Solar project cost report for Page Jackson Elementary School, Charles Town, West Virginia

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Material Information

Title:
Solar project cost report for Page Jackson Elementary School, Charles Town, West Virginia
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 2036-79/60
Added title page title:
Page Jackson Elementary School, Charles Town, West Virginia
Physical Description:
27 p. : 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mueller Associates (Baltimore, Md.)
United States -- Dept. of Energy
PRC Energy Analysis Company
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar heating -- Costs   ( lcsh )
Solar air conditioning   ( lcsh )
School buildings -- Energy conservation -- West Virginia -- Charles Town   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007826
General Note:
National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.
General Note:
National Solar Data Program.
General Note:
Jan. 19, 1979.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications, National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022587366
oclc - 05877421
System ID:
AA00013842:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    National solar data program reports
        Page ii
    1. Foreword
        Page 1-1
        Page 1- 2
    2. Executive summary
        Page 2-1
        Page 2-2
    3. Introduction
        Page 3-1
        Page 3-2
        Page 3-3
        Page 3-4
    4. System description summary
        Page 4-1
        Page 4-2
    5. Project background
        Page 5-1
        Page 5-2
    6. Data sources
        Page 6-1
        Page 6-2
    7. Cost analysis by category
        Page 7-1
        Page 7-2
        Page 7-3
        Page 7-4
        Page 7-5
        Page 7-6
        Page 7-7
        Page 7-8
        Page 7-9
        Page 7-10
    8. Total system construction cost
        Page 8-1
        Page 8-2
    9. Discussion
        Page 9-1
        Page 9-2
    10. System cost for use in analysis
        Page 10-1
        Page 10-2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




SOLAR /2036-79/60



Solar Project Cost Report



PAGE JACKSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Charles Town, West Virginia
January 19, 1979













U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Programn
National, Solar-Data Program















NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United Slates Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, not any of their contractors, or their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any ftd liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or uwfulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned dots.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.


Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $4.50
Microfiche $3.00








SOLAR/2036-79/60 DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY UC-59









SOLAR PROJECT COST REPORT

for

PAGE JACKSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHARLES TOWN, WEST VIPC INIA



Prepared for
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY
FOR CONSERVATION AND SOLAR APPLICATIONS
NATIONAL SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM



UNDER CONTRACT NUMBER EG-77-C-01-2522



H. Jackson Hale, Solar Data Program Manager



Prepared by MUELLER ASSOCIATES, INC.


Under Subcontract to PRC Energy Analysis Company










TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

I. FOREWORD I-1

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY II-i

III. INTRODUCTION III-i

IV. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SUMMARY IV-l

V. PROJECT BACKGROUND V-I

VI. DATA SOURCES VI-I

VII. COST ANALYSIS BY CATEGRORY VII-1
A. Introduction
B. Collector Array
C. Support Structure
D. Piping
E. Ductwork
F. Insulation
G. Heating/Cooling Equipment
H. Storage I. Controls
J. Electrical Power
K. General Construction

VIII. TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST VIII-I

IX. DISCUSSION IX-I

X. SYSTEM COST FOR USE IN ANALYSIS X-1














i







NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS


Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are
numbered under a specific-form at. For example, this report for the Page Jackson Elementary School project site is designated as SOLAR/2036-79/60. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration:



SOLAR/20 36-79/60

Prepared for the IReport type
National Solar Des;ignation
Data Program




Demonstration Site_____Number Year






e Demonstration Site Number:
Each project site has its own discrete number 1000
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999
for commercial sites.
*Report Type Designation:
This number identifies the type of report, e.g.,
o Monthly Performance Reports are designated by the
numbers 01 (for January) through 12 (for December)
0 Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations are
designated by the number 14
0 Solar Project Descriptions are designated by the
number 50
o Solar Project Cost Reports are designated by the
number 60
These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.







