Solar energy system performance evaluation : Montecito Pines, Santa Rosa, California

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Solar energy system performance evaluation : Montecito Pines, Santa Rosa, California
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 1045-79/14
Added title page title:
Montecito Pines apartment complex, Santa Rosa, California
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hughes, James E
United States -- Dept. of Energy. -- Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
International Business Machines Corporation
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy, Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- California -- Santa Rosa   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- California -- Santa Rosa   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
November 1978 through March 1979.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
IBM Corporation.
General Note:
Prepared for Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications under contract EG-77-C-01-4049.
General Note:
On cover: Montecito Pines apartment complex, Santa Rosa, California.
General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007767
Statement of Responsibility:
James E. Hughes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022615104
oclc - 05974267
System ID:
AA00013790:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    National solar data program reports
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page 1-1
        Page 1-2
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 2-1
        Page 2-2
    System description
        Page 3-1
        Page 3-2
        Page 3-3
        Page 3-4
    Performance evaluation techniques
        Page 4-1
        Page 4-2
    Performance assessment
        Page 5-1
        Page 5-2
        Page 5-3
        Page 5-4
        Page 5-5
        Page 5-6
        Page 5-7
        Page 5-8
        Page 5-9
        Page 5-10
        Page 5-11
        Page 5-12
        Page 5-13
        Page 5-14
        Page 5-15
        Page 5-16
        Page 5-17
        Page 5-18
        Page 5-19
        Page 5-20
        Page 5-21
        Page 5-22
    References
        Page 6-1
        Page 6-2
    Appendix A. Definitions of performance factors and solar terms
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
    Appendix B. Solar energy system performance equations
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
    Appendix C. Long-term average weather conditions
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
    Appendix D. Monthly solar energy distribution flowcharts
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3
        Page D-4
        Page D-5
        Page D-6
    Appendix E. Monthly solar energy distributions
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
        Page E-5
        Page E-6
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
SOLARI104W-79/14




Solar Energy System
.Performance Evaluation


MONTECITO PINES APARTMENT COMPLEX Santa Rosa, California Noven,*sr 1978 Through March 1979












U.S. Department of Energy
National Solar Heating and

Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program

























NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, not any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.


Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $5.25
Microfiche $3.00







SOLAR/1045-79/14
Distribution Category UC-59


SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION







MONTECITO PINES SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA




NOVEMBER 1978 THROUGH MARCH 1979





JAMES E. HUGHES, PRINCIPAL AUTHOR
JERRY T. SMOK, MANAGER OF RESIDENTIAL SOLAR ANALYSIS
LARRY J. MURPHY, IBM PROGRAM MANAGER












IBM CORPORATION
18100 FREDERICK PIKE.
GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND 20760'



PREPARED FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR CONSERVATION AND SOLAR APPLICATION
UNDER CONTRACT EG-77-C-01-4049
H. JACKSON HALE, PROGRAM MANAGER






TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1. FOREWORD . . . . 1-1

2. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.1 Performance Summary . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES 4-1

5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT . . . . 0 0 0 . 5-1

5.1 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . 5-2

5.2 System Thermal Performance . . . . . . . 5-4

5.3 Subsystem Performance . . . . . . . . 5-9

5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem. 6 . 5-9

5.3.1.1 Collector Array . . . . . 5-9

5.3.1.2 Storage . . . . . . . 5-12

5.3.2 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Subsystem . . . 5-15 5.3.3 Space Heating Subsystem . . . . . . 5-17

5.4 Operating Energy . . . . . . . . . . 5-19

5.5 Energy Savings . . . . . . . . . 5-19

6. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS A-1

APPENDIX B SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS B-1

APPENDIX C LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS C-1

APPENDIX D MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS D-1

APPENDIX E MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS E-1







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIGURES TITLE PAGE

3-1 Solar Energy System Schematic 3-2

5-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart Summary 5-6

D-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-2
.November 1978

D-2 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-3
December 1978

D-3 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-4
January 1979

D-4 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-5
February 1979

D-5 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-6
March 1979






LIST OF TABLES


TABLES TITLE PAGE

5-1 Weather Conditions 5-3

5-2 System Thermal Performance Summary 5-5

5-3 Solar Energy Distribution Summary 5-7

5-4 Solar Energy System Coefficient of Performance 5-8

5-5 Collector Array Performance 5-10

5-6 Storage Performance 5-13

5-7 Solar Energy Losses Storage and Transport 5-14

5-8 Domestic Hot Water Subsystem Performance 5-16

5-9 Space Heating Subsystem Performance 5-18

5-10 Operating Energy 5-20

5-11 Energy Savings 5-21

E-1 Solar Energy Distribution E-2
November 1978

E-2 Solar Energy Distribution E-3
December 1978

E-3 Solar Energy Distribution E-4
January 1979

E-4 Solar Energy Distribution E-5
February 1979

E-5 Solar Energy Distribution E-6
March 1979












iv







NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS



Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under specific format. For example, this report for the Montecito Pines project site is designated as SOLAR/1045-79/14. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration.



SOLAR/1 045-79/14



Prepared for the ______Report Type
National Solar Designation
Data Program


Demonstration Si te Yea r



0 Demonstration Site Number:


Each project site has its own discrete number 1000 through 1999 for
residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


0 Report Type Designation:


This number identifies the type of report, e.g.,


Monthly Performance Reports are designated by the numbers 01 (for
January) through 12 (for December).

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations are designated by the
number 14.






V







Solar Project Descriptions are designated by the number 50.


Solar Project Cost Reports are designated by the number 60.


These reports are disseminated through the U. S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center, P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.











































vi







1. FOREWORD


The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy under the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of this activity is to accelerate the establishment of a viable solar energy industry and to stimulate its growth to achieve a substantial reduction in nonrenewable energy resource consumption through widespread applications of solar heating and cooling technology.


Information gathered through the Demonstration Program is disseminated in a series of site-specific reports. These reports are issued as appropriate and may include such topics as:


0 Solar Project Description
0 Design/Construction Report
0 Project Costs
0 Maintenance and Reliability
0 Operational Experience
0 Monthly Performance
0 System Performance Evaluation


The International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation is contributing to the overall goal of the Demonstration Act by monitoring, analyzing, and reporting the thermal performance of solar energy systems through analysis of measurements obtained by the National Solar Data Program.


The Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report is a product of the National Solar Data Program. Reports are issued periodically to document the results of analysis of specific solar energy system operational performance. This report includes system description, operational characteristics and capabilities, and an evaluation of actual versus expected performance. The Mon thly Performance Report, which is the basis for the Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report, is published on a regular basis. Each parameter presented in these reports as characteristic of system performance represents over 8,000 discrete measurements obtained each month by the National Solar


1-1







Data Network (NSDN). Documents referenced in this report are listed in Section 6, "References." Numbers shown in brackets refer to reference numbers in Section 6. All other documents issued by the National Solar Data Program for the Montecito Pines solar energy system are listed in Section 7, "Bibliography."


This Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of the Montecito Pines solar energy system. The analysis covers operation of the system from November 1978 through March 1979. The Montecito Pines solar energy system provides DHW preheating and space heating to an 8-unit apartment building located in Santa Rosa, California. Section 2 presents a summary of the overall system results. A system description is contained in Section 3. Analysis of the system thermal performance was accomplished using a system energy balance technique described in Section 4. Section 5 presents a detailed assessment of the individual subsystems applicable to the site.


The measurement data for the reporting period were collected by the NSDN [1]. System performance data are provided through the NSDN via an IBM-developed Central Data Processing System (CDPS) [2]. The CDPS supports the collection and analysis of solar data acquired from instrumented systems located throughout the country. This data is processed daily and summarized into monthly performance reports. These monthly reports form a common basis for system evaluation and are the source of the performance data used in this report.



















