Solar energy system performance evaluation : Chester West, Huntsville, Alabama

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Title:
Solar energy system performance evaluation : Chester West, Huntsville, Alabama
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 1030-79/14
Added title page title:
Chester West single-family residence, Huntsville, Alabama
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Labbe, Norman M
United States -- Dept. of Energy. -- Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
International Business Machines Corporation
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy, Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar houses -- Alabama -- Huntsville   ( lcsh )
Solar energy -- Alabama -- Huntsville   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
September 1978 through March 1979.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
IBM Corporation.
General Note:
Prepared for Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications under contract EG-77-C-01-4049.
General Note:
On cover: Chester West single-family residence, Huntsville, Alabama.
General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007750
Statement of Responsibility:
Norman M. Labbe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022612751
oclc - 05970330
System ID:
AA00013783:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    National solar data program reports
        Page v
        Page vi
    1. Foreword
        Page 1-1
        Page 1-2
    2. Summary and conclusions
        Page 2-1
        Page 2-2
        Page 2-3
        Page 2-4
    3. System description
        Page 3-1
        Page 3-2
    4. Performance evaluation techniques
        Page 4-1
        Page 4-2
    5. Performance assessment
        Page 5-1
        Page 5-2
        Page 5-3
        Page 5-4
        Page 5-5
        Page 5-6
        Page 5-7
        Page 5-8
        Page 5-9
        Page 5-10
        Page 5-11
        Page 5-12
        Page 5-13
        Page 5-14
        Page 5-15
        Page 5-16
        Page 5-17
        Page 5-18
        Page 5-19
        Page 5-20
        Page 5-21
        Page 5-22
    6. References
        Page 6-1
        Page 6-2
    Appendix A. Definitions of performance factors and solar terms
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
    Appendix B. Solar energy system performance equations
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
    Appendix C. Long-term average weather conditions
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
    Appendix D. Monthly solar energy distribution flowcharts
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3
        Page D-4
        Page D-5
        Page D-6
        Page D-7
        Page D-8
    Appendix E. Monthly solar energy distributions
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
        Page E-5
        Page E-6
        Page E-7
        Page E-8
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


SOLAR/i 030-79/14




Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation



CHESTER WEST SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENCE Huntsville,, Alabama September 1978 Through March 1979











'' U. So Department of Energy National Solar Heating andCooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program











NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy. am any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors. or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or ammes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rightL



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.


Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $5.25
Microfiche S3.00





SOLAR/ 1030- 79/14
Distribution Category UC-59


SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION








CHESTER WEST
HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA





SEPTEMBER 1978 THROUGH MARCH 1979





NORMAN M. LABBE, PRINCIPAL AUTHOR
JERRY T. SMOK, MANAGER OF RESIDENTIAL SOLAR ANALYSIS
LARRY J. MURPHY, IBM PROGRAM MANAGER












IBM CORPORATION
18100 FREDERICK PIKE
GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND 20760



PREPARED FOR
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR
CONSERVATION AND SOLAR APPLICATION
UNDER CONTRACT EG-77-C-O1-4049
H. JACKSON HALE, PROGRAM MANAGER







TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
1. FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.1 Performance Summary . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES . . . . . . 4-1

5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . 5-1

5.1 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . . 5-2

5.2 System Thermal Performance . . . . . . . 5-4

5.3 Subsystem Performance . . . . . . . . 5-8

5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem . . . 5-8

5.3.1.1 Collector Array . . . . . . 5-8

5.3.1.2 Storage . . . . . . . 5-12

5.3.2 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Subsystem . . . 5-16 5.3.3 Space Heating Subsystem . . . . . . 5-18

5.4 Operating Energy . . . . . . . . . . 5-18

5.5 Energy Savings . . . . . . . . . . 5-21

6. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS A-1 APPENDIX B SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS B-1

APPENDIX C LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS C-1

APPENDIX D MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS D-1

APPENDIX E MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS E-1







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIGURES TITLE PAGE

3-1 Solar Energy System Schematic 3-2

5-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart Summary 5-6

D-1 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-2
September 1978

D-2 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-3
October 1978

D-3 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-4
November 1978

D-4 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-5
December 1978

D-5 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-6
January 1979

D-6 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-7
February 1979

D-7 Solar Energy Distribution Flowchart D-8
March 1979






LIST OF TABLES

TABLES TITLE PAGE

5-1 Weather Conditions 5-3

5-2 System Thermal Performance Summary 5-5

5-3 Solar Energy Distribution Summary 5-7

5-4 Solar Energy System Coefficient of Performance 5-9

5-5 Collector Array Performance 5-10

5-6 Storage Performance 5-13

5-7 Solar Energy Losses Storage and Transport 5-14

5-8 Domestic Hot Water Subsystem Performance 5-17

5-9 Space Heating Subsystem Performance 5-19

5-10 Operating Energy 5-20

5-11 Energy Savings 5-22

E-1 Solar Energy Distribution E-2
September 1978

E-2 Solar Energy Distribution E-3
October 1 978

E-3 Solar Energy Distribution E-4
November 1978

E-4 Solar Energy Distribution E-5
December 1978

E-5 Solar Energy Distribution E-6
January 1979

E-6 Solar Energy Distribution E-7
February 1979

E-7 Solar Energy Distribution E-8
March 1979







iv







NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS



Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under specific format. For example, this report for the Chester West project site is designated as SOLAR/1030-79/14. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration.



SOLAR! 100-7p



Prepared for the __________________________________________________________ Report Type National Solar Designation
Data Program


Demonstration Si te Year



0 Demonstration Site Number:


Each project site has its own discrete number 1000 through 1999 for
residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


0 Report Type Designation:


This number'identifies the type of report, e.g.,


Monthly Performance Reports are designated by the numbers 01 (for
January) through 12 (for December).

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations are designated by the
number 14.





v







Solar Project Descriptions are designated by the number 50.


Solar Project Cost Reports are designated by the number 60.


These reports are disseminated through the U. S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center, P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.











































vi







1. FOREWORD


The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy under the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of this activity is to accelerate the establishment of a viable solar energy industry and to stimulate its growth to achieve a substantial reduction in nonrenewable energy resource consumption through widespread applications of solar heating and cooling technology.


Information gathered through the Demonstration Program is disseminated in a series of site-specific reports. These reports are issued as appropriate and may include such topics as:


0 Solar Project Description
0 Design/Construction Report
0 Project Costs
0 Maintenance and Reliability
0 Operational Experience
0 Monthly Performance
0 System Performance Evaluation


The International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation is contributing to the overall goal of the Demonstration Act by monitoring, analyzing, and reporting the thermal performance of solar energy systems through analysis of measurements obtained by the National Solar Data Program.


The Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report is a product of the National Solar Data Program. Reports are issued periodically to document the results of analysis of specific solar energy system operational performance. This report includes system description, operational characteristics and capabilities, and an evaluation of actual versus expected performance. The Monthly Performance Report, which isthe basis for the Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report, is published on a regular basis. Each parameter presented in these reports as characteristic of system performance



1-1








represents over 8,000 discrete measurements obtained each month by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Documents referenced in this report are listed in Section 6, "References." Numbers shown in brackets refer to reference numbers in Section 6. All other documents issued by the National Solar Data Program for the Chester West solar energy system are listed in Section 7, "Bibliography."


This Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of the Chester West solar energy system. The analysis covers operation of the system from September 1978 through March 1979. The Chester West solar energy system provides space heating and domestic hot water'to a single-family dwelling located in Huntsville, Alabama. Section 2 presents a summary of the overall system results. A system description is contained in Section 3. Analysis of the system thermal performance was accomplished using a system energy balance technique described in Section
4. Section 5 presents a detailed assessment of the individual subsystems applicable to the site.


The measurement data for the reporting period was collected by the NSDN [1]. System performance data are provided through the NSDN via an IBM-developed Central Data Processing System (CDPS) [2]. The CDPS supports the collection and analysis of solar data acquired from instrumented systems located throughout the country. This data is processed daily and summarized into monthly performance reports. These monthly reports form a common basis for system evaluation and are the source of the performance data used in this report.
















1-2








2. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This section provides a summary of the performance of the solar energy system installed at Chester West, located in Huntsville, Alabama for the period September 1978 through March 1979. This solar energy system is designed to support the domestic hot water and space heating loads. A detailed description of Chester West solar energy system operation is presented in Section 3.


2.1 Performance Summary


The solar energy site was occupied from September 1978 through March 1979 and the solar energy system operated continuously during most of this reporting period. The periods of non-operation were as follows:


November I until November 8. A safety switch activated causing
collector draindown. The system was recharged with a new solution on
November 8.


The DHW subsystem was turned off from March 7 throughMarch 26. DHW
control maintenance on March 27 restored it to operation.


The total incident solar energy was 57.50 million Btu, of which 21.32 million Btu were collected by the solar energy system. Solar energy satisfied 74(l) percent of the DHW requirements and 15 percent of the space heating requirements. The space heating subsystem provided an electrical energy savings of
3.31 million Btu.


The overall weather conditions in Huntsville were very close to what was expected during the period covered by the report. The average ambient temperatur e of 52*F was exactly the same as the long-term average for the same period.




(1) Weighted average based on 3-month data: September, October, November (1978)




2-1







Heating and cooling degree-days of 3054 and 379 compared closely with longterm averages of 3125 and 347, respectively. Lastly, the site-measured average daily total incident solar energy on the collector array of 1201 Btu per square foot per day was about the same as the predicted 1224 Btu per square foot per day. However, there was quite a bit of variation when comparing measured and predicted heating degree-days and incident solar energy availability on a month-to-month basis. This fact is noted in the discussion of the space heating solar fraction which follows shortly.


The average efficiency of the collector array during the reporting period was 37 percent. This 37 percent is the ratio of collected energy to total energy incident on the array. The month-to-month efficiency ranged from a low of 24 percent in November to a high of 48 percent in December.

Average storage efficiency was based on September, October and November data. (See Section 2.2, for why the other months were excluded). There was an average storage efficiency of 53 percent. In the three months available, a trend toward an increase in efficiency from September to November was noted (29 percent, to 60 percent, to 88 percent). Heavier cold weather loads could account for this increased efficiency. It is quite likely the trend continued into the winter months and reversed itself as spring approached. This explanation is reinforced by the storage average temperatures. There was an overall storage average temperature of 123*F. Storage averaged 158'F in September, was down in the 80's and 90's in December through February, and had climbed to an average of 127'F in March. The installation of the new storage tank in March (see Section 2.2) would partially account for the rise in temperature in March.

The space heating solar fraction grew smaller as the outside ambient temperature became lower and the space heating load increased. The solar energy system was always supportive during the entire reporting period. The system experienced greater and greater difficulty in meeting the increasing winter space heating load demands using solar energy with a consequent rise in auxiliary thermal requirements. This is especially evident in January and




2-2








February, which had solar fractions of 6 percent and 10 percent, respectively. Over 65 percent of-the space heating load over the 7-month reporting period occurred during these two months. Three factors can be offered as a partial explanation. More solar energy should have been available. Incident solar energy availability was much lower in January and February than in any other month of the 7-month period (see Table 5-1). In addition, both were substantially lower than the expected values. Consequently, solar energy collected values would unexpectedly be reduced during these months of high load. A second factor was the much higher than expected heating degree-days in January and February (see Table 5-1). The third factor was the condition of the original thermal storage tank, which was replaced in March (see Section
2.2). It is quite likely that unmeasured solar energy tank losses did occur, and at an increased rate as the weather grew colder.


2.2 Conclusions


Solar Energy System Controls Less than optimum control settings
allowed the DHW pumps to stay on longer than necessary during most of the reporting period. This condition was rectified late in March. The primary effect this condition exerted on the DHW subsystem was twofold: (1) the DHW operational energy requirements were slightly higher than required; and (2) a small amount of thermal energy was extracted from the DHW subsystem through the storage to DHW heat exchanger.


Thermal Storage Tank. A new galvanized steel tank, with external fiber glass insulation, was installed on March 1. The original fiberglass tank showed external signs of deterioration as reflected in observable water seepage. This condition naturally I-ed to some thermal loss from storage.


Collector Loop. A safety switch was inadvertently activated on November 1, causing the collector solution to drain. The solar energy system was off from November I until November 8, at which time the collector loop was refilled with water. The loop was charged with the normal Solaryard G solution on November 9. Another drain-down occurred on November 19, at which time the




2-3







loop was refilled with water. On November 20 the collector loop was refilled with an ethylene-glycol (32 percent)/water solution. This solution was replaced by a Solaryard G solution on March 2. At the same time, a backup battery powered system was installed.


The variety of fluids used in the collector loop provided different thermal transfer rates at different times. The backup battery power source greatly reduces the chances of a collector drain-down, when the normal power source fails.

Data Sensors. The two liquid flowmeters (one in the DHW loop and the other in the space heating loop) downstream from the thermal storage tank provided unreliable data from December through March. Debris from the original fiberglass tank and deposits attributed to the corrosive reaction of the liquid, and metals in these loops fouled the target area of both flowmeters.


Investigations are underway to select the best approach to clear the lines of debris and impede the corrosive reaction. In the interim, although the performance evaluation of the DHW and ECSS subsystems were limited, the evaluation of the space heating subsystem was unaffected. A complete evaluation of this latter subsystem was possible using flowrate data from the air side of the storage to space heating heat exchanger.





















2-4







3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The Chester West site is a single-family residence in Huntsville, Alabama. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collector with a gross area of 225 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 49 degrees to the horizontal. A glycerol-water solution is used as the medium for delivering solar energy from the collector array to storage; water is the medium for delivering solar energy from storage to the space heating and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored aboveground in a 500-gallon water storage tank. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an air-to-air heat ump and electrical heating elements which are designed to function in parallel with the solar energy space heating loop. Auxiliary hot water heating is provided in series with the solar energy DHW loop through the use of electrical heating elements in an 80-gallon DHW tank. The system, shown schematically in Figure 3-1, has three modes of solar operation.


Mode 1 Collector-to-Storage: This mode activates when the control system senses a sufficient temperature difference between the collector and storage and remains active until the temperature difference drops below the accepted minimum. The collected energy is transferred to storage through a ring-type, liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger located in the storage tank. Pump Pl is operating.

Mode 2 Storage-to-Space Heating: This mode activates when there is a demand for space heating. Solar energy is circulated to the conditioned space by solar-heated water from storage through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger located in the air-distribution duct. Pump P3 is operating.


