Introduction to Sociology

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Introduction to Sociology
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About This Book Welcome to Introduction to Sociology, an OpenStax College resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions. To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org. You can find the status of the project, as well as alternate versions, corrections, etc., on the StaxDash at http://openstaxcollege.org (http://openstaxcollege.org) . To the Student This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of Sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of Sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced. To the Instructor This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of Sociology in general, OpenStax College encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to info@openstaxcollege.org so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions. General Approach Introduction to Sociology adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories, we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

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Introduction to Sociology

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OpenStax College Rice University 6100 Main Street MS -380 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax College, visit http://openstaxcollege.org. Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. 2013 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Under this license, any user of this textbook or the textbook contents herein must provide proper attribution as follows: If you redistribute this textbook in a digital format (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML), then you must retai n on every page the following attribution: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11407 /latest/. If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11407 /latest/. If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must retain in every digital format page view (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11407 /latest/. If you use this textbook as a bibliographic reference, then you should cite it as follows: OpenStax College, Introduction to Sociology OpenStax College. 21 June 2012. < http://cnx.org/content/col1140 7 /latest/>. For questions regarding this licensing, please contact partners@openstaxcollege.org. Trademarks The OpenStax College name, OpenStax College logo, OpenStax College book covers, Connexions name, and Connexions logo are registered trademarks of Rice University. All rights reserved. Any of the trademarks, service marks, collective marks, design rights, or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in OpenStax College, Connexions, or Connexions sites are the property of t heir respective owners. ISBN 10 1938168011 ISBN 13 978-1-938168-01-7 Revision IS -100 -DW

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OpenStax College OpenStax College is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer -reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requi rements of modern college course s Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax College is working to improve access to higher education for all. Connexions The technology platform supporting OpenStax College is Connexions ( http://cnx.org ), one of the worlds first and largest openeducation projects. Connexions provides students with free online and low -cost print editions of the OpenStax College library and provides instructors with tools to customize the content so that they can have the perfect book for their course. Rice University OpenStax College and Connexions are initiative s of Rice University. As a leading research university with a distinctive commitment to undergraduate education, Rice University aspires to pathbreaking research, unsurpassed teaching, and contributions to the betterment of our world. It seeks to fulfill this mission by cultivating a diverse community of learning and discovery that produces leaders across the spectrum of human endeavor. Foundation Support OpenStax College is grateful for the tremendous support of our sponsors. Without their strong engagement, the goal of free access to high-quality textbooks would remain just a dream The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation has been making grants since 1967 to help solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. The Foundation concentrates its resources on activities in education, the environment, global development and population, performing arts, and phil anthropy, and makes grants to support disadvantaged communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In develop ing countries, it focuses on improving peoples health with vaccines and other lifesaving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Cochair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. Our mission at the Twenty Million Minds Foundation is to grow access and success by eliminating unnecessary hurdles to affordability. We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging disruptive techn ologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for -profit, nonprofit, and public entities. The Maxfield Foundation supports projects with potential for high impact in science, education, sustainability, and other areas of social importance.

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Table of Contents Preface . . . . . 5 1An Introduction to Sociology . . . 9 What Is Sociology? . . . . 10 The History of Sociology . . . 13 Theoretical Perspectives . . . 17 Why Study Sociology? . . . 22 2Sociological Research . . . . 31 Approaches to Sociological Research . . 32 Research Methods . . . . 36 Ethical Concerns . . . . 46 3Culture . . . . . 55 What Is Culture? . . . . 56 Elements of Culture . . . . 61 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change . . 66 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture . . . 71 4Society and Social Interaction . . . 81 Types of Societies . . . . 82 Theoretical Perspectives on Society . . . 85 Social Constructions of Reality . . . 90 5Socialization . . . . 99 Theories of Self Development . . . 101 Why Socialization Matters . . . 104 Agents of Socialization . . . 106 Socialization Across the Life Course . . 110 6Groups and Organization . . . 121 Types of Groups . . . . 122 Group Size and Structure . . . 127 Formal Organizations . . . 130 7Deviance, Crime, and Social Control . . . 141 Deviance and Control . . . 142 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance . . 144 Crime and the Law . . . . 150 8Media and Technology . . . . 163 Technology Today . . . . 164 Media and Technology in Society . . . 167 Global Implications . . . . 171 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology . . 175 9Social Stratification in the United States . . 189 What Is Social Stratification? . . . 190 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States . 195 Global Stratification and Inequality . . . 200 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification . . 202 10Global Inequality . . . . 211 Global Stratification and Classification . . 212 Global Wealth and Poverty . . . 217 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification . . 221 11Race and Ethnicity . . . . 229 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups . . . 230 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination . . 232 Theories of Race and Ethnicity . . . 234 Intergroup Relationships . . . 235 Race and Ethnicity in the United States . . 238 12Gender, Sex, and Sexuality . . . 255 The Difference Between Sex and Gender . . 256 Gender . . . . 261 Sex and Sexuality . . . . 266 13Aging and the Elderly . . . . 277 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society . . 278 The Process of Aging . . . 285 Challenges Facing the Elderly . . . 291 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging . . . 295 3

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14Marriage and Family . . . . 311 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? . . 313 Variations in Family Life . . . 318 Challenges Families Face . . . 322 15Religion . . . . 337 The Sociological Approach to Religion . . 338 World Religions . . . . 343 Religion in the United States . . . 348 16Education . . . . 357 Education around the World . . . 358 Theoretical Perspectives on Education . . 362 Issues in Education . . . . 366 17Government and Politics . . . 377 Power and Authority . . . . 378 Forms of Government . . . 382 Politics in the United States . . . 386 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power . 387 18Work and the Economy . . . 397 Economic Systems . . . . 398 Globalization and the Economy . . . 408 Work in the United States . . . 411 19Health and Medicine . . . . 425 The Social Construction of Health . . . 427 Global Health . . . . 429 Health in the United States . . . 430 Comparative Health and Medicine . . . 436 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine . . 438 20Population, Urbanization, and the Environment . . 451 Demography and Population . . . 453 Urbanization . . . . 456 The Environment and Society . . . 462 21Social Movements and Social Change . . 477 Collective Behavior . . . . 479 Social Movements . . . . 482 Social Change . . . . 489 Index . . . . . 498 4

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Preface About OpenStax College About This Book Introduction to Sociology To the Student To the Instructor General Approach Introduction to Sociology Features of OpenStax Introduction to Sociology Modularity PREFACE5

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Learning Objectives Key Features Sociological Research: Sociology in the Real World: Big Picture: Case Study: Social Policy and Debate: Section Summaries Key Terms Section Quizzes Further Research Acknowledgements Introduction to Sociology Faculty Contributors Faculty Reviewers 6PREFACE

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Supplements Disclaimer PREFACE7

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8PREFACE

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1 An Introduction to Sociology Figure 1.1 Sociologists study how society affects people and how people affect society. (Photo courtesy of Chrissy Polcino/flickr) Learning Objectives 1.1.What Is Sociology? 1.2.The History of Sociology 1.3.Theoretical Perspectives 1.4.Why Study Sociology? Introduction to Sociology CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY9

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in part 1.1What Is Sociology? Figure 1.2 Sociologists learn about society as a whole while studying one-to-one and group interactions. (Photo courtesy of Robert S. Donovan/flickr) sociology socius logos What Are Society and Culture? The Sociological Imagination sociological imagination 10CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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Studying Patterns: How Sociologists View Society Figure 1.3 Risky bank loans, falling housing prices, and high unemployment can result in higher foreclosure rates. (Photo courtesy of Jeff Turner/flickr) CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY11

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology Table 1.1Food Stamp Use by State Sociologists examine social conditions in different states to explain differences in the number of people receiving food stamps. (Table courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture) Percent Eligible by Reason for Eligibility Living in Waiver Area Have Not Exceeded Time Limits a In E & T Program Received Exemption Total Percent Eligible for the FSP a Alabama2962 / 72 0 1 73 / 80 Alaska10062 / 72 0 0 100 California6 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74 District of Columbia 10062 / 72 0 0 100 Florida4862 / 72 0 0 80 / 85 Mississippi3962 / 72 0 3 100 Wyoming7 62 / 72 0 0 64 / 74 Studying Part and Whole: How Sociologists View Social Structures figuration Individual-Society Connections 12CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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1.2The History of Sociology (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1.4 People have been thinking like sociologists long before sociology became a separate academic discipline: Plato and Aristotle, Confucius, Khaldun, and Voltaire all set the stage for modern sociology. (Photos (a),(b),(d) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (c) courtesy of Moumou82/Wikimedia Commons) General Study of Literary Remains CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY13

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The Father of Sociology Figure 1.5 Auguste Comte is considered by many to be the father of sociology. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) positivism The Course in Positive Philosophy A General View of Positivism Karl Marx Figure 1.6 Karl Marx was one of the founders of sociology. His ideas about social conflict are still relevant today. (Photo courtesy of John Mayall/Wikimedia Commons) Communist Manifesto 14CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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Creating a Discipline The Study of Sociology Rules of the Sociological Method Division of Labour in Society Suicide The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism verstehen The Nature of Social Action antipositivism Quantitative sociology Qualitative sociology CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY15

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate How Do Working Moms Impact Society? 16CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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1.3Theoretical Perspectives Figure 1.7 Sociologists develop theories to explain social occurrences such as protest rallies. (Photo courtesy of voanews.com/Wikimedia Commons) theory Social solidarity Grand theories macro-level Micro-level theories Paradigms CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY17

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Table 1.2Sociological Theories or Perspectives Different sociological perspectives enable sociologists to view social issues through a variety of useful lenses. Sociological Paradigm Level of Analysis Focus Structural Functionalism Macro or mid How each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole Conflict TheoryMacro How inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate differences in power Symbolic Interactionism MicroOne-to-one interactions and communications Functionalism Functionalism dynamic equilibrium Social facts function Manifest functions latent functions dysfunctions 18CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Criticism A Global Culture? Figure 1.8 Some sociologists see the online world contributing to the creation of an emerging global culture. Are you a part of any global communities? (Photo courtesy of quasireversible/flickr) Conflict Theory conflict theory CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY19

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Communist Manifesto Outlines of Sociology Masculine/Feminine or Human Feminist Sociology Gender Equity Criticism 20CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Farming and Locavores: How Sociological Perspectives Might View Food Consumption Food Inc. Symbolic InteractionistTheory Symbolic Interactionism 1. 2. 3. dramaturgical analysis CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY21

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Criticism 1.4Why Study Sociology? Figure 1.9 The research of sociologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark helped the Supreme Court decide to end separate but equal racial segregation in schools in the United States. (Photo courtesy of public domain) Brown vs. the Board of Education Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective [T]here is a deceptive simplicity and obviousness about some sociological investigations. One reads them, nods at the familiar scene, remarks that one has heard all this before and don't people have better things to do than to waste their time on truismsuntil one is suddenly brought up against an insight that radically questions everything one had previously assumed about this familiar scene. This is the point at which one begins to sense the excitement of sociology. (Berger 1963) 22CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Sociology in the Workplace Please Friend Me: Students and Social Networking CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY23

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antipositivism: conflict theory: dramaturgical analysis: dynamic equilibrium: dysfunctions: figuration: functionalism: function: grand theories: latent functions: macro-level: manifest functions: micro-level theories: paradigms: positivism: qualitative sociology: quantitative sociology: social facts: social solidarity: sociological imagination: sociology: symbolic interactionism: theory: Chapter Review Key Terms 24CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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verstehen: Section Summary 1.1What Is Sociology? 1.2The History of Sociology 1.3Theoretical Perspectives 1.4Why Study Sociology? Section Quiz 1.1What Is Sociology? 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 1.2The History of Sociology CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY25

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5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 1.3Theoretical Perspectives 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 1.4Why Study Sociology? 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. 26CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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d. 16. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 1.1What Is Sociology? 1. 2. 1.2The History of Sociology 3. 4. 1.3Theoretical Perspectives 5. 6. 1.4Why Study Sociology? 7. 8. Further Research 1.1What Is Sociology? 1.2The History of Sociology 1.3Theoretical Perspectives 1.4Why Study Sociology? References CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY27

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1.1What Is Sociology? What Is Sociology? Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report Number 26-7 Bloomberg News The Sociological Imagination 1.2The History of Sociology The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology The Rules of Sociological Method Des Manuscrits de Sieys, 1773 Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldun Orientalist Durkheim Women and the Economy, 2010: 25 Years of Progress But Challenges Remain 1.3Theoretical Perspectives Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method History of Anthropology Classical Sociological Theory The Division of Labor in Society The Rules of Sociological Method The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 2 Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology Fifty Key Sociologists: The Formative Theorists Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach 28CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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The Social Cage: Human Nature and the Evolution of Society The Communist Manifesto Structure and Function in Primitive Society: Essays and Addresses Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory The Principles of Biology The Structure of Sociological Theory. 1.4Why Study Sociology? Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective Why Study Sociology: A Practical Guide Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY29

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30CHAPTER 1 | AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

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2 Sociological Research Figure 2.1 Concertgoers enjoy a show. What makes listening to live music among a crowd of people appealing? How are the motivations and behaviors of groups of people at concerts different from those of groups in other settings, such as theme parks? These are questions that sociological research can aim to answer. (Photo courtesy of Benjamin Cook/flickr) Learning Objectives 2.1.Approaches to Sociological Research 2.2.Research Methods 2.3.Ethical Concerns Introduction to Sociological Research CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH31

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empirical evidence 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research 32CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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The Scientific Method Figure 2.2 The scientific method is an essential tool in research. reliability validity CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH33

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Ask a Question operational definition Research Existing Sources literature review Formulate a Hypothesis hypothesis 34CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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independent variables cause dependent variable effect Table 2.1Examples of Dependent and Independent Variables Typically, the independent variable causes the dependent variable to change in some way. Hypothesis Independent Variable Dependent Variable The greater the availability of affordable housing, the lower the homeless rate. Affordable Housing Homeless Rate The greater the availability of math tutoring, the higher the math grades. Math TutoringMath Grades The greater the police patrol presence, the safer the neighborhood. Police Patrol Presence Safer Neighborhood The greater the factory lighting, the higher the productivity. Factory LightingProductivity The greater the amount of observation, the higher the public awareness. Observation Public Awareness Interpretive Framework interpretive framework interpretive framework CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH35

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2.2Research Methods Hawthorne effect Surveys survey 36CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Figure 2.3 Questionnaires are a common research method; the U.S. Census is a well-known example. (Photo courtesy of Karen Horton/flickr) American Idol So You Think You Can Dance Figure 2.4 As part of a malaria pill study, U.S. Navy Hospital personnel complete a questionnaire on health issues they experienced in Somalia. Participants submitted a blood sample as part of this study, which supported Operation Restore Hope. (Photo courtesy of ExpertInfantry.com/flickr) population sample CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH37

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represent random sample quantitative data How do plan to use your college education? Why do you follow Jimmy Buffett around the country and attend every concert? qualitative data interview Field Research Field research primary data 38CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Figure 2.5 Sociological researchers travel across countries and cultures to interact with and observe subjects in their natural environments. (Photo courtesy of IMLS Digital Collections and Content/flickr and Olympic National Park) setting behaviors how why correlation Parrotheads as Sociological Subjects Figure 2.6 Business suits for the day job are replaced by leis and T-shirts for a Jimmy Buffett concert. (Photo courtesy of Sam Howzitt/flickr) CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH39

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40CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Participant Observation The New Yorker The New Yorker participant observation Figure 2.7 Is she a working waitress or a sociologist conducting a study using participant observation? (Photo courtesy of zoetnet/flickr) Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH41

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Nickel and Dimed How can people exist on minimum-wage work? How do low-income workers get by? Someone should do a study. Why dont you do it? Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America Figure 2.8 Field research happens in real locations. What type of environment do work spaces foster? What would a sociologist discover after blending in? (Photo courtesy of drewzhrodague/flickr) Ethnography Ethnography 42CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Making Connections: Sociological Research The Making of Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture Middletown New York Times Figure 2.9 A classroom in Muncie, Indiana, in 1917, five years before John and Helen Lynd began researching this typical American community. (Photo courtesy of Don OBrien/flickr) CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH43

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Case Study case study Experiments experiment if-then if then 44CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Making Connections: Sociological Research An Experiment in Action Figure 2.10 Sociologist Frances Heussenstamm conducted an experiment to explore the correlation between traffic stops and race-based bumper stickers. This issue of racial profiling remains a hot-button topic today. (Photo courtesy of dwightsghost/flickr) Secondary Data Analysis secondary data analysis CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH45

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nonreactive content analysis The Craftsman Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture 2.3Ethical Concerns code of ethics 46CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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case study: code of ethics: content analysis: control group: correlation: dependent variables: empirical evidence: ethnography: experiment: field research: Hawthorne effect: hypothesis: independent variables: interpretive framework: interview: value neutrality Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH47

