Solar project description for Perl-Mack Enerprises' single family residences, Denver, Colorado

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Material Information

Title:
Solar project description for Perl-Mack Enerprises' single family residences, Denver, Colorado
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 1015/79/50
Added title page title:
Perl-Mack Enterprises' single family residences, Denver, Colorado
Physical Description:
iv, 46 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Boeing Company
United States -- Dept. of Energy
United States -- Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Colorado -- Denver   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Colorado -- Denver   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007725
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Aug. 21, 1979.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under contract number H-2372 ; by the Boeing Company.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022601836
oclc - 05934767
System ID:
AA00013864:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Figures
        Page iii
    National solar data program reports
        Page iv
    1. Foreword
        Page 1
    2. Executive summary
        Page 2
        Page 3
    3. Site and building description
        Page 4
        Page 5
    4. Solar system description
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    5. Performance evaluation instrumentation
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    6. Cost data
        Page 40
    Appendix A. Glossary
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Appendix B. Legend for solar system schematics
        Page 46
    Back Cover
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text
SOLAR/lOl 5/79150



Solar Project Description



PERL-MACK ENTERPRISES'
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES
Denver, Colorado
August 21,1979











U.S. Department of Energy
National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program
National Solar Data Program




7


















NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.


Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $4.50
Microfiche $3.00





Solar/ 10 15/79/50 Distribution Category UC-59







SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION FOR
PERL-MACK ENTERPRISES'
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES DENVER, COLORADO






















Prepared for the
Department of Housing and Urban Development

Under Contract Number H-2372
David Moore Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager

By

The Boeing Company David Beers Program Manager








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

1. FOREWORD .......................................... I

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .. ............................... 2

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION ....... 4

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ............................ 6

A. General Overview ................ .............. 6

B. Collector Subsystem ................................ 8

C. Storage Subsystem .................................. 16

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem ........................... 19

E. Auxiliary Subsystem........ ...................... 22

F. Modesof Operation........ .... ...... .. ....... 24

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION.......... 27

A. The National Solar Data Network ...................... 27

B. On-Site Instrumentation .............................. 30
Vl. COST DATA .......................................... 3

Vll. APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . 3

A. Glossary ..................... . . . . 35

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics... 39











ii







LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Title Page

IV-A- I General Overview ................................. 6

IV-B- I Collector Subsystem ............................... 8

IV-C- I Storage Subsystem ................................. 16

IV-D- I Energy-to-Load Subsystem .............. 19

IV-E- I Auxiliary Subsystem .... .. ............ ...... ... 22

IV-F- I Controls Diagram .9.............. .. ....... .... 24

V-A-I The National Solar Data Network ............ ........... 28

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network ........ 29 V-B-I Sensor and Control Diagram gr.... .......... 33












111 o








NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS


Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a specific format. For example, this report for Perl-Mak Enterprises project site is designated as SOLAR/1015-79/50. The elements of this designation ore explained in the following illustration:


SOLAR/ 10 15-79/50


Prepared for the Report Type
National Solar 4 L lo Designation
Data Program


Demonstration Site -0 lo Year
Number


Demonstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number 1000 through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


Report Type Designation:
This number identifies the type of report, e-g.,


Monthly Performance Reports -- designated by the numbers 01
(for January) through 12 (for December);
Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations designated by
the number 14;
Solar Project Descriptions designated by the number 50; 0 Solar Project Cost Reports designated by the number 60.


These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.




iv






1. FOREWORD

The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. AnGnalysis and synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as:


0 Solar Project Description.

0 Operational Experience.

0 System Performance Evaluation.

0 Monthly Performance Reports.


Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such as the project proposal, designer specifications, grantee submittals, manufacturer literature, photographs, specific "os-built" data and other project documentation VolIable. The remaining reports in this series will utilize the Solar Project Description for supporting reference.






1I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The following are the major solar energy descriptors:


0 Collector Type Liquid
0 Freeze Protection Yes, using water-glycole mixture as heat
transfer medium.

0 Application Single family house and domestic hot water 0 Storage Water/glycol storage tank, 945 gallon capacity

0 New or Retrof it New

0 Performance Evaluation Instrumentation Yes

0 Site-Specific Features Two identical solar systems installed
on two adjacent houses, both are instrumented and monitored
by one Site Acquisition Data System (SDAS).

The PerI-Mack Enterprises Co. (Grant H-2783) solar energy system(s) are installed in a total of 25 single family dwellings located in Denver, Colorado. The 25 dwellings are of three different configurations, hereafter referred to as plan #246, plan #247 and plan 1/248. The following table shows general differences of the dwellings and their plans:


Plan #246 Plan #247 Plan #248


No. of units 10 10 5


Type of Dwelling Ranch Tri-level Two story


Total living
area sq. ft. 2679 2609 2327


Solar Collector
Area sq. f t. 426 406 365


Calculated heat
load total
MBtu 100.64 98.86 91.66





Two of the twenty-five dwellings (one plan #246 and one plan #247) have been fully instrumented for performance monitoring and evaluation since September 1977.
All the solar systems are designed to provide approximately 69 percent of the space heating and energy requirements for each dwelling. The data provided in this
report is for the system used on plan #247.