Mode 3 Storage-to-DHW Tank: This mode activates when the control system senses a sufficient temperature difference between storage and the DHW tank, and remains active as long as a sufficient temperature difference exists. Water circulates from the top of storage through a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger located in the bottom of the DHW tank. Pump P2 is operating.




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4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TECHNIQUES


The performance of the Chester West solar energy system is evaluated by calculating a set of primary performance factors which are based on those proposed in the intergovernmental agency report "Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program" [3]. These performance factors quantify the thermal performance of the system by measuring the amount of energies that are being transferred between the components of the system. The performance of the system can then be evaluated based on the efficiency of the system in transferring.these energies. All performance factors and their definitions are listed in Appendix A.


Data from monitoring instrumentation located at key points within the solar energy system are collected by the National Solar Data Network. This data is first formed into factors showing the hourly performance of each system component, either by summation or averaging techniques, as appropriate. The hourly factors then serve as a basis for calculating the daily and monthly performance of each component subsystem. The performance factor equations for this site are listed in Appendix B.


Each month, as appropriate, a summary of overall performance of the Chester West site and a detailed subsystem analysis are published. These monthly reports for the period covered by this Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation (September 1978 through March 1979) are available from the Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.


In the tables and figures in this report, an asterisk indicates that the value is not available for that month; N.A. indicates that the value is not applicable for this site.









4-1









5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

The performance of the Chester West solar energy system has been evaluated for the September 1978 through March 1979 time, period. Two perspectives were taken in this assessment. The first views the overall system in which the total solar energy collected, the system load, the measured values for solar energy used, and system solar fraction are presented. Where applicable, the expected values for solar energy used and system solar fraction are also shown. The expected values have been derived from a modified f-chart analysis which uses measured weather and subsystem loads as input. The f-chart is a performance estimation technique used for designing solar heating systems. It was developed by the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Madison. The system mode used in the analysis is based on manufacturer's data and other known system parameters. In addition, the solar energy system coefficient of performance (COP) at both the system and subsystem level has been presented.


The second view presents a more in-depth look at the performance of individual subsystems. Details relating to the performance of the collector array and storage subsystems are presented first, followed by details pertaining to the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) subsystems. Included in this section are all parameters pertinent to the operation of each individual subsystem.


In addition to the overall system and subsystem analysis, this report also describes the equivalent energy savings contributed by the solar energy system. The overall system and individual subsystem energy savings are presented in Section 5.5.


The performance assessment of any solar energy system is highly dependent on the prevailing weather conditions at the site during the period of performance. The original design of the system is generally based on the long-term averages for available insulation and temperature. Deviations from these long-term averages can significantly affect the performance of the system. Therefore,




5-1






before beginning the discussion of actual system performance, a presentation of the measured and long-term averages for critical weather parameters has been provided.


5.1 Weather Conditions


Monthly values of the total solar energy incident in the plane of the collector array and the average outdoor temperature measured at the Chester West site during the reporting period are presented in Table 5-1. Also presented in Table 5-1 are the corresponding long-term average monthly values of the measured weather parameters. These data are taken from Reference Monthly Environmental Data for Systems in the National Solar Data Network [4]. A complete yearly listing of these values for the site is given in Appendix C.


During September 1978 through March 1979 the average daily total incident solar energy on the collector array was 1201 Btu per square foot per day. This was about the same as the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during the reporting period of 1224 Btu per square foot per day for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 49 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during September 1978 through March 1979 was 521F as compared with the long-term average of 52*F during the same period. The number of heating degree-days for the same period (based on a 65'F reference) was 3054, as compared with the summation of the long-term averages of 3125. The number of cooling degree-days for the same period (based on a 65*F reference) was 379, as compared with the summation of the long-term averages of 347.


Monthly values of heating and cooling degree-days are derived from daily values of ambient temperature. They are useful indications of the system heating and cooling loads. Heating degree-days and cooling degree-days are computed as the difference between daily average temperature and 65*F. For example, if a day's average temperature was 60'F, then five heating degreedays are accumulated. Similarly, if a day's average temperature was 800F, then 15 cooling degree-days are accumulated. The total number of heating and cooling degree-days is summed monthly.


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5.2 System Thermal Performance


The thermal performance of a solar energy system is a function of the total solar energy collected and applied to the system load. The total system load is the sum of the useful energy delivered to the loads (excluding losses in the system), both solar and auxiliary thermal energies. The portion of the total load provided by solar energy is defined as the solar fraction of the load.


The thermal performance of the Chester West solar energy system is presented in Table 5-2. This performance assessment is based on the 7-month period from September 1978 to March 1979. During the reporting period, a monthly average of 3.05 million Btu of solar energy was collected and the average system load was 4.90 million Btu. The average measured amount of solar energy delivered to the load subsystem was 1.48 million Btu or 0.22 million Btu less than the expected average value. The measured average system solar fraction was 61 percent as compared to an expected value of 77 percent. Note that the solar energy used and solar fraction values were based on averages which included only September, October and November 1978.


Figure 5-1 illustrates the flow of solar energy from the point of collection to the various points of consumption and loss for thereporting period. The numerical values account for the quantity of energy corresponding with the transport, operation, and function of each major element in the Chester West solar energy system for the total reporting period.


Solar energy distribution flowcharts for each month of the reporting period are presented in Appendix D.


Table 5-3 summarizes solar energy distribution and provides a percentage breakdown. Appendix E contains the monthly solar energy percentage distributions.







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5-5









FIGURE 5-1. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART SUMMARY

CHESTER WEST

Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

57.50
0Change in


Operational Transport Lou S1b Stored Energy
Cnc de n t o l l e c t o r t o E C S S S u b s y s t e m
Solar Energy Storage Operating Energ 0.23

46.71 1.67



Collected Solar Energy Solar Energy
Solar Energy to Storage frm storage

21.32 "

Transport LOSS Transport Loss
Collector to DHW Storage to 0W
| N.A. __NA
Domestic Hot
Water Solar
Energy Used
~N.A. I *
Domestic Hot
*DHWSubsystem. Water Auxiliary
Operating Energy Thermal Used

1.48 *
Domestic Hot
Water Load


Transport Loss Trnsor Lo
Collector to Stora to
Space Heating Spam Hosting
N.A. [N.A.__LSpace Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 1 5.12
Space Heating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

2.12 25.78
Space Heating
Load


Transport Lo3309 Collector to Swa to
Space Cooling, S i
N.A. N.A.

Spae Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. I N.A.
Spame Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used
N. A. N.A.

TOa Loin Space Cooling Tot Lo
Collector to LOad storage to LOads_Stioag and Loas_________16- N.A. NA


4 Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable dat 91
(1) May contribute to offset of spac heating p1ad (if known we text for discuslion)

5-6





TABLE 5-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION SUMMARY SEPTEMBER 1978 THROUGH MARCH 1979
CHESTER WEST

21.32 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%

% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM

5.12 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM 24 %

N.A.- million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM

million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT % million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. million Btu
I % STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS

.23 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE (GAINS OR LOSSES)
1 %

Denotes unavailable data 5-7 N.A. Denotes not applicable data







The solar energy coefficient of performance (COP) is indicated in Table 5-4. The COP simply provides a numerical value for the relationship of solar energy collected or transported or used and the energy required to perform the transition. The greater the COP value, the more efficient the subsystem. The solar energy system at Chester West functioned at a weighted average COP value of 2.65 for the reporting period September 1978 through November 1978. System COPs were not computable for December through March.