1-2







2. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This section provides a summary of the performance of the solar energy system installed at Montecito Pines, located in Santa Rosa, California, for the period November 1978 through March 1979. This solar energy system is designed to support the domestic hot water and space heating loads. A detailed description of Montecito Pines solar energy system operation is presented in Section
3.



2.1 Performance Summary


The solar energy site was occupied from November 1978 through March 1979, and the solar energy system operated continuously during this reporting period. The total incident solar energy was 159.15 million Btu, of which 45.96 million Btu were collected by the solar energy system. Solar energy satisfied 48 percent of the DHW requirements and 10 percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system provided a fossil fuel savings of 49.25 million Btu at an expense of 2.47 million Btu of electrical energy. Solar energy applied to the DHW and space heating loads was 29.60 million Btu. Solar system losses were 16.13 million Btu. Energy cost of operating the solar system was 3.60 million Btu of electricity.


2.2 Conclusions


The Montecito Pines solar energy system has been remarkably trouble-free over the reporting period. The control system functioned according to design throughout the period ensuring stable system performance. Subsequent to January 20, 1979, unreasonable or unlikely excursions in the temperature and heat transfer fluid flow measurements of the space heating subsystem have occurred periodically necessitating software filtering of this data. In this report, the space heating load and the solar energy used to satisfy space heating requirements for the months of January, February and March were derived using extensively filtered data.




2-1









3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The Montecito Pines site is an apartment complex in Santa Rosa, California. It consists of one instrumented unit containing eight apartments. Each apartment has approximately 864 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system which serves the eight-apartment unit has an array of flatplate collectors with a gross area of 950 square feet. The array faces 23 degrees west of south at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heat-Ing and hot water loads. Freeze protection is provided by drain-down. Solar energy is stored underground in a 2000-gallon insulated tank. City water is circulated through a heat exchanger in the storage tank for preheating before entering a gas-fired boiler which supplies DHW on demand. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, the gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy for space heating. The system, shown schematically in Figure 3-1, has four modes of solar operation.


Mode 1 Collector-to-Storage: This mode activates when the collector plate temperature exceeds the storage temperature by 170F and terminates when a temperature difference of 30F is reached. Collector loop pump PI is operating.


Mode 2 Storage-to-Space Heating: This mode activates when there is a space heating demand and the temperature at the top of the storage tank is 105'F or higher. Space heating pump P2 is operating and mode diversion valves divert the flow to the heat exchanger in the storage tank, bypassing the gas-fired boiler.


Mode 3 Auxiliary Space Heating, DHW Preheating: This mode activates when there is a space heating demand and the temperature at the top of the storage tank is less than 105*F. Space heating pump P2 is operating and mode diversion valves direct the flow through the gas-fired boiler, bypassing the heat exchanger in the storage tank.





3-1













z



cc u 0 0 4
















uj S




0- cc cc
UO













P-4




Lij






U-i




us V)


CL
D CL LLI 0
2'- LLJ cx = w


0 -j
CD z >
w;: 1 0' %-/'L
U OL
D
(A












lp
461
0




w rz CL
0 w w

UA -6 i cc
cc

to



CL




uj CL

0 u 0














3-2






Mode 4 DHW Preheating: This mode activates when there is a demand for DHW. Incoming city water passes through the heat exchanger in the storage tank on the way to the gas-fired boiler which supplies hot water, on demand, to the apartments.














































3-3









4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES


The performance of the Montecito Pines solar energy system is evaluated by calculating a set of primary performance factors which are based on those proposed in the intergovernmental agency report "Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program" [3]. These performance factors quantify the thermal performance of the system by measuring the amount of energies that are being transferred between the components of the system. The performance of the system can then be evaluated based on the efficiency of the system in transferring these energies. All performance factors and their definitions are listed in Appendix A.


Data from monitoring instrumentation located at key points within the solar energy system are collected by the National Solar Data Network. This data is first formed into factors showing the hourly performance of each system component, either by summation or averaging techniques, as appropriate. The hourly factors then serve as a basis for calculating the daily and monthly performance of each component subsystem. The performance factor equations for this site are listed in Appendix B.


Each month, as appropriate, a summary of overall performance of the Montecito Pines site and a detailed subsystem analysis are published. These monthly reports for the period covered by this Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation (November 1978 through March 1979) are available from the Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.


In the tables and figures in this report, an asterisk indicates that the value is not available for that month; N.A. indicates that the value is not appliCable for this site.









4-1









5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT


The performance of the Montecito Pines solar energy system has been evaluated for the November 1978 through March 1979 time period. Two perspectives were taken in this assessment. The first views the overall system in which the total solar energy collected, the system load, the measured values for solar energy used, and system solar fraction are presented. Where applicable, the expected values for solar energy used and system solar fraction are also shown. The expected values have been derived from a modified f-chart analysis which uses measured weather and subsystem loads as input. The f-chart is a performance estimation technique used for designing solar heating systems. It was developed by the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Madison. The system mode used in the analysis is based on manufacturer's data and other known system parameters. In addition, the solar energy system coefficient of performance (COP) at both the system and subsystem level has been presented.


The second view presents a more in-depth look at the performance of individual subsystems. Details relating to the performance of the collector array and storage subsystems are presented first, followed by details pertaining to the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) subsystems. Included in this section are all parameters pertinent to the operation of each individual subsystem.


In addition to the overall system and subsystem analysis, this report also describes the equivalent energy savings contributed by the solar energy system. The overall system and individual subsystem energy savings are presented in Section 5.5.


The performance assessment of any solar energy system is highly dependent on the prevailing weather conditions at the site during the period of performance. The original design of the system is generally based on the'long-term averages for available insulation and temperature. Deviations from these long-term averages can significantly affect the performance of the system. Therefore,




5-1





before beginning the discussion of actual system performance, a presentation of the measured and long-term averages for critical weather parameters has been provided.


5.1 Weather Conditions


Monthly values of the total solar energy incident in the plane of the collector array and the average outdoor temperature measured at the Montecito Pines site during the reporting period are presented in Table 5-1. Also presented in Table 5-1 are the corresponding long-term average monthly values of the measured weather parameters. These data are taken from Reference Monthly Environmental Data for Systems in the National Solar Data Network r4l. A complete yearly listing of these values for the site is given in Appendix C.


During November 1978 through March 1979 the average daily total incident solar energy on the collector array was 1109 Btu per square foot per day. This was below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during the reporting period of 1312 Btu per square foot per day for a southfacing plane with a tilt of 45 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during November 1978 through March 1979 was 46*F as compared with the long-term average for November 1979 through March 1979 of 51'F. The number of heating degree-days for the same period (based on a 65'F reference) was 2887, as compared with the summation of the long-term averages of 2191. The number of cooling degree-days for the same period (based on a 65'F reference) was zero, as compared with the summation of the long-term averages of zero.


Monthly values of heating and cooling degree-days are derived from daily values of ambient temperature. They are useful indications of the system heating and cooling loads. Heating degree-days and cooling degree-days are computed as the difference between daily average temperature and 650F. For example, if a day's average temperature was 60'F, then five heating degreedays are accumulated. Similarly, if a day's average temperature was 80'F, then 15 cooling degree-days are accumulated. The total number of heating and cooling degree-days is summed monthly.