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literature review: nonreactive research: operational definitions: participant observation: population: primary data: qualitative data: quantitative data: random sample: reliability: research design: samples: scientific method: secondary data analysis: surveys: validity: value neutrality: Section Summary 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research 2.2Research Methods 48CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Table 2.2Main Sociological Research Methods Sociological research methods have advantages and disadvantages. MethodImplementationAdvantages Challenges Survey Field Work Yields detailed, accurate real-life information Experiment Deliberate manipulation of social customs and mores Tests cause and effect relationships Secondary Data Analysis Makes good use of previous sociological information 2.3Ethical Concerns Section Quiz 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH49

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c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 2.2Research Methods 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. Middletown a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 50CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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2.3Ethical Concerns 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research 1. 2.2Research Methods 2. 3. 4. 2.3Ethical Concerns 5. 6. Further Research 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH51

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American Journal of Sociology 2.2Research Methods 2.3Ethical Concerns References 2.1Approaches to Sociological Research Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective Social Theory and Social Structure 2.2Research Methods The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750 The First Measured Century Suicide American Sociological Review The Telegraph Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture Indiana Magazine of History Journal of Popular Music Studies The New Yorker The Craftsman Journal of Occupational Behavior 2.3Ethical Concerns 52CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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Society Methodology of the Social Sciences Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 CHAPTER 2 | SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH53

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3 Culture Figure 3.1 Graffitis mix of colorful drawings, words, and symbols is a vibrant expression of cultureor, depending on ones viewpoint, a disturbing expression of the creators lack of respect for a communitys shared space. (Photo courtesy of aikijuanma/flickr) Learning Objectives 3.1.What Is Culture? 3.2.Elements of Culture 3.3.Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change 3.4.Theoretical Perspectives on Culture Introduction to Culture CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE55

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culture culture society, society beliefs and practices people 3.1What Is Culture? Homo sapiens 56CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Figure 3.2 How would a visitor from suburban America act and feel on this crowded Tokyo train? (Photo courtesy of simonglucas/flickr) Material culture Nonmaterial culture Cultural Universals Cultural universals CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE57

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Is Music a Cultural Universal? Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism ethnocentrism 58CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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cultural imperialism culture shock Cultural relativism Xenocentrism CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE59

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Overcoming Culture Shock 60CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Figure 3.3 Experiencing new cultures offers an opportunity to practice cultural relativism. (Photo courtesy of OledSidorenko/flickr) 3.2Elements of Culture Values and Beliefs Values Beliefs ideal culture real culture sanction social control CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE61

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Figure 3.4 In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. How would Americans react to these two soldiers? (Photo courtesy of Geordie Mott/Wikimedia Commons) Norms Norms Formal norms informal norms 62CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Breaching Experiments Studies in Ethnomethodology Mores folkways CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE63

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Symbols and Language Symbols (a) (b) Figure 3.5 Some road signs are universal. But how would you interpret the signage on the right? (Photo (a) courtesy of Andrew Bain/flickr; Photo (b) courtesy of HonzaSoukup/flickr) 64CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Language Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Is the United States Bilingual? CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE65

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Figure 3.6 Nowadays, many signson streets and in storesinclude both English and Spanish. What effect does this have on members of society? What effect does it have on our culture? (Photo courtesy of istolethetv/flickr) 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change High Culture and Popular Culture high culture 66CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology popular culture Antigone Two and a Half Men Subculture and Counterculture subculture countercultures The Evolution of American Hipster Subculture CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE67

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Figure 3.7 In the 1940s, American hipsters were associated with the cool culture of jazz. (Photo courtesy of William P. Gottlieb/Ira and Leonore S. Gershwin Fund Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress) On the Road Sputnik 1 68CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Figure 3.8 Intellectual and trendy, todays hipsters define themselves through cultural irony. (Photo courtesy of Lorena Cupcake/Wikimedia Commons) Cultural Change Innovation: Discovery and Invention innovation Discoveries Inventions culture lag CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE69

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Figure 3.9 Sociologist Everett Rogers (1962) developed a model of the diffusion of innovations. As consumers gradually adopt a new innovation, the item grows toward a market share of 100 percent, or complete saturation within a society. (Graph courtesy of Tungsten/Wikimedia Commons) Diffusion and Globalization globalization diffusion 70CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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(a) (b) Figure 3.10 Officially patented in 1893 as the clasp locker (left), the zipper did not diffuse through society for many decades. Today, it is immediately recognizable around the world. (Photo (a) courtesy of U.S. Patent Office/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Rabensteiner/Wikimedia Commons) 3.4Theoretical Perspectives on Culture Figure 3.11 This statue of Superman stands in the center of Metropolis, Illinois. His pedestal reads TruthJusticeThe American Way. How would a functionalist interpret this statue? What does it reveal about the values of American culture? (Photo courtesy of David Wilson/flickr) CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE71

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beliefs: countercultures: Figure 3.12 This childs clothing may be culturally specific, but her facial expression is universal. (Photo courtesy of Beth Rankin/flickr) Chapter Review Key Terms 72CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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cultural imperialism: cultural relativism: cultural universals: culture lag: culture shock: culture: diffusion: discoveries: ethnocentrism: folkways: formal norms: globalization: high culture: ideal culture: informal norms: innovations: inventions: language: material culture: mores: nonmaterial culture: norms: popular culture: real culture: Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: sanctions: social control: society: subcultures: symbols: values: xenocentrism: CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE73

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Section Summary 3.1What Is Culture? 3.2Elements of Culture 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change 3.4Theoretical Perspectives on Culture Section Quiz 3.1What Is Culture? 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. 74CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 3.2Elements of Culture 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE75

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a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 3.4Theoretical Perspectives on Culture 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 3.1What Is Culture? 76CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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1. 2. 3.2Elements of Culture 3. 4. 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change 5. 6. 7. 3.4Theoretical Perspectives on Culture 8. Further Research 3.1What Is Culture? 3.2Elements of Culture Babel-17 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change New York Times Magazine CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE77

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References 3.1What Is Culture? The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex Current Biology Social Structure Practical Anthropology Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 3.2Elements of Culture USConstitution.net OED Online Biography Reading Research Quarterly Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Utne Reader The New York Times BBC News 3.3Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change New York Times Sociology & Social Research Diffusion of Innovations The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 78CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE79

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80CHAPTER 3 | CULTURE

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4 Society and Social Interaction Figure 4.1 Sociologists study how societies interact with the environment and how they use technology. This Maasai village in Tanzania looks very different from a rural American town. (Photo courtesy of Guillaume Baviere/Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 4.1.Types of Societies 4.2.Theoretical Perspectives on Society 4.3.Social Constructions of Reality Introduction to Society and Social Interaction ilmeluaya CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION81

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4.1Types of Societies Figure 4.2 Maasai men are hunting with shepherds staves and spears. How does technology influence a societys daily occupations? (Photo courtesy of Abir Anwar/flickr) society Preindustrial Societies Hunter-Gatherer Hunter-gatherer 82CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Pastoral Pastoral societies The Bedouin Figure 4.3 This photo shows a Bedouin family from eastern Oman. How will their society respond to the constraints modern society places on a nomadic lifestyle? (Photo courtesy of Tanenhaus/Wikimedia Commons) Horticultural Horticultural societies CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION83

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Agricultural agricultural societies Feudal feudal societies Industrial Society 84CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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Figure 4.4 John D. Rockefeller, cofounder of the Standard Oil Company, came from an unremarkable family of salesmen and menial laborers. By his death at age 98, he was worth $1.4 billion. In industrial societies, business owners such as Rockefeller hold the majority of the power. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Postindustrial Society Information societies 4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society Figure 4.5 Warren Buffetts ideas about taxation and spending habits of the very wealthy are controversial, particularly since they raise questions about Americas embedded system of class structure and social power. The three major sociological paradigms differ in their perspectives on these issues. (Photo courtesy of Medill DC/flickr) CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION85

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mile Durkheim and Functionalism collective conscience social integration The Division of Labor in Society mechanical solidarity organic solidarity anomie Karl Marx and Conflict Theory 86CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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Figure 4.6 Karl Marx asserted that all elements of a societys structure depend on its economic structure. bourgeoisie proletariat The Condition of the Working-Class in England Such is the Old Town of Manchester, and on re-reading my description, I am forced to admit that instead of being exaggerated, it is far from black enough to convey a true impression of the filth, ruin, and uninhabitableness, the defiance of all considerations of cleanliness, ventilation, and health which characterise the construction of this single district, containing at least twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants. And such a district exists in the heart of the second city of England, the first manufacturing city of the world. (a) (b) Figure 4.7 Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) analyzed differences in social power between have and have-not groups. (Photo (a) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of George Lester/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION87

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Alienation Alienation from the product of ones labor. Alienation from the process of ones labor. Alienation from others. The Communist Manifesto Alienation from ones self. false consciousness class consciousness 88CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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Figure 4.8 An assembly line worker installs car parts with the aid of complex machinery. Has technology made this type of labor more or less alienating? (Photo courtesy of Carol Highsmith/Wikimedia Commons) Max Weber and Symbolic Interactionism rationalization Modern Times iron cage CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION89

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Figure 4.9 Cubicles are used to maximize individual workspace in an office. Such structures may be rational, but they are also isolating. (Photo courtesy of Tim Patterson/flickr) The Protestant Work Ethic Protestant work ethic 4.3Social Constructions of Reality Figure 4.10 Who are we? What role do we play in society? According to sociologists, we construct reality through our interactions with others. In a way, our day-to-day interactions are like those of actors on a stage. (Photo courtesy of Jan Lewandowski/flickr) 90CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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The Social Construction of Reality habitualization institutionalization Thomas theorem self-fulfilling prophecy Figure 4.11 The story line of a self-fulfilling prophecy appears in many literary works, perhaps most famously in the story of Oedipus. Oedipus is told by an oracle that he will murder his father and marry his mother. In going out of his way to avoid his fate, Oedipus inadvertently fulfills it. Oedipuss story illustrates one way in which members of society contribute to the social construction of reality. (Photo courtesy of Jean-Antoine-Theodore Giroust/Wikimedia Commons) Roles and Status Roles CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION91

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status ascribed achieved statuses role-set role strain role conflict Presentation of Self Role performance Figure 4.12 A courtroom exemplifies a scene where all players have clearly defined roles and expected performances. (Photo courtesy of John Marino/flicker) looking-glass self 92CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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achieved status: agricultural societies: alienation: anomie: ascribed status: bourgeoisie: class consciousness: collective conscience: false consciousness: feudal societies: habitualization: horticultural societies: hunter-gatherer societies: industrial societies: information societies: institutionalization: iron cage: looking-glass self: mechanical solidarity: organic solidarity: pastoral societies: proletariat: rationalization: Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION93

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role conflict: role performance: role strain: role-set: roles: self-fulfilling prophecy: social integration: status: Thomas theorem: Section Summary 4.1Types of Societies 4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society 4.3Social Constructions of Reality Section Quiz 4.1Types of Societies 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. 94CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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b. c. d. 4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 4.3Social Constructions of Reality 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION95

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c. d. Short Answer 4.1Types of Societies 1. 2. 4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society 3. 4. 4.3Social Constructions of Reality 5. 6. Further Research 4.1Types of Societies 4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society The Communist Manifesto 4.3Social Constructions of Reality References 4.0Introduction to Society and Social Interaction 4.1Types of Societies 96CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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4.2Theoretical Perspectives on Society The Division of Labor in Society The Rules of the Sociological Method The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology The Communist Manifesto 4.3Social Constructions of Reality The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge Human Nature and the Social Order The Presentation of Self In Everyday Life British Journal of Sociology The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION97

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98CHAPTER 4 | SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

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5 Socialization Figure 5.1 Socialization is how we learn the norms and beliefs of our society. From our earliest family and play experiences, we are made aware of societal values and expectations. (Photo courtesy of Seattle Municipal Archives/flickr) Learning Objectives 5.1.Theories of Self Development 5.2.Why Socialization Matters 5.3.Agents of Socialization 5.4.Socialization Across the Life Course Introduction to Socialization CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION99

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Socialization Socialization socializing 100CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Figure 5.2 Baby rhesus monkeys, like humans, need to be raised with social contact for healthy development. (Photo courtesy of Paul Asman and Jill Lenoble/flickr) 5.1Theories of Self Development Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development Sociology or Psychology: Whats the Difference? CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION101

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Sociological Theories of Self Development self generalized other 102CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Moral development Gilligans Theory of Moral Development and Gender What a Pretty Little Lady! Think: Straight Talk for Women to Stay Smart in a Dumbed Down World be CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION103

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5.2Why Socialization Matters Figure 5.3 Socialization teaches us our societys expectations for dining out. The manners and customs of different cultures (When can you use your hands to eat? How should you compliment the cook? Who is the head of the table?) are learned through socialization. (Photo courtesy of Niyam Bhushan/flickr) Nature versus Nurture nurture nature 104CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology The Life of Chris Langan, the Smartest Man Youve Never Heard Of Outliers: The Story of Success CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION105

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Figure 5.4 Identical twins may look alike, but their differences can give us clues to the effects of socialization. (Photo courtesy of D. Flam/flickr) 5.3Agents of Socialization Social Group Agents Family 106CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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Figure 5.5 The socialized roles of dads (and moms) vary by society. (Photo courtesy of Nate Grigg/flickr) Peer Groups peer group Institutional Agents School CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION107

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Figure 5.6 These kindergarteners arent just learning to read and write, they are being socialized to norms like keeping their hands to themselves, standing in line, and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. (Photo courtesy of Bonner Springs Library/ flickr) hidden curriculum Controversial Textbooks 108CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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The Workplace Religion Government Mass Media Mass media CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION109

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Girls and Movies Figure 5.7 Some people are concerned about the way girls today are socialized into a princess culture. (Photo courtesy of Emily Stanchfield/flickr) Toy Story Cars The Incredibles Up Brave Brave Up Snow White Cinderella The Little Mermaid Mulan Cinderella Ate My Daughter Brave 5.4Socialization Across the Life Course 110CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Gap Year: How Different Societies Socialize Young Adults Figure 5.8 Age transition points require socialization into new roles that can vary widely between societies. Young adults in America are encouraged to enter college or the workforce right away, students in England and India can take a year off like Princes William and Harry did, while young men in Singapore and Switzerland must serve time in the military. (Photo courtesy of Charles McCain/flickr) CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION111

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World The Long Road to Adulthood for Millennials New York Times anticipatory socialization Resocialization resocialization degradation ceremony 112CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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anticipatory socialization: degradation ceremony: generalized other: hidden curriculum: moral development: nature: nurture: peer group: resocialization: Figure 5.9 In basic training, members of the Air Force are taught to walk, move, and look like each other. (Photo courtesy of Staff Sergeant Desiree N. Palacios, U.S. Air Force/Wikimedia Commons) Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION113

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self: socialization: Section Summary 5.1Theories of Self Development 5.2Why Socialization Matters 5.3Agents of Socialization 5.4Socialization Across the Life Course Section Quiz 5.1Theories of Self Development 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. 114CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 5.2Why Socialization Matters 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 5.3Agents of Socialization 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. not a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 5.4Socialization Across the Life Course 15. not CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION115

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a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 5.1Theories of Self Development 1. 2. 5.2Why Socialization Matters 3. 4. 5.3Agents of Socialization 5. should 6. 5.4Socialization Across the Life Course 7. 8. Further Research 5.1Theories of Self Development 5.2Why Socialization Matters 5.3Agents of Socialization 116CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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5.4Socialization Across the Life Course References 5.0Introduction to Socialization St. Petersburg Times 5.1Theories of Self Development Human Nature and Social Order Huffington Post The Lifecycle Completed: A Review Suicide Three Essays on Theories of Sexuality In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Womens Development Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School Baby & Kids Learning to Love Scientific American The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages Mind, Self and Society On Social Psychology The Construction of Reality in the Child 5.2Why Socialization Matters Newsday The Philadelphia Inquirer CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION117

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Outliers: The Story of Success Detroit Free Press Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life 5.3Agents of Socialization The Gainesville Sun, The New York Times Schooling in Capitalistic America: Educational Reforms and the Contradictions of Economic Life New York Times, Class and Conformity: A Study in Values General Social Surveys, 1972: Cumulative Codebook Annenberg Digital News The Guardian The Telegraph Private School Universe Survey (PSS) 5.4Socialization Across the Life Course New York Times 118CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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New Frontiers in Socialization, Vol. 7 Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION119

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120CHAPTER 5 | SOCIALIZATION