I. FOREWORD
The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a viable solar industry and to stimulate-its growth. An analysis and synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in site-specific reports and summary documents as part of the National Solar Data Program. This cost report is a component of a larger data gathering effort to determine the costs and cost factors to satisfy the data requirements of the following:
DOE planning and management
Economic projections and analysis The solar industry infrastructure
The focus of this report is.the initial installation cost of the system. No design, start-up, operating or maintenance costs are provided nor are costs for the site data acquisition system (SDAS) or display system that may be installed in conjunction with the solar system.
Associated reports prepared by others for this specific
solar demonstration project describe the system in greater detail, provide reliability and maintenance information, and describe system performance.
A similar series of reports is being developed for other solar demonstration program projects to assure widespread dissemination of project data. Detailed analysis of this report will require reference to the "Solar Project Description" for this.project, report number SOLAR/2036-79/50.











II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report provides detailed cost information for the Page Jackson Elementary School solar space heating and cooling project located in Charles Town, West Virginia.
This Demonstration Project was funded by the U.S. Energy
Research and Development Administration (ERDA, now the U.S. Dept. of Energy, DOE) in the Phase I Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program. Construction began in August 1976. S.L. Minghini & Son, Inc. was the construction manager for the project construction. P.E. Poole & Co., Inc., performed the major portion of the solar system construction.

The solar energy system cools and heats the approximately 52r6OO ft 2 school. The system was designed as an integral part of the building at the time the building was designed. The 11,215 ft 2 of collectors were manufactured by the PPG Industries, Inc. and serve as both part of the roof of the building and the solar collectors. For cooling, water is chilled by a 100-ton Trane packaged absorption water chiller.
Solar heated water for use in space.cooling and heating is stored in two 10,000 gallon hot water storage tanks.
The construction costs of this solar project are presented in this report. Category costs are listed by materials, direct labor, and subcontract costs. The subcontract costs include materials, labor, overhead and profit for electrical, control and other minor contractors and subcontractors. No further breakdown of these costs could be obtained. Most costs incurred by the mechanical contractor could be disaggregated into materials and labor and were reported accordingly. The installed cost of the system was $410,700 not including mechanical contractor overhead and profit and general and administrative costs. Subsequent sections, especially Sections VI through VIII, provide a more detailed account of the data base and category cost components.



































Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers; Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation



























http://archive.org/details/solarpagejacksonl979









III. INTRODUCTION

The approach to assembling the data into solar system cost categories for every installation is to resolve the data into elements at two levels of detail, primary and secondary. Table 111-1 provides an indication of the level of disaggregation

associated with primary and secondary cost breakdowns.


TABLE III-1. SITE SPECIFIC COST BREAKDOWN


PRIMARY SECONDARY
Collector Array *Materials
*Delivery
*Mounting on Support Structure
____________________________ *Co' 'ectors Connecting to manifold Collector Support Structure *Materials
____ ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ Labor
Piping *Collector Distribution System
o Materials
o Labor
o Other Piping
o Materials
____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __" Labor
Ductwork *Collector Distribution System
o Materials
o Labor
Other Ductwork
o Materials
_ _ _ _ _ _" Labor
Insulation e Collector Distribution System
o Materials
o Labor
*other Piping/Ductwork o Materials
____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __" Labor
Heating/Cooling Equipment o Materials
*Delivery
____ ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ ____ ___ Installation
Storage Materials
Delivery
*Installation
_______________________________ Insulation Controls *Materials
____ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ Labor
-Electrical Power *Total
General Construction *Roofing
e Equipment Room
*Architectural
e Excavation
____________________________ *_Painting

111-1







In general, the primary cost breakdown follows work categories typically performed by different trades or subcontractors on building systems construct on projects'and are often separable, identifiable costs. The secondary cost categories represent a more detailed breakdown of the primary categories and are more difficult to obtain. This information is sought through discussions with subcontractors and suppliers, and by reviewing their records.
The following are typical examples of components comprising the cost breakdown categories listed in Table III-1.
Collector Array: all materials provided by
collector manufacturer (including tracking
mechanisms, attachment fittings, hoses), labor
to install collectors on support structure,
labor and materials to connect collectors to
supply and return manifolds, and miscellaneous
specialties required for a complete array.
9 Collector Support Structure: all framing,
beams and columns, roof connections, fasteners,
and brackets required to receive collectors.
Piping: all collector distribution and major
supply and return piping, external collector
manifolds, if required, pumps, expansion tanks,
valves, interconnecting piping, hangers and
miscellaneous piping specialties.
e Ductwork: all ductwork connecting collectors
to air-handling equipment, dampers, interconnection with auxiliary systems and filter boxes.
Insulation: all insulation both interior and
exterior for piping and ductwork,.chillerst
and miscellaneous equipment, except energy
storage containers.
e Heating/Cooling Equipment: absorption chillers,
heat pumps, and heat exchangers used to interface
with auxiliary system or to de livery energy
directly to load.