5.3 Subsystem Performance


The Chester West solar energy installation may be divided into three subsysteMs:


1. Collector Array and Storage
2. Domestic Hot Water (DHW)
3. Space Heating


Each subsystem is evaluated and analyzed by the techniques defined in Section 4 in order to produce the monthly performance reports. This section presents the results of integrating the monthly data available on the three subsystems for the period September 1978 through March 1979.


5.3.1 Collector Array and Storage Subsystem


5.3.1.1 Collector Array


Collector array performance for the Chester West site is presented in Table 5-5. The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the period September 1978 through March 1979 was 57.50 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was operating the total insulation amounted to 46.71 million Btu. The total collected solar energy for the period was 21.32 million Btu, resulting in a collector array efficiency of 37 percent, based on total incident insulation. The average monthly solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 2.58 million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 1.67 million Btu.


5-8












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5-9














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5-10








Collector array efficiency has been computed from two bases. The first assumes that the efficiency is based upon all available solar energy. This approach makes the operation of the control system part of array efficiency. For example, energy may be available at the collector, but the collector fluid temperature is below the control minimum; therefore, the energy is not collected. In this approach, collector array performance is described by comparing the collected solar energy to the incident solar energy. The ratio of these two energies represents the collector array efficiency which may be expressed as


nc = Qs/Qi


where: nc = collector array efficiency


Qs = collected solar energy

Qi = incident solar energy


The monthly efficiency computed by this method is listed in the column entitled "Collector Array Efficiency" in Table 5-5.


The second approach assumes the efficiency is based upon the incident solar energy during the periods of collection only.


Evaluating collector efficiency using operational incident energy and compensating for the difference between gross collector array area and the gross collector area yield operational collector efficiency. Operational collector efficiency, -nco, is computed as follows:


nco = Q /(Q Ap
s oi X A a

where: Qs = collected solar energy


Qoi = operational incident energy


5-11







A
p gross collector area (product of the number of collectors and the total envelope area of one unit)

A a gross collector array area (total area perpendicular to the solar flux vector, including all mounting, connecting and transport hardware

Note: The ratio Ap is typically 1.0 for most collector array configurations.
A
a

The monthly efficiency computed by this method is listed in the column entitled "Operational Collector Array Efficiency" in Table 5-5. This latter efficiency term is not the same as collector efficiency as represented by the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 [5]. Both operational collector efficiency and the ASHRAE collector efficiency are defined as the ratio of actual useful energy collected to solar energy incident upon the collector and both use the same definition of collector area. However, the ASHRAE efficiency is determined from instantaneous evaluation under tightly controlled, steady-state test conditions, while the operational collector efficiency is determined from the actual conditions of daily solar energy system operation. Measured monthly values of operational incident energy and computed values of operational collector efficiency are presented in Table 5-5.


5.3.1.2 Storage


Storage performance data for the Chester West site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-6. Results of analysis of solar energy losses during transport and storage are shown in Table 5-7. This table contains an evaluation of solar energy transport losses as a fraction of energy transported to subsystems.


During the reporting period, the average monthly solar energy delivered to storage was 2.58 million Btu. On the average, 1.48 million Btu of solar energy was delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems.



5-12













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5-13







TABLE 5-7. SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT.
CHESTER WEST

MONTH

SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR [TOTAL
1. SOLAR ENERGY (SE) COLLECTED
M I N US SE D I R ECTLY TO LOADS 3.46 4.27 1.85 3.80 1.99 2.21 3.74 21.32
(million Btu)

2. SE TO STORAGE 3.05 3.50 1.50 3.52 1.80 2.08 15.45
(million Btu)

3. LOSS COLLECTOR TO STORAGE M 12 18 19 7 10 6
1-2
1

4. CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY 0.14 0.12 -0.39 0.05 0.00 0.07 0.24 0.23
(million Btu)

5. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO 0.75 1.58 0.51
DHW SUBSYSTEM (million Btu)

6. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO
SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM 0.00 0.39 1.20 1.17 0.77 0.86 0.73 5.1
(million Btu)

7. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE TO
SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
(million Btu)

8. LOSS FROM STORAGE
2 (4+5+6+7) 71 40 12
2

9. HOT WATER SOLAR ENERGY (HWSE) 0.75 1.58 0.51
FROM STORAGE (million Btu)

10. LOSS STORAGE TO HWSE M N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.' N.A.
5-9
5

11. HEATING SOLAR ENERGY (HSE)
FROM STORAGE 0.00 0.39 1.20 1.17 0.77 0.86 0.73 5.12
(million Btu)

12. LOSS STORAGE TO HSE M
6-11 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
6

SM
Denotes unavailable data
N.A. Denotes not applicable data

5-14







The storage efficiency was 53 percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature for the
period was 123'F.


Storage subsystem performance is evaluated by comparison of energy to storage, energy from storage, and the change in stored energy. The ratio of the sum of energy from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy to storage is defined as storage efficiency, 9 S* This relationship is expressed in the equation


nI = (AQ +Q S)/Qs


where:


AQ = change in stored energy. This is the difference in
the estimated stored energy during the specified
reporting period, as indicated by the relative
temperature of the storage medium (either positive
or negative value)


Q energy from storage. This is the amount of energy
extracted by the load subsystem from the primary
storage medium


Qsi= energy to storage. This is the amount of energy
(both solar and auxiliary) delivered to the primary
storage medium


An effective storage heat transfer coefficient (C) for the storage subsystem can be defined as follows:


C =(Q51Q5-AQ)[ -T xt] Btu
siQo s Ts a) 6F-hr





5-15






where:


C =effective storage heat transfer coefficient


Qsi energy into storage -s energy from storage

A change in stored energy


T storage average temperature


T a average ambient temperature in the
vicinity of storage


t =number of hours in the month


5.3.2 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Subsystem, The DHW subsystem performance for the Chester West site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-8. The DHW subsystem consumed a monthly average of 0.95(l) million Btu of solar energy and 0.47 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy an average monthly hot water load of 0.46 million Btu. The average solar fraction of this load was 74(1) percent. The performance of the DHW subsystem is described by comparing the amount of solar energy supplied to the subsystem with the total energy required by the subsystem. The total energy required by the subsystem consists of both solar energy and auxiliary thermal energy. The 0KW load is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the mass of water delivered by the DHW subsystem between the temperature at which it entered the subsystem and its delivery




1Weighted average based on 3-month data: September, October, and November
(1978)

5-16















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5-17






temperature. The DHW solar fraction is defined as the portion of the DHW load which is supported by solar energy.


5.3.3 Space Heating Subsystem


The space heating subsystem performance for the Chester West site for the reporting period is shown in Table 5-9. The space heating subsystem consumed
5.12 million Btu of solar energy and 26.87 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a space heating load of 33.09 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 15 percent.


The performance of the space heating subsystem is described by comparing the amount of solar energy supplied to the subsystem with the energy required to satisfy the total space heating load. The energy required to satisfy the total load consists of both solar energy and auxiliary thermal energy. The ratio of solar energy supplied to the load to the total load is defined as the heating solar fraction.


5.4 Operating Energy


Measured values of the Chester West solar energy system and subsystem operating energy for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-10. A total of 5.27 million Btu of operating energy was consumed by the entire system during the reporting period.


Operating energy for a solar energy system is defined as the amount of electrical energy required to support the subsystems without affecting their
thermal state.


Total system operating energy for Chester West is the energy required to support the energy collection and storage subsystem (ECCS), DHW subsystem, and space heating subsystem. With reference to the system schematic (Figure 3-1), the ECCS operating energy includes pump Pl, EP100. The DHW subsystem operating energy consists of pump P2, EP300. The space heating subsystem operating energy consists of pump P3, EP400, Fan B 1 EP401, and the heat pump fan power.

55 18










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5-19




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5-20






5.5 Energy Savings,


Energy savings for the Chester West site for the reporting period are presented in Table 5-11. For this period the monthly average savings on electrical energy were 0.93(l) million Btu. An electrical energy expense of 3.31 million Btu was incurred during the reporting period for the operation of solar energy transportation pumps.


Solar energy system savings are realized whenever energy provided by the solar energy system is used to meet system demands which would otherwise be met by auxiliary energy sources. The operating energy required to provide solar energy to the load subsystems is subtracted from the solar energy contribution to determine net savings.


The auxiliary source at Chester West consists of a DHW heater (EP301), a heat pump (EP403), and electrical strip heaters (EP402). These units are considered to be 70 percent efficient for computational purposes.
























(1) Weighted average based on 3-month data: September, October and November
(1978)

5-21












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5-22







6. REFERENCES

1. U.S. Department of Energy, National Solar Data Network, prepared
under contract number EG-77-C-4049 by IBM Corporation,
December 1977.

2. J. T. Smok, V. S. Sohoni, J. M. Nash, "Processing of Instrumented
Data for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program," Conference on Performance Monitoring Techniques for
Evaluation of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, Washington, D.C.,
April 1978.

3. E. Streed, et. al., Thermal Data Requirements and Performance
Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling
Demonstration Program, NBSIR-76-1137, National Bureau of Standards,
Washington, D.C., 1976.

4. Mears, J. C. Reference Monthly Environmental Data for Systems in
the National Solar Data Network. Department of Energy report
SOLAR/0019-79/36. Washington, D.C., 1979.

5. ASHRAE Standard 93-77, Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal
Performance of Solar Collectors, The American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., New York, N.Y.,
1977.

6.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-78/09, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (September 1978).

7.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-78/1O, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (October 1978).

8.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-78/ll, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (November 1978).

9.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-78/12, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (December 1978).

10.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-79/OI, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (January 1979).

ll.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-79/02, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (February 1979).

12.# Monthly Performance Report, Chester West, SOLAR/1030-79/03, Department
of Energy, Washington, D.C., (March 1979).




# Copies of these reports may be obtained from Technical Information Center, P. 0. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.

6-1




. . ................... ............. ............. ............ ..... .................................... . ............... ............................................... ........................






APPENDIX A

DEFINITIONS OF PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND SOLAR TERMS

COLLECTOR ARRAY PERFORMANCE

The collector array performance is characterized by the amount of solar energy collected with respect to the energy available to be collected.

0 INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insulation available
on tfie gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture, including the
framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

0 OPERATIONAL INCIDENT ENERGY (SEOP) is the amount of solar energy
incident on the collector array during the time that the collector loop is active (attempting to collect energy).

0 COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY (SECA) is the thermal energy removed
from the collecfo-r array by the energy transport medium.

a COLLECTOR ARRAY EFFICIENCY (CAREF) is the ratio of the energy
collected to the total solar energy incident on the collector array. It should be emphasized that this efficiency factor is
for the collector array, and available energy includes the
energy incident on the array when the collector loop is inactive. This efficiency must not be confused with the more
common collector efficiency figures which are determined from instantaneous test data obtained during steady-state operation
of a single collector unit. These efficiency figures are often
provided by collector manufacturers or presented in technical
journals to characterize the functional capability of a particular collector design. In general, the collector panel maximum
efficiency factor will be significantly higher than the collector array efficiency reported here.

STORAGE PERFORMANCE

The storage performance is characterized by the relationships among the energy delivered to storage removed from storage, and the subsequent change in the amount of stored energy.

0 ENERGY TO STORAGE (STEI) is the amount of energy, both solar
and auxiliary, delivered to the primary storage medium.

0 ENERGY FROM STORAGE (STEO) is the amount of energy extracted
by the load subsystems from the primary storage medium.





A-1






o CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (STECH) is the difference in the estimated
stored energy during the specified reporting period, as indicated
by the relative temperature of the storage medium (either positive or negative value).

o STORAGE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (TST) is the mass-weighted average
temperature of the primary storage medium.

o STORAGE EFFICIENCY (STEFF) is the ratio of the sum of the energy
removed from storage and the change in stored energy to the
energy delivered to storage.

ENERGY COLLECTION AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM

The Energy Collection and Storage Subsystem (ECSS) is composed of the collector array, the primary storage medium, the transport loops between these, and other components in the system design which are necessary to mechanize'the collector and storage equipment.

0 INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (SEA) is the total insolation available
on the gross collector array area. This is the area of the
collector array energy-receiving aperture, including the framework which is an integral part of the collector structure.

0 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (TA) is the average temperature of the outdoor environment at the site.

0 ENERGY TO LOADS (SEL) is the total thermal energy transported
from the ECSS to all load subsystems.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY-TO ECSS (CSAUX) is the total auxiliary
energy supplied to the ECSS, including auxiliary energy added to
the storage tank, heating devices on the collectors for freezeprotection,, etc.

o ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (CSOPE) is the critical operating energy
required to support the ECSS heat transfer loops.

HOT WATER SUBSYSTEM

The hot water subsystem is characterized by a complete accounting of the energy flow into and from the subsystem, as well as an accounting of internal energy. The energy into the subsystem is composed of auxiliary fossil fuel,, and electrical auxiliary thermal energy, and the operating energy for the subsystem.
0 HOT WATER LOAD (HWL) is the amount of energy required to heat
the amount of-hot water demanded at the site from the incoming
temperature to the desired outlet temperature.




A-2






0 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HWSFR) is the percentage of the load
demand which is supported by solar energy.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HWSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the hot water subsystem.

0 OPERATING ENERGY (HWOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
required to support the subsystem,, (e.g., fans, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal state
of the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HWAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal energy in a heat transfer fluid, or its 'equivalent. This term
also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY FOSSIL FUEL (HWAF) is the amount of fossil fuel energy
supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HWSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 FOSSIL FUEL SAVINGS (HWSVF) is the estimated difference between
the fossil fuel energy requirements of the alternative conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual fossil
fuel energy requirements of the subsystem.

SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM

The space heating subsystem isIcharacterized by performance factors accounting for the complete energy flow into the subsystem. The average building temperature is tabulated to indicate the relative performance of the subsystem in satisfying the space heating load and in controlling the temperature of the conditioned space.

0 SPACE HEATING LOAD (HL) is the sensible energy added to the
air in the building.

0 SOLAR FRACTION OF LOAD (HSFR) is the fraction of the sensible
energy added to the air in the building derived from the solar
energy system.

0 SOLAR ENERGY USED (HSE) is the amount of solar energy supplied
to the space heating subsystem.





A-3






0 OPERATING ENERGY (HOPE) is the amount of electrical energy
required to support the subsystem, (e.g., fans, pumps, etc.)
and which is not intended to directly affect the thermal state
of the system.

