the defense of disavowal. The phallus is not in its place (hysteria,
fort'.), and yet it is (cure, da!). What is significant for us here is that, according to
psychoanalytic orthodox myth of origin, Freud cures himself of his own hysteria.
Charles Bernheimer writes in his introduction to In Dora's Case:
FreudHysteriaFeminism:
Freud invented psychoanalysis between 1895 and 1900 on the basis
of his clinical experience with hysterical patients, nearly all of them
women, and of the self-analysis he performed to cure his own
hysterical symptoms. Hysteria thus is implicated in psychoanalysis


84
in the sense that the science enfolds the disease within it and is
constituted simultaneously with this pathological interiority. Yet
psychoanalysis contests this originary implication, insisting on its
scientific authority and asserting mastery over hysteria as the
illness of the other, typically of the feminine other. (1)
Though Freud would consistently call his female patients with hysterical
symptoms "hysterics," he would not reduce himself to that category: he merely
had hysterical symptoms, but would never consider himself an hysteric. Did
Freud cure his own hysteria? What might this have been? What symptoms?
According to Derrida, Freud's self-analysis was "unterminated" (Der87 305). But
we do not need to appeal to Derrida's authority in order to problematize
Bemheimer's orthodox assumption. What might a cure or a terminated analysis
be? What would it have been in the last years of the nineteenth century, when
Freud was conducting his self-analysis? What might a self-analysis be? How
could it possibly work? Would there be transference and counter-transference?
More importantly, what might hysteria be for a male? If it does not necessarily
have to do with a diseased womb, why call it "hysteria"? Was Freud's diagnosis
of his neurosis as hysteria correct? According to which theory? Which etiology?
Given that Freud's final theory of hysteria in "Femininity" (1933) is female-
specificthe female's improper repression of her original masculinity and its
clitoridal sexualityhow might we with hindsight theorize Freud's diagnosis of
whatever symptoms there were and his supposedly cured hysteria? Does Freud
see his so-called hysteria as one of the two "themes" that "give the analyst an
unusual amount of trouble," as he writes in "Analysis Terminable and
Interminable"? He defines this theme as the male's "struggle against his passive


85
or feminine attitude toward another male" (XXIII50), and again conflates, if not
hysteria, than neurosis and homosexuality. The other theme from this passage,
of course, is "envy for the penis" in the female. Given Freud's therapeutic
pessimism in this late essay and given that a self-analysis would certainly be less
reliable than a dyadic analysis, it seems that again the foundation of
psychoanalysis is unstable inasmuch as it is based on the efficacy of Freud's self-
analysis and his cure of his so-called hysteria.
A fuller version of the quotation of Derrida referred to above is worth
mentioning here: "... how can an autobiographical writing, in the abyss of an
unterminated self-analysis, give to a worldwide institution its birth?" (ibid.).
Freud's "auto-bio-graphy" (Der87 passim) seems to be the womb of
psychoanalysis for Derrida. As with any self-posting, auto-bio-graphy is abyssal,
but the womb of psychoanalysis is "doubly so" (if infinity could be doubled)
since it is also constituted by an impossible self-analysis. Among other problems
with Bernheimer's passage above,6 he seems to beg the question he raises about
hysteria's supposed exteriority to psychoanalysis when he assumes that Freud
cured himself through self-analysis: Freud as primal father whose genius (access
to Truth) sets him beyond transference and therefore beyond the effects of his
unconscious. Freud as the discoverer of the unconscious is assumed to be the
6 I wonder why Freud's work before 1895 would not be considered part of the invention of
psychoanalysis, especially when much of his work with Breuer on hysterics was done then. The
year 1900 fits popular and orthodox conceptions of the end of Freud's invention phase, but the
Oedipus and castration complex were unformulated at that time, and the Dora case (among other
cases that were even later) still shows signs of the "seduction" theory, which the orthodox like to
believe had been "abandoned" to make way for psychoanalysis proper. Thus, "psychoanalysis,"
if your definition would be centered on the relationship of repression and sexuality, was forming
before 1895 (repression, defense) and was still largely unformed until 1908 (Oedipus and
castration complex). What seems to be at stake here is (1) the notion that psychoanalysis has an
essence, and (2) an orthodox reading of the origin of psychoanalysis centered on 1897 and
Freud's supposed abandonment of the "seduction" theory.


86
exception to the very basis of his supposed discovery, the supposed
breakthroughthe relative weakness of the conscious ego in relation to the
unconsciousdue to the assumed power of his ego and its genius. Here
"hysteria" becomes almost synonymous with "the unconscious" and/or
"sexuality," and Freud has basically cured himself of them: Wo Es war, soil Ich
werden. The "it" is associated with the unreason of the body, as is the traditional
hysteric. Below, especially in the section on Freud's "The 'Uncanny,'" I try to
connect this "it" with the figure of woman: what must be mastered by
psychoanalysis. Indeed, with Wo Es war, Soil Ich werden we can replace the Ich/Es
binary with any of the binaries of hysteria: mind/body, reason/unreason,
sanity/madness, and, especially, male/female:
Where body was, there shall mind be.
Where unreason was, there shall reason be.
Where female was, there shall male be.
For the orthodox keepers of the flame, Freud's "cure""cure" being
opposed to hysteria, "cure" as "I" unencumbered by "it"is a crucial aspect of
the traditional origin myth to protect from criticism: the objective rationality of
the founder and, therefore, the scientific status of psychoanalysis depend on the
success of Freud's self-analysis and cure of his hysterical symptoms. These
symptoms are therefore an object, an "it," within Freud's subjectivity, and his
genius, therefore, constitutes some subjectivity untainted by hysteria, which
allows for the subject-object split necessary to keep this self-analysis out of the
abyssto allow the subject, the "I," to become transcendent. The father of
psychoanalysis, once curedof his body, his irrationality, and, mostly, his
femininityis therefore the pure analyst-scientist cleansed of the irrationality


87
associated with hysteria and able to give birth to his science. He is like the
primal horde father: a father without a father, the analyst without an analyst.
Freud positions himself as both primal father and first-generation son, a
positioning Derrida plays with in 'To Speculateon Treud.'" This primal
father, beyond genealogy and an unconscious, is beyond a mother or woman in
general. "Psychic health, Freud discovered," Jonathan Lear argues in Love and Its
Place in Nature: A Philosophical Interpretation of Freudian Psychoanalysis, "depends
on abandoning the fantasy that one can be one's own child. This is as true within
the realm of thought as it is within the family" (3). But it does not seem to be
true for the founder.
Freud's mastery over hysteria, his own and others, is the basis for the
separation of psychoanalysis from hysteria: psychoanalysis (the subject of reason
and truth) is anterior to, separate from, the diseased, irrational, feminine, and
unscientific object of hysteria (the object of irrationality and deception). From
this separation and dominance, this abjection, psychoanalysis secures for itself a
position as a new and privileged way of knowing and understanding within the
fold of reason, able to reach beyond reason and the mind and master madness,
the body, and the feminine. With this origin myth the dualism of
psychoanalysis/hysteria is established, and many related traditional dualisms
are maintained: hysteria the disease, hysteria as feminine, bodily madness of the
"it"; psychoanalysis the science, a curative discourse of masculine reason and the
"I." Hysteria acts as the primary other to psychoanalysis, an extension and
condensation of philosophy's other of woman, theology's other of the flesh, and
psychiatry's other of madness. Neither psychoanalysis nor hysteria comes first:
they both arrive at the same time as psychoanalysis/hysteria. Psychoanalysis


88
established itself as (impossible) father-child of hysteria; it constructs hysteria as
the (impossible) feminine other that is simultaneously the mastered woman-
mother-hysteric that gives birth and security, but also does not matter or even
exist: fort/da. We should read the colon of Nasio's title, Hysteria: the Splendid Child
of Psychoanalysis, as both an "and" and an "as." With respect to origins,
psychoanalysis/hysteria is undecidable.
I interpret the loss Lacan is mourning above as the loss of the splendid or
magical present-absent other against which psychoanalysis began to establish
itself, the (op)positional other it first employed to reduce the effects of an
encounter with the Other to more of the Same. In other words, hysteria as
woman-body-irrationality is what psychoanalysis must create as an absence, a
gap to be filled by its specific, phallic presence: man-mind-reason. According to
this line of argument, Bemheimer does not acknowledge that, if hysteria is
implicated in psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis would also have to be implicated
in hysteria in order for both to be "constituted simultaneously." Psychoanalysis
constitutes its own hysteria as it constitutes itself. The proper must make the
improper that is necessary to it into a circular detour that leads back to itself:
fort/da.
The Lacanian Hysteric's Essential Question of Lack
Freud supposedly cures his own hysteria, what he and Lacan might later
call his "struggle against his passive or feminine attitude toward another
male"but the later Freud also theorizes female hysteria as not accepting a
"passive or feminine attitude toward another male," not accepting one's lack of a
penis and instead envying the possession of one. Most Lacanians read Lacan's


89
return to Freud as a corrective or clarification here: hysteria is connected to
bisexuality, or, as Ragland-Sullivan puts it:
Lacan translates Freud's find, the hysteric's sexual oscillation
between women and men, into the quintessential question about
gender, divided artificially by the effects of identification and
language that constitute a sense of being in the form of totalized
gender concepts of male and female [see Lac 68]. The hysteric's
gender question"Am I a woman or a man?links sexuality to
identity: her discourse reveals the fundamental impossibility of
reducing identity to gender in the first place. For Lacan, there is no
signifier, symbol or archetype adequate to re-present the difference
between the sexes (Lacan, 1975, p. 74 [Lac98 80]). (Wri92 163)
But there is the lack of symbol adequate to transcendentally center the structure
of language and the unconscious, which therefore makes the hysteric's question
one of the essential lack. In Lacanian psychoanalysis, according to Derrida,
"[s]omething is missing from its place, but the lack is never missing from it"
(Der81 441): "manque a sa place," which Bass translates as "lack in its place,
missing from its place" (Der87 425). "Manque a sa place" is also a homophone of
"manque a sa place": "lack has its place." Contrary to leading to any
undecidability, indeterminacy, or division between sex and identity, "lack in its
place, missing from its place" is the very foundation of "castration-truth" and a
"destinational linguistics." According to Derrida, "lack does not have its place in
dissemination" (Der87 441).


90
Lacan's status as theoristwhether his work is poststructuralist or
postmodern (e.g., Cop94) or the products of a potentially reactionary
ontotheologist (e.g., Nan92)is difficult to determine. According to Derrida,
In France, the "literary criticism" marked by psychoanalysis had
not asked the question of the text.... It is entirely otherwise in the
"Seminar on The Purloined Letter." Or so it appears. Although
Lacan has never directly and systematically been interested in the
so-called "literary" text, and although the problematic of Das
Unheimliche does not intervene in his discourse to my knowledge,
the general question of the text is at work unceasingly in his
writings, where the logic of the signifier disrupts naive
semanticism. And Lacan's "style" was constructed so as to check
almost permanently any access to an isolatable content, to an
unequivocal, determinable meaning beyond writing. (Der87 420)
Yet, following Derrida's reading of Lacan that follows this quotation, I will argue
that the Lacanian text is psychoanalytic and not literary that is, it attempts to
ground itself in its own "castration-truth." Its "logic of the signifier" is a logic of
lack: a textuality of a "certain linguistics" (Der78 199). This logic may disrupt
"naive semanticism," but it does so by securing a transcendental phallic center
where the "failure" of language secures the center: the disruption is itself
construed as that lack which has its place. The absence of this "naive
semanticism/' therefore, should not be read as an example of a postmodern
celebration of the indeterminacy of meaning and the decentering of Western
discursive structures. The question for me becomes: should Lacan's style be read


91
as an obfuscatory defense against any kind of critical assessment? Along these
lines, Barratt argues that
assessment of any "thesis" of Lacan's ... is notoriously difficult.
For, eschewing systematization, Lacan deftly, even roguishly,
defies systematic critique. Moreover, as is well known, his style
almost wholly obliterates considerations of the content of his
thought. For Lacan, style is everything, and the content of
whatever thesis he might happen to be presenting becomes quite
unnecessarily adumbrated. (Bar84 214)
Despite all the turnabouts and twists and contradictions, the orthodox feel of
Lacanian "psychoanalysis" comes from the way it consistently conceptualizes the
relation of the "subject" (in its most servile sense) to the Other, the ultimate
totality and patrocentrism of that Other, and the immutability and
oppositionality of the possible sexual identities determined by the Other.
Moreover, a cosmology based on Oedipal destiny (Der87 495) is created when
the "letter," the "odd" material substrate of the Other and its logic of the
signifier, "always arrives at its destination" (Lac88 53), and this destination is the
reproduction of the oedipal structure of sexual positionality and the actual
phallic function. Though Lacan claims to have subverted the notion of "anatomy
is destiny," he has erected a determinism immune even to what might be called
the vicissitudes of any "biology" or adestinational postal system and created a
sexual transcendentalism where the "male" is "whole" and the "female" is "not-
whole," as determined by the phallic function.
Despite what seems to be the consistent and radical determinism of
Lacanian "psychoanalysis," Joan Copjec, in her book Read My Desire: Lacan


92
against the Historicistsin particularly the section, "Sex and the Euthanasia of
Reason"writes that deconstruction could learn about undecidability from
psychoanalysis (which she erroneously assumes is simply represented by its
Lacanian form). This claim stems from her analysis of Lacan's opening to
Television that "saying it all is literally impossible: words fail" (213), and of the
relationship of this "failure" to sexual difference, and therefore to hysteria's
essential question. The rest of this opening to his mass seminar is as follows:
I always speak the truth. Not the whole truth, because there's no
way, to say it all. Saying it all is literally impossible: words fail.
Yet it's through this very impossibility that the truth holds onto the
real. (3)
It may seem that Lacan, with his conception that "words fail," has backed away
from his previous belief in how "a letter always arrives at its destination," and
therefore embraced a less deterministic theory of language, but this is not
necessarily the case. "Words fail" to speak "the whole truth," but the letter of
each word, mysteriously connected to a part of truth, seems to still be
determined to "arrive" at the proper destination. We can read "failure" here as
"lack": words must fail, properly. They must take a detour in order to return; in
order for the "Real" to be held onto, mastered.
Truth for Lacan usually refers to the truth about desire; thus when he
claims to "always speak the truth," he seems to be saying that he has left his
imaginary behind, which purifies speech of the demands of the imaginary: Lacan
called this "full speech" (Lac77a 46), which might be equated to Freud's cure. To
"always speak the truth," it seems, would be to become one with the assumption
of one's desire, but not necessarily all of one's desire, especially when "desire"


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DISTURBING PSYCHOANALYTIC ORIGINS: A DERRIDEAN READING OF FREUDIAN THEORY By ERIC W. ANDERS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHCX)L OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2000

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Copyright 2000 by Eric W Anders

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To my parents in appreciation of their support: Valerie E Anders and William A. Anders

