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UNIV. OF FL LIB.
JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 30, 1966
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
MADISON. WISCONSIN 53705
- -C 1
Chemistry of Wood and
Glues, Glued Stock, Plyn
and Veneer. .....
Paints and Finishes...
Timber Mechanics ...
Wood Fiber Products..
Wood in Construction..
. S .S S S SU. @.
. S Se. SS.
. S S U S S S
. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
* S S 5 5 5 5 S
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U U S U S S S S S
Wood Structure and Growth Conditions ...
Miscellaneous . ..... .
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 30, 1966
In this semiannual list of publications, items
marked with a number are available free at the
Forest Products Laboratory while the supply
lasts. To request publications simply circle the
appropriate number on the back cover of this list,
detach, and mail to the Laboratory. Blanket
requests for publications cannot be filled.
Publications marked with an asterisk (*) are
not available at the Forest Products Laboratory.
They may, however, be consulted at most public
and college libraries. Reports of slight interest
to the layman are listed under the caption "Highly
Chemistry of Wood and Derived Products
The alkaline decomposition of 2,3,4-tri-0-
methyl-D-glucose and 2-0-methyl-
cellobiose, by Bengt Lindberg,
Olof Theander, and Milton S. Feather. Acta
Chem. Scand. 20(1966) No. 1, 206-210.
The synthesis of 4-0-( -D-glucopyrano-
cellobiose) is described. This substance
and 2,3,4-tri-0-met h yl-D-g 1 ucose were
found to readily decompose to acidic mate-
rial in oxygen-free alkali at 100.
Biological polymers relatedto catechol: Elec-
tron paramagnetic resonance and infrared
studies of melanin, tannin, lignin, humic
acid, and hydroxyquinones, byGordonTollin
and C. Steelink. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 112:
The four classes of naturally occurring
macromolecules all contain stable-free rad-
ical moieties, show marked but reversible
increase in spin content when converted to
their sodium salts, and show infrared
absorption bands consistent with hydroxy-
1. Dimensional stabilization of hardboard by
acetylation, by L. O. Klinga and H. Tarkow.
Tappi 49(1): 23-27, Jan. 1966.
Hardboards derived from Asplund-type
pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride
vapor. At 10 percent acetyl content and
between 65 and 100 percent relative humid-
ity, such boards swell about half of that of
the control in the thickness and within the
plane direction. There is no loss in tensile
2. Hydrolysis of aspenwood xylan with aqueous
solutions of hydrochloric acid, by
Edward L. Springer. Tappi 49(3): 102-106,
The influence of hydrochloric acid con-
centration and temperature on rate of re-
moval of xylan from finely divided aspen
wood was studied. Initial removal data fit a
first-order rate equation. The rate con-
stants were correlated with the Hammett
acidity function and their temperature de-
pendency described by the Arrhenius equa-
3. Influence of sodium xylenesulfonate on the
yield of furfural from aqueous acidified
xylose solutions, by John M. Smuk and
Lawrence L. Zoch, Jr. Tappi 49(2): 90-91,
Although rate of furfural formation was
increased by the presence of the salt, the
maximum yield was not changed. Under all
conditions of salt and acid concentration
investigated, it was found that yield was
dependent only upon the amount of xylose
4. Pilot plant glycerol production with a slow-
feed osmophilic yeast fermentation, by
D. K. Button, J. C. Garver, and G. J. Hajny.
Appl. Microbiol. 14(2): 292-294, Mar. 1966.
A slow-feed glycerol fermentation is des-
cribed. Cell growth was limited by phos-
phate, a deficiency required for glycerol
production. The conversion efficiency was
approximately 1 mole of glycerol produced
per mole of glucose utilized after the cell
growth phase. Concentrations of glycerol of
17 percent were attained inthefermentator.
5. Rate of D-xylose degradation in hydrochloric
acid-sodium chloride-water solutions, by
J. M. Smuk, J. F. Harris, and L. L. Zoch.
J. Phys. Chem. 70(1): 71-77, Jan. 1966.
Aqueous solutions of xylose-hydrochloric
acid-sodium chloride were investigated,
using temperatures ranging from 1200 to
1500 C., for rate of xylose degradation.
Sodium chloride was found to have no cata-
lytic effect but produced a primary salt
effect which was uniquely determined by the
total stoichiometric ionic strength.
*Not available at FPL.
