Monthly performance report

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Material Information

Title:
Monthly performance report RHRU, Clemson
Added title page title:
RHRU, Clemson
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Energy
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- South Carolina -- Clemson   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- South Carolina -- Clemson   ( lcsh )
Solar greenhouses -- South Carolina -- Clemson   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Monthly Catalog Number: gp 80010098
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
"SOLAR/2086-79/02" ; "SOLAR/2086-79/03" ; "SOLAR/2086-79/04."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027069865
oclc - 05908072
System ID:
AA00013849:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    I. Site description
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    II. Performance evaluation
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    III. Action status
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text



SOLAR/2086-79/03

Monthly Performance Report




RHRU, CLEMSON MARCH 1979










U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program
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NOTICE
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.









MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT
RHRUI CLEMSON
MARCH-1979


I. SITE DESCRIPTION


The Rural Housing Research Unit (RHRU) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Science and Education Administration (SEA) solar energy site is an instrumented, combination greenhouse and residence at Clemson University, and is sponsored by the Appalachian Regional Commission and the South Carolina Agricultural Experimentation Station. The two-story house uses both active and passive solar components for space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating. This site is operated by the South Carolina Agriculture Experimentation Station at Clemson, South Carolina. The active system has 381 square feet of flat-plate collectors built by the USDA. The collector array faces due south and is tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal. Air is used as the transfer medium for delivering solar energy from the collector array to storage. The air entering the collectors may be preheated by routing it through the greenhouse, which has a projected area of 352 square feet in the Dlane of the collectors.


The energy is stored in 1,161 cubic feet of rock located in a storage bin beneath the house. Space heating is accomplished by circulating warmed air from the collector or the rock storage bin through the conditioned spaces. Space cooling is provided by circulating cooled air from outside or from the rock storage bin through the conditioned spaces. Auxiliary heating is furnished by 20-kilowatt electric heat strips, and auxiliary cooling is provided by a 2.5-ton air conditioner. The heat strips and the air conditioner evaporator coils are located in the airhandler unit supply plenum. Domestic hot water (DHW) is preheated by circulating city water in the 42-gallon preheat tank through an air-toliquid heat exchanger located in the collector outlet plenum. Auxiliary hot water heating is furnished by a 4.5-kilowatt electrical element in
the 42-gallon hot water tank.




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The system, shown schematically in Figure 1 and pictorially in Figure 2, has three winter modes of operation, four summer modes, and a domestic hot water mode.


A. Winter Operation


Mode 1 Storage-to-Space Heating: Warm air is transferred from the rock thermal storage by the air-handler unit to the house. Return air from the house may be recycled through the greenhouse at night under the control of manual dampers. This maintains the minimum greenhouse temperature at approximately 50'F. When the air temperature of the rock thermal storage is insufficient to satisfy the space heating demand, auxiliary energy is supplied by the electrical heat strips.

Mode 2 Collector-to-Space Heating: During periods of adequate solar insolation, space heating is supplied to the conditioned space by drawing warm air directly from the collector outlet plenum. The return air is recycled through the solar collector for reheating and redistribution.


Mode 3 Collector-to-Storage: During periods of adequate insolation when there is no space heating demand, warm air is routed from the collector outlet through rock thermal storage and back to the collector. To maintain a greenhouse temperature of 70'F and avoid overheating, air returning to the collector may be circulated through the greenhouse.


B. Summer Operation


Mode 1 Purge: Cool air from outside is circulated through the rock thermal storage so that the cooler air will pick up stored energy transferred to storage from the conditioned spaces. The air bypasses the greenhouse and is vented through the solar collector to the outside.


Mode 2 Storage-to-Space Cooling: Air that had been cooled during the previous purge mode is drawn from storage and distributed to the house. Additional cooling is supplied by the auxiliary evaporator coils located in the air-handler unit supply plenum.


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Mode 3 Outside Air-to-Space Cooling: Cool air is drawn from outside and delivered to the house. The return air is recycled to the solar collector and vented to the outside.

Mode 4 Greenhouse Ventingq: Solar energy absorbed by the greenhouse and collector array is vented to the outside.