Solar energy is collected by an array of flat plate collectors having a gross area Of 470 square feet. The array(s) is roof mounted and generally oriented 100 west of
South and at an angle of 300 to the horizontal.


A water-glycol mixture is used as the medium for delivering solar heat from the collection to the storage tank. The storage tank has a total capacity of 945 gallons. A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger, within the storage tank, transfers the stored heat from the transfer medium to the domestic hot water tank of the house.


Space heating demands are met by circulating heated water/glycol mixture from the storage tank through the heat exchanger coil installed downstream from the auxiliary furnace blower. The auxiliary gas-fired furnace is activated whenever
room thermostat demands heat.


Preheating of domestic hot water is provided by circulating the incoming citywater through a 40 gallon preheat tank immersed in the storage tank. A tempering valve regulates hot water temperature supplied to the house by mixing the hot water from a 40 gallon gas-fired hot water heater, the main source of domestic hot water, with the incoming city-water. The supply water to the gas-fired domestIc hot water tank is heated in the storage tank by the use of a double wall heat exchanger. The gas-fired hot water tank is activated whenever hot water
temperature drops below 1400 F.













3



al






111. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Site Description

o Topography Flat

0 Latitude -390 N 0 Longitude 105 0

0 Elevation 5280 feet

Annual degree days (65 0 F base)

Heating 6016 Insolation

Data location Denver, Colorado,

Data reference Local Climatological Data Annual
Summaries, Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration

Average horizontal insolation

January 959 It/t day
0 July 2362 Btu/ft 2/day

Data location Denver, Colorado

Data reference ASI-IRAE System Handbook Building Description

0 Occupancy

0 Single family detotched

0 Family of four

0 Three bedroom, living/dining room, kitchen, 2 bathrooms

0 Total area Approximately 2650 square feet

0 Solar conditioned area 2500 square feet

0 Height 1- 1/2 story, 14 feet

0 Roof slope at collector 30 0 pitch 0 Special features Ventilated attic





4





Mechanical System

0 Heating

0 Solar Liquid active

0 Auxiliary Gas fired furnace 0 Distribution Hot air ducting Domestic Hot Water

Preheat tank Double heat exchanger located in solar storage tank

Auxiliary 40 gallon gas fired water heater

0 Maximum recovery rate 37 gal/hr





































5






IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


A. General Overview


This single family swelling solar demonstration project (Perl-Mack Enterprises Co., Grant H-2783), located at Denver, Colorado, is a liquid active system utilized for heating and domestic hot water. Auxiliary units are provided for space heating, and domestic hot water.


Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary subsystem. Specific details of the operating modes and controls are described in the final section. Figure IV-A- I is a system schematic diagram.

V-3 SN-3 LOOP-5
N-1 SUPPLY AIR FURN-1 COLLECTOR HX-2
COL-1 CMS-2
RETU AIR
LOOP- ---/EXP, TANK


P 1 A IRV 3 J V 4
SCOOP / LOOP-2 C.W.
F2, LOPUPPLY





- -DWH-1





TOCOLLECTOR STORAGE I LOADNUNIT




COLETOOIRAGE LOAD

SSUBSYSTEM UBSYSTE SUBSYSTEM


Figure IV-A-1I. General Overview


6








B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure lV-B- 1)










V-3


COLLECTOR .....
COL- *I ....
COL-10 I 0:
I I I I ,-*







V-1


OIR



IF -I




- --- -




AG4 0 ......---.
UNIT



-4
01
V-3 *








Figure~~ IVB 1. Colco-usse






Collcto aray onsstsof 0 dubl glzedfla plte ollcto poels f eez

protection ~~ ~ ~ is prvddb s fwtr/lcla ettasermdu5troh










Figur sVysteColctrmubyse

















7






Collector (COL- 1)

0 Manufacturer American Helio Thermal Corp.

0 Model Name/Number Miromit No. 205

0 Type Liquid flat plate

0 Location Roof

0 Orientation 9 0 east of South

0 Tilt angle 30 0 from the horizontal

0 Number of collector panels 20

0 Collector enclosure

0 Total gross area of array 416 square feet

0 Net aperture area 406 square feet d New absorber area 360 square feet

0 Weight per panel, empty 212 pounds

0 Weight per panel, full 220 pounds

0 Weight of f i lied array and support structure 4400
pounds

0 Panel length 79.5 inches 0 Panel width 42.1 inches 0 Frame depth 4.3 inches

0 Standoff height- None

0 Glazing (cover plate)

0 Number of cover plates One

0 Location Outer layer











8






0 Cover plate No. I Outer

0 Manufacturer ASG Industries Inc.

0 Product Name/Number Low iron glass

0 Material ,- Low iron

0 Thickness 0. 187 inches

0 Coating None

0 Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region)