111-2






e Storage: vessel or container, lining, supports,
pads, internal piping, nozzles, and insulation.
Controls: solid state controllers, thermostats,
alarms, switches, wiring, automatic valves and miscellaneous pneumatic or electrical devices.
e Electrical: normally an identifiable subcontract
including power wiring, motor controller, starters,
conduits, disconnect switches, and miscellaneous
high.voltage electrical devices.
General Construction: excavation, crane, tool and equipment rental, permits, painting, architectural modifications or additional space requirements, roofing and services such as clean-up,
field offices, and temporary telephone and electrical
service.
Auxiliary energy system costs are not included as part of the solar energy system costs.
obtaining accurate total project construction cost is the focus of the data gathering effort. The costs presented do not include the contractor's overhead and profit (OH&P) or general and administrative costs. There is a general sensitivity to the publication of OH&P costs among corporations in a competitive market. Also, the bare costs (without overhead and profit) are more useful to other project planners and contractors since they could include their.own overhead and profit figures.
General contractors are the main source of data since they have the most cost information for each project. Major subcontractors are interviewed where possible'to obtain more specific information pertaining to respective subsystems. Interviews are pursued with the personnel from the contracting firms who were actually on site performing the work and those that kept the cost records.
For each.cost category the following types of information are sought:
Labor type utilized.



111-3







e Number of workers utilized
*Number of hours required
Time per unit of equipment installed
*Materials cost
*Labor rates
*Delivery costs of major items
*Overhead factors
e Total costs
This information is obtained from cost files, invoices,
time logs, government payment request vouchers, monthly progress reports, bills-of-materials, and the interviews.
In addition to the above data, each contractor and subcontractor is questioned concerning cost estimating techniques employed to date, recommended areas for cost reduction, final engineering cost estimates, and any other pertinent cost info~rmat ion.
It must be emphasized that this cost information can only be assessed in relation to the detailed system description report, SOLAR/2036-79/50.




























111-4







IV. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SUMMARY

The following is a brief summary of the Page Jackson Elementary School solar installation. Highlights of this site include:
e COLLECTOR TYPE: Flat plate, double glazed, liquid
e FREEZE PROTECTION: Draindown
e APPLICATION: Space heating, space cooling
o STORAGE TYPE: Two interior tanks
e NEW OR RETROFIT: New
INSTRUMENTED FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: Yes
0 SITE SPECIFIC FEATURES: Collector/reflector sawtoothtype roof.
The solar energy system.heats and cools approximately 52,600 square feet of area in this new single story elementary school building in Charles Town, West Virginia.
The system utilizes 620 PPG Industries, Inc., flat plate collectors which provide an effective aperture area of 10,943 square feet. The collector array is arranged in 12 rows, one collector high, forming a sawtooth pattern with reflectors on the opposite side of the array. The collectors are tilted at 45* from the horizontal and the mirrored reflectors at 38*.
The collectors are piped reverse return to a manifold which leads through the roof to two 10,000 gallon storage tanks in a room adjacent to the mechanical room. The tanks are piped in series so that the collector water is removed from the warm tank and stored in the hot tank. Water for space heating and cooling is removed from the hot tank.
For freeze protection, automatic valves are opened to drain the collectors and exterior piping when the temperature differential between the collector and the warm tank is below 41F.

The cooling equipment for the system is a Trane 100-ton
absorption water chiller located on grade in the mechanical room adjacent to the storage tank room. The chilled water is circulated through a Trane 118-ton centrifugal chiller to the five air handlers for space cooling. Space cooling is provided by either the absorption chiller or the centrifugal chiller; these chillers do not operate together.