0 AUXILIARY THERMAL USED (HAT) is the amount of energy supplied
to the major components of the subsystem in the form of thermal
energy in a heat transfer fluid or its equivalent. This term also includes the converted electrical and fossil fuel energy
supplied to the subsystem.

0 AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL FUEL (HAE) is the amount of electrical
energy supplied directly to the subsystem.

0 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (HSVE) is the estimated difference
between the electrical energy requirements of an alternative
conventional system (carrying the full load) and the actual
electrical energy required by the subsystem.

0 BUILDING TEMPERATURE (TB) is the average heated space dry bulb
temperature.





























A-4







APPENDIX B

SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS

CHESTER WEST


INTRODUCTION

Solar energy system performance is evaluated by performing energy balance calculations on the system and its major subsystems. These calculations are based on physical measurement data taken from each sensor every 320 seconds. This data is then mathematically combinedto determine the hourly, daily, and monthly performance of the system. This appendix describes the general computational methods and the specific energy balance equations used for this site.

Data samples from the system measurements are integrated to provide discrete approximations of the continuous functions which characterize the system's dynamic behavior. This integration is performed by summation of the product of the measured rate of the appropriate performance parameters and the sampling interval over the total time period of interest.

There are several general forms of integration equations which are applied to each site. These general forms are exemplified as follows: The total solar energy available to the collector array is given by

SOLAR ENERGY AVAILABLE = (1/60) Z [1001 x AREA] x AT

where I001 is the solar radiation measurement provided by the pyranometer in Btu per square foot per hour, AREA is the area of the collector array in square feet, AT is the sampling interval in minutes, and the factor (1/60) is included to correct the solar radiation "rate" to the proper units of time.

Similarly, the energy flow within a system is given typically by

COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY = E [MlOO X AHI X AT

where M100 is the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid in lb /min and AH is the enthalpy change, in Btu/Ibm, of the fluid as it passes Through the heat exchanging component.

For a liquid system AH is generally given by

AH = C AT
p
where C is the average specific heat, in Btu/(Ib -0 F), of the heat transfer fluqd and AT, in 'F, is the temperature differential across the heat exchanging component.




B-1








For an air system AH is generally given by

AH = H a (T out H a (T in)

where H (T) is the enthalpy, in Btu/lb of the transport air evaluated at the inlet and outlet temperatures oT the heat exchanging component.

H (T) can have various forms, depending on whether or not the humidity ritio of the transport air remains constant as it passes through the heat exchanging component.

For electrical power, a general example is

ECSS OPERATING ENERGY = (3413/60) E [EP100] X AT

where EP100 is the power required by electrical equipment in kilowatts and the two factors (1/60) and 3413 correct the data to Btu/min.

These equations are comparable to those specified in "Thermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program." This document was prepared by an interagency committee of the Government, and presents guidelines for thermal performance evaluation.

Performance factors are computed for each hour of the day. Each integration process, therefore, is performed over a period of one hour. Since long-term performance data is desired, it is necessary to build these hourly performance factors to daily values. This is accomplished, for energy parameters, by summing the 24 hourly values. For temperatures, the hourly values are averaged. Certain special factors, such as efficiencies, require appropriate handling to properly weight each hourly sample for the daily value computation. Similar procedures are required to convert daily values to monthly values.




















B-2







EQUATIONS USED TO GENERATE MONTHLY PERFORMANCE VALUES

NOTE: SENSOR IDENTIFICATION (MEASUREMENT) NUMBERS REFERENCE SYSTEM
SCHEMATIC FIGURE 3-1


AVERAGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (OF)

TA = (1/60) x E TOOl x AT

AVERAGE BUILDING TEMPERATURE (OF)

TB = (1/60) x T600 X AT

DAYTIME AVERAGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (OF)

TDA = (1/360) x E TOOl x AT

FOR + 3 HOURS FROM SOLAR NOON HOT WATER LOAD (BTU)

HWL = E [M301 HWD (T351,T301)] AT SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW TANK (BTU)

HWSE = z [M300 HWD (T300,T350)] AT

INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY PER SQUARE FOOT (BTU/FT2)

SE = (1/60) x E I001 X AT

INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY ON COLLECTOR ARRAY (BTU)

SEA = (1/60) x E [1001 x CLAREA] X AT OPERATIONAL INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)

SEOP = (1/60) x E [1001 x CLAREA] x AT

WHEN THE COLLECTOR LOOP IS ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED BY THE ARRAY (BTU)

SECA = 2 [MlO0 CPC(TIO0 + T150)/2 (T150 T100)] AT SOLAR ENERGY TO STORAGE

STEI = E [MlO0.* CP61 ((Tlol + T151/2) (TlOl T151)] AT




B-3







ENERGY FROM STORAGE TO DHW LOAD (BTU)

STE02 = E [M300 HWD CT300,T350) AT

ENERGY FROM STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOAD (BTU)

STEO = E [M400 HWD (T400,T450) AT

ENERGY FROM STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOAD (BTU) DEFAULT

STEOIAIR = z [M401 HRF (T451 T401)] AT

USED IN PLACE OF STEOI WHEN W400 PROVIDED INVALID DATA ENERGY FROM STORAGE (BTU)

STEO = STEOI + STE02

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF STORAGE

TST = (1/60) x Z [(T200 + T201 + T202)/3] x AT ECSS OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

CSOPE = 56.86833 x E EP100 x AT HOT WATER CONSUMED (GALLONS)

HWCSM = E W301 x AT

HOT WATER SUBSYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY (BTU)

HWOPE = 56.86833 x E EP300 x AT

HOT WATER AUXILIARY ELECTRIC ENERGY (BTU)

HWAE = 56.86833 x E EP301 x AT

SPACE HEATING OPERATING ENERGY, SOLAR AND BLOWER (BTU)

HOPEX = E [56.86833 (EP400 + EP401)] AT

WHEN IN HEATING MODE (T453 T401) > 1 HEAT PUMP FAN ELECTRICAL (BTU)

FP = 0.5 E AT

WHEN (T452 T451) > 1 AND EP403 > 0

SPACE HEATING OPERATING ENERGY, SOLAR, BLOWER AND HEAT PUMP FAN (BTU)

HOPE = HOPEX + FP

WHEN (T452 T451) > 1 AND EP403 > 0 B-4






SPACE HEATING, HEAT PUMP (BTU)
HAE1 = 56.86833 z (EP403 FP) AT
WHEN (T452 T451) > 1 AND EP403 > 0 SPACE HEATING, HEAT STRIPS (BTU)
HAE2 56.86833 E EP402 AT
SPACE HEATING, AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL ENERGY (BTU)
HAE = HAE1 + HAE2
SPACE HEATING, OPERATING ENERGY, SOLAR POWER
HOPE1 = 56.86833 E EP400 AT SERVICE HOT WATER TEMPERATURE (OF)
THW = (1/60) (T351 M301)/M301) AT
WHEN WATER IS BEING DRAWN
SERVICE SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE (OF)
TSW = (1/60) (T301 M301) AT
WHEN WATER IS BEING DRAWN
SPACE HEATING AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY (BTU)
HAT = 0.7 HAE1 + HAE2 COLLECTED SOLAR ENERGY (BTU)
SEC = SECA/CLAREA ENERGY TO STORAGE (BTU)
STEI + E M100 CP61 ((TlOl + T151)/2) (TlOl T151) AT CHANGE IN STORED ENERGY (BTU)
STECH STOCAP (RHOTSTL CPTSTL TSTL RHOTSTLP CPTSTLP TSTLP)
STOCAP EQUALS STORAGE CAPACITY. TSTL IS THE LATEST TST AND TSTLP
IS THE TST JUST PREVIOUS.




