Handbook of official grain standards of the United States

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Material Information

Title:
Handbook of official grain standards of the United States Standards for wheat, corn, barley, oats, feed oats, mixed feed oats, rye, grain sorghums, flaxseed, and mixed grain, effective July 1, 1935. Important features of grain inspection
Physical Description:
ii, 90 p. : illus. ; 15 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Edition:
[Revised May 1935].

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Barley -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Flaxseed -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Grain trade -- United States   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Oats -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Rye -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Prepared by Grain Division, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
General Note:
At head of title: U.S.G.S.A.- Form no. 90, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029679416
oclc - 05953171
lccn - agr35000169
Classification:
lcc - HD9030.9.U5 A5 1935a
System ID:
AA00013742:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text









P L .g. A.-Form No. 90 Revised May 1935
US. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
'UREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


S.. HANDBOOK OF
ICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS
OF THE UNITED STATES

Standards for Wheat, Corn, Barley, Oat,
SFeed Oats, Mixed Feed Oats, Rye, Grain
Sorghums, Flaxseed,': and :Mixed Grain,
i Effective July 1, 1935

Important Features of Grain Inspection

Prepared by Grain Division
Bureau of Agricultural Economics










UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1935

"Pr sale by Supt. Documents, Wash. D. C. Price 10 cents













CONTENTS

Grain standards: Page
Wheat standards------------------- 1
Corn standards -----------------_ 18
Barley standards--------------------23
Oats standards ---------------_---_ 34
Feed oats standards -----------------40
Mixed feed oats standards --------_ 44
Rye standards ------------------- 48
Grain sorghums standards -----------54
Flaxseed standards----_ -------63
Mixed grain standards --------------66
Important features of grain inspection:
Inspection requirements ----------- 72
Misrepresentation_----------------- 73:
Appeals, findings, and fees --------- 74
SLicensing of inspectors_ --------------75
Penalties --------------------------76
Basis of inspection---------_ 76
Sampling of grain_ -----------------78
Grain trier (probe) and sampling can-
vas----------------------------- 80
Spout sampler or "Pelican "_________ 82
Sample divider (Boerner sampler) -----83
Methods of making. moisture tests 85
Electric moisture meter__----- 86
Standard method of making test weight
per bushel ----------------- 87
Basis of determination for test weight
per bushel ----------------------- 89
Further information ------------------- 90







r
it


ANpBOOK OF OFFICIAL GRAIN
STANDARDS OF THE UNITED
STATES


Prepared in the Grain Division, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics


STANDARDS FOR WHEAT1
Sror the purposes of the official .grain stand-
lards of the United States for wheat:
IWheat.-Wheat shall be any grain which,
Before the removal of dockage, consists of 50
Percent or more of wheat and not more than
10 percent of other grains for which standards
: have been established under the provisions of
(the United States Grain Standards Act, and
,which, after the removal of dockage, contains
fnot more than 50 percent of broken kernels of
Strain of any size. The term wheat in these
Standards shall not include emmer, spelt, ein-
korn, Polish wheat, and poulard wheat.
SClasses.---Wheat shall be divided into seven
classes, as follows: Class I, Hard Red Spring
Wheat; Class II, Durum Wheat; Class III, Red
Durum Wheat; Class IV, Hard Red Winter
Wheat; Class V, Soft Red Winter Wheat; Class
. VI, White Wheat; and Class VII, Mixed Wheat.
Gradese-Wheat shall be graded and desig-
nated according to the respective grade require-
ments of the numerical grades and Sample
Grade of its appropriate class or. subclass, and
According to the special grades when applicable.
i 'lfhe specifications of these standards shall not ex-
euse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Hard Red Spring Wheat (Class I)

This class shall include all varieties of hard
red spring wheat, and may include not more
than 10 percent of wheats of other classes. This
class shall be divided into three subclasses, as
follows:

Subcla,ss (A) Dark Northern Spring

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Spring Wheat consisting of 75 percent
or more of dark, hard, and vitreous kernels.
This subclass shall not include more than 10
percent of wheat of the variety Humpback.

Subclass (B) Northern Spring

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Spring Wheat consisting of more than
25 percent but less than 75 percent of dark,
hard, and vitreous kernels. This subclass shall
not include more than 10 percent of wheat of
the variety Humpback.

Subclass (C) Red Spring

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Spring Wheat consisting of not more
than 25 percent of dark, hard, and vitreous
kernels. This subclass shall also include wheat
of the class Hard Red Spring Wheat consist-
ing of more than 10 per cent of the variety
Humpback. *








OFFICIAL GRAIN


Class I.-Hard Red Spring Wheat


.Grade requirements for (a)
(b) Northern Spring,


Dark Northern Spring,
(c) Red Spring


Grade No.


1 Heavy ----
1 ---------
2 ---------
3-----------
4 p ----------
5 ----------
Sample grade -


'3i
s

a

4-2
a
bJD
n-I
a)
ha
E
I
U,

g
a)
a


Maximum limits of-


Damaged
kernels
(wheat and
other grains)


'U
ca
0
H


rd
a)
M
Cd
E
Pd
a
a)
-"I


Foreign ma-
terial


'-
cc
4-12
0
E-


a
Plm
.ra..

bcE
S-I
aO)
a
**-L
03 +


Wheats of other
classes


'U
"o
0
H


a 3

eS-
33
ix a


Lbs. Pt. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pct. Pet.
60 2 0.1 1 0.5 5 2
58 2 .1 1 .5 5 2
57 4 .2 2 1.0 10 3
55 7 .5 3 2.0 10 5
53 10 1.0 5 3.0 10 10
50 15 3.0 7 5.0 10 10
Sample grade shall include wheat of the subclass
Dark Northern Spring, or Northern Spring,
or Red Spring, which does not come within the
requirements of any of the grades from No. 1
Heavy to No. 5, inclusive; or which contains
more than 16 percent of moisture; or which
contains inseparable stones and/or cinders; or
which is musty, or sour, or heating, or hot; or
which has any commercially objectionable
foreign odor except of smut or garlic; or which
contains a quantity of smut so great that any
one or more of the grade requirements cannot
be applied accurately; or which is otherwise
of distinctly low quality.


1 Applies to each of the subclasses Dark Northern Spring,
Northern Spring, and Red Spring.
2 Wheat of this class that contains more than 10 percent of
broken kernels of.grain that will pass through a 20-gage metal
sieve With slotted perforations 0.064 inch wide by % inch long
shall not be graded higher than No. 4.


i


STANDARDS


771.






