Solar energy system performance evaluation : Albuquerque Western no. 1, Albuquerque, New Mexico

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Solar energy system performance evaluation : Albuquerque Western no. 1, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 1011-79/14
Added title page title:
Albuquerque Western no. 1, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fu, C. Mark ( Ching Mark )
United States -- Dept. of Energy. -- Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
International Business Machines Corporation
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy, Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- New Mexico -- Albuquerque   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- New Mexico -- Albuquerque   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliography.
General Note:
October 1978 through March 1979.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
IBM Corporation.
General Note:
Prepared for Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications, under contract EG-77-C-01-4049.
General Note:
Cover title: Albuquerque Western apartment building, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007709
Statement of Responsibility:
C. Mark Fu.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022615788
oclc - 05976028
System ID:
AA00013788:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    National solar data program reports
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page 1-1
        Page 1-2
    System summary
        Page 2-1
        Page 2-2
    System description
        Page 3-1
        Page 3-2
    Performance evaluation techniques
        Page 4-1
        Page 4-2
    Performance assessment
        Page 5-1
        Page 5-2
        Page 5-3
        Page 5-4
        Page 5-5
        Page 5-6
        Page 5-7
        Page 5-8
        Page 5-9
        Page 5-10
        Page 5-11
        Page 5-12
        Page 5-13
        Page 5-14
        Page 5-15
        Page 5-16
        Page 5-17
        Page 5-18
        Page 5-19
        Page 5-20
    References
        Page 6-1
        Page 6-2
    Bibliography
        Page 7-1
        Page 7-2
    Appendix A. Definitions of performance factors and solar terms
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
    Appendix B. Solar energy system performance equations
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
    Appendix C. Long-term average weather conditions
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
    Appendix D. Monthly solar energy distribution flowcharts
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3
        Page D-4
        Page D-5
        Page D-6
        Page D-7
        Page D-8
    Appendix E. Monthly solar energy distributions
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
        Page E-5
        Page E-6
        Page E-7
        Page E-8
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

SOLAR/101 1-79/14




Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN APARTMENT BUILDING Albuquerque, New Mexico October '1978 Through March 1979












r U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
"J6 Cooling Demonstration Program
National Solar Data Program




























NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $5.25
Microfiche $3.00







SOLAR/I011-79/14




SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION








ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1 ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO



OCTOBER 1978 THROUGH MARCH 1979





C. MARK FU, PRINCIPAL AUTHOR
JONATHON M. NASH, MANAGER OF SOLAR ENERGY ANALYSIS
LARRY J. MURPHY, IBM PROGRAM MANAGER












IBM CORPORATION 18100 FREDERICK PIKE
GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND 20760



PREPARED FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR CONSERVATION AND SOLAR APPLICATION
UNDER CONTRACT EG-77-C-01-4049
H. JACKSON HALE, PROGRAM MANAGER











TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1. FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2. SYSTEM SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.1 Performance Summary . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

4. PERFORMAt.,CE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES . . . . . . 4-1

5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . 5-1

5.1 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . 5-1

5.2 System Thermal Performance . . . . . . . 5-3

5.3 Subsystem Performance . . . . . . . . 5-6

5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem . . . 5-9

5.3.1.1 Collector Array . . . . . . 5-9

5.3.1.2 Storage . . . . . . . . 5-12

5.3.2 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Subsystem . . . 5-15

5.4 Operating Energy . . . . . . . . . . 5-17

5.5 Energy Savings . . . . . . . . . 5-17

6. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS A-1

APPENDIX B SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS B-1

APPENDIX C LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS C-1

APPENDIX D MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS D-1

APPENDIX E MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS E-1










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIGURES TITLE PAGE

3-1 Solar Energy System Schematic 3-2

5-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart Summary 5-5

D-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-2
October 1978

D-2 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-3
November 1978

D-3 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-4
December 1978

D-4 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-5
January 1979

D-5 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-6
February 1979

D-6 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-7
March 1979










LIST OF TABLES


TABLES TITLE PAGE

5-1 Weather Conditions 5-2

5-2 System Thermal Performance Summary 5-4

5-3 Solar Energy Distribution Summary 5-7

5-4 Solar Energy System Coefficient of Performance 5-8

5-5 Collector Array Performance 5-10

5-6 Storage Performance 5-13

5-7 Solar Energy Losses Storage and Transport 5-14

5-8 Domestic Hot Water Subsystem Performance 5-16

5-9 Operating Energy 5-18

5-10 Energy Savings 5-19

E-1 Solar Energy Distribution October 1978 E-2

E-2 Solar Energy Distribution November 1978 E-3

E-3 Solar Energy Distribution December 1978 E-4

E-4 Solar Energy Distribution January 1979 E-5

E-5 Solar Energy Distribution February 1979 E-6

E-6 Solar Energy Distribution March 1979 E-7

















iv









NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS



Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under specific format. For example, this report for the Albuquerque Western No. 1 project site is designated as SOLAR/10ll-79/14. The elements of this designa tion are explained in the following illustration.



SOLAR/l1l_1-79/14



Prepared for the Report Type
National Solar Des ignation
Data Program


Demonstration Site Year



* Demonstration Site Number:


Each project site has its own discrete number -1000 through 1999 for
residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


* Report Type Designation:


This number identifies the type of report, e.g.,


Monthly Performance Reports are designated by the numbers 01 (for
January) through 12 (for December).

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations are designated by the
number 14.






V











Solar Project Descriptions are designated by the number 50.


Solar Project Cost Reports are designated by the number 60. These reports are disseminated through the U. S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center, P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.













































vi










1. FOREWORD


The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy under the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of this activity is to accelerate the establishment of a viable solar energy industry and to stimulate its growth in order to achieve a substantial reduction in nonrenewable energy resource consumption through widespread applications of solar heating and cooling technology.


Information gathered through the Demonstration Program is disseminated in a series of site-specific reports. These reports are issued as appropriate and may include such topics as:


Solar Project Description
0 Design/Construction Report
0 Project Costs
0 Maintenance and Reliability
0 Operational Experience
0 Monthly Performance
0 System Performance Evaluation


The International Business Machines Corporation is contributing to the overall goal of the Demonstration Act by monitoring, analyzing, and reporting the thermal performance of solar energy systems through analysis of measurements obtained by the National Solar Data Program.


The Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report is a product of the National Solar Data Program. Reports are issued periodically to document the results of analysis of specific solar energy system operational performance. This report includes system description, operational characteristics and capabilities. The Monthly Performance Report, which is the primary basis for the Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report, is published on a regular basis. Each parameter presented in these reports represents over 8,000 discrete measurements obtained each month by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Documents referenced in this report are listed in Section 6,


1-1










I I
"References Numbers shown in brackets refer to reference numbers in Section 6. All other documents issued by the National Solar Data Program for the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system are listed in Section 7, "Bibliography".


This Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system. The analysis covers operation of the system from October 1978 throUgh March 1979. Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system provides domestic hot water (DHW) to a four-story 110-unit apartment building located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Section 2 presents a summary of the overall system results. A system description is contained in Section 3. Analysis of the system thermal performance was accomplished using the system energy balance technique described in Section 4. Section 5 presents a detailed assessment of the individual subsystems applicable to the site.


The measurement data were collected by the NSDN [1] for the reporting period. System performance data are provided through the NSDN via an IBM-developed Central Data Processing System (CDPS) [2]. The CDPS supports the collection and analysis of solar data acquired from instrumented systems located throughout the country. This data is processed daily and summarized into monthly performance reports. These monthly reports form a common basis for system evaluation and are the source of the performance data used in this report.





