IV-1





Space heating is provided by circulating water from
the hot storage tank to the air handling units. An oil-fired boiler adds supplemental heating to raise the water temperature to 110*F.
The solar system has been fully instrumented for data acquisition and is included in the National Solar Data Network.














































IV-2






V. PROJECT BACKGROUND

The Page Jackson Elementary School solar project was constructed with funding under the ERDA Phase I Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program, originally started under the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Phase I projects have since been integrated into DOE's Demonstration Program. The site was selected by ERDA's Phase I contractor in the summer of 1976. Subsequently a contract was negotiated which committed ERDA to fund the solar portion of the project. This contract was awarded in February 1976. Construction of the system began in August 1976, with the system reaching substantial completion by August 1978, when acceptance testing was performed. The materials and labor for construction were obtained through 16 major prime contra cts (greater than $18,000) and a number of smaller purchases, all coordinated by a construction-manager.
Project responsibilities were as follows:
Owner: Jefferson County Board of Education
*Architect: Pickett-Siess & Associates
e Engineer: John F. Lawrence & Associates
*Solar System Designer: InterTechnology Corporation
e Construction Manager: S. L. Minghini & Son, Inc.
The mechancial contractor, P.E. Poole & Co., Inc., performed the major portion of the solar system construction. All work was performed by non-union labor.




















V-1









VI. DATA SOURCES

Cost data for the Page Jackson Elementary School solar energy system were collected during a visit to the site made on May 10, 1979, and as a result of subsequent follow-up communications.
Cost data were collected from representatives of the Jefferson County Board of Education, Pickett-Siess & Associates, S.L. Minghini & Son, Inc., and P.E. Poole & Co., Inc. The primary source materials were:
e Mechanical Contractor rec ords
Construction Manager records
Architect records
The mechanical contractor provided the breakdown of installation and labor requirements that could not be obtained from the other data sources. This information was the basis for the apportionment of the materials and labor components attributable to the various categories.
































VI-l









VII. COST ANALYSIS BY CATEGORY

A. Introduction
In the ten subsections that follow, cost information is
provided for the following categories of the solar system.
Collector Array
Support Structure
Piping
0 Ductwork
0 Insulation
0 Heating/Cooling Equipment
0 Storage 0 Controls
0 Electrical Power
0 General Construction
In each subsection, descriptions of the category are presented
along with the cost components. A tabular presentation of the
cost data actually obtained then follows. All cost data are
rounded to the nearest five dollar increment. The data sources
used for each cost item and any unique aspects are discussed along with detailed information related to the basis for the
costs. This includes the identification of costs that were either
unavailable or impossible to separate from the other categories.
B. Collector Array
The collector category includes costs associated with the
purchase of collector materials, delivery, handling and mounting, and piping of the collectors. For the Page Jackson project, the
collector category includes the 620 PPG collectors and the portion
of the 3-1/2 inch fiberglass insulating batts placed behind the
collectors which were provided to the site without back insulation.











HH:
VII-1





Table VII-1 presents the actual construction cost breakdown for this category.


TABLE VII-1. COLLECTOR ARRAY CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COST, $

COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Materials None
Collectors (620) 130,000 --Insulation 8j700 --Collector Mounting a None
Delivery b --- None

SUBTOTALS 138,700 None

COLLECTOR ARRAY CATEGORY TOTAL $138,700
a Cost of labor for mounting collectors included in labor for Support
Structure Category; no further breakdown available.
b Cost of delivery included in materials cost; no further breakdown
available.

Collector Array Materials
0 Data sources Discussion with Mechanical Contractor.
0 Cost components 620 factory constructed double-glazed, flat-plate collectors without back insulation.
Insulation 3-1/2 inch fiberglass batts.
Collector Mounting
0 Cost of labor for mounting collectors is included in
the labor for the Support Structure Category. It was
difficult for the Mechanical Contractor to reformat
some of the construction costs due to the time which
had elapsed since the majority of the construction
had been performed.
C. Support Structure
The collector panels are installed in an aluminum skylight glazing system, with a plate glass reflector unit or skylight behind every collector. The collector framing and reflector framing


VII-2






lean against each other forming a self-supporting triangular structure. The bottom of the frames rest on a continuous roof curb extending approximately 30 inches above the roof. The collector array for Page Jackson was designed to also serve as a portion of the roof of the building. As a result there was approximately 2-5,700 sq. ft. less roofing required. This roofing has been considered as a credit to the cost of the support structure. At $4.00/sq. ft. of roof, the resulting credit of $102,800 is reflected in the category costs as shown in Table VII-2.

