Monthly performance report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Monthly performance report Zein Mechanical
Added title page title:
Zein Mechanical
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Energy
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Monthly Catalog Number: gp 80007775
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
"SOLAR/1057-78/06" ; "SOLAR/1057-78/07."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027035161
oclc - 05879624
System ID:
AA00013838:00002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Main body
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text


SOLAR/1 057-78/07


Monthly Performance Report


ZEIN MECHANICAL JULY 1978











U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program




































NOTICE
This report vues prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or

L process disclosed, or repramts that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.







MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT
ZEIN MECHANICAL
JULY 1978


I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The Zein Mechanical site is a single family residence located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The home has two separate solar energy systems: an air system for space heating and cooling; a liquid system to preheat the potable hot water. The two systems are shown schematically in Figure 1


The space heating system, designated Zein Mechanical No. 1, is designed to supply approximately 44 percent of the space heating requirements for the 1,388 square foot residence. This system has a solar array of doubleglazed acrylic collectors with a gross area of 384 square feet. The collectors, manufactured by Solaray, Inc., face south at an angle of 53 degrees from the horizontal. A fan circulates the solar heated air through the 412.5 cubic foot rock thermal storage, across the heat pump coil then back to the inlet side of collectors. Thus, the solar heated air assists the heat pump in providing thermal energy to the heat exchanger in the air handler. Auxiliary space heating energy is supplied by 4-kw and 6-kw electric strip heaters. In the summer, the heat pump can also function in the cooling cycle to maintain desired temperatures in the Conditioned space. The solar energy system components, heat pump compressor, evaporator, circulating fan, and rock thermal storage are located inside a sealed and insulated room in the house basement. Excessive heat buildup in the rock thermal storage is rejected to the ouside ambient either thrcugh backdraft damper D5, or through the collectors.


The liquid system, designated Zein Mechanical No. 2, uses distilled water as the transfer medium. This system has a solar array with a gross area of 77.6 square feet. The collectors, manufactured by Solarcrat'*, face south at an angle of 30 degrees from the horizontal Solar heated water flows through the heat exchanger within the 82-gallon domestic hot at.er (DHW) heater to preheat the domestic hot water. Auxiliary energy for











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hot water is provided by a 4.5-kw electric element in the DHW heater. For freeze protection, the DHW heater contains an interior chamber large enough to accommodate the collector loop distilled water when the s5~stem is not operating. The DHW system activates the collector pump to collect solar energy when the differential temperature between the collector outlet and the bottom of the hot water tank is greater than 10 degrees. When solar energy is unavailable, the pump deactivates to permit automatic draining.


The Zein Mechanical No. 1 system has five modes of heating and five modes of cooling. A matrix of operating modes, damper positions and mode control temperature sensor conditions is shown in Table 1.

Mode I Storage-to-Space Heating: This winter mode is entered when there is a demand for space heating, the collector loop is not active, and the outside ambient temperature is less than 10OF above the rock thermal temperature. Air is drawn through motorized dampers from storage using the collector/heat pump circulating fan, past the heat pump evaporator coil, bypassing the collector, and back to storage. The heat pump condensor coil and house circulating fan supply energy to the house. Strip heaters supplement the heat pump to meet the heating demand.

Mode 2 Collector-to-Storage: This winter mode is entered when the collector outlet temperature is 10*F higher than a temperature representative of storage, and the outside ambient temperature is less than 10OF above the rock thermal storage temperature. Air is drawn from the collector using the collector/heat pump circulating fan into the rock thermal storage through motorized dampers and recirculated through the collector. There may or may not be a demand for space heating.


Mode 3 Outside Air-to-Storage (Heating): This mode is entered when the collector loop is inactive, there is no demand for space heating, and the outside ambient temperature is greater than 10OF above the rock thermal storage temperature. Air is drawn from the outside using the collector/ heat pump circulating fan into the rock thermal storage through motorized dampers and then exhausted to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room.