C. Domestic Hot Water Operation

The DHW preheat mode is used in both winter and summer. Water from the preheat tank circulates through the air-to-water heat exchanger. Hot water flow through the heat exchanger begins when the temperature at the heat exchanger is 3'F above the preheat tank temperature, and reaches maximum flow rate when the temperature difference is 23*F. Flow stops when the temperature difference decreases below 3*F. The proportional control device ensures that the flow rate is proportional to the temperature difference. Whenever the temperature at the heat exchanger decreases below 35*F, water from the preheat tank circulates through the air-towater heat exchanger to protect the system from freezing.

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The system performance evaluations discussed in this section are based primarily on the analysis of the data presented in the attached computergenerated monthly report. This attached report consists of daily site thermal and energy values for each subsystem, plus environmental data. The performance factors discussed in this report are based upon the def initions contained in NBSIR-76-1137, Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.

A. Introduction

All solar energy subsystems at the site were operational throughout the month of March. These subsystems supplied 84 percent of the total



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2. million Btu space heating load, and 38 percent of the 1.0 million Btu domestic hot water load. Auxiliary energy contributed an additional
0.4 million Btu for space heating and 0.9 million Btu for hot water heating. The conditioned space was maintained at approximately 75 degrees. On the average, 54 gallons of hot water were used daily.

B. Weather

The average daily insulation measured in the plane of the collector array was 1,420 Btu/ft 2_day, and the long-term F-Chart predicted value was 1,563 Btu/ft 2_ day. The outside daily temperature ranged from 380F to 650F, averaging 530F. The long-term predicted value was 52*F, taken at the Greenville-Spartanburg airport.

C. System Thermal Performance

Collector Of the 32.3 million Btu incident on the plane of the collectors and the projected plane of the greenhouse, 27.0 million Btu were available during the time of actual collector operation, and 7.2 million Btu were collected. The greenhouse contributed 1.7 million Btu to the 5.5 million Btu collected by the flat-plate array. The efficiency of the combined flat-plate and greenhouse operation was 22 percent. The flat-plate efficiency was 33 percent, and the greenhouse efficiency was 11 percent.

Storage A total of 7.2 million Btu of solar energy was collected, and was utilized as follows: 5.4 million Btu were delivered to storage;
0.1 million Btu went directly to the space heating load; 0.3 million Btu were transferred to the DHW subsystem. The remaining 1.5 million Btu, although not measured, contributed to satisfying the heating load. This unmeasured amount can be due to leakage in the air ducts, and leakage through the registers in the residence and greenhouse.

For space heating the living area and greenhouse, 1.9 million Btu were r _-.oved from storage. Storage energy increased 0.3 million Btu during



6









the March period. The resulting storage loss was 3.2 million Btu, and the storage efficiency was 40 percent.

The average storage temperature of 83'F was much higher than the ground temperature of approximately 60'F, resulting in a net energy flow from storage to the ground.

Space Heat Load The measured heating demand of 2.3 million Btu was satisfied by 1.89 million Btu from storage, 0.07 million Btu directly from the collector, and 0.37 million Btu auxiliary electrical energy. The energy from storage was measured between the storage inlet and outlet, thus energy dissipated in the distribution system was also attributed to the load.

The greenhouse demand of 1.8 million Btu was measured using the house supply mass air flow and return temperature, and storage inlet temperature. The main air supply duct supplied a portion of the greenhouse load via one partially opened manual register, which is not instrumented. The measured greenhouse portion can be considered a good approximation.

Hot Water Load The measured 1.0 million Btu domestic hot water load was met by 0.3 million Btu of solar energy, and 0.9 million Btu of auxiliary energy. The solar fraction of the load, based on solar energy contributed to the preheat tank energy level supplying the load, was 38 percent. The hot water subsystem efficiency for the month, assuming no net monthly change in the energy levels of the tanks, was 86 percent. The combined solar and auxiliary energy raised the supply water temperature an average of 690F.

D. Observations

Simulator predictions indicate passive energy being supplied to storage during the space heating season, as shown in Figure 2. For March, however, more energy was supplied to storage than needed, resulting in storage energy dissipation through the ground.



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E. Energy Savings


The use of the active solar energy components in March provided a total electrical energy savings of 2.2 million Btu. This is equivalent to the additional energy required to supply the space heating and domestic hot water needs if the residence relied solely on conventional electric power.

III. ACTION STATUS


The solar energy system and the instrumentation are currently operating with no known problems.



































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