1-2









2. SYSTEM SUMMARY


This section provides an operational summary of the performance of the solar energy system installed at the Albuquerque Western No. 1 site, in
Albuquerque, New Mexico for the period October 1978 through March 1979. solar energy system is designed to support the domestic hot water (DHW) load. A detailed description of the Albuquerque Western No. I solar energy system is presented in Section 3.


2.1 Performance Summary


The site was occupied during the reporting period of October 1978 through March 1979. The solar energy system operated continuously during the period, except for an interval of 5 days in December during which the solar energy system was inoperative due to freeze damage. During the reporting period, the total incident solar energy was 415.31 million Btu, of which 91.67 million Btu were collected by the system. Solar energy satisfied 21 percent of the DHW requirements. The solar energy system provided fossil fuel energy savings of 138.87 million Btu, with an electrical energy expense of 12.27 million Btu.


A total of 415.31 million Btu of incident solar energy was measured in the plane of the collector array during the reporting period. At times when the collector array was operating there were 315.25 million Btu incident on the array. The measured average daily incident solar energy per unit area it) the plane of the collector array was 1281 million Btu per square foot pet, day which is 32 percent below the long-term daily average of 1893 million Btu per square foot per day for the 6-month reporting period.


2.2 Conclusions


During the reporting period the collector subsystem had been modified and a shadow-band pyranometer was installed. These changes included the following: The solar collector subsystem was modified during October and work was completed on October 20, 1978. The long rows of collector panels were divided


2-1










into two subsections, each with its own tracking mechanism. The framework on the potable water transport system was also strengthened to withstand higher stress.


The collector drain line was damaged by unusually cold weather and the collector subsystem became inoperative from December 9 through December 13. To minimize future freezing potential, the two subsections of the collectors were connected in parallel with a common potable water inlet from and outlet to the storage tank. Separate drain lines were also provided for the two subsections. The solar energy system operated continuously for the rest of the reporting period.


On March 5 the pyranometer on the tracking collector system was removed and a shadow-band pyranometer was installed for measuring diffused insolation. The pyranometer placed at the collector array plane facing south remained unchanged. After analyzing the total and diffused insolation data as measured by the two currently instrumented pyranometers, it was found that since the solar collector control sensor monitors only the total insolation, the solar collectors are activated even under low direct insolation/high diffused insolation conditions. On such occasions, the collector array could radiate energy and cause energy loss from storage.






















2-2










3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The Albuquerque Western site is a four-story, 110-unit apartment building in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The solar energy system consists of two independently controlled systems: one system serves domestic hot water (DHW) preheating needs, the other serves to preheat hot water used in space heating. Only the DHW system is described in this report.


The solar energy system has an array of tracking collectors with a gross area of 1782 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 35 degrees to the horizontal. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage. Solar energy is stored in a 2000-gallon wooden tank that contains a plastic liner. The DHW is continuously circulated throughout the building. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the hot water energy requirements, auxiliary heating is provided by an inline gas-fired boiler. The system, shown schematically in Figure 3-1, has three modes of operation.


Mode 1 Collector-to-Storage: This mode activates when the collector-tostorage pump goes on. This occurs when adequate insolation is available, based on a minimum insolation intensity. Water is pumped through the collector and circulates back to storage.


Mode 2 OHW Preheating: This mode activates when the storage-to-heatexchanger pump goes on. This occurs when storage is at or above a predetermined temperature level. Supply water is preheated through the heat exchanger and fed into the boiler.


Mode 3 Auxiliary Hot Water Heating: This mode activates when the natural gas-fired boiler is required to "top out" the continuously circulating hot water in order to obtain the preset temperature of the supply water (usually 140*F). This occurs when the solar energy system can no longer meet the preset temperature.





3-1



















z
2 z LU
ULU -j i= P
'A
Lu CL
2 1.- u 0 00 uj 0














CL
w LU J
-j CL o <,:,D






U) cr C4
wLu
>
-i
L Uu



U.J 0 = Z
LU
z
0 cLU
LLJ

LIJ
0
>
tn uj
-If >- Z)
CD 0
cr
LLJ LLJ

LLJ
D Of m
C"
C4 cc > <
O'Lu aj C)
_j CL V)
C-41 0








Of
z CD
LLJ # .......... I
0 LLz o C, co w z
_j Lu U.
Ei uj cc cc
LU 0 ui w x
z < N
i -J
CL a. A
I -i LU Ln N cc
Z Z o 0
0 0 0
N 0
cr cc
0 0 0 C4
x x 0
0 C4
;e,
U



................ ....................
CI

8

UA









3-2










4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES


The performance of the Albuquerque Western No. I solar energy system i,7 evaluated by calculating a set of primary performance factors which are on
those proposed in the intergovernmental agency report "Thermal Data ke(juirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program" [3]. These performance factors quantify the thermal performance of the system by measuring the amount of energies that are being transferred between the components of the system. The performance of the system is then evaluated based on the efficiency of the system in transferring these energies. A list of all performance factors and their definitions are presented in Appendix A.


Data from monitoring instrumentation located at key points within the solar energy system are collected by the National Solar Data Network. These data are first formed into factors showing the hourly performance of each system component, either by summation or averaging techniques, as appropriate. The hourly factors then serve as a basis for the calculation of the daily and monthly performance of each component subsystem. The performance factor equations for this site are listed in Appendix B.


Each month, as appropriate, a summary of overall performance of the Albuquerque Western No. I site and a detailed subsystem analysis is published. These monthly reports for the period covered by this Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation, October 1978 through March 1979, are available from the Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.















4-1













5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT


The performance of the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system has been evaluated for the October 1978 through March 1979 time period. Two perspectives were taken in this assessment: The first views the overall system in which the total solar energy collected, the system load, the measured values for solar energy used, and system solar fraction are presented. In addition, the solar energy system coefficient of performance (COP) at both the system and subsystem level has been presented. The second view presents a more in-depth look at the performance of individual subsystems. Details relating to the performance of the collector array and storage subsystems are presented first, followed by details pertaining to the domestic hot water (DHW) subsystem. Included in this section are all parameters pertinent to the operation of each individual subsystem.


In addition to the overall system and subsystem analysis, this report also describes the equivalent energy savings contributed by the solar energy system. The overall system and individual subsystem energy savings are presented in section 5.5.


The performance assessment of any solar energy system is highly dependent on the prevailing weather conditions at the site during the period of performance. The original design of the system is generally based on the long-term averages for available insulation and temperature. Deviations from these long-term averages can significantly affect the performance of the system. Therefore, before beginning the discussion of actual system performance, a presentation of the measured and long-term averages for critical weather parameters has been provided.


5.1 Weather Conditions


Monthly values of the total solar energy incident in the plane of the collector array and the average outdoor temperature measured at the Albuquerque Western No. 1 site during the reporting period are presented in Table 5-1.




5-1

















cc LLJ
LU (D
<
cr
LLJ
LU z >
LU 0
c

LU

w
z cc
zi Z)
0 (n
0 <
C)




cn cc uj 0
>- LU C)
< < 4-)
Q cr
I W
Lu V)
> 2 2M
LLJ 0
cc
Z 0
0 LU
Z 0
z (D LU 4-)
Z cr z cr eo
0 LU
C) < U)
(n uj <
cc LU LU
LLJ 3: :5.,
r LU
Ln
LLJ 0 2
cc ui cr UJ SLu cr LU cu
D :D ro S-0 co Lf) ko LO 4-)
:) < (D uj LO m:j, m m 0
ca cr z >
LU -J Lu 0 0
-j < IML. -j tn
2i LL a)
LLJ 0

LU
z cc
CY)
C) r- 4-)
C.0 cy') lt
<
< LU E




< LLI
< Lu LLJ (D clj Oll 00 LO 00 CY)
< CY) r- (M %:t ON
cc co
0 LU a)
V)
z >
0 < CL (o
LU -i u
U
CC
uj CL
41
Z CL S- CL
LU C::t C\j o) C) co (z (a
cc R:d- LO LO C) CIQ
Lr) LO C C) LO
D S-- 4J
(n 0 0
< LU < 4-) C
z LU u
LIJ W w

00
LU U a

< <
z cc
C) Lij < LLJ C::c 0 ui
C) 2= C) LL>
<





5-2









Also presented in Table 5-1 are the corresponding long-term average monthly values of the measured weather parameters. These data are taken from Referer, .'_' Monthly Environmental Data for y ter s in the National Solar Data Network L4j. A complete yearly listing of these values for the site is given in Appendix C.