TABLE VII-2. SUPPORT STRUCTURE CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COSTS,
COMPONENT
MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Materials --- None
Aluminum Framing 80,000
Fasteners 4,500
Mirrors,(530) 17,000
Skylights (40) 6,500
Glazing Items 32,000
Insulation 15,300
Cap Flashing 4,500
Base Flashing 2,900 a
Roof Framing & Curbs 17,900 a
Assembly and Mounting --- 48,000 None
SUBTOTALS 180,600 48,000 None
CREDIT FOR REDUCED ROOFING COSTS $102,800 SUPPORT STRUCTURE CATEGORY TOTAL $125,800
a
Labor Cost included under Materials heading; further breakdown not available.

9 Support Structure Materials
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor and General Construction Contractor. o Cost Components Outlined in Table VII-2.





VII-3






e Assembly and Mounting
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor and General Construction Contractor. o Cost Components General Construction Contract
included labor and materials together for Base Flashing and Roof Framing & Curbs. The Assembly and Mounting costs given in Table VII-2 include collector mounting as well as remainder of items in Table VII-2. No records of man-days expended were available. D. Piping
The piping category includes piping, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous components used to transport the system fluid. Costs are shown in Table VII-3.

TABLE VII-3. PIPING CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COST, $

COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Collector Piping & Fittings 25,000 15,000 None Piping Inside Building 24,000 a None
'Two pumps 900 a None

SUBTOTALS 49,900 15,000 None

PIPING CATEGORY TOTAL $64,900

aLabor is included under the Materials heading; no further breakdown
available.

9 Piping Materials
0 Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
0 Cost components Piping.- all solar systems, includes fittings and all piping materials costs for all piping loops in the solar system.

VII-4






Miscellaneous hardware, pumps and .most valves incorporated in piping systems.
*Labor
0 Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
0 Cost components Piping systems labor, installation of pipes and fittings.
miscellaneous hardware, labor required for installation (other than piping) of pumps, valves, and other piping hardware.

E. Ductwork
No costs are attributable to the solar system in this category. All ductwork is used also by the auxiliary energy system.

F. Insulation
The insulation category includes all insulation used in
the solar system except that employed behind the solar collectors and for the storage tanks. In. practice, piping insulation comprises the major portion of this category. Costs are listed in Table VII-4.


TABLE VII-4. INSULATION CATEGORY COSTS -PAGE JACKSON


COST, 5

COMONNTMATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Collector Piping and Distribution 1,0
System Insulation --- 10,00

SUBTOTALS --- --10,000

INSULATION CATEGORY TOTAL $10,000






VII-5







e Materials
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
o Cost components Fiberglass pipe insulation.
*Labor
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
o Cost component Installation.
G. Heating/Cooling Equipment
This category include the Trane absorption chiller and

increment in cooling tower size required to serve the absorption chiller. Costs are shown in Table VII-5.

TABLE VII- 5. HEAT ING/COOLING EQUIPMENT CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON



COST, $

COPNETMATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Absorption Chiller 25,000 a None
Cooling Tower 3,900 bb None

SUBTOTALS 28,900 --- None

HEATING/COOLING EQUIPMENT CATEGORY $28,900

a Labor to place the chiller was minor. Labor costs for
connecting it is included in Piping Category.
b Materials for the cooling tower include only the increment

in cooling tower size (350 125 = 225 tons) required to serve
the absorption chiller (over and above that required for the centrifugal chiller). This increase in cost was estimated by
Mueller Associates. According to the Mechanical Contractor, the increase in labor cost to place the larger cooling tower
is negligible.














VII-6






Materials
o Data source Discussion with Mechanical Contractor 0 Cost components Trane chiller, 100 tons (cooling)
Increased size of-cooling tower (by 225 tons) required to serve the absorption chiller (over and above that required for the 118 ton centrifugal chiller). The air handlers and their coils are not included in the solar cost because they are part of the auxiliary system also. Labor
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
o Cost components Trane chiller installation.

H. Storage
The storage category consists of the tanks or other
devices used to store thermal energy. At Page Jackson, two 10,000 gallon steel tanks were used. The tanks were mounted in a room adjacent to the mechanical equipment room. The tanks are unlined. Costs are shown in Table VII-6.

TABLE VII-6. STORAGE CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COST, $

COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Two Tanks 6,300 500 None
Insulation 6,000 a None

SUBTOTALS 12,300 500 None

STORAGE CATEGORY TOTAL $12,800
a
Labor cost for installing insulation included in tank
installation labor; no further breakdown available.





V -7






Materials
o Data sources Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
o Cost components Tanks: Two 10,000 gallon, steel, cylindrical.
Insulation: foamed urethane with asbestos coating.
Labor
o Data source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
o Cost components Tank insulation.
Insulation.
I. Controls
The controls category includes only equipment in' the
system installed for the purpose of automatically-regulating the solar portion of the system. The air compressor and most of the control panel in the mechanical room are not included in the costs shown since they are required for the auxiliary system. The Site Data Acquisition System (SDAS) and the display panel in the Media Center are not included. See Table VII-7 for controls cost. The cost of the automatic control valves is not included here, but is included in the piping category.


TABLE VII-7: CONTROLS CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COST, $

COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Solar and Automatic Temperature Controls --- 3,000

SUBTOTALS 3,000

CONTROLS CATEGORY TOTAL $3,000











VII-8






e Subcontract
Data Source Discussions with Mechanical Contractor.
Cost Components All electrical and pneumatic controls required for the solar portion of the system. Included electrical work necessary for controls and for connecting pump motors.
J. Electrical Power
The electric power category includes all components,
materials and labor required to install the power distribution system for the electrical energy needed for control of the solar system and for the electrical connection of the pumps in the solar loop. These costs are grouped together with the controls costs.
K. General Construction
The general construction category includes all materials and labor'consumed in the project but not directly attributable to other specific categories. The machine room for the two 10,000 gallon thermal storage tanks, and an ERDA requirement (after the job was under contract) for additional roof insulation are included in this category. The observation tower and deck on the building's roof is not included as part of the solar cost since it does not affect the operation of the solar system. None of the supervision by the construction manager is included. Costs are given in Table VII-8.

















VII-9







TABLE VII-8. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CATEGORY COSTS PAGE JACKSON


COST, $

COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT

Machine Room for Storage Tanks 16,800 a None

Additional Roof Insulation 9,800 b None

SUBTOTALS 26,600 1--None

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CATEGORY $26,600
a Cs of labor included in materials column. No further breakdown available.

No additional labor costs over insulation originally specified.

*Materials and Labor
o. Data sources Estimate by Construction Manager.

o Cost components All labor and materials for room for storage tanks; and increased cost of roof insulation above that originally specified.


































VII -10







VIII. TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST
Table VIII-l presents the total system construction cost summary based on costs presented in Section VII. No allowance for Contractor overhead and profit (OH&P) or general and administrative (G&A) has been made. It is important to note that at Page Jackson, the prime contractors, especially the Mechanical Contractor were major participants in the system construction. All subcontractor costs include OH&P and G&A charges. The labor and materials breakouts presented in Section VII and in Table VIII-l represent, the costs of the major contractors and suppliers such as the Mechanical Contractor and collector supplier. Subcontractor costs are those due to minor subcontractors such as collector piping insulation and controls.





































VII I-1








TABLE VIII-l. TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST SUMMARY PAGE JACKSON


CATEGORY a MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT TOTAL

Collector Array $138,700 b None $138,700

Support Structure 180,60 $48,000 [102,800)]d 125,800
Piping 49,900e 15,000 None 64,900
Ductwork None None None None