5-2












UJ
LLI 0
< C) C
cr C)
Lu
uj z >
ui 0
cc
ui

LU
z cc
75 D C> C Cl Cl Cl Cl CD
0 (n
0 LU




(n CIC W
w 0
< r- LO C**j 00
'7 cc M Ln Cl co
ch m
w cn Ln LO (n
z >
w 0
z
0 ui
P a a
a C) w
z z cr C) V,
0 r- Ist to tn
cn 00
U) LO r%% to LC)
LU LU < 00
cc w C*-j
UJ z

0
w
C.) w cr W
LU cc w (D
D < Lc)
Z cc 49t 00 c
0 LLJ Lc) qt:t LO Ln .2
13C z > LO
U
w w 0 4)
-j CL -j C/)
cc 2 LL C
w 0

ul m
z w
D co 4qr to ko c
rn U) qqr Ln
w


0
cc cc ui CA4A
w w c
J CC < ON 04 :3
0 cc r.% 00 C)
6 LU cm C)
z >
0
Z zj ;, _j
W =) 4- x N
2 cc,, m
I L) W :" -0
Z ILE c
ui
cc C) %0 Cj m c
D CV) Ch r%% ko C)
-j cr w co Cl -T
w l
Z ui >
LU m


w
X C)
z 2= cc
LAJ cr. LLJ w
0 C3 r,3 U>





5-3




- -------------- --------5.2 System Thermal Performance


The thermal performance of a solar energy system is a function of the total solar energy collected and applied to the system load. The total system load is the sum of the useful energy delivered to the loads (excluding losses in the system), both solar and auxiliary thermal energies. The portion of the total load provided by solar energy is defined as the solar fraction of the load.


The thermal performance of the Montecito Pines solar energy system is presented in Table 5-2. This performance assessment is based on the 5-month period from November 1978 to March 1979. During the reporting period, a total of 45.96 million Btu of solar energy was collected and the total system load was 165.50 million Btu. The measured amount of solar energy delivered to the load subsystem(s) was 29.60 million Btu or 17.5 million Btu less than the expected value. The measured system solar fraction was 18 percent as compared to an expected value of 28 percent.


Figure 5-1 illustrates the flow of solar energy from the point of collection to the various points of consumption and loss for the reporting period. The numerical values account for the quantity of energy corresponding with the transport, operation, and function of each major element in the Montecito Pines solar energy system for the total reporting period.


Solar energy distribution flowcharts for each month of the reporting period
are presented in Appendix D.


Table 5-3 summarizes solar energy distribution and provides a percentage breakdown. For the period November 1978 through March 1979, the load subsystem(s) consumed 64 percent of the energy collected and 35 percent was lost. One percent of the collected energy is represented by solar energy storage gain. Appendix E contains the monthly solar energy percentage distributions.


The solar energy coefficient of performance (COP) is indicated in Table 5-4. The COP simply provides a numerical value for the relationship of solar


5-4














W
ui
cc
D 0% cli 00
z Cj
2 ui

x
cc
LL.
cc w
ON Ln C7% co
0 w Clf) cq cli 0i
CL
x
LLJ
x


ui
cr.
uj Ul) co CY) 00 #.0 C) c"ll
U) ON C m CV) 00 %0 ON
cc
>. -3 w
C1 4 M
cc ca W C z 0 ui ui
cr uj
z <
IL) C) %0 Wd* c1r)
ui
0 CL C; C
x
0 LU
LL
cr U) w ui
Z

0

cc
ui w
P 0 Z 00 co ko 00 C) C) C)
Z -j co cm ko C) C)
0 c 0
0 LO LO CY) LO CY*)
w W Cj CV) CV)
F

En

C
I
Ln
LU
-j
co
ui

LLI

0
co co Ln Lc)
c C) LO CA ON
o.2
CC rl: C6 (7; LO
w z w



0


w
X
z co cr_ cc
0 CD LU ui ui
Cl U- >





5-5








F IGURE 5-1. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -SUMMVARY

MONTECITO PINES I
Incident Solar Energy
Sol ar Energy Storage Losses

1591S5.14

Qiange in
(1~ Stored Energy
Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
Incident Collector toOprtnEegy0 2

139.14 5.54 2.47z

Solareer Stolag Operatin Energyerg

ColarergoStrged r Soa


45.9640 2







Operating Enrg Therma UsedgetoD



Domestic Hot
Water Lolad




N.A. 1.2



Heatingospac Ht D SubsystemWa Auxiliaryra OeaigEnergy UsemlUe



Dspac Ht
WrLoad


Transport Loss (1) rasot o7
Collector to Soaet
--- Space CoolingSpcHetn

N. A. 5.45___Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N. A 11. 31
Space Cooling Space Cooling Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used


Total Loss Space Cooling TtlLs


Collector to Loadag toLod




*~~~oa DEnotgy UnvalbleDt

NA.~~~N dente no aplcal dat
(1)Ma cotrbue t ofst osachetig Spa ce Cioko in g Spc seCetfrdsus o lin Susyte Axiia5-6ema





TABLE 5-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION SUMMARY OCTOBER 1978 THROUGH MARCH 1979 1MONTECITO PINES

459 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

29.60 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS


Ji29.? million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
35 %

13.3 milo SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


16.13 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
35%

5j1j million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
11 %

10.99 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
24 %

5.54 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 12 %

N.A. %million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. Million Btu'COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. Million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING-LOSS


N.A. Million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


5.45 million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS 12%

O million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS
0%

5.45 million BtuSTRGTOSAEHTIGLS 12 %STRGTOSAEHAIGLS N.A. Million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.23 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE N.A. -Denotes not applicable data 5-7
















Q)

UJ 0
0
0
u cc w CO D 0 (n C/)
a.
cn




uj 0
u z
z CL
LU 0 OD CrIs
LLJ (n %lo OD cle)
X >- (r
0 ui in < 00 m C4 cl; cl C
LL U Ca -J
cr, 0
LLJ
CL
CL
U
0
cc uj
z
ui
i : Z
Lu 0 LL C-)
UJ cr
M
0 Lj u
00 -J
-1 0 (n (n C/)
LLJ


,ji UJ
F

o
cr

< LIJ
u CV) to q::r C) OD
cr (n 0) %::r to C7% to
cr 0 CC
< r%-. r.% C6 0 C C6
u m -i
uj Z) 0 4-)
_j

0


fa
rn
(D 0.
CC 0
ui L)
Z 2 r ko Cl-%j 00 C*-j
w ui Ul)
cr 1-- 0
< U) U C) C) 06 a
>- tn
(n ai

0

UJ
w

co cl: CC
z (D ui act LAJ
0 LU
LL- >







5-8






energy collected or transported or used and the energy required to perform the transition. The greater the COP value, the more efficient the subsystem. The solar energy system at Montecito Pines functioned at a weighted average COP value of 8.22 for the reporting period November 1978 through March 1979.


5.3 Subsystem Performance


The Montecito Pines solar energy installation may be divided into three subsystems:


1. Collector Array and Storage
L Domestic Hot Water (DHW)
3. Space Heating


-Each subsystem is evaluated and analyzed by the techniques defined in Section
4 to produce the monthly performance reports. This section presents the results of integrating the monthly data available on the three subsystems for the period November through March.


5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem


5.3.1.1 Collector Array


Collector array performance for the Montecito Pines site is presented in Table 5-5. The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the period November 1978 through March 1979 was 159.15 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was operating the total insulation amounted to 139.48 million Btu. The total collected solar energy for the period was 45.96 million Btu, resulting in a collector array efficiency of 29 percent, based on total incident insulation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 40.42 milli on Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage was 5.54 million Btu. This loss represented 12 percent of the energy collected. Operating energy required by the collector loop was
2.47 million Btu.