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6 Groups and Organization Figure 6.1 Nurses, teachers, and Teamsters showed up to protest at the Occupy movement. (Photo courtesy of David Shankbone/flickr) Learning Objectives 6.1.Types of Groups 6.2.Group Size and Structure 6.3.Formal Organizations Introduction Groups and Organizations CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION121

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de facto 6.1Types of Groups Defining a Group group 122CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology aggregate category Types of Groups primary groups secondary groups expressive functions instrumental function Best Friends Shes Never Met CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION123

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Figure 6.2 Engineering and construction students gather around a job site. How do your academic interests define your in and out-groups? (Photo courtesy of USACEpublicaffairs/flickr) In-Groups and Out-Groups in-group out-group 124CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Bullying and Cyberbullying: How Technology Has Changed the Game Reference Groups Figure 6.3 Athletes are often viewed as a reference group for young people. (Photo courtesy of Johnny Bivera/U.S. Navy/ Wikimedia Commons) reference group CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION125

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World College: A World of In-Groups, Out-Groups, and Reference Groups Figure 6.4 Which fraternity or sorority would you fit into, if any? Sorority recruitment day offers students an opportunity to learn about these different groups. (Photo courtesy of Murray State/flickr) 126CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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6.2Group Size and Structure Figure 6.5 Cadets illustrate how strongly conformity can define groups. (Photo courtesy David Spender/flickr) Dyads, Triads, and Large Groups dyad triad Group Leadership de facto Leadership function instrumental leader expressive leaders CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION127

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Making Connections: Big Picture the leadership styles Democratic leaders laissez-faire leader authoritarian leaders Women Leaders and the Hillary Clinton/Sarah Palin Phenomenon Figure 6.6 Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton drew fire for her leadership style. (Photo courtesy marcn/flickr) New York Times 128CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Figure 6.7 This gag gift demonstrates how female leaders may be viewed if they violate social norms. (Photo courtesy of istolethetv/flickr) Conformity Conformity CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION129

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Conforming to Expectations 6.3Formal Organizations formal organizations bureaucracies 130CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Types of Formal Organizations (a) (b) Figure 6.8 Girl Scout troops and correctional facilities are both formal organizations. (Photo (a) courtesy of moonlightbulb/ flickr; Photo (b) courtesy of CxOxS/flickr) Normative organizations voluntary organizations Coercive organizations total institutions utilitarian organizations Table 6.1Table of Formal Organizations This table shows Etzionis three types of formal organizations. (Table courtesy of Etzioni 1975) Normative or Voluntary CoerciveUtilitarian Benefit of MembershipIntangible benefit Corrective benefit Tangible benefit Type of MembershipVolunteer basis Required Contractual basis Feeling of Connectedness Shared affinity No affinitySome affinity Bureaucracies Hierarchy of authority clear division of labor explicit rules CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION131

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impersonality meritocracies Iron Rule of Oligarchy, Figure 6.9 This McDonalds storefront in Egypt shows the McDonaldization of society. (Photo courtesy of s_w_ellis/flickr) The McDonaldization of Society McDonaldization of Society 132CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Secrets of the McJob Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal My Secret Life on the McJob Figure 6.10 Fast-food jobs are expected to grow more quickly than most industries. (Graph courtesy of U.S. LBS) CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION133

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aggregate: authoritarian leader: bureaucracies: category: clear division of labor: coercive organizations: conformity: democratic leader: dyad: explicit rules: expressive function: expressive leader: formal organizations: generalizability: group: hierarchy of authority: Iron Rule of Oligarchy: impersonality: in-group: instrumental function: instrumental leader: laissez-faire leader: leadership function: leadership style: Chapter Review Key Terms 134CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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McDonaldization: meritocracy: normative or voluntary organizations: out-group: primary groups: reference groups: secondary groups: total institution: triad: utilitarian organizations: Section Summary 6.1Types of Groups 6.2Group Size and Structure 6.3Formal Organizations Section Quiz 6.1Types of Groups 1. a. b. CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION135

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c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 6.2Group Size and Structure 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 136CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 6.3Formal Organizations 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 6.1Types of Groups 1. 2. CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION137

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3. 6.2Group Size and Structure 4. 5. 6. 7. 6.3Formal Organizations 8. 9. 10. Further Research 6.1Types of Groups 6.2Group Size and Structure 6.3Formal Organizations References 6.0Introduction Groups and Organizations LAWeekly.com 6.1Types of Groups Social Organizations: A Study of the Larger Mind Archives of Suicide Research 138CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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Christian Science Monitor New Yorker Magazine Folkways New York Times. 6.2Group Size and Structure Psychological Monographs The Journal of Leadership Studies Time New York Times US News and World Report Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology The Sociology of Georg Simmel 6.3Formal Organizations Bloomberg Businessweek CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION139

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A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations: On Power, Involvement, and Their Correlates Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates Political Parties My Secret Life on the McJob The McDonaldization of Society Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal Occupational Outlook Handbook, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretative Sociology Solutions 7 12 19 140CHAPTER 6 | GROUPS AND ORGANIZATION

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7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control Figure 7.1 Police are one resource that societies use to combat behavior considered deviant to the point of criminality. (Photo courtesy of David.Monniaux/Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 7.1.Deviance and Control 7.2.Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance 7.3.Crime and the Law Introduction to Deviance, Crime, and Social Control CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL141

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7.1Deviance and Control Figure 7.2 Much of the appeal of watching entertainers perform in drag comes from the humor inherent in seeing everyday norms violated. (Photo courtesy of Cassiopeija/Wikimedia Commons) deviance 142CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology Why I Drive a Hearse you Figure 7.3 A hearse with the license plate LASTRYD. How would you view the owner of this car? (Photo courtesy of Brian Teutsch/flickr) Social Control social control social order CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL143

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sanctions Positive sanctions Negative sanctions informal sanctions Formal sanctions Table 7.1Informal/Formal Sanctions Formal and informal sanctions may be positive or negative. Informal sanctions arise in social interactions, whereas formal sanctions officially enforce norms. Informal Formal PositiveAn expression of thanksA promotion at work NegativeAn angry commentA parking fine 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance Figure 7.4 Functionalists believe that deviance plays an important role in society and can be used to challenge peoples views. Protesters, such as these PETA members, often use this method to draw attention to their cause. (Photo courtesy of David Shankbone/flickr) Functionalism mile Durkheim: The Essential Nature of Deviance 144CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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Robert Merton: Strain Theory strain theory 1. Conformity 2. Innovation 3. Ritualism 4. Retreatism 5. Rebellion Social Disorganization Theory social disorganization theory Figure 7.5 Proponents of social disorganization theory believe that individuals who grow up in impoverished areas are more likely to participate in deviant or criminal behaviors. (Photo courtesy of Apollo 1758/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL145

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Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay: Cultural Deviance Theory Cultural deviance theory Conflict Theory Conflict theory Karl Marx: An Unequal System C. Wright Mills: The Power Elite The Power Elite power elite Crime and Social Class 146CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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Figure 7.6 From 1986 until 2010, the punishment for possessing crack, a poor persons drug, was 100 times stricter than the punishment for cocaine use, a drug favored by the wealthy. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Symbolic Interactionism Labeling Theory Labeling theory Primary deviance Secondary deviance master status CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL147

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate The Right to Vote felony disenfranchisement 148CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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Figure 7.7 Should a former felony conviction permanently strip a U.S. citizen of the right to vote? (Photo courtesy of Joshin Yamada/flickr) Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association differential association theory Travis Hirschi: Control Theory control theory 1. Attachment 2. Commitment 3. involvement CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL149

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4. belief 7.3Crime and the Law Figure 7.8 How is a crime different from other types of deviance? (Photo courtesy of Duffman/Wikimedia Commons.) New York Times Crime legal codes 150CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Types of Crimes Violent crimes Nonviolent crimes street crime corporate crime victimless crime Hate Crimes hate crimes CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL151

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Figure 7.9 In the United States, there were 8,336 reported victims of hate crimes in 2009. This represents less than five percent of the number of people who claimed to be victims of hate crimes when surveyed. (Graph courtesy of FBI 2010) Crime Statistics Uniform Crime Reports National Crime Victimization Survey self-report study 152CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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The United States Criminal Justice System criminal justice system Police Police Figure 7.10 Here, Afghan National Police Crisis Response Unit members train in Surobi, Afghanistan. (Photo courtesy of isafmedia/flickr) Courts court CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL153

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control theory: corporate crime: corrections system: court: crime: criminal justice system: cultural deviance theory: deviance: differential association theory: formal sanctions: hate crimes: (a) (b) Figure 7.11 This county courthouse in Kansas (top) is a typical setting for a state trial court. Compare this to the courtroom of the Michigan Supreme Court (bottom). (Photo (a) courtesy of Ammodramus/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Steve & Christine/Wikimedia Commons) Corrections corrections system Chapter Review Key Terms 154CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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informal sanctions: labeling theory: legal codes: master status: negative sanctions: nonviolent crimes: police: positive sanctions: power elite: primary deviance: sanctions: secondary deviance: self-report study: social control: social disorganization theory: social order: strain theory: street crime: victimless crime: violent crimes: Section Summary 7.1Deviance and Control 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL155

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7.3Crime and the Law Section Quiz 7.1Deviance and Control 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. 156CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 7.3Crime and the Law 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. National Crime Victimization Survey a. b. c. d. Short Answer 7.1Deviance and Control 1. CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL157

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2. 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance 3. 4. 7.3Crime and the Law 5. Further Research 7.1Deviance and Control 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance 7.3Crime and the Law References 7.0Introduction to Deviance, Crime, and Social Control Vibe 158CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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7.1Deviance and Control Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance Folkways. 7.2Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance Journal of Quantitative Criminology Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization The Division of Labor in Society Causes of Delinquency Time The Washington Post Criminology The Power Elite New York Times The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity and Crime in America American Journal of Sociology Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL159

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The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy Reform Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas The Independent 7.3Crime and the Law National Crime Victimization Survey Self-Report Surveys as Measures of Crime and Criminal Victimization New York Times New York Times 160CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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New York Times New York Times Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL161

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162CHAPTER 7 | DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

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8 Media and Technology Figure 8.1 Facebook does more than expand ones circle of friends from a few dozen to a few hundred. It changes the way we interact with our world. (Photo courtesy of Frederick M. Drocks/flickr) Learning Objectives 8.1.Technology Today 8.2.Media and Technology in Society 8.3.Global Implications 8.4.Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology Introduction to Media and Technology CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY163

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American Idol Jersey Shore Jersey Shore 8.1Technology Today Figure 8.2 Technology is the application of science to address the problems of daily life, from hunting tools and agricultural advances, to manual and electronic ways of computing, to todays tablets and smartphones. (Photo (a) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy Martin Pettitt/flickr; Photo (c) courtesy Whitefield d./flickr; Photo (d) courtesy Andrew Parnell/ flickr; Photo (e) courtesy Jemimus/flickr; Photo (f) courtesy digitpedia/flickr) technology 164CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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What Is Technology? Technological Inequality Figure 8.3 Some schools sport cutting-edge computer labs, while others sport barbed wire. Is your academic technology at the cusp of innovation, relatively disadvantaged, or somewhere in between? (Photo courtesy of Carlos Martinez/flickr) knowledge gap e-readiness digital divide CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY165

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Planned Obsolescence: Technology Thats Built to Crash Figure 8.4 People have trouble keeping up with technological innovation. But people may not be to blame, as manufacturers intentionally develop products with short life spans. (Photo courtesy of Troy Kelly/flickr) planned obsolescence 166CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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8.2Media and Technology in Society Figure 8.5 The modern printing press (as well as its dated counterparts) embodies the intertwined nature of technology and media. (Photo courtesy of Anuj Biyani/flickr) Categorizing Technology Utility patents design patent Plant patents CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY167

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evolutionary model of technological change Types of Media and Technology Print Newspaper Weekly World News National Enquirer Irksa The Spark Television and Radio 168CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Film New Media Figure 8.6 Twitter has fascinated the world in 140 characters or less. What media innovation will next take the world by storm? (Photo courtesy of West McGowan/flickr) New media CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY169

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Violence in Media and Video Games: Does It Matter? Figure 8.7 One of the most popular video games, Grand Theft Auto, has frequently been at the center of debate about gratuitous violence in the gaming world. (Photo courtesy of Meddy Garnet/flickr) 170CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Product Advertising New York Times Homogenization and Fragmentation New York Times 8.3Global Implications Figure 8.8 These Twitter updatesa revolution in real timeshow the role social media can play on the political stage. (Photo courtesy of Cambodia4kidsorg/flickr) CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY171

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The World Is Flat media globalization technological globalization Media Globalization Daily News Tribune 172CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology China and the Internet: An Uncomfortable Friendship Figure 8.9 What information is accessible to these patrons of an internet caf in China? What is censored from their view? (Photo Courtesy of Kai Hendry/flickr) weibo CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY173

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Technological Globalization technological diffusion The Mighty Cell Phone: How Mobile Phones Are Impacting Sub-Saharan Africa 174CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology Functionalism Commercial Function Figure 8.10 TV commercials can carry significant cultural currency. For some, the ads during the Super Bowl are more water cooler-worthy than the game itself. (Photo courtesy of Dennis Yang/flickr) CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY175

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Entertainment Function Social Norm Functions Challenger Life-Changing Functions narcotizing dysfunction 176CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Conflict Perspective Control of Media and Technology gatekeeping Technological Social Control and Digital Surveillance Surveillance and Society panoptic surveillance CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY177

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Feminist Perspective Figure 8.11 What types of women are we exposed to in the media? Some would argue that the range of female images is misleadingly narrow. (Photo courtesy of Cliff1066/flickr) cyberfeminism Symbolic Interactionism Neo-Luddites technophiles 178CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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cyberfeminism: design patents: digital divide: e-readiness: evolutionary model of technological change: gatekeeping: knowledge gap: media globalization: Social Construction of Reality Social Networking and Social Construction Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY179

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media: neo-Luddites: new media: panoptic surveillance: planned obsolescence: plant patents: technological diffusion: technological globalization: technology: technophiles: utility patents: Section Summary 8.1Technology Today 8.2Media and Technology in Society 8.3Global Implications 8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology Section Quiz 180CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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8.1Technology Today 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 8.2Media and Technology in Society 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. Dexter b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY181

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b. c. d. 8.3Global Implications 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. Babel a. b. c. d. 14. not a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. 182CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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d. 20. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 8.1Technology Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 8.2Media and Technology in Society 5. 6. 7. 8.3Global Implications 8. 9. 10. 8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Further Research 8.1Technology Today CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY183

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8.2Media and Technology in Society 8.3Global Implications 8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology References 8.1Technology Today Social Forces Urban Affairs Review The Economist 8.2Media and Technology in Society Psychological Science American Psychological Association Administrative Science Quarterly 184CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Social Consequences Communication Theory Pew Research Center Publications American Journal of Political Science New York Times Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens, and Social Movements 8.3Global Implications Journal of Economic Perspectives The New Media Monopoly Living in the Information Age: A New Media Reader The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century European Journal of Scientific Research The Guardian The Atlantic Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY185

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Los Angeles Times World Bank 8.4Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology New York Times Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Sex Roles Annual Review of Sociology Social Development International Journal of Obesity Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Communication of Ideas New Media & Society The Power Elite Feminist Formations Aggression and Violent Behavior An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research, 2nd ed. 186CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY187

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188CHAPTER 8 | MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

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9 Social Stratification in the United States Figure 9.1 The car a person drives can be seen as a symbol of money and power. This Rolls Royce sits outside the Bellagio Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Photo courtesy of dave_7/flickr) Learning Objectives 9.1.What Is Social Stratification? 9.2.Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States 9.3.Global Stratification and Inequality 9.4.Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES189

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Introduction to Social Stratification in the United States 9.1What Is Social Stratification? Figure 9.2 In the upper echelons of the working world, people with the most power reach the top. These people make the decisions and earn the most money. The majority of Americans will never see the view from the top. (Photo courtesy of Alex Proimos/flickr) 190CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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Social stratification Figure 9.3 Strata in rock illustrate social stratification. People are sorted, or layered, into social categories. Many factors determine a persons social standing, such as income, education, occupation, as well as age, race, gender, and even physical abilities. (Photo courtesy of Just a Prairie Boy/flickr) CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES191

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Figure 9.4 The people who live in these houses most likely share similar levels of income and education. Neighborhoods often house people of the same social standing. Wealthy families do not typically live next door to poorer families, though this varies depending on the particular city and country. (Photo courtesy of Orin Zebest/flickr) wealth income Systems of Stratification 192CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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The Caste System Figure 9.5 India used to have a rigid caste system. The people in the lowest caste suffered from extreme poverty and were shunned by society. Some aspects of Indias defunct caste system remain socially relevant. In this photo, an Indian woman of a specific Hindu caste works in construction, demolishing and building houses. (Photo courtesy of Elessar/flickr) caste system The Class System class system class exogamous endogamous Meritocracy Meritocracy CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES193