During the October 1978 through March 1979 reporting period, the average daily incident solar energy on the collector array was 1281 Btu per square foot per day. This was below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during the reporting period of 1893 Btu per square foot per day. (Global solar radiation is used for this comparison.) The average ambient temperature during the reporting period was 430F, the same as the long-term average for the reporting period.


5.2 System Thermal Performance


The thermal performance of a solar energy system is a function of the total solar energy collected and applied to the system load. The total system load is the sum of the useful energy delivered to the loads (excluding losses in the system), including both solar and auxiliary thermal energies. The portion of the total load provided by solar energy is defined to be the solar fraction of the load.


The thermal performance of the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system is presented in Table 5-2. This performance assessment is based on the 6-month period from October 1978 through March 1979. During the reporting period, a total of 91.67 million Btu of solar energy was collected and the total system load was 248.43 million Btu. The measured amount of solar energy delivered to the load subsystem was 83.33 million Btu. The measured system solar fraction was 21 percent.


Figure 5-1 illustrates the flow of solar energy from the point of collection to the various points of consumption and loss for the reporting period. The numerical values account for the quantity of energy corresponding with the





5-3

















LU CA



0 czr C\i r- cli C\j
C\j
z m LO CY) (n LO r-I


x
cr LL
cc LLI
-i C.)
0 ui X1
C/) 0x
LU



ui
cc
LU D 0) CY) a)
U) (n md- cl-i CF) cy') C) cy') cy") 00
D <
C-; C C C r Lr m
>- S Lu C\j 00
0 4 2
x ca
D LU C
C/) z 0
LU ci W
u z cr
Z Z <
CC -i U
Lu 0 LLI
cr U) CL
x
0 (n LLJ
LL LU cr- i2' I
LLI LLj (L ::)
0
cr LLJ
cc ::) 0
UJ <
0 Lc) M C) C) C:d- m
00 C\i r-I co C") U-)
<
0 C\j r- lqt 1.0 r- LO co
LLJ CY) CY) 4:d- R::I- K::t 91- I:dF- F C\l
cn
U) U)

C
L
LLJ
-j
co
< ui
F- FU
LU

0
C-) co It:dl LO LO 00 -0
>- LO a) CY) Im co C\j
6 C 6 C6 Lx Lr;
Lu C\j C31,
z
uj



0


ul
X
F- < < 0
z cc r0 F- Z= C13 cr- 0 ui 4)
u C) LU c::c LLI ct > Cl
C) m r-"") LL <






5-4












FIGURE 5-1. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART SUMMARY ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1

I ncid (entI Solfao . . .
solar Energy Stiurage Lossei

415.31 8.90



Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
IncidentColcotoOeaigE ry
Solar Energy Storage Op-at.5Enrg

315.257.8



CletdSolar Energy oa Eeg





Solar ~~ ~ ~Energy UoStoaedfo trg



N.A 83.3
Domestic Hot
I DHW SbsystemWater Auxlary ~O~erainEnegv ~ ETermal Used



Domestic Hot



Water Load


Transport Loss24.3TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn

N. A. N.____A.Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. IN.A.
SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Space Heating
Load



Trnpr osTransport Loss
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn



Space Cooling

Solar Energy Used


SpceColin Space Cooling
Enbyserg Auxiliary Thermal
Operaing Eergy Used

L N-A-. N. A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector toLodSoaetLas
Storage and LoadsLodSraetLas



*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data $0
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipad (if known see text for discussion) o

5-5











transport, operation, and function of each major element in the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system for the total reporting period. The collected solar energy was set equal to the energy delivered to storage, because of sensor resolution problems in the collector-to-storage loop. However, the error introduced by this assumption is believed small (less than 10 percent) due to a very high flow rate in the loop. The problem is under investigation
by IBM/Boeing.


Solar energy distribution flowcharts for each month of the reporting period are presented in Appendix D.


Table 5-3 summarizes solar energy distribution and provides a percentage breakdown. For the period October 1978 through March 1979, the load subsystem consumed 91 percent of the energy collected, and 10 percent was lost. (A net of one percent was extracted from stored energy.) Appendix E contains the monthly solar energy percentage distributions.


The solar energy coefficient of performance (COP) is indicated in Table 5-4. The COP provides a numerical value for the relationship of solar energy collected, transported or used, and the energy required to perform the transition. The greater the COP value, the more efficient the subsystem. The solar energy system at Albuquerque Western No. 1 functioned at a reporting period weighted average COP value of 6.79 for the period of October 1978 through March 1979.


5.3 Subsystem Performance


The Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy installation may be divided into two subsystems:


1. Collector Array and Storage
2. Domestic Hot Water (DHW)


Each subsystem is evaluated and analyzed by the techniques defined in Section
4 to produce monthly performance reports. This section presents the results


5-6






TABLE 5-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION SUMMARY
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO, 1 91-67 million Btu
TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

83.33 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
91%

83.33 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
91%

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


8.90 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
10%

8.90 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE



% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
% million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS


N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. Y million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. T million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS



% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
% million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS


N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0.56 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
-1%

Denotes unavailable data 5-7
N.A. denotes not applicable data
























LJJ 0
0

LLI < co -j :) 0
< 0
U)





z
LLJ 0 < C-)
Lu
CC CC
LU 0
< U)
CL En



LL)
LU <
0.
UJ Lu 0
ul ig: C)
LU = >- LO LO kn Lc) UD
0 L) En <
-J al LO C\j lzr ro C) LO
0 C6
!5 (n Ln U) L a; C C 00 c
LU LU ui C\j C\j C\j

0
ca
<
cc
cc CL < LU 0 uj 0
cr cn a) CY) CY) r- LO C) 00
0 >- cr- CY) C\j t.0 00 C\i C\j
< <
I -i L C; C C cy; C;
0 LU C)
W U) ch
4-)
0
U

'L.LJ


<
0- u
0
LU L)
C:L
Z ca.
LLJ ui r-. 110 C) 00 C) (0
cr rl% co C) R:d- CY) Rzt a%
C/3 rl 4-)
>- t- 4 k Lc; c6 r 0
0 U) a


4-)
0
LLJ LLI r<
z m
0 C) Uj c:t LLJ C::r_ w
C) LL- LU >
Z;







5-8










of integrating the monthly data for the two subsystems for the period October 1978 through March 1979.


5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem

5.3.1.1 Collector Array


Collector array performance for the Albquerque Western No. 1 site is presented in Table 5-5. The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the reporting period was 415.31 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was operating the total insulation amounted to 315.25 million Btu. The total collected solar energy for the period was 91.67 million Btu, resulting in a collector array efficiency of 22 percent'. based on total incident insolation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 91.67 million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 7.78 million Btu.