4 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Durum Wheat (Class II)

This class shall include all varieties of com-
mon Durum Wheat, and may include not more
than 10 percent of wheats of other classes.
This class shall be divided into three subclasses,
as follows:

Subolass (A) Hard Amber Durum

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Durum Wheat consisting of 75 percent or more
of hard and vitreous kernels of amber color.

Subclass (B) Amber Durum

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Durum Wheat consisting of 60 percent or more
but less than 75 percent of hard and vitreous
kernels of amber color.

Subclass (C) Durum

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Durum Wheat consisting of less than 60 per-
cent of hard and vitreous kernels of amber
color.
Red Durum Wheat (Class III)

This class shall include all varieties of Red
Durum Wheat, and may include not more than
10 percent of wheats of, other classes.







OFFICIAL GRAIN


Class II.-Durum Wheat and Class III.-Red
Durum Wheat


rade requirements
SHard Amber Duru
(o) Durum, of tht
for the olas8s Red 1


for
Mn, (b)
e class
Duru n


the subclasses
Amber Durum,
-Durun, Wheat,
Wheat


Grade No.


1-------
2..2----------
.3--------
43----........
56--.--.----.
Sample grade.


+


I
'5
.0

0 4
5a
bI
C,
*J-l
4,

a
E






Lbs.
60
frn


Maximum limits of-


Damaged
kernels
(wheat and
other grains)


E-3
o

Pet.
2
4


*o0
Cs
cc


a


Pet.
0. 1
2


Foreign
material


--I
ct
4-3
0

Pet.
1
2


4-2-


t3





Pd.
0. 5
1 n


Wheats of other
classes


0

Pet.
2 5
In


;0 >1








Pc.
m ,.m ,,
-C: I .
tm+++


56 7 .5 3 2. O 10 1
54 10 1.0 5 3.0 10 10
51 15 3.0 7 5.0 10 10
Sample grade shall include wheat of the subclass
Hard Amber Durum, or Amber Durum, or
Durum, or wheat of the class Red Durum
Wheat, which does not come within the re-
quirements of any of the grades from No. 1 to
No. 5, inclusive; or which contains more than
16 percent of moisture; or which contains in-
separable stones and/or cinders; or which is
musty, or sour, or heating, or hot; or which has
any commercially objectionable foreign odor
except of smut or garlic; or which contains a
quantity of smut so great that any one or more
of the grade requirements cannot be applied
accurately; or which is otherwise of distinctly


i low quality.
in.
: These specifications do not apply to the class Red Durum
Wheat, or to the subclass Durum.
2 No. 1 Red Durum may contain 10 percent of wheats of other
:: classes.
3 Wheat of each of these classes that contains more than 15 per-
ankt of broken kernels of grain of any size shall not be graded
higher than No. 4.


(a)
and
and


STANDARDS






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Hard Red Winter Wheat (Class IV)

This class shall include all varieties of Hard
Red Winter Wheat, and may include not more
than 10 percent of wheats of other classes. This
class shall be divided into three subclasses, as
follows:

Subclass (A) Dark Hard Winter

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Winter Wheat consisting of 75 per-
cent or more of dark, hard, and vitreous kernels.

Subclass (B) Hard Winter

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Winter Wheat consisting of more
than 25 percent but less than 75 percent of dark,
hard, and vitreous kernels.

Subclass (C) Yellow Hard Winter

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Hard Red Winter Wheat consisting of not
more than 25 percent of dark, hard, and vitre-
ous kernels.









OFFICIAL GRAIN


Class IV.-Hard Red Winter


Grade requirements for
(b) Hard Winter, (c)


(a) Dark Hard Winter,
Yellow Hard Winter


Grade No.


1----------
2----------
3---------
4'---- ---
41 -------
Sample grad________
Sample grade.


03
Li
a0
s.

- i










Lbs.
0 0
58
pa


Maximum limits of-


Damaged
kernels
(wheat and
othergrains)


_3




Pcd.
2
4


co
we
bc

a
03
C
0


Pet.
0. 1
.2


Foreign ma-
terial


c


Pdt.
1
2
n


& w
0
4*3
a rg,

a)Li
bE
mLi
0)Li
d4c3
S 0


Pet.
0. 5
1.0
af ai


Wheats of other
classes


-3
0
E4H
o
O


Pet.
5
10
,


&W
0 -

ag
EP

Ip:


Pet.


DO i 6 Z. U 1U 6
54 10 1.0 5 3. 0 10 10
51 15 3.0 7 5. 0 10 10
Sample grade shall include wheat of the subclass
Dark Hard Winter, or Hard Winter, or Yellow
Hard Winter, which does not come within
the requirements of any of the grades from
No. 1 to No. 5, inclusive; or.which contains
more than 15.5 percent of moisture; or which
contains inseparable stones and/or cinders;
or which is musty, or sour, or heating, or hot;
or which has any commercially objectionable
foreign odor except of smut or garlic; or which
contains a quantity of smut so great that any
one or more of the grade requirements cannot
be applied accurately; or which is otherwise
of distinctly low quality.


Wheat of this class that contains more than 10 percent of
broken kernels of grain that will pass through a 20-gage metal
sieve with slotted perforations 0.064 inch wide by % inch long
shall not be graded higher than No. 4.


I_


;i


STANDARDS






8 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Soft Red Winter Wheat (Class V)

This class shall include all varieties of Soft
Red Winter Wheat and may include not more
than 10' percent of wheats of other classes.
This class shall be divided into two subclasses,
as follows:

Subclass (A) Red Wi'nter

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Soft Red Winter Wheat consisting of both light
and dark colored kernels. This subclass shall
not include more than 10 percent of Soft Red
Winter Wheat grown west of the Great Plains
area of the United States.

Subclass (B) Western Red

This subclass shall include wheat of the class
Soft Red Winter Wheat consisting of more
than 101 percent of wheat of this class grown
west of the Great Plains area of the United
States.







OFFICIAL GRAIN


STANDARDS


& Class V.-Soft Red Winter Wheat

ade requirements for (a) Red Winter,
Western Red


9




(b)


SGrade No.












--a----------
...
2 -------------



1.-------------
41------------
5---------
Sample grade.