6. The resistance of hemicelluloses in wood
fiber to degradation by ozone, by
W. E. Moore, Marilyn Effland, and
Sinha Biswajit, M. P. Burdick, and
Conrad Schuerch. Tappi 49(5): 206-209,
Extensive degradation of wood shavings
by ozone and oxygen in cold water, under
a variety of conditions, demonstrated that
there is an intimate interpenetration of
different polysaccharides within the ordered
regions of the native plant cell and that the
interpenetration is not an artifact of chem-
* A solid phenoxy radical from disyringyl-
methane--a model for lignin radicals, by
C. Steelink and R. E. Hansen. Tetrahedron
Lett. No. 1: 105-111, 1966.
The oxidation of disyringylmethane gives
a purple solid free radical tentatively iden-
tified structurally and named syrinoxyl. The
precursor and radical are of interest to
lignin chemists, since they both have been
proposed as structural elements in hard-
wood lignins and the syrinoxyl may be
responsible for part of the paramagnetism
of such lignins.
7. Spreader for the preparation of uniform
plates for thin-layer chromatography, by
W. E. Moore and M. J. Effland. U.S. Forest
Serv. Res. Note FPL-0119, 5pp., Feb. 1966.
A spreader is described that produces
smooth thin layers that are uniform in thick-
ness from glass plates that differ greatly
in thickness. The spreader is easy to use,
clean, and maintain. For a deposited layer
of 0.006 inch, the standard deviation for the
thickness was 0.00014 inch.
8. Performance of round and fluted nails in wood
joints, by J. A. Scholten and D. V. Doyle.
Wire and Wire Products 6(5): 723-724, 726-
727, 794-795, May 1966.
Round wire nails and longitudinally fluted
nails were subjected to lateral load in two-
member joints of dry Douglas-fir lumber.
The longitudinally fluted nails sustained
about one-fourth more lateral load than
round nails of the same cross-sectional
area at joint distortions up to 0.10 inch.
9. Light-transmitting and light-scattering prop-
erties of smoke, by Gene L. Wampfler.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0137,
30 pp., June 1966.
A literature survey was made to deter-
mine what is known about light transmission
and light scattering in smoke systems and
the optical methods which might be used
to measure smoke density. In preliminary
experimental work an apparatus was de-
vised, and certain optical measurements
were made on an ammonium chloride smoke.
10. List of publications on fire performance, by
*Not available at FPL.
Forest Products Laboratory. 5 pp., June
Contents indicated by title.
Glues, Glued Stock, Plywood, and Veneer
11. Preliminary study of the gluing of ammonium
salt-treated wood with resorcinol-resin
glues, by R. E. Schaeffer. U.S. Forest
Serv. Res. Note FPL-0112, 9 pp., Jan. 1966.
Shear strength evaluations were made on
birch veneer lap-joint specimens and south-
ern pine block-shear specimens. Ammonium
salt-treated wood showed lower joint
strength and lower percentages of wood
failure than untreated wood.
Twenty years of service prove durability of
pressure-treated glulam bridge timbers, by
M. L. Selbo, A. C. Knauss, and H. E. Worth.
Wood Pres. News 44(3): 5-16 (Part I):
Part II, 44(4): 10-14.
Reports on 12 laminated bridges in serv-
ice from 6 to 20 years. Douglas-fir and
southern pine timbers laminated with resor-
cinol and phenol-resorcinol adhesives,
treated with oil-borne preservatives, were
excellent. Timbers in one bridge glued
from wood treated with water-borne pre-
servatives showed checking and delamina-
12. Chemical interaction of ammonium salt fire
retardants and resorcinol-resin adhesives,
by R. E. Schaeffer, R. H. Gillespie, and
R. F. Blomquist. Forest Prod. Jour. 16(5):
23-30, May 1966.
Effects of ammonium-salt fire-retardant
chemicals on the pH and gelation rate of
resorcinol-resin adhesives were attributed
to ammonium ion-formaldehyde interaction.
Undesirable reactions were initiated when
ammonium ions dissociated. Acidity of the
adhesive increased while rate of gelation
increased. Some initial reaction products
of the ammonia-formaldehyde reactions
caused rapid gelation of the adhesive.
13. Hardwood log grades for standard lumber, by
C. L. Vaughan, A. C. Wollin, K. A. McDonald,
and E. H. Bulgrin. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 63, 52 pp., June 1966.
Official U.S. Forest Service Hardwood
Log Grades for Standard Lumber are des-
cribed, and tables of expected yields of
standard factory grade lumber are pre-
sented by species, log grade, and log diam-
eter. Report supersedes the previous Forest
Products Laboratory report on hardwood
log grading (No. 1737).