5-9











-j cc
< c- > Z 2 cr- z
0 ui cn LO fn
rn
cr U
UJ UJ L.L 0. -J U0 -1 w
0



0
cr
W'3
ZZ ,
0 w co C) cle) f-- 00 C)
c 00 ON
F- 0
< z .- 1-: cl 06
Cr LLJ 7-- cn Cj Cj m Cj
w w a
u CL
z ou
< z

cr
0
LL
cc
w cc
cr

cr Z
0 Lu 00 ol C) ch ON
cr cl*j C%4
< w L) 0 CNJ cr) Cj CM
z III TL
cr -i LL
-i w 00 0
u
u
LLJ U
F
0 z L) 0
cr :3 Lci LU 4
W co
Z 00 U') LO ko ON
c C) LO
LLj LU 0 ON
w cr C; C rl: 06 0;
0
00
F





C)
F- M
Z w co
w z ko C*f) 00 cli to Ln Cf)
c U') Cl*i
C) LU 0 OD
0 CC LO U3 C6 4 1.:
CV) C#l Cj LO CV)

0



ui

z cr cc
0 LLJ LLJ w
U. >







5-10






Collector array efficiency has been computed from two bases. The first assumes that the efficiency is based upon all available solar energy. This approach makes the operation of the control system part of array efficiency. For example, energy may be available at the collector, but the collector fluid temperature is below the control minimum; therefore, the energy is not collected. In this approach, collector array performance is described by comparing the collected solar energy to the incident solar energy. The ratio of these two energies represents the collector array efficiency which may be expressed as


Tic = Qs/Qi


where: TIC = collector array efficiency


Qs = collected solar energy

Qi = incident solar energy


The monthly efficiency computed by this method is listed in the column entitled "Collector Array Efficiency" in Table 5-5.


The second approach assumes the efficiency is based upon the incident solar energy during the periods of collection only.


Evaluating collector efficiency using operational incident energy and compensating for the difference between gross collector array area and the gross collector area yield operational collector efficiency. Operational collector efficiency, n co is computed as follows:


nco = Q /(Q AP)
S oi x A a

where: QS = collected solar energy


Qoi operational incident energy


5-11






A = gross collector area (product of the number
p of collectors and the total envelope area of

one unit)


A a = gross collector array area (total area perpendicular to the solar flux vector, including all mounting, connecting and transport hardware)

A
Note: The ratio A P is typically 1.0 for most collector array configurations.
a

The monthly efficiency computed bythis method is listed in the column entitled "Operational Collector Array Efficiency" in Table 5-5. This latter efficiency term is not the same as collector efficiency as represented by the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 [5]. Both operational collector efficiency and the ASHRAE collector efficiency are defined as the ratio of actual useful energy collected to solar energy incident upon the collector and both use the same definition of collector area. However, the ASHRAE efficiency is determined from instantaneous evaluation under tightly controlled, steady-state test conditions, while the operational collector efficiency is determined from the actual conditions of daily solar energy system operation. Measured monthly values of operational incident energy and computed values of operational collector efficiency are presented in Table 5-5.


5.3.1.2 Storage


Storage performance data for the Montecito Pines site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-6. Results of analysis of solar energy losses during transport and storage are shown in Table 5-7. This table contains an evaluation of solar energy transport losses as a fraction of energy transported to subsystems.


During the reporting period, total solar energy delivered to storage was 40.42 million Btu. There were 35.05 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems. Energy loss from storage was 5.14 million



5-12









8
(0)
uj Z U.
> uj LLJ

U Cc
w UU- 0 LL
U.
0 Co





cc

< < ko %0 CD 0%
cc cc cc 0 C) C) a% C> (71 C)
0 Uj LLJ
> 0C/) <






uj ui
U C) z
< ui Ln co o
cc F 00 00 00 4m co
0
cr- Ucn U
0 w
LL
cr
LLJ LAJ 0- z
LU C)
(D
0 z cr- -3
W 4
(r F- LU Z M (Y) Ch C% CV) LC)
0 G 0 Lu c Co CD C\j C)
LLJ Z 0.2 9
< UJ C) Cl C; C;
z m cr
0 UOLO
LIJ
I

0
cr UJ 4-J
u- r'. CV) CW) co
< 'cr C) C*lj C) C)
CC o
0 C6 u r : (u
cr
LLJ z
LU


CL
(a
0 4-)
0
m 00 ko 00 C\j 00 a
< c CV) CY) Q;;r C)
cr cr 0 V)
U, 0 406 06 %c; r.: 06 06 a)
Z -!g 4 )
LLJ U) 0

Cl

M
co < <
z X
0 CD LLJ LLJ 0 w
M U- >
<






5-13








TABLE 5-7. SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT MONTECITO PINES

MONTH



1., SOLAR ENERGY (SE) COLLECTED 10.04 9.78 7.55 8.64 9.95 45.96
MINUS SE DIRECTLY TO LOADS
(million Btu)

2. SE TO STORAGE 8.34 8.36 6.98 7.96 8.78 0.42
(million Btu)

3. LOSS --COLLECTOR TO STORAGE(%M 17 15 8 8 12 12
1-2

1
4. CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY 0.03 0.19 -0.01 -0.11 0.19 0.23
(million Btu)

5. SOLAR ENERGY -STORAGE TO 1.65 2.58 3.33 4.01 4.72 16.29
DHW SUBSYSTEM (million Btu)

6. SOLAR ENERGY -STORAGE TO 5.49 3.89 2.70 3.12 3.56 18.76
SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
(million Btu)

7. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N. A.
SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM
(million Btu)

8. LOSS FROM STORAGE(%M 15 20 14 12 4 13
2 -(4+5+6+7)
2

9. HOT WATER SOLAR ENERGY (HWSE) 1.65 2.58 3.33 4.01 4.72 16.29
FROM STORAGE (million Btu)

110. LOSS -STORAGE TO HWSE M 0 0 0 0 0 0
5-9
5

111. HEATING SOLAR ENERGY (HSE) 3.30 2.50 2.00 2.37 3.14 13.31
FROM STORAGE
(million Btu)

12. LOSS -STORAGE TO HSE(%M 40 36 26 24 12 29
6-11
6

N.A. Denotes not applicable data S002




5-14






Btu. This loss represented 13 percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 87 percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature for the period was 101'F.


Storage subsystem performance is evaluated by comparison of energy to storage, energy from storage, and the change in stored energy. The ratio of the sum of energy from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy to storage is defined as storage efficiency, n S* This relationship is expressed in the equation


ns = (AQ + QSO)/Qsi


where:


AQ = change in stored energy. This is the difference in
the estimated stored energy during the specified
reporting period, as indicated by the relative
temperature of the storage medium (either positive
or negative value)


Qso = energy from storage. This is the amount of energy
extracted by the load subsystem from the primary
storage medium


Qsi= energy to storage. This is the amount of energy
(both solar and auxiliary) delivered to the primary
storage medium


5.3.2 Domestic Hoi Water (DHW) Subsystem


The DHW subsystem performance for the Montecito Pines site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-8. The DHW subsystem consumed 16.29 million Btu of



5-15













z
0

cr) C) co
CY) LC) Ul) U')
cr
LL



0
C/)




ui
I:zr C) lqr
z 00 00 co C) C)
col) Lr; Lf; U %8
0
oc LA0 cr
LL
cr
LLJ
X
<
c U
LLJ 0
cc
(n
>- 2 U
U) w
Go 0 -j
D Lif LLJ
C/) 2
cr U) D
ui uj U)
z Z
0
u (Y) cn
o -J cc m to ko C co
X LLJ u 4 4
0 c- ::) X cl-i
UJ Lli <
z
L) Z LLI
0
U) 2 LU LO 00 m 0) to
5 m MD U") CV) r*l C\i C\j
0 <
C -j 1: C\; cl;
0
Ln
00


w

<



cr co 00 00 U') CY) Ul)
cn LLJ c
ui o C*%j r C\j C3 C\j co CL
U C r-L
0
4J
0
0 a
r

4)
0
a
LLJ

co
z C.) LJ w ir
0 LL- ui
>






5-16






solar energy and 30.06 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a hot water load of 34.23 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 48 percent.


