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Issued September, 1928
ARTMNT OF AGRICULTURE
DWOM of..AiCuftul's Eonomics
P WxrTIVEw SEPTEMBERM 1,196
La NITV SVATES
gaggger PRI~lNTIN OFFICR
.Forew ord -.. .. .X ','.-',.--.. ...- .. -- 3
Classes of Soy "beans 6
G ra :--.. -.." ':.. ",, -
Application of U. S. Soybean Standards --.. .- -
Federal Soybean Inspection Service -- ... 13
:. ::. :. .. ii
Qualifications of inspectorsNTENTS .. .
IMethods of inspection ----- _- -
ForMethods of sampling. 3------- -------- .
Soybean triers (probes) "-"-':'--
DefinitioAppeal inspection ----------------------
WhoGrade requceives certificates s-------------------- ---- --.. .7
Class designations --------------- -... ..
Application of U. S. Soybean Standards ..
Federal Soybean Inspection Service il
N : '
".Qualifications of inspectors--- --- ____ _____.__ _: .: _,
Methods ofti inspection 1.. -", 6.
Methods of sampling------------------------- --16 *.*
Classes of Soy beans_ (probes) -__ -_ --__ __ __i__-, '"
WhImportant feature receives certiof U. S. Soybean St-------- ds:---.-:----; : 9:
Grades a-8-_ .. i ::!::: :::
Grading factors_btai _eo -:_:..o--," :, :21 ';0 S
Application of U. S. Soybean Standards_ .'. "**<:: ::' ":::
Federal Soybean Inspect.n Service. ._...... ..: .. ...
Qualifcations of ins pec tors_ ::.: :::* .:
methodss of sam pling: % : :.;:: ,I
Soybean tried s ( probes) ......... ......... __ ..: I. '::;'i
A appeal inspection.* !: :,::.*; .: .:il
... .. ..-- :- : :
Fees and charges :.;.;": ... :
(2) *f; *:
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S. DEPARTmHEWN OF AGRICULTURE,
Buemsue op AGsicULURAn Ecowomecs.
The following standards for use in the grading
gad marketing of soybeans are recommended by
-Ae. Bureau, of Agricultural Economics, Unitewd
Stiles Department of Agriculture. These stand.
*a& wre the result of studies and investigations of
*Al phases of the soybean industry and of.sugges-
Unoaa received from persons experienced in the
vrduction marketing, and grading of this com.-
modiy.Neir adoption and use by all agencies
in handling soybeans should promote
Omfrm grading and should facilitate the market-
tug of thscommodity.
C. W. KrrcHEx
Acting Chief of Btireau.
U. S. STANDARDS FOR sOYI *S
:..N 1 1 1.:J] S. ,.. .;;. .j ;. :.. : ..,....
Fot the purposes of the U. S. Stanil4ferA
Soybeans- ;" I
Soybeans. shall be dry threshed beaud Y
variety of soybeans which contain not: 'to ed
25 per cent of foreign material as defined iu tiese
Basis of determination.-A1- det. i .;:
of factors entering into the grading &as
shall be made upon the basis of a rep
sample drawn in accordance with.- ptIi
proved by the Chief of the BureaM Sf S
tural. Economics. :. .. '..':.L ..
Percentages, except in the case of 4
shall be percentages ascertained by we '.f .t ..
Percentage of anoisture in soybeans .li :
ascertained by the moisture teeter A s
method of use thereof described in. Bullets i.
n :. ;. .:, .. ...
1375, issued by the United States DDepat" : of
Agriculture, or that ascertained by any
and method that give equivalent..res at
The' test weight per bushel shall be test
weight per Winchester bushel, as dete riibnxb, '
the testing apparatus and the method u
thereof described in Bulletin 472, dated
30, 1916, issued by the United States I~iti -
ment of Agriculture, or as determined y
device and method that give equivalent r....ts.
Damaged Soybeans shall beal i sjfl ns'
which are distinctly injured by weather a .t
heat, insects, disease, or otherwise .