Transmittance 91% 89%

Ref lectance 9% 8%

Emittance 93%-0 Edge or surface treatment Mechanical, ground

0 Coating on cover plate material None

0 Absorber

0 Manufacturer Mirmit Ashkelton Metal Products Ltd.

0 Model Name/Number Collector model 205

0 Material Steel plates, cold rolled, mild steel

0 Substrate material size Thickness .394, length 75.0 width 34.6
inches

0 Coating

-Black nickel over zinc

-Application Electro plated

0 Heat transfer fluid passages

0 Location of fluid passages Beneath absorber

0 Fluid passage pattern Parallel

0 Fluid passage material Steel

0 Fluid passage bond to substrate Mechanical

0 Protective coating inside fluid passage Galvanized




9






o Frame

o Protective coating No

o Number of structural attachments 2

o Structure Frame is not part of load supporting structure

o Dessicant None

o Freeze protection Water/glycol

o Overheating protection Hot liquid is pumped to collectors. Liquid Circulation Loop No. I (COL-l to HX-I)

o Design maximum operating temperature 2000 F

o Heating design liquid flow

o Maximum 12 gal/min

o Heat transfer medium

o Volume of liquid in lobp 40 gallons

o Anticipated liquid temperature

Maximum 2000 F

Minimum 900 F

o Provisions for expansion 60 gallons (expansion
and volume)


o Heat transfer medium Water/glycol at 50-50 of total
volume

o Manufacturer Dow Chemical

o Product Name/Number Dow Frost

o Specific heat 0.86 Btu/Ib OF

o Density 65 lb/ft3

o Heat capacity 55.5 Btu/ft3/OF @ 700F, @ Std, Atm. Press.

o Boiling point 2250 F





10





0 Viscosity 1.0 to 3.0 (over working range) poises/100
0
0 Freezing point minus 25 F

0 Maximum recommended use temperature 3000 F

0 Minimum recommended use temperature minus 250 F

0 Toxicity Potable

0 pH factor 10

0 Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor None

0 Inhibitor Yes

0 Piping

0 Rigid Copper type L

0 Insulation None

0 Location Above grade

0 Connection type Soldered 95-5 (Tin-Antimony)

0 Finish None

0 Circulator pump (P- 1)

0 Manufacturer Bell and Gossett 0 Model Name/Number 1522 IS

0 Type Centrifugal

Dynamic pressure 12 psi

Temperature 2300 F

0 Material exposed to heat transfer fluid Bross impeller

0 Motor size .25 hp, 115 volts, I phase, 60Hz

0 Maximum motor speed 1750 rpm

0 Drive Direct 0 Speed Single

0 Pump speed 1750 rpm






0 Circulating volume

Low head mode 12 gal/min

0 Operating head (dynamic)

Low head mode 12 psi

0 Motor operation .25 bph

0 Distribution valve W-0

0 Manufacturer TACO

0 Model Name/Number 7g3

0 Function Flow adjusting

0 Operation Manual and automatic

0 Type Ball

0 Rated operating conditions 125 psi, 250 0 F

0 Material exposed to heat transfer medium Bron.

0 Distribution valve W-2)

0 Function ON-OFF 0 Operation Manual

0 Type Gate

0 Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid Brass

0 Distribution valve W-3)

0 Function ON-OFF 0 Operation Manual

0 Type Gate

Control Mode Selector (CMS-0

0 Manufacturer Solar Controls Corporation

0 Model Name/Number 77620







12






o Modes controlled

o Collector to storage

ON (SN-01) higher than (SN-02) +10 F

OFF (SN-0I) higher than (SN-02) + 20 F

o Storage to space

ON (SN-03) equal or less than set temperature and (SN-02) higher than 900 F OFF (SN-02) less than 900 F, or, (SN-03) higher than setting

o Auxiliary furnace

ON (SN-03Jless or equal to setting, and (SN-02) less than 90 F

OFF (SN-03) less or equal to setting and (SN-02) larger than 900 F, or (SN-03) larger than setting o Sensors (SN- I) and (SN-2)

o Manufacturer Solar Controls

o Product Name/Number

o Type Temperature, Thermister Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (TSU-1, HX-1)