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page 1. THE (DIS)POSITION OF A PET MONSTER ........ .. ......... ....... ... ....... ... ..... .... .... 1 Double Games.............................................................................................. 5 Responding to Freud and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis........................... 11 Supposing Psychoanalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Disturbing Psychoanalytic Origins ...... ........................................... ........... 26 Filling Gaps.................................................................................................. 31 ''To Post or Not to Post?''............................................................................ 40 2. PROBLEMATIZING ''HYSTERIA'' AND THE ORIGIN" OF PSYCHOANALYSIS................................................................. 44 Historia ...................................................................................................... 47 Hysteria and Hysterization......................................................................... 57 Feminism and the Hysteric......................................................................... 62 Hom(m)osexual Pornographies and the Performing Hysteric................ 66 Psychoanalysis/Hysteria............................................................................ 79 The Lacanian Hysteric's Essential Question of Lack................................ 88 3. (UN) EASILY CONTAINED ELEMENTS.......................................................... 101 Suffering Reminiscences: Reading Derrida's Reading of the Project......................................................................................... 106 The Basics of the Project and Derrida's Reading of It .................... 108 Limiting the Effects of Memory and Chance in Freud's Work with ''Hysterics''................................................. 116 My Reading of Derrida's ''Freud and the Scene of Writing'' ....... 127 From Memory to Fantasy ................................................................ 138 Disturbing Origins: The Interpretation of Dreams ...................................... 143 Overdetermination and Chance ...................................................... 145 The Interpretation of Dreams: Rand and Torok ................................ 156 The Interpretation of Dreams: Weber ................................................. 162 From Primary Process to Primal Phantasies .................................. 169 lV

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4. FREU'D'S MASTERPL0wc .......................................................................... 186 The Beyonds of Freud's Case Work: From Ontogenetic to Phylogenetic ........................................................................................ 199 The Wolf Man Case History.......................................... ......... ......... 205 Primal Phantasies: Freud as the Archeologist of the Mind .......... 211 Freud's Masterplot Revisited ...................................................................... 222 Narratology and the Wolf Man....................................................... 222 Freud's Oedipal Masterplot . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . ... ... 232 ''To Speculate on 'Freud''' and Beyond . . .................................... 247 Extending Freud's Masterplot: A Reading of Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety................................................... .... 259 5. UNCANNY (WO)MAN: THE HOME/SECRE1S OF PSYCHOANALYSIS ......................................................................................... 288 The Lack of ''The 'Uncanny''' I: Primary Femininity ................................ 299 The Lack of ''The 'Uncanny''' II: Freud and Lac(k)an ............ ................ 313 ''The 'Uncanny''' and Superstition ............................................................. 318 Home Secrets ................................................................................................ 332 6. WHAT REMA:tNS: PSYCHO ANAL YSES,DECONSTRUCTIONS, AN"D .FEMWISMS .......................................................................................... 344, The Analysis of a Repression...... ..... ............ ..... ............................... .. ......... 344 Post(al)-Psychoanalysis ............................................................................... 364 Phallocentrism and Logocentrism: Relating to Feminisms ..... .......... ...... 370 WORKS CITED ........................................................................................................ 384BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..................................... ..... ....................... ... ............... 392 V

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DISTURBING PSYCHOANALYTIC ORIGINS: A DERRIDEAN READING OF FREUDIAN THEORY By Eric W. Anders December 2000 Chair: John P Leavey, Jr., Ph.D. Major Department: English This Derridean reading of Freud asks the question of how we should read Freud with respect to sexual difference and what Derrida considers a radicalized concept of trace, a ''scene of writing'' of differance-that is, how we should read Freud with respect to phallogocentrism. Throughout I consider the possible relationships among the ''mainstyles'' (Derrida) of various psychoanalyses, deconstructions, and feminisms. By analyzing what is most original for Freud-the cause of hysteria, the navel of the dream, the perceptual identity, the primal phantasies, for example I find that Freud consistently seeks a single origin, a ''caput Nili,'' on which to base a grand narrative. At first this narrative is an etiology of hysteria, but it evolves into a masterplot of sexual development and later into one of humanity. The establishment of an oedipal origin and telos, and the masterplot based on them, moves psychoanalysis toward a totalizing theory, and therefore its Vl

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openness to chance and something beyond what that theory can master is greatly reduced. I approach these topics in terms of a question of the ethics of psychoanalysis This appropriative or reductive process of Freud's masterplotting is based on what Derrida calls ''castration-truth'' in his reading of Lacan, ''Le facteur de la verite." In contrast to some theorists who appeal to the radical spirit of Freudian theory as a basis for their radicalization of psychoanalysis-s pecifically Barnaby B. Barratt's Psychoanalysis and the Po s tmodern Impulse-I argue that Lacan's phallogocentric ''return to Freud'' is actually a more faithful one since I find both ''mainstyles'' of these psychoanalyses based on a logic of lack or ''castration-truth '' I argue throughout that the radical spirit of Freud is at I times overemphasized or exaggerated by Derridean theorists-and even Derrida himself though rar e ly-and that the dominant specter of Freud is an ''establishment'' or appropriative one ratl1er than one which is radical or ''other-wise." I connect this trend of Derridean thinkers claiming too much debt to psychoanalysis to these thinkers not taking seriously Freud's commitment to and interest in an idealized phylogenetics: ''phylo-'genetics "' Since my establishment of this establishment specter of Freud as the ''mainstyle'' of Freudian theory itself risks reproducing exactly the kind of appropriative discourse I hope to problematize, I attempt to avoid such a reproduction by considering what remains of the radical spirit of Freudian theory in what might be called a deconstructive ''technology of iterability,'' a ''cyborg-analysis,'' or what I call ''post(al)-psychoanalysis." Vll

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CHAPTERl THE (DIS)POSffiON OF A PET MONSTER Psychoanalysis, supposedly, is found. When one finds it, it is psychoanalysis itself, supposedly, that finds itself. When it finds, supposedly, it finds itself/is found-something. (Der87a 413) Jacques Derrida 1 It's extraordinary what happens when you get rid of the centrality of the concept of the phallus. I mean, you get rid of the unconscious, get rid of sexuality, get rid of the original psychoanalytic point. (Mit82 15) Juliet Mitchell In ''Some Statements and Truisms about Neologisms, Newisms, Postisms, Parasitisms, and Other Small Seismisms," Jacques Derrida argues that those ''within the university and elsewhere who aren't completely asleep know that'' titles of academic discourses such as psy c hoanalysis, deconstruction, or feminism ''do not correspond to any classifiable identity, to any corpus which can be delimited. However, for all that, this doesn't make those titles empty or insignificant. What they name is the mainstyle of each jetty'' (67) Psychoanalysis is thus the ''mainstyle'' of one ''theoretical jetty'' in ''the open and 1 Alan Bass, the translator of The Post Card, writes the following note to the above: ''I.a psycha.nalyse ~ a supp o ser se trouve Quand on croit la trouver c' est elle, a supposer qui se trouve. Quand elle trouve, a s upposer, elle se trouve-quelque cho s e The double meaning of reflexive verbs in French is being played on here Se trou v er can mean both to find itself and to be found. Thus, these are three or four statements, since the third sentence must be read in two ways. The passage from three to four via irreducible doubleness is a constant them~ in Derrida's works '' (413n2). 1

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2 nonunified'' field of forces that the doxa tries to stabilize and objectify in order to fit into a neat and orderly taxonomy of discourses (65-67 passim). Here I will attempt to establish the ''mainstyle'' of Freudian theory, if not of psychoanalysis in general, with respect to my version of the ''mainstyle'' deconstruction. A guiding question throughout this project is what is the relationship between these two ''mainstyle'' theoretical jetties? And what is the ''mainstyle'' spirit of Freudian theory of the incalculable ''specters of Freud'' that haunt the ''mainstyle'' deconstruction and other academic discourses under consideration here? The ''quasi-concept'' (94) of ''jetty," according to Derrida, ''has no status'' in ''theory," but is used here to refer ''to the force of that movement which is not yet subject, project, or object, not even rejection, but in which takes place any production and any determination, which finds its possibility in the jetty'' (65). ''Each theoretical jetty," Derrida continues, ''enters a priori, originally, into conflict and competition'' (ibid.) with other theoretical jetties: a ''convergent competition'' (72) of unstable and destabilizing pseudo-identities where ''each jetty, far from being the part included in the whole, is only a theoretical jetty inasmuch as it claims to comprehend itself by comprehending all the others'' (65), and ''each species in this table constitutes its own identity only by incorporating other identities-by contamination, parasitism, grafts, organ transplants, incorporation etc.'' (66). Derrida states that this process of convergent competition and incorporation is based on a ''principle of taxonomic disorder'' (67) and he wonders ''to what kinds of monsters these combinatory operations must give birth, considering the fact that theories incorporate opposing theorems, which have themselves incorporated other ones'' (ibid.)

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3 According to Derrida, ''Monsters cannot be announced. One cannot say: 'Here are our monsters,' without immediately turning them into pets'' (80). The present study attempts to be, I announce here, a monstrous pet project that combines various styles of the theoretical jetties of psychoanalysis, deconstruction, and feminism. In English departments in North America, this type of combinatory pet monster, known as ''theory," is the norm of the ''trans-, inter-, and above all ultra-disciplinary approaches, which, up to now [1990], met nowhere, in no department, in no area of any discipline'' (82). The present study is monstrous because its corpus tries to be of indefinite locale with respect to traditional disciplines, to eschew traditional axiomatic boundaries by embracing a certain litarariness found in deconstruction and some styles of feminism; a pet because, beyond announcing itself as a monster using predicative clauses and being required to meet the institutional standards of the university, it also attempts to be a (transferential) testament to my position as the proper legatee, a legitimate son, of a complex parentage that would seem quite familiar to those doing the ''theory'' of English departments in North American research universities. The parentage consists of what I will argue are generally misunderstood elements of psychoanalysis that are too rare or too unsupported to constitute a ''mainstyle," a certain ''ms. en abyme'' feminism (Elam), and a Derrida who I hope is not too simplified, especially by making him one who would be less resistant to any such paternity or any genealogy than he actually is. It is monstrous because this complex parentage resists being an oedipal complex. It could also be considered a pet, however, because there are traces of what I call, borrowing from Luce Irigaray, ''hom(m)osexuality'' (Iri85 98), since the feminism here, which might be construed as occupying the position of the

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4 theoretical mother, is significantly Derridean-but this type of critique would require the most essentialist, phallogocentric assumptions, which are the very assumptions I try to disrupt here. It is also monstrous because its attempt to privilege a literariness of open-endedness and Keatsian negative capability will endeavor to resist forming into a ''corpus of philosophical-hence phallogocentric:....-.axioms'' (Der90 84) as Derrida describes what he sees as the ''mainstyle'' of feminism. It is a pet because it will also be called upon to for111 just such a corpus, not just in order to be recognized by the university a s a proper dissertation, but in order to develop a somewhat cohesive, though necessarily partial, hybrid of so-called literary, psychoanalytic, feminist, and deconstructionist axioms of a certain ethics and undecidability that would allow for tactical political praxis. Psychoanalysis, according to its orthodox origin myths, was born from Freud's work with hysterics: the potentially monstrous offspring of a diseased womb. Yet this supposed offspring, as I will argue, would have been very much a pet if we supposed such a birth Freud considered psychoanalysis to be one of the ''three severe blows'' received by ''the universal narcissism of men . from the researches of science'' (XVII 139). The first blow, according to Freud, was cosmological and associated with Copernicus: the decentering of the earth in the cosmos. The second he considered biological and associated with Darwin: the association of ''man'' with the rest of the animal kingdom, and therefore the problematization of the notion that what separated ''man'' out was ''his'' possession of a soul. The thirdwhich Freud associated with himself and psychoanalysis, and referred to as ''psychological in nature'' and ''probably the most wounding'' (XVII 141)-was the subordination of the ego to the forces of the unconscious. Contrary to this

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5 positioning of psychoanalysis as such a blow, something i:nonstrous with respect to god-like man at the center of the cosmos, I read psychoanalysis as a powerful mode of maintaining what Derrida calls the ''system'' of ''phallogocentrism'' (Der87b 196): a pet as watch dog with respect to a different slant on ''the universal narcissism of men." My question throughout is how much monstrous potential, if any, remains in this pet. The disposition of my pet monster is to be highly skeptical of any such monstrous potential of psychoanalysis: watching out for watch dogs. Double Games My positioning of the present study negotiates this phantasmatic boundary between monsters and pets by attempting to play a double game appropriate to the singularity of the Freudian texts I read here. In ''The Double Game: An Introduction," an essay in Taking Chances: Derrida, Psychoanalysis and Literature, Alan Bass calls the affirmation of the irreducibility of division the ''affirmation of doubleness'': I would call [the affirmation of doubleness] the essence of psychoanalysis if I had not learned from Derrida that the concept of essence is designed to denigrate the play of doubleness. Thus, I will call the affirn1ation of doubleness the metaphor that imposes itself upon any conception of the analytic situation, and will say that this metaphor is no more secondary and exterior to such concepts as transference and resistance, ego and id, than writing is to speech. (82)

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6 Though Bass reads the mainstyle of the psychoanalytic jetty as being akin to the mainstyle of the jetty of deconstruction-reflecting more the way I wish I could read psychoanalysis than how I read it here as a mode of repressing ''the affirtnation of doubleness''-! want to focus here on Bass's concept of doubleness and Derrida's concept of ''disseminal alterity'' (Der90 72), what I call irreducible division. Bass's doubleness is not the doubleness of oppositional binaries, but the doubleness of an infinity of the Other-as Emmanuel Levinas might put itthat the doubleness of oppositional binaries dissimulate. This is the doubleness of what Derrida calls the ''disseminal alterity ... which would make impossible pure identity'' and the ''convergent competition'' (ibid.) of forces that allow for the space where there is the possibility of some provisional identity emerging. In other words, this is not the doubleness of a particular identity and its other as two stable identities (binarisms, dualisms), and especially not the doubleness of a One and its repressed other, but the doubleness of the possibility of the act of establishing some unstable identity and of the ''otherwise other'' to identity, the radical alterity, the space from whence this possibility emerges. 2 Derrida also describes a certain doubleness of theoretical jetties, what he calls ''typical consequences-i e general and regular consequences'' (Der90 84). He distinguishes on the one hand, the force of the movement which throws something or throws itself (jette or se jette) forward and backwards at the same time, prior to any subject, object, or project, prior to any rejection or abjection, from, on the other hand, its institutional and 2 ''Act of establishment' and '' oth e rwise other' com e from Barratt's Psychoanaly s is and the Postmodern Impulse.