B-5







ENERGY DELIVERED TO LOAD SUBSYSTEMS FROM ECSS (BTU)

CSEO = STEO

STORING EFFICIENCY

STEFF = (STECH + STEO)/STEI ECSS SOLAR CONVERSION EFFICIENCY

CSCEF = CSEO/SEA

HOT WATER AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY (BTU)

HWAT = HWAE

HOT WATER SOLAR FRACTION

HWSFR = FRACTION OF DELIVERED HOT WATER LOAD DERIVED FROM SOLAR

SOURCES AFTER PRO-RATING STORAGE LOSSES TO SOLAR AND

AUXILIARY SOURCES

HOT WATER ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

HWSVE = HWSE HWOPE

SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING (BTU)

HSE = STE01

SPACE HEATING LOAD, HEAT PUMP (BTU)

HLHP = E M401 HRF (T452 T451) A

WHEN (T452 T451) > 1 AND EP403 > 0 SPACE HEATING LOAD (BTU)

HL = HLHP + HAE2 + HSE

SPACE HEATING SYSTEM ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS (BTU)

HSVE = (HSE/HPFRAC HPCOPH + (1 HPFRAC))) HOPE SYSTEM LOAD

SYSL = HL + HWL





B-6







SOLAR ENERGY TO LOAD

SEL = STEO

SPACE HEATING SOLAR FRACTION

HSFR = 100 x (HSE/HL)

SOLAR FRACTION OF SYSTEM LOAD

SFR = (HL x HSFR + HWL x HWSFR)/SYSL AUXILIARY THERMAL ENERGY TO LOADS

AXT = HWAT + HAT

AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO LOADS

AXE = HAE + HWAE SYSTEM OPERATING ENERGY

SYSOPE = HWOPE + HOPE + CSOPE TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMED

TECSM = SYSOPE + AXE + SECA TOTAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS

TSVE = HWSVE + HSVE CSOPE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FACTOR

SYSPF = SYSL/((AXE + SYSOPE) x 3.33)


















B-7










APPENDIX C

LONG-TERM AVERAGE WEATHER CONDITIONS


This appendix contains a table which lists the long-term average weather conditions for each month of the year for this site.












































C-1















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0-4 25 o o4 ca ac 04 .4 0 w u 0 w
0 do u *4 -4 3c n n .4 (n 0 w















C-2






APPENDIX D

MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHARTS


The flowcharts in this appendix depict the quantity of solar energy corresponding to each major component or characteristic of the Chester West solar energy system for 7 months of the reporting period. Each monthly flowchart represents a solar energy balance as the total input equals the total output.











































D-1








FIGURE D-1.- SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART SEPTEMBER 1978

CHESTER WEST

Inidn Sola Energy
Sola EnrgyStorage Lous

8.68 2.16

Change in

OpraioalTransport Loss Stared Energy
LIn"cidentColcotoOeaigq.*g 01
Solar Energ y Storage 7.460.102



ColletdSoa EegySlafneg







3.46N.05 0.75

CDollectotem Wate Auxiliaryto
N.A.ain Enr.ATema.Ue


Domestic Hot
Water Load




N.. 07
Dspac Ht


DSubsystem Wa Auxiliaryra O eaigEnergy TsermlUe

L0.33III 0.0
Dspac Ht
WrLoad


Transport Loss(1 0.03TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
--- Space CoatingSpcHetn

N.A. I___ _No_
Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used



ScooHeaing Space Cooling Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used




0.0.
Traorta Lo Trnpr Lolig[ o ssCollector to Loadag toLod
Soace a4-nd Loaeds>oin
0.1NA. EN.



NA. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ NA Ieoe noN.Aialedt



(I Mycotrb Te o -tosa ce heain Ia Spif Conown Toa Lou tetfrdicsin
Colectr o Lad toageto-os









FIGURE D-2. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART OCTOBER 1978

CHESTER WEST


Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

12.99 14

change in
1(1) Stored Energy
Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
Solardenerg Soltore
Solardey Coetora to Operating Energy 0.1

11.37 0.77 0.32



Collected Solar Energy Solar Energy
Solar Energy to- &wagg~5 f rom Storage

4.27 3.50 19

Transport Loss TasotLs
'Collector to OHWStrgtoD


N.A ~Domnestic Hot NA
Water Solar
Energy Used
N.A. 11.58
Domestic Hot
1OHW Subsystern Water Auxiliary
pe riEnergy Thermal Used



Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport Loss 02 rnpr os
Collector to Soaet
---Space HeatingSpcHetn

N. A. N.___A.._Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 10. 39
Spac HeaingSpace Heating ISubsystem I Auxiliary Thermal
OeaigEnergy Used

0.01jjj 0.03
Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss (14)Taspr Ls Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcColn N. A. N.A.____Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used



Fge Colin Space Cooling
SubsystemAuiirThma Operating Energy UxiryTera

(1 N[... N.A.
Total Loss -Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Storage and Loads

0.7 N.A. N.A.

SDenotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data S0
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating ,pad (if known see text for discussion) D-3







rilUL U-J. bULAK LERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART NOVEMBER 1978 CHESTER WEST

incident Storg Loss
Solar Energy

7.82 0.18

Orange in
(1) Stored Energy
Operational Transport LouS ECSS Subsystem
IncidentcolcotoOeaigEeg-0 3
Soilar Energy StoreOeaigEeg

4.180.504



ColctedtoSoaefo Sorg

SolarEnery











Domestic Hot
Water Lolad

(1A.) 0.

Coleto tossemW trAuiir


OperatiSola EnrgT ergy Used N.18 .20
Heatingmspa c Heat Enerter Used





Transport Loss (1)0.4TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
Space CoolingSpcHetn

N.A. N.__ _A,._Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. N .20
Space Cooling Space Cooling Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used




Traorta Lo 2.3 TrCooping Loss
Collector to LodIStorage to Laa .
Soage aon Loadsoo ig
0.5 N.A. L~~J

Denotesa Unavalabl Uata
N.A. ~ ~ ~~ NA deoe noN.picblAat.

4)Maycotriut toofsetofspae eatng p ratif g kno nse efrg discusin N. A DN.A







FIGURE D-4. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART DECEMBER 1978

CHESTER WEST


Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

8.01

I Changein
Operational Transport Loss (1), Stored Energy
ECSS Subsystem
Incident Collector to Operating Energy 0.05
Solar Energy Storage

7.15 0.28 1 0.22 1


Collected Solar Energy Solar Energy
Solar Energy to Storage from Storage

3.80 3.52

Transport Loss Transport Loss
Collector to DHW Storage to DHW

N.A. N.A.
Domestic Hot
Water Solar
Energy Used

N.A. I *
Domestic Hot
DHW Subsystem Water Auxiliary
Operating Energy Thermal Used

0.18 0.46
Domestic Hot
Water Load


Transport Loss Transport Los7
Collector to Storage to
a- Space Heating Space Heating

N.A. N.A.
Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 1 .1.7
Space Heating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

0.51 4.98

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 6.05 Transport Loss
Collector to Storage to
Space Cooling Space Cooling

N. A. N.A.

Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. I N.A.
Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Aux i I iary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

N. A. N. A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Storage and Loads

0.28 N.A. N.A.

Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data S002
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipad (if known see text for discussion) D-5









FIGURE D-5. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART JANUARY 1979 CHESTER WEST


Incident Solar Energy
Solar Energy Storage Losses

5.08*

OperaionalTranportaonse in
TranportLOUStored Energ incident Cletrt
Solar Energy Storage Operating Energyv .