43



C
2


Maximum limits of-


Damaged
kernels
(wheat and
other grains)


-'
o


0

a

'0
a


Foreign ma-
terial


0
H


4-3

b~D
5-5


Wheats of other
classes




E-4




{->


Lbs. Pd. Pt. Pd. P. P. P. d.
60 2 0.1 1 0.5 5 0.5
58 4 .2 2 1.0 10 1.0
56 7 .5 3 2.0 10 2.0
54 10 1.0 5 3.0 10 10.0
51 15 3.0 7 5.0 10 10. 0
Sample grade shall include wheat of the subclass
Red Winter, or Western Red, which does not
come within the requirements of any of the
grades from No. 1 to No. 5, inclusive; or which
contains more than 15.5 percent of moisture;
or which contains inseparable stones and/or
cinders; or which is musty, or sour, or heating,
or hot; or which has any commercially objec-
tionable foreign odor except of smut or garlic;
or which contains a quantity of smut so great
that any one or more of the grade requirements
cannot be applied accurately; or which is
otherwise of distinctly low quality.


t Wheat of this class that contains more than 10 percent of
broken kernels of grain that will pass through a 20-gage metal
sieve with slotted perforations 0.064 inch wide by % inch long
shall not be graded higher than No. 4.


iiEii.---






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


White Wheat (Class VI)
This class shall include all varieties of White
Wheat, whether winter or spring grown, and
may include not more than 10 percent of wheats
of other classes. This class shall be divided
into four subclasses, as follows:
Subclass (A) Hard White
This subclass shall include all wheat of the
class White Wheat consisting of 75 percent or
more of hard (not soft and chalky), kernels.
This subclass shall not include more than 10 per-
cent of Sonora wheat or wheat of the white club
varieties, either singly or in any combination.
Subcla.ss (B) Soft White
This subclass shall include wheat of the class
White Wheat consisting of less than 75 per-
cent of hard (not soft and chalky) kernels.
This subclass shall not include more than 10 per-
cent of Sonora wheat or wheat of the white club
varieties, either singly or in any combination.
Subclass (U) White Club
This subclass shall include wheat of the class
White Wheat consisting of Sonora wheat or
wheat of the white club varieties, either singly
or in any combination. This subclass shall not
include more than 10 percent of common white
wheat other than Sonora, either singly or in
any combination.
Subclass (D) Western White
This subclass shall include wheat of the class
White Wheat which contains more than 10
percent of Sonora wheat or wheat of the white
club varieties, either singly or in any com-
bination, and which also contains more than 10
percent of common White Wheat other than
Sonora.


10







11


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Class VI.-White Wheat


Grade re
i. Soft W
White









Grade No.


1 ------------
2---------

52_ .___ ____
4S------ample

Sample grade-


qwirements
white (c)


20
.3



,0
P



.3-

- I
rE
J
"c



Damaged
kernels
(wheat and
other grains)


f
aV
bo

'U
.41
3
0
'U


'U
03
HS


for (
White


a) Hard White,


Club, (d)


(b)


Western-


Maximum limits of-


Foreign ma-
terial


0
H


xcu2

x 3
S51
h


Wheats of other
classes


'0
0
H-


&A


ia
30 E
0 4
03 Z
EP


Lbs. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pct.
60 2 0.1 1 0.5 5 0.5
58 4 .2 2 1.0 10 1.0
56 7 .5 3 2.0 10 2.0
54 10 1.0 5 3.0 .10 10.0
51 15 3.0 7 5. 0 10 10.0
Sample grade shall include wheat of the subclass
Hard White, or Soft White, or White Club, or
Western White, which does not come within
the requirements of any of the grades from
No. 1 to No. 5, inclusive; or which contains
more than 15.5 percent of moisture; or which
contains inseparable stones and/or cinders;
or which is musty, or sour, or heating, or hot;
or which has any commercially objectionable
foreign odor except of smut or garlic; or which
contains a quantity of smut so great that any
one ormore of the grade requirements cannot
be applied accurately; or which is otherwise
of distinctly low quality.


SWheat of this class that contains more than 10 percent of
broken kernels of grain that will pass through a 20-gage metal
sieve with slotted perforations 0.064 inch wide by % inch long
shall not be graded higher than No. 4.


_ ~ _~__






12 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Mixed Wheat (Class VII)
This class shall include all mixtures of wheat
not provided for in the classes from I to VI,
inclusive.
Grade requirements and designations.-Mixed
Wheat shall be graded according to the numeri-
cal and Sample grade requirements of the class
of wheat which predominates in the mixture,
except that the grade specifications for the fac-
tor heats of other classes" and the grade
specifications for "No. 1 Heavy" in the stand-
ards for hard red spring wheat, shall be
disregarded.
The grade designation for Mixed Wheat shall
be stated as provided in either paragraph (a)
or (b) of this section:
(a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of
this section, the grade designation for Mixed
Wheat shall include successively, in the order
named, (1) the number of the grade or the words
" Sample'grade ", as the'case may be, (2) the
words "Mixed Wheat", and (3) the name and
approximate percentage of each class of wheat
which constitutes more than 10 percent of the
mixture in the order of its predominance; but
if only one class exceeds 10 percent of the mix-
ture, the name and approximate percentage of
that class shall be included in the grade desig-
nation, followed by the name and approximate
percentage of at least one other class.
(b) Mixed Durum.-Mixed Durum shall be
mixed wheat consisting of 70 percent or more of
Common Durum, and may contain not more
than 10 percent of Red Durum and not more
than 5 percent of soft red winter' and/or white
wheat. The grade designation for Mixed Durum
shall include successively, in the order named,
(1) the number of the grade or the words
" Sample grade", as the case may be, and
(2) the words Mixed Durum."






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Dockage
Dockage includes weed seeds, weed stems.
aff, straw, grain other than wheat, sand, dirt.
d any other foreign material, which can be
oved readily from the wheat by the use of
propriate sieves and cleaning devices; also
developed, shriveled, and small pieces of
eat kernels removed in properly separating
1he foreign material, and which cannot be
Covered by properly rescreening or recleaning.
The quantity of dockage shall be calculated
hA terms of percentage based on the total weight
Of the grain including the dockage. The per-
tentage of dockage so calculated, when equal to
1 percent or more, shall be stated in terms of
whole percent, and when less than 1 percent
shall not be stated. A fraction of a percent
hall be disregarded. The word "Dockage",
together with the percentage thereof, shall be
added to the grade designation.
Special Grades for Wheat
Tough Wheat
Definition.-Tough wheat shall be (a) wheat
of any of the classes Hard Red Winter Wheat,
Soft Red Winter Wheat, or White Wheat, or of
the class Mixed Wheat in which wheat of any
one of the classes Hard Red Winter Wheat, or
Soft Red Winter Wheat, or White Wheat, pre-
dominates, which contains more than 14 percent
ibut not more than 15.5 percent of moisture, and
fb) wheat of any of the classes Hard Red
pring Wheat, or Durum Wheat, or Red Du-
ir5um Wheat, or of the class Mixed Wheat in
which wheat of any one of the classes Hard
IRwed Spring Wheat, or Durum Wheat, or Red
iDurum Wheat, predominates, which contains
moree than 14.5 percent but not more than 16
i ercent of moisture.