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7 protective consolidation, which can be compared to the jetty, the pier in a harbor meant to break the waves and maintain low tide for boats at anchor or for swimmers. (ibid.) Derrida calls the former jetty ''the destabilizing jetty or even more artificially the devastating jetty'' (ibid.), which he aligns with a certain deconstruction that refers neither to ''specific texts nor to specific authors, and above all not to this formation which disciplines the process and effect of deconstruction into a theory or a critical method called deconstructionism or deconstructionisms'' (Der90 83). This deconstruction ''is neither a theory nor a philosophy. It is neither a school nor a method. It is not even a discourse, nor an act, nor a practice. It is what happens ... (Der90 85). The latter jetty Derrida calls ''the stabilizing, establishing, or simply stating jetty'' (Der90 84), which ''proceeds with predicative clauses, reassures with assertory statements, with assertions, with statements such as 'this is that''' (ibid.), as when Derrida writes, ''deconstruction is neither .... '' That the stating or static jetty is a phallic metaphor, a piece of terra firma jutting into, or breaking the waves of, the ocean, suggests that either getting beyond phallocentrism is difficult even for Derrida, one of the most vigilant theorists, or his metaphor is an example of what he sees as the phallic establishment. 3 In as much as the doubleness of transference and resistance of the psychoanalytic unconscious happens in any setting, including and especially the analytic setting, we can say that ''psychoanalysis happens," or better, ''psychoanalysis happens." I will argue, however, that Freud, and Lacan who 3 The latter idea that Derrida's phallic metaphor of a jetty might be a self-conscious example of the phallic establishment was suggested to me by John P. Leavey, Jr

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follows in his ''pas-de-marche'' (Derrida) footsteps consistently reduces this doubleness or irreducible division to ''castration-truth'' (Der81 441) and its phallic One that transforms the difference of (op)positionality into identity, and therefore the notion that ''psychoanalysis happens,'' or that there would be a need to put ''psychoanalysis'' under erasure, that it would have a ''devastating'' jetty, which it would recognize as ''psychoanalysis'' without trying to tame it or reappropriate it back into the terms of the ''stating'' jetty of ''psychoanalysis," is problematic, if not a moot point. In this respect, I argue here that ''psychoanalysis'' does not simply happen. It must be established; it is identitarian and not otherwise; it represses its own ''devastating'' tendencies in order to secure its ''stating'' position 8 The stating or ''state'' forms of psychoanalysis, what I call ''establishment psychoanalysis'' or ''psychoanalysis proper," are axiomatic, where particular and somewhat distorted forms of the Oedipus myth occupy the position of the truth of the unconscious, the basis for a symbolist approach to psychoanalytic interpretation, the fundament of phylogenetic primal fantasies, the ''patrix'' of the pleasure principle (which, as Derrida makes clear, Freud never goes beyond), the ''destination'' of the phallic letter, and the foundation of ''castration-truth.'' In the (non)origin myth of establishment psychoanalysis I tell here, oedipal psychoanalysis is a theoretical fantasy employed as a defense against the Other. We might call it a reaction to the trauma of Freud's encounter with so-called ''hysterical'' patients, his unethical ''face to face'' with the Other, if the categories and concepts of hysteria and trauma were not so embedded in psychoanalysis itself. The devastating jetty of psychoanalysis, which (under erasure) is the effect of the deconstruction that happens with any mainstyle jetty, a ''typical

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9 consequence," has a different relationship to the stating jetty of psychoanalysis than the devastating jetty of ''deconstruction'' has to its stating jetty: the latter recognizes its devastating jetty, even actively subverts its stating jetty by working not to repress the devastating one. I will argue here that ''deconstruction," as a mainstyle, stating jetty, points to its devastating jetty, whereas establishment psychoanalysis, though it makes some motions toward such a recognition and has certain elements with devastating potential as what seem to be its foundational ''discoveries," ultimately actively represses those elements, especially with respect to its own discourse. My double game reading of psychoanalysis is more about problematizing my own reading, my own position, by taking seriously the irreducibility of division, than modeling my reading on the supposed devastating aspects, or ''the affirmation of doubleness'' of psychoanalysis. In other words, my reading is more deconstructive than psychoanalytic In general what follows is an attempt to take seriously several texts by Freud and several Derridean readings of Freud, especially Derrida's early essay ''Freud and the Scene of Writing'' in Writing and Difference, his later ''To Speculate on 'Freud''' in The Post Card, and Samuel Weber's The Legend of Freud. Barnaby B. Barratt' s Psychoanalysis and the Postmodern Impulse has had a significant influence on how I approach these readings, despite the fact that his privileging of the radical or monstrous spirit of Freud ends up a repression of the establishment Freud. Barratt reads what are typically considered Freud's ''devastating'' moments as the essence of Freudian theory, and ''Oedipus'' and ''fantasy'' (either spelling) are not listed in the index of this book. In Legends of Freud, Samuel Weber highlights certain ''devastating'' moments of Freudian

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10 theory overlooked by Freudian scholars (except Derrida), and often by Freud himself. Derrida and Weber are closer in their readings of Freud. Weber more than Derrida speculates on possible points of overlap between psychoanalysis and his deconstructive theories, but, unlike Barratt, refrains from positioning psychoanalysis as an authority for establishing a type of postmodern theory. Of the three, Derrida seems the most reticent to give psychoanalysis undue ''credit'' for not repressing its ''devastating'' moments, to acknowledge more debt for deconstruction to psychoanalysis than necessary. In ''Freud and the Scene of Writing,'' Derrida explains his work on psychoanalysis preceding this early essay as An attempt to justify a theoretical reticence to utilize Freudian concepts, otherwise than in quotation marks: all these concepts, without exception, belong to the history of metaphysics, that is, to the system of logocentric repression which was organized in order to exclude or to lower (to put outside or below), the body of the written trace as a didactic and technical metaphor, as servile matter or excrement. (197) Logocentrism, and its reduction of the Other to its ter1ns of the Same, would be an ethical category for Derrida Despite his reticence, he does find potentially ''devastating'' elements of Freudian theory: Our aim is limited: to locate in Freud's text several points of reference, and to isolate, on the threshold of a systematic examination, those elements of psychoanalysis which can only uneasily be contained within logocentric closure, as this closure

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11 limits not only the history of philosophy but also the orientation of the ''human sciences," notably a certain linguistics. (198-99) The ''certain linguistics'' is a reference to Saussure and Lacanian psychoanalysis, and much of what follows touches on whether Lacan' s ''return'' to Freud was in fact a return and not a betrayal, as Barratt argues it was (see Bar84 and Bar93). Beyond problematizing Barratt's ''return'' to a ''devastating'' or postmodern Freud, I attempt to problematize Derrida's and Weber's location of only uneasily contained elements of Freudian theory, particularly with respect to psychoanalytic origins. What is at stake here is not only how to read Freud, but what would constitute a good reading of him with respect to the issues forefronted in what has been too-vaguely called the linguistic turn in the humanities. Is the Freudian unconscious structured like a destinational language, or unstructuring like an adestinational language? What remains of psychoanalysis after a deconstructive reading? What debt does ''deconstruction'' owe to ''psychoanalysis''? What, if anything, might be considered a ''Freudian breakthrough''? As Derrida suggests in Resistances with respect to Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, what is at stake here is not just psychoanalytic conceptions of ''sense and truth'' (Der98 18), but sense and truth in general. Responding to Freud and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis For me, deconstructing psychoanalysis is like an imperative, but one without foundation in some supposed moral code. Derrida argues that this ''obligation to protect the other's otherness is not merely a theoretical imperative'' (Der91 111) suggesting that this obligation is also an ethical one, and

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12 that this ethics cannot be bound by the strictures of theory. According to Derrida, ''there is a duty in deconstruction'' (Der91 108), and I understand this duty as being related to Derrida's reading of Levinas in ''Violence and Metaphysics," and the for111er's notion of ''the call that comes from nowhere' 1 (Der91 110). According to Colin Davis, the ''thought of Emmanuel Levinas is governed by one simple yet far-reaching idea: Western philosophy has consistently practiced a suppression of the Other'' (1). Levinas's ethics is interested in protecting the Other from the violence of the Same 1 s (or Self's) reappropriations. In contrast to moral philosophy, which claims to be grounded in ontological truths, Levinas's ethics attempts a certain groundlessness in this respect. Levinas tries to argue for the priority of ethics to ontology, but his project is complicated by the fact that the notions of grounds and priorities belong to ontology. In his otherwise deconstructive reading of Levinas in ''Violence and Metaphysics,'' Derrida critiques Levinas for not recognizing the necessity of working within the logocentrism of language and philosophy. Levinas' s project requires the playing of double games. Derrida finds Levinas' s intentions of positioning himself outside of Western ontology in conflict with the ontological dependence of his philosophical discourse. Levinas' s concern is for developing a sense of justice and responsibility with respect to encounters with the Other, and to do this while resisting the totalizing foundationalism of establishing an ontological moral order. ''Something of this call of the other,'' according to Derrida, ''must remain nonreappropriable, nonsubjectivable, and in a certain way nonidentifiable, a sheer supposition, so as to remain other, a singular call to response or to responsibility'' (Der91 110-111). Diane Elam' s type of feminism, as argued in Femini s m and D e con s truction: Ms. en Abyme, is

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13 ''based'' on such a ''groundless'' ethics. Political activity for her should grow out of ''groundless solidarity' where political actions stem from necessary ethical judgements that ''are always threatened by the displacing action of other judgements'' (115), and not from ethical judgments supposedly grounded in ontotheological or phallogocentric truths of identity and morality. The significance of such an ethics for psychoanalytic theory and practice is great, especially if Freud's conception of ''the unconscious'' is read as a radical alterity or an ''otherwise other'' to the meanings and structures of the ego or ''1now-is,'' as Barratt reads it. ''The unconscious'' then would be akin to Levinas's Other; the ego-what Barratt formulates as the ''I-now-is'' (Bar93 101)-would be akin to Levinas's the Same, Self, or self-Same. The duty in psychoanalysis would then be to avoid reducing the ''otherwise other'' to the self-Same of the ego of the analysand or the analyst If the duty in deconstruction is the protection of ''the other's otherness," it achieves this while still allowing for meaning, as would this ''otherwise'' psychoanalysis, through the playing of a double game. Meaning or readability require some reduction of the differance of language to the self-Same: the stating game of a double game, where the other game is a devastating one. Beyond there being an ethical quality of such double games, they also avoid the pitfalls of embracing irrationalisms and the simple reversing of the Same/Other binarism. Derrida's employment of deconstructive double games allows him to work within logocentrism while opening up spaces to make it otherwise: he respects the otherness of the text he is deconstructingthat is, he respects differance, he responds to the singularity of the text-and is able to form a reading

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of and argument about this text and its radical alterity that is potentially meaningful. 14 Insofar as I have not reduced the Other of Freud's texts to more of my Same, I have responded to the singularity of Freud's texts, and I have resisted transforming my understanding of ''deconstruction'' into some ''monolith'' of ''deconstructionism'' (Der90 88). The ethics I describe here have not only infor111ed my theorization of my approach, if not the approach itself, it has also infor111ed my understanding of what makes these texts readable. I suppose Freud's readability with regard to his encounters with what Levinas would call the Other. Often Freud's reappropriations of the Other in a way follow what would otherwise be an ethical encounter with the Other. Practically invariably, Freud either transforms these ''other-wise'' moments into ''establishment'' theories by establishing an origin of identity prior to the ''theory'' or ''time'' of these moments, or he represses these mom e nts via neglect or obfuscation Freud even uses what seems to be s omething ' oth e rwise '' about a theory (for example, the ''contradictoriness'' [Barratt] of the unconscious) to support his ''establishment'' conclusions or closure (such as what I will call the seemingly contradictory ''trauma'' -structure trope of ''castration-truth''). My theory of readability with respect to Freudian texts is in some ways a generalization of Derrida's reading of Beyond the Pleasure Principle in terms of what he calls Freud's ''pas de marche'' (Der81 283), where the step beyond is always taken back or transformed into a non-step. One possible difference between Derrida's ''pas de marche'' and my theory of readability is that I want to focus more on how Freud's most ''otherwise'' concepts are sometimes more than taken back or transformed into their absence, but are redeployed as part of the ''establishment'' arsenal in

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15 the defensive war of maintaining a proper identity, institution, and legacy. I am interested in connecting Freud's readabilitythe necessary stating game of any deconstructive double-game to a Levinasian and Derridean type of ethics. Supposing Psychoanalysis What is at stake when one supposes psychoanalysis? To suppose psychoanalysis to hypothesize that it exists as one thing, identical to itself, self same would mean to disregard the divisions, conflicts, aporias, and to decide undecidables ''within'' psychoanalysis. To suppose psychoanalysis as a unifiable, delimitable theoretical identity is also to disregard the competitive, conflictual, and differential process by which it comes into being and sustains itself in relation to other discursive forces: to decide undecidables regarding its relation to what is ''without ' psychoanalysis. Yet my questioning of the supposition of psychoanalysis is also a questioning of the very boundaries that would allow for a ''within'' and a ''without, a problematization of the notion of psychoanalysis as having secure and identifiable boundaries: an identification, a locale, an inside and outside. Moreover, to write of psychoanalysis as coming into being and sustaining itself, to assume that it is ever a simple presence in the present, or a simple re-presentation, that it is simply demarcated in opposition to other discourses, other locales, is to miss the aspect of deferral and the relatedness and imbrication of differences in the generation of any pseudo identity-that is, t-0 disregard the generative powers involved in what Jacques Derrida calls ''differance.'' Among other things, to suppose psychoanalysis is to mark an inside and an outside of psychoanalysis, then to make cohesive what could only be an aporetic inside, and to make the outside separate and passive

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16 with regard to the creation of this identity. In other words, the creation of a binary-inside/outside that constitutes a certain repression of undecidables, of differance, is at stake in the supposition of an identity ''psychoanalysis.'' Some might argue that this supposition would be unpsychoanalytic, but this argument itself requires a supposition of psychoanalysis as essentially about the problematization of certain identities achieved via the repression of undecidables. I suppose a psychoanalysis here, on the contrary, that is very much about this kind of repression What is at stake when one does not suppose psychoanalysis? Without such a supposition any treatment of ''psychoanalysis''-whether it be a critique, a so-called ''deconstruction," or some other mode of reading-would be impossible. The stakes would be not to question the traditional suppositions of psychoanalysis as found truth. Some mode of questioning is required to disrupt these types of suppositions. While critique is a single game that simply assumes the subject position for the critic and the object position for what is being criticized, a deconstructive reading plays a double game where the subject-object positions of critique are problemetized as they are assumed. This problematization of the subject-object split subverts any simple inside/ outside for both the supposed subject and the supposed object, yet even a deconstructive reading of ''psychoanalysis'' would be difficult, if not impossible, without the supposition of ''psychoanalysis'' as its simple, unified object. In his 1991 lecture '''To Do Justice to Freud,' The History of Madness in the Age of Psychoanalysis,'' Derrida asks his audience to allow him to ''provisionally assume that there is indeed a psychoanalysis that is a single whole: as if it were not, already in Freud, sufficiently divided to make its localization and identification more than

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17 problematic'' (Der98 76-77). As always with Derrida, that the assumption is provisional is a crucial part of any double game. My provisional assumptions of ''Freud'' and ''psychoanalysis'' do not ultimately assume them as single wholes: I attempt to show here how they are irreducibly divided. But to do so, I do provisionally assume a single or basic tactic or strategy of ''Freud''/ ''psychoanalysis'' of securing a position of undividedness for himself/itself. The ''Freud'' and ''psychoanalysis'' I suppose are both ''interested'' in their own unity even though, in significant ways, they position themselves as the Truth of universal ''division''--or ''division'' as castration, which is why the quotes are needed. With respect to Derrida's quotation above, it must also be asked to assume provisionally that there is indeed an author, a ''Derrida," as subject that is single and whole, separate from the assumed object: as if he were not, already with respect to Freud and to himself, already divided to make his localization and identification more than problematic. Also, the assumed ''objects'' of ''Freud'' and ''psychoanalysis'' are not only divided but ''within'' the ''author'' in that he/I cannot simply step outside ''Freud'' in order to make it his/my object. Inasmuch as my reading becomes a critique unawares-a single game of simple insides and outsides, simple subjects and objects, repressing the irreducibility of division from my awareness -'my reading becomes an example of what I am trying to disrupt in ''Freud'': the iden titarian force or ''interest'' I call (op)positionality. Simply put, (op)positionality is a mode of securing a position, and therefore a subject identity, by establishing the separate identity of the object, and the subject's mastery of that object To whatever degree my work here is a reading in this mode, a critique, I am suspect of securing my ''I,'' of