o Design maximum operating conditions

o Temperature 2000 F

o Pressure 6 psig

o Heating design liquid flow 40 gal/min maximum

o Design pump speed 1750 rpm

o Heat transfer medium

o Volume of liquid in loop 2 gallons

o Medium 100% water






13







0 Anticipated liquid temperatures

Maximum 2000 F

-Minimum -900 F

0 Provision to expansion Storage open to atmosphere

0 Inhibitor

Manufacturer Dow Chemical

Product Name/Number Dow Guard, 12%

0 pH Factor 7.0

0 Chemical feeder No

0 Piping

0 Connection Soldered

0 Insulation None

0 Location Above grade

0 Strainer 2 inch, cast iron Heat Exchanger (HX- I)

0 Manufacturer Young Radiator

0 Model Name/Number F-504-EY-IP 0 Type of exchanger Liquid-to-liquid

0 Type of flow Counter

0 Heat exchanger design Shell and tube

0 Number of separations Single

0 External exposed surface area 6 ft 2

0 Convection

0 Side one Forced 0 Side two Forced

0 Heating design capacity 50,000 Btu/hr





14





0 Effectiveness 75% at 2 gal/min of Pump (P-0

0 Material Brass admiralty

0 Part of circulation loop Loop I and loop 2

0 Length of tubing without fins 550 ft.

0 Diameter of tubing 25 inch

0 Overall configuration- 180 tubes, .25 inch diameter,
3 inch long, single pass

0 Overall heat transfer coefficient UA 250

0 Circulator pump (P-2)

0 Manufacturer Bell and Gossett

0 Model Name/Number Series 2 inch

0 Type Centrifugal

0 Maximum operating conditions

Dynamic pressure 4.4 psi

Temperature 2000 F

0 Material exposed to heat transfer fluid Cast iron

0 Motor size 0. 17 hp, 115 volts, I phase, 60 Hz

0 Maximum motor speed 1750 rpm

0 Drive Direct

0 Speed Single

0 Pump speed 1750 rpm

0 Circulating volume

Low head mode 40 gal/min

0 Operating head (dynamic)

Low head mode 3.5 psi

0 Motor operation .25 bhp





o Flow Control (FC-I)

o Manufacturer Bell and Gossett

o Product Name/Number SA 1.25 inch

o Type Check

o Fail Safe Control (FC-2)

o Manufacturer Cash Acme

o Product Name/Number FWL-2

o Type Pressure relief/temperature relief o Fail Safe Control (FC-4)

o Manufacturer Penn Controls

o Product Name/Number A I 9ABC- I I
































t6





C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C- I)





".. .. ... .
4. I 4 II ;. .. ;
... .......... ,..






.V. ......... .
: ,.,.. ..................,
;>. '4





............N --'-' -,- -------- ------.


.... 0.0 I

." TSU-, I

'. 3........ ....
I -- 4
4 4 -TR G I'

.4~ ~~~ ------ 4--------------i4








i ~~SUBSYSTEM "">


Figure IV-C-I. Storage Subsystem





Solar energy storage is provided by a 124 cubic feet storage tank. This tank is made of concrete, fiberglass and wood with epoxy interior lining. It measures S feet by 5 feet and 4.5 feet high. A heat exchanger tank is installed within this

storage tank to provide preheated supply of water to the domestic hot water tank tempering valve.




17





Thermal Storage Unit (TSU- 1)

Container

0 Manufacturer Site built

0 Model Name/Number

0 Total storage volume 124 ft 3 Length 5.5 feet Width 5.0 feet Height 4.5 feet

0 Design heating operating temperatures Maximum 2000 F Minimum 90 0 F Storage medium

0 Medium 100% water

0 Inhibitor Trace

Manufacturer Drew Chemical Type Drewgard 100

0 Specific heat 1.000 Btu/ Ib 0 F

0 Density 62 Ib/f t 0
0
0 Boiling point 212 F 0 Freezing point 320 F

0 Maximum recommended use temperature 2 100 F

0 Toxicity Potable

0 pH Factor 7.0










18





0 Container construction

o Type

Cont-cete, 150 lb/ft3 density

Pine wood, plywood, studs

Glass f iber

0 Location In basement o Interior lining Epoxy 0 Auxiliary heaters No

Liquid Circulation Loop No. 4 (TSU- I to DHW- 1)

0 Maximum design operating temperature 2000 F

0 Heat transfer medium

0 Liquid volume in ioop 42 gallon

0 Anticipated liquid temperature

Maximum 2000 F

-Minimum 50F o Medium 100% water

o Specific heat 1.00 Btu/lb OF

0 Density 63 lb/ft3

0 Boiling point 212 0 F 0 Freezing point 320 F

0 Toxicity Potable

0 pH factor 7.0

0 Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor None

0 Inhibitor None









19




...... .............. ------ ................... ................ ..