13






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Grades.-Tough wheat shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such wheat if it
were not tough, and there shall be added to, and
made a part of, the grade designation, the wdrd
"Tough."
Smutty Wheat
Definition.-Smutty wheat shall be wheat
which has an unmistakable odor of smut, or
which contains balls, portions of balls, or spores,
of smut, in excess of a quantity equal to 14
balls of average size in 250 grams of wheat.
Smutty wheat shall be graded and designated
according to the method described either in
paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this section.
(a) Smut dockage.-Before the determina-
tion of smut dockage as provided in this para-
graph, the wheat shall be graded and designated
according to the grade requirements of the
standards applicable to such wheat if it were
not smutty. The smut shall be removed by scour-
ing and the loss in weight of the wheat caused
by the removal of the smut shall be calculated
in terms of percentage based on the total weight
of the grain when free from dockage. The per-
centage so calculated shall be stated in terms of
half percent, whole percent, or whole and half
percent, as the case may be. A fraction of a
half percent shall be disregarded. The per-
centage of the smut dockage, so calculated and
stated, shall be added to the grade designation,
preceding the statement of dockage, if any.
(b) "Light Smutty" and "Smutty."-
Smutty wheat shall be graded and designated
according to the grade requirements of the
standards applicable to such wheat if it were
not smutty; and


14






F. OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 15

S(1) In the case of smutty wheat which has
n unmistakable odor of smut, or which con-
ns balls, portions of balls, or spores, of snmut,
excess of a quantity equal to 14 balls but not
excess of a quantity equal to 30 balls of
average size in 250 grams of wheat, there shall
added to, and made a part of, the grade
.ignation, the words Light Smutty "; and
S(2) In the case of smutty wheat which con-
is balls, portions of balls, or spores, of smut,
excess of a quantity equal to 30 balls of
average size in 250 grams of wheat, there shall
added to, and made a part of, the grade
nation, the word Smutty."
Garlicky Wheat
SDefinition.-Garlicky wheat shall be wheat
which .contains two or more green garlic bulb-
or an equivalent quantity of dry or partly
bulblets, in 1,000 grams of wheat.
Grades.-Garlicky wheat shall be graded and
g ated according to the grade requirements
the standards applicable to such wheat if it
ere not garlicky; and
S(1) In the case of garlicky wheat which con-
ins two or more but not more than six green
lic bulblets, or an equivalent quantity of dry
partly dry bulblets, in 1,000 grams of wheat,
ere shall be added to, and made a part of,
he .grade designation, the words "Light Gar-
1cky3 ".; and
S.(2) In the case of garlicky wheat which con-
ins more than six green garlic bulblets, or an
-uivalent quantity of dry or partly dry bulb-
in 1,000 grams of wheat, there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the'grade desig-
ation, the word Garlicky."
Weevily Wheat
:I Definition.-Weevily wheat shall be wheat
whichh is infested with live weevils or other
Insects injurious to stored grain.
: 127675035- 2






16 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Grades.-Weevily wheat shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such wheat if it
were not weevily, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word Weevily."
Ergoty Wheat
Definition.-Ergoty wheat shall be wheat
which contains ergot in excess of 0.3 percent.
Grades.-Ergoty wheat shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such wheat if it
were not ergoty, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word Ergoty."
Treated Wheat
Definition.-Treated wheat shall be wheat
which has been scoured, limed, washed, sul-
phured, or treated in such a manner that its
true quality is not reflected by either the
numerical grade or the Sample grade designa-
tion, alone.
Grades.-Treated wheat shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such wheat if it
were not treated, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, a
statement indicating the kind of treatment.
Definitions
Basis of grade determinations.-Each deter-
mination of dockage, temperature, odor, garlic,
and live weevils, or other insects injurious to
stored grain, shall be upon the basis of the
grain as a whoje. All other determinations
shall be upon the basis of the grain When free
from dockage.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
weight.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 17

Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
re shall be that ascertained by the air oven
d the method of use thereof described in
rvice and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
united States Department of Agriculture, or
certained by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
?Test' weight per bushel.-Test weight per
hel shalLbe the weight per Winchester bushel
t determined by the testing apparatus and the
method of use thereof described in Bulletin No.
,dated May 18, 1922, issued by'the United
states Department of Agriculture, or as de-
rmined by any device and method which give
iuivalent results in the determination of test
eight per bushel.
Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
inde all matter other than wheat which is not
liEarated from the wheat in the proper deter-
.ination of dockage, except that smut balls
all not be considered as foreign material.
Other grains.-Other grains shall include rye,
ts, corn, grain sorghums, barley, hull-less bar-
y, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn, Polish
heat, poulard wheat, cultivated buckwheat,
d soybeans.
Damaged kernels.-Damaged kernels shall be
ernels and pieces of kernels of wheat and
tther grains which are heat damaged, sprouted,
rested, badly ground-damaged, badly weather-
,amaged, or otherwise materially damaged.
I Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
Lels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
Wheat and other grains which have been mate-
fnally discolored and damaged by external heat
tr as a result of heating caused by fermenta-
Von.
V7.






18 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR CORN3

For the purposes of the official grain stand-
ards of the United States for corn (maize) :
Corn.-Corn shall be any grain which consists
of 50' percent or more of shelled corn of the
dent or flint varieties, and may contain not
more than 10 percent of other grains for which
standards have been established under the pro-
visions of the United States Grain Standards
Act.
Classes.-Corn shall be divided into three
classes, as follows: Class I, Yellow Corn; Class
II, White Corn; and Class III, Mixed Corn.

Yellow Corn (Class I)

This class shall include Yellow Corn, and
may include not more than 5 percent of corn
of other colors. A slight tinge of red on ker-
nels of corn otherwise yellow shall not affect
their classification as Yellow Corn.

White Corn (Class II)

This class shall include White Corn, and
may include not more than 2 percent of corn-
of other colors. A slight tinge of light straw
color or of pink on kernels of corn otherwise
white shall not affect their classification as
White Corn.