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18 finding myself with respect to an ''object'' I suppose and oppose: ''Freud''/ ''psychoanalysi~." Insofar as this mode of positioning is unavoidable, especially in the highly formalized mode of a dissertation, the question of awareness of ''one's''-the ''subject's," the ''author's''-own division, and the effect of this division on the supposed ''object," becomes a crucial focal point for differentiating types of discourses, particularly between critiques and deconstructive readings. The provisional and the playing of double games becomes crucial. Some might argue, as Barnaby B. Barratt suggests in Psychoanalysis and the Postmodern Impulse, that (op)positionality and critical modes of reading that stem from this type of identitarian logic would be unpsychoanalytic. But this argument is itself dependent on a supposition of psychoanalysis as essentially about revealing identities and subjects (egos) as essentially divided. Again, this is another version of the supposition I mentioned above, and which I want to disrupt here. From such a (supposed) Freudian perspective this argument might hold up for everything and everyone except Freud himself/ psychoanalysis itself-that is, Freud/psychoanalysis reveals all other identities to be divided except for himself/ itself. Herein lies a significant difference between what is signed by Derrida and what is signed by Freud: the texts signed by Freud lack a certain awareness of the irreducible division of the Freudian text, its signature, and its sigriator, whereas the double games of so-called ''deconstruction'' are the manifestation of this type of awareness. Psychoanalysis claims to be a method, a science, based on a discovery of Truth. Derrida resists deconstruction as a method since it is a mode of reading that treats every text singularly, according to its own readability: a response to the text, rather than an application of some

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19 Truth of deconstruction. We might paraphrase the pun of the title of Shoshana Felman's book questioning applied psychoanalytic readings of literary texts, Literature and Psychoanalysis: The Qt!estion of Reading: Otherwise, and call this reading mode, this responsive (non)methodology, ''reading other-wise." Following Derrida's ''Le facteur de la verite," his reading of Jacques Lacan's ''Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter,"' I argue here that Freud/psychoanalysis attempts to establish himself /itself as that unity that stops the incessant sliding of the ''en abyme'' effects of disruptions to the simple subject-object, a simple inside/outside, caused by irreducible division. As the discoverer of the Truth of psychoanalysis, Freud positions himself as the unified subject. He is supposedly beyond the obvious en abyme effects of ''the unconscious," his supposed discovery, in his self analysis. Derrida asks, ''how can an autobiographical writing, in the abyss of an unterminated self-analysis, give to a worldwide institution its birth?'' (Der81 305). As the Truth discovered, psychoanalysis is established as the unified object: a strangely material-ideal object, a stereotomy, an ''point de capiton'' (Lacan). The self-sameness and immediacy of this ''act of establishment'' require the repetitive repression of the differences and endless deferrals of meaning in the creation of any signifying system: differance. Derrida calls this strangely material-ideal subject-object positioning the metaphysics of presence or logocentrism: the found ''object'' of psychoanalysis is part of the ''object world'' and the signifying system at the saine time, the centering idea/matter, the idea that matters, or logos. This repression of differance is logocentric repression We might say that the unconscious of Freud/psychoanalysis is this differance, kept out of awareness as part of the 'act of establishment'' of an identity, an institution, a legacy-that is, if the word

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20 ''unconscious'' were not so imbricated in the very identities of Freud and psychoanalysis I wish to disrupt. My use of ''unconscious'' under erasure can be read as an example of how ''I'' cannot be simply inside or outside psychoanalysis. Though ''Freud'' (op)poses himself as subject to the object of psychoanalysis, there is also a unity of subject and object here, which sends the phenomenology ''en abyme'': 'When one finds it, it is psychoanalysis itself, supposedly, that finds itself'' (ibid.). One doesn't just find oneself with respect to the object, but in the object. (Op)positionality, as a mode of stabilizing the dizzying movement of differance, is itself unstable: the unification of ''Freud'' is ''discovered'' through the discovery of the Truth of the unconscious, ''psychoanalysis," which ''then'' ''sutures'' (Miller) the ''Freud'' who was previously diviqed between his conscious and unconscious self, which ''then'' allows the unified ''Freud'' to discover psychoanalysis unencumbered by his own division .... This process of ''positioning'' beyond (op)positioning, where the subject and object are no longer opposed in a simple phenomenology, which moves toward a totality of the Self via Truth, an identity of subject and object, I call, following Derrida, ''self-posting," where the self sends itself a post of its own identity. For Lacan in ''The Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter,'' as Derrida argues in ''Le facteur de la verite," posts always arrive at their destination. For Derrida, there is always the chance that something otherwise could happen For Lacan, the Truth of psychoanalysis is the Truth of a destinational linguistics: ''Quand elle trouve, a supposer, elle se trouve-quelque chose." The sending (envoz) of the post, which is supposedly identical with the self-sender, in fact reveals the presence of something totally other that causes the sending. Derrida reads Lacan

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21 as positing the truth as ''something'' found, and a cause of the ''eternal return'' (Nietzsche): a destinational linguistics based on a theory of the postal system without a dead letter office. For Derrida, the ''eternal refurn'' cannot be reduced to a thing or a transcendental structure centered on an absence or a veiled presence (the phallus as an always already absent presence),-a negative theology (Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy) or a ''Negative Concord'' (Kermode),-but is something radically other, which subverts ontology (conceptions of thingness, centers, struct~es) and Lacan's synchronic transcendent structures: a (non)origin of repetition and an adestinational postal system. That letters are repetitively sent and may end up in the dead letter office suggests the system is related to and part of something totally other. Lacan stresses the detour the letter takes, the division its detour signifies. But this detour is quite specific, and it is necessary in order to allow for the proper return. Division is reduced to presence/ absence where the absence is always the absence of a very specific presence. Psychoanalysis a la Lacan and Lacan himself are unified in the truth of the proper detour of the letter, the proper division. Derrida calls this truth '~castration-truth'' (Der81 441). The metaphysics of presence, the logocentrism of Lacanian psychoanalysis is phallogocentrism, where the material-ideal letter is the penis-phallus. Castration as the proper division, the proper detour of the letter, reduces the binary of male/female to one-sex system in terms of presence/ absence of the phallus: male/not-male. The not-male secures the phallus as transcendental Truth by reducing division to an absence, or lack. In Lacanian psychoanalysis, according to Derrida, ''[s]omething is missing from its place, but the lack is never missing from it'' (Der81 441). The ''something'' that psychoanalysis finds when it finds

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itself is lack as the ''central place," the familiar locale, and also the center of a structural system, a logic of lack: what Derrida refers to a~ the psychoanalytic oikos, where the Greek word suggests both home and economy. This lack signifies the transcendence of the phallus and therefore its uncastratability. According to Lacoue-Labarthe and Nancy, ''the ultimate effect of the Lacanian strategy thus turns out to be a surprising but vigorous repetition of negative theology'' (Nan92 xviii). 22 For Derrida, division is that which disrupts the concept of truth by disrupting the signifying system that might support such a concept. ''Dissemination' is one word Derrida uses with respect to irreducible division: dis-semination as not allowing for a stable semantics, which is supposedly the spawn (semen) of phallic truth. The spreading and dispersal of seeds suggested by dissemination suggest the dispersal of meaning of differance, the disruption of any economy, any logic. No ''central place'' of absence, no castration home, is allowed by dissemination: ''the lack does not have its place in dissemination '' (Der81 441). Following Derrida's reading of Lacan, this project contrasts a logic of lack with a ''logic'' of dissemination with respect to Freud. Is Freud another ''facteur de la verite'' of a destinational postal system? Is Freudian theory based on ''castration-truth," where ''Femininity is the Truth (of) castration'' (Der81 442)? Like Lacan, who positions himself as the mystic who has mastered the cosmology of the Real-Symbolic-Imaginary or ''RSI,'' Freud often positions himself as undivided, in possession of the whole story, properly analyzed. In chapter two, ''Problematizing Hysteria and the Origins of Psychoanalysis," I explore how the theme of Freud's lack of awareness of the irreducibility of division, and how division would apply to oneself and one's

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23 theories, is reflected in the large role his self-analysis plays in his claims to have access to truth and in the orthodox origin myths of psychoanalysis which he invented and fostered. Freud, the undivided subject, the subject that ''sutures'' his own division-that is, cures the ''hysteria'' that marks this division supposedly discovers Freud/psychoanalysis. He/it is found, a solid whole, a stereotomy, a something. The something Freud initially finds are gaps in narratives, which he fills first with phallic memories of ''seduction'' and then later with fantasies of phallic wholeness when ''hysteria'' is replaced by ''femininity'' as the privileged object and ''gaps'' are replaced by ''castration'' as the lack that secures the oikos of Truth. Freud secures an undivided, phallic subject position by creating an object of lack: the hysteric and her narratives full of gaps. I will explore in chapter two whether Freud's writing on so-called ''hysteria'' is an example of what Barratt calls the ''phenomenology of fucking'': ''the operation of 'I' as the (aggressing or aggressed) subject of (phallo)logocentric discourse'' (Bar93 150). Foreshadowing the ''castration-truth'' of psychoanalysis proper, the division of the object, the so-called hysteric, was reduced to a specific absence, a specific gap. I argue that the phenomenology is a sort of mixture of (op)positionality and self-posting, and is ultimately unstable because it depends on cure: as with woman in Freud's later theory, the so-called hysteric exists as gap to be filled and as what must disappear as cured. One question I want to privilege in this study is whether Freudian theory can get beyond its phallocentrismthat is, what, if anything, remains of Freudian theory once Derrida's project is accomplished: ''the Freudian concept of trace must be radicalized and extracted from the metaphysics of presence which still retains it'' (Der78 229)? Is Freud's logocentrism the same as his

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24 phallocentrism: phallogocentrism? Since Barratt's book lacks an entry in its index for anything related to Oedipus-the expanded oikos of castration truth-and his book sets forth a general metapsychology of sorts, it seems that he would answer yes to this query, and his theory of ''genitality' reflects an attempt at such a distancing from phallocentrism while remaining ''within'' his supposed psychoanalysis. Barratt suggests that Freud's phallocentrism, the oedipal aspects of psychoanalysis, are in fact a betrayal of what is essential about psychoanalysis. Certainly Derrida has shown that one cannot simply step outside the metaphysics of presence of logocentrism. In ''Violence and Metaphysics,'' Derrida argues for the necessity of ''lodging oneself within traditional conceptuality in order to destroy it'' (111) But is phallocentrism unavoidable? Since the Freud I suppose here is one of ''castration-truth'' and the logic of lack-arguing that Freud, like Lacan, is a ''facteur de la verite'' of a phallocentric and destinational postal system-I conclude that little would remain of Freudian theory to constitute a radical spirit of Freud if its oikos lost its privileged place. Barratt's Freud represents something closer to what I wish Freud would be, rather than how I actually read him. To ''suppose'' is not only to assume or to hypothesize, but to suspect too. The function of ''castration-truth'' is to theorize division in terms of what secures identity. Phallocentrism, therefore, ~s the mode of logocentrism of psychoanalysis in its Lacanian mode, as Derrida argues, and in its Freudian mode, as I argue here. The Lacanian ''phallic function," according to Bruce Fink, author of The l.ilcanian Subject, ''is the function that institutes lack'' (103) In Lacan's own words, the ''phallus is the privileged signifier of that mark in which the role of the logos is joined with the advent of desire'' (Lac77b 287). Since Lacanian

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25 desire is never in relation to an object but to lack, the joining point or ''point de capiton'' of desire to the logos would be a ''mark'' of lack. The phallus is that magical signifier /mark, the letter, that sets the Symbolic in motion but also keeps it centered enough to write ''Symbolic'' with a capitol ''S.'' One central question for me here is how well does Lacan read Freud? How faithful is Lacan's return to Freud? I argue that Lacan's ''phallic function'' can be generalized and theorized as what I call the ''actual phallic function,'' another way of naming phallogocentrism and its one-sex self-posting, what I will later call, co-opting Irigaray's pun, ''hom(m)osexuality," which Lacan attempts to address in Encore (Lac98 84). The series of acts of self-posting constituting the actual phallic function comprise what I call a 'triple (self-)deception'': the first deception is the dissimulation of difference and chance behind the binarism of Man/Woman (dissimulating the Other), the second is the dissimulation of the significance of woman's role in establishing the identity of man (dissimulating the other), and the third is the dissimulation of all previous dissimulations. With the actual phallic function, as with Derrida's conception of phallogocentrism, presence is established by reducing the Other to absence, binary difference is effaced by erecting one term (the phallus) to identify difference, the binary is always already a hierarchy, and these processes are naturalized via the repression of repression and the supplementarity of what remains. I argue that Lacan's phallogocentrism suggests a faithful return to Freud since Freud consistently reverts to the ''actual phallic function'' in his theorizing. I argue in chapter three, ' (Un)Easily Contained Elements," that many of the concepts of psychoanalysis that are traditionally read as the ''otherwise'' elements of psychoanalysis for example, overdetermination, free-association, memory, and

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the primary process either are actually more dependent or related to ''castration-truth," or are simply not as ''otherwise," as previously thought. Disturbing Psychoanalytic Origins What does psychoanalysis risk by being logocentric? Is there any other kind of psychoanalysis? Can there be an-other kind, a non-logocentric 26 psychoanalysis, an ''other-wise'' psychoanalysis? Can psychoanalysis afford not to assume that it masters the truth it supposedly finds and is? Psychoanalysis as truth must master especially itself, and then all other. Can it afford not to assume that it has a privileged access to this truth and the totality it implies? How can it master this truth, itself, if this truth is the division of self? As I argue in chapter two, one way is to repress how this truth applies to itself, to repress how the found disrupts trust in the finding and founder. Self-analysis as repression: a (non)origin since this repression would be required to attain this truth. Doesn't the unconscious as, not a self-absence, but a self-differance-a deferral, dispersal, dissemination of the self-obliterate the possibility of self presence? Yet the self-present founder is the primary figure of the orthodox myth: Freud's self-presence is the result of a successful self-analysis, where it seems all of the Es (Other) was transformed into Ich (Sarne), his ''hysteria'' cured. Through the inspiration of genius, so the myth goes, Freud is able to simply step outside of the truth that he supposedly founded, achieve a self-presence uncorrupted by the unconscious forces he supposedly discovers, and he is then able to perceive this truth (himself, his unconscious, psychoanalysis) without distortion, without transference or resistance. He is thus able to be the founding father of psychoanalysis, a primal father as in Totem and Taboo, with his legatees

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establishing institutes with reportable training analyses that supposedly assure the reproduction of this founding perception in the form of the proper paternal transference. I cite Derrida's question again, ''how can an autobiographical writing, in the abyss of an unterminated self-analysis, give to a worldwide institution its birth?'' (Der81 305). 27 Or, turning the question above around, can psychoanalysis be anything but otherwise than logocentric since what is supposedly found disrupts the possibility of finding? Does Freud take seriously the unconscious as what Barratt calls an ''otherwise other''? In chapter three, I argue that Freud does not sustain the fragments of conceptualizations that might constitute theorizing the unconscious in terms of something totally other, an ''otherwise other," or Other, but that he consistently reduces its origin ultimately to a simple presence (with respect to a ''specific ' absence, a lack that has its place) that he then treats as oikos, hom e and economy (the logic of lack). Yet does not the unconscious, the traditional ''object'' of psychoanalysis, supposedly the site of unreason, promote a ' logic'' where contradiction is tolerated? Can the unconscious be both the site of unreason and the validating center for psychoanalysis's logocentrism, the center of the logos, the site of the organizing principle of reason, of the finding of the truth found? Building on the disturbances of psychoanalytic myths of origins in chapters two and three, I attempt to show in chapter four, ''Freud's Masterplotting," that there is a progression in Freudian theory, one repressed by the psychoanalytic orthodoxy and others, where the ego transforms from the site of order to the site of disorder and contradiction, and its beyond-the unconscious, and then the id-tr ansfotms from the site of disorder and contradiction to the site of a priori order. I will show that this progression is