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology Status Consistency status consistency The Commoner Who Could Be Queen Figure 9.6 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who is in line to be king of England, married Catherine Middleton, a so-called commoner, meaning she does not have royal ancestry. (Photo courtesy of humberpike/flickr) primogeniture 194CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States Standard of Living standard of living CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES195

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Social Classes in the United States Figure 9.7 Does taste or fashion sense indicate class? Is there any way to tell if this young man comes from an upper, middle, or lower class background? (Photo courtesy of Kelly Bailey/flickr) Upper Class Figure 9.8 Members of the upper class can afford to live, work, and play in exclusive places designed for luxury and comfort. (Photo courtesy of PrimeImageMedia.com/flickr) 196CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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The Middle Class Figure 9.9 These members of a club likely consider themselves middle class. (Photo courtesy of United Way CanadaCentraide Canada/flickr) CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES197

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The Lower Class Figure 9.10 This man is a custodian at a restaurant. His job, which is crucial to the business, is considered lower class. (Photo courtesy of Frederick Md Publicity/flickr) Social Mobility Social mobility Upward mobility Downward mobility Intergenerational mobility 198CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Intragenerational mobility Structural mobility Class Traits Class traits Turn-of-the-Century Social Problem Novels: Sociological Gold Mines CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES199

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The Adventures of Oliver Twist Tess of the dUrbervilles Sister Carrie 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality (a) (b) Figure 9.11 A family lives in this grass hut in Ethiopia. Another family lives in a single-wide trailer in the trailer park in the United States. Both families are considered poor, or lower class. With such differences in global stratification, what constitutes poverty? (Photo (a) courtesy of Canned Muffins/flickr; Photo (b) courtesy of Herb Neufeld/flickr) Global stratification 200CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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Models of Global Stratification Figure 9.12 Luxury vacation resorts can contribute to a poorer countrys economy. This one, in Jamaica, attracts middle and upper-middle class people from wealthier nations. The resort is a source of income and provides jobs for local people. Just outside its borders, however, are poverty-stricken neighborhoods. (Photo courtesy of gailf548/flickr) CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES201

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Making Connections: Big Picture the The Big Picture: Calculating Global Stratification 9.4Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification Functionalism Davis-Moore thesis 202CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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Conflict Theory Figure 9.13 These people are protesting a decision made by Tennessee Technological University in Cookeville, Tennessee, to lay off custodians and outsource the jobs to a private firm to avoid paying employee benefits. Private job agencies often pay lower hourly wages. Is it fair? (Photo courtesy of Brian Stansberry/Wikimedia Commons) Symbolic Interactionism CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES203

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caste system: class system: class traits: class: conspicuous consumption: Davis-Moore thesis: downward mobility: endogamous marriages: exogamous marriages: (a) (b) Figure 9.14 (a) A group of construction workers on the job site, and (b) a group of businessmen. What categories of stratification do these construction workers share? How do construction workers differ from executives or custodians? Who is more skilled? Who has greater prestige in society? (Photo (a) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Chun Kit/ flickr) Conspicuous consumption Chapter Review Key Terms 204CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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global stratification: income: intergenerational mobility: intragenerational mobility: meritocracy: primogeniture: social mobility: social stratification: standard of living: status consistency: structural mobility: upward mobility: wealth: Section Summary 9.1What Is Social Stratification? 9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality 9.4Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification Section Quiz CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES205

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9.1What Is Social Stratification? 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. 206CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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d. 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 9.4Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 9.1What Is Social Stratification? 1. CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES207

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2. 3. 9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States 4. 5. 6. 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality 7. 8. 9.4Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification 9. 10. Further Research 9.1What Is Social Stratification? New York Times 9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality 208CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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References 9.1What Is Social Stratification? Macleans New York Times Christian Science Monitor 9.2Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States Class in Turn-of-the-Century Novels of Gissing, James, Hardy and Wells The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality Ponds and Streams: Wealth and Income in the U.S., 1989 to 2007 American Journal of Sociology Reuters Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society 9.3Global Stratification and Inequality PRB 2011 World Population Data Sheet The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto New York Times CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES209

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9.4Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification American Sociological Review Manifesto of the Communist Party American Sociological Review Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 210CHAPTER 9 | SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES

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10 Global Inequality Figure 10.1 The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were an ambitious start to the 21st century. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Mission Geneva/flickr) Learning Objectives 10.1.Global Stratification and Classification 10.2.Global Wealth and Poverty 10.3.Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification Introduction to Global Inequality 1. CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY211

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 10.1Global Stratification and Classification global inequality Global Stratification global stratification 212CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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Table 10.1 Statistics such as infant mortality rates and life expectancy vary greatly by country of origin. (Central Intelligence Agency 2011) Country Infant Mortality RateLife Expectancy Canada 4.9 deaths per 1000 live births81 years Mexico 17.2 deaths per 1000 live births76 years Democratic Republic of Congo78.4 deaths per 1000 live births55 years Global Classification Cold War Terminology first world third world second world fourth world noblesse oblige Immanuel Wallerstein: World Systems Approach CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY213

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Core nations Peripheral nations Semi-peripheral nations World Bank Economic Classification by Income Gross national income High-Income Nations not Capital flight Deindustrialization 214CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Capital Flight, Outsourcing, and Jobs in America Figure 10.2 This dilapidated auto supply store in Detroit is a victim of auto industry outsourcing. (Photo courtesy of Bob Jagendorf/flickr) CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY215

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Figure 10.3 Is this international call center the wave of the future? (Photo courtesy of Vilma.com/flickr) Middle-Income Nations debt accumulation Low-Income Nations global feminization 1. 2. 3. 216CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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10.2Global Wealth and Poverty Figure 10.4 How poor is poor for these beggar children in Vietnam? (Photo courtesy of Augapfel/flickr) Types of Poverty Relative poverty absolute poverty Figure 10.5 Slums in India illustrate absolute poverty all too well. (Photo courtesy of Emmanuelle Dyan/flickr) CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY217

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Subjective poverty The Underground Economy Around the World underground economy Wall Street Journal Who Are the Impoverished? 218CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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Africa Asia Latin America CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY219

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Sweatshops and Student Protests: Whos Making Your Team Spirit? Figure 10.6 This protester seeks to bring attention to the issue of sweatshops. (Photo courtesy of Ohio AFL-CIO Labor 2008/flickr) 220CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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Consequences of Poverty Figure 10.7 For this child at a refugee camp in Ethiopia, poverty and malnutrition are a way of life. (Photo courtesy of DFID UK Department for International Development/flickr) Slavery Chattel slavery Debt bondage 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY221

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology Modernization Theory modernization theory 1. 2. Dependency Theory Dependency theory Factory Girls Factory Girls: From Village to City in Changing China 222CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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absolute poverty: capital flight: chattel slavery: core nations: debt accumulation: debt bondage: deindustrialization: dependency theory: first world: fourth world: global feminization: global inequality: global stratification: gross national income (GNI): modernization theory: peripheral nations: relative poverty: second world: semi-peripheral nations: Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY223

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subjective poverty: third world: underground economy: Section Summary 10.1Global Stratification and Classification 10.2Global Wealth and Poverty 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification Section Quiz 10.1Global Stratification and Classification 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. 224CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 10.2Global Wealth and Poverty 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification 11. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY225

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12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 10.1Global Stratification and Classification 1. 2. 3. 4. 10.2Global Wealth and Poverty 5. 6. 7. 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification 8. 9. Further Research 226CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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10.1Global Stratification and Classification 10.2Global Wealth and Poverty 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification References 10.0Introduction to Global Inequality 10.1Global Stratification and Classification End of Millennium The Challenge of World Poverty: A World Anti-Poverty Program in Outline The Capitalist World Economy 10.2Global Wealth and Poverty Wall Street Journal Foreign Policy CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY227

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The SAIS Review Journal of Law and Economics Annual Review of Sociology 10.3Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification Encyclopedia of Sociology European Management Journal Factory Girls: From Village to City in Changing China Encyclopedia of Sociology Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 228CHAPTER 10 | GLOBAL INEQUALITY

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11 Race and Ethnicity Figure 11.1 Race and ethnicity are part of the human experience. How do racial and ethnic diversity play in a role in who we are? (Photo courtesy of Agecom Bahia/flickr) Learning Objectives 11.1.Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 11.2.Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 11.3.Theories of Race and Ethnicity 11.4.Intergroup Relationships 11.5.Race and Ethnicity in the United States CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY229

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Introduction to Race and Ethnicity Hamlet Hamlet Hamlet 11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups What Is Race? social construction of race 230CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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What Is Ethnicity? Ethnicity What Are Minority Groups? minority group subordinate dominant Scapegoat theory CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY231

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Multiple Identities Figure 11.2 Golfer Tiger Woods has Chinese, Thai, African American, Native American, and Dutch heritage. Individuals with multiple ethnic backgrounds are becoming more common. (Photo courtesy of familymwr/flickr) 11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Stereotypes stereotypes prejudice discrimination Racism 232CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Prejudice and Racism Discrimination thinking actions racial steering Unprejudiced nondiscriminators Unprejudiced discriminators Prejudiced nondiscriminators Prejudiced discriminators White privilege CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY233

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology The Confederate Flag vs. the First Amendment Figure 11.3 To some, the Confederate flag is a symbol of pride in Southern history. To others, it is a grim reminder of a degrading period of Americas past. (Photo courtesy of Eyeliam/flickr) A.M. and A.T. v Burleson Independent School District et al. 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity Theoretical Perspectives 234CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Functionalism do Conflict Theory intersection theory Interactionism Culture of Prejudice Culture of prejudice 11.4Intergroup Relationships CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY235

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Genocide Genocide Expulsion Expulsion Segregation Segregation de jure de facto de jure De jure Plessey v. Ferguson unequal Brown v. Board of Education 236CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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de jure Figure 11.4 In the Jim Crow South, it was legal to have separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites. (Photo courtesy of Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons) De facto Pluralism Pluralism Assimilation Assimilation CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY237

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Figure 11.5 For many immigrants to the United States, the Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom and a new life. Unfortunately, many immigrants have encountered prejudice and discrimination. (Photo courtesy of Mark Heard/flickr) Cinco de Mayo Amalgamation Amalgamation Loving v. Virginia 11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States 238CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Native Americans Sports Teams with Native American Names (a) (b) Figure 11.6 Many Native Americans (and others) believe sports teams with names like the Indians, Braves, and Warriors perpetuate unwelcome stereotypes. (Photo (a) courtesy of public domain/Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy of Chris Brown/flickr) How and Why They Came CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY239

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History of Intergroup Relations Current Status African Americans 240CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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How and Why They Came History of Intergroup Relations Current Status 2011 Equality Index Index CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY241

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Asian Americans How and Why They Came Figure 11.7 Thirty-five Vietnamese refugees wait to be taken aboard the amphibious USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19) They are being rescued from a 35-foot fishing boat 350 miles northeast of Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam, after spending eight days at sea. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy/Wikimedia Commons) History of Intergroup Relations 242CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Current Status model minority Hispanic Americans How and Why They Came History of Intergroup Relations bracero strong-arm CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY243

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Current Status Arizonas Senate Bill 1070 Figure 11.8 Protesters in Arizona dispute the harsh new anti-immigration law. (Photo courtesy of rprathap/flickr) 244CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Arab Americans Why They Came History of Intergroup Relations CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY245

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(a) (b) Figure 11.9 The proposed Park51 Muslim Community Center generated heated controversy due to its close proximity to Ground Zero. In these photos, people march in protest against the center, while counter-protesters demonstrate their support. (Photos (a) and (b) courtesy of David Shankbone/Wikimedia Commons) Current Status White Ethnic Americans 246CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Why They Came History of Intergroup Relations Current Status CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY247

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amalgamation: assimilation: culture of prejudice: discrimination: dominant group: ethnicity: expulsion: genocide: intersection theory: minority group: model minority: pluralism: prejudice: racial steering: racism: scapegoat theory: segregation: social construction of race: stereotypes: subordinate group: white privilege: Chapter Review Key Terms Section Summary 248CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity 11.4Intergroup Relationships 11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States Section Quiz 11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY249

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11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11.4Intergroup Relationships 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. Plessey v. Ferguson c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States 15. a. b. c. d. 250CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 1. 2. 11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 3. 4. 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity 5. 6. 11.4Intergroup Relationships 7. 8. 11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9. 10. Further Research CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY251

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11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity 11.4Intergroup Relationships 11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States References 11.1Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups Multicultural America, Countries and Their Cultures Frustration and Aggression Minorities in the New World: Six Case Studies The Science of Man in the World Crisis Women as a Minority Group 11.2Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Womens Studies 11.3Theories of Race and Ethnicity Distinguishing Features of Black Feminist Thought The Rules of the Sociological Method 11.4Intergroup Relationships 252CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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11.5Race and Ethnicity in the United States That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives Cato Unbound Dominant-Minority Relations in America Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY253

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254CHAPTER 11 | RACE AND ETHNICITY

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12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Figure 12.1 Some children may learn at an early age that their gender does not correspond with their sex. (Photo courtesy of trazomfreak/flickr) Learning Objectives 12.1.The Difference Between Sex and Gender 12.2.Gender 12.3.Sex and Sexuality CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY255

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Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality was her extra girly 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender Figure 12.2 While the biological differences between males and females are fairly straightforward, the social and cultural aspects of being a man or woman can be complicated. (Photo courtesy of FaceMePLS/flickr) and Sex Gender 256CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Gender identity sex gender sex berdache Faafafine The Legalese of Sex and Gender sex gender gender sex gender J.E.B. v. Alabama Sexual Orientation sexual orientation heterosexuality homosexuality bisexuality asexuality CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY257

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Sexual Behavior in the Human Male Figure 12.3 The Kinsey scale indicates that sexuality can be measured by more than just heterosexuality and homosexuality. homophobia 258CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Gender Roles gender role Figure 12.4 Fathers tend to be more involved when their sons engage in gender appropriate activities such as sports. (Photo courtesy of stephanski/flickr) Gender Identity Gender identity transgender transsexuals CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY259

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Real-Life Freaky Friday 260CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Figure 12.5 Chaz Bono is the transgendered son of Cher and Sonny Bono. Being transgendered is not about clothing or hairstyles; it is about self-perception. (Photo courtesy of Greg Hernandez/flickr) 12.2Gender Figure 12.6 Traditional images of American gender roles reinforce the idea that women should be subordinate to men. (Photo courtesy of Sport Suburban/flickr) Gender and Socialization Socialization CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY261

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Figure 12.7 Although our society may have a stereotype that associates motorcycles with men, female bikers demonstrate that a womans place extends far beyond the kitchen in modern America. (Photo courtesy of Robert Couse-Baker/ flickr) Sexism 262CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Social Stratification and Inequality Outline of World Cultures CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY263

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Figure 12.8 In some cultures, women do all of the household chores with no help from men, as doing housework is a sign of weakness, considered by society as a feminine trait. (Photo courtesy of Evil Erin/flickr) Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Structural Functionalism Conflict Theory 264CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Feminist Theory Symbolic Interactionism gay gay doing gender always do are CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY265

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Being Male, Being Female, and Being Healthy 12.3Sex and Sexuality Figure 12.9 Sexual practices can differ greatly among groups. Recent trends include the finding that married couples have sex more frequently than do singles and that 27 percent of married couples in their 30s have sex at least twice a week (NSSHB 2010). (Photo courtesy of epSos.de/flickr) Sexual Attitudes and Practices Sexuality 266CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Sexuality around the World Sexuality in the United States double standard CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY267

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Sex Education type Figure 12.10 Despite having a socially conservative ideology, Republican presidential nominee hopeful Rick Perry mandated the HPV vaccine for middle-school girls in his home state of Texas. Since the vaccine, which helps prevent cervical cancer, also protects against a sexually-transmitted virus, abstinence-only conservatives criticized his action. (Photo courtesy of Sandy Wassenmiller/Wikimedia Commons) Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Sexuality Structural Functionalism 268CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionism Queer Theory CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY269

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doing gender: double standard: gender identity: gender role: gender: homophobia: queer theory: sexism: sex: sexual orientation: sexuality: Chapter Review Key Terms 270CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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transgender: transsexuals: Section Summary 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender 12.2Gender 12.3Sex and Sexuality Section Quiz 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY271

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12.2Gender 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. 10. a. b. c. d. 12.3Sex and Sexuality 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. 272CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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c. d. Short Answer 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender 1. 2. 12.2Gender 3. 4. 12.3Sex and Sexuality 5. 6. Further Research 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender 12.2Gender 12.3Sex and Sexuality Journal of Sex Research References 12.0Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Transgender Identities: Towards a Sociological Analysis of Gender Diversity ABA Journal 12.1The Difference Between Sex and Gender CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY273