Collector array efficiency has been computed from two bases. The first assumes that the efficiency is based upon all available solar energy. This approach makes the operation of the control system a part of array efficiency. For example, energy may be available at the collector, but the collector fluid temperature is below the control minimum; therefore, the energy is not collected. In this approach, collector array performance is described by comparing the collected solar energy to the incident solar energy. The ratio of these two energies represents the collector array efficiency which may be expressed as


nc Qs/Qi

where: nc collector array efficiency


Qs collected solar energy

Qi incident solar energy




5-9





















<
-j cr < cz <
0 cc z
0 Ui 00 r*_ 00 C\i LC) (31
< Z-) m C\i C\j C\i CY) C\j C\j
M C)
LLj LiJ Ua. -J LL 0 -J LLJ
0



(D
m
< ui LO
ZZ 4- C) C) 9.0 110 C\l LO
0 LU m 00 C) K:I- (.0 r- I
c U cl
0 c r- LC)
< z 9.0 CY) CY) C:t 110 LD CY)
(r Lli
LLI LLJ 0
z 0
< z


0 cj
LL
cr Z <
Lli z cc
CC cr- >LU < L) a) 00 00 r" Olt C\j
tr Z Clj C\j C\i
< cn 0 ui
= ui
cr- F- E-)
< LLJ LLI U.
CC -i LL
0 -1
0
Lli
Lu Z)
-1 0
-J ::) 0 m L) -i
< CC
Lci ui
F- LU m lz:t Ul) LO
0 Z 00
LC) c LO CFI cy') 0) 00
LLj LU 0
Lij cr Lt C C; C6 L
-j C\j rm < cn
0 1
< Uo
F






cr m
4
Z Lli m LU Z c
0 Lu 0 C*lj 4.0 co 0*1 r- LO CIQ
5 CC CY) C\j cy') C) lzzr 00 C46J
z <
-j L kj C C6 c C L
0 00 Lo ko LO r--l co r- UD



LU
0
C-) 2t co Of < <
z C) uj cz LJ C::t cc
0 C) cm LL. M: 0 LU
>








5-10







The monthly efficiency computed by this method is listed in the column entitled "Collector Array Efficiency" in Table 5-5.


The second approach assumes the efficiency is based upon the incident solar energy during periods of collection only.


Evaluation of collector efficiency using operational incident energy and compensating for the difference between gross collector array area and the gross collector area yields operational collector efficiency. Operational collector efficiency, q co is computed as follows:

A
nco QS/(Qoi I A p
a

where: QS collected solar energy


Qoi operational incident energy

A p gross collector area (product of the number of collectors and the total envelope area of one unit)


A a gross collector array area (total area perpendicular to the solar flux vector including all mounting, connecting and transport hardware)

A
Note: The ratio A P is typically 1.0 for most collector array configurations.
a

This latter efficiency term is not the same as collector efficiency as represented by the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 [5]. Both operational collector efficiency and the ASHRAE collector efficiency are defined as the ratio of actual useful energy collected to solar energy incident upon the collector and both use the same definition of collector area. However, the ASHRAE efficiency is determined from instantaneous evaluation under tightly controlled, steadystate test conditions, while the operational collector efficiency is determined





5-11









from the actual conditions of daily solar energy system operation. Measured monthly values of operational incident energy and computed values of operational collector efficiency are presented in Table 5-5.


5.3.1.2 Storage


Storage performance data for the Albuquerque Western No. I site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-6. Results of analysis of solar energy losses during transport and storage is shown in Table 5-7.


During the reporting period, total solar energy delivered to storage was 91.67 million Btu. There were 83.33 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW subsystem. Energy loss from storage was 8.90 million Btu. This loss represented 10 percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 90 percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature for the period was 1390F.


Storage subsystem perforiiiance is evaluated by comparison of energy to storage, energy from storage and change in stored energy. The ratio of the sum of energy from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy to storage is defined as storage efficiency, n S* This relationship is expressed in the equation


ns = (AQ + QSO)/Qsi


where:


AQ = change in stored energy. rhis is the difference in the estimated stored energy during the specified reporting period, as
indicated by the relative temperature of the storage medium (either
positive or negative value)





5-12



















w (f) Z U> uj (n Lu 0
(Do
-< -i U ucc -j
w m
LL 0 ler LL UJ
LL ui 0 4c
LU U) 2: u



LLJ

ui w


w a: fr Ict kri C\i C
0 LU 55 %;1- cn M m lc:l- (n
> 0
w





LU LU
L) 0 z
Z < w M co 00 C)
< cc R ON m rl-l 00 00 m
2 0 0 u
cc z UCn LL
0 z LU
U- cc c- ui LU
0. En
w
ui (D
(D z cr
< W +, r- m r--. C\j LO LO LO m
cr D LLI Z M
(D w C) C) CY) rn C) Ln C:)
Z 0.2 C C C), C; C C
W < UJ t
D m it
16 0 00Ln co
w <
-i
ca
< 0
cr W
LL (D m Q:d- C\j m m C) cn (Y)
CY) 00 < C)
CC o 06 06 r : L
0 cli cl C-1;
cc U = 00
w F
z w




0 r 0)
W
CO LO LO 00
< c LO O's m im co
cc: 0
Lu 0 L C C 0
z C\i
Lli Cn

(A
ui Qj
0 4 )
F- Z= ccl w < < 0
z C-) C) Li-i c::c LLJ cr C:
0 C) C) LL- 0 uj (1)
>
<







5-13










TABLE 5-7 SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1

MONTH

OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR TOTAL 1. SOLAR ENERGY (SE) COLLECTED 25.1 10.5 11.0 10.3 19.0 15.8 91.7
MINUS SE DIRECTLY TO LOADS
(million Btu)

2. SE TO STORAGE 25.1 10.5 11.0 10.3 19.0 15.8 91.7
(million Btu)

3. LOSS COLLECTOR TO STORAGE
1-2
1

4. CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY 0.01 0.09 -0.37 0.32 -0.05 -0.55 -0.55
(million Btu)

5. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO 23.4 10.3 8.9 8.3 17.0 15.4 83.3
DHW SUBSYSTEM (million Btu)

6. SOLAR ENERGY -STORAGE TO N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.' N.A.
SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
(million Btu)

7. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM
(million Btu)

8. LOSS FROM STORAGE 7 1 22 16 11 6 10
2 (4+5+6+7)
2

9. HOT WATER SOLAR ENERGY (HWSE) 23.4 10.3 8.9 8.3 17.0 15.4 83.3 FROM STORAGE (million Btu)

10. LOSS STORAGE TO HWSE
5-9
5

11. HEATING SOLAR ENERGY (HSE) N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
FROM STORAGE
(million Btu)

12. LOSS STORAGE TO HSE (%) N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
6-11
6


Denotes unavailable data
N.A. denotes not applicable data



5-14










QSO= energy from storage. This is the amount of energy extracted by the
load subsystem from the primary storage medium


Qsi= energy to storage. This is the amount of energy (both solar and
auxiliary) delivered to the primary storage medium


In the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system, because of the high flow rate in the storage/heat exchanger loop, the temperature measurements at the storage side of the heat exchanger are not reliable for computing the energy removed from storage. Since the heat exchanger is physically located in close proximity to the storage tank, it is included in the storage subsystem for the performance evaluation, so that the temperature measurements at the load side of the heat exchanger can be used for improved accuracy in the performance factor calculation of the storage subsystem.


5.3.2 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Subsystem


The DHW subsystem performance for the Albuquerque Western No. I site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-8. The DHW subsystem consumed 83.33 million Btu of solar energy and 314.24 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a hot water load of 248.43 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 21 percent.


The performance of the DHW subsystem is described by comparing the amount of solar energy supplied to the subsystem with the total energy required by the subsystem. The total energy required by the subsystem consists of both solar energy and auxiliary thermal energy.


The DHW load is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the mass of water delivered by the DHW subsystem between the temperature at which it entered the subsystem and its delivery temperature. The DHW solar fraction is defined as the portion of the DHW load which is supported by solar energy.