A common gas-fired boiler provides the auxiliary thermal energy for both the DHW and space heating subsystems. The performance of the DHW subsystem is described by comparing the amount of solar energy supplied to the subsystem with the total energy required by the subsystem. The total energy required by the subsystem consists of both solar energy and auxiliary thermal energy. The DHW load is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the mass of water delivered by the DHW subsystem between the temperature at which it entered the subsystem and its delivery temperature. The DHW solar fraction is defined as the portion of the DHW load which is supported by solar energy.


5.3.3 Space Heating Subsystem


The space heating subsystem performance for the Montecito Pines site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-9. The space heating subsystem consumed 13.31 million Btu of solar energy and 196.95 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a space heating load of 131.31 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 10 percent.


Note that the sum of the solar energy and the auxiliary thermal energy for the reporting period exceeds the space heating load by 39.56 million Btu. This subsystem loss is attributable primarily to the maintenance of a boiler temperature in the range of 130'F to 140OF during periods when solar energy was satisfying the space heating load and during periods of no space heating load.


The performance of the space heating subsystem is described by comparing the amount of solar energy supplied to the subsystem with the energy required to satisfy the total space heating load. The energy required to satisfy the total load consists of both solar energy and auxiliary thermal energy. The ratio of solar energy supplied to the load to the total load is defined as the heating solar fraction.


5-17












z
0

U
< U') OD
cc CD
LL rcr

0






C) LO ON ON LO ON
LLJ C) cli m
CA
0 Lr; C34 U
z >- LA- C"i lqr
cr ON (Y)
2 <
cc
0
LL
co
c
LLJ c
CL 0
c
LLJ
w
(n 0 -j
>- ui LU
U) W
co LU
:) z to
W E-L Z
0 C) C) C) Ul)
0 < C*4 CV) Lc) Ln
Z
7- -j cc
T< w 06
< w cr ::) 3: Cj CY) CY) Ul) CV)
uj w <
m z z
LLJ 0 w
2

cc C) C) C>
< CY) Ln C co CV)
i C4 C C cl; cl; 0
0 CY) C14
C/)

w
1 4-)



<
0 ro
-i u

z m cn C\j %0 Cj 00
LO C) im 00
< .2 C; C6 Lc;
ui Cj (V) 04 +j
3: 0
w U <
(n 4-)


w
C)

z co cc
0 C) Uj 44. Uj w
U- >





5-18





5.4 Operating Energy


Measured values of the Montecito Pines solar energy system and subsystem operating energy for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-10. A total of 16'.61 million Btu of operating energy was consumed by the entire system during the reporting period.


Operating energy for a solar energy system is defined as the amount of electrical energy required to support the subsystems without affecting their thermal state.


Total system operating energy for Montecito Pines is the energy required to support the energy collection and storage subsystem (ECSS), the DHW subsystem, and the space heating subsystem. With reference to the system schematic (Figure 3-1), the ECSS operating energy consists of pump P1 (EPlOO). The DHW subsystem operating energy consists of pump P3 (EP300) and boiler circulation loop pump P4 (EP3Ol). The space heating subsystem operating energy consists of pump P2 (EP400).


5.5 Energy Savings


Energy savings for the Montecito Pines site for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-11. For this period the total savings of fossil fuel energy were 49.25 million Btu, for a monthly average of 9.85 million Btu. An electrical energy expense of 2.47 million Btu was incurred during the reporting period for the operation of solar energy transportation pump EPlOO.


Solar energy system savings are realized whenever energy provided by the solar energy system is used to meet system demands which would otherwise be met by auxiliary energy sources. The operating energy required to provide solar energy to the load subsystems is subtracted from the solar energy contribution to determine net savings. Note that the only operating energy used that is attributable to the solar energy system is the collector loop pump P1 (EPlOO).




5-19













uj LU
Z
(n UJ M
>- 00 to 00 m to
-I C lqr (D CV) %0
z 0
_j cv; cl;

0 cr
0
0


0
0 cr Z uj
z
0 Lu
0 0 c
L) Z.0 w ;2 2
UJ
L) < < cr
a
U) LLJ
CL
0


cr
LU cr
z Z LLJ
LU 7- z
C) < LLJ C13 Cj C) 00 #0
Z cn uj 0 c C\j
LU X Z.0
LIJ C C\; cl C c C
U
cr <
< ir LLI a.
a. (n LU
0 0.
0
ct) UJ
cr
z uj
0
<
LU
z
LU M
ca 0 C o ON m Cl c*,i 00
< M (D c %0 r qqr 90
2 C) C) C; C C C; (a
cn < 4-)
ui cc 2 ui o a.
0
0 1
z ea
2
cr
LU
UJ < Z :3 (a.
m w ka ON
0 0 c LO U") LO 4j
z 0 0
0
C) C) C) C) C) Cj CD c
0 Z <
Cr < LL W
ui w 4-)
Z CL 0
ui 0
ui

F- cr- < <
z C) Uj czx LLJ 493f F- cc
0 U- 0 ui
>
<







5-20










-1 00 to 00 en C) LO Ul)
U) LLJ ql:zr 00 to Cl-i 00
z
LL LL 00 00 0 C 104 C
W c
.2
C)
cr. Lf) LO LCI)
LLJ w 0
-i C) C) C; C C=; CQ C;
ui


cr >
C (D go LO C) C\j
< m rl-. Ln to to
i ui cr c
a. ui .0- C; C; C; C; C
0 z FE
iAi



CD Cn Lu
Z
0-0
c) LL LL
0

w
z cy<
UJ L)
> 2
< cn w
ui (n
Z 0 co
EL- z c
-1 to C) Ul) 00 to LO cn
w 0 > = -i
< U) LLJ r%% m LO to 00
z cr (n =)
w ch LU 0 U- C Lc; k r
LU > 0 LL cli
F- (D F- in
Z cr w
LA 0 uj C 2
Z w I-UJ 00
w O:r
-i CO LU U
00 ..1 cr
< _j CC LU
0 C/3

C) UD CY) Ul) 00 q** 4-)
C/) LU Ul) C*%i (a
< 0 LL (n 5 C
LU LL

LU
u
< <
CL w U C/) _j CL
Lli (a


0
cc (9 C) M U-) 00 cn 00 to C) C\i
< cc ui c Ch C) cn cn 00 to Ch CA
-i w cn (1)
0 Z U U; Ln +j
w 0

uj

< <
z C) LLJ m
0 U- 0 w
>
<






5-21





The auxiliary source at Montecito Pines consists of a gas-fired boiler which provides auxiliary thermal energy to both the DHW and space heating subsystems. This unit is considered to be 80 percent efficient for computational purposes.















































5-22





6. REFERENCES

i. U.S. Department of Energy, National Solar Data Network, prepared
under contract number EG-77-C-4049 by IBM Corporation,
December 1977.

2. J. T. Smok, V. S. Sohoni, J. M. Nash, "Processing of Instrumented
Data for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program," Conference on Performance Monitoring Techniques for
Evaluation of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, Washington, D.C.,
April 1978.

3. E. Streed, et. al., Thermal Data Requirements and Performance
Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling
Demonstration Program, NBSIR-76-1137, National Bureau of Standards,
Washington, D.C., 1976.