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Child Development Yale Law Journal Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry Two Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality J.E.B. v. Alabama Sexual Behavior in the Human Male Sex, Gender and the Body Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire 12.2Gender Gender and Families Human Nature and the Social Order American Demographics, Special Issue: Women Change Places Womens Lives: a Topical Approach. Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach ESSAI The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. 274CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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Cant Buy Me Love: How Advertising Changed the Way We Think and Feel. The Gendered Society Sex Roles Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist Ethnology Oxford American Dictionary Readings for Diversity and Social Justice Sex Roles: A Journal of Research Gender and Education Journal of Marriage and Family Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy Sex Roles Black Families at the Crossroads: Challenges and Prospects Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School. Gender and Society 12.3Sex and Sexuality CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY275

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Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures Volume 1 Behavioral and Brain Sciences Human Nature and the Social Order The Journal of Sex Research US News and World Report Queer Theories Journal of Sex Research Journal of Sexual Medicine People Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process Psychological Science European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care Epistemology of the Closet BusinessWeek A Genealogy of Queer Theory Journal of Sex Research Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 276CHAPTER 12 | GENDER, SEX, AND SEXUALITY

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13 Aging and the Elderly Figure 13.1 What does this sign mean? Why would there be a need for it on a street? What assumptions about senior citizens might this message be based on? (Photo courtesy of Ethan Prater/flickr) Learning Objectives 13.1.Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society 13.2.The Process of Aging 13.3.Challenges Facing the Elderly 13.4.Theoretical Perspectives on Aging CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY277

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Introduction to Aging and the Elderly 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society Gerontology Social gerontology 278CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Studying Aging Populations Figure 13.2 How old is this woman? In modern American society, appearance is not a reliable indicator of age. In addition to genetic differences, health habits, hair dyes, Botox, and the like make traditional signs of aging increasingly unreliable. (Photo courtesy of the Sean and Lauren Spectacular/flickr) CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY279

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Figure 13.3 This population pyramid shows the age distribution pattern for 2010 and projected patterns for 2030 and 2050 (Graph courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau). cohort Phases of Aging: The Young-Old, Middle-Old, and Old-Old 280CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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The Graying of the United States Figure 13.4 As senior citizens make up a larger percentage of the United States, the organizations supporting them grow stronger. (Photo courtesy of Congressman George Miller/flickr) life expectancy centenarians CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY281

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Figure 13.5 This U.S. Census graph shows that women live significantly longer than men. However, over the past two decades, men have narrowed the percentage by which women outlive them. (Graph courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau) Baby Boomers baby boomers 282CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Figure 13.6 In this U.S. Census pyramid chart, the baby boom bulge was aged 35 to 55 in 2000. In 2010, they were aged 45 to 65. (Graph courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau) CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY283

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Aging around the World Figure 13.7 Cultural values and attitudes can shape peoples experience of aging. (Photo courtesy of Tom Coppen/flickr) dependency ratio filial piety 284CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Making Connections: Sociological Research 13.2The Process of Aging life course Dr. Ignatz Nascher and the Birth of Geriatrics geriatrics geron iatrikos CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY285

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Geriatrics: The Diseases of Old Age and Their Treatment Biological Changes Figure 13.8 Aging can be a visible, public experience. Many people recognize the signs of aging and, because of the meanings that culture assigns to these changes, believe that being older means being in physical decline. Many older people, however, remain healthy, active, and happy. (Photo courtesy of Pedro Riberio Simoes/flickr) primary aging secondary aging 286CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Figure 13.9 Aging is accompanied by a host of biological, social, and psychological changes. (Photo courtesy of Michael Cohen/flickr) Social and Psychological Changes CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY287

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Aging and Sexuality Figure 13.10 In Harold and Maude a 1971 cult classic movie, a 20-something young man falls in love with a 79-year-old woman. The world reacts in disgust. What is your response to this picture, given that that the two people are meant to be lovers, not grandmother and grandson? (Photo courtesy of luckyjackson/flickr) 288CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Aging Out: LGBT Seniors Figure 13.11 As same-sex marriage becomes a possibility, many gay and lesbian couples are finally able to tie the knotsometimes as seniorsafter decades of waiting. (Photo courtesy of Fibonacci Blue/flickr). The Aging and Health Report: Disparities and Resilience among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY289

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Death and Dying Figure 13.12 A young man sits at the grave of his great-grandmother. (Photo courtesy of Sara Goldsmith/flickr) grief On Death and Dying denial anger bargaining depression acceptance thanatology physician-assisted suicide 290CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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hospice 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly senescence Poverty (a) (b) Figure 13.13 While elderly poverty rates showed an improvement trend for decades, the 2008 recession has changed some older peoples financial futures. Some who had planned a leisurely retirement have found themselves at risk of late-age destitution. (Photo (a) courtesy of Michael Cohen/flickr; photo (b) courtesy of Alex Proimos/flickr) CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY291

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Ageism Figure 13.14 Are these street signs humorous or offensive? What shared assumptions make them humorous? Or is memory loss too serious to be made fun of? (Photo courtesy of Tumbleweed/flickr) Ageism 292CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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gerontocracy Mistreatment and Abuse Elder abuse CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY293

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Table 13.1Signs of Elder Abuse The National Center on Elder Abuse encourages people to watch for these signs of mistreatment. (Chart courtesy of National Center on Elder Abuse) Type of AbuseSigns and Symptoms Physical abuse Bruises, untreated wounds, sprains, broken glasses, lab findings of medication overdosage Sexual abuse Bruises around breasts or genitals, torn or bloody underclothing, unexplained venereal disease Emotional/ psychological abuse Being upset or withdrawn, unusual dementia-like behavior (rocking, sucking) Neglect Poor hygiene, untreated bed sores, dehydration, soiled bedding Financial Sudden changes in banking practices, inclusion of additional names on bank cards, abrupt changes to will Self-neglect Untreated medical conditions, unclean living area, lack of medical items like dentures or glasses 294CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Making Connections: Big Picture the World War II Veterans Figure 13.15 World War II (1941) veterans and members of an Honor Flight from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, visit the National World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C. Most of these men and women were in their late teens or 20s when they served. (Photo courtesy of Sean Hackbarth/flickr) 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY295

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Functionalism Figure 13.16 Does being old mean disengaging from the world? (Photo courtesy of Candida Performa/Wikimedia Commons) disengagement theory activity theory continuity theory, 296CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Making Connections: Sociological Research The Graying of American Prisons Figure 13.17 Would you want to spend your retirement here? A growing elderly prison population requires asking questions about how to deal with senior inmates. (Photo courtesy of Claire Rowland/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY297

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Conflict Perspective Figure 13.18 At a public protest, older people make their voices heard. In advocating for themselves, they help shape public policy and alter the allotment of available resources. (Photo courtesy of longislandwins/flickr) Modernization theory age stratification theory 298CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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exchange theory Figure 13.19 The subculture of aging theory posits that the elderly create their own communities because they have been excluded from other groups. (Photo courtesy of Icnacio Palomo Duarte/flickr) Symbolic Interactionism subculture of aging theory selective optimization with compensation theory CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY299

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activity theory: age stratification theory: ageism: baby boomers: centenarians: cohort: continuity theory: dependency ratio: disengagement theory: elder abuse: exchange theory: filial piety: geriatrics: gerontocracy: gerontology: gerotranscendence Chapter Review Key Terms 300CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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gerotranscendence: grief: hospice: life course: life expectancy: modernization theory: physician-assisted suicide: primary aging: secondary aging: selective optimization with compensation theory: senescence: social gerontology: subculture of aging theory: thanatology: Section Summary 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society 13.2The Process of Aging 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY301

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Section Quiz 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 13.2The Process of Aging 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. On Death and Dying a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. 302CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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d. 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY303

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b. c. d. Short Answer 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society 1. 2. 3. 13.2The Process of Aging 4. 5. 6. 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly 7. 8. 9. 10. 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging 11. 12. Further Research 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society 304CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Graceful Aging Graceful Aging Graceful Aging 13.2The Process of Aging New England Journal of Medicine 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging References 13.1Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society Population Aging and Economic Growth in China Geriatrics & Gerontology International Forbes The Future of Children Talkin' 'Bout My Generation: The Economic Impact of Aging US Baby Boomers Science Daily CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY305

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International Journal of Ageing and Later Life British Journal of Sociology The Gift of Generations: Japanese and American Perspectives on Aging and the Social Contract Population Profile of the United States Journal of Comparative Family Studies Research Starters Sociology: Academic Topic Overview Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Sociological Forces The Baby Boomers Papers in Population Ageing Journal of Marriage and the Family Dhaulagiri: Journal of Sociology & Anthropology Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social Security? Social Cognition Journal of Marriage and the Family 306CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 13.2The Process of Aging Sex Roles Voice of the Diabetic Canadian Medical Association Journal The Journey of Life: a Cultural History of Aging in America Annual Review of Public Health Ageing International Generations Childhood and Society The Aging and Health Report: Disparities and Resilience among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults Research on Aging CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY307

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Harold and Maude Aging International Journal of Gerontological Social Work New England Journal of Medicine Aging &Society Body and Society Women & Health Center for Retirement Research Social Cognition The Gerontologist Daedalus Women & Health Journal of Gender Studies Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives 13.3Challenges Facing the Elderly American Journal of Public Health 308CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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Aging, Ageism and Abuse: Moving from Awareness to Action The Bay Citizen Medicine & Health Rhode Island 13.4Theoretical Perspectives on Aging State News The Gerontologist The Gerontologist Successful Aging: Perspectives from The Behavioral Sciences Aging and Modernization Journal of Marriage and Family Growing Old. Journal of Gerontology The Gerontologist Middle Age and Aging American Sociological Review CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY309

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Journal of Gerontology Aging and Society. Volume III, A Sociology of Age Stratification The Gerontologist Gerotranscendence: A Developmental Theory of Positive Aging Statistical Abstract Los Angeles Times Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 310CHAPTER 13 | AGING AND THE ELDERLY

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14 Marriage and Family Figure 14.1 With so many unmarried couples living together and having children, is marriage becoming obsolete? (Photo courtesy of Nina Matthews/flickr) CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY311

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Learning Objectives 14.1.What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? 14.2.Variations in Family Life 14.3.Challenges Families Face Introduction to Marriage and Family marriage 312CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? (a) (b) Figure 14.2 The modern concept of family is far more encompassing than in past decades. What do you think constitutes a family? (Photo (a) courtesy Gareth Williams/flickr; photo (b) courtesy Guillaume Paumier/ Wikimedia Commons) marriage family family of orientation family of procreation CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY313

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Challenges Families Face Marriage Patterns cohabitation One Partner or Many? monogamy polygamy Polygyny polyandry 314CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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bigamy Big Love Sister Wives Figure 14.3 Polygamy has a Judeo-Christian tradition, as exemplified by King Solomon, who was thought to have had more than 700 wives. (Photo courtesy of public domain/Wikimedia Commons) Residency and Lines of Descent bilateral descent kinship Unilateral descent patrilineal matrilineal ambilineal CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY315

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patrilocal residence wip matrilocal residence Stages of Family Life family life cycle Table 14.1Stage Theory This table shows one example of how a stage theory might categorize the phases a family goes through. StageFamily TypeChildren 1Marriage FamilyChildless 2Procreation FamilyChildren ages 0 to 2.5 3Preschooler FamilyChildren ages 2.5 to 6 4School-age FamilyChildren ages 6 5Teenage FamilyChildren ages 13 6Launching FamilyChildren begin to leave home 7Empty Nest FamilyEmpty nest; adult children have left home 316CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World family life course The Evolution of Television Families The Donna Reed Show Father Knows Best My Three Sons Bonanza An American Family Newsweek Diffrent Strokes One Day at a Time Family Ties The Cosby Show Roseanne Married with Children The Simpsons Everybody Loves Raymond Two and Half Men Hannah Montana The Suite Life of Zack & Cody Modern Family CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY317

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14.2Variations in Family Life nuclear family Figure 14.4 More than one quarter of American children live in a single-parent household. (Photo courtesy of Ross Griff/ flickr) Single Parents extended family 318CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Cohabitation Figure 14.5 As shown by this graph of marital status percentages among young adults, more young people are choosing to delay or opt out of marriage. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census and American Community Survey) Same-Sex Couples CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY319

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Staying Single Figure 14.6 More and more Americans are choosing lifestyles that dont include marriage. (Photo courtesy of Glenn Harper/flickr) Deceptive Divorce Rates 320CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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New York Times Theoretical Perspectives on Marriage and Family Functionalism Conflict Theory CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY321

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Symbolic Interactionism 14.3Challenges Families Face Divorce and Remarriage 322CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Table 14.2Provisional number of divorces and annulments and rate: United States, 2000 There has been a steady decrease in divorce over the past decade. (National Center for Health Statistics, CDC) Year Divorces and annulments Population Rate per 1,000 total population 2009840,000 242,497,0003.5 2008844,000 240,663,0003.5 2007856,000 238,759,0003.6 2006872,000 236,172,0003.7 2005847,000 234,114,0003.6 2004879,000 237,042,0003.7 2003927,000 245,200,0003.8 2002955,000 243,600,0003.9 2001940,000 236,650,0004.0 2000944,000 233,550,0004.0 CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY323

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Figure 14.7 A study from Radford University indicated that bartenders are among the professions with the highest divorce rates (38.4 percent). Other traditionally low-wage industries (like restaurant service, custodial employment, and factory work) are also associated with higher divorce rates. (Aamodt and McCoy 2010). (Photo courtesy of Daniel Lobo/flickr) Children of Divorce and Remarriage 324CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Violence and Abuse Domestic Violence intimate partner violence (IPV) Figure 14.8 Thirty percent of women who are murdered are killed by their intimate partner. What does this statistic reveal about societal patterns and norms concerning intimate relationships and gender roles? (Photo courtesy of Kathy Kimpel/flickr) CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY325

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Table 14.3 This chart shows reasons that victims give for why they fail to report abuse to police authorities (Catalano 2007). Reason Abuse Is Unreported% Females% Males Considered a Private Matter 22 39 Fear of Retaliation 12 5 To Protect the Abuser 14 16 Belief That Police Wont Do Anything8 8 Child Abuse 326CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Figure 14.9 The Casey Anthony trial, in which Casey was ultimately acquitted of murder charges against her daughter, Caylee, created public outrage and brought to light issues of child abuse and neglect across the United States. (Photo courtesy of Bruce Tuten/flickr) shaken-baby syndrome Corporal Punishment CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY327

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ambilineal: bigamy: bilateral descent: cohabitation: extended family: family life course: family life cycle: family of orientation: family of procreation: family: intimate partner violence (IPV): kinship: marriage: matrilineal descent: matrilocal residence: monogamy: nuclear family: patrilineal descent: Chapter Review Key Terms 328CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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patrilocal residence: polyandry: polygamy: polygyny: shaken-baby syndrome: unilateral descent: Section Summary 14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? 14.2Variations in Family Life 14.3Challenges Families Face Section Quiz 14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY329

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5. a. b. c. d. 14.2Variations in Family Life 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 14.3Challenges Families Face 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. 330CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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b. c. d. Short Answer 14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? 1. 2. 14.2Variations in Family Life 3. 4. 14.3Challenges Families Face 5. 6. Further Research 14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? 14.2Variations in Family Life 14.3Challenges Families Face References 14.0Introduction to Marriage and Family USA Today Slate CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY331

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14.1What Is Marriage? What Is a Family? Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society FamilyInequality.com Family Matters Family Relations The Jewish Chronicle Online Proceedings of the National Association of Sciences Journal of American Folklore USA Today Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law, and Politics American Anthropologist The American Patriots Bible: The Word of God and the Shaping of America The Cherokee People: The Story of the Cherokees from Earliest Origins to Contemporary Times Ethnographic Atlas: A Summary Journal of Consumer Research Family Socialization and Interaction Process Counted Out: Same-Sex Relations and Americans Definitions of Family CNN 332CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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An American Family: A Televised Life The Marriage and Family Experience Slate 14.2Variations in Family Life New York Times Journal of Marriage and Family Husbands and Wives: The Dynamics of Married Living Journal of Marriage and the Family American Sociological Review Grandparents as Parents: A Survival Guide for Raising a Second Family. New York Times, USA Today, Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach. Family Structure and Interaction: A Comparative Analysis New York Times, CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY333

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WNYC, American Journal of Sociology 14.3Challenges Families Face Journal of Family Issues Bulletin of the Centres of Excellence for Childrens Wellbeing When Violence Hits Home: How Economics and Neighborhood Play a Role Child Development Journal of Family Violence Intimate Partner Violence in the United States ABCNews.com Kids Having Kids 334CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