5-15
















W,
z
0



m CY) LO m 0) LO
LL lc:t Cll r- C\i C\j
cr

0
C/)





L) 00 00
z C\j LO C:) co C\j 00 Cd(n (D Cd- qzd- 00 LO C)
(n C6 k13
0 L
X Ol t.0 C) Rd- C\i LO rl
0 cr C::t P-l C31, 0)
LL
cc ci
LU
Z 4 X _j
z 00 :) <
cc c
LU LU .2
F
>- U) FLU 2 0
U) ui
co 3: a -i
D uj ui
Ln

LL,
UJ Z -j 00 RZ:r q:j- C3 LO CY)
< D C) CY) (n 00 C\i CY)
0 U CY) CM C"i U') r"
4 C
>- m LO ko ko tzl- Ln LO
LU rF- (D T cy')
0 cr D M
LIJ < Fz I
L) LLI
p
U)
LLJ
2 cr
0 r" CY) CY) ON
C:t CM m CY) C) cy') CY) 00
0 c; cy.)
cy; C 0 C r L
00 cli 00
I

ui
m 4-)
(0
<
F
< W
0
C) -1 '3 r- LO CY) C) C) C:zj- CY)
cc il 00 C\j r l OD co U-) lzr
U) LU C C r- 06
ul o m c1r) C:j0

0 4-)



W
4-)
ui 0
3: (D a
F- < <
z F- L) 2f m 0-1 m
0 (-) C) Uj C) LL. F- >
<






5-16










5.4 Operating_ r


Measured values of the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system and subsystem operating energy for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-9. A total of 18.07 million Btu of operating energy was consumed by the entire system during the reporting period.


Operating energy for a solar energy system is defined as electrical energy that is used to support the subsystems without affecting their thermal state. Total operating energy for the Albuquerque Western No. I solar energy system consists of energy collection and storage subsystem (ECSS) operating energy and DHW subsystem operating energy. In reference with the system schematic (Figure 3-1) the ECSS operating energy includes electrical energy required to operate the pump in the collector/storage loop (EPlOO) and the electrical energy required to operate the tracking motor which drives the tracking mechanism of the collector banks (EP101). The DHW subsystem operating energy includes electrical energy required to operate the pump in the heat exchanger loop (EP200) and the pump in the DHW recirculation loop (EP300).


5.5 Energy Savings


Energy savings for the Albuquerque Western No. 1 site for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-10. For this time period, the total savings were 138.87 million Btu, with a monthly average of 23.15 million Btu. An electrical energy expense of 12.27 million Btu was incurred during the reporting period towards operating solar energy transporting pumps.


Solar energy system savings are realized whenever energy provided by the solar energy system is used to meet system demands which would otherwise be met by auxiliary energy sources. The operating energy required to provide solar energy to the load subsystems is subtracted from the solar energy contribution to determine net savings.


The auxiliary source at the Albuquerque Western No. 1 consists of natural gasfired boilers. These units are considered to be 60 percent efficient for computational purposes.

5-17














N
(D
cr
W LLI
F- Z co 00 ILO C\j r-I
U) W C13 C) C) I:zj- Ln C3*) C) C) C)
>- (D C
V) z 0 CY) Cl-i C\i Cj cl; C6 cl;
-i = r<
0 m
F- w
0
0



c
Z LLI

0 LJ Co 00 C:
Z .0
W FU < < cr
CL
W
a0



Lij C5 rr
Z Z z LU
Lli F- Z 43
z < w co
(D crz Lu LU
F- r Z
W LLJ
Lij Fui 3: I.L
uj cn W
0

LU cr
L.Li >F- 0 Lr) < cc:
3:
w m
-i -i F- z
co < 0 UJ Co 410 LO m lqr cr) C\i 0*1 C\i
m (D c %zl- C) c;:f CY) C:t LO C\l r %
L) Z.Lo cl C C=; l_:
< Z
Lu m
2 uj 4-3
00co
z r
0 .0
F- Lu cr (10
r-I cy) CY) r- CY) LO 00 C) u
0ows U7 C) C) I:d- Lr) r- CY)
W < Z 4
r
LLJ Ca I
0 0 (D c CL
F- Z .0 to
U)
0 F- 4-)
Z < 0,
cc: < cc ui LU
Z CL V)
LLJ 0

LU

< <
z F- Z: CIO CY1 cc
(-) C) LLJ c::c LU C:r 0 LLI
0 C) C:) rD LL>
<








5-18



















C/) r" C\j Lr) q* 4:t ko LC)
0 C) 00 00 m LO 00
z -3 D 0 kc; C6 C_;
0 LL C\i C\j m C\i
co LL
Cl) c

L) rll Irr CY) 00 fl- LO
cr- C> V) C> C) C\i C)
w LLI
-j
z LL) Cr en C\j C\i C\i cl C\;
w



cc 4:1- 9*- 00
CC
Z cr C Cy w1f U-Y C) C:) Csi C)
0 CL w cl C\; cl C C cl
10 z
LLJ



C/) LLJ
z U)
0 LL
o LL
0

0 LLJ
z d 0 C:r C::c C::c
< LLJ' U z a. _j
z (n
LLJ
U) 4
>- ui Go
Cl) z c
cc LLJ r- C\j LO %:J- I:d- LO Lf)
w C l 00 OD m ko co
z < cn Lu
ui w cn cr C/) =) m r-I I;*- m 00 LO C6 c1l;
D >. L) Lu 0 LL CY) C\j C\j CY) C\i
0 : LL
0 in <
cc LU
LLJ w Ln Z UJ
Lu P Oo < I:*- C*- m co r- Lc)
LU D 1: Lu u C:) Ic* Ln C) C:) C C)
-j cC\j C < CY) C\j C\i Clj
< LLJ
0
(n


z _j
LU
cn ::) 4-)
< 0 LL
LU UU
< L)
CL LU L) U
U) _j F rui 2:: rCL
CL
(a
cy') CA >- CN m C) m CY) 00 4-)
cr (90 C' 0
Cr Lij C cl C C6 06 1,: L CYI)
w U) 2 C\j co
0 Z
U) LLJ
4-)
LLJ

<
z M o:: cc
(i CD Uj LU LU
0 CD m m >
<









5-19














6. REFERENCES

1. U.S. Department of Energy, National Solar Data Network, prepared
under contract number EG-77-C-4049 by IBM Corporation,
December, 1977.

2. J. T. Smok, V. S. Sohoni, J. M. Nash, "Processing of Instrumented
Data for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program," Conference on Performance Monitoring Techniques for
Evaluation of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, Washington, D.C.,
April, 1978.

3. E. Streed, et. al., Thermal Data Requirements and Performance
Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling
Demonstration Program, NBSIR-76-1137, National Bureau of Standards,
Washington, D.C., 1976.

4. Mears, J. C. Reference Monthly Environmental Data for Systems in
the National Solar Data Network. Department of Energy report
SOLAR/0019-79/36. Washington, D.C., 1979.

5. ASHRAE Standard 93-77, Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal
Performance of Solar Collectors, The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York, NY,
1977.

6.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/IOII-78/lO,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (October 1978).

7.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/lOll-78/ll,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (November 1978).

8.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/IOII-78/12,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (December 1978).

9.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/IO1I-79/O1,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (January 1979).

10.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/IOlI-79/02,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (February 1979).

11.# Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/lOII-79/03,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (March 1979).




# Copies of these reports may be obtained from Technical Information Center,
P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.




6-1












7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Monthly Performance Report, Albuueru Western No. 1, SOLAR/1011-78/05,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (May 1978.

2. Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. I, SOLAR/1011-78/06,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (June 1978)

3. Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/101O-78/07,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (July 1978).

4. Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/101O-78/08,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (August 1978).

5. Monthly Performance Report, Albuquerque Western No. 1, SOLAR/1011-78/09,
Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., (September 1978).


































7-1












APPENDIX A

DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS


COLLECTOR ARRAY PERFORMANCE

The collector array performance is characterized by the amount of solar energy collected with respect to the energy available to be collected.

6 INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insulation available
on the gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture, including the
framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

0 OPERATIONAL INCIDENT ENERGY (SEOP) is the amount of solar energy
incident on the collector array during the time that the collector loop is active (attempting to collect energy).

0 COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY (SECA) is the thermal energy removed
from the collector array by the energy transport medium.

0 COLLECTOR ARRAY EFFICIENCY (CAREF) is the ratio of the energy
collected to the total solar energy incident on the collector array. It should be emphasized that this efficiency factor is
for the collector array, and available energy includes the
energy incident on the array when the collector loop is inactive. This efficiency must not be confused with the more
common collector efficiency figures which are determined from instantaneous test data obtained during steady-state operation
of a single collector unit. These efficiency figures are often
provided by collector manufacturers or presented in technical
journals to characterize the functional capability of a particular collector design. In general, the collector panel maximum
efficiency factor will be significantly higher than the collector array efficiency reported here.

STORAGE PERFORMANCE

The storage performance is characterized by the relationships among the energy delivered to storage, removed from storage, and the subsequent change in the amount of stored energy.

0 ENERGY TO STORAGE (STEI) is the amount of energy, both solar
and auxiliary, delivered to the primary storage medium.

0 ENERGY FROM STORAGE (STEO) is the amount of energy extracted
by the load subsystems from the primary storage medium.







A-1









0 CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (STECH) is the difference in the estimated
stored energy during the specified reporting period, as indicated
by the relative temperature of the storage medium (either positive or negative value).

STORAGE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (TST) is the mass-weighted average
temperature of the primary storage medium.

0 STORAGE EFFICIENCY (STEFF) is the ratio of the sum of the energy
removed from storage and the change in stored energy to the
energy delivered to storage.

ENERGY COLLECTION AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM

The Energy Collection and Storage Subsystem (ECSS) is composed of the collector array, the primary storage medium, the transport loops between these, and other components in the system design which are necessary to mechanize the collector and storage equipment..

INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insolation available
on the gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture, including the framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (TA) is the average temperature of the outdoor environment at the site.

0 ENERGY TO LOADS (SEL) is the total thermal energy transported
from the ECSS to all load subsystems.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY TO ECSS (CSAUX) is the total auxiliary
energy supplied to the ECSS, including auxiliary energy added to
the storage tank, heating devices on the collectors for freezeprotection, etc.

ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (CSOPE) is the critical operating energy
required to support the ECSS heat transfer loops.

HOT WATER SUBSYSTEM

The hot water subsystem is characterized by a complete accounting of the energy flow into and from the subsystem, as well as an accounting of internal energy. The energy into the subsystem is composed of auxiliary. fossil fuel, and electrical auxiliary thermal energy, and the operating energy for the subsystem.

HOT WATER LOAD (HWL) is the amount of energy required to heat
the amount of hot water demanded at the site from the incoming
temperature to the desired outlet temperature.






A- 2








0 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HWSFR) is the percentage of the load
demand which is supported by solar energy.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HWSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the hot water subsystem.

0 OPERATING ENERGY (HWOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
required to support the subsystem, (e.g., fans, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal state
of the subsystem.

# AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HWAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal energy in a heat transfer fluid, or its equivalent. This term
also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL (HWAF) is the amount of fossil fuel energy
supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HWSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 FOSSIL FUEL SAVINGS (HWSVF) is the estimated difference between
the fossil fuel energy requirements of the alternative conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual fossil
fuel energy requirements of the subsystem.

SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM

The space heating subsystem is characterized by performance factors accounting for the complete energy flow into the subsystem. The average building temperature is tabluated to indicate the relative performance of the subsystem in satisfying the space heating load and in controlling the temperature of the conditioned space.

0 SPACE HEATING LOAD (HL) is the sensible energy added to the
air in the building.

6 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HSFR) is the fraction of the sensible
energy added to the air in the building derived from the solar
energy system.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the space heating subsystem.








A-3








0 OPERATING ENERGY (HOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
required to support the subsystem, (e.g., fans, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal
state of the system.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal
energy in a heat transfer fluid or its equivalent. This term also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL FUEL (HAE) is the amount of electrical
energy supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 BUILDING TEMPERATURE (TB) is the average heated space dry bulb
temperature.

































A-4








APPENDIX B

SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS

ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. I


I. INTRODUCTION

Solar energy system performance is evaluated by performing energy balance calculations on the system and its major subsystems. These calculations are based on physical measurement data taken from each sensor every 320 seconds. This data is then mathematically combined to determine the hourly, daily, and monthly performance of the system. This appendix describes the general computational methods and the specific energy balance equations used for this site.

Data samples from the system measurements are integrated to provide discrete approximations of the continuous functions which characterize the system's dynamic behavior. This integration is performed by summation of the product of the measured rate of the appropriate performance parameters and the sampling interval over the total time period of interest.

There are several general forms of integration equations which are applied to each site. These general forms are exemplified as follows: The total solar energy available to the collector array is given by

SOLAR ENERGY AVAILABLE = (1/60) E [1001 x AREA] X AT

where 1001 is the solar radiation measurement provided by the pyranometer in Btu per square foot per hour, AREA is the area of the collector array in square feet, AT is the sampling interval in minutes, and the factor (1/60) is included to correct the solar radiation "rate" to the proper units of time.

Similarly, the energy flow within a system is given typically by

COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY = E [MlOO X AH] X AT

where MIN is the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid in lb /min and AH is the enthalpy change, in Btu/lb m of the fluid as it passes Through the heat exchanging component.

For a liquid system AH is generally given by

AH = C p AT

where c is the average specific heat, in Btu/(lb -OF), of the heat transfer fluqd and AT, in OF, is the temperature diffe mental across the heat exchanging component.





B-1








For electrical power, a general example is

ECSS OPERATING ENERGY = (3413/60) z [EP100] x AT

where EP100 is the power required by electrical equipment in kilowatts and the two factors (1/60) and 3413 correct the data to Btu/min.

These equations are comparable to those specified in "Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program." This document was prepared by an interagency committee of the Government, and presents guidelines for thermal performance evaluation.

Performance factors are computed for each hour of the day. Each integration process, therefore, is performed over a period of one hour. Since long-term performance data is desired, it is necessary to build these hourly performance factors to daily values. This is accomplished, for energy parameters, by summing the 24 hourly values. For temperatures, the hourly values are averaged. Certain special factors, such as efficiencies, require appropriate handling to properly weight each hourly sample for the daily value computation. Similar procedures are required to convert daily values to monthly values.
































B-2










II. EQUATIONS USED IN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT NOTE: MEASUREMENT NUMBERS REFERENCE SYSTEM SCHEMATIC FIGURE 3-1.


AVERAGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ("F)
TA = (1/60) x 1 TOOl x AiT
DAYTIME AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (OF)
TDA = (1/360) x x TOOl x AT
FOR + 3 HOURS FROM SOLAR NOON
INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY PER UNIT AREA (Btu/FT2)
SE = (1/60) x 10OO2 x AT INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY ON ARRAY (BTU)
SEA = (1/60) x E[IO02 x CLAREA] x AT OPERATIONAL INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)
SEOP = (1/60) x E[I002 x CLAREA] x AT
WHEN THE COLLECTOR LOOP IS ACTIVE
SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED BY THE ARRAY (BTU)
SECA = [MlOO x HWD(T150, T100)] x AT
WHERE: M100 IS THE COLLECTOR FLUID MASS FLOW RATE AND
HWD IS A FUNCTION CALCULATING CHANGE IN FLUID
ENTHALPY OVER THE RANGE T150-TlOO. COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY PER UNIT AREA (BTU/FT2)
SEC = z[M100 x HWD(T150, T100)/CLAREA] x AT COLLECTOR ARRAY EFFICIENCY (PERCENT)
CAREFF = (SECA/SEA) x 100 ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)
CSOPE = (56.88) x E[EP100 + EP10l x (110/507)] x AT



B-3








STORAGE TEMPERATURE (oF)
TST = (1/60) x z[(T200 + T201 + T202)/3] x AT ENERGY TO STORAGE (BTU)
STEI = z[M1OO x HWD(T151, T101)] x AT ENERGY FROM STORAGE (BTU)
STEO = Z[M301 x HWD(T351, T301)] x AT CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (BTU)
STECH = STOCAP x (TST x RHO x CP TST x RHO x CP )
WHERE: THE SUBSCRIPT p INDICATES VALUES TAKEN FROM A PREVIOUS
REFERENCE HOUR
STORAGE EFFICIENCY (PERCENT)
STEFF = [(STECH + STEO)/STEI] x 100 ENERGY DELIVERED TO LOAD FROM ECSS (BTU)
CSEO = STEO
HOT WATER CONSUMPTION (GALLONS)
HWCSM = z WD300 x AT
WHERE: WD300 IS THE TIME DERIVATIVE OF THE TOTALIZING FLOWMETER HOT WATER LOAD (BTU)
HWL = E[M300 x HWD(T350, T300)] x AT HOT WATER SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)
HWSE = CSEO
HOT WATER AUXILIARY THERMAL (BTU)
HWAT = E[M301 x HWD(T352, T302)] x AT HOT WATER AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY (BTU)
HWAF = E FCONST x F302C x AT
WHERE: FCONST IS THE ENERGY EQUIVALENT OF ONE UNIT OF FOSSIL
FUEL AND F302C IS THE TIME DERIVATIVE OF THE TOTALIZING
FLOWMETER. A VALUE OF 1044 IS USED FOR FCONST.



B-4










HOT WATER SOLAR FRACTION (PERCENT)

HWSR = 100 x HWSE/(HWAT + HWSE)

SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE (OF) MASS FLOW WEIGHTED

TSW = T300 x M300 x AT E M300 x AT

HOT WATER TEMPERATURE (OF) MASS FLOW WEIGHTED
THW = T350 x M301 x AT E M301 x AT

HOT WATER OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

HWOPE = E 56.88 x (EP200 + EP300) x AT HOT WATER ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

HWSVE = -(z 56.88 x EP200)- CSPOE HOT WATER FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

HWSVF = HWSE/HWFEFF

WHERE: HWFEFF IS THE HOT WATER HEATER THERMAL EFFICIENCY (LONG-TERM
AVERAGE). A VALUE OF 0.6 IS USED WHERE SPECIFIC DATA IS NOT
AVAILABLE.

SYSTEM LOAD (BTU)

SYSL = HWL

SYSTEM SOLAR FRACTION (PERCENT)

SFR = HWSFR

SOLAR ENERGY TO LOAD (BTU)

SEL = HWSE

SYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

SYSOPE = CSOPE + HWOPE

SYSTEM AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY (BTU)

AXT = HWAT

SYSTEM AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

AXF = HWAF

B-5










TOTAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

TSVE = HWSVE

TOTAL FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

TSVF = HWSVF

TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMED (BTU)

TECSM = SYSOPE + HWAF + SECA








































B-6











APPENDIX C

LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS



This appendix contains a table which lists the long-term average weather conditions for each month of the year for this site.












































C-1























14
E-4
D4





E-4

o
Ln c> D o Ln Lr) a% r- co M Ln .0
rn -T -T Lr) D r- r- r- r. Ln Zil 0
r14
E-4
ew -4 C
0 F-4 cm
cz -4 I-I
'C E74
C) CD C) 10 r- n C> CD r- C) Xl
Cl z 9) N 10 ID =3 9.4 >4 cil
N :r rn E-4 :n .4

E-4 cl


.4.4 04
CA. E-4 .
Of C> Ln -4 4 a C) C> r. n n (n .4 E-4 14 co 4
<0 7% jo -1 7% 1.4 4 = 0
C% ON r, 0 rq m im I Lo
1.4 :.4
E-4
ZT E4
Ic 0 .4 PW F-4
.4 C6 w 113
to


w In Q w
0 DQ o 0 ct m m im -i 0 94
E4 E-4 0 0 CN fN r"I N (N m 1.0 -CC E-4 -C
H CA u -C N N r l CN, N N C j r 4 az Dw
E-4 1:2. 0
4 H 4 -A E-1
4c ZD E-4 z z W
0 m H E- -C 0 0 w
u cz U lic 2c oz
cz ID fl. m m Ln r- 0 N E-4 -4 z
en e,4 (71 _y Im r r4 ZT 'n 0 w
-t N c 00 co 00 ON 10 r- W (ZE-4 W C%3
6 0 = = = m M4
0 C CD 0 w 0 t-o4 0 0 z
04 -q v 0 0 1-4
E-4 E- 4 E-4 '-4 -4
CC = -C -C -0 ra
ou H 0 in M
m 00 0 a v (11 --r Ln Ln N 00 E-4 9M .4 9:) m
CN 10 r- o Ln as m N In I-C WW 'ga W W H

U") N rn C) (D 0 al
o o ID rl- r, I'l r- r- t- r ID ID m

C C 0 C) 0 0 0 1-4 0 0 0 3a
Z = co -x w
W in in U 0 0 0 F4
0 -C z =
CO W E 4 CIL4 W 1-4
tn M r.5 = = 0 E-4
N 1.0 r- (31 10 (71 X E-4 M -C .C
--r o --r -C z In w N 0 H
cz (D en r- %D --I N Ol 0 w m 0 w = u m
u rj !: = X.4 tw 2n
r -C
CL- E-4
LA 0 oz >4 04
LM rn .4 0 .4 Iz (Z 0
w In = 0 C) t-A = ca *3 No
E- Ln D -? CC r ff) M N O E-4 E-4 1-1 1,-4 1-4 E4 03 M W
tn M 4C (71 rn W r14 M N --? LM r- M M O z E E- = z = v W
w ow LM M Ln o 0 --y o Ln r,4 r- D zr 0 0 In P.
C,
Ic H
A A A A A A A A


F-4
V) u in F-- 9z cc m cz m
z c -C -C < a dc
0 ca w m 0 en
H E-4 30 C4 > z -1 CL F-4 L) W u F-4
H -C OW -CCL -< = M = r4 u o w W
Le) n 44 313 4 3a n n cc tn 0 z a 41
















C-2











APPENDIX D

MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS


The flowcharts in this appendix depict the quantity of solar energy corresponding to each major component or characteristic of the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system for 6 months of the reporting period. Each monthly flowchart represents a solar energy balance as the total input equals the total output.









































D-1












Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

85.32 1.66

1(1) Obange in
Operational Transport Loss Stored Energy
Incident Collector to ECSS Subsystem
Solar Energy Storage OeaigEeg

66.80 1.5



Collected Solar Energy SlrEeg
Solar Energy _________________________ to Storage ---- fo trg



Transport Loss TasotLs
Collector to DHW Soaet H




IEnergy Used



SubystiEemg Water Auxiliary
~~ti~er ~ Thermal Used








Transport Loss 3 .1TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn N.A.N.A

Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.Al.
Space Heating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used







Transport Loss (1)sor Ls Collector to Soaet


Space Cooling






Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Ue


Total Loss ()
Collector to SaeCoigTtlLs
Storage and Load],Las traet od



*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data o
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating load (if known -see text for discussion)


FIGURE D-1. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -OCTOBER 1978


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1


D- 2













Incident Solar Ener gy
Solar Energy Stora" Loss"



Orange in
Operational Transpoit Loss t tSS SubsYstr"M Stored Energy
Incident Collector to
Solar Erergy stoa O,,g E neB 9 0 9

39.00 *1.03



Collected SlrEeg ovEev
Solar Energy to_ Storage_______from_____Storage___(I





Collector to DHW Storage to OHW


Domestic Hot
Water Solar
d!Energy Used
N.10.540. 1 .