3 The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.







: OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 19

Mixed Corn (Class III)

SThis class shall consist of corn of various
colors that does not meet the color require-
kents for either of the classes Yellow Corn
White Corn. White-capped yellow kernels
pall be classified as Mixed Corn.
Grades.-Corn shall be graded and designated
Recording to the respective grade requirements
the numerical grades and Sample grade
its appropriate class, and according to the
pecal grades when applicable.

Corn


ratde


requirements for Yellow Corn, White
Corn, and Mixed Corn


Grade No.
Grade No.


-------------

mple grade-






Ii
:..
. *.








Sii.


Mini-
mum test
weight
per
bushel


Maximum limits of-


Mois-
ture


Cracked
corn and
foreign
material


Damaged kernels


Total


Heat-
damaged


Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
54 14.0 2 3 0.1
53 15.5 3 5 .2
51 17.5 4 7 .5
48 20.0 5 10 1.0
44 23.0 7 15 3.0
Sample grade shall include corn of the class Yel-
low Corn, or White Corn, or Mixed Corn,
which does not come within the requirements
of any of the grades from No. 1 to No. 5, inclu-
sive; or which contains stones and/or cinders;
or which is musty, or sour, or heating, or hot;
or which has any commercially objectionable
foreign odor; or which is otherwise of distinctly
low quality.






20 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Special Grades for Corn

Flint Corn

Definition.-Flint corn shall be corn of any
class which consists of more than 25 percent of
flint corn.
Grades.-Flint corn shall be graded and desig-
nated according to the grade requirements of
the standards applicable to such corn if it were
not flint corn, and the word Flint" shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, immediately following the word Yel-
low, or White, or Mixed, as the case may be.

Weevily Corn

Definition.-Weevily corn shall be corn that
is infested with live weevils or other insects
injurious to stored grain.
Grades.-Weevily corn shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such corn if it
were not weevily, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word Weevily."

Definitions

Basis of grade determinations.--Each deter-
mination of class, variety, damage, and heat
damage, shall be upon the basis of the grain
after the removal of the cracked corn and for-
eign material. All other determinations shall
be upon the basis of the grain as a whole.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
weight.






I OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 21

Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
ture shall be that ascertained by the water oven
nd the method of use thereof described in
Service and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
:f the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
United States Department of Agriculture, or
.scertained by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
ushel shall be the weight per Winchester busliel
s determined by the testing apparatus and
e method of use thereof described in Bulle-
n No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued by the
united States Department of Agriculture, or as
Determined by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
st weight per bushel.
Cracked corn and foreign material.-Cracked
iorn and foreign material shall include kernels
nd pieces of kernels of corn and all matter
other than corn which will pass through a No.
sieve, and all matter other than corn re-
paining on such sieve after screening.
No. 12 sieve.-A metal sieve perforated with
found holes 12/64 inch in diameter.
SOther grains.-Other grains shall include
heat, rye, oats, grain sorghums, barley, hull-
s*s barley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn,
Polish wheat, poulard wheat, cultivated buck-
wheat, sweet corn, pop corn, and soybeans.
SDamaged kernels.-Damaged kernels shall be
kernels and pieces of kernels of corn which are
ieat damaged, sprouted, frosted, badly ground
damagedd badly weather damaged, or otherwise
jiaterially damaged.
Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
iels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
rn which have been materially discolored
And damaged by external heat or as a result
bf heating caused by fermentation.









OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 23

STANDARDS FOR BARLEY'

SFor the purposes of the official grain stand-
Ards of the United States for barley:
SBarley.-Barley shall be any grain which, be-
lre the removal of dockage, consists of 50 per-
ent or more of barley, and may contain not
more than 25 percent of other grains for which
itndards have been established under the pro-
,isions of the United States Grain Standards
4 The term "barley" as used in these
ndards shall not include hull-less barley.
Classes.-Barley shall be divided into four
sses, as follows: Class I, Barley; Class II,
lack Barley; Class III, Western Barley; and
ss IV, Mixed Barley.
Grades.-Barley shall be graded and desig-
ted according to the respective grade require-
ents of the numerical grades and Sample grade
its appropriate class or subclass, and accord-
to the special grades when applicable.

iThe specifications of these standards shall not ex-
se failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
d Drugs Act.





AIMs






k"






24 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Barley (Class I)

This class shall include all white glumess)
barley grown east of the Rocky Mountains and
may include not more than 10 percent of barley
of other classes. This class shall be divided
into two subclasses, as follows:

Subclass (A) Malting Barley

This subclass shall include 6-rowed barley of
the class Barley (Class I) which meets the
requirements of grades Nos. 1 to 3, inclusive,
which, after the removal of dockage, contains
not more than 5 percent of 2-rowed and/or other
types or varieties of barley of unsuitable malt-
ing type such as Trebi and Black; which con-
tains not more than 15 percent of barley and
other matter that will pass through a 20-gage
metal sieve with slotted perforations 0.076
(4%/64) of an inch wide and %3 of an inch
long; which contains not more than 5 percent of
skinned and/or broken kernels; which contains
not more than 4 percent of danraged barley; and
shall not include Bleached barley. Barley of
this subclass shall contain 75 percent or more
of mellow barley kernels which kernels are not,
en masse, semi-steely.
Subclass (B) Barley
This subclass shall include all barley of the
class Barley which does not meet the require-
ments of subclass (A) Malting Barley.
Black Barley (Class II)
This class shall include all varieties of Black
glumess) Barley grown anywhere in the United
States, and may include not more than 10 per-
cent of barley of other classes.







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


25


Laes L-Barley and Class II.-Black Barley

rde requirements for subclass (a) Malting
arley and subclass (b) Barley, of the class
SBarley, and for the class Black Barley


No.


p------ grad--
-----------
anple grade-


Minimum
limits of-


Test
-weight
per
bushel


Lbs.
47
46
43
40
35


Sound
barley'



Pet.
95
93
90
80
70


Maximum limits of-


Heat-
damaged
kernels
(barley,
other
grains,
and wild
oats)

Pet.
0.1
.2
.5
1.0
3.0


For-
eign
mate-
rial


Pdt.
1
2
3
4
6


Bro-
ken
ker-
nels


Pdt.
4
8
12
20
30


Black
bar-
ley 2



Pet.
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
10.0


Sample grade shall Include barley of the subclass
Barley, or of the class Black Barley, which
does not come within the grade requirements
of any of the grades from No. 1 to No. 5, inclu-
sive; or which contains more than 16 percent
of moisture; or which contains inseparable
stones and/or cinders; or which is musty, or
sour, or heating, or hot; or which has any com-
mercially objectionable foreign odor except of
smut or garlic; or which contains a quantity of
smut so great that any one or more of the grade
requirements cannot be applied accurately;
or which is otherwise of distinctly low quality.