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Growing Up With a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps Demography Domestic Violence: Views on Campus Survey Journal of the American Medical Association Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families Child Maltreatment Understanding the Divorce Cycle Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 CHAPTER 14 | MARRIAGE AND FAMILY335

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15 Religion Figure 15.1 These sacred items inside a Hindu temple include a dancing Shiva; his consort, Pavarti; and, in front, elephant-headed Ganesh. (Photo courtesy of McKay Savage/flickr) CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION337

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Learning Objectives 15.1.The Sociological Approach to Religion 15.2.World Religions 15.3.Religion in the United States Introduction to Religion religion 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion religio religare Religious experience Religious beliefs 338CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Religious rituals The History of Religion as a Sociological Concept The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism The Protestant Work Ethic in the Information Age CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION339

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Theoretical Perspectives on Religion Figure 15.2 Functionalists believe religion meets many important needs for people, including group cohesion and companionship. (Photo courtesy of James Emery/flickr) Functionalism 340CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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Making Connections: Sociological Research Conflict Theory Figure 15.3 Feminist theorists focus on gender inequality and promote leadership roles for women in religion. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Rational Choice Theory: Can Economic Theory Be Applied to Religion? CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION341

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why does Symbolic Interactionism 342CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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15.2World Religions Figure 15.4 The symbols of 14 religions are depicted here. In no particular order, they include Judaism, Wicca, Taoism, Christianity, Confucianism, Bahai, Druidism, Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Shinto, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Can you match the symbol to the religion? What might a symbolic interactionist make of these symbols? (Photo courtesy of ReligiousTolerance.org (http://ReligiousTolerance.org)) Types of Religious Organizations Cults sect established sects CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION343

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denomination ecclesia Figure 15.5 How might you classify the Mennonites? As a cult, a sect, or a denomination? (Photo courtesy of Frenkieb/ flickr) Types of Religions Table 15.1 One way scholars have categorized religions is by classifying what or who they hold to be divine. Religious Classification What/Who Is Divine Example Polytheism Multiple gods Ancient Greeks and Romans Monotheism Single god Judaism, Islam Atheism No deities Atheism Animism Nonhuman beings (animals, plants, natural world) Indigenous nature worship (Shinto) Totemism Human-natural being connectionOjibwa (Native American) 344CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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The Worlds Religions Hinduism Figure 15.6 Hindu women sometimes apply decorations of henna dye to their hands for special occasions such as weddings and religious festivals. (Photo courtesy of Akash Mazumdar) Buddhism Figure 15.7 Buddhism promotes peace and tolerance. The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso) is one of the most revered and influential Tibetan Buddhist leaders. (Photo courtesy of Nancy Pelosi/flickr) bodhi CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION345

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Figure 15.8 Meditation is an important practice in Buddhism. A Tibetan monk is shown here engaged in solitary meditation. (Photo courtesy of Prince Roy/flickr) Confucianism jen Analects Taoism tao Judaism 346CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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Islam Figure 15.9 The Islamic house of worship is called a mosque. (Photo courtesy of David Stanley/flickr) Figure 15.10 One of the tenets of Muslim practice concerns journeying to the religions most sacred place, Mecca. (Photo courtesy of Raeky/flickr) Christianity caritas CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION347

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate 15.3Religion in the United States Religion and Social Change Liberation Theology Liberation theology Religious Leaders and the Rainbow of Gay Pride 348CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Megachurches megachurch Secularization Thank God for That Touchdown: Separation of Church and State CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION349

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animism: atheism: cults: denomination: ecclesia: established sects: liberation theology: megachurch: monotheism: polytheism: USA Today Chapter Review Key Terms 350CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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religion: religious beliefs: religious experience: religious rituals: sect: totemism: Section Summary 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion 15.2World Religions 15.3Religion in the United States Section Quiz 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION351

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a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 15.2World Religions 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 352CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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15.3Religion in the United States 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion 1. 2. 3. 15.2World Religions 4. 5. 6. 15.3Religion in the United States 7. Further Research 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION353

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15.2World Religions Frontline 15.3Religion in the United States References 15.0Introduction to Religion The Elementary Forms of Religious Life 15.1The Sociological Approach to Religion Review of Religious Research Division of Labor in Society The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative Approach American Sociological Review American Sociological Review Annual Review of Sociology Contribution to Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and Other Writings 354CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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15.2World Religions The Pocket Dalai Lama Tao TeChing The Worlds Religions 15.3Religion in the United States Christian Post Good Morning America Forbes.com Gallup World Gallup Huffington Post Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION355

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356CHAPTER 15 | RELIGION

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16 Education Figure 16.1 Schools teach us far more than reading, writing, and arithmetic. They also socialize us to cultural norms and expectations. (Photo courtesy of Editor B/flickr) Learning Objectives 16.1.Education around the World 16.2.Theoretical Perspectives on Education 16.3.Issues in Education Introduction to Education CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION357

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16.1Education around the World Figure 16.2 These children are at a library in Singapore, where students are outperforming U.S. students on worldwide tests. (Photo courtesy of kodomut/flickr) Education 358CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Education in Afghanistan CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION359

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Figure 16.3 A student in Afghanistan heads to school. The ISAF logo on his backpack represents a NATO-led security mission that has been involved in rebuilding Afghanistan. (Photo courtesy of isafmedia/flickr) Formal and Informal Education Formal education informal education Figure 16.4 Parents teaching their children to cook provide an informal education. (Photo courtesy of eyeliam/flickr) 360CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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Cultural transmission Access to Education universal access Figure 16.5 Per-student spending varies greatly by state, with the highest-ranking U.S. states spending up to three times what the lowest-ranking states spend per student. How has your states per-student spending affected your educational opportunities? (Graph courtesy of the New York Times Economix Blog and the U.S. Census Bureau 2007) CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION361

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Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia Constitutional rights must be afforded citizens despite the greater expense involved the District of Columbias interest in educating the excluded children clearly must outweigh its interest in preserving its financial resources. The inadequacies of the District of Columbia Public School System whether occasioned by insufficient funding or administrative inefficiency, certainly cannot be permitted to bear more heavily on the exceptional or handicapped child than on the normal child ( Mills v. Board of Education 1972). 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education Functionalism Manifest Functions 362CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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Figure 16.6 The teachers authority in the classroom is a way in which education fulfills the manifest functions of social control. (Photo courtesy of Tulane Public Relations/flickr) social placement Latent Functions Table 16.1Manifest and Latent Functions of Education According to functionalist theory, education contributes both manifest and latent functions. Manifest Functions: Openly stated functions with intended goals Latent Functions: Hidden, unstated functions with sometimes unintended consequences Socialization Courtship Transmission of culture Social networks Social control Working in groups Social placement Creation of generation gap Cultural innovation Political and social integration CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION363

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Figure 16.7 Starting each day with the Pledge of Allegiance is one way in which students are taught patriotism. (Photo courtesy of Jeff Turner/flickr) sorting Conflict Theory Figure 16.8 Conflict theorists see the education system as a means by which those in power stay in power. (Photo courtesy Thomas Ricker/flickr) 364CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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cultural capital hidden curriculum tracking Feminist Theory CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION365

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Grade Inflation: When Is an A Really a C? grade inflation Symbolic Interactionism High School Confidential Credentialism 16.3Issues in Education Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 366CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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Equal Education Brown v. Board of Education Plessy v. Ferguson Brown v. Board Figure 16.9 President Eisenhower sent members of the 101st Airborne Division from Kentucky to escort black students into Little Rock Central High School after the governor of Arkansas tried to deny them entry. (Photo courtesy of the U.S. Army) Head Start Head Start program CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION367

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Busing No Child Left Behind No Child Left Behind Act Teaching to the Test Bilingual Education Charter Schools Money as Motivation in Charter Schools 368CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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Teacher Training Social Promotion Affirmative Action CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION369

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credentialism: cultural capital: cultural transmission: education: formal education: grade inflation: Head Start program: hidden curriculum: informal education: No Child Left Behind Act: Rising Student Loan Debt Home Schooling Chapter Review Key Terms 370CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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social placement: sorting: tracking: universal access: Section Summary 16.1Education around the World 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education 16.3Issues in Education Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Section Quiz 16.1Education around the World 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION371

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5. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia a. b. c. d. 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education 6. not a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. 372CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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b. c. d. 16.3Issues in Education 16. Plessy v. Ferguson a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 16.1Education around the World 1. 2. 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education 3. 4. 5. 16.3Issues in Education 6. Further Research 16.1Education around the World 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION373

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Education Next 16.3Issues in Education References 16.1Education around the World Education and Sociology Mills v. Board of Education Measuring UP: The National Report Card on Higher Education All Things Considered Great Schools Economix 16.2Theoretical Perspectives on Education Education Week Unfulfilled Expectations: Recent College Graduates Struggle in a Troubled Economy High School Confidential AREA Handbook on Education Policy Research Day to Day 374CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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The Chronicle of Higher Education Social Theory and Social Structure Towards Knowledge Societies: UNESCO World Report World Development Report 16.3Issues in Education CBS Equality of Educational Opportunity Study The New York Times, Morse et al. v. Frederick Wallace Quotes Policy Research Brief Gallup Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION375

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376CHAPTER 16 | EDUCATION

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17 Government and Politics Figure 17.1 Members of Britains royal family still captivate audiences around the world, but they have limited involvement in the day-to-day operations of their countrys government. (Photo courtesy of HerryLawford/flickr) Learning Objectives 17.1.Power and Authority 17.2.Forms of Government 17.3.Politics in the United States 17.4.Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power Introduction to Government and Politics New York Times CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS377

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17.1Power and Authority Figure 17.2 The White House, one of the worlds most widely recognized state buildings, symbolizes the authority of the U.S. presidency. (Courtesy U.S. National Archives/Wikimedia Commons) 378CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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What Is Power? Figure 17.3 Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was one of the most powerful and destructive dictators in modern history, pictured here with fascist Benito Mussolini of Italy. (Photo courtesy of U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) power Figure 17.4 Young people and students were among the most ardent supporters of democratic reform in the recent Arab Spring. Social media also played an important role in rallying grassroots support. (Photo courtesy of cjb22/flickr) CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS379

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Did Facebook and Twitter Cause the Arab Spring? Technology Review Types of Authority Authority 380CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Table 17.1Webers Three Types of Authority Max Weber identified and explained three distinct types of authority: Traditional Charismatic Legal-Rational Legitimized by longstanding custom Based on a leaders personal qualities Authority resides in the office, not the person Historic personalityDynamic personality Bureaucratic officials Patriarchy (traditional positions of authority) Napoleon, Jesus Christ, Mother Teresa, Martin Luther King, Jr. U.S. presidency and Congress Modern British Parliament Traditional Authority traditional authority patrimonialism Charismatic Authority charismatic authority Rational-Legal Authority rationallegal authority and CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS381

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17.2Forms of Government Figure 17.5 Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein used fear and intimidation to keep citizens in check. (Photo courtesy of Brian Hillegas/flickr) anarchy Monarchy monarchy absolute monarchies constitutional monarchies 382CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Figure 17.6 Queen Noor of Jordan is the dowager queen of this constitutional monarchy and has limited political authority. She is a noted global advocate for Arab-Western relations. (Photo courtesy of Skoll World Forum/flickr) Oligarchy oligarchy Is the United States an Oligarchy? CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS383

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Figure 17.7 The Breakers, the famous Newport, Rhode Island, home of the Vanderbilts, is a powerful symbol of the extravagant wealth that characterized the Gilded Age. (Photo courtesy of ckramer/flickr) Figure 17.8 Support from prominent Russian oligarchs propelled leader Vladimir Putin to power. (Photo courtesy of Kremlin.ru/Wikimedia Commons) Dictatorship dictatorship 384CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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totalitarian dictatorship Figure 17.9 Dictator Kim Jong-Il of North Korea was a charismatic leader of an absolute dictatorship. His followers responded emotionally to the death of their leader in 2011. (Photo courtesy of babeltrave/flickr) Democracy democracy representative democracy republic CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS385

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17.3Politics in the United States Figure 17.10 Americans right to vote in free elections is a fundamental element of the nations democratic structure and a privilege envied by citizens of more oppressive societies. (Photo courtesy of David Goehring/flickr) politics Voter Participation Race, Gender, and Class Issues 386CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Reynolds v. Sims one person, one vote Reynolds v. Sims 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power Figure 17.11 French sociologist Emile Durkheim, often called the Father of Sociology, viewed government as interdependent with other parts of society. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS387

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Functionalism Conflict Theory Who Rules America? Conflict Theory in Action Figure 17.12 Although military technology has evolved considerably over the course of history, the fundamental causes of conflict among nations remain essentially the same. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) 388CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Figure 17.13 What symbols of the Boston Tea Party are represented in this painting? How might a symbolic interactionist explain the way the modern-day Tea Party has reclaimed and repurposed these symbolic meanings? (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Symbolic Interactionism Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS389

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absolute monarchies: anarchy: authority: charismatic authority: constitutional monarchies: democracy: dictatorship: monarchy: oligarchy: one person, one vote: patrimonialism: politics: power: rational-legal authority: representative democracy: totalitarian dictatorship: traditional authority: Section Summary 17.1Power and Authority 17.2Forms of Government 17.3Politics in the United States 390CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Reynolds v. Sims 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power Section Quiz 17.1Power and Authority 1. a. b. c. d. 2. not a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 17.2Forms of Government 7. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS391

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8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. not a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 17.3Politics in the United States 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. Roe v. Wade b. Reynolds v. Sims c. Brown v. Board of Education d. Marbury v. Madison 17. a. b. c. d. 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power 392CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. 22. a. b. c. d. 23. Who Rules America? a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 17.1Power and Authority 1. 2. 3. 17.2Forms of Government 4. 5. 6. CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS393

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17.3Politics in the United States 7. 8. 9. 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power 10. 11. power elite Further Research 17.1Power and Authority 17.2Forms of Government 17.3Politics in the United States 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy References 17.0Introduction to Government and Politics The New York Times, 17.1Power and Authority Essays on Freedom and Power. Theory and Society Technology Review 394CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. 17.2Forms of Government New York Times The American Experience Spiegel Online International American Interest 17.3Politics in the United States 17.4Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power Manifesto of the Communist Party Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS395

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396CHAPTER 17 | GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

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18 Work and the Economy Figure 18.1 Today, the jobs of these assembly-line workers are increasingly being eliminated as technology grows. (Photo courtesy of John Lloyd/flickr) Learning Objectives 18.1.Economic Systems 18.2.Globalization and the Economy 18.3.Work in the United States Introduction to Work and the Economy Economy commodities CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY397

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need want objects services activities 18.1Economic Systems (a) (b) Figure 18.2 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was one of the founders of Russian communism. J.P. Morgan was one of the most influential capitalists in history. They have very different views on how economies should be run. (Photos (a) and (b) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Economics of Agricultural, Industrial, and Postindustrial Societies (a) (b) Figure 18.3 In an agricultural economy, crops are the most important commodity. In a postindustrial society, the most valuable resource is information. (Photo (a) courtesy Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy AntanaBhadraLamichhane/flickr) 398CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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The Agricultural Revolution Figure 18.4 Agricultural practices have emerged in different societies at different times. (Information courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) bartering Money CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY399

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology The Lady Who Lives without Money Gib und Nimm you Gib und Nimm Mercantilism The Industrial Revolution 400CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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subsistence farming Postindustrial Societies and the Information Age Capitalism Figure 18.5 Companies sell stock to raise capital that they can invest in new projects, improving the company and producing the means for further income generation. (Photo courtesy of Ryan Lawler/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY401

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capitalism Capitalism in Practice 402CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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Socialism Figure 18.6 The economies of China and Russia after World War II are examples of one form of socialism. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Socialism CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY403

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(a) (b) (c) Figure 18.7 Capitalists criticize socialism, saying equal distribution of resources is an unachievable ideal. Socialists, on the other hand, criticize the way capitalism concentrates wealth in the hands of a few at the expense of many. (Photos (a), (b) and (c) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Market socialism Figure 18.8 This map shows countries that have adopted a socialist economy at some point. The colors indicate the duration that socialism prevailed. (Map courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Socialism in Practice Utopia 404CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World What Is Property? mutualism Obama and Socialism: A Few Definitions New York Times CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY405

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Convergence Theory Convergence theory Figure 18.9 Sociologists look for signs of convergence and divergence in the societies of countries that have joined the European Union. (Map courtesy of Kolja21/Wikimedia Commons) catch-up effect 406CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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Theoretical Perspectives on the Economy Functionalist Perspective recession depression Conflict Perspective Symbolic Interactionist Perspective career inheritance CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY407