0 Piping

0 Rigid Copper, type L

0 Insulation None

0 Location Above grade Heat Exchanger (HX-3)

0 Manufacturer American Appliance Mfg. Corp.

0 Model Name/Number 40-UJT

0 Type of exchanger Liquid-to-liquid

0 Type of flow Natural convection and main water pressure

0 Design flow rate Side one Natural convection Side two Hot water demand

0 Heat exchanger design Tank in tank

0 Number of separations One

0 Convection

0 Air side Forced

0 Liquid side Forced

0 Location Inside thermal storage tank

0 Heat transfer surface area 19.5 ft 2 (outside)

0 Heat transfer surface Glass (inside)

0 Distribution valve (V-5)

0 Function ON-OFF

0 Operation Automatic

0 Type -Float

0 Material exposed to heat transfer fluid Brass







20





o Distribution valve (V-6)

0 Function 3 way-tempering

0 Operation Automatic o Fail Safe Control (FC-3)

Manufacturer Cash-Acme

Produce Name/Number FWL-2

0 Type Pressure and temperature relief









































21





D. Energy To Load Subsystem (See Figure IV-D- I)







S AIR
FUN- X-2

/ AI

/
---------- / I


/ ....- ...... ..... U o,
., ,?. ,/ .V-4..VV-4
-,- I ~w

.9 .. .. ... --. 9 ___-'-"_________4__L
V / ~ UPPLY
/- I ..LOOP-4

,4~ 7 A,,.

% 00
------------ ------~ss. X.,.



.. *
".9 "- : "
------- -- - DW4-,igureJ~ IVDI nryt-~ usse
-D
















Solar derived thermal energy is supplied to the conditioned space and/or domestichot water from the solar storage whenever the temperature of the storage is sufficiently high. When solar energy is not available, a gas-fired furnace is activated to provide for space heating needs. As gas-fired domestic hot water tank provides hot water to a tempering valve where it is mixed with preheated water from a heat exchanger in the storage tank. This satisfies the domestic hot water



22





demand under all conditions. Down stream of the furnace fan, a heat exchanger, supplied by preheat water fromn storage tank, supplements the space heating requirements whenever furnace is activated. Liquid Circulation Loop No. 3 (TSU to DIST)

0 Maximum design operation conditions

o Temperature 2000 F

Pressure 6 psi

0 Design l iquid f low 10 gal/mmi (max)

0 Design pump speed 2620 rpm (max), 1900 rpm (min)

Volume of liquid in loop 3 gallons

0 Anticipated liquid temperature

-Maximum 2000 F

-Minimum -900 F o Expansion provision Storage open to atmosphere

0 Heat transfer medium

0 Medium 100% water

0 Specific heat 1.00OBtu/lb OF

0 Boiling point -2120 F 0 Freezing poing 320 F

o Maximum recommended use temperature 2 100 F

o Toxicity Potable

0 pH factor 7.0

0 Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor None

0 Inhibitor

-Manufacturer Drew Chemical Co.

-Model Name/Number Drewgard 100

-Quantity .12% (trace)



23





0 Piping

0 Copper Rigid, L 0 Insulation None

0 Location Above grade

0 Maximum operating temperature 2000 F Air Circulation Loop No. 5 (Space Heat TSU)

0 Ducting

Rigid ducting Aluminum

0 Location of ducting Above grade, inside building

Ducting joints Pressure sensitive tape Heat Exchanger (HX-2)

0 Manufacturer Brad and McClung-Pace

0 Model Name/Number 123W 16 s/2 x 27 RA 5/6

0 Type of flow -Counter, cross

0 Heat exchanger design Fin coil

0 Convection

0 Air side Forced

0 Liquid side Forced

0 Location In thermal storage

0 Heat transfer surface area

0 Rows 3

0 Fins 12 per inch

0 Face area 3.09 f t 2










24





" Material

0 Transfer surface

-Air side Aluminum -Liquid side Copper

-Other Galvanized steel o Heat transfer coef ficient 1600 UA o Design heating capacity 24,000 Btu/hr o Effectiveness 72% Design flow quantity

0 Air side 1200 CFM

0 Liquid side 10 gal/rnin o Number of circulators

0 Air side -BL-lI

0 Liquid side- P- 3 Circulator pump (P-3)

0 Manufacturer Grundfos

0 Model Name/Number UPS 20-42F

0 Type Centrifugal

0 Maximum operating conditions

-Dynamic pressure 6.5 psi

-Temperature 2300 F

o Material exposed to heat transfer f luid Stainless
steel impeller, cast iron body

0 Motor size 0.05 hp, 115 volts, I phase, 60 Hz

0 Maximum motor speed -2600 rpm

0 Drive Direct

0 Speed Multiple




25






0 Number of speeds two 0 Pump speed 2600 rpm

0 Circulating volume at low speed H

-Low head mode 13.5 gal/rnin

Operating heat (dynamic)

High head mode 4.33 psi

0 Circulating volume at high speed

Low head mode 22.5 gal/min

Operating head (dynamic)

High head mode 6.07 psi

o Distribution Valve (V-3)

0 Manufacturer Honeywell

0 Model Name/Number M 734K 10 14

0 Function ON-OFF o Operation Manual

0 Type Gate

0 Distribution Valve (V-4)

0 Function Drain

0 Operation Manual

0 Type -Ball

Control Mode Selector (CMS-2)

0 Modes controlled

0 Collector to storage

-ON

0 Storage to space

-ON

0 Storage to hot water

-ON

26






" Sensors (SN-3)

o Manufacturer Honeywell

0 Product Name/Number

o Type Temperature, Bimetallic strip Blower (BL-l1)

o Manufacturer RHEEM

0 Product Name/Number RGBA- I OOC

0 Fan type Squirrel cage

0 Maximum motor speed 1 745 rpm (single rpm)






































27






E. Auxiliary Subsystems





*S
CM-, -------/ '.4I --4


/ / .;,--------.-....---....-,.


