Monthly performance report

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Material Information

Title:
Monthly performance report Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 2012-79/03
Added title page title:
Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Energy
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Pennsylvania -- Chester County   ( lcsh )
Solar heating   ( lcsh )
Solar energy -- Pennsylvania -- Cheshire   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Mar. 1979.
General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007801

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022594513
oclc - 05908249
System ID:
AA00013805:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Main body
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text




SOLAR/2012-79/03
Monthly Performance Report


BELL TELEPHONE OF PENNSYLVANIA MARCH 1979





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SU.S. Department of Energy National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program











































NOTICE
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.








MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORI
BELL TELEPHONE OF PLNNSYLVANIA
MARCH 1979


I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania site is a one-story office and warehouse building in West Chester County, Pennsylvania. The solar energy systemr is designed to supply approximately 62 percent of the annual space heating requirements for the building. The site has an array of Heliotherm flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 2,112 square feet that faces south at an angle of 55 degrees from the horizontal. Solar heated water is stored in a 6,000-gallon capacity tank, but contains only 4,600 gallons. The tank is located above ground in the Mechanical room. Thermal energy is distributed to the loads by circulating water from the storage tank through forced-air heat exchangers and through 20 individual heat pump evaporators. When solar energy is insufficient to meet the needs for space heating, auxiliary energy is supplied to the circ-ulating water by electric resistance heating in the boiler.


The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has three instrumented modes of solar operation.


Mode 1 Collector-to-Storage: This mode is entered when the collector absorber plate temperature exceeds the temperature in the middle of storage by at least 180F. Water from the tank is then circulated through the collectors until this temperature differential is less than 3'F. The collector subsystem has a drain-down feature to prevent freezing. Overheat protection is provided by automatic draining of the collector array whenever the collector output temperature exceeds 190'F.


Mode 2 Storage-to-Space Heating: This mode is entered with a demand for heating from manually preset thermostats in either the office corridors or the warehouse area. Water is circulated by pumps P3 and P4 between the







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Mode 3 Storage-to-Space Heating (Heat Pumps): This mode is entered when there is a demand for space heating from individual offices, and the sensed temperature of the water to the heat pumps is below a nominal 70'F. Valve VlO blends water from the storage tank with the heat pump recirculation flow as required. Flow from the storage tank ceases when the heat pump fluid operating temperature again reaches the 70OF set point. When the sensed storage tank temperature is less than 700F, the boiler then becomes the thermal energy source for the heat pumps by the opening of valve V8 and the closing of valve V9.


II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION


The system performance evaluations discussed in this section are based primarily on the analysis of the data presented in the attached computer-generated monthly report. This attached report consists of daily site thermal and energy values for each subsystem, plus environmental data. The performance factors discussed in this report are based upon the definitions contained in NBSIR-76-l137, Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.


A. Introduction


The solar energy system at the Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania site satisfied 69 percent of the measured space heating load (14.88 million Btu) during March. The solar energy system saved 7.23 million Btu of electrical energy. The system operation was interrupted by a cooling tower rupture on March 31, which subsequently allowed pump P2 to empty the storage tank.









B. Weather

The March outside temperatures averaged 9'F warmer than the long-term average temperature of 421F as reported in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Bulletin for the Philadelphia International Airport. The measured insulation in the plane of the collector array averaged 1,412 Btu/ft 2_ day, which is slightly higher than the long-term average of 1,322 Btu/ft 2_ day as estimated for the area from the Climatic Atlas of the United States.


C. System Thermal Performance

Collector The solar energy system collected 21.90 million Btu, or 24 percent of the 92.47 million Btu of the incident insulation on the collector array. The collector array efficiency is 25 percent lower than the value computed for February. The primary factors that adversely affected the collector array performance for March included: reduced collector pump operation from March 20 through March 23 to avoid over heating the storage tank, average storage tank temperatures were 360F higher for March than for February, and reduced collector pump operation due to drain and fill control problems. A total of 55.72 million Btu of insulation was incident when the collector pump Pl was operating. The operation of collector pump Pl and refill pump P5 required 0.57 million Btu of electrical operating energy.