TABLE 1
Heating and Cooling Operating Mode Matrix WINTER HEATING OPERATING MODE

Tc-Tr Ta-Tr CALL FOR DAMPER
MODE > 10F > 10F HEAT FAN Dl D2 D3 D4'
OFF NO NO NO OFF C 0 0 C

1 NO NO YES ON C 0 0 C

2 YES NO ON 0 C 0 C

3 NO YES NO ON C 0 C 0

4 NO YES YES ON C 0 C 0

5 YES YES ON 0 C C 0


SUMMER COOLING OPERATING MODE
Tc-Tr Ta-Tr CALL FOR DAMPER
MODE < -10F < -10F COOLING FAN Dl D2 D3 D4

OFF NO NO NO OFF C 0 0 C

6 NO NO YES ON C 0 0 C

7 YES NO ON 0 C 0 C

8 NO YES NO ON C 0 C 0

9 NO YES YES ON C 0 C 0

10 YES YES ON 0 C C 0


MODE CONTROL TEMPERATURE SENSORS: Tc TEMPERATURE OF COLLECTORS

Ta TEMPERATURE OF OUTSIDE AMBIENT AIR Tr TEMPERATURE OF ROCK STORAGE








4







'Viode 4 Outside Air-to-Space Heating: This winter mode is entered when there is a demand for space heating, the collector loop is not active, and the outside ambient temperature is greater than 10*F above the rock thermal storage temperature. Air is drawn from the outside through motorized dampers past the heat pump evaporator coil, through the rock thermal storage, and then exhausted to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room. The heat pump condenser coil and house circulating fan supply energy to the house. Strip heaters supplement the heat pump to meet the heating demand.

Mode 5 Outside Air-to-Collector (Heating): This mode is entered when the difference in temperature between the collector outlet temperature is 10OF higher than a temperature representative of storage, and the outside ambient temperature is greater than 10OF above the rock thermal storage temperature. Air is drawn from outside using the collector/heat pump circulating fan, through the collector, into the rock thermal storage through motorized dampers and then exhausted to the outside. There may or may not be a demand for space heating.

Mode 6 Storage-to-Space Cooling: This summer mode is entered when there is a demand for space cooling, the collector loop is not active, and the storage temperature is less than 10*F above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn through motorized dampers from storage using the collector/ heat pump fan, past the heat pump condenser coil, by-passing the collector, and back to storage. The heat pump evaporator coil and house circulating fan remove energy from the house.

Mode 7 Collector Heat Rejection: This mode rejects storage energy by circulating air through the collectors at night. This summer mode is entered when the temperature of the storage is more than 10*F higher than the collector outlet temperature,, and the storage temperature is less than 10*F above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the










5







collector at night using the collector/heat pump circulating fan into storage, through motorized dampers, and recirculated through the collector. There may or may not be a demand for space cooling.

Mode 8 Storage Heat Rejection: This mode is entered when the collector loop is inactive, there is no demand for space cooling, and the rock thermal storage temperature is greater than 10OF above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the outside using the collector/ heat pump circulating fan into the rock thermal storage, through motorized dampers, and then exhausted to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room.

Mode 9 Outside Air-to-Space Cooling: This summer mode is entered when there is a demand for space cooling, the collector loop is not active, and the rock thermal storage temperature is greater than 10OF above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the outside through motorized dampers to the heat pump, past the heat pump condenser coil, through the rock thermal storage, and then exhausted to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room. The heat pump evaporator coil and house circulating fan remove energy from the house to meet the cooling load.


Mode 10 Outside Air-to-Collector (Cooling)_: This mode is entered when the temperature of the rock thermal storage is 10*F lower than the collector outlet temperature, and the rock thermal storage temperature is greater than 10OF above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from outside through the collector using the collector/heat pump circulating fan, into the rock thermal storage, through motorized dampers, and then exhausted to the outside. There may or may not be a demand for space cooling.












6







II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

A. Introduction

The system performance evaluations discussed in this section are based primarily on the analysis of the data presented in the attached computergenerated monthly report. This attached report consists of daily site thermal and energy values for each subsystem, plus environmental data. The performance factors discussed in this report are based upon the definitions contained in NBSIR-76-1137, Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.

The Zein Mechanical site is an unoccupied model home. Because it is unoccupied the house had a low space heating, space cooling, and hot water demand. The Zein Mechanical site operated only in the auxiliary cooling modes during July.

No space heating demand was predicted or measured during the month of July.


The water solar energy system satisfied 69 percent of the DHW demand of
0.02 million Btu with a resultant savings of 0.25 million Btu (74 kwh) of
electrical energy.

The space cooling system was operated in the summer cooling Modes 6, 9, and 10, and in the rock bed energy rejection Modes 7 and 8. The space cooling system satisfied the space cooling demand of 0.85 million Btu using the heat pump auxiliary. The heat pump coefficient of performance was approximately 1.67, which is considerably less than the predicted performance of
2.5 for the heat pump in the cooling mode.

Although not part of the solar energy system, the space cooling system performance is indicated in the Extra Load Subsystem Report. Also, the heat pump space cooling performance is shown in the Auxiliary Thermodynamic Conversion Equipment Report. Refer to attached computer-generated printout for this cooling data.