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connected to the ascendancy of Freud's plotting of his master narratives of human kind, and the descendancy in his interest in etiologies of neurosis and cure. 28 Is a logocentric psychoanalysis contradicted if the truth that it finds/is found is posited as the unconscious as the site of unreason? Is it contradicted if this truth is posited as the truth of Freud's Oedipus complex? '1.Jnreason'' could be construed, and is construed by Freud, as the absence of reason. I will argue that Oedipus is construed as that Truth whose repression allows for reason, and therefore Oedipus can be conc~ptualized as the unreason (phallic absence) that allows for reason (transcendental phallic presence): the lack which assures the place of the phallus, ''castration-truth." In this way, Oedipus as the truth of the unconscious secures the totality of psychoanalysis as truth that establishes reason and therefore goes beyond reason. Freud's supposed discovery, the truth he supposedly found, is therefore prior to reason. Because this ' prior to'' is also a beyond, Lacan positions himself as within but also beyond reason or his Symbolic. He calls himself both an hysteric and a mystic. But the 'prior to'' does not really work for Lacan's structuralist psychoanalysis: his structures are outside of time, transcendent more than synchronic In chapter four, I will attempt to show that the origins that Freud developed with respect to his dominant masterplot of the war years are also more transcendent and structural in this way, even though he uses the diachronic term ''genetic'' to describe them. Freud's ''before'' becomes a ''beyond'' and then a type of ''always already." I argue that he pushes his origins beyond the ontogenetic and ''into'' an ''always already'' he calls ''phylogenetic.'' I will attempt to show how Freud posits the truth he discovered as Oedipus in terms of this ''always already'' phylo

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29 ''genesis," and that the ''uneasily contained elements'' (Derrida) of Freudian theory were consistently employed theoretically to sustain this truth as the truth beyond reason, the truth that supposedly secures reason and science. Like Lacan's Symbolic, this structure becomes a totality as what is Other to it-for Lacan the Real-is reduced to the absence of the structure. For Freud, any potential Other, all the beyonds he considers, are ultimately reduced to the absence of the structure of his masterplot: gaps in the narrative or ''trauma.'' Specifically the ''logic'' of oedipal and logocentric Freudian theory positions the truth Freud found as the ''Urphantasien,'' 4 the oedipal ''origin of origins'' (Bro84 276), the primal fantasies of the primal scene, castration, and seduction, which Laplanche and Pontalis equate with the Oedipus complex: ''The universality of these [primal fantasy] structures should be related to the universality that Freud accords to the Oedipus complex as a nuclear complex whose structuring a priori role he often stressed'' (Lap67 333na). Primal fantasies, according to Laplanche and Pontalis, are ''[t]ypical phantasy structures ... which psychoanalysis reveals to be responsible for the organization of phantasy life, regardless of personal experiences of different subjects; according to Freud, the universality of these phantasies is explained by the fact that they constitute a phylogenetically tran smitted inheritance'' (Lap67 331) Freud posited these structures at the same time that he held that the unconscious was the site of unreason that could tolerate contradiction. One wonders how these structures, these a priori organizing principles of the unconscious, could tolerate Sigmund Freud The S tandard Editi o n of the Complete Psy c hol o gical W o rks o f Sigmund Freud Ed. and trans. J. Strachey et al Volume XIV (London: Hogarth Press, 1953-74), 269. Hereafter the Standard Edition will be cited by volume u s ing Roman numeral s

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30 contradiction, and, as theorized, they could not. Freud argues in his 1918 addendum to the Wolf Man case that they supercede any conflict with anything ontogenetic. Thus we have the makings of an aporia with respect to what truth psychoanalysis finds and to what truth it is founded on: the oedipal unconscious versus the unconscious of contradiction, that which secures the Same or reason versus that which is radically other to reason. I will also show how Freud's phylo''genetic'' ''origin of origins'' conflicts with his foundation, his origin of psychoanalytic authority: the differentiation of the norr11al and the neurotic, or the answering of the question, ''whence the neurosis?," via a cure and an etiology based on that cure. Many readers of Freudian theory have repressed the significance of phylo''genetics'' for Freud, including the readers of Freud I am concerned with here The ''mainstyle'' psychoanalysis I suppose is one that takes seriously Freud's oedipal masterplot, and this focus will differentiate me to different degrees from these other readers of Freud who attempt to take seriously the ethical imperative to be ''otherwise." The primal phantasies naturalize ''castration-truth'' as the center of its logic, its oikos (home and economy). According to Derrida, ''castration-truth'' is ''the very antidote for fragmentation'' since ''that which is missing from its place has in castration a fixed central place, freed from all substitution (Der87a 441). With Lacan, Freud's primal fantasies are transformed into an inevitably phallocentric language: the Symbolic. According to Derrida, the absence of the penis-phallus sets in place the phallogocentric signifying chain of Lacanian psychoanalysis, the destination at which all sliding arrives: ''truth-unveiled woman-castration-shame'' (Der87a 416) or simply ''castration-truth." This absence, he argues, is ''that which contracts itself (stricture of the ring) in order to

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31 bring the phallus, the signifier, the letter, or the fetish back into their oikos, their familiar dwelling, their proper place'' (Der87a 441). Filling Gaps In the spirit of intertextuality, I cite Weber citing Freud citing Heine. Weber argues that Freud contrasts his theories with what the forn1er calls the ''phobosophie'' of the philosopher whose approach Freud compares to the making cohesive function of the secondary revision of dreams: This function behaves in the manner which the poet maliciously ascribes to philosophers: it fills up the gaps in the dream-structure with shreds and patches. As a result of its efforts, the dream loses its appearance of absurdity and disconnectedness and approximates to the model of an intelligible experience. (XXII 161) The ''shreds and patches'' are references to two lines in Heine's ''Die Heimkehr," which Freud cites in full at the beginning of his final ''New Introductory Lecture'' in 1933: ''Mit seinen Nachtmiitzen und Schlafrockfetz e n I Stopft er die Liicken des Weltenbaus.'' Strachey translates these lines as follows: ''With his nightcaps and the tatters of his dressing-gown he patches up the gaps in the structure of the universe'' (ibid.). Whereas our nightcaps and dressing-gowns bring us comfort during sleep, secondary revision is that which brings us comfort after we awake, that which transforms the ''absurdity and disconnectedness'' of the primary processes as experienced in dreams into what is an ''intelligible experience'' for the awake consciousness. The ''primary revision'' would be the dreamwork of the dream, the condensation and displacement of the primary processes: the ''dissimulating function'' which allows the ideational material-which would

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32 otherwise remain unconscious--to slip by the sleeping censors of consciousness. Secondary revision is thus a re-establishment of consciousness, its corresponding sense of self, and their censors after they have been vulnerable to the disruptive forces of the unconscious material during sleep. The unconscious is thus theorized here by Freud as being a locus of disruptive forces with respect to consciousness, forces radically other to consciousness and its systems. Freud also associates the unconscious with ''the gaps in the structure of the universe," gaps which cannot be filled despite the systematic ''pretensions'' of ''phobosophers'' or anyone else: The secondary revision of the product of dream-activity is an admirable example of the nature and pretensions of a system There is an intellectual function in us which demands unity, connection and intelligibility from any material, whether of perception or thought, that comes within its grasp; and if, as a result of special circumstances, it is unable to establish a true connection, it does not hesitate to fabricate a false one. (XII 95) System making therefore can have a defensive quality, and, in Levinasian terms, an unethical quality inasmuch as it attempts to move toward totality by reducing what is totally other to the system's logic -that is, inasmuch as it denies the necessity for partiality, provisionality, and openness as a system, and inasmuch as it denies the irreducibility of division as a unity. Following Freud, Weber makes the connection explicit between theory (speculations, system making) and narass1sm: The ''expectation of an intelligible whole'' described by Freud, the expectation of a coherent meaning, appears thus to denote the

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33 reaction of an ego seeking to defend its conflict-ridden cohesion against equally endemic centripetal tendencies. The pursuit of meaning; the activity of construction, synthesis, unification; the incapacity to admit anything irreducibly alien, to leave any residue unexplained-all this indicates the struggle of the ego to establish and to maintain an identity that is all the more precarious and vulnerable to the extent that it depends on what it must exclude. In short, speculative, systematic thinking draws its force from the effort of the ego to appropriate an exteriority of which, as Freud will later put it, it is only the ''organized part." (Web82 13-14) Thus there is something ''phobosophic'' and narcissistic, if not unpsychoanalytic, about theorizing in general, if that which is opposed to the ego, that against which it organizes itself-''the'' unconscious, the id, or that which simply happens is posited as that which cannot be organized in terms of the ego, that which resists theory, that which is radically other to intelligible wholes, coherent meaning, sense, organization. ''For speculation," Weber continues, ''which Freud associates with narcissism, systematization, and secondary revision, would be a form of thought ill-suited to 'judge unconscious material' inasmuch as it is driven precisely to deny the influence of its own unconscious'' (14). Hence Freud's criticism of Adlerian theory: ''The Adlerian theory was from the very beginning a 'system'--which psychoanalysis was careful to avoid becoming'' (XIV 50). I will argue in later chapters that the year Freud made this statement, 1914, he was on the verge of making the move toward primal phantasies as the basis of his masterplotting, his ultimate system based on

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''castration-truth." With this system, the identity of Narcissus and Oedipus is established 34 Freud decries all system making that is different from his own, and yet, there are moments when Freud approaches taking seriously his own criticisms of ''phobosophie." In ''Resistances," Derrida discusses one of these moments in a note Freud makes to his interpretation of the Irma dream in The Interpretation of Dreams where ''Freud confesses a feeling, a premonition (!ch ahne, he writes)'' (4) that ''something exceeds [his] analysis'' (5): I had a fe~ling that the interpretation of this part of the dream was not carried far enough to make it possible to follow the whole of its concealed meaning .... There is at least one spot in every dream at which it is unplumbable-a navel, as it were, that is its point of contact with the unknown. (IV 111n1) Towards the end of The Interpretation of Dreams Freud reiterates this point: There is often a passage in even the most thoroughly interpreted dream which has to be left obscure; this is because we become aware during the work of interpretation that at that point there is a tangle of dream-thoughts which cannot be unraveled and which moreover adds nothing to our knowledge of the content of the dream. This is the dream's navel, the spot where it reaches down into the unknown. The dream-thoughts to which we are led by interpretation cannot, from the nature of things, have any definite endings; they are bound to branch out in every direction into the intricate network of our world of thought. (V 525)

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35 These might be the dream-thoughts that take detour and never return to some notion of the proper destination-one might say an adestinational theory of the unconscious. This would make the ''unknown'' the ''unknowable.'' Freud seems to be arguing that the system-making of philosophy will necessarily be incomplete due to ''the unknown'' of the most entangled roots of the unconscious, and that any attempt to create a unity, eine Weltanschauung, as Freud says, is similar to the folly of secondary revision: a projection of the need for unity. It would seem that we have a Freud here that demands that certain holes or gaps remain unfilled: open spaces Yet, Derrida argues, ''Freud seems to have no doubts that this hidden thing has a sense," that ''the secret'' (4) is unknown but not unknowable, and that the open spaces are gaps where a certain presence is missing from its place. For Freud, if the interpreter could do the impossible and accomplish just the right unraveling of the tangle of dream-thought s, and follow all the myriad detours, sense could be made of the dream: The inaccessible secret is some sense it is full of sense. In other words, for the moment the secret refuses analysis, but as sense it is analyzable; it is homogeneous to the order of the analyzable. It comes under psychoanalytic reason. Psychoanalytic reason as hermeneutic reason. (ibid.) We might argue that Freud becomes split regarding the sense of the navel of the dream into two Freuds: one is the Freud of the inaccessible secret, the unknown as exceeding the analysis, but as ultimately knowable and ''homogeneous to the order of the analyzable''; and the second is the Freud, not of the unplumbable unknown, or not-yet-known, but of the unplumbable and therefore unknowable,

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36 the abyssal. One Freud would be of system-making grounded in truth; the other would recognize that all systems will fall short of a totality and have spaces open up within due to the irreducibility of the Other to the Same. I will argue that there is little evidence of this latter Freud, and abundant evidence of for1ner. Moreover, what is the not-yet-known for Freud here becomes that which grounds all of his later theory. Both Weber and Derrida draw attention to the maternal connections of Freud's navel metaphor. As will be even more the case as the ''castration-truth'' system of oedipal psychoanalysis develops, the center of the structure, its navel, will be associated with an absence (the ''unknown'') related to woman, the absence of woman, and the mother's absence (as in the fort/da game of Beyond the Pleasure Principle). At one point in his treatment of this note to the Irina dream, Weber argues that the navel of the dream would not necessarily be a site of destabilizing mystery: What could be more reassuring and familiar, more primordial and powerful than this reference to the place where the body was last joined to its maternal origins. That this place is also the site of a trace and of a separation, but also of a knot, is a reflection that carries little force next to the reassuring sense of continuity, generation, and originality connoted by the figure. (76) The question of Freud's ''navel of the dream'' becomes: is it a ''gap'' that can be filled by discovering the correct sense that would then correspond to this dream's truth, or an infinity of ever-returning spaces that do not allow for a totality, a system (something that simply happens)? And what is the relationship of these gaps/spaces to the mother, femininity, and woman?

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37 What is at stake here seems to be the status of (psychoanalytic) knowledge and the very nature of the unconscious: whether it has a nature and whether that nature can be expressed in a form that might be meaningful. Discussing related issues, Derrida states matter-of-factly in Resistance of Psychoanalysis that what is at stake ''are sense and truth'' (18). In ''Le facteur de la verite," Derrida argues that Lacan treats the navel simply as a fillable gap. According to Lacan, ''[ w]hat Freud calls the navel-the navel of the dreams, he writes, to designate their ultimately unknown centre ... is simply, like the same anatomical navel that represents it, that gap of which I have already spoken'' (Lac77b 23). Lacan's interest in what Derrida calls ''the gap and the carved-out localization of the umbilical hole'' (Der96 11) is a repetition of the ''castration-truth'' Der1ida finds to be the basis of La can's reading of ''The Purloined Letter," and of La can's ''destinational'' theory of language. More simply, Lacan's rendering of the navel as a center reveals his penchant for idealist structures with centers. It is a philosophy or ''phobosophie'' that ''fills up the gaps in the dream-structure with shreds and patches," but Lacan fills it with a supposedly material and, at the same time, indivisible letter, what I call a material-ideal letter. Again the question becomes: how well does Lacan read Freud? Or does psychoanalysis itself, despite Freud's criticisms of philosophers, attempt to be a Weltanschauung? Freud's transformation of open spaces into specific absences, and making these absences the center of a grand system, begins with his treatment of hysterics and ends with the ''castration-truth'' of psychoanalysis proper. In '' A Fragment of a Case of Hysteria,'' Freud's 1901 case commonly known as the Dora case, Freud states clearly that ''[n]o one who disdains the key will ever be able to unlock the door" (VII 115). At this point in his theorizing, the gaps in hysterical