4. Mears, J. C. Reference Monthly Environmental Data for Systems in
the National Solar Data Network. Department of Energy report
SOLAR/0019-79/36. Washington, D.C., 1979.

5. ASHRAE Standard 93-77, Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal
Performance of Solar Collectors, The American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York, N.Y.,
1977.

6.# Monthly Performance Report, Montecito Pines, SOLAR/1045-78/11,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (November 1978).

7.# Monthly Performance Report, Montecito Pines, SOLAR/1045-78/12,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (December 1978).

8.# Monthly Performance Report, Montecito Pines, SOLAR/1045-79/Ol,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (January 1979).

9.# Monthly Performance Report, Montecito Pines, SOLAR/1045-79/02,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (February 1979).

10.# Monthly Performance Report, Montecito Pines, SOLAR/1045-79/03,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (March 1979).









#Copies of these reports may be obtained from Technical Information Center,
P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.

6-1









APPENDIX A

DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS

COLLECTOR ARRAY PERFORMANCE

The collector array performance is characterized by the amount of solar energy collected with respect to the energy available to be collected.

0 INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insulation available
on the gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture,, including the
framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

0 OPERATIONAL INCIDENT ENERGY (SEOP) is the amount of solar energy
incident on the collector array during the time that the collector loop is active (attempting to collect energy).

0 COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY (SECA) is the thermal energy removed
from the collector array by the energy transport medium.

0 COLLECTOR ARRAY EFFICIENCY (CAREF) is the ratio of the energy
collected to the total solar energy incident on the collector array. It should be emphasized that this efficiency factor is
for the collector array, and available energy includes the
energy incident on the array when the collector loop is inactive. This efficiency must not be confused with the more
common collector efficiency figures which are determined from instantaneous test data obtained during steady-state operation
of a single collector unit. These efficiency figures are often
provided by collector manufacturers or presented in technical
journals to characterize the functional capability of a particular collector design. In general, the collector panel maximum
efficiency factor will be significantly higher than the collector array efficiency reported here.

STORAGE PERFORMANCE

The storage performance is characterized by the relationships among the energy delivered to storage, removed from storage, and the subsequent change in the amount of stored energy.

0 ENERGY TO STORAGE (STEI) is the amount of energy, both solar
and auxiliary, delivered to the primary storage medium.

0 ENERGY FROM STORAGE (STEO) is the amount of energy extracted
by the load subsystems from the primary storage medium.




A-1






0 CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (STECH) is the difference in the estimated
stored energy during the specified reporting period, as indicated
by the relative temperature of the storage medium (either positive or negative value).

0 STORAGE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (TST) is the mass-weighted average
temperature of the primary storage medium.

0 STORAGE EFFICIENCY (STEFF) is the ratio of the sum of the energy
removed from storage and the change in stored energy to the
energy delivered to storage.

ENERGY COLLECTION AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM

The Energy Collection and Storage Subsystem (ECSS) is composed of the collector array, the primary storage medium, the transport loops between these, and other components in the system design which are necessary to mechanize the collector and storage equipment.

0 INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insulation available
on the gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture, including the framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

0 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (TA) is the average temperature of the outdoor environment at the site.

0 ENERGY TO LOADS (SEL) is the total thermal energy transported
from the ECSS to all load subsystems.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY TO ECSS (CSAUX) is the total auxiliary
energy supplied to the ECSS, including auxiliary energy added to
the storage tank, heating devices on the collectors for freezeprotection, etc.

0 ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (CSOPE) is the critical operating energy
required to support t e ECSS heat transfer loops.

HOT WATER SUBSYSTEM

The hot water subsystem is characterized by a complete accounting of the energy flow into and from the subsystem, as well as an accounting of internal energy. The energy into the subsystem is composed of auxiliary fossil fuel, and electrical auxiliary thermal energy, and the operating energy for the subsystem.

0 HOT WATER LOAD (HWL) is the amount of energy required to heat
the amount of hot water demanded at the site from the incoming
temperature to the desired outlet temperature.



A-2






0 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HWSFR) is the percentage of the load
demand which is supported by solar energy.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HWSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the hot water subsystem.

0 OPERATING ENERGY (HWOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
required to support the subsystem, (e.g., fans, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal state
of the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HWAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal energy in a heat transfer fluid, or its equivalent. This term
also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL (HWAF) is the amount of-fossil fuel energy
supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HWSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 FOSSIL FUEL SAVINGS (HWSVF) is the estimated difference between
the fossil fuel energy requirements of the alternative conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual fossil
fuel energy requirements of the subsystem.

SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM

The space heating subsystem is characterized by performance factors accounting for the complete energy flow into the subsystem. The average building temperature is tabulated to indicate the relative performance of the subsystem in satisfying the space heating load and in controlling the temperature of the conditioned space.

0 SPACE HEATING LOAD (HL) is the sensible energy added to the
air in the building.

0 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HSFR) is the fraction of the sensible
energy added to the air in the building derived from the solar
energy system.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the space heating subsystem.





A-3






0 OPERATING ENERGY (HOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
Required to support the subsystem, (e.g., fans,, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal state
of the system.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal
energy in a heat transfer fluid or its equivalent. This term also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL FUEL (HAE) is the amount of electrical
energy supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 BUILDING TEMPERATURE (TB) is the average heated space dry bulb
temperature.





























A-4






APPENDIX B

SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS

MONTECITO PINES


INTRODUCTION

Solar energy system performance is evaluated by performing energy balance calculations on the system and its major subsystems. These calculations are based on physical measurement data taken from each sensor every 320 seconds. This data is then mathematically combined to determine the hourly, daily, and monthly performance of the system. This appendix describes the general computational methods and the specific energy balance equations used for this site.

Data samples from the system measurements are integrated to provide discrete approximations of the continuous functions which characterize the system's dynamic behavior. This integration is performed by summation of the product of the measured rate of the appropriate performance parameters and the sampling interval over the total time period of interest.

There are several general forms of integration equations which are applied to each site. These general forms are exemplified as follows: The total solar energy available to the collector array is given by

SOLAR ENERGY AVAILABLE = (1/60) z [1001 x AREA] X AT

where I001 is the solar radiation measurement provided by the pyranometer in Btu per square foot per hour, AREA is the area of the collector array in square feet, AT is the sampling interval in minutes, and the factor (1/60) is included to correct the solar radiation "rate" to the proper units of time.

Similarly, the energy flow within a system is given typically by

COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY = E [MlOO X AH] X AT

where M100 is the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid in lb /min and AH is the enthalpy change, in Btu/lb M, of the fluid as it passes Through the heat exchanging component.

For a liquid system AH is generally given by

AH = C P AT

where C is the average specific heat, in Btu/(lb -'F), of the heat transfer flAd and AT, in 'F, is the temperature diffeWential across the heat exchanging component.


B-1






For an air system AH is generally given by

AH = H a (T out H a (T in)

where H (T) is the enthalpy, in Btu/lb of the transport air evaluated at the Inlet and outlet temperatures oT the heat exchanging component.

H (T) can have various forms, depending on whether or not the humidity rAtio of the transport air remains constant as it passes through the heat exchanging component.

For electrical power, a general example is

ECSS OPERATING ENERGY = (3413/60) E [EP100] X AT

where EP100 is the power required by electrical equipment in kilowatts and the two factors (1/60) and 3413 correct the data to Btu/min.

These equations are comparable to those specified in "Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program." This document was prepared by an interagency committee of the Government, and presents guidelines for thermal performance evaluation.