. Any barley in grade No. 1 that does not come within the pro-
bsions of the special grade Blighted, may contain not more than
recent of blight-damaged barley; and barley in any grade from
go. 2 to Sample grade, inclusive, that does not come within the
kovisions of the special grade Blighted, may contain not more
ar4 percent of blight-damaged barley. Any barley containing
than 4 percent of blight-damaged barley-shall be graded
. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, or Sample grade, Blighted, as
E case may be, as provided in the specifications for Blighted
-rley.
SThese specifications do not apply to the class Black Barley.
I See special requirements for subclass (A) Malting Barley.
i Barley that is badly stained or materially weathered, shall
Wot be graded higher than No. 4.


r







26


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Western Barley (Class III)

This class shall include white glumess)
barley grown west of the Great Plains area of
the United States, and may include not more
than 10 percent of barley of other classes.

Class III.-Western Barley


Grade requirements for


Western Barley


Grade No.


1-----------
2--------
3----------
4----_-----
5------------
Sample grade._ -


Mini-
mum
limits of
sound
barley


Maximum limits of-


Heat-
damaged
kernels
(barley,
other
grains, and
wild oats)


Wild
oats


For-
eign
ma-
terial


Bro-
ken
ker-
nels


Black
barley


Pet. Pct. Pet. Pct. Pct. Pet.
98 0.1 1 0.5 3 0.5
96 .2 2 1.0 6 1.0
93 .3 3 2.0 10 2.0
88 .5 5 3.0 15 5.0
80 1.0 10 4. 0 25 10.0
Sample grade shall include barley of the class
Western Barley which does not come within
the grade requirements of any of the grades
from No. 1 to No. 5, inclusive, or which con-
tains more than 15 percent of moisture; or
which contains inseparable adobe, stones,
and cinders, singly or combined; or which is
musty, or sour, or heating, or hot; or which
has any commercially objectionable foreign
odor except of smut or garlic; or which con-
tains a quantity of smut so great that any
one or more of the grade requirements can-
not be applied accurately; or which contains
the seeds of wild brome grasses of a character
and in a quantity sufficient to cause the
grain to be of low quality for feeding pur-
poses: or which.is otherwise of distinctly low
quality.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 27

Mixed Barley (Class IV)

This class shall be any mixture of barley not
provided for in the classes from I to III,
clusive.
Grade requirements and designations.-
fixed Barley shall be graded according to the
trade requirements of either (1) the subclass
rley of the class Barley, or (2) the class
lack Barley, or (3) the class Western Barley,
crding to which class of barley predominates
the mixture, except that all grade specifica-
ons as to the maximum percentages of black
rley shall be disregarded.
The grade designation for Mixed Barley shall
clude successively, 'in the order named, the
umber of the grade or the words Sample
ade ", as the case may be; the words Mixed
arley", followed by the name and approxi-
ate percentage of each class of barley which
institutes 10 percent or more of the mixture
the order of its predominance, but if only
e class exceeds 10 percent of the mixture,
e name and approximate percentage of that
ss shall be included in the grade designation,
lowed by the name and approximate per-
tage of at least one other class. For Mixed
rley, in which barley of the class Western
$arley predominates, the grade designation
Shall include a statement of the test weight
r bushel immediately following the names
percentages of the classes composing the
mixture .





:pH :E

..::
EJE..:R






28 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Dockage
Dockage in barley shall be determined ac-
cording to the method described in paragraph
(a), or paragraph (b), or paragraph (c), of
this section.
(a) In the case of Barley (Class I), and
Black Barley (Class II), dockage includes all
matter which can be removed from the barley
by the use of a metal sieve perforated with equi-
lateral triangular perforations the inscribed
circles of which are 5/64 inch in diameter..
(b) In the case of Western Barley (Class
III), dockage includes weed seeds, weed stems,
chaff, straw, grain other than barley, sand,,
dirt, and any material other than barley, which
can be removed readily from the barley by the
use of appropriate sieves and cleaning devices;:
also undeveloped, shriveled, and small pieces of
barley kernels removed in properly separating:
the foreign material and which cannot be re-
covered by properly rescreening or recleaning.
(c) In the case of Mixed Barley (Class IV),
the dockage determination shall be made ini
accordance with the specifications given in4
paragraph (a) when barley, either of the class.
Barley (Class I) or barley of the class Black`
Barley (Class II) predominates in the mixture,
or in accordance with the specifications given
in paragraph (b) when barley of the class
Western Barley (Class III) predominates in
the mixture.
The quantity of dockage shall be calculated
in terms of percentage based on the total
weight of the grain including the dockage. The
percentage of dockage, so calculated, when
equal to. 1 percent or more, shall be.stated in
terms of whole percent, and when less than
1 percent shall not be stated. A fraction of a
percent shall be disregarded. The word Dock-
age ", together with the percentage thereof,
shall be added to the grade designation.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 29

Special Grades for Barley
Test Weight of Western Barley
Grades for test weight of Western Barley.-
|br barley of the class Western Barley, the
kt weight per bushel in terms of whole pounds
al be added to, and made a part of, the
de designation, following the name of the
ss. A fraction of a pound shall be disre-
rded.
| Two-Rowed Barley
[Definition.-Two-rowed barley shall consist
2-rowed barley of the subclass Barley of the
as Barley, or of the class Western Barley,
dd may contain not'more than 10 percent of
ley of other varieties.
Grades.-Two-rowed barley shall be graded
1d designated according to the grade require-
ents of the standards applicable to such bar-
y if it were not 2-rowed, and there shall
Added to, and made a part of, the grade
ignation, preceding the name of the class,
word Two-rowed."
Tough Barley
SDefinition.-Tough barley shall be (a) barley
I~either of the classes Barley or Black Barley,
r of the class Mixed Barley in which barley
i -either one of the classes Barley or Black
arley predominates, which contains more than
4.5 percent but not more than 16 percent of
Moisture, and (b) barley of the class Western
larley, or of the class Mixed Barley in which
Irley of the class Western Barley predomi-
kates, which contains more than 13.5 percent
iut not more than 15 percent of moisture.
| Grades.-Tough barley shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
ot the standards applicable to such barley if it






30 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

were not tough, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Tough."
Bright Western Barley
Definition.-Bright Western barley shall be
barley of the class Western Barley, except
Bleached barley, that is of good natural color.
Grades.--Bright Western barley shall be
graded and designated according to-the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
barley if it were not bright, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, preceding the name of the class, the word
" Bright."
Stained Western Barley
Definition.-Stained Western barley shall be
barley of the class Western Barley, except
Bleached barley, that is badly stained or
weathered.
Grades.-Stained Western barley shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
barley if it were not stained, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word Stained."
Blighted Barley
Definition.-Blighted barley shall be all bar-
ley which contains more than 4 percent of bar-
ley damaged or materially discolored by blight
and/or mold.
Grades.-Blighted barley shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such barley if it
were not blighted, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Blighted."