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38 narratives are the locks supposedly unlocked by Freud's, and later Lacan's, phallic keys. When Dora recounts her narrative of being assaulted by Herr K. at fourteen, the absence of Dora's desire for Herr K.' s advances is for Freud a telltale bit of the ''unconscious disingenuousness'' (17) that leaves ''gaps unfilled'' (16) in the narratives of hysterics. Effecting an abreaction, according to the Freud of the Dora case, would supposedly require a catharsis of the repressed ideational content via its dialogical reconstruction from the analysand's free associations and the analyst's interpretations. Freud, however, does not report filling this supposed gap in Dora's narrative with a reconstr~ction that is at all dialogical Rather, Freud, as he often does, employs his own associations: '1 believe that during the man's passionate embrace she felt not merely his kiss upon her lips but also the pressure of his erect member against her body ' (30) Freud's primary key to the supposed hysteria of his female patients up to and including Dora, the absent presence of every gap, is often an ''erect member," which he uses to know his patients, to penetrate their unconscious desires The hysteric with her gaps ready to be filled by the phallocentric master narratives of Freudian theory provides the initial small-''o'' other. Freud assumes a position of the narrative totality from whence he can see gaps. Later, this position would be one of a masterplot, a metapsychology, rather than an etiological narrative totality. Freud's initial system is based on cure, etiological, and provides the foundation of truth on which psychoanalysis is supposedly based. Psychoanalysis proper would be theorized according to the terms of universal fantasies rather than the traumatic memories from which hysterics

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39 supposedly suffered during the ''seduction'' 5 theory: ''hysterics suffer mainly from reminiscences'' (II 7). Supposedly, Freud was right about the truth he found, but, he would later rationalize, this truth was in the form of universal fantasies rather than traumatic memories. Freud's movement from his system of filling gaps in phallic narratives to the ''castration-truth'' of totalizing masterplots is complicated by a question that ultimately remains unan swered by Freud after the movement: whence the neurosis? Though Freud's theorization, treatment, and cure of hysteria are supposedly the authoritative foundation of psychoanalytic truth, Freud would argue in The Interpretation of Dreams that psychoanalysis finds ''no fundamental, but only quantitative, distinctions between normal and neurotic life'' (V 373). Freud thus clearly differentiates a nascent psychoanalysis proper from his earlier etiology of hysteria here. The latter posited a structural difference between hysteria, one form of neurosis, and normalcy: the hysteric, according to the Freud of around 1895 and 1896, suffered from the pathogenic repression of traumatic memories of incestuous violence, whereas the normal female did not. The Freud of the Dora case, written as an ~ddendum to The Interpretation of Dreams, had no clear etiology: this Freud could not answer, ''whence the neurosis?," and he avoided answering the question in this mere ''fragment of an analysis." One of the dominant themes in my study is the possibility of chance in Freud's system making. During the ''seduction'' theory, the difference between 5 Freud's theory was called the ''seduction" theory only later and not by Freud. It is quite a misnomer given that the theory is really one of child molestation or rape. The idea of ''seduction,'' however, seems to support the contention of psychoanalysis proper that there is a desire in the child for the parent, which seems to be a retroactive rhetorical move to make the child rape theory more cohesive with psychoanalysis proper.

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40 neurotic and normal development was dependent on the chance occurrence of the rape, molestation, or ''seduction.'' In this sense, trauma, chance, and memory are clearly linked in the answering of the question, ''whence the neurosis?'' Freud's initial truth, his supposed ''discovery," is the answering of this question as part of a more general question of cure and the nature of the unconscious. Narratives as etiologies, chance as part of that narrative, answering the question, and cure are all the basis of establishing this truth. In one of his last essays, '' Analysis Terxninable and Interminable," Freud argues that the way psychoanalysis has come to understand the nature of resistance means that cure is hard to come by. But cure is supposedly how psychoanalysis came to understand the nature of resistance. What Freud is doing in this essay written in 1938, the year before the year of his death, and forty-three years after the publication of Studies on Hysteria, is privileging metapsychology (metanarratives) over technique (etiologies, cure) as the central concern of his theorizing and forgetting that all of his appeals to the authority in his metapsychology are ultimately based on cure. I return to the theme of chance in chapter three, and again in chapter five, where I li~k it to the (non)position of woman in mainstyle psychoanalysis ''To Post or Not to Post?'' This project attempts to show how the masterplotting of psychoanalysis proper reduces ''open spaces'' to the specific absences of ''castration-truth," and, as I quote Derrida above, this psychoanalytic absence is ''that which contracts itself (stricture of the ring) in order to bring the phallus, the signifier, the letter, or the fetish back into their oikos, their familiar dwelling, their proper place''

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41 (Der87a 441). As I argue in chapter five, ''Uncanny (Wo)Man,'' the double games of deconstructive readings should be differentiated from the phallocentric fetish and its disavowal, where doubleness is dissimulated in order to achieve the illusion of a One, rather than the explicit acknowledgment of fragmentation-not as castration, but as ''differenc;e as division'' (Der96 33) when a double game is played. I read the ''castration-truth,'' the phallogocentrism of Freudian theory, as such a logie of disavowal: divided not by its simultaneous belief in the presence/ absence of the phallus, a fetish, but in the simultaneous belief in the presence/absence of woman. Contrary to those psychoanalyses that reduce woman to desire for the phallus, the question regarding ''woman'' of the present study is not the truth of woman, but the way psychoanalysis posits Truth of woman in terms of the presence/ absence of woman: first the hysterical gaps in narratives and the cured hysteric (chapter two), then (op)positionality of Freudian sexual theories, and finally the phallic One via the actual phallic function and ''castration-truth'' (chapt e r five). Through my reading of Freud's essay ''The 'Uncanny''' in chapter five, I attempt to bring together many of the questions and themes of the previous chapters in relation to Freud's treatment of his formulation of the question of woman, especially the theme of the possibility of chance in Freud's theory, which stems from my reading of Derrida's essay, ''My Chances/Mes Chances: A Rendezvous with Some Epicurean Stereophonies." I argue that Freud s strong superstitious tendencies are related to his desire to extend his deterministic psychology into a cosmology I connect these themes to Freud's repression of the importance of the mother. The question for me in this chapter is not the question of woman revisited, and especially not Freud's question, ''Was will das Weib?'' The question here is of psychoanalysis: the

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question of psychoanalysis and its uses of truth, determinism, castration, woman, and hysteria as the basis of its phallogocentrism and destinational linguistics. 42 Derrida argues that ''deconstruction has developed itself as a deconstruction of~ system which is called phallogocentrism, which is a whole structure, which is a system so to speak'' (Der87b 196). As Derrida attempts to ''open a space within which we can make philosophy otherwise'' (Der78 178), I hope to do so here with psychoanalysis. I imagine psychoanalysis proper would see the opened spaces for making p~ychoanalysis otherwise as Freud saw the narratives of the so-called hysterics he treated: as gaps in what would be a complete narrative, Freud's oedipal narrative of totality, his masterplot. Seen from psychoanalysis proper, such a deconstructive reading of psychoanalysis would appear to be an hysterical reading. For Lacan, the structure of hysteria is centered on the question, ''What is it to be a woman?'' (Lac93175). Here the opened spaces of deconstruction would be seen as evidence of certain semantic castration. The other neurotic structure Lacan theorizes is the obsessional structure, and its question is Hamlet's: ''to be or not to be?'' (Lac93179-180). Since castration is equated with not being according to Lacan's ''castration truth," we can equate the two questions: to be a woman is not to be, or as Lacan says, ''Woman doesn't ex-sist'' (Lac90 38). I read Freud's texts as stuck in what might be called an obsessional structure if I were not so interested in problematizing such psychoanalytic categories and the structures on which they depend. Not to be in this structure would mean not to have mastery over woman, and woman here, according to the actual phallic function, is a way of reducing the Other to a specific absence. In other words, psychoanalysis

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43 obsessionally attempts to master the trauma of the Other by reducing whatever spaces open up-''deconstruction happens''-to castration. The question on which the structure of this project is provisionally centered with respect to one of its double games is what remains after the phallogocentrism, the ''castration-truth," of psychoanalysis is deconstructed, and whether these remains can or should be called ''psychoanalysis," or if the remains of this deconstruction would in some way constitute a posting of psychoanalysis: ''post-psychoanalysis." In a section of chapter six I call ''Post(al) Psychoanalysis," I attempt to problematize such a posting, if not embrace it. Besides the obvious drawbacks of such a trendy move, a simplistic posting, a putting behind of psychoanalysis, of course, seems to assume that one can simply step outside and in front of psychoanalysis: moves I try to problematize here. As with post-Marxism, for example, this posting, if it is one, would be one where the emphasis would remain ambiguous: is it post-psychoanalysis or post psychoanalysis? Adding an ''al'' in parentheses is intended to problematize any reading of the title of the conclusion as such a simple posting of psychoanalysis and to associate this problematized posting with Derrida's problematization of postal systems.

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CHAPTER2 PROBLEMATIZING ''HYSTERIA'' AND THE ORIGIN OF PSYCHOANALYSIS In this chapter I show how Freud's system-making begins very much in terms of gap filling, a process at least related to what I have described, following Barratt, as the ''phenomenology of fucking." The Other to Freud's system making is consistently transformed from Other into other, from the unconscious or the unknown (the open spaces, the remains of the system) into femininity woman, or, as I will discuss here, hysteria (gaps, specific absences) Because the traditional myth of psychoanalytic origins is that psychoanalysis was discovered during Freud's work with hysterics, hysteria becomes a privileged category for any project interested in disturbing these origins and the myths based on them. I posit here what I think has been a repres s ed binary, psychoanalysis/hysteria where, analogous to the male/female of psychoanalysis, this binary reduces the Other to a simple other, ''hysteria," in order to establish itself, ''psychoanalysis,'' in a mode of self-posting ''auto-bio-graphy'' (Derrida). My goal in this chapter is to deconstruct this binary and therefore problematize psychoanalysis at what the orthodoxy considers to be its origin: its analysis and cure of hysteria. By focusing on Freud's own ''hysteria'' and his impossible ''self-analysis," I hope to further problematize these myths by (dis)placing them en abyme, and, in general, to show that Freud's own ''phobosophie'' is consistently mixed with misogyny This latter them e is treated in chapter five below 44

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What is hysteria? Or should I ask, what was it? In Feminism and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary, Ellie Ragland-Sullivan's Lacanian entry for hysteria is typical in its acceptance of certain myths of hysteria: 45 Psychoanalysis was born with Freud's treatment of the illness then named ''hysteria'' (from the Greek hysteros 'womb'), a uterus thought to be ''wandering," a malady as old as Hippocrates and the subject of the oldest known medical text. (163) Ragland-Sullivan's acceptance of this so-called ''illness'' as one is a typical psychoanalytic assumption, one on which the myth of the birth of psychoanalysis depends. Moreover, she seems unquestioning that this ''illness'' indeed had something to do with a reality related to actual diseased wombs The womb (hystera) has been consistently established as the essence of women throughout Western history, and from this determination came the various discourses of medicine, biology, sexuality, religion, etc., which gave birth to many forms of sexism stemming from the notion that ''anatomy is destiny Of course, we are investing ourselves in a ''certain linguistics'' when we speak of ''maladies'' with ancient histories and their realities. And this linguistics and its essentialism and reality, as I will argue, create this ''illness'' and the misogyny associated with it in order to sustain itself. This linguistics and its phallogocentrism need this ''illness." Yet, even within the context of such a linguistics, the symptomatology of what was called ''hysteria'' has a long, unwieldy, and inconsistent history, though not nearly as long as presumed by Ragland-Sullivan, nor as is usually presumed. The orthodox mythology of the birth of psychoanalysis depends on the objective existence of hysteria as a disease entity that psychoanalysis cures What I argue here is that even within a

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46 logocentric episteme, hysteria can make no claim to being a proper disease. Freud constructs his ''hysteria'' and its cure to father psychoanalysis and ''Freud," and Lacan and Lacanians, such as Ragland-Sullivan, will assume its existence within a ''certain linguistics'' of phallo-phono-logocentrism. I will argue that psychoanalytic hysteria constitutes a magical detour destination, which allows the letter to be properly purloined so that it will always properly arrive back at its proper destination. Psychoanalysis and ''hysteria'' are one: psychoanalysis/hysteria. All detours must be construed as circles leading back to the proper destination, and the sending of the self-post must be appropriated as the proper detour, instead of indicating something radically other that might account for the compulsion to repeat the sending. In Womanizing Nietzsche, Kelly Oliver argues that ''woman and the feminine'' (5) are the excluded other in the discourse of Western philosophy, but that this excluded other is also an other within Oliver urges philosophy to ''engage in a dialogue with the other within it, the oth e r out of which it was born'' (4). Certainly this approach could be applied to Freudian theory and psychoanalysis in general: hysteria was indeed repressed as a psychoanalytic concern after the Dora case, and the cure of hysteria has been considered the womb out of which psychoanalysis was born Yet the way Oliver sets up her problem reinscribes the (op)positionality of the binary philosophy /woman in order to create a dialogue, and, as with any (op)positionality, the binary dissimulates difference and division behind opposed identities or ideal categories. I do not ascribe to a project where psychoanalysis would ''engage in a dialogue with the [hysterical] other within it, the other out of which it was born'' since to do so would be to risk reinscribing the binary I reveal/ construct

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47 here in order to destabilize: psychoanalysis/hysteria. My hope in this chapter is to show how this binary acts as a mode of defense against the radical alterity Freud encounters in this initial phase of his theorizing. I do this after showing how the history and the histories of this supposed disease support the repression of what is totally other via this supposition. Because of the tradition of how this word ''hysteria'' was used to support a variety of patriarchies, it seems to me that any attempt at any ''reappropriation'' (a making proper to a discourse interested in subversion of the proper)-for example, hystericizing hysteria or hysterjcizing psychoanalysis even if successful, would run the risk of reproducing the reification of ''hysteria'' and all of the misogynistic baggage this reification carries with it, and it would do so without any clear gain with respect to problematizing how ''hysteria'' was used to create this baggage or how psychoanalysis/hysteria was used by Freud and his followers as the basis of an origin myth. Historia Sweeping histories of this supposed disease, this supposed singularity such as Ilza Veith's classic, Hysteria: The History of a Disease-are flawed in that they create what Mark Micale, author of Approaching Hysteria, calls ''a remote and venerable historical heritage'' (Mic95 46) rooted in the Hippocratic texts. In ''Once upon a Text: Hysteria and Hippocrates," Helen King undercuts traditional histories of hysteria in three crucial ways: (1) by problematizing the similarity between popular conceptions of hysteria in its modern for1ns and the hysterike pnix, or ''suffocation by the womb'' (Gil93 28-9), which Hippocrates described; (2) by arguing that anything recognizable as a modern forn1 of

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48 hysteria was not recorded until the 16th century; and (3) by pointing out that the diagnosis ''hysteria'' was not coined until 1801 (Gil93 73). According to Micale, the common type of mythical historical heritage of a disease entity for something ''as elusive and mysterious as hysteria ... implies the universality of the disorder, establishes the validity of the diagnostic category, and bolsters the scientific status of psychiatric medicine itself' (Mic95 46). Even during the latter part of the nineteenth century, which Fulgence Raymond called ''la periode heroique de l'hysterie'' (qtd. in Mic95 3), hysteria's symptomatology could not sustain what most nosologists, then or now, would consider proper disease status. Jean Martin Charcot's conceptions of hysteria in his writings of the 1870s and 1880s reveal a dizzying polysymptoma to logy despite his efforts to make the diagnosis functional through a delimiting classification system. Basically any behavioral abnormality in a woman was suspect of being a sign of hysteria during ''la periode heroique de l hysterie '' Contemporary symptomatologies for hysteria-a diagnosis unfortunately still in use are also extremely vague and general. The very recently outdated Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disord~s (Third Edition Revised) or DSM-ill-R lists ''paralysis, aphonia, seizures, coordination disturbance, akinesia, dyskinesia, blindness, tunnel vision, anosmia, anesthesia, and paresthesia ... [disturbances of the] autonomic and endocrine systems ... [and v]omiting'' (257) as symptoms of the more specific category of ''Hysterical Neurosis, Conversion Type." The DSM-III-R also lists the dissociative type of hysterical neurosis, hysterical personality (histrionic personality disorder), and various kinds of hysterical psychoses The updated and current DSM-IV does not list hysteria at all, I hope in recognition of the nosological chaos of the history of this diagnosis

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49 and, more importantly, the often violent misogyny of the history of ''hysteria's'' theorizations and treatments. Since the term remains a common element of psychoanalytic discourse, it seems that the psychoanalytic community is far from acknowledging this history of misogyny and nosological chaos. To do so would be to undercut the origin myth and therefore the very foundation of the supposed scientific status of psychoanalysis not to mention the complicity of psychoanalysis in the latter part of this misogynistic history. As with many psychoanalytic feminists who write about hysteria, many Freudian faithful attempt to limit hysteria to symptoms of ''conversion," the somatic expression of psychical conflict, as Freud, early in his career, claimed should be done (see I 41-52 passim). Reducing the vast polysymptomatology of hysteria to its merely broad psychosomatic component appeals to psychoanalytic feminists because the metaphorics of the silenced women who can only express their dis-ease with(in) the patriarchy through their culturally hypercathected bodies is indeed powerful. This reduction appeals to the Freudian faithful because the mythologies surrounding Freud's supposed cure of hysterics, and hysteria as the womb of psychoanalysis, comprise the origin myths of psychoanalysis (Freud cures/ anchors the womb that gives birth to psychoanalysis as anchor). Freud's own symptomatologies and theorizations with respect to hysteria, however, were varied, inconsistent, contradictory, and usually conflated with female homosexuality after the initial writing of the Dora case a far cry from the ''gross, florid motor and sensory somatizations'' (Mic95 4) we associate with Freud's earlier work on hysteria with Breuer. At the same time that Freud would try to limit the symptomatology of hysteria in order to make it manageable, he would also bring in many other symptoms from the

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so dizzying polysymptomatology when they would suit his particular purposes at that time. If hysteria could be said to have been one thing, something that might constitute a categorization, it was simply a diagnosis, one that was historically made by males in positions of authority-primarily nineteenth-century physicians about women who were somehow beyond the boundaries of what was contemporaneously considered proper womanhood. The diagnosis of hysteria itself may be a symptom of a patriarchal ''dis-ease''-that is, the patriarchy's dis-ease with those bodies classified as female that did not confortn to, were in excess of, its dictates of prop e r womanhood Many of the feminists who make this argument or similar ones, however, treat hysteria as if it were something beyond a diagnosis If they don't explicitly do this, and even if they at times argue against such a position, their common unproblematized use of ''hysteria'' suggests just such an assumption (see Showalter, Kahane, Matlock, Smith-Rosenberg, among others). In other words, many feminist theorists often use ''hysteria'' as an unproblematized denotation of an actual disease even though these feminists suggest that the word ''hysteria'' itself cannot be anything but the discursive manifestations of a variety of related patr iarchal defensive strategies, especially with its unavoidable anatomical etymology of a diseased womb. There seems to be an understandable, if unfortunate, need to figure out the causes of hysteria-the-disease at the same time that some feminists argue for hysteria as a part of a reappropriative discourse of nineteenth century physicians made insecure by the changes happening with respect to women and their roles in society, in the family, and in their personal and sexual relations.

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51 Histories such as Veith's-not a ''hys-story'' as much as a case of ''historia''-if not histories of a disease entity, may be useful as histories of what Elaine Showalter calls ''the pervasive association of women and madness'' (Sch85 4), if their use of ''hysteria'' is retroactively problematized. For two reasons I hesitate to say that such histories might be considered histories of female madness. First of all, Showalter would see this as a redundancy since she argues ''madness is a female malady'' (Sch85 3). Second, Derrida might argue that this would be an ''infeasible'' (Der78 33) categorization for the same reasons that Foucault's intention of writing his History of Madness from the position, as Foucault said, ''of madness itself ... before being captured by knowledge'' (qtd. in Der78 34), is for Derrida infeasible, or even ''the maddest aspect of his project'' (ibid.). Any history is on the side of reason, thus making a history of madness a reduction of the Other of ''madness'' to reason's more of the Same Indeed, madness can be read as the (op)position that allows for reason. What these ' hys-stories ' mask as aspects of this general reduction of the Other to the Same with respect to reason/madness, are the undecidables of certain boundaries that make up the dualisms or (op)positionalities that have played major roles in the West's representational histories. This masking is a process of naturalization of dualisms such as male/ female and reason/ madness, a deciding of u~decidables along traditional lines. A third dualism, mind/body, is also a major player in the general representational histories of the West. On one level, what is at stake with these hys-stories, and the many questions of hysteria in general, is the reproduction of what Showalter calls ''the fundamental alliance between 'woman' and 'madness''' (Sch85 3) and ''how women, within our dualistic systems of language and representation, are typically situated on

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52 the side of irrationality, silence, nature, and body, while men are situated on the side of reason, discourse, culture, and mind'' (Sch85 3-4). These dualisms have been hierarchies in practice, and they mask the undecidables-the radical alterity of what is Other, the instability of the same and the futility of the various patriarchies' attempts to reduce what is Other to its dualistic codes and hierarchies once and for all . Showalter's feminism itself seems to be based on the self-evidence or naturalness of such a dualism, male/female, and therefore it risks reproducing the phallogocentric reduction of what is Other to more of the Samethat is, inasmuch as such an assumption necessarily leads to such a reproduction, and inasmuch as feminism necessarily makes such an assumption. In, ''Deconstruction in America," Derrida suggests that feminisms are necessarily phallogocentric: So I would say that deconstruction is a deconstruction of feminism, from the start, in so far as feminism is a form-no doubt a necessary form at a certain moment-but a form of phallogocentrism among many others. (Der85 30) Psychoanalysis, of course, would also be one of these phallogocentric forms The appeal of psychoanalysis for some feminisms seems to be what these forms of feminism read as its anti-essentialism, which gets away from ''anatomy is destiny." And yet, since Derrida argues both psychoanalysis and feminism are forms of phallogocentrism, the source of this attraction may also be that they share phallogocentric assumptions. In so far as phallogocentrism prescribes a destiny, a destinational linguistics, ultimately ''anchored'' to the letter of anatomy, the two ''lures'' of psychoanalysis for certain feminisms-.anti

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53 essentialism and sharing phallogocentric assumptions -become mutually exclusive. Without getting embroiled in the intricacies of the relationship between deconstruction and feminism at this point, I am interested in suggesting here that the conflicted strategies of treating hysteria as a discursive formation and attempting to theorize the origins and essence of hysteria-that is, treating it as a ''real'' illness can be understood in relation to the certain feminisms' conflicted relationship to phallogocentrism and the mainstyles of psychoanalysis and deconstruction. I return to these issues in the concluding chapter. The primary function of hysteria is to bolster and reproduce the aforementioned hierarchical dualisms-mind over body, reason over madness, and male over female. Even when the diagnosis of hysteria was used for men, as in the late nineteenth century by Charcot and Freud-and though the diagnosis was severed here from its history of connecting the pathology to a diseased womb-the diagnosis was used figuratively to suggest that the male had succumbed to a feminine type of madness, a ''female malady." Freud returns to this type of metaphorics -the type where Freud must cure himself of his hysterical symptoms, his femininity-in the late essay, ''Analysis Terminable and Interminable," where he stresses the difficulty of curing his male patients of their residual femininity (though he never theorizes this source of femininity beyond simply stating the universality of bisexuality) The discursive formation ''hysteria," the diagnosis, was used to justify oppressive practices in the service of the stability of various patriarchies. Prior to the inception of ''hysteria'' as a diagnosis in 1801, the theories, speculations, and ''treatments'' of aberrant forms of femininity were also used oppressively, often violently. I will refer to all aberrant for1ns of femininity I deal with here that

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54 various Western patriarchies felt the need to classify or diagnose to defend against their disruptive potential, borrowing from Showalter, ''the female malady''-though I use this phrase, not as a synonym for madness in general, but as a way of denoting the paradoxical imbrications of femininity and madness from the perspective of a hom(m)osexual patriarchy-that is, the malady of being female, and, further1nore, the malady of not being female enough. Psychoanalysis continues this treatment of the themes of femininity in terms of a malady for both men (see '' Analysis Terminable and Interminable'') and women (the ''peculiar'' sex, penis envy), and this contradictory treatment of the feminine malady as not being female enough (either hysteria or female homosexuality with respect to Freud's ''three lines of development''). With respect to terminology, my hope here is to differentiate the broader ter111, ''the female malady," from its subset ''hysteria," and therefore to historicize ''hysteria'' as a diagnosis made after 1800. This allows me to maintain the broad strokes of related histories of female oppression associated with female madness without reifying hysteria and making the error of assuming that nineteenth-century hysteria has a ''remote and venerable historical heritage'' (Mic95 46) rooted in the Hippocratic texts. In fact, I would say that a ''remote and (un)venerable historical heritage'' of the imbrication of femininity and madness would be less vulnerable to ''historia'' than a comparable hys-story . The theories and treatments for the female malady were aspects of varied though similar for111s of patriarchal reappropriation, where the aberrancy of things feminine that is, associated with femininity yet in excess of its proper form-is reappropriated by establishing that which is aberrant as the abject form of the proper in a name-game of mastery that re-establishes the One and the

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55 same in the face of the Other. As usual, the aberrancy-the transgression, perversion-was used as limit and negative in order to establish and center the proper, the norm, the law. In the Timaeus, Plato wrote: the womb is an animal which longs to generate children. When it remains barren too long after puberty, it is distressed and sorely disturbed, and straying about in the body and cutting off the passages of the breath, it impedes respiration and brings the sufferer into the extremist anguish and provokes all manner of diseases besides. (qtd. in Mic95 19) With proper femininity in Plato's Greece, the womb is irrigated and inseminated; the happy womb does not wander as it is anchored by the penis. A proper sexuality, a proper relation of womb to penis, therefore, is the cure and antithesis of the diseased womb, the symptom of aberrant femininity. The themes of proper sexuality and the curative penis/phallus would recur throughout the history of the female malady. For example, Rudolph Chrobak sent along the following course of treatment with a patient he had diagnosed as hysterical and had sent to Freud: ''penis normalis dosim repetatur '' (Gay 92). Another recurring theme in histories of the female malady is violent misogyny. Despite what seems like what should have been the sound security of Western patriarchies throughout history due to their rootedness and overwhelming power, violent misogyny regarding the treatment and theorization of the female malady has been common and often virulent, which suggests that these patriarchies were not as stable as they were powerful, and that the threat of what is Other associated with the phantasmatic feminine was consistently great. After St. Augustine, who attributed all illness to ''a

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56 manifestation of innate evil'' (Mic95 20), the female malady became synonymous with witchcraft and possession by the devil: During the late medieval and Renaissance periods, the scene of diagnosis of the hysteric [sic] shifted from the hospital to the church and the courtroom, which now became the loci of spectacular interrogations. Official manuals for the detection of witches, often virulently misogynistic, supplied instructions for the detection, torture, and at times execution of the witch/hysteric. The number of such inquisitions remains unknown but is believed to be high. (Mic95 20-1) The violence of the nineteenth-century patriarchal reactions to what was named ''hysteria'' is consistent with the violence of previous eras' patriarchal reactions to the demonic female malady, such as the uncountable murders of women deemed to be witches. Nineteenth century forms of violence were often medicalized and sexualized in keeping with its less religious Enlightenment ethos The seventeenth century would see the beginning of a neurological model used to theorize the female malady, one that would evolve until the present time. A revival of uterine theories would occur in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, hence the womb-oriented diagnosis of ''hysteria'' for what were considered materialist maladies circa 1801. As examples of this combination of medicalization and sexualization, treatments that stemmed from a combinatory, neuro-uterine model of ''hysteria'' included ''intrauterine injections, the cervical and vulvar application of leeches, and clitoral cauterizations," and recalcitrant ''cases were occasionally subjected to amputative and extirpative gynecological surgery, including bilateral

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57 ovariotomies'' (Mic.'95 24). Though a pioneer in getting away from physically violent forms of treatment, Freud in 1896 volunteered one of his ''hysterical'' patients, Emma Eckstein, for a procedure developed by his friend Wilhelm Fliess, who posited that the cauterization of the turbinate bone of the nasal cavity could supposedly cure sexually related neurotic and physiological ailments such as hysteria. By Freud's own account, the operation had disastrous effects: the patient nearly bled to death because of bone chips and a meter of gauze left in her nose after the operation. As late as 1920, Freud would consider an overidectomy as a potential therapy for one of his patient's homosexuality and the hysteria Freud associated with it (XVIII 172) Whether neurological or uterine/sexual, there are clear connections between ''hysteria,'' the female malady, aberrant forms of femininity, proper forms of femininity, feminine sexuality, patriarchal insecurity, and the violence to which this insecurity led. Hysteria and Hysterization Differentiating my conception of hysteria from Foucault's ''hysterization of women's bodies'' (Fou78 104)-one of his ''four great strategic unities which, beginning in the eighteenth century, formed specific mechanisms of knowledge and power centering on sex'' (Fou78103)-will help to expand my own treatment of the questions of hysteria I have raised here. According to Joan Matlock, author of Scenes of Seduction: Prostitution, Hysteria, and Reading Difference in Nineteenth-Century France, hysteria ''is far less the diagnostic name for a set symptoms than a category for perceptions'': While doctors with radically different views reported similar phenomena-paralyses, fainting, coughing fits, convulsions,

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58 impressionability, and hypersensitivity to physical and emotional stimulation-the range of symptoms for this disorder [sic] was so great that some doctors refused to categorize it at all except as an exacerbation of whatever made women different from men. (3) Except for Matlock's unproblematized assumption that hysteria is a ''disorder,'' so far so good. Matlock continues by incorporating her reading of Foucault: Wh~t Foucault called the hysterization of women's bodies was achieved in the nineteenth century by differentiating orderly bodies from those perceived as disorderly. The hysteric and the prostitute provided opposite models against which an orderly body could be measuredthe one tormented by desires welling up from the inside, the other transformed into a holding tank for desires that might contaminate society from the outside. (4) What Foucault called the hysterization of those bodies called female, however, was not achieved through any differentiation among these bodies. On the contrary, his anti-essentialist take on hysteria and sexuality posits the hysterization of those bodies called female as a ''strategy'' of ''the deployment of sexuality,'' and, according to Foucault, it would not have excluded any ''women'' from the category of the potentially threatening to the hegemonic patriarchal order: all ''women'' were deemed ''thoroughly saturated with sexuality'' (Fou78 104), therefore they were all disorderly, and this disorderliness was used as an alibi for policing by being ''integrated into the sphere of medical practices, by reason of a pathology intrinsic to'' sexuality (ibid.). In other words, hysterization allowed for the policing of all women, but Foucault does not address the differentiation between proper women and hysterics in the first volume of the

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59 History of Sexuality. Lacan' s conception of hysteria can be seen as an example of Foucault's hysterization since Lacan's ''hysteric'' cannot be differentiated from his ''woman." Besides the anti-essentialism of Foucault's take on the hysterization of women, another strength of his formulation is the imbrication of women and madness with respect to sexuality, which seems to have been the source of Elaine Showalter' s notion of ''the female malady'' in her book by that name, despite the critique of Foucault we find there: Although anyone who writes about the history of madness must owe an intellectual debt to Michel Foucault, his critique of institutional power in Madness and Civilization (1961) does not take account of sexual difference. (6) Foucault's notion of the hysterization of women's bodies, published seven years before The Female Malady, does take into consideration something akin to what Showalter calls ''the pervasive cultural association of women and madness'' (4)-that is, how being designated female equals suspicion of being laden with a malady, since the female is defined as being saturated with supposedly pathogenic sexuality. Where Showalter truly differs from Foucault-.and what seems to be the source of her misunderstanding of Foucault's anti essentialism-is her acceptance of hysteria as a disease, and her other essentialist notions concerning ''the feminine'': While he exposed the repressive ideologies that lay behind the refor1n of the asylum, Foucault did not explore the possibility that the irrationality and difference the asylum silenced and confined is also the feminine. (6)