14. Veneer yields from Lake States quaking
aspen, by E. H. Bulgrin, K. A. McDonald,
and C. L. Vaughan. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 59, 8 pp., May 1966.
Provides yield in square feet (3/8-inch
basis) of veneer suitable for a C-D grade,
*Not available at FPL..
five-ply sheathing product from quaking
aspen logs from an area of the Lake States.
Average yields by diameter, per bolt, per
cord, and per 1,000-board-foot Scribner
Decimal C log scale are reported.
15. Some machining properties of two wood
species grown in Hawaii--molucca albizzia
and nepal alder, by C. C. Peters and
J. F. Lutz. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note
FPL-0117, 17 pp., Feb. 1966.
The results of planing, shaping, turning,
boring, and mortising tests on specimens of
molucca albizzia and nepal alder, grown in
Hawaii, are presented and their machining
properties are compared with those of
several Mainland hardwoods of about the
same specific gravity.
16. Effect of loading rate on the edgewise com-
pressive strength of corrugated fiberboard,
by R. C. Moody and J. W. Koning, Jr.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0121,
11 pp., Apr. 1966.
Presents the effect of loading rate on the
edgewise compressive strength of A-, B-,
and C-flute corrugated fiberboard. Results
indicate that as the loading rate increases,
the edgewise compressive strength parallel
to the flutes also increases, averaging
approximately 7.5 percent for each tenfold
increase in loading rate.
17. Fiberneer... development, production, and
evaluation, by R. S. Kurtenacker. U.S.
Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 52, 28 pp.,
Discusses a new packaging material,
Fiberneer, which is a combination of thin
wood veneer and conventional paperboard
corrugated box components.
18. Forest Products Laboratory list of publica-
tions on box and crate construction and
packaging data. 26 pp., Jan. 1966.
Contents indicated by title.
Paints and Finishes
19. Effect of atmospheric gases on color changes
in wood exposed to ultraviolet light, by
Eugene M. Wengert. Jour. of Paint Tech.
38(493): 71-76, Feb. 1966.
The relationship between color changes
in wood and the gases that are present is
explored. Redwood and birch darkened dur-
ing the first hours of exposure to air,
nitrogen, or argon. After initial darkening,
samples exposed in oxygen and air then
became lighter. Samples exposed to nitro-
gen and argon continued to darken.
Your best paint buys, by Glenn D. Barquest
and John M. Black. Hoard's Dairyman 111
(12): 755, June 25, 1966.
Penetrating stains which will not blister
*Not available at FPL.
or peel even if moisture gets into wood are
described and recommended for use on
farm structures made of rough, weathered,
or low-grade lumber. Recommendations are
also given on types of paint to be used for
successful painting of wood.
20. Parameters for predicting maximum surface
temperatures of wood in exterior exposures,
by E. M. Wengert. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 62, 16 pp., May 1966.
Maximum surface temperatures of wood
are related to atmospheric climatic condi-
tions in terms of an energy balance. Infor-
mation is presented in the form of tables,
maps, and diagrams that can be used to
predict maximum surface temperatures
quickly and with reasonable accuracy.
21. Surface characteristics of wood as they affect
durability of finishes. U.S. Forest Serv.
Res. Paper FPL 57, 60 pp., Mar. 1966.
Pt. I.--Surface stabilization, by H. Tarkow,
C. F. Southerland, and R. M. Seborg,
pp. 1-22. Pt. II--Photochemical degrada-
tion of wood, by M. A. Kalnins, pp. 23-60.
Surface stabilization was examined as a
means for reducing strains to coatings that
are caused by movement of the wood under-
neath. Changes in the chemical properties
of wood were noted after exposure to ultra-
violet light. Volatile degradation products,
formed as a result of irradiation, were
used to study various aspects of the photo-
I 22. Operation and maintenance of lumber dry
Skills. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-
0118, 13 pp., Feb. 1966.
The efficient operation of lumber dry
kilns depends upon regular inspections,
regular servicing, and periodic overhaul.
The report provides a checklist that will
aid the dry kiln operator in planning a
23. Theoretical considerations in the drying of
wood at pressures above atmospheric, by
R. A. Hann. Forest Prod. Jour. 16(4):
25-32, Apr. 1966.
I Fundamentals involved in drying wood at
high temperatures are presented as a step
in the development of a more rapid drying
process. Results indicate that at atmos-
pheric conditions drying is characterized
by three distinct stages of drying, while at
Pressures above atmospheric only two
stages are involved.
24. Physical and mechanical properties of
Molucca albizzia grown in Hawaii, by
*Not available at FPL.