Split Soybeans, or "Splits," shall be p ans
which are split or broken and which d' s :s
through the sieve prescribed for te i ...
tion of "foreign material" and shal b
soybeans with cracked skins :only..
than one-fourth of the bean brok
whchae iticlyijuedbwehK -tt,:::
hea i se ts dieas r o he ~ e ...,:. '"i"; :..... :
Perbfn tra shall be all matter other than
loybeanis, and Ql undeveloped shriveled 90Y-
beans and pieces of soybeans which paws through
A meta sieve with round hole perforations ten
sixty-fourths of an inch in diameter, and alul
ftastter other than soybeans that remain on such:
deve after screening. All sound whole soybeans
vwhih paws through such sieve shall be reclie
by hand and 'put back in the sample.
Grade deinton&.-The grade deintons
for aybeasbsall include successively the letters
"TT.8."the name or number of the grade or the
'l~apleGrade, and the name of the
cha, ndIn tecawe of Mixed Soybeans,' in
._addition the name and approximate percentage
-'a eich of the classes Yellow Soybeans, Green
.qybeafs,9 Brown Soybeans, or Black Soybeans
+-which constitutes 5 per cent or more of the mix-
-tuft. In lots of "'Mixed Soybeans" which
(Kontan 5 per cent or more of the Black Eyebrow
vsArityz the percentage of guch variety shall be
: ::": : .f l f
CLASSES OF SOYBEA
Soybeans shall be divided into fi-eu
follows: ,..." .' C:
Yellow Soybeans.-This cldasa sa:bL.:
all yellow soybeans of the Mammothffi.
Midwest, Manchu, Ito San, A. i i
Haberlandt, and all other varieties of.'4P'.
color and may contain not more than :.
of soybeans of other colors. A siglit
green or olive green on the beans slhll i
their classification as Yellow Soybeans. ':
Green Soybeans.-This class shall ii4;`
green colored soybeans of the Mose,
Green, or Guelph, and all other. i iti
distinct green color, and may colntawin'j:;I
may be slightly yellow tinged.. .
Brown Soybeans.-This class shall' i
light brown and dark brown soybeas 3
Virginia, Mammoth Brown, Early
Biloxi, and all-other varieties of 'a soid'i
color and may contain not more than:i 4g
cent of soybeans of other colors.
Black Soybeans.-This class shall ir.
black soybeans of the Wilson, Peking, W1i
Black, Tarheel black, Laredo, -and a.i:t
varieties of a solid black color and may
tain more than 10 per cent of- sybePns.
colors. .:. J .
Mixed Soybeans.-This class shall i.l":
"Black Eyebrow" variety and .any .i.iE
soybeans not provided for in. classes Yeljo'S
beans, Green Soybeans, Brown .SoybSiti
S... : ." ......"
amftfor Yellow Sorbeans, Gren SoM
I~ak oyeasand M~zed 8oybw
8 Conditiou and general PO $
Shall be cool and of natural 56 15 0. 5 1. 0
VIO odor, plump, well
smrened, and of good
1 Shall be cool and of natural 56 15 1.0 2.0 0.
odor and good color.
8hal be cool and of natural 54 16 10.0 & 0
odor and may be slightly
44tanod, or mottled.
Salbe cool and of natural 52 17 20.0 0 &. 0
odor and may be stained
Shall be cowl and may be180. L
badly stained or -mottled 5 800&1.
and may be slightly
froted or immature.
ShAll be anybeens which do not comply with there
guirements -of any of the above grades or wbc
have any commercially objectionable foreign oo
or ard sour, beating, bot, moldy, infested with *
wgeevils or other Insects injurious to stored soirbtns
or aire of otherwise distinctly low quality.
xra*e U. S. Rxtra Nq. I shall apply only to soyban
Yellow Beybeans, GreenSoybeans, Brown By
Ba Soybewns containing not more than I 1e
sr!eef r oiher classes, either singly or in any cm
aind b-,lnot apply to the class Mixed soyft=a
....' ... .'*^ .d. "t .ig f. :. ...:... ...,'.,,4:
.............. ,! ..,':..".*.... .7 ,.
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class may be made up of a single vari Er of. .. ...
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF UI. :S g B AN ,I"
several varieties of the same or a similar solar.
STANDARDS *" :.: :'' : :" .:-;::|
Variations in size and shape haveno ba:.g on.
." ." .. :: : "'. .5 : :- i
CLASS DESIGNA.ION : ; ":; ;: ... .-
In the U. S. Standards for soybeaynste are ".::.
five classes, designated according to eCl.-i~'; Ech :.
class may be made up of a single vaa e:tj.; ,bf ''
several varieties of the same or a Siltar Oe10r. .'
Variations in size and shape haven beaiS Ona-=
the class designation. For example: th; iass i
"Brown Soybeans" may be made .:up : the
Virginia, Biloxi, or any other variety ;:o rown
Soybeans either singly or in any eo flbzs o.
The class "Mixed Soybeans" is made i: a -
mixture of two or more of the :cdssieiY w
Green, Brown, or Black Soybeans, in the :
Black Eyebrow variety, and not a i. IF of
two or more varieties of the samie or a ifar.
color. This classification by colo I" s i.fies
the application of the standards and it tEJ e I
time gives a more accurate basis for.: 'ifl i
various lots of.soybeans, especially fit ezM g
or industrial purposes. l- .i
GRADES .. 4I
is divided into the following grades "It P I .
No. 1; U. S. No. 1; U. S. No. 2;: 4:
U. S. No. 4; and U. S. Sample. rd% "
mixed soybeans may be graded i U. 8 t4
only when this class is composed .f 98 p..:
or more of the Black Eyebrow variety. A
No. 2 is generally considered the basic i for :!
the purpose of evaluating soybean f;t4tr i
trial purposes. U. S. Extra No.. 1 -andp o.
1 are premium grades, and soyeber*ini e
the m irquements of these grade it: is :
sidered high quality commercial the. A
6the purposes of evaluating soy.b2ea.A -:--:.
.(8) .:.. ..... i..: .'t:t
"7 UE::":" V.', 11 ." i
-atn Adpoint. Of freedom from excessive
ovlia& aae and foreign material.
druevalue of such lots for seed purpose
A m wuld depend upon their germnation and
%giealpurity, h grades U. S. Extra No. I
to U 8.No. 4, inclusive, cover the range of
Wiatr normally found in commercial lots -of
gaybsaa.Sample grade takes care of any lots
blhMay be of: distinctly poor quality or for
reasou'do, not meet the requirements of any
of a given lot of soybeans may be
4y one or more of several factors, viz.
onand general appearance, test weight,
Mt~v14splits, damage, and foreign material'
Of colors is not a grading factor and
paty the class designation, except in -the
S Extra No. 1 as shown in the foot-
and general appearance.-In grad-
cndition is determined by ascer-
Sthey are cpool, of natural odor,
Warslive weevils or other insects in-
Tostored aoybeans. Any lot of soybeans
'doea not meet all of these requirements
b6, graded Sample Grade, except that
Nb.-4 gadepermits a slight foreign odor
la 44commiercially objectionable and
is ikt indicative of the soybeans being
tist, or otherwise in poor condition.
appearance applies to the degree of
'from stained, mottled, and slightly
dr ihmauresoybeans. Uniformity In
ltssetial to good general appearance
grades except U. -S. Extra No. 1,
Idathat the soybeans shall be
Itmwell screened. Deffinite screen,
.. 4 fixed for this test, as a knowledge
,and shape-of principal commercial
tbdr~tis easy of determination by
this test is described in U. -fl,* i a
Agriculture Bulletin 472. 4I". -'.
Moisture.-Moisture is a "dr :i
factor as well as a potential .: awi$
The maximum moisture content 'wit&h
beans can be stored safely has not
mined definitely. It is known'i i
this depends on storage. coq it$
presence of other factors. Sil
available data, including actual
it appears that soybeans.
exceed 16 per cent moisture ~di
the other requirements of U. :.b N
not go out of condition under no
Editions either sacked or in bulk.
- Extra No. land U.S. No.1,moi4
to 15 per cent because these are
17 per cent is permitted in
and 118 per cent is permit
The approved method of -deter
centage of moisture in soybel Sfl1
U. S. Department of AgriCulturia
Splits.-Split and broken .'oybj aI
seriously affect the value of a gliv
dustrial purposes; moreover it, i.ili
existing methods of harvesting 4..
soybeans in many sections, to ~ J
age of splits low. For these r
liberal percentage of this fact.r4S
the basic grade (U. S. No. .f.2
ingly higher percentages. in 40..
A split soybean has no value&: df
poses, however, and the hight<
Extra No. 1 and U. S..No, I
in the main high quality see
only five-tenths. per. ent anhd .:i
lively. '.l '
of damage in soybeans, m $4
to frost, weather, excessive' :
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type of dam is not 00
46 the degree to which7it affects the
value of a lot of soybeans. In the
VpHoation of the U. S. Standards,
W1 individual soybe=s which we
aqured by the foregom* or other
Interpreted as damaged. he correct
Of''. 4"..zed ans is diffi cult
*L"d W Zile positive only by the
'ind MUM PM ussed in the determinat-iot of
in foybe=s. Me" should b6 of metal
pmlorations ten sixty-fourtbs inch in
,dpoh of sieve should be 1 % inches, inside diam-.
md nest hrMy with the bottA=
'a depth of 2% inchW
Jan" j more important gTade factor thafi'
beodaum of its greater effect.. on. the
and the product madt
n the U. S. Standaxr 'the aRowance
is kept down to a'nii-nimbra. At
'the, range -for this factorin the
is MIS broad -to miclu&
of qu-slity of Prad c&Uy an
Most oreign material usu-
w emily removed With
and all sound pieces of soybeans ~ itik
through a metal sieve with rodt,
tions ten sixty-fourths inch :ini d S
fig. 1.) Realizing that the prei"
of threshing and the absence of cleavnil hin-
ery may make it impracticable to.W.l n "
to this high standard morelbe r re
made- for this factor in the
APPLICATION OF U I. 8.'
S' '-"" .......... .
In the application of the ,:.U: Sor
soybeans the grade of a given 1
by a single fact oror by t rn~ :
lot of Yellow Soybeans, for :.e
the requirements of the U.
condition, general appearan,
and be.:wthin.te limits .
foreign iatarial for this i
grade UT. S. NoT on aceouzt
16 per cent moisture. Another lot :
the requirements of U. S. No. 1 e~
splits, which would throw it into.::i "
Ih general practice, however, two 6;c f'
usually operate to determine the .......
In making inspections, if the -:':
UI. S.. No. 1, the factor or factorQl
the grade are always stated on~:::t1"
grade issued, as: U. S. No. :.:
account of .8.5 per cent plits ii
Brown Soybeans (account of 17ipt
and 4.5 per cent damage). .T.
analysis or any portion thereofr~x
if requested by the Wapplicau0t, ....
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SOYIAN INSPECTION SERVICE
soybean inspection is authorized by a
in the annual appropriation act for the
unnt of Agricidture. The general plan
gonuctmgn this service provides for the em-
of ffedrasl soybean inspectors at shiIp-
poiteand at important terminal markets
cooperative agreements between the
Reasof Agricultural Economics and organi-
Stlasuech as State departments of agricul-
't6 oommercial exchanges, and dealers' or
go ers'seociations. Under these agreements,
peronswho possess the necessary qualifications
at itdined and licensed as Federal soybean
la ecIr and their work is supervised by the
humanduring the life of the Ilebnse. The
Mgaiqaioncooperating with the bureau pays
heinspoctor for his work and pays all local
'paponeBi(gch as office rent) necessary to the
proersconduct of the work. The organization
4gaording with. the bureau usually collects the
ababshagedfor inspections made under agree-
Mz~the of this kind. The funds obtained in this
tya*e divided between the local organization
;,,AWtha United states Department of Agric'l-
egin ftwh a manner that both are recompensed
"ib ear4y as possible for the expense incurred by
in the conduct of the service.
.,Theworik of the local inspector is supervised
Arben sandrdiation specialists of the
States Department of Agriculture and
hoprviinginspectors. The supervising
Io only assist in supervising the
--J*W'4 the local inspectors but also are avai-
Mythe purpose of making inspections at
Jr M 1 their territory where no other inspectors
05obtained, and of nadssting producers,
and. consumers.i obtaining all benefit
fromthe U- S. Standards for soybeans
-*W I'Mdotal soybean-inspection service.
Ao-w is. srflicient demand for inspection at
iliantPany the expnana of having an in.
that point who is a full-tmae L *n
employee, or may arrange to fur nis that ie
in any other way that may appmW.e, .mm ..