4.010.90 61



~ollr~edSla nr oa Eeg








Domestic Hot



DHW Subsystem Water Auxiliary

Operating Energy Thermal Used








Transport LOSSTrnptLo
Collector to Soaet
--Space HeatingSpcHetn

-N.A. N.A.____Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

-N.A. 10.77
SpceHetig Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
OeaigEnergy Used

0.80 10.81
Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 13.39 TasotLs
Collector to Soaet
SpmCoigSpace Cooling



Space Cooling
___________________________ Soar Energy Used

N.A. IN.A.
Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

[ .A. N.A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Lous
Collector to Load IStorage to Loadls
Stopg and Loaids

0ft. 19 1N...A
9Denotes Unavailabl Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data o
(1 May contribute to offset of space heating Ipd(if known see text for discussion) D-6









FIGURE D-6. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART FEBRUARY 1979

CHESTER WEST


Solar Energy
Incident Storage Losses
Solar Energy

5.46

Changing
Stored Energy
Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
Incident Collector to Operating Energy 0.07
Solar Energy Storage

4.37 0.13 1 0.16



Solar Energy Solar Energy
Collected to Storage from Storage
Solar Energy

2.21 2.08

Transport Loss Transport Loss
Collector to DHW Storage to DHW

N. A. N. A.
Domestic Hot
Water Solar
Energy Used

N.A. I
Domestic Hot
DHW Subsystem Water Auxiliary
Operating Energy Thermal Used

0.17 0-52

Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport Loss 0.33 Transport Los;Collector to Storage to
Space Heating Space Heating

N.A. N.A.

Space Heating
Solar Energy Used

N.A. 1 0.86
Space Heating Space Heating
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

0.49 7.88

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 8.63 Transport Loss
Collector to Storage to
Space Cooling Space Cooling

N. A. N.A.

Space Cooling
Solar Energy Used

N.A. I N.A.
Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
Operating Energy Used

N.A. N. A.
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Storage and Loads
0. 1 N.A. N.A.

Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data SIMI
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating Ipad (if known see text for discussion) D-7










FIGURE D-7. SOLAR ENERGY (MILLION BTU) DISTRIBUTION FLOWCHART MARCH 1979 CHESTER WEST


u-dentSolar Energy iar iEnerg Storae Losses



9 .46Change in
1 11 Stored Energy
Operational Transport Loss ECSS Subsystem
locident collector to Operating Energy 0. 24

8.17 0.40



f.lecied Solar Energy Solar Energy
uarEnergy to Storage from Storag




Transport LosTransport Loss


N. A. .A.
Domestic Hot
Water Solar
Energy Used

N.A.iZ~
Domestic Hot
DWSubsystem Water Auxiliary
OeaigEnergy Thermal Used

0.09 1.15

Domestic Hot
Water Load



Transport LossTrnptLo;
Collector to Soaet


Space Heating


Solar Energy Used

N.A. 10 .73
Spac Heting1 Space Heating
ISubsystem I Auxiliary Thermal
~Operating Energyj Used

0.18 1.22

Space Heating
Load


Transport Loss 2.0Taspr os
Collector to Soaet
SSpace Cooling SSpace Cooling


Woar Energy Used



Space Cooling Space Cooling
Subsystem Auxiliary Thermal
ratingg EnergyJ Used

N.A. NII]AN
Total Loss Space Cooling Total Loss
Collector to Load Storage to Loads
Stcftage and Loads ________*N.A.NA

Denotes Unavailable Data
N.A. denotes not applicable data gg
(1) May contribute to offset of space heating lpad (if known see text for discussion) D-8







APPENDIX E

MONTHLY SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS The data tables provided in this appendix present an indication of solar energy distribution, intentional and unintentional, in the Chester West solar energy system. Tables are provided for 7 months of the reporting period.












































E-1







iABLE E-1. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION SEPTEMBER 1978
CHESTER WEST

3.46 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

0.75 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
22%

0.75 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
22%

0.0 %, million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM


N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM

2.57 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
747

2.16 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
62%

0.41 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
12%

0.41 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 12%

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. 0/ million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. C/ million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS
/0

N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


.0.14 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
4%

Denotes not applicable data E-2







TABLE E-2. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OCTOBER 1978
CHESTER WEST

4.27 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%
1.97 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
46%

1.58 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM
37-%

0-391 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
9%

N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


2.18 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
51%

1.41 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE 33%

0.77 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
1

0.77 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 18%

N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS

N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS

N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.12 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
3%

N.A. Denotes not applicable data E-3






TABLE E-3. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NOVEMBER 1978
Chester West
1.85 million Btu TOTAL SOLAP ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

1.71 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
92%

0.51 million Btu
SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM 27%

1.20 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
65%

N.A. million Btu
% SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM

0.53 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
29%

0.18 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE
10%

0.35 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
19%

0.35 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 19%

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A. 0, 7 million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


N.A. % million B"t.u STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS


N.A.- million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


-0.39 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
-21%

Denotes not applicable data E-4






TABLE E-4. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION DECEMBER 1978
CHESTER WEST

3.80 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED
100%


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM


1.17 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
31%

N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE


0.28 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
7%


% million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS % milli-on Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS % million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS G-05 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
1%

Denotes unavailable data E-5





TABLE E-5. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION JANUARY 1979
CHESTER WEST

1.99 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM


0.77 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
39%

N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES
% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE


0.19 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT
10%

0.19 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS
9%

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. Tmillion Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS
/0

N.A. million Btu
% COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS

N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS


N.A. million Btu
% STORAGE TO DHW LOSS

N.A. million Btu
% STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS

N.A. million Btu
% STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS

0.0 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
M 0%

Denotes unavailable data E-6





TABLE E-6. SOLAR ENERGY DISTkIBUTION FEBRUARY 1979 CHESTER WEST
2.21 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS

%million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM


0.86 million B~tuSOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
39%

N.A. %million BtuSOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE

0.13 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT 6%

0.13 million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS 6%

N.A. %million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A.- million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS N.A. %million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS

N.A. Million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A.- million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.07 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE
3%
Denotes unavailable data E-7 N.A. Denotes not applicable data





TABLE E-7. SOLAR ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MARCH 1979
CHESTER WEST

3.74 million Btu TOTAL SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTED 100%

% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO LOADS
% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO DHW SUBSYSTEM


0.73 million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE HEATING SUBSYSTEM
20%

N.A. % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY TO SPACE COOLING SUBSYSTEM


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES


% million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS FROM STORAGE % million Btu SOLAR ENERGY LOSS IN TRANSPORT % million Btu COLLECTOR TO STORAGE LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO DHW LOSS N.A. % million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N-q- million Btu COLLECTOR TO SPACE COOLING LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO LOAD LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO DHW LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE HEATING LOSS N.A. % million Btu STORAGE TO SPACE COOLING LOSS


0.24 million Btu
SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHANGE 6%

Denotes unavailable data E-8 N.A. Denotes not applicable data












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 05391 1870