Storage A total of 23.52 million Btu of thermal energy was added to storage from two sources during the month. The solar energy system provided 21.90 million Btu. The electric boiler added 1.62 million Btu, due to the circulation of storage water between the boiler and storage. A total of 19.60 million Btu of thermal energy was extracted from storage during the month. Of this amount, 13.10 million Btu were supplied to the source water for heating the warehouse and the office building corridors. The remaining 6.50 million Btu were supplied to the continuous recirculation loop for the 20 heat pump units. The storage energy level increased by 0.28 million Btu. The energy loss from storage was 3.64 million Btu, which was computed by subtracting






4







the sum of the change in storage energy and the energy removed from storvi(from the total thermal energy delivered to storage. The storage tank increased by 2.36 million Btu over February due to the significantly higher storage temperatures and partially due to the uncontrolled removal of storage energy when the cooling tower heat exchanger ruptured on March 31.


Space Heating Load The measured space heating load was 14.88 million Btu. The solar energy system provided 19.26 million Btu of energy to the space heating subsystem. Of this amount, only 10.27 million Btu of solar energy were used to satisfy system loads. The solar fraction of the space heating load was 69 percent. The remaining 8.99 million Btu of solar energy removed from storage was apparently added to the interior of the building through pipe losses. The electric boiler and the heat pump compressors provided an additional 5.32 million Btu of thermal energy to the space heating subsystem. The operation of circulating pumps P2, P3, and P4, the AHU fan Fl, and the FFH unit fans required 3.27 million Btu of electrical energy.


D. Observations


The warmer March outside temperatures necessitated the manual switching of the system operation from the winter to the summer mode on March 21. In the summer mode, valve VIO is held closed to the storage and boiler heat source lines and fully open to the heat pump return line. In addition, valve V13 is closed and valves V11 and V12 are opened to allow heat pump loop water to flow through the cooling tower located in the building's mechanical room. The system remained in the summer mode through March 31.


The solar energy collection system was operated manually on March 28 due to a control failure that prevented the collectors from draining whenever outside temperatures fell below the nominal 45OF control setting. In addition, manual intervention was required to transfer heat, via valve V10, from the storage tank to the heat pump loop as required to satisfy space heating demands on the heat pumps.









5








On March 31 at 6:31 p.m., water apparently began to be expelled from the heat pump loop at a rate of 32 gallons per minute as calculated by differencing the flow measurements W409 and W406. The water temperature measured by sensor T519 jumped from 80*F to 143*F. At 9:06 p.m. the flow as measured by both W409 and W406 became zero. In an apparently related event, the collector refill pump P5 was activated at 6:36 and attempted unsuccessfully to fill the collector arrays. The cause of these events is under investigation. The site contractor indicated that the heat pump loop circulating pump P2 operated to empty the 4,600-gallon water storage tank onto the mechanical room floor. The energy content of the expelled storage water was estimated to be approximately 4.0 million Btu.

The conventional method for the calculation of the thermal energy removed from storage and delivered to the heat pump loop was unsatisfactory this month because of an incompatibility between the measurement range of flow sensor W413 and the range of the actual flow to be measured. Consequently, an alternate procedure was used to estimate the amount of energy removed from storage and delivered to the heat pump loop. By establishing a thermal energy balance at the storage tank on an hourly basis, the amount of energy delivered to the heat pump loop was calculated. To establish this balance, the storage heat loss rate was determined at a time when no energy was being added or removed from storage. Using measurement data from the September, 1978 Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania Performance Report, the storage heat loss. rate was determined to be 50-33 Btu/'F-hour. Using this heat loss rate in conjunction with other storage measurements, storage energy balances were obtained. Occasionally, negative energy tabulations of solar energy used will be obtained on a daily basis using this computed energy from storage parameter. The negative tabulations of solar energy used on March 6 and 7 illustrate this problem. These results are inherent in the calculations. However, because of the cancelling effects of the positive and negative values for this parameter, the monthly errors are expected to be small. A total of 6.50 million Btu of storage energy was contributed to the heat pump loop.







6







E. Energy Savings


The Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania solar energy system saved 7.23 million Btu of electrical energy during March. The reported savings were based on the amount of solar energy utilized to satisfy calculated heating loads.

III. ACTION STATUS


A site visit was made by IBM personnel on March 15 to investigate the flow incompatibility problem of flow sensor W413 and also to implement the latest measurement improvements. The problem with the measurement of flow at W413 could not be resolved without replacing the flow sensor with one of lower range. This action would require a smaller pipe size which might impact the system operation. Consequently, the current method of calculating the amount of thermal energy delivered to the heat pump loop will be continued.


Site personnel indexed the heat pump system to summer operation on March 21. The solar energy system was not fully operational on March 28 due to testing of the automatic collector drain and fill control system.




























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