Insulation $10,000 10,000

Heating/Cooling Equipment 28,900 f None 28,900
Storage 12,300 500 None 12,800

Controls ----3,000 3,000

Electrical Power g g
General Construction 26,600h ---- 26,600

SUBTOTAL $437,000 1$63,500 $13,000

CREDIT[$0.0d
TOTAL MATERIALS, LABOR AND SUBCONTRACT $410,700

aFor a complete description of items included in each category, see Section VII.
b Labor for placing collector panels is included in labor for Support Structure. cIncludes $20,800 for roof framing, curbs, and flashing for solar panel supports; no labor/material breakdown was available. dCredit for roofing provided by collector support. elIncludes $24,000 for supply and return piping inside building; no labor/ materials breakdown available.
f Labor for placing absorption chiller and cooling tower was small; included
with piping, fittings, and insulation labor costs in Piping Category.
g~aerilsand labor for wiring electric motors in solar loop included in Controls; no further breakdown available. hNo materials/labor breakdown available.

1 Cost of observation tower not included in total.















VIII-2







IX. DISCUSSION
In this section, the data are presented in formats to
facilitate comparisons and further analysis of data collected at the various demonstration sites.
Table IX-1 presents the proportional composition of the total system costs and the costs per square foot of collector area for each category. It is useful to analyze the cost data unitized and apportioned in this manner, especially in comparing the costs of different systems.


TABLE IX-1. CATEGORY COSTS PER UNIT COLLECTOR AREA AND
AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL COST PAGE JACKSON
(Based on 10,943 Sq. Ft. Collector area)

UNIT COST, $/.- 2 PERCENT OF TOTAL
COLLECTOR AREA SYSTEM COST

CATEGORY a BARE COSTS, b BARE COSTS, b
WITHOUT OH&P WITH OH&P WITHOUT OH&P WITH OH&P Collector Array 12.70 15.90 34 33
Supporting Structure 11.50 15.80 31 33

Piping 5.90 7.40 16 15
Ductwork None None None None
Insulation 0.90 1.00 2 2
Heating/Cooling Equipment 2.60 3.30 7 7

Storage 1.20 c 1.50 3 3
Controls 0.30 0.30 1 1
Electrical Power --General Construction 2.40 3.00 6 6

TOTAL 37.50 48.10 100 100
a
For a complete description of items included in this category, see Section VII. b See Section X for the procedure used to add overhead and profit.

c
Equates to $0.64/gallon storage.









IX-1










X. SYSTEM COST FOR USE IN ANALYSIS
Detailed performance data is being acquired for this solar energy system through the National Solar Data Network. The assessment of this system's economic performance (cost/unit of energy delivered) requires a total construction cost figure that should include an overhead and profit (OH&P) factor. However, a constant OH&P factor will be applied to all bare costs in this series of reports to normalize the great variation of OH&P percentages encountered in the program.
To illustrate the necessity for this adjustment, consider two systems. System A performs well, but was installed by a contractor with a high OH&P factor. System B does not perform as well, but was installed by a contractor with a low OH&P factor. It would not be appropriate to penalize System A in an economic performance comparison of the two systems because of the installer's OH&P factor. Major variations in OH&P factors are expected due to the diversity of business firm types that con traced to install the solar demonstration systems. These include colleges and universities, engineering firms, and construction contractors. The comparison discussed above represents the extremes of conditions that can be encountered.
As a result, a need exists to "normalize" the treatment of OH&P in analysis of the cost data. For this reason, an OH&P factor of 25% will be added to all prime contractor bare costs (materials and labor) and 10% will be added to all subcontract costs to represent the cost that a prime contractor would charge.
The equivalent total construction cost thus determined for the solar energy system of the Page Jackson Elementary School is $526,845 in 1977 dollars. To allow equivalent comparisons among sites, all cost data must account for the effects of inflation. Adjustment of data from all sites to a common year will eliminate inflation biases. The base year selected is 1977, the same year in which the Page Jackson system was constructed. Hence, no modification is required.





X-1







Table X-1 presents the total system cost in absolute

dollars and in dollars per square foot of collector area with and without OH&P.


TABLE X-1. SUMMARY OF TOTAL COST FIGURES PRESENTED IN REPORT


TOTAL TOTAL
WITHOUT OVERHEAD WITH OVERHEAD
& PROFIT & PROFIT


TOTAL COST $410,700 $526,845


2 2
$/Sq. Ft.* $37.50/Ft $48.10/Ft
*Based on 10,943 Sq. Ft. collector area.











































x-2












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09052 5550