'#4
- ; ..........
/ */:, ....v .......... -- " I -- ... ,4
; -------- r.








77 0 f 1 I* ., .4 I! ....... ..


-, --1
-11 /v I t 4







----- ---The / i w r /...- s.r ...... are. .the two main "mpnt of t
















auiir subsytems Bot of ths susstm are inoprtdwihtioa ', I .4. #40 III

















syte. Thi funcion ar intgae wi the sola sytmadaedsrbdi
I .4 I ." I- "
'-, "4l #4IIII c s.




Section F. I
#4.4-- 2 8 i o I .4'.
I...,.#.... ....@ -. i i r.4"45WV ,. 4 I /




Fiue4VE-.AuiiaytoLadSbsse


The domesti ho wate and-- ga-e furnace----~ ar.4womi omoet f. t
auxlirysubysem. Bot o ths susstm eicoprte.it4hs oa
system. Their functions ar inerae with th oa yse n'r dsrbd
Section F



5- 5 4-5 #28





Domestic Water Heater (DWH-I)

o Manufacturer A.O.Smith

o Model KGA 40

o Energy source Natural gas

o Tank size 40 gallons

o Energy input 42,000 Btu/hr

o Energy output 26,900 Btu/hr

o Maximum pressure rating 150 psi

o Maximum temperature rating 2000 F

o Design operating pressure 150 psi

o Heating stages Single

o Maxirumn recovery rate 37 gal/hr

o Yearly average inlet temperature 60 F

o Design output temperature 140I F o Corrosion protection anodes None

o Burner ignition method Continuous gas pilot Furnace (FURN- I)

o Manufacturer RHEEM

o Model RGBA- IOOC

o Energy source Natural gas

o Energy input 100,000 Btu/hr o Energy output 64,000 Btu/hr o Burner heating stages Single

o Burner ignition method Continuous gas pilot








29





o Blower (BL- 1)

o Manufacturer RHEEM

o Model Name/Number RGBA- I QOC

0 Fan Type Squirrel cage

o Maximum motor speed 1 745 rpm

0 Drive type Direct

0 Blower speed ranges Single











































30








F. Modes of Operation (See Figure IV-F-1)







VSN- LOOP-11










ScHw.
N-1SUPPLY AIR




Fu-N-S
COLLECTOR STG LA




COL-i 4C tl
LOOP-1 --7


EXP. TANK

FC*$ V-2 V-2 gyLO 3


AIR
SCOO LOOP-2 -.































V33
FC VNT LOOP-4 ""







TSU SUPL
V '-3 0 LOWWHTHERMAL







V-igreI--1 OVntroW






SUBSYSTEM=>i SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTE





Figure IV-F- I.- Controls Diagjram








The arrangement of the solar system components and interfaces with the conventional system are shown on the attached schematic. Operation of the system in each of its operating modes is described in the following paragraphs:












31






Mode I Collector to storage:


Whenever the temperature difference between the collector thermistor and the storage thermistor reaches a positive value of 100 F, the controller CMS-l turns on pumps No's I and 2. Both pumps continue to operate until the difference between the collector and storage sensors drops to a value of less than 20 F, at which point the controller turns off both pumps. A fifteen minute delay is built into the pump turn-off signal to minimize pump on and off cycling during start-up in the morning and during short-term cloud obscurations. The collector circuit is never coupled directly to the heat exchanger, HX-2, which provides heat to the forced-air house heating system. The collector circuit always heats the storage tank utilizing the heat exchanger HX-I between the collector and storage loops. This Mode is initiated when the collector outlet temperature exceeds the storage tank by 100 F, and it continues till the differential temperature is reduced to 20 F.


Mode 2 Storage to space heating:


Whenever room temperature drops to the setting on the house thermostat, the controller turns on pump P-3 if the storage sensor is above 90 0 F. If the storage sensor is below 90 0 F, the controller turns on the auxiliary furnace burner and does not operate pump P-3. If the room temperature drops an additional 20 F after actuation of pump P-3, the thermostat sends a second signal to the controller which turns on the auxiliary burner. Pump P-3 and/or the burner ore turned off when room temperature exceeds the thermostat setting. The furnace blower is turned on whenever pump P-3 is turned on. When the furnace burner is turned on, blower operation is controlled by a temperature sensor in the burner hood in the conventional manner.















32






Mode 3 Domestic hot water preheat:
N

Incoming domestic water is preheated in a 40 gallon tank which is transferred to the storage tank. The preheated domestic water flows, on demand, from the 40 gallon tank into the conventional auxiliary hot water tank as shown on the
schematic.