Performance factors are computed for each hour of the day. Each integration process, therefore, is performed over a period of one hour. Since long-term performance data is desired, it is necessary to build these hourly performance factors to daily values. This is accomplished, for energy parameters, by summing the 24 hourly values. For temperatures, the hourly values are averaged. Certain special factors, such as efficiencies, require appropriate handling to properly weight each hourly sample for the daily value computation. Similar procedures are required to convert daily values to monthly values.



















B-2







EQUATIONS USED TO GENERATE MONTHLY PERFORMANCE VALUES

NOTE: SENSOR IDENTIFICATION (MEASUREMENT) NUMBERS REFERENCE SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC FIGURE 3-1


AVERAGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (OF)

TA = (1/60) x E TOOl x AT

AVERAGE BUILDING TEMPERATURE (OF)

TB = (1/60) x E [(T601 + T602 + T603 + T60' + T605 + T606 + T607 + T608)/8] x AT DAYTIME AVERAGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (OF)

TDA = (1/360) x z TOOl x AT

FOR + 3 HOURS FROM SOLAR NOON HOT WATER LOAD (BTU)

HWL = E [M300 x HWD (T304, T300)] X'AT SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW TANK (BTU)

HWSE = E [M300 x HWD (T302, T300)] x AT

INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY PER SQUARE FOOT (BTU/FT )

SE = (1/60) x E I001 x AT

INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY ON COLLECTOR ARRAY (BTU)

SEA = SE x CLAREA

OPERATIONAL INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)

SEOP = (1/60) x E [1001 x CLAREA] x AT

WHEN THE COLLECTOR LOOP IS ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED BY THE ARRAY (BTU)

SECA = E [MlO0 x HWD (TlOl, T100)] x AT COLLECTOR ARRAY EFFICIENCY

CAREF = SECA/SEA



B-3







SOLAR ENERGY DELIVERED TO STORAGE (BTU)

STEIN = E [MIO0 x HWD (T103, T102)] X AT SOLAR ENERGY FROM STORAGE (BTU)

STEO = E [M400 x HWD (T302, T301) + M300 x HWD (T302, T300)] x AT

WHEN SYSTEM IS IN THE STORAGE-TO-SPACE HEATING MODE

STEO = E [M300 x HWD (T302, T300)] x AT

WHEN SYSTEM IS IN THE CONVENTIONAL SPACE HEATING MODE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF STORAGE (OF)

TST = (1/60) x 7 [(T200 + T201 + T202)/3] X AT ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

CSOPE = 56.8833 x z EP100 x AT

HOT WATER SUBSYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

HWOPE = 56.8833 x E (EP300 + EP301) x AT SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

HOPE = 56.86832 x E EP400 x AT SERVICE HOT WATER TEMPERATURE (OF)

THW = (1/60) x E T304 x AT

WHEN WATER IS BEING DRAWN

SERVICE SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE (OF)

TSW = (1/60) x E T300 x AT

WHEN WATER IS BEING DRAWN

AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY TO LOADS (BTU)

AXF = 1050 x E (F400 F400 p)

WHERE REFERS TO A PRIOR REFERENCE VALUE AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY TO LOADS

AXT = 0.8 x AXF



B-4






SPACE HEATING AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY (BTU)

HAT = AXT x HRATIO

WHERE HRATIO = (HL HSE)/[(HL HSE) + (HWL HWSE)] COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)
SEC = SECA/CLAREA

CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (BTU)

STECH = STOCAP x (STECH1 STECH1 )

WHERE THE SUBSCRIPT REFERS TO A PRIOR REFERENCE VALUE ENERGY DELIVERED TO LOAD SUBSYSTEMS FROM ECSS (BTU)

CSEO = STEO

STORING EFFICIENCY

STEFF = (STECH + STEO)/STEI ECSS SOLAR CONVERSION EFFICIENCY

CSCEF = SEL/SEA

DHW SUBSYSTEM AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY (BTU)

HWAT = AXT x HWRATIO

WHERE HWRATIO = 1 HRATIO

DHW SUBSYSTEM AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY

HWAF = AXF x HWRATIO

DHW SUBSYSTEM SOLAR FRACTION (PERCENT)

HWSFR = 100 x HWSE/HWL HOT WATER CONSUMED

HWCSM = W300

WHERE W300 IS A TOTALIZING WATER METER WITH RANGE 0 to 100 GALLONS DHW SUBSYSTEM FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SAVINGS

HWSVF = HWSE/O.6


B-5






SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM (BTU)

HSE = z [M400 x HWD (T400, T401)] x AT

WHEN SYSTEM IS IN THE STORAGE-TO-SPACE HEATING MODE SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM LOAD (BTU)

HL = E [M400 x HWD (T400, T401)] x AT

SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

HSVF = HSE/O.6 SYSTEM LOAD

SYSL = HL + HWL SOLAR ENERGY TO LOAD

SEL = HWSE + HSE

SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM SOLAR FRACTION

HSFR = 100 x (HSE/HL)

SOLAR FRACTION OF SYSTEM LOAD

SFR = (HL x HSFR + HWL x HWSFR)/SYSL SYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY

SYSOPE = HWOPE + HOPE + CSOPE TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMED

TECSM = SYSOPE + AXF + SECA TOTAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS

TSVE = CSOPE

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FACTOR

SYSPF = SYSL/(AXF + 3.33 x SYSOPE) TOTAL FOSSIL ENERGY SAVINGS

TSVF = HWSVF + HSVF




B-6





APPENDIX C


LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS



This appendix contains a table which lists the long-term average weather conditions for each month of the year for this site.








































C-1

























die





to -3
c.
4c
tA ---5
7k -4
;mo





.3

4 7% D 7D J) 7% N m
?I- =D,:
CU 0 N Ln (n
= :L3
dC LO
E-4
z 3C -3
-C 6.4 m in ta



m j cc
w -0 ir j
'A C 10 r- 3D 'M M -4 S mc
C-1 u - - - - -

c tn
u z z :14
dC 0 : W
CL. 3r I"
Lr
dC 'Z M -b zp w x w
cc 4 w Q n
cz



4c
ou tm m cz
c cy, -1 co C m dc n M
r- rq f 4 e- to Ed ,c W W f-.
2 In ll 14 D 10 C ;t: .4 W -C
10 m c Lr c N ^q c c Lr -T, -C cx
K; 71 U' L Z D C D 0 Lf' -? cc C
. . . . . .
V) C, C C C') C) C' ID on, C, c C, IE
LL Or 7' dC'L* -9t w
CLI
CK;
w F .4 CL. f-4
cr -C m
ELI < -T
co M -r U Z'A
cr O'l 7n Ij
0 :N. -3 Ic
00 r -C dC Md EL.
f- 0 17
z tn oz W
C6 0-1 C -j
0 d
0 M
H Lr a, Lr t- rr ir 3, w
0.4 r-: co 10 Lr r14 10 n Lr 00 = >
u -,J N
w

z

Ic



4 c n 'I
7 5 n
V n X x 2t .-I -'L Fc-2





APPENDIX D


MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS



The flowcharts in this appendix depict the quantity of solar energy corresponding to each major component or characteristic of the Montecito Pines solar energy system for 6 months of the reporting period. Each monthly flowchart represents a solar energy balance as the total input equals the total output.






