Inspectors located at any shipping Jpi; iiter-
minal market usually are available, '4.intg r gm
inspections at neighboring points.;
Persons interested in having a. Fd.r4 & -
bean inspector located at any point shot f irite
the Bureau of Agricultural .Ecoaojar~ lEs, I te
States Department of Agriculture, -Wa ntan,
D. C. Communications of this natur .puJ
outline as fully as possible the situation thr
point where inspection is desired, incl:mi it
name of any State or local organizatiO it "th
whom the bureau might cooperate in esm i:f -
ing the service, and the probable numb.aO iw:.
spections which would be made annually
Federal-State inspection.-Whete4 .the .i t 6 i
is established in cooperation with a StateC
such as a State department of agriuclt j.4%
inspectors usually are Federal-Sitate, .: i.
Certificates issued by such inspectorsrea M r:
State certificates and are supported.i l
authority of the State as well 'as. ithe
Government. .In most cases these ertill.
are prima facie evidence of the facts coIi ii
State courts as well as in Federal courts:lll.' -:J ::
SQualifications of inspectors.-Ain app'ltor
a license as a Federal soybean insped iM:a ft-
quired to show that he has had sft~fBl S
perience in grading and marketing S s ~
other commodities of a similar natm urm'Ei ...
him to grasp readily the ippel tion4
United States standards. A Fede-irAl, m
Smay not have a financial interest, fiter .
or indirectly, in a business engaged in:,! .
soybeans.. Before being granted: :,
applicant's personal knowledge and
supplemented by the necessary~i4 : n
by the Bureau of, Agricultuiral & .to
insure. accurate and consistentVl; i
and application of the standard:
W? 4. "x.'."i""" : "
larelyof drills "in the technique of in,"
in identification of the classes: of
Wi the nerpretation of grade factors,
cnstrution of the United States
After receiving a Federal license, an
Jis required to send in to the Washmg-
,or to the supervising inspector's office
dtret, portions of samples used as the
0 maingthe inspections, properly identim-
Sgives an effective check on the work
I- Ad~vdual inspector qnd promotes uni-
iconsistent, application of the standards
SOYba inspection certificates.-
d ne ofteSceary of Agriculture
S~ibgthe inspection of soybeans require an
ptorto issue an inspection certificate for
f 1qt Of so bens inspected' in practically
[ eae. Te inspection certificate thus
idto evidence -of the quality of the soybeans
e thereby, expressed inL terms of the
-dStates standards. The law provides that
_h ertincates are receivable in all courts
SAhAited States as prima facie evidence of
Of the statements they contain. Sev-
States also have similar laws making
eartfieates acceptable as prima. facie evi-
In'Aheir State courts.
lospection certificates show the date on
*6-heiuspection was made and the- quantity
iM the lot inspected, together with the
Land location of the soybeans at the
ideecton.Folowing these items are
thygadeand claws of the beans in the lot
roftho United States standards. Nota-
factors affecting the grade may,
Sand claws as already explained
If .there are more than one grade
4, soybeans in the lot- and -these: are
Sthe APproximate amount and grade
"ahb portion is stated separately on
1l argest quantity being narged
regarding- oor sackingg, de.,
arid other similar information, are
the grade and class. .. .':.': ;: ...l
Methods of inspection.-Inspiectin be
made either at original shippid- pt, bi0~i ~ i
or at terminal markets. Inspections. ti; de
on the basis of a representative s mittie awn
from the lot in accordance With met l pre-
scribed by the Chief of the Bureau of Agi ural
Economics. Such samples must be dI~the-ther
by the Federal inspector who makes tWi pee-
tion or by some other person officially S ted
by the bureau, or by the cooperating iz sZa-
tion, and approved by the bureau oti ur-
pose. Certificates of grade issued izn ai 0ses
cover the entire lot of soybeans -repesy~lt
If a lot of soybeans is located too far:0t an
inspector's office to allow an official s tl~ e to
be drawn, a sample of 2 pounds or m'ife y be
taken by anyone interested and subeitttl tithe
nearest inspector or to the Washingto L;Sice
for inspection. Such sample should 1':- IA n'm
in strict accordance with methods appr4tl"" by
the chief of the bureau as presented: l 1 ; If
moisture is suspected of being a grade- a -
ing factor, a portion of the sample (W gI)
should be placed in a moisture-proot c-to .
in order that the resulting grade of th.i: ple :
may represent more closely the true- g tid e .
lot at the time the sample was taken.I. :i
termed "sample inspection" and cei if-
grade issued show the size of the ain ib
mitted and state that the quality and.:::"i
is that of the sample only. The value i i[
tificate of this kind depends largely '.upol t
the sample is truly representative di~t| it: &
from which it was taken. Ii easea ot7oI y .I
is to be settled, parties shfoldld ag ee6 .gq a
representative sample for 'this puiipose IB
sending it to an inspector. :: : :i .. *':
Method of sampling -The ob iaigBft'
resentative sample is essential tthe d t '
tion of the true grade of a given. .