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Smutty Barley

:Defnition.-Smutty barley shall be barley
rhieh has the kernels covered with smut spores,
r which contains smut masses in excess of 0.2
erxent.
Grades.-Smutty barley shall be graded and
mignated according to the grade requirements
Sthe standards applicable to such barley if it
Snot smutty, and there shall be added to,
made a part of, the grade designation, the
brd "Smutty."
Garlicky Barley
Definition.-Garlicky barley shall be barley
which contains 3 or more green garlic bulblets,
P an equivalent quantity of dry or partly dry
~lblets, in 500 grams of barley.
Grades.-Garlicky barley shall be graded and
eilgnated according to the grade requirements
I the standards applicable to such barley if it
Zre not garlicky, and there shall be added to,
N made a part of, the grade designation, the
lord "Garlicky."
Weevily Barley

Definition.-Weevily barley shall be barley
Wbich is infested with live weevils or other
meets injurious to stored grain.
G::rades.-Weevily barley shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
I the standards applicable to such barley if it
ere not weevily, and there shall be added to,
ad made a part of, the grade designation, the
rord "Weevily."
127675"35---3


31






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Ergoty Barley

Definition.-Ergoty barley shall be barley
which contains ergot in excess of 0.3 percent.
Grades.-Ergoty barley shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such barley if it
were not ergoty, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation the
word "Ergoty."

Bleached Barley

Definition.-Bleached barley shall be barley
which, in whole or in part, has been treated by
the use of sulphurous acid or any other bleach-
ing agent.
Grades.-Bleached barley shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such barley if it
were not bleached, and there shall be added
to, and made a part of, the grade designation,
the word "Bleached."

Definitions

Basis of grade determinations.-Each deter-
mination of dockage, temperature, odor, garlic,
and live weevils or other insects injurious to
stored grain shall be upon the basis of the grain
as a whole. All other determinations shall be
upon the basis of the grain when free from
dockage.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
weight.


32






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Percentage of moisture.-I'ercentrae of miis-
re shall be that ascertained by the air oven
d the method of use thereof described in
rvice and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
the Bureau of Agricultural Economices of the
ited States Department of Agriculture, or
retained by any device and method which
ie equivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
el shall be the weight per Winchester
el, as determined by the testing apparatus
d the method of use thereof described in
iletin No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued
the United States Department of Agriculture,
as determined by. any device and method
which give equivalent results in the determina-
onof test weight per bushel.
Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
de all matter other than barley, except other
ra wild oats, and smut masses, which is not
rated from the barley in the proper de-
Srmination of dockage.
Other grains.--Other grains shall include
heat, rye, oats, corn, grain sorghums, hull-less
ley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn, Polish
heat, poulard wheat, cultivated buckwheat,
d soybeans.
SSound barley.-Sound barley shall be ker-
and pieces of kernels of barley remaining
after the removal of dockage, which are not
'damaged or materially discolored by blight
nid/or mold, which are not heat damaged,
Sprouted, frosted, badly ground damaged, badly
ireather damaged, or otherwise materially
damaged.
SHeat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
Aiels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
Sarlejr, other grains, and wild oats, which have
materially discolored and damaged by ex-
rnal heat or as a result of heating caused by
fermentation .






34 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR OATS

For the purposes of the official grain stand
ards of the United States for oats:
Oats.-Oats shall be any grain which consists
of 80 percent or more of cultivated oats. Oats
may contain not more than 10 percent of wild
oats.
Classes.-Oats shall be divided into five
classes as follows: Class I, White Oats; -Class.
II, Red Oats; Class III, Gray Oats; Class IV,,
Black Oats; and Class V, Mixed Oats. For the!
purpose of this classification, the characteristics
of each class, except Mixed Oats, shall be based;
on color characteristics; White Oats shall in-
clude yellow oats; and tinges of white, brown,
or black, on the kernels of any red oats variety
shall not affect their classification as red oats.
Oats of any class except Mixed Oats. may in-
clude not more than 10 percent of cultivated
oats of other classes. Mixed Oats shall be any
mixture of oats which does not meet the require-
ments for any one of the classes White Oats,,
Red Oats, Gray Oats, or Black Oats.
Grades.-Oats shall be graded and designated
according to the respective grade requirements'
of the numerical grades and Sample grade of
their appropriate class, and according to the
special grades when applicable.

6 The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


35


Oats

I e requirements for the classes White Oats,
Ried Oats, Gray Oats, Black Oats, and Mixed
Oats

Minimum limits
Minimum limits Maximum limits of-
of-

No. Heat-dam-
No. Test Sound For-
weight culti- aged kernel eign Wild
per vated (t, mthe a oats
bushel oats s, and trial
wild oats)

Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
------------ 32 97 0.1 2 2
--..---- 30 94 .3 3 3
--------- 27 90 1.0 4 5
_------- 24 80 3.0 5 10
ple grade-_ Sample grade shall include oats of any one of
the classes White Oats, Red Oats, Gray Oats,
[ Black Oats, or Mixed Oats, which do not
come within the requirements of any of the
f grades from No. 1 to No. 4, inclusive; or
which contain more than 16 percent of mois-
ture; or which contain stones and/or cinders;
or which are musty, or sour, or heating, or hot;
or which have any commercially objectionable
foreign odor except of smut or garlic; or which
contain seeds of wild brome grasses of a
Character and in a quantity sufficient to cause
I the grain to be of low quality for feeding pur-
II poses; or which are otherwise of distinctly low
I quality.

i:l The oats in grade No. 1 White Oats may contain not more
in 5 percent of oats of other classes, of which not more than
Ie t may be black cultivated oats.
ji The oats in grade No. 2 White Oats may contain not more
I1n 5 percent of black cultivated oats.
'* Oats that are slightly weathered shall not be graded higher
I No. 3.
.4 Oats that are badly stained or materially weathered shall not
Ie graded higher than No. 4.