D-1








FIGURE D-1. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART NOVEMBER 1978 Incident MONTECITO PINES Solar Energy
Sol ar Energy Storage Losses

35.06 1.23


Operational Transport Loss CSSbytm trdEeg
incident Cletrt
Solar Energy SoaeOeaigEeg 00

31.70 17 .5



CollectedSoaEnrySlrneg Solar Energy oSorg rm trg











Domestic Hot
DHW Subystem I Water Auxlary Energ Thermgl Used






Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport Loss ()528 1 TasotLs
Collector to Soaet


Space Heating


Sar Energy Used
W EE

SaeHeating Space Heating
ISubsystem I Auxiliary Thermal
O aigEnergy Used



Space Heating
Load



Transport Loss 19.53 TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn N. A. N.____A.Space Cool ing
Solar Energy Used


Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

N.A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Storage and Loads

1.70 __ _ _2.19

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A, denotes not applicable data
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipad fif known see text for discussion)


D-2







FIGURE D-2. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART DECEMBER 1978 InietMONTECITO PINES SlrEeg 1
Solar nergyStorage Losses


34 1 93 Change in1.7

Operational Transport Loss StCre Subeyrte
IncidentcolcotoESSuste Solar EnergyStrgOprtnEegy0 1

31.431.205








ollected So~aer SolargySlrEeg
Solar ~~~~Energy UoStoaedfo trg




NNA 2.58
Domestic Hot
DHW SusystemWater Auolary Operatng EnrgyETermal Used



DHW ubsytemDomestic Hot Operatin EnergyWater Alay



Transport Loas


Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpc eti

N. A. 1.39___Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 2.50
Spac HeaingSpace Heating ISubsystem Auxiliary Thermal
OeaigEnergy Used

2.20 37.60
Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 300TrnptLos
Collector to Soaet
SmCoigSpace Cooling

N. A. N.____A.Space Cool ing
__________________________________ Soar Energy Used

N.A. N .A.
Spac Cooling Space Cooling Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used


Total Loss N. SpAceCoigTtlLs.
Collector to Spc ooigTtaget Lo s
Storage and Loads LoadStoragetoLoad
1.42 N..A- .3

Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable date
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating liead lif known see text for discussion) $0


D-3







FIGURE D-3. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART JANUARY 197'9 MONTECITO PINES


Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

26.38 0



Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
Incident Collector to Operating Energy
Solar Energy So g 00

22.570.7.4



Collj~etdSla nrgjoarEeg





Solar ~~ ~~Energy UoStoaedfo trg





I I Domestic Hot
SubsystemWater Auxlary Operatng EnrgyETermal Used




0.69 4.67

Domestic Hot
Water Load


Transport Loss6.1TasotLs
Collector to Soaet


Space Heating


Solar Energy Used

N. A. 20

SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

2.18 36.20

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 289 rasot os
Collector to Soaet
oSpace CoolingSpcColn NA.N.A.

Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. IN.A.
SaeCooling Space Cooling
ISubsystem I Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used


Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Storage and Loads

0.57 N. A. 0.70

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipoad (if known see text for discussion)








FIGURE D-4. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART FEBRUARY 1979

InietMONTECITO PINES Solar Energy
Solc Cdentv Storage Losses


28.52 0.94


1 Chan(1)
Operational Transport Loss ECSS SubsystemStrdEeg
Incident Collector to OeaigEeg
Sofa r EnergyStrgOprtnEegy0.1 24.840.8.4









Collected SolWar SolargySlrEeg
Solar Etierg toEnerg frsedoag




N.A. 4.0
Domestic Hot
~OHW~ubystem ~ Water Auxlary
Operatng EnrgyETermal Used


0.63 4.64.0



Domestic Hot
Water Load

7.25
Transport Loss TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn

N.A. 07

Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 2.37

SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

1.96J 31.75

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 1)8 rnsotLs
Collector to Soaet
---Space CoolingSpcColn
N. A. N.A.__ _Space Cool ing
Solar Energy Used



Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
OeaigEnergy Used


Total oss -N.A. .A.
Totllor to Space Cool ing Total Loss
Coetorag tnoad Load Storage to Loads

0.68 N.A. 0.75

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A, denotes not applicable data
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipad (if known see text for discussion) S0





D-5







FIGURE D-5. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART MARCH 1979 MONTECITO PINES
Inlcidenlt Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Lose

34.26 0.31

1 Change in
Operational TasotLs CSubyemStored Energy
incident CoClcto SubOp stemg
Solar Energy SMorage O0ra.n Energ

28.941.705


CollectedSoaEnrySlrneg Solar Energy toStrgefomSorg

9.95q .882







N.A. 4.7
1 1 Domestic Hot
DHW SusystemWater Auxlary Operatng EnrgyETermal Used LII~~iZN.A. ____ 4.7Domestic Hot



Water Load

9.01
Transport LossTrnpt o7
Collector to Soaet


Space Heating


Solar Energy Used

N.A.1 3.14
SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

2.16 28.31

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 26 .98 1 TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn



Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. IN.A*

Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
[Operating Energy ~ Used

N.111. N. A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to LoadsI
Storage and Loads
1.17 N.A. 0.42

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data s
(11I May contribute to offset of space heating lpad (if known see text for discussion)





D-6






APPENDIX E


MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS



The data tables provided in this appendix present an indication of solar energy distribution, intentional and unintentional, in the Montecito Pines solar energy system. Tables are provided for 6 months of the reporting period.






































E-1





TABLE E-1. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NOVEMBER 1978 MONTECITO PINES

10.04 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%

4.95 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
49 %
1.6 million Btu SO[LAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
16 "
3.30 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
33 %

-NA million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUI)SYSTEM


5.12 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
51

1.23 milo SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE

3.89 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
39

1.70 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 17%

N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS

N..mlinBuCLETO/OSAEHAIGLS

N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS



N.A million BtuCSORAER TO SPCECLN LOSS
0/

2.19 million Btu STORAGE TO OAD AIN LOSS
222 %

O, A million Btu STORAGE TO DHWECON LOSS




-00 million BtUTRG T PC COJGLS

-03 milo tuSOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE


N.A. -Denotes not applicable data E -2






TABLE E-2 SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION DECEMBER 1978 MONTECITO PINES

9.78 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

5.08 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
5 2 %

2.58 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
26%

2.50 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
26%

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


4.51 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
46 %

1.70 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
17%

2.81 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
29%

1.42 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS
15%

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


NA_ % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS 1,39 million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
14%

0 million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS
0 %

1,39 million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS 14 %

NA, % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.19 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
2%

N.A. Denotes not applicable data






TABLE E-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION JANUARY 1979
MONTECITO PINES

7.55 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%Z

5.33 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS


3.33 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
-447%

2.00 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
26 %

N.A. %million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


2.24 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
30 %

0.96 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
13%

1.27 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
17%

0L57 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 8%

million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


4. A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS

N. i lint
N.A milio BtCOLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS NA million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0 ..70 million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
9 :

O million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS O 7

0.70 milo STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS

N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0.01 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
0 %

N.A. -Denotes not applicable data E -4





TABLE E-4. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FEBRUARY 1979
MONTECITO PINES

S,64 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

6.38 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
74 %

4.01 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
46 %

2.37 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
27 %

N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


2.37 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
27 %

0.94 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
11 %

1.43 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
16 %

0.68 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS
8 %

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.75 million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
9 %

0 million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS
0 %

0.75 million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS
9%

N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0.11million Btu
-1 SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE

N.A. Denotes not applicable data E-5





TABLE E-5. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION -MARCH 1979
MONTECITO PINES

9.95 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%

7.86 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
79 %

4.72 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM

3.4 milot LREEG O PC ETN USSE

3.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM



1.90 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES


0.31 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
3 %

.59~ million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT 16 %

1.17 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS
12 %

N.A. %million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.42 million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS 4%

O million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS
0 %

0.42 million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS 4%

N.A.- million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.19 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
2 %

N.A. -Denotes not applicable data

E-6
?US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE V)1O-4- )/4235,











LINVERSITY OF FLORIDA



3 1262 05391 1011