DHW ubsytemDomestic Hot DHWrating Sub y Water Auxiliary
Thermal Used



Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport Loss 3 .5TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn

N. A. N A

Space Heating
Solar Energy Used



SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss Transport Loss
Collector to Storage to
Space Cooling Space Cooling

N.A. N A.
Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used
IN


Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used
N .A- N. A.











Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Storage to
Storage and LoadsSae tooads
N.A.

SDenotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data
11) May contribute to offset of space heating IM (if known see text for discussion)


FIGURE 0-2. SOlAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -NOVEMBER 1978


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1


D-3












M1
Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losse


62.30 2.41

1 (1)DCange in
Operational Transport Loss ()Stored Energy
Incident Collector to ECSS Subsystem
Solar Energy SoaeOeaigEeg 0 3





CollectedSoaEnrySlrneg Solar EnergytoSoaefmSorg

10. 95]1951

TranportLossTransport Loss Colletor t DHWStorage to DHW


Domestic Hot
Water Solar
Energy Used


DHW ubsytemDomestic Hot Subsin Erys Water Auxiliary
EnergyThermal Used




Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport Loss44 73TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn
N. A.N.A







Space Heating Space Heating
ISubsy stem I Auxiliary Thermal
Operating EnergyUe








Transport Loss (1)TrnprtLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn

N. A.N.A

Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used



Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Total Loss SaeCoigTtlLs
Collector tospcColfgTtlLs
Storage and Loads Load Storage to Loads

*N. A.

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data 90
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating load (if known -see text for discussion)l00



FIGURE D-3. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -DECEMBER 1978


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1



D-4














Incident Woar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Looms



I Csangs in
Operational Transport Lou ECSSbytmStored Energy
IncidentColcotoOeaigEry Solar Energy trge03
46.26 11



CollectedSoaEnrySlrneg








SoEnerg EnrytheSrmae Usedtoag






Transport LostrnpotLs Collector to DWSoaet H


Spacesti Heaon


SlEnergy Used

N. T83

Spae Heatn Dspac Ht
SubystmWa Auxiliaryra Operating Energy UsemlUe



Dspac Ht
WrLoad


Transport Loss (1nsor NosA
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcHetn

N. A. NA

Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N .A
Scooleaing Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Total Loss Space Cooling TtlLs


Collector to Soaet
Soage aongodsLa Stoae tooadsg



.N. dente not aplcal.dt






ALBUQUERQUE~ WETR.O




0-5A













Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

70.411.

(1 Change in
Operational Transport Loss ECSS'Subsystem Stared Energy
Incident Collector to
Solar Energy StorageOprtnEegy0

6 0.61__ 1.4



CollectedaSlrEeg!Slrnry

Solar Energy _________________________ ______ to Storage Tj rm trg
18.9 8,95 1)(10
Transport Loss TasotLs
Collector to DHW Soaet H




I~Energy Used



SubystigEemg Water Auxiliary
EnergyThermal Used








Transport Loss 4 .0TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn

N. A.N.A
Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.1
SaeHeating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss ( N.A TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn

N..N. A.
Space Cooling
________________________________________Solar Energy Used



Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

(.A.N)A
Total Loss Space Cooling TtlLs
Collector toLodSoaetLas
Storage and LoadsLodSraetLas
N. A.

*Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data S002
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating load (if known see text for discussion)



FIGURE D-5. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -FEBRUARY 1979


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1

D- 6
















Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Loses


97

Change in
Operational Transport Loss II) CSS SubsystemStednrg
Incident Collector to OeaigEeg
Solar Entergir Storage -0.55ti
63.16 15




CollectedSoaEnrySlrneg Solar Energy -oSoaefo trg




Transport Loss TasotLs
Collector to DHW Soaet H





Energy Used


[peraing Ee Water Auxiliary
~ Thermal Used








Tr pr os4 4Transport Loss
Collector to Soaet
Space HeatingSpcHetn N. A.N.A

Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.
Space Heating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used



Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss N- -TrnprtLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn



Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used


N.A.1
Space Cooling Space Cooling
ISubsystem j Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

N. A. N.A

Totllosr to Space Cooling Total Loss
Storage and Loads Load Storage to Loads

N.A

0Denotes Unavailable Data
N A. denotes not applicable data
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating load (fi known see text for discussion) S0


FIGURE D-6. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART -MARCH 1979


ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1


D- 7













APPENDIX E

MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS


The data tables provided in this appendix present an indication of solar energy distribution, intentional and unintentional, in the Albuquerque Western No. 1 solar energy system. Tables are provided for 6 months of the reporting period.












































E-1






TABLE E-1. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OCTOBER 1978
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1
25.11 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%

23.44 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
93%

23.44 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
93%

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


1.66 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
7

1.66 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE 7%


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
% million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


-N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS



% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
% million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS


N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.01 % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE


Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data E-2








TABLE [-2. SOLAR ENERGY DSTRIflUIION NOVEMBER 1978
ALBUQUERQUE WEST iRN NO. 1
10.54 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR~ ENERGY COLLECTED 100%
10.27million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS


10.27 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
98%

N.A. %million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. %million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


0.18 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
2%

0.18 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
2%

% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT

%million BtuCOLCOTOSRAEOS N.A- mllon tuCOLLECTOR TO SOAGE LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO OAD LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHWC LOSS G OS


N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N. million BtLETORAG TOLA O SPAECOIGLS

** million Btu STORAGE TO OAD LOSS


*.. million Btu STORAGE TO DHWC LOSS G OS


N.A. %million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS




0.09 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE


*Denotes Unavailable Data N.A. denotes not applicable data E-3







TABLE E-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION DECEMBER 1978
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1
10.95 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECT ED 100%
8.9] million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS


8.91 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
81%

N.A.% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A.% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


2.41 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
22%

2.41 million BtuSOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE


___million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT % million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS .A. illo COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. %million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS
'J

% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS

*____ million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. %million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. %million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-.3 million. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE


SDenotes Unavailable Data N.A. denotes not applicable data E-4







TABLE E-4. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION JN4UARY 1979
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1
10.31 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

8.31 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
81%

8.31 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
81%

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


1.66 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
16%

1.68 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
16%


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT % million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS NA. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS



% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
% million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.32 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
3%

Denotes Unavailable Data N.A. denotes not applicable data E-5







TABLE E-5. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FEBRUARY 1979
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO. 1
18.95 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

17.01 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
90%

17.01 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
90%

N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


1.99 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
i

1.99 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
10 If,


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
% million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS



% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS
% million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS


-.N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0.05 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE


Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data E-6








TABLE E-6. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MARCH 1979
ALBUQUERQUE WESTERN NO, 1
15.81 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%

15.39 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
97%

15-39 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM


N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM N.A. million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


0.97 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
6%

0.97 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE 6%

million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT



% million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS N.A. K million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS



% million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS % million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0-55 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
-3%

Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data E-7
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1980-640-189/4231. Region 4.











3 1262 0539,
112,9