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In other words, Showalter does not acknowledge that such an essentialist exploration in relation to an a priori feminine is contrary to the anti-essentialist thrust of Foucault's work, and, accordingly, she does not problematize her essentialist notion of hysteria. 60 Where I differ with Foucault begins with his tendency toward a monolithic conception of power. According to Lois McNay, author of Feminism and Foucault, What Foucault's account of power does not explain is how, even within the intensified process of the hysterization of female bodies, women did not slip easily and passively into socially prescribed feminine roles. (41) Accordingly, Foucault's first volume of The Hi s tory of Sexuality argues against the psychoanalytic idea of repression. Repression and resistance, which Freud and Derrida argue are two sides of the same coin, fall away when power is monolithic: without something otherwise to the discursive constructs that make up the ego and other institutions of power, what is there to repress or resist? Where or how do the discursive constructs and what is otherwise to them meet without the aporetic ''logic' of what Barratt calls the ''in but not of'' (Bar93 133) relation of the ''otherwise other'' to the ''I-now-is'' (Bar93 passim)? When Foucault does posit an Other, it is either completely passive as with the silence of madness in Madness and Civilization-or it betrays his anti-essentialist creed, as with the notions of ''plebs," ''s ubjugated knowledges," and ''disqualified knowledges'' in his later work. Whereas all authors who write about some form of what is totally other, or ''the Other," struggle to avoid the reduction of this ''subject'' to the more of the Same as Derrida argues in his analysis of Levinas

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61 in ''Violence and Metaphysics''-Foucault is a special case since he is one theorist who seems to understand such struggles and their significance for example, when he writes that madness is ''the absence of the work'' (qtd. in Der78 43) in reference to Madness and Civilization. Unfortunately, he sometimes passes over these difficulties as he posits the Other as the simple opposite of the Same (Madness and Reason in Madness and Civilization), or ontologizes and essentializes the Other (plebs, Madness), or makes it an a priori in the form of the Same (disqualified and subjugated knowledges). The passivity that characterizes some of the conceptions of a non reductive encounter with what is Otherfor example, the silence of Madness-accounts for neither the instability of the Same, nor the necessary exclusion of what is Other (repression and resistance) that allows for the establishment of the Same and its logic. In other words, Foucault does not account for the role the Other plays in the ''acts of establishment'' (Bar93 12) that constitute the Same, and how the Other is ''in but not of'' the Sarne. The energetics of Foucault's discursive power, what he calls ''biopower'' in his later theorizing, is all on the side of the Same: the power of the Same determines the modes of the ''bio," as with the hysterization of women's bodies. Foucault seems to have been unable to conceptualize a type of power, what might be called an otherwise energetics (that is, an otherwise ''energetics'' under erasure), which is ''of'' the Other yet constitutive of, or ''in," the Same (that is, ''in but not of' the same). According to Fouca ul t, Sexuality must not be thought of as a kind of natural given which power tries to hold in check, or as an obscure domain which knowledge tries gradually to uncover. It is the name that can be

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62 given to a historical construct: not a furtive reality that is difficult to grasp, but a great surface network in which the stimulation of bodies, the intensification of pleasures, the incitement to discourse, the formation of special knowledges, the strengthening of controls and resistances, are linked to one another, in accordance with a few major strategies of knowledge and power. (Fou78 105-6) With this monolithic ''deployment of sexuality," repression of the Other that allows for an ''act of establishment'' of the Same would not be needed since it is a totality of the Same Derrida refers to Foucault's use of ''The Decision'' for Foucault's separating of ''sexuality'' and the energetics of discursive power (Der78 38). Is this evidence of a certain avoidance by Foucualt of the problem of the relationship between language and what makes it unstable, what it represses and resists? Derrida asks how Foucault could write about madness as an Other within a history of reason I would add: whence the madness with respect to such a monolithic power of reason? Foucault gestures toward letting madness speak for itself, which is a gesture towards writing ethically in the Levinasian sense. Ethics, in this sense, seems to preclude ''The Decision," a distinct delimitation between the Other and the Same, which would be different than Barratt's ''in but not of'' and Derrida's ''dissension'' where ''the exterior (is) the interior, is the fission that produces and divides it along the lines of the Hegelian Entzweiung'' (Der78 38-39). Feminism an~ the Hysteric Foucault's concept of hysterization theorizes a pathologizing of all women's bodies, employed to justify all policing, but it does not account for the

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63 use of the diagnosis as a means of appropriation or reappropriation of the disorderly bodies labeled as hysterics. The difference between the normal female body and the hysterical one, in a pseudo-Foucauldian sense, might be construed as the difference between the always potentially disruptive body (in need of policing) and the actually disruptive body (in need of a type of incarceration, a diagnosis as incarceration). It would be ''pseudo'' because Foucault did not theorize anything beyond the body as a discursive for1nation: nothing to repress, and nothing otherwise to the power that might create a dissension within discursvity. Furthermore, Foucault's hysterization does not account for the difference between the normal and hysterical positions of ''woman'' within patriarchies that used the diagnosis of hysteria, and it does not account for the deployment of ''hysteria'' as a reappropriative measure. As with Lacan's hysteric, Foucauldian ''hysterized body'' is synonymous with ''female body." Whatever created the di ssension within the strictures of proper womanhood, or within the hysterized body, would have been radically other to the identitarian logics of these discursive for1nations, and therefore would have been threatening to the stability of these logics and the powers of the patriarchies in question. To call this source of dissension !'hysteria," however, would reduce what is radically otherwise to that logic, to make it recognizable and therefore masterable within that logic and its possible bodily positions. ''Hysteria'' marks what is otherwise to a particular phallic order, while providing one of many feminine positions within that order, and a mode of defense against what is radically other to that order. In all cases ''hysteria'' is a reappropriative tool of these orders. The hysteric as proto-feminist "Yould be oxymoronic if hysteria is understood only as a patriarchal tool of appropriation, and if feminism is

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64 understood as being about problematizing, if not disrupting or destroying, traditional positions which would be in the service of patriarchy. Dianne Hunter's assertion that ''feminism is transformed hysteria, or more precisely, that hysteria is feminism lacking a social network in the outer world'' (Hun83 68) would thus seem to be contrary to my position, as Hunter's position seems to associate hysteria with what is otherwise to the patriarchy, rather than with patriarchy's appropriation or totalization processes, its identitarian or (op)positional logics of the Same. Some feminisms might aspire for feminism to be the transformation of the disruption of whatever it is that creates Derrida's ''dissension," and by definition this (non)source or source would lack a social network. Again, to call this disruption ''hysteria'' is to risk legitimizing the patriarchal tool that associates any deviation from proper womanhood with an essentialist notion of a diseased womb even if ''hysteria'' is used in a way that attempts to destabilize what is proper by ''reappropriating'' "hysteria.'' Derrida might argue that both ''hysteria'' and feminism are both part of a phallogocentric social network We might ask, how much is the phallogocentrism of ''hysteria'' linked to the phallogocentrism of feminism? The larger question becomes how much is feminism invested in the ''social network of the outer world,'' its logic of the Same, its essentialism, and its use of ''hysteria." Limiting the scope of my inquiry, I want to focus on the problematic relation of certain feminisms to essentialist conceptions of hysteria. These conceptions might be seen as the lure of phallogocentrism for these feminisms . As I stated above, Derrida reduces feminism to a phallogocentric discourse, and feminisms' inability to give up essentialist conceptions of hysteria seem to be evidence supporting Derrida's reduction. Yet Derrida's reduction of feminism to

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phallogocentrism is just that, a reduction. It assumes that, like logocentrism, phallocentrism is inescapable, thus all logocetrism would be phallogocentrism. In Spurs, Derrida writes probably his most infamous lines for feminists: 65 And in truth, they too are men, those women feminists so derided by Nietzsche. Feminism is nothing but the operation of a woman who aspires to be like a man. And in order to resemble the masculine dogmatic philosopher this woman lays claim-just as much claim as he-to truth, science and objectivity in all their castrated delusions of virility. Feminism too seeks to castrate. It wants a castrated woman. Gone the style. (Der79 62-65) Derrida assumes that all feminists assume only two positions available to bodies: male or female. Most feminists do just this, particularly psychoanalytic feminists, who seem to be the most invested in this fundamental aspect of phallogocentrism. In Feminism and Deconstruction: Ms. en Abyme, however, Diane Elam writes, If feminism is merely a form of phallogocentrism, then Derrida, however much he gestures at historical necessity, would be equating all of feminism with a teleological search for the essence of woman. Thus, he would be reducing all feminisms to one and the same feminism. Lost the style, for Derrida as well. (16-17) Derrida also reduces all male/ female binaries to its phallogocentric form: presence/ absence of the penis-phallus by assuming that all searches for truth or logocentrism are necessarily phallogocentrism. Since Derrida wrote Spurs in 1978, many feminists have attempted to theorize bodies, genders, and sexualities beyond the limitations of phallogocentrism and its male/female. For me the

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66 question remains open whether logocentrism, which seems to be inescapable for theory, is necessarily phallocentric. Logocentrism seems inescapable for any theory of bodily or sexual positioning. But why would phallocentrism be inescapable? What seems to be at stake here is the relationship between the traditional binary of sexual difference, male/female, and the traditional binaries of presence/absence. Which is primary? Is logocentrism, the metaphysics of presence, always phallogocentrism? Can we have logocentrism without phallocentrism? I return to this question in the concluding chapter. Hom(m)osexual Pornographies and the Perfortning Hysteric The hysteric as an individual seems to disappear, not only with Foucault's hysterization, but also with the reduction of hysteria to a reappropriative discursive strategy of patriarchy. The potential drawback of this disappearance is that certain feminists portray the hysteric as a potential revolutionary figure, or as a proto-feminist and resister to the misogynistic violence of patriarchy. Though I argue that the feminist-hysteric is oxymoronic given the way I define hysteria, the hysteric as an individual does not necessarily fall away: there were individuals, mostly women, who performed a masquerade of hysteria a la the supposedly anti-essentialist line of theory that grew out of feminist readings of Joan Riviere's 1929 essay, ''Womanliness as a Masquerade." I write ''supposedly'' because this line of theory has become essentially an extension of Lacanian theory, which, as I have argued, following Derrida, is ultimately essentialist with its phallogocentrism. Can the performance of the so-called ''hysteric'' legitimate the use of ''hysteric'' within an anti-essentialist argument that attempts to problematize traditional uses of ''hysteria''?

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67 To address this question I turn to Catherine Clement's and Helene Cixous' The Newly Born Woman. It follows from my conceptualization of ''hysteria'' as being a patriarchal tool that I would feel more kinship with Clement's position than with Helene Cixous' in the part of their ''Exchange'' dealing with conceptualizing ''the hysteric'' as an individual: H: ... Dora seemed to me the one who resists the system .... And this girl-like all hysterics, deprived of the possibility of saying directly what she perceived ... still had the strength to make it known It is the nuclear example of women's power to protest. It happened in 1899; it happens today wherever women have not been able to speak differently from Dora, but have spoken so effectively that it bursts the family into pieces .... The hysteric is, to my eyes, the typical woman in all her force .... C: .. but when you say ''that bursts the family into pieces," no. It mimics, it metaphorizes destruction, but the family reconstitutes itself around it .... The analysis I make of hysteria comes through my reflection on the place of deviants who are not hysterics but clowns, charla tans, crazies, all sorts of odd people. They all occupy challenging positions foreseen by the social bodies, challenging functions within the scope of all cultures. That doesn't change the structures, however. On the contrary, it makes them more comfortable .. In that position, they are part of one of the deepest reinforcements of the superstructure, of the Symbolic. (154-55). Clement seems to struggle in her exchange with Cixous because she accepts that the hysteric as an individual and hysteria as a reified disease entity, rather than

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68 focus her attention on how the name-game of the diagnosis hysteria, the discursive construction of hysteria, is what reinforces what she calls ''the Symbolic''-''the Symbolic'' as what this name game might call itself, under the spell of an ''Imaginary'' and structuralist delusion, since language cannot be ''anchored'' in order to justify the capital ''S." Cixous seems to privilege the disruptive alterity of what ''hysteria'' tries to name and master, but then errs, like Clement, by reifying ''hysteria." This reification follows, as with Lacan, from the assumption of a ''Symbolic'' and the ''certain linguistics'' that is connected to this assumption. Cixous also disregards those individuals deemed hysterics who perfom1ed in a way that colluded with the patriarchy in question, and whose perforn1ance was therefore antithetical to any disruptive force that might be construed as feminist This patriarchy-friendly version of the hysteric, who I call the perfortning hysteric, seems to be the version of the hysteric Clement privileges in her theorizations. The performing hysteric would hardly be considered a protofeminist. With respect to Cl e ment's position, I am hesitant to criticize her essentialist and unproblematized use of ''hysteric'' since her privileged version of the hysteric, it might be argued, exists as much as any body who performs an identity exists. The performing hysteric would be an hysteric whose positionality is in collaboration with the patriarchy in question, and with its appropriative categories or roles for women. Calling this positionality an ''hysteric'' does not betray some disruptive force as I have argued the figure of the hysteric as proto-feminist potentially would do. Clement's use of the word ''hysteric'' risks essentialism. and, again, this essentialism seems to be the crux of her struggle in the exchange but her argument is still powerful since she

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69 relates the hysteric to those deviants who are ''the deepest reinforcements of the superstructure.'' The potential essentialism of her argument is undermined by her focus on the hysteric as performing a patriarchal function, since essentialism and performance are potentially at odds. Showalter's description of a fifteen-year-old patient in Charcot's Salpetriere named Augustine provides an almost archetypal illustration of the performing hysteric: Intelligent, coquettish, and eager to please, Augustine was an apt pupil of the atelier. All of her poses suggest the exaggerated gestures of the French classical style, or stills from silent movies. Some photographs of Augustine with flowing locks and white hospital gown also seem to imitate poses in nineteenth-century paintings.... Among her gifts was her ability to time and divide her hysterical performances into scenes, acts, tableaux, and intermissions, to perform on cue and on sch edule with the click of the camera (153-54) Actually, the cameras of that time didn't click: the lenses were held open and the subjects would have to hold their poses for fifteen seconds or so, which would have been exceedingly demanding during what would have been the expected stages of the hysterical attack. Showalter explains that in ''Charcot's own lifetime, one of his assistants admitted that some of the women had been coached in order to produce attacks that would please the maftre," which confirmed suspicions that the hysterics' performances were ''the result of suggestion, imitation, or even fraud'' (150).

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70 I would add that these performances were also the result of a strong unconscious desire of the performing hysteric to be something, some-body recognized by the patriarchy after ''the cult of true womanhood'' became in some way untenable. That Augustine reported being raped by her mother's lover suggests that Augustine was probably seeking a safe role she could play that would be recognized and appreciated by the patriarchy. Her masquerade would then be similar to the masquerade in Riviere's essay, where the woman puts on a mask to avert the violence of the patriarchy. What was masked here, however, was not the essentialist masculinity of Riviere's essay, and what was feared here was not the ''reprisals'' of the patriarchy that discovered a female possessing this masculinity. What was masked was a radical alterity no longe