C. C. Gerhards. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 55, 9 pp., Mar. 1966.
Presents the physical and mechanical
properties of Molucca albizzia grown in
Hawaii. The species is light in weight,
moderately weak in bending and compressive
strength, moderately soft and moderately
limber, but somewhat above average in
those properties for its density. Its shrink-
age is about normal for its density.
25. Strength and related properties of a randomly
selected sample of second-growth redwood,
by B. A. Bendtsen. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 53, 16 pp., Feb. 1966.
Mechanical properties, obtained from an
evaluation of randomly selected material,
were generally substantially higher than
previously reported for open-grown second-
growth material but comparable to the
properties of close-grown material. Most
mechanical properties were lower than
those of virgin material, while shrinkage
characteristics were essentially the same.
26. Effect of size on the bending strength of
wood members, by Billy Bohannan. U.S.
Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 56, 32 pp.,
A size-strength relationship for the bend-
ing strength of wood beams developed from
a statistical strength theory shows that the
modulus of rupture is dependent upon length,
depth, and method of loading of a beam, but
is independent of beam width.
27. Sorption and swelling characteristics of salt-
treated wood, by B. A. Bendtsen. U.S. Forest
Serv. Res. Paper FPL 60, 44 pp., May 1966.
Investigations showed that swelling was
greater in chemically treated ponderosa pine
and red oak than in matching specimens of
untreated wood. Wood treated with ammo-
nium sulfate, -sodium chloride or zinc chlo-
ride showed increased equilibrium moisture
content values. Equilibrium moisture con-
tent was not affected by two phosphate salts
and was believed affected only temporarily
by borax and boric acid.
28. Stress distribution in an orthotropic half-
plane subjected to concentrated load, by
A. C. Maki. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 54, 11 pp., Feb. 1966.
Mathematical expressions are derived
for the stress distribution in wood subjected
to a concentrated load. The orthotropic
nature of wood was taken into account in the
derivation. The analysis was also used to
determine the stress distribution in an
orthotropic wedge subjected to a concen-
trated load at its vertex.
Wood Fiber Products
Future demand creates new markets for the
paper industry, by Vance C. Setterholm.
Tech. Papers of the Amer. PulpwoodAssoc.
14-16, Jan. 1966.
Discusses new products, their innovation,
and design; presents statistical review of
past, present, and probable future trends in
*Not available at FPL.
29. How expander rolls widen and improve sheet
properties, by Warren A. Chilson. Amer.
Paper Ind. 48(3): 76-78, Mar. 1966.
Discusses expander roll functions, loca-
tions, and precautions in installation,
machine operation, and use in various
locations of the paper machine to obtain
30. How surface applications of starch affect
hardwood-softwood papers, by
Warren A. Chilson and D. J. Fahey. Amer.
Paper Ind. 48(3): 81-92, Mar. 1966.
In applications of completely cooked
starch to the surface of papers, the effects
of sheet moisture, certain size press and
starch variables are shown on (1) the amount
of starch added, (2) the distribution of
starch, and (3) the properties of the final
Wood in Construction
31. Influence of component variables on prop-
erties of particleboard for exterior use,
by C. J. Gatchell, B. G. Heebink, and
F. V. Hefty. Forest Prod. Jour. 16(4): 46-59,
An exploratory study of exterior-type
particleboard to evaluate the influence of
the major component variables, such as
wood, particle geometry, resin, wax, tem-
perature, and compression, on end-use
32. Paneling and flooring from low-grade hard-
wood logs, by B. G. Heebink and
K. C. Compton. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Note FPL-0122, 24 pp., Mar. 1966.
From small, low-grade hardwood logs,
the Forest Products Laboratory has devel-
oped an experimental wall paneling that is
equally suitable for flooring. Short cutoffs
of the panel material can also be utilized
as parquet block flooring. One of the keys
is packaging this material in standard-
33. Reaction of unbalanced panel construction to
slow and rapid changes in relative humidity,
by B. G. Heebink. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Note FPL-0116, 9 pp., Jan. 1966.
A commercial decorative laminate, the
recommended backing sheet, and aparticle-
board core were conditioned and assembled
to form several panel constructions. The
panels were further conditioned and strips
were cut from each and subjected to imme-
diate and gradual humidity changes.
34. Wood floors of the future, by L. 0. Anderson.
Building Research, May-June 1966, pp.
Future trend in wood floors is toward
thin stable sections used in veneer form or
on a backing. New adhesives and finishes
and new drying and treating methods help
to reduce costs. Prefinished sections in 12-
and 16-inch widths and 12-foot lengths will
reduce on-site labor costs.