7








B. Weather

The cloud cover in July was significantly above normal, as indicated by comparing the measured insolation with the predicted long-term monthly insolation. The insolation available on the solar energy system collector arrays during the month averaged 1,269 Btu/ft2-day, which is significantly less than the 1,647 Btu/ft 2-day expected for the month. This is computed using an algorithm to estimate the insolation on a tilted surface from the long-term insolation data (on a horizontal surface) derived from measurements taken at the airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


The measured ambient temperature was 690F. which is 1*F lower than the 70*F predicted for July.


C. Space Heating System Thermal Performance


Collector The collection system operated only to reject energy accumulated in storage due to operation of the heat pump in the cooling modes. No solar energy collection occurred.


Storage No solar energy was collected or delivered to storage. However, operation of the space heating system actually provided 1.22 million Btu of evaporator cooling energy to the rock thermal storage.


Space Heating Load During July, no space heating load was expected or measured. There were 15 heating degree-days measured at the site.


D. Domestic Hot Water Thermal Performance


Collector Of the 3.05 million Btu of solar energy incident on the collector array during July, 0.76 million Btu were incident on the array when the collector circulating pump was operating. The system collected 0.39 million Btu, or 13 percent of the total insolation incident on the collector







array. The operation of the collector circulating pump required 0.03 million Btu of electrical energy. The collection subsystem was inactive during significant periods of the month.

Storage Of the 0.76 million Btu of solar energy collected, 0.28 million Btu were delivered to storage. A total of 0.02 million Btu were extracted from storage and delivered to the space heating and domestic hot water demand. The storage thermal loss was 0.26 million Btu. The relatively high loss is due to the low consumption of hot water because the model home is unoccupied. Thermal loss from the transport system between the collector array and storage amounted to 0.48 million Btu, or 63 percent of the collected energy.


Domestic Hot Water Load An average of one gallon of hot water was used each day and delivered at an average temperature of 136*F. The hot water was replaced with cold water at an average temperature of 63*F, which resulted in a hot water load of 0.02 million Btu. In order to satisfy this load and maintain domestic hot water average temperature at 1360F, 0.51 million Btu were supplied to the tank. Of the 0.51 million Btu supplied to the tank, 0.28 million Btu were supplied by solar energy and 0.23 million Btu were supplied by auxiliary electrical energy, resulting in a solar contribution to the load of 69 percent.


E Space Cooling System


The space cooling demand was 0.85 million Btu, which was provided entirely by the heat pump. The space cooling load was significantly higher than expected for July due to having the control thermostat set at 700F, and also to the requirement to remove uncontrolled energy lost from the insulated room containing the storage. The energy removed from the building during cooling was transferred to the rock bed. Thus, the storage temperature increased to near 100*F. The resultant losses from storage were transferred to the building. This rock bed/building interaction created the









9







larger-than-expected cooling load. In addition, the collector energy rejection mode was insufficient to remove enough energy to prevent the occurrence of this problem. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump in the cooling mode was 1.67 as compared to a predicted coefficient of 2.5 for this heat pump operating under the measured weather conditions.


F Observations


The poor heat pump performance is probably due partially to the measurement inaccuracies of the air flow sensors at the site. The elimination of known duct leaks is necessary to obtain an accurate energy balance for the system. To identify the duct leaks, a duct flow survey would have to be completed at the inlet and outlet of each major subsystem and at the sensor locations.


Conditioned space cooling was provided entirely by the heat pump auxiliary. The space cooling load was significantly higher than expected for July. A considerable amount of energy was stored in the rock bed. The collector subsystem heat rejection mode was insufficient in removing rock bed heat. The resulting rock bed/insulated room losses added energy to the conditioned space, causing an increased cooling load. An analysis of the operation of the heat pump cooling modes should be undertaken. It would be desirable if the heat pump energy was rejected to the outside and not stored in storage when in cooling modes.


G. Energy Savings


The Zein Mechanical solar energy system for space heating was inoperative during the month of July. Thus, no savings were accrued.


The Zein Mechanical domestic hot water savings were 0.25 million Btu. The energy savings are based on the energy requirements of a conventional domestic hot water tank compared to the energy requirements of the solar energy system. The energy conversion efficiency from electrical to thermal energy was assumed to be 100 percent.







10









III. ACTION STATUS

Minor instrumentation problems exist at the site. Site rework activity is necessary to survey air ducts to determine an accurate energy balance for the space heating system. Some temperature probes should be replaced.

A large air flow leak has been detected in the plenum system of the space heating collectors. The air leaks must be isolated and sealed in order for the system to perform to design specifications.

The data system experienced significant loss of data during the month. The collector outlet temperature was erratic sometimes indicating properly, and other times, indicating a zero output.

































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