If the sample obtained is not
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nt of are ia analyzing the sample will show
correct grade of the soybeans being inspected.
,tbhe end that a sample may be representative
tesoybeans in the lot from which it is drawn.
following method of sampling is prescribed
inpetors liesd to inspect soybeans under
e UntedStates standards:
The sample drawn should be approximately
quarts or larger in size. If the time to elapse
between the drawing of the sample and the
determination of the grade would allow a change
-in the condition of the sample (such as loss of or
acoumuldeton of moisture) such as would affect
lIkgrd,; at least 1 Y8 pints should be drawn
T parately and placed in an air-tight. container.
If 'the soybeans are in bags, samples should be
drawn fibm. at least 10 per cent of the individual
Ipgewslected at random in a lot, and from as
-.asy m~ore as, in the opinion of the inspectqr,
vay, be necessary to obtain an average add
,repr~ene tative sample.
LA cuse of bulk soybeans, at least five probes
-vith a double-shell compartment trier 60 inches
long* (see p. 18), and as many more as may be
jucessary, in the discretion of the inspector, shall
"'e, take from different parts of the lot to be
drawn) from different portions of a lot
%-fanbeans should be observed and if it appears
tUA-a ua trial portion of the lot is in any way
.,i1Winctly inferior to the remainder of the lot, a
saggate sample should be drawn from each
00dton. The estimated amount in each portion
.AfludA be ascertained and such portions treated
go. &Imeaate lots.
# yhean trfers (probes).--For use in obtaining
'4 tweprsentative. sample from a lot of soybeans
t t tr (psrobe" shown in Figure 2 are recom-
meaglThe trier shown in Figure 2 C is satis-
ry orbagged, soybeans. In using this type
tie- te iSPe0ctor -or sampler should probe
Umth top and bottom of the bags.
FIG. 2.-Soybean triers (probes) ... A
separate-compartment trier (probe),
mended for sampling a carload or sra
bulk. A, Trier closed; B, trier opel.
trier 9 inches long for sampling soybeat
S ." : .. "
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orbulk soybeans the long double-tube
In rment trier (probe) shown in
2, A and B, is strongly recommended
use of such a trier makes it possible for the
to note any unevenness in the quality
4oYbeans in different portions of the lot and
Searainthe approximate location and quan-
X'.Of distinctly low-quality soybeans in
Inspecton.-An appeal from an origi-
tion ay be taken at any time iftX
or condition of the soybeans has not
nea material change since the original
on, if the identity of Ohe lot has been
--d if the reasons for the appeal are not
te vant or unsubstantial, and if the regula-
tieAs ot the Secretary of Agriculture have been
t-'omplodwith otherwise. Anappeal inspection
never made by the ipetr who made the
inspction from which the appeal was
but is made by an inspector designated
ally for that purpose by the Chief of
Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The
of this arrangement is that in practically
appeal the determination of all factor
aNfet the. grade of the soybeans is made
'*Ferderlsupervising inspector. An appeal
Sncertificate gives a clear statement of
quality condition of the soybeans in the
And specifically refers to all previous cer
superseded by it. When an apl#a
n can not be obtained because ofa
k- quality or condition of the soybeans
rean additional inspection may be had
ine, the'effect of such changes. An
action also may be obtained at
j or purpose of providing an up-to-
receives cerfificates.-The original of
oraof Federal soybean-inspection cerii
isalways delivered to the person who makes
on fr the 'inspection. Not more than
pies may be issued to the applicant
101ttr charge,: Additional copies may
application should be n'ade.:
States Bureau of Agriculture
ington, D C. Application
will be referred to the n
field for attention or will, |
i the Washington office...'
insp ection.... of ll soybe
received by, him should :" I
that effect ina. similar .,i.a
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