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18.2Globalization and the Economy Figure 18.10 Instant communications have allowed many international corporations to move parts of their businesses to countries such as India, where their costs are lowest. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) What Is Globalization? global cities 1. 2. 3. 4. 408CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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5. global assembly lines global commodity chains maquiladoras xenophobia Aspects of Globalization CIA World Factbook CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY409

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Table 18.1Gross Domestic Product Per Capita Not every country is benefitting from globalization. The GDP per capita of the poorest countries is 600 times less than that of the wealthiest countries. (Table courtesy of the CIA, World Factbook 2004) RankCountry GDP per capita (PPP) 1Qatar $179,000 2Liechtenstein $141,100 3Luxembourg $82,600 4Bermuda $69,900 5Singapore $62,100 6Jersey $57,000 7Norway $54,600 8Brunei $51,600 9United Arab Emirates$49,600 10Kuwait $48,900 11United States $47,200 218Sierra Leone $900 219Madagascar $900 220Malawi $800 221Niger $700 222Central African Republic$700 223Somalia $600 224Eritrea $600 225Zimbabwe $500 226Liberia $500 227Democratic Republic of Congo$300 228Burundi $300 410CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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18.3Work in the United States Figure 18.11 Many people attend job fairs looking for their first job or for a better one. (Photo courtesy of Daniel Ramirez/ flickr) CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY411

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Real Money, Virtual Worlds Figure 18.12 In a virtual world, living the good life still costs real money. (Photo courtesy of Juan Pablo Amo/flickr) Forbes Forbes Polarization in the Workforce outsourcing 412CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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automation Polarization CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY413

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Figure 18.13 This chart shows the projected growth of several occupational groups. (Graph courtesy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook) 414CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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Figure 18.14 More education means more jobs (generally). (Graph courtesy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook) Women in the Workforce Immigration and the Workforce CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY415

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Poverty in the United States underemployment 1. 2. 3. structural unemployment Figure 18.15 A higher percentage of the people living in poverty in the United States have jobs compared to other developed nations. 416CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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automation: bartering: capitalism: career inheritance: commodities: convergence theory: depression: economy: global assembly lines: global cities: global commodity chains: Figure 18.16Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2010 While poverty rates among the elderly have fallen, an increasing number of children are living in poverty. (Graph courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau,Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2011, Annual Social and Economic Supplements) Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY417

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market socialism: mercantilism: money: mutualism: outsourcing: polarization: recession: services: socialism: structural unemployment: subsistence farming: underemployment: xenophobia: Section Summary 18.1Economic Systems 18.2Globalization and the Economy 18.3Work in the United States 418CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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Section Quiz 18.1Economic Systems 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 18.2Globalization and the Economy 10. a. b. CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY419

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c. d. 11. not a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. except a. b. c. d. 14. not a. b. c. d. 18.3Work in the United States 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 18.1Economic Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 18.2Globalization and the Economy 5. 6. 7. 18.3Work in the United States 420CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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8. 9. Further Research 18.1Economic Systems 18.2Globalization and the Economy 18.3Work in the United States References 18.1Economic Systems Journal of Economic History Journal of College Student Development The Industrial RevolutionInnovations The Economist American Sociological Review Science European Journal of Political Economy CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY421

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Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century Qualitative Sociology The Code of Hammurabi : Introduction The Review of Income and Wealth Industrialism and Industrial Man American Journal of Sociology The World Economy: Historical Statistics The Communist Manifesto Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies Property Is Theft! A Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Anthology Journal of Economic Perspectives Social Indicators Research 18.2Globalization and the Economy The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power In Defense of Globalization Work and Occupations 422CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo Worlds Apart: Globalization and the Environment The Modern World System 18.3Work in the United States Social Problems American Political Science Review Forbes Migration Policy Institute Insight Occupational Outlook Handbook Occupational Outlook Handbook CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY423

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New York Times Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 424CHAPTER 18 | WORK AND THE ECONOMY

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19 Health and Medicine Figure 19.1 Vaccinations can slow or halt the spread of disease, but some families refuse them. (Photo courtesy of USACE Europe District/flickr) Learning Objectives 19.1.The Social Construction of Health 19.2.Global Health 19.3.Health in the United States 19.4.Comparative Health and Medicine 19.5.Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE425

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Introduction to Health and Medicine Lancet Pediatrics 426CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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19.1The Social Construction of Health medical sociology The Cultural Meaning of Illness stigmatization of illness Contested illnesses The Social Construction of the Illness Experience CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE427

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate Figure 19.2 The Mosby pain rating scale helps health care providers assess an individuals level of pain. What might a symbolic interactionist observe about this method? (Photo courtesy of wrestlingentropy/flickr) The Social Construction of Medical Knowledge Has Breast Cancer Awareness Gone Too Far? Figure 19.3 Pink ribbons are a ubiquitous reminder of breast cancer. But do pink ribbon chocolates do anything to eradicate the disease? (Photo courtesy of wishuponacupcake/Wikimedia Commons) 428CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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contribute 19.2Global Health Social epidemiology Health in High-Income Nations 1. CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE429

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2. 3. 4. 5. Health in Low-Income Nations Figure 19.4 In low-income countries, malnutrition and lack of access to clean water contribute to a high child mortality rate. (Photo courtesy of Steve Evans/flickr) 1. 2. 3. 19.3Health in the United States all 430CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Health by Race and Ethnicity 1. 2. 3. Health by Socioeconomic Status Health by Gender Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE431

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Medicalization Medicalization of Sleeplessness Figure 19.5 Many people fail to get enough sleep. But is insomnia a disease that should be cured with medication? (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) American Journal of Public Health Archives of Internal Medicine 432CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Mental Health and Disability Mental Health anxiety disorders mood disorders personality disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders DSM-IV DSM-V Figure 19.6 Medication is a common option for children with ADHD. (Photo courtesy of Deviation56/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE433

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct Disability Figure 19.7 The handicapped accessible sign indicates that people with disabilities can access the facility. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that access be provided to everyone. (Photo courtesy of Ltljltlj/Wikimedia Commons) Disability impairment Stigmatization 434CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Obesity: The Last Acceptable Prejudice Figure 19.8 Obesity is considered the last acceptable social stigma. (Photo courtesy of Kyle May/flickr) stereotype interchangeability CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE435

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19.4Comparative Health and Medicine American Health Care public health care private health care underinsured individual mandate 436CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Figure 19.9 Many Americans worry that governmental oversight of health care represents a federal overstepping of constitutional guarantees of individual freedom. Others welcome a program that they believe will make health care accessible and affordable to everyone. (Photo courtesy of Fibonacci Blue/flickr) Health Care Elsewhere socialized medicine universal health care CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE437

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Figure 19.10 This map shows the countries where malaria is known to occur. In low-income countries, malaria is still a common cause of death. (Photo courtesy of the CDC/Wikimedia Commons) 19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine Functionalism sick role legitimation 438CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Conflict Perspective commodification Symbolic Interactionism medicalization of deviance demedicalization CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE439

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anxiety disorders: commodification: contested illnesses: demedicalization: disability: impairment: individual mandate: Figure 19.11 In this engraving from the 19th century, King Alcohol is shown with a skeleton on a barrel of alcohol. The words poverty, misery, crime, and death hang in the air behind him. (Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons) drapetomania Chapter Review Key Terms 440CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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legitimation: medical sociology: medicalization of deviance: medicalization: mood disorders: personality disorders: private health care: public health care: sick role: social epidemiology: socialized medicine: stereotype interchangeability: stigmatization of illness: stigmatization: underinsured: universal health care: Section Summary 19.1The Social Construction of Health 19.2Global Health 19.3Health in the United States 19.4Comparative Health and Medicine CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE441

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19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine Section Quiz 19.1The Social Construction of Health 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 19.2Global Health 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 19.3Health in the United States 8. not a. b. 442CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 19.4Comparative Health and Medicine 13. a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. a. b. c. d. 19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine 18. not a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE443

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19. a. b. c. d. 20. DSM a. b. c. d. Short Answer 19.1The Social Construction of Health 1. 2. 19.2Global Health 3. 4. 19.3Health in the United States 5. 6. 19.4Comparative Health and Medicine 7. 8. 19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine 9. 10. Further Research 19.1The Social Construction of Health 19.2Global Health 19.3Health in the United States 444CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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19.4Comparative Health and Medicine 19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine References 19.0Introduction to Health and Medicine Journal of Health and Social Behavior CNN The Telegraph Pediatrics 19.1The Social Construction of Health Journal of Health and Social Behavior Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE445

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The Croatian Medical Journal 19.2Global Health BMC Medicine Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators 19.3Health in the United States Annual Review of Public Health Gender and Society 446CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Obesity Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem Archives of Internal Medicine American Journal of Public Health Annual Review of Sociology Research in Profile Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE447

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American Journal of Public Health 19.4Comparative Health and Medicine Health Against Wealth: HMOs and the Breakdown of Medical Trust Timely Analysis of Immediate Health Policy Issues The Washington Post The New York Times Health Affairs 19.5Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. The Social System Sociometry 448CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE449

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450CHAPTER 19 | HEALTH AND MEDICINE

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20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment Figure 20.1 This underground mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania, could burn for over a century. (Photo courtesy of jesiehart/flickr) CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT451

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Learning Objectives 20.1.Demography and Population 20.2.Urbanization 20.3.The Environment and Society Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment Figure 20.2 This warning sign advises people of the environmental dangers of Centralia. (Photo courtesy Max Edmands/ flickr) 452CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Erin Brokovich cancer cluster Erin Brokovich 20.1Demography and Population Figure 20.3 Earths population, which recently grew to 7 billion, is always on the move. (Photo courtesy of David Sim/ flickr) CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT453

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demography fertility rate mortality rate Population Growth population composition sex ratio population pyramid Figure 20.4 This population pyramid shows the breakdown of the 2010 American population according to age and sex. (Graph courtesy of Econ Proph blog and the U.S. Census Bureau) Table 20.1Varying Fertility and Mortality Rated by Country As the table above illustrates, countries vary greatly in fertility rates and mortality ratesthe components that make up a population composition. (Chart courtesy of CIA World Factbook 2011) Country Population (in millions) Fertility Rate Mortality Rate Sex Ratio Male to Female Afghanistan29.8 5.4%17.4%1.05 Sweden 9.1 1.7%10.2%0.98 United States of America 313.2 2.1%8.4%0.97 454CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Demographic Theories Malthusian Theory Malthusian theory carrying capacity Zero Population Growth zero population growth Cornucopian Theory Cornucopian theory Demographic Transition Theory Demographic transition theory CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT455

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Current Population Trends Figure 20.5Projected Population in Africa This graph shows the population growth of countries located on the African continent, many of which have high fertility rates. (Graph courtesy of USAID) Figure 20.6Projected Population in the United States The United States has an intermediate fertility rate, and therefore, a comparatively moderate projected population growth. (Graph courtesy of USAID) Figure 20.7Projected Population in Europe This chart shows the projected population growth of Europe for the remainder of this century. (Graph courtesy of USAID) 20.2Urbanization 456CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Figure 20.8 The lights of New York City are an iconic image of city life. (Photo courtesy of Or Hiltch/flickr) Urbanization urban sociology The Growth of Cities Figure 20.9 As this chart illustrates, the shift from rural to urban living in the United States has been dramatic and continuous. (Graph courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau) Urbanization in the United States The Jungle CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT457

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World A Postmillennial Jungle : A Story of Coming of Age in the Bronx Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx Random Family Figure 20.10 LeBlancs book Random Family captures the daily life of the urban poor in the Bronx, New York. (Photo courtesy of John H. Gray/flickr) Suburbs and Exurbs Suburbs exurbs 458CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Making Connections: Social Policy & Debate metropolis megalopolis Figure 20.11 The suburban sprawl in Toronto means long commutes and traffic congestion. (Photo courtesy of Payon Chung/flickr) Suburbs Are Not All White Picket Fences: The Banlieues of Paris white flight Brown v. Board of Education CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT459

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Urbanization around the World gentrification Theoretical Perspectives on Urbanization Human ecology concentric zone model Figure 20.12 This illustration depicts the concentric zones that make up a city. (Photo courtesy of Zeimusu/Wikimedia Commons) 460CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Making Connections: Big Picture the The Migration of Mothers Figure 20.13 Are children in other countries paying the price for core nation childcare? (Photo courtesy of isafmedia/flickr) American Prospect The Commercialization of Intimate Life CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT461

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Making Connections: Big Picture the 20.3The Environment and Society environmental sociology Figure 20.14 Too little land for grazing means starving cattle. (Photo courtesy of newbeatphoto/flickr) The Tragedy of the Commons 462CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Pollution Pollution Water Soil The Grapes of Wrath Garbage CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT463

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Making Connections: Careers in Sociology Figure 20.15 Where should garbage go when youve run out of room? This is a question that is increasingly pressing the planet. (Photo courtesy of Kevin Krejci/flickr) What Should Apple (and Friends) Do about EWaste? Figure 20.16 A parking lot filled with electronic waste, known as e-waste. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Army Environmental Command/flickr) E-waste 464CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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1. 2. 3. Air CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT465

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Toxic and Radioactive Waste Figure 20.17 An aerial view of the Gulf Coast, taken in May of 2010, illustrates the damage done by the BP Deep Water Horizon spill. (Photo courtesy of Jeff Warren/flickr) Valdez Figure 20.18 Oil on the gulf shore beaches caused great destruction, killing marine and land animals and crippling local business. (Photo courtesy of AV8ter/flickr) Climate Change 466CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World Climate change Would You Buy an Environmental Cause from This Woman? Figure 20.19 Actress Angelina Jolie advocates for a variety of issues, including environmental causes. (Photo courtesy of chris_natt/Wikimedia Commons) CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT467

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Environmental Racism Environmental racism American Indian Tribes and Environmental Racism 468CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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cancer cluster: carrying capacity: climate change: concentric zone model: cornucopian theory: demographic transition theory: demography: e-waste: environmental racism: environmental sociology: exurbs: fertility rate: gentrification: NIMBY Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT469

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human ecology: Malthusian theory: megalopolis: metropolis: mortality rate: NIMBY: pollution: population composition: population pyramid: sex ratio: suburbs: urban sociology: urbanization: white flight: zero population growth: Section Summary 20.1Demography and Population 20.2Urbanization 20.3The Environment and Society 470CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Section Quiz 20.1Demography and Population 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 20.2Urbanization 6. a. b. c. d. 7. a. b. c. d. 8. The Jungle a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT471

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b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. a. b. c. d. 20.3The Environment and Society 14. a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. 17. not a. b. c. d. 18. a. b. c. d. 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 20.1Demography and Population 1. 472CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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2. 3. 20.2Urbanization 4. 5. 6. 20.3The Environment and Society 7. 8. 9. 10. Further Research 20.1Demography and Population 20.2Urbanization 20.3The Environment and Society CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT473

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References 20.0Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment Unseen Danger: A Tragedy of People, Government, and the Centralia Mine Fire 20.1Demography and Population Demographic Transition Theory. Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook The Population Bomb An Essay on Population The Ultimate Resource 20.2Urbanization The City 3000 Years of Urban History Wall Street Journal Building American Cities: The Urban Real Estate Game France 24 The American Prospect Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble and Coming of Age in the Bronx American Journal of Sociology American Journal of Sociology New York Times The Jungle 474CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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The Preindustrial City: Past and Present New York Times 20.3The Environment and Society Macworld Reuters Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty: 1987 New York Times Science Science Newser CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT475

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Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 476CHAPTER 20 | POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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21 Social Movements and Social Change Figure 21.1 When people join together, such as these 2011 Egyptian protestors, they are engaging in collective behavior. (Photo courtesy of Agent 021/Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 21.1.Collective Behavior 21.2.Social Movements 21.3.Social Change CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE477

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Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change Deepwater Horizon 478CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World 21.1Collective Behavior Flash Mobs Figure 21.2 Is this a good time had by all? Some flash mobs may function as political protests, while others are for fun. This flash mob pillow fights purpose was to entertain. (Photo courtesy of Mattwi1S0n:/flickr) flash mob Forms of Collective Behavior collective behavior crowd Casual crowds Conventional crowds Expressive crowds acting crowds, CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE479

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mass public Theoretical Perspectives on Collective Behavior Emergent-Norm Perspective Figure 21.3 According to the emergent-norm perspective, people have their own reasons for joining a parade. (Photo courtesy of Infrogmation of New Orleans/flickr) Emergent norm theory Value-Added Theory value-added theory, structural conduciveness, Structural strain growth and spread of a generalized belief 480CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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precipitating factors mobilization for action social control Figure 21.4 Agents of social control bring collective behavior to an end. (Photo courtesy of hozinja/flickr) Assembling Perspective assembling perspective, CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE481