Mode 4 Excess heat rejection:


The system design permits use of any of three modes of dumping excess collected heat. The first mode is to operate the system in the normal manner venting vapor generated in the storage tank outside through a small vent line. Storage make-up water is added automatically by the float valve. A second method of dumping excess heat to ambient through collectors at night, is to implement the built-in controller logic to operate pumps P-1 and P-2 at night if the storage temperature (as sensed by SN-2) exceeds a pre-set limit. This mode occurs when the storage
tank temperature exceeds 1700 F.


Mode 5 Snow removal from collectors:


An override switch is provided on the controller which con be used to manually turn on pumps P-1 and P-2 if snow GCCUMUlates on the collectors. The fifteen minute time delay will automatically turn the pumps off at the end of that time period if the required positive temperature difference between collectors and storage is not sensed. This feature relieves the homeowner of any need to remember to turn the
pumps of f manuo I I y.
















33






V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION


A. The National Solar Data Network


The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A- I) has been developed for the Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demonstration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems.


The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar system (see NBSIR 76-1 137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumentation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following:


0 Total insolation in the plane of the collector array

0 Ambient temperature

0 Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures

0 Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures

0 Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures

0 Storage temperature

0 Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures

0 Auxiliary fuel flow rates

Site data are recorded sutomatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are timetagged correctly.



34









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36





fl The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes
measurement checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not beyond the known instrument limits and that they are not erratic. Data which appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system
performance analyses.


Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired performance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component.
All void data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factor, ire integrated into doily and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, nnd monthly performance factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site
identification; and specific site data used in generating the performance factors.


B. On-Site Instrumentation


The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A-I and V-A-2).
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-13-1.















37


















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E Ul)



























38






SEI ISOR DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL NO.

1001 Insolation, total Eppley PSP
TOO1 Temperature, ambient S53P-60
T 100 Temperature, collector return SS7P-60
T125 Temperature, collector, high S53P-60
W100 Flow, collector MK VI I/4, 2-20 GPM
EPI00 Power, collector glycol pump O-H, PCS-I
T 101 Temperature, heat exchanger S57P-60
T 126 Temperature, heat exchanger, high S53P-60
T200 Temperature, heat storage tank S57P-60
T225 Temperature, storage tank high S53P-60
W200 Flow, storage tank, heat exchanger MK V2, 7-70 GPM
EP200 Power, storage tank pump O-H, PCS- I
T300 Temperature, storage tank, upper S53P-146
T301 Temperature, R/A duct S53P-60
T302 Temperature, storage tank, lower S53P-386
T303 Temperature, cold water supply S57P-60
T328 Temperature, pre-heat tank, high SS3P-236
T329 Temperature, DHW tank, high S57P-100
W300 Flow totalizer, cold water supply Hersey 430
F300 Fuel flow, DHW heater Dwyer 1996-20
EP400 Power, heating coil pump O-H, PCS-I
W400 Flow, heating coil pump MK V I 1/4, 2-20 GPM
T400 Temperature, return, HX S57P-60
T425 Temperature, heat exchanger, low S53P-60
EP401I Power, domestic furnace O-H, PCS- 9
W401 Flow, domestic furnace return Kurz 430-DC
F400 Fuel flow, domestic furnace Magnecraft
(Input = 80,000 Btu/hr) W88CPX-3
T401 Temperature, domestic furance, return S57P-100
T426 Temperature, domestic furance, high S53P- 100








39






IV. COST DATA

A. General

The following cost data depicts solar energy portion of the construction costs. Costs for general construction and solar system instrumentation are not included. B. Construction Grant Funds Solar Sub-Systems Applicants Request Construction Grant

Plan #246 Plan #247 Plan #248 Collectors 5,125 4,875 4,423

Energy Storage 1 ,575 1,575 1,575

Distribution
& Controls 2,300 2,200 2,002

Total Cost
per Building $9,000 $8,650 $8,000

No of Dwellings 10 10 5

Total Costs
All Dwellings $90,000 $86,500 $40,000 $216,500

C. Construction Period


January 30, 1976 through August 29, 1977

















40






VI!. APPENDIX


A. Glossary


ABSORBER PLATE The surface in a f lat plate collector that absorbs incident solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid.
ABSORPTANCE The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident
radiation on that surface.
ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air
by an absorption process.
ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system, consisting of collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or
preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner.
AIR4BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which air is
the heat transfer fluid.
AIR CONDITIONING The process of treating indoor air by controlling the temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the
occupants in the conditioned space.
AMBIENT AIR A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be
conditioned or circulated.
ANTI-FREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors
and the exterior piping.
f AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM The equipment, utilizing conventional energy
sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used
to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable.
BACKFLOW The reversal of flow in a distribution system.
BACKFLOW PREVENTOR A device or means to stop bac-kf low.
BEAM RADIATION Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be
concentrated.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) A unit of energy that is required to heat one

pound of water from 590 F to 600 F.
BUILDING ENVELOPE The exterior sutrface of a building( that encloses the
conditioned space.