*Not available at FPL.
Performance of treated oak crossties, by
J. O. Blew. Cross Tie Bull. 47(3): 7-20,
For more than 50 years nearly 50 percent
of crosstie requirements in the U.S. have
been filled by the oaks. The oaks are
commonly mixed, but all species have
favorable strength properties, and when
preservative treated in accordance with
recognized standards have given good serv-
ice--in many cases showing an average
life of from 30 to 50 years.
Preservative treated slats after 5 years'
exposure in a cooling tower, by
R. H. Baechler, B. Alan Bendtsen, and
H. G. Roth. Heating, Piping and Air Condi-
tioning 38(4): 121-123, Apr. 1966.
After 5 years' exposure in a cooling
tower, untreated slats showed an appreci-
able loss of toughness while treated slats
showed some loss. Creosote and penta-
chlorophenol reduced this loss as compared
with four waterborne preservatives. Chem-
ical analyses showed that with some excep-
tions, more than half of the original pre-
servative was retained.
Wood Structure and Growth Conditions
35. Better quality studs by FPL improved sawing
method, by Hiram Hallock. South. Lbrman.
212(2638): 17-19, Apr. 1, 1966.
A study to evaluate the relation of sawing
methods, log diameter, juvenile core diam-
eter, log position in the tree, presence of
compression wood, log eccentricity, and
position of the stud in the log to warp in
2 by 4 studs sawn from small loblolly pine
36. Estimating tree specific gravity of Maine
conifers, by Harold E. Wahlgren,
Arthur C. Hart, and Robert R. Maeglin.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 61,
25 pp., Apr. 1966.
To use the specific gravity of a breast
height increment core in estimating the
specific gravity of the merchantable por-
tions of a tree, regression equations were
developed for eight coniferous species in
Maine. The trend in specific gravity with
height in stem is shown--each species
exhibiting a characteristic pattern.
37. Framework of qualitative relationships in
wood utilization, by George H. Englerth.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 45,
17 pp., Jan. 1966.
Provides a guide to evaluate the technical
aspects of timber quality. Tree and wood
characteristics are discussed in relation-
ship to end use and processing require-
ments, and the role that environment, silvi-
culture, biological agents, harvesting, and
processing exert on these characteristics.
38. Growth stresses and lumber warp in loblolly
pine, by Hiram Hallock. Forest Prod. Jour.
16(2): 48-52, Feb. 1966.
*Not available at FPL.
Reports the relation of several factors,
including longitudinal growth stresses, on
the final warp of 2- by 4-inch studs from
small loblolly pine. Discusses findings on
the occurrence and magnitude of bothlongi-
tudinal compression and tension growth
stresses and their relation to dry warp in
39. Methods for estimating specific gravity of
logs, by Dimitri Pronin. U.S. Forest Serv.
Res. Note FPL-0110, 9 pp., Jan. 1966.
A study and comparison of log specific
gravity estimates obtained by some of the
more common procedures with the actual
specific gravity values determined by 100
percent measurement. The comparison is
made for both total wood and for clear
Saw blade for cutting logs by Hiram Hallock.
Patent No. 3,229,736. Jan 18, 1966.
40. A hand instrument for evaluating wood by
compression, by L. H. Reineke and
C. N. Davis. Forest Prod. Jour. 16(5):
15-18, May 1966.
Describes a hand-operated compression
test instrument developed to estimate wood
strength in trees and logs. It uses common
increment cores as test specimens. A
pliers-like instrument, it measures com-
pression parallel to the grain directly from
an integrated dial gage. The instrument has
use for nondestructively selecting material.
* A researching look at Appalachian hardwoods,
by Robert L. Youngs. Appalachian Hardwood
Yearbook, 1966, pp. 8-13.
A talk presented to the Appalachian Hard-
wood Manufacturers, Inc., Jan. 1966. Dis-
cusses research being conducted by the
Forest Products Laboratory on hardwoods
and relates the problems and results to the
economics of the wood industries in the
The FOREST SERVICE of the
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Is dedicated to the principle of mul-
tiple use management of the Nation's
forest resources for sustained yields
of wood, water, forage, wildlife, and
recreation. Through forestry research,
cooperation with the States and private
forest owners, and management of
the National Forests and National
Grasslands, it strives as directed
by Congress to provide Increasingly
greater service to a growing Nation.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Forest Products Laboratory
Madison, Wisconsin 53705
Information and Publication Services
U.S. Forest Products Laboratory
Madison, Wisconsin 53705
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