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Table 21.1 Clark McPhail identified various circumstances of convergent and collective behavior (McPhail 1991). Type of crowd Description Example Convergence clusters Family and friends who travel together Carpooling parents take several children to the movies Convergent orientation Group all facing the same directionA semi-circle around a stage Collective vocalization Sounds or noises made collectivelyScreams on a roller coaster Collective verbalization Collective and simultaneous participation in a speech or song Pledge of Allegiance in the school classroom Collective gesticulation Body parts forming symbols The YMCA dance Collective manipulation Objects collectively moved aroundHolding signs at a protest rally Collective locomotion The direction and rate of movement to the event Children running to an ice cream truck 21.2Social Movements Social movements Levels of Social Movements Local 482CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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State Figure 21.5 Texas Secede! is an organization which would like Texas to secede from the United States. (Photo courtesy of Tim Pearce/flickr) National Figure 21.6 The right of gays and lesbians to marry is a polarizing issue but is gaining support nationally. (Photo courtesy of Krossbow/flickr) Global CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE483

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Making Connections: Big Picture the Types of Social Movements Reform movements Revolutionary movements Religious/Redemptive movements Alternative movements Resistance movements Stages of Social Movements preliminary stage coalescence stage institutionalization stage decline stage Social Media and Social Change: A Match Made in Heaven Figure 21.7 In 2008, Obamas campaign used social media to tweet, like, and friend its way to victory. (Photos courtesy of bradleyolin/flickr) 484CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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preliminary stage coalescence stage New Yorker Figure 21.8 After a devastating earthquake in 2010, Twitter and the Red Cross raised millions for Haiti relief efforts through phone donations alone. (Photo courtesy of Cambodia4KidsOrg/flickr) CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE485

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Theoretical Perspectives on Social Movements Resource Mobilization resource mobilization theory social movement industry social movement sector social movement organization Figure 21.9 Multiple social movement organizations concerned about the same issue form a social movement industry. A societys many social movement industries comprise its social movement sector. With so many options, who will you give your time or money to? Framing/Frame Analysis diagnostic framing Prognostic framing 486CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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motivational framing frame alignment process Bridging amplification extension CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE487

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(a) (b) (c) Figure 21.10 Extension occurs when social movements have sympathetic causes. Womens rights, racial equality, and LGBT advocacy are all human rights issues. (Photos (a) and (b) courtesy of Wikimedia Commons; Photo (c) courtesy of Charlie Nguyen/flickr) Transformation New Social Movement Theory New social movement theory 488CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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21.3Social Change social change Causes of Social Change Technology The World Is Flat Social Institutions Population CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE489

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Making Connections: Sociology in the Real World The Environment Our Dystopian Future: From A Brave New World to The Hunger Games Figure 21.11 Is the glass half-empty or half-full when it comes to social change? Fiction writers explore both sides of the issue through fantasy futuristic novels like the Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins. (Photo courtesy of Carissa Rogers/flickr) Brave New World 490CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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acting crowds: alternative movements: Hunger Games Hunger Games Modernization Modernization Chapter Review Key Terms CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE491

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assembling perspective: casual crowds: collective behavior: conventional crowds: crowd: diagnostic framing: emergent norm theory: expressive crowds: flash mob: frame alignment process: mass: modernization: motivational framing: new social movement theory: prognostic framing: public: reform movements: religious/redemptive movements: resistance movements: resource mobilization theory: revolutionary movements: social change: social movement industry: social movement organization: social movement sector: social movement: value-added theory: 492CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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Section Summary 21.1Collective Behavior 21.2Social Movements 21.3Social Change Section Quiz 21.1Collective Behavior 1. not a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE493

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6. a. b. c. d. 21.2Social Movements 7. a. b. c. d. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. a. b. c. d. 10. a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 21.3Social Change 12. a. b. c. d. 13. not a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. 494CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. Short Answer 21.1Collective Behavior 1. 2. 3. 4. 21.2Social Movements 5. 6. 7. 21.3Social Change 8. 9. 10. 11. References 21.0Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change 21.1Collective Behavior Principles of Sociology The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind Collective Behavior and Social Movements The Myth of the Madding Crowd Theory of Collective Behavior CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE495

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Collective Behavior 21.2Social Movements The Peyote Religion among the Navaho Annual Review of Sociology Principles of Sociology Social Movement in Advanced Capitalism: The Political Economy and Social Construction of Social Activism The New Yorker Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience American Journal of Sociology American Journal of Sociology American Sociological Review International Social Movement Research From Mobilization to Revolution 21.3Social Change CBS News The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century Economic Development and Cultural Change The New Yorker Solutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 496CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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CHAPTER 21 | SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE497

PAGE 500

Index A absolute monarchies,382,390 absolute poverty,217,223 achieved status,93 achieved statuses,92 acting crowds,479,491 activity theory,296,300 age stratification theory,298,300 ageism,292,300 aggregate,123,134 agricultural societies,84,93 alienation,88,93 alternative movements,484,491 amalgamation,238,248 ambilineal,315,328 anarchy,382,390 animism,344,350 anomie,86,93 anticipatory socialization,112,113 antipositivism,15,24 anxiety disorders,433,440 ascribed,92 ascribed status,93 assembling perspective,481,492 assimilation,237,248 atheism,344,350 authoritarian leader,134 authoritarian leaders,128 authority,380,390 automation,413,417 B baby boomers,282,300 bartering,399,417 beliefs,61,72 bigamy,315,328 bilateral descent,315,328 bourgeoisie,87,93 bureaucracies,130,134 C cancer cluster,453,469 capital flight,214,223 capitalism,402,417 career inheritance,407,417 carrying capacity,455,469 case study,44,47 caste system,193,204 casual crowds,479,492 category,123,134 centenarians,281,300 charismatic authority,381,390 chattel slavery,221,223 class,193,204 class consciousness,88,93 class system,193,204 class traits,199,204 clear division of labor,131,134 climate change,467,469 code of ethics,46,47 498INDEX

PAGE 501

coercive organizations,131,134 cohabitation,314,328 cohort,280,300 collective behavior,479,492 collective conscience,86,93 commodification,439,440 commodities,397,417 concentric zone model,460,469 conflict theory,19,24,146 conformity,129,134 conspicuous consumption,204,204 constitutional monarchies,382,390 content analysis,46,47 contested illnesses,427,440 continuity theory,296,300 control group,47 control theory,154 conventional crowds,479,492 convergence theory,406,417 core nations,214,223 cornucopian theory,455,469 corporate crime,151,154 corrections system,154,154 correlation,39,47 countercultures,67,72 court,153,154 credentialism,366,370 crime,150,154 criminal justice system,153,154 crowd,479,492 cults,343,350 cultural capital,365,370 cultural deviance theory,146,154 cultural imperialism,59,73 cultural relativism,59,73 cultural transmission,361,370 cultural universals,57,73 culture,56,73 culture lag,69,73 culture of prejudice,235,248 culture shock,59,73 cyberfeminism,178,179 D davis-moore thesis,202,204 debt accumulation,216,223 debt bondage,221,223 degradation ceremony,112,113 deindustrialization,214,223 demedicalization,439,440 democracy,385,390 democratic leader,134 democratic leaders,128 demographic transition theory,455,469 demography,454,469 denomination,344,350 dependency ratio,284,300 dependency theory,222,223 dependent variable,35 dependent variables,47 depression,407,417 design patent,167 design patents,179 INDEX499

PAGE 502

deviance,142,154 diagnostic framing,486,492 dictatorship,384,390 differential association theory,149,154 diffusion,70,73 digital divide,165,179 disability,434,440 discoveries,69,73 discrimination,232,248 disengagement theory,296,300 doing gender,265,270 dominant,231 dominant group,248 double standard,270 downward mobility,198,204 dramaturgical analysis,21,24 dyad,127,134 dynamic equilibrium,18,24 dysfunctions,18,24 E e-readiness,165,179 e-waste,464,469 ecclesia,344,350 economy,397,417 education,358,370 elder abuse,293,300 emergent norm theory,480,492 empirical evidence,32,47 endogamous,193 endogamous marriages,204 environmental racism,468,469 environmental sociology,462,469 established sects,343,350 ethnicity,231,248 ethnocentrism,58,73 ethnography,42,47 evolutionary model of technological change,168,179 exchange theory,299,300 exogamous,193 exogamous marriages,204 experiment,44,47 explicit rules,131,134 expressive crowds,479,492 expressive function,134 expressive functions,123 expressive leader,134 expressive leaders,127 expulsion,236,248 extended family,318,328 exurbs,458,469 F false consciousness,88,93 family,313,328 family life course,317,328 family life cycle,316,328 family of orientation,313,328 family of procreation,313,328 fertility rate,454,469 feudal societies,84,93 field research,38,47 500INDEX

PAGE 503

figuration,12,24 filial piety,284,300 first world,213,223 flash mob,479,492 folkways,63,73 formal education,360,370 formal norms,62,73 formal organizations,130,134 formal sanctions,144,154 fourth world,213,223 frame alignment process,487,492 function,18,24 functionalism,18,24 G gatekeeping,177,179 gender,256,270 gender identity,257,259,270 gender role,259,270 generalizability,134 generalized other,102,113 genocide,236,248 gentrification,460,469 geriatrics,285,300 gerontocracy,293,300 gerontology,278,300 gerotranscendence,300,301 global assembly lines,409,417 global cities,408,417 global commodity chains,409,417 global feminization,216,223 global inequality,212,223 global stratification,200,205,212,223 globalization,70,73 grade inflation,366,370 grand theories,17,24 grief,290,301 gross national income,214 gross national income (gni),223 group,122,134 H habitualization,91,93 hate crimes,151,154 hawthorne effect,36,47 head start program,367,370 hidden curriculum,108,113,365,370 hierarchy of authority,131,134 high culture,66,73 homophobia,258,270 horticultural societies,83,93 hospice,291,301 human ecology,460,470 hunter-gatherer,82 hunter-gatherer societies,93 hypothesis,34,47 I ideal culture,61,73 impairment,434,440 impersonality,132,134 in-group,124,134 INDEX501

PAGE 504

income,192,205 independent variables,35,47 individual mandate,436,440 industrial societies,93 informal education,360,370 informal norms,62,73 informal sanctions,144,155 information societies,85,93 innovation,69 innovations,73 institutionalization,91,93 instrumental function,123,134 instrumental leader,127,134 intergenerational mobility,198,205 interpretive framework,35,47 intersection theory,235,248 interview,38,47 intimate partner violence (ipv),325,328 intragenerational mobility,199,205 inventions,69,73 iron cage,89,93 iron rule of oligarchy,132,134 K kinship,315,328 knowledge gap,165,179 L labeling theory,147,155 laissez-faire leader,128,134 language,65,73 latent functions,18,24 leadership function,127,134 leadership style,134 leadership styles,128 legal codes,150,155 legitimation,438,441 liberation theology,348,350 life course,285,301 life expectancy,281,301 literature review,34,48 looking-glass self,92,93 M macro-level,17,24 malthusian theory,455,470 manifest functions,18,24 market socialism,404,418 marriage,313,328 mass,480,492 mass media,109 master status,147,155 material culture,57,73 matrilineal,315 matrilineal descent,328 matrilocal residence,316,328 mcdonaldization,135 mcdonaldization of society,132 mechanical solidarity,86,93 media,180 media globalization,172,179 medical sociology,427,441 502INDEX

PAGE 505

medicalization,432,441 medicalization of deviance,439,441 megachurch,349,350 megalopolis,459,470 mercantilism,400,418 meritocracies,132 meritocracy,135,193,205 metropolis,459,470 micro-level theories,17,24 minority group,231,248 model minority,243,248 modernization,491,492 modernization theory,222,223,298,301 monarchy,382,390 money,399,418 monogamy,314,328 monotheism,344,350 mood disorders,433,441 moral development,103,113 mores,63,73 mortality rate,454,470 motivational framing,487,492 mutualism,405,418 N narcotizing dysfunction,176 nature,104,113 negative sanctions,144,155 neo-luddites,178,180 new media,169,180 new social movement theory,488,492 nimby,469,470 no child left behind act,368,370 nonmaterial culture,57,73 nonreactive,46 nonreactive research,48 nonviolent crimes,151,155 normative or voluntary organizations,135 normative organizations,131 norms,62,73 nuclear family,318,328 nurture,104,113 O oligarchy,383,390 one person, one vote,387,390 operational definition,34 operational definitions,48 organic solidarity,86,93 out-group,124,135 outsourcing,412,418 P panoptic surveillance,177,180 paradigms,17,24 participant observation,41,48 pastoral societies,83,93 patrilineal,315 patrilineal descent,328 patrilocal residence,316,329 patrimonialism,381,390 peer group,107,113 INDEX503

PAGE 506

peripheral nations,214,223 personality disorders,433,441 physician-assisted suicide,290,301 planned obsolescence,166,180 plant patents,167,180 pluralism,237,248 polarization,413,418 police,153,155 politics,386,390 pollution,463,470 polyandry,314,329 polygamy,314,329 polygyny,314,329 polytheism,344,350 popular culture,67,73 population,37,48 population composition,454,470 population pyramid,454,470 positive sanctions,144,155 positivism,14,24 power,379,390 power elite,146,155 prejudice,232,248 primary aging,286,301 primary data,38,48 primary deviance,147,155 primary groups,123,135 primogeniture,194,205 private health care,436,441 prognostic framing,486,492 proletariat,87,93 public,480,492 public health care,436,441 Q qualitative data,38,48 qualitative sociology,15,24 quantitative data,38,48 quantitative sociology,15,24 queer theory,270 R racial steering,233,248 racism,232,248 random sample,38,48 rational-legal authority,381,390 rationalization,89,93 real culture,61,73 recession,407,418 reference group,125 reference groups,135 reform movements,484,492 relative poverty,217,223 reliability,33,48 religion,338,351 religious beliefs,338,351 religious experience,338,351 religious rituals,339,351 religious/redemptive movements,484,492 representative democracy,385,390 research design,48 resistance movements,484,492 504INDEX

PAGE 507

resocialization,112,113 resource mobilization theory,486,492 revolutionary movements,484,492 role conflict,92,94 role performance,92,94 role strain,92,94 role-set,92,94 roles,91,94 S sample,37 samples,48 sanction,61 sanctions,73,144,155 sapir-whorf hypothesis,65,73 scapegoat theory,231,248 scientific method,48 second world,213,223 secondary aging,286,301 secondary data analysis,45,48 secondary deviance,147,155 secondary groups,123,135 sect,343,351 segregation,236,248 selective optimization with compensation theory,299,301 self,102,114 self-fulfilling prophecy,91,94 self-report study,152,155 semi-peripheral nations,214,223 senescence,291,301 services,398,418 sex,256,270 sex ratio,454,470 sexism,262,270 sexual orientation,257,270 sexuality,266,270 shaken-baby syndrome,327,329 sick role,438,441 social change,489,492 social construction of race,230,248 social control,61,73,143,155 social disorganization theory,145,155 social epidemiology,429,441 social facts,18,24 social gerontology,278,301 social integration,86,94 social mobility,198,205 social movement,492 social movement industry,486,492 social movement organization,486,492 social movement sector,486,492 social movements,482 social order,143,155 social placement,363,371 social solidarity,17,24 social stratification,191,205 socialism,403,418 socialization,100,114 socialized medicine,437,441 society,56,73,82 sociological imagination,10,24 sociology,10,24 sorting,364,371 INDEX505

PAGE 508

standard of living,195,205 status,92,94 status consistency,194,205 stereotype interchangeability,435,441 stereotypes,232,248 stigmatization,434,441 stigmatization of illness,427,441 strain theory,145,155 street crime,151,155 structural mobility,199,205 structural unemployment,416,418 subculture,67 subculture of aging theory,299,301 subcultures,73 subjective poverty,218,224 subordinate,231 subordinate group,248 subsistence farming,401,418 suburbs,458,470 survey,36 surveys,48 symbolic interactionism,21,24 symbols,64,73 T technological diffusion,174,180 technological globalization,172,180 technology,164,180 technophiles,178,180 thanatology,290,301 theory,17,24 third world,213,224 thomas theorem,91,94 total institution,135 total institutions,131 totalitarian dictatorship,385,390 totemism,344,351 tracking,365,371 traditional authority,381,390 transgender,259,271 transsexuals,259,271 triad,127,135 U underemployment,416,418 underground economy,218,224 underinsured,436,441 unilateral descent,315,329 universal access,361,371 universal health care,437,441 upward mobility,198,205 urban sociology,457,470 urbanization,457,470 utilitarian organizations,131,135 utility patents,167,180 V validity,33,48 value neutrality,47,48 value-added theory,480,492 values,61,73 verstehen,15,25 506INDEX

PAGE 509

victimless crime,151,155 violent crimes,151,155 voluntary organizations,131 W wealth,192,205 white flight,459,470 white privilege,233,248 X xenocentrism,59,73 xenophobia,409,418 Z zero population growth,455,470 INDEX507