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PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grades 2 6 The simple definition is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip (3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov Materials are provided by NASA Education Specialist. The following second grade standards are addressed: Reading L1.SPL.2 The learner will be able to a pply phonemic awareness to spel l (Example: Fancy word for robotic arm is end effector) SL.2.1a Follow agreed upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). SL.2.1b. Build on others talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. SL2.1c Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and text under discussion. Math CCM 2.MD.2 Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the uni t chosen (Example: Measure the strings in inches and centimeters and explain why the centimeter measurement is a bigger number than the inches measurement) CCM 2.MD.10 Dr aw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put together, take apart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph. (Example: pick up 4 different objects with the robotic arm and make a bar graph showing the mass of each object) SMP3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. (Example: During the conclusion phase of the activity, explain the causes of the limitations on the total amount of weight that can be lifted SMP6 Attend to precision. (Practiced throughout completing the hands on procedures) PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 778 1600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Science S2.REI.2 The l earner will be able to use scientific equipment safely and appropriately (e.g. magnifying glass, ruler, thermometer). (Example: in this activity, using a ruler) S2.REI.1 The learner will be able to develop a problem and solve it individually or in groups doing different things that contribute to the results. ( Example: trial and error to build the device to grab and hold larger masses shapes, etc.) Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edges by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of the cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. W hile holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the three strings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. P ress the tape on the outside to hold the strings. PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 778 1600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 1. Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effector so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effecto r over the pencil s o that the pencil extends down the center and not through any of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 2. You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can be held? Design a standard grapple fixture that can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students h ave for improving their grapple fixtures. Assessment worksheet Engineering Worksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are there? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? PAGE 4 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 778 1600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grade 2 Materials and implementation assistance are provided by NASA education specialist. Call 778 1600x7507 The simple definition for engineering is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip ( 3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov Materials are provided by NASA Education Specialist. The following second grade standards are addressed: VI Science Standards practiced : S2.REI.2 The learner will be able to use scientific equipment safely and appropriately ( magnifying glass, ruler, thermometer). (Example: in this activity, using a ruler) S2.REI.1 The learner will be able to develop a problem and solve it individually or in groups doing different things that contribute to the results. (Example: trial and error to build the device to grab and hold larger masses, shapes, etc.) Common Core State St andards practiced in this activity here Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil dictionary PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edges by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of the cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. While holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the three strings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. Press the tape on the outside to hold the strings. 6 Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effecto r so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effector over the pencil s o that the pencil extends down the center and no t through any of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 7 You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can be held? Design a standard grapple fixture that can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students have for improving their grapple fixtures. Assessment worksheet Engineering Worksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are t here? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? Math Standards CCM 2.MD.2 Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen (Example: Measure the strings in inches and centimeters and explain why the centimeter measurement is a bigger number than the inches measurement) CCM 2.MD.10 Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single uni t scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put together, take apart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph. (Example: pick up 4 different objects with the robotic arm and make a bar graph showing the mass of each object) SMP3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. (Example: During the conclusion phase of the activity, explain the causes of the limitations on the total amount of weight that can be lifted SMP6 Attend to precision. (Practiced throughout completing the hands on procedures) PAGE 4 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library English and Language Arts L1.SPL.2 The learner will be able to apply phonemic awareness to spell (Example: term for robot ic arm is end effector) SL.2.1a Follow agreed upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). SL.2.1b. Build on others talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. SL2.1c Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and text under discussion. PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grade 3 The simple definition for engineering is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip ( 3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov Materials and implementation assistance are provided by NASA education specialist. Call 778 1600x7507 VI Science Standard s practiced : S.3PHS.1 The learner will be able to describe and compare the different forms of energy. The student knows the many ways in which energy can be transformed from one type to another. The student knows that heat can be produced by chemical reactions, electrical machines, and friction. Common Core State Standards practiced in the activity here Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil dictionary PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edges by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of th e cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. While holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the thr ee strings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. Press the tape on the outside to hold the strings. 6 Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effector so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effector over the pencil s o that the pencil extends down the center and no t through any of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 7 You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can be held? Design a standard grapple f ixture that can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students have for improving their grapple fixtures. Assessment worksheet Engi neering Worksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are there? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? Math Standards CCM 3.NF.3c Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. CCM 3.MD.4 Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units whole numbers, halv es, or quarters. CCM 3.OA.8 Solve two step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. nearest 10 or 100. English and Language Arts SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one onone, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others. c Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. SL.3.6 Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and s ituation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. PAGE 4 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grade 4 Materials and implementation assistance are provided by NASA education specialist. Call 778 1600x7507 The simple definition for engineering is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip (3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov Materials are provided by NASA Education Specialist. The following third grade standards are addressed: VI Science Standards practiced : S4.PHS.3 The learner will be able to recall that energy is transferred when objects interact. S4.PHS.4 The learner will be able to d emonstrate relationships among motion, force, and transformation of energy. Common Core St ate Standards practiced in the activity here Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil dictionary PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edges by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of the cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. While holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the three str ings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. Press the tape on the outside to hold the strings. 6. Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effector so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effector over the pencil s o that the pencil extends down the center and no t through a ny of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 7. You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can be held? Design a standard grapple fixture th at can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students have for improving their grapple fixtures. Assessment worksheet Engineering W orksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are there? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? Math Standards CCM 4.OA. Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimat ion strategies including rounding. CCM 4.NF.3a Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. English and Language Arts L4.LEX.9 The learner will be able to use/write grammatically correct, effective sentences. PAGE 4 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grade 5 Materials and implementation assistance are provided by NASA education specialist. Call 778 1600x7507 The simple definition for engineering is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip ( 3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov VI Science Standards practiced : S5.REI.1 The learner will be able to develop a problem, design and solution using scientific inquiry and technological design. S5.REI.2 The learner will be able to investigate careers in science S5.REI.3 The learner will be able to prepare reports utilizing various media. Common Core State Standards practiced in this activity here Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil D ictionary PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edg es by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of the cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. While holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the three strings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. Press the tape on the outside to ho ld the strings. 6 Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effector so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effector over the pencil s o that the penc il extends down the center and no t through any of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 7 You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can b e held? Design a standard grapple fixture that can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students have for improving their grapple fi xtures. Assessment worksheet Engineering Worksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are there? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? Math Standards SMP1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. SMP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. SMP3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. SMP4 Model with mathematics. SMP5 Use appropriate tools strategically. SMP6 Attend to precision. SMP7 Look for and make use of structure. SMP8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. English and Language Arts RF.5.3a Use combined knowledge of all letter sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. W.5.1b Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. W.5.1c Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g. consequently, specifically). W.5.1d Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. W.5.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. PAGE 1 Curriculum Center Library & NASA ERC RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library What is Engineering? Grade 6 Materials and implementation assistance are provided by NASA education specialist. Call 778 1600x7507 The simple definition for engineering is to plan and construct something for a purpose. Students will see short videoclip ( 3 minutes) of a robotic arm in space ://www.nasa.gov/mov/329198main_Robotic_Arm.mov Materials are provided by NASA Education Specialist. The following third grade standards are addressed: VI Science Standards practiced : S6 .PHS.8 The learner will be able to explain the various ways in which energy can be transferred. S6.REI.1 The learner will be able to develop a problem, and design a solution that uses technology. S6.REI.2 The learner will be able to identify the careers that utilize technology and science in the community. S6.REI.3 The learner will b e able to prepare reports utilizing various media. S6.REI.3 The learner will be able to prepare reports utilizing various media. Common Core State Standards practiced in this activity here Materials needed Styrofoam coffee cups (2 each) String Cellophane tape Scissors Plastic picnic knives (serrated) 12 oz plastic bottles Water Balance Graph paper Pencil D ictionary PAGE 2 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTM ENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library Procedure: 1. Nest the two cups together and cut through both cups where indicated in the diagram by the dashed line. Smooth the cut edges by scraping them with the picnic knife edge. 2. Cut three pieces of string 12 centimeters long each. 3. Tape the end of the first string to the inside of the inner coffee cup just below the cut edge. Tape the other end of the string to the outside of the cup but do not press this piece of tape tightly yet. 4. Repeat step 3 twice more, but place the strings about 1/3 of the way (120 degrees) around the cup from the first string. 5. While holding the rim of the inner cup, rotate the outer cup until the three strings cross each other. The strings will have some slack. Pull the end of the strings on the outside until they are straight and intersect exactly in the middle of the opening. Press the tape on the outside to ho ld the strings. 6 Use the robotic arm end effector to pick up an object such as a pencil. Have someone hold a pencil upright. Open your end effector so that the strings are not crossing each other. Slip the end effector over the pencil s o that the penc il extends down the center and no t through any of the loops. Rotate the outer cup until the strings grasp the pencil. Pick up the pencil. 7 You may find that the pencil is too slippery to be held securely. How might you modify the pencil so that it can b e held? Design a standard grapple fixture that can be mounted to other objects so that they can be picked up. Assessment: Review the tables or charts created by your students. Pay special attention to the ideas students have for improving their grapple fi xtures. Assessment worksheet Engineering Worksheet 1. What two types of units are found on your ruler? 2. Find the centimeter side, how many total are there? How many inches does that equal? 3. How could you increase the amount of weight that your robot hand can hold? 4. What types of materials cannot be picked up by this type of hand? 5. Use the graph space below to show the mass of each object lifted. PAGE 3 VIRGIN ISLANDS DEPARTM ENT OF EDUCATION Curriculum Center RR # 1 POB 9296 Kingshill, VI 00850 9718 (340) 7781600 (340) 7785724 FAX Curriculum Center Library 6. How could you change the object being lifted to make it easier to grasp? Math Standards 6.NS.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. 6.EE.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. English and Language Arts W.6.3e Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. W.6.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 