41





CLIMATE The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. COLLECTOR MANIFOLD The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a collector plate.
COLLECTOR PLATE A term used for an absorber plate. COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM The assembly that absorbed solar radiation and transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. COMBINED COLLECTORS An assembly that both collects solar radiation and stores the thermal energy in the some unit. CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR A solar collector which focuses beam radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors. CONCENTRATOR A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing insulation onto an absorber.
CONDITIONED SPACE The space in a building where the air is conditioned by heating or cooling.
CONTROL SUBSYSTEM The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystems.
COOLING TOWER A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an absorption cooling system to ambient air.
DIFFUSE RADIATION Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, or other substances suspended in the air.
DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior piping by automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as air, nitrogen, etc.
DUCT HEATING COIL A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system. EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS The seasonal cooling load for a building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system will operate under full load conditions to meet the re quired cooling load. EMITTANCE The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature.
EXPANSION TANK A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components.



42






FIXED COLLECTOR A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR A basic heat collection device used in solar heating systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing aids in a f lat plate collector.
FOCUSING COLLECTOR A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens, or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber. FRESNEL COLLECTOR A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens to focus beam radiation onto an absorber.
GLAZING The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy losses from the top of the collector.
HEAT TRANSFER FLUID The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. INCIDENCE ANGLE The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the normal for that surface.
INSOLATION The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of time.
LAMINATED GLASS A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. LANGLEY The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley =I cal/cm2, (I Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft2).
LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. LOAD The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. NOCTURNAL RADIATION The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to the sky at night.
NO-FLOW CONDITION The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction. OPAQUE A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either ref lected or absorbed.
OUTGASSING The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure.






43






PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT A factory-made assembly consisting of an indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the condition space.
PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR A concentrating collector which focuses beam radiation by a parabolic ref lect-r,
PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM -An interirted Solar energy system that can provide for space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun. REFLECTANCE The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total incident radiation on the surface.
REFLECTED PADIATION lnsolation which is reflected from a surface, such as the ground, and! :' incident on the solar collector. ROCK BED A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in airbased solar collector systems.
SELECTIVE SURFACE A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation and a low emttance for thermal radiation. SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE The area in a building that depends on solar energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs. SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into thermal energy, for space heating requrements, as well as the addition of an auxiliary backup system.
SOLAR RETROFIT The addition of a solat- energy system to an existing structure. STORAGE SUBSYSTEM The components used to store solar energy so that the stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of low insolation.
STRATIFICATION The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water. THERMOSTAT A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL Angle between the horizontal plane and the plane of collector.
TON OF REFRIGERATION -A unit of refrigeration which is equivalent to 12,000 Btu/hr.
TRACKING COLLECTOR -A set of solar energy tracking collectors that automatically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun.



44





VAPOR BARRIER A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water vapor.
ZONE A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of their similar heating and cooling requirements.
















































45






B. Legend for Solar System Schematics


VALVES PIPING SPECIALITIES

-~ GATE VALVE _AUTOMATIC AIR VENT
-N---- CHECK VALVE MANUAL AIR VENT
~ BALANCING VALVE ALIGNMENT GUIDE
-~--- GLOBE VALVE ANCHOR
~ BALL VALVE BALL JOINT
PLUG VALVE EXPANSION JOINT
- 4-- BACKFLOW PREVENTER EXPANSION LOOP
'~ 3 VACUUM BREAKER -- FLEXIBLE CONNECTION

:5 RELIEF OR SAFETY FS ~ FLOWMETER FITTING
-~Q--- PRESSURE REDUCING F. FLOW SWITCH
E- P PRESSURE SWITCH

ANGLE GATE VALVE 9 PRESSURE GAUGE
---- PUMP
~I- ANGLE GLOVE VALVE PIPE SLOPE
0 -I~t-- STRAINER
CONTROL VALVE, 2WAY -j -- STRAINER, WIBLOW OFF
TRAP
CONTROL VALVE, 3 WAY C CONTROL SENSOR
INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR
104 BUTTERFLY VALVE

44 4WAY VALVE THERMOMETER
FITTING C:J THERMOMETER WELL ONLY

DIRECTION OF FLOW CW>- COLD WATER SUPPLY

30 CAPBLOWER
REDUCER, CONCENTRIC C
REDUCER, ECCENTRIC AS AIR SEPARATOR
TEE EXP TK EXPANSION TANK
-411-- UNION
IIFLANGED CONNECTION WS WATER SOFTENER
CONNECTION, BOTTOM HED HOSE END DRAIN
4?j~-- CONNECTION, TOP
NO ELBOW, TURNED UP
ELBOW, TURNED DOWN
~- TEE, OUTLET UP
pv TEE, OUTLET DOWN




46













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09052 5469