I






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Special Grades for Oats
Tough Oalts ,
Definition.-Tough oats shall be oats which
contain more than 14.5 percent but not more
than 16 percent of moisture.
Grades.-Tough oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if they
were not tough, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Tough."
Heavy Oats
Definition.-Heavy oats shall be oats which
have a test weight per bushel of 35 pounds or
more but less than 38 pounds.
Grades.-Heavy oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if they
were not heavy, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, pre-
ceding the name of the class, the word "Heavy."
Extra Heavy Oats
Definition.-Extra Heavy oats shall be oats
which have a test weight per bushel of 38
pounds or more.
Grades.-Extra Heavy oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such oats
if they were not extra heavy, and there
shall be added to, and made a part of, the grade
designation, preceding the name of the class,
the words Extra Heavy."
Bright Oats
Definition.-Bright oats shall be oats, except
Bleached oats, that are of good natural color.
Grades.-Bright oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if they


36






37


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


* ere not bright, and there shall be added to,
Snd made a part of, the grade designation,
receding the name of the class, the word
Bright."
Bright." Cereal Oats
SDefinition.--Cereal oats shall be any oats,
whetherr sized, clipped, or natural, which con-
Iin more than 20 percent of oats and/or
other matter except fine seeds that will pass
rough a 20-gage metal sieve with slotted per-
rations 0(6& inch wide by % inch long.
Grades.-Cereal oats shall be graded and
signated according to the grade requirements
f the standards applicable to such oats if they
ere not "cereal" oats, and there shall be
dded to, -and made a part of, the grade desig-
tion, the word "Cereal."
Bleached Oats
Definition.-Bleached oats shall be oats
which, in whole or in part, have been treated
*y the use of sulphurous acid or any other
leaching agent.
Grades.-Bleached oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
the standards applicable to such oats if they
* ere not bleached, and there shall be added to,
jmd made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Bleached."
Weevily Oats
t" Definition.-Weevily oats shall be oats which
Iire infested with live weevils or other insects
injnrious to stored grain.
i Grades.-Weevily oats shall be .graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
VOf the standards applicable to such oats if they
awere-not weevily, and there shall be added to,
And made a part of, the grade designation, the
~word "Weevily."






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Smutty Oats

Definition.-Smutty oats shall be oats which
have the kernels covered with smut spores, or
which contain smut masses and/or smut balls
in excess of 0.2 percent.
Grades.-Smutty oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if
they were not smutty, and there shall be added
to, and made a part of, the grade designation,
the word Smutty."
Ergoty Oats
Definition.-Ergoty oats shall be oats which
contain ergot in excess of 0.3 percent:
Grades.-Ergoty oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if they
were not ergoty, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word Ergoty."
Garlicky Oats
Definition.-Garlicky oats shall be oats which
contain 4 or more green garlic bulblets, or an
equivalent quantity of dry or partly dry bulb-
lets, in 500 grams of oats.
Grades.-Garlicky oats shall be graded and
designated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such oats if they
were not garlicky, and there shall be added to,
and made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Garlicky."
Definitions
Basis of grade determinations.-All determi-
nations shall be upon the basis of the grain as
a whole.


38







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
Moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
ght.
Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
re shall be that ascertained by the air oven
d the method of use thereof described in
rvice and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
nted States Department of Agriculture, or
certained- by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
shel shall be the weight per Winchester bushel
determined by the testing apparatus and the
thod of use thereof described in Bulletin No.
dated May 18, 1922, issued by the United
states Department of Agriculture, or as deter-
med by any device and method which give
uivalent results in the determination of test
eight per bushel.
SForeign material.-Foreign material shall in-
Slude all matter except kernels and pieces of
ernels of cultivated oats, other grains, and
d oats, but shall include oats clippings and
detached hulls.
Fine seeds.-Fine seeds shall include all
matter which can be removed from oats by the
Use of a metal sieve perforated with equilateral
triangular perforations the inscribed circles of
Shich are 5/64 inch in diameter.
Other grains.-Other grains shall include
wheat, rye, corn, grain sorghums, barley, hull-
barley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn,
Jolish wheat, poulard wheat, cultivated buck-
jwheat, and soybeans.
Sound cultivated oats.-Sound cultivated oats
all be all kernels and pieces of kernels of cul-
vated oats which are not heat damaged,
routed,. frosted, badly ground damaged, badly
father damaged, or otherwise materially


39







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
nels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
cultivated oats, other grains, and wild oats,
which have been materially discolored and dam-
aged by external heat or as a result of heating
caused by fermentation.

STANDARD FOR FEED OATS6
For the purposes of the official grain stand-
ards of the United States for Feed Oats:
Feed Oats.-Feed Oats shall be any grain
which consists of either (a) 30 percent or more
but less than 80 percent of cultivated oats, but
not less than 65 percent of cultivated and wild
oats combined, or (b) 80 percent or more of cul-
tivated oats and more than 10 percent of wild
oats. Feed Oats may contain not more than 25
percent of other grains, and may contain not
more than 10 percent of foreign material, which
10 percent may include not more than 5 percent
of fine seeds.
Grades.-Feed Oats shall be graded and desig-
nated according to the respective grade require-
ments of the numerical grades and Sample grade
of these standards, and according to the special
grades when applicable.
Special Grades for Feed Oats
Tough, Feeld Oats
Definition.-Tough Feed Oats shall be feed
oats which contain more than 14.5 percent
but not more than 16 percent of moisture.
Grades.-Tough Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such feed
oats if they were not tough, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word Tough."
6 The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.


40







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Feed Oats
Grade requirements for Feed Oats


Grade No.


1 -----------
.2--------
ple grade-------
Sample grade-.


Minimum limits
of-


Test
weight
per
bushel


Culti-
vated
oats


Pounds Percent


S


Maximum limits of-


Heat-dam-
aged kernels
(oats, wild
oats, and
other
grains)


Percent


Foreign mate.
rial


Total Fine
seeds


Percent


Per-
cent


32 60 2 3 2
29 45 4 4 3
26 30 6 6 4
ample grade shall include feed oats which do
not come within the requirements of any of
the grades from No. 1 to No. 3, inclusive; or
which contain more than 16 percent of mois-
ture; or which are musty, or sour, or heating,
or hot; or which have any commercially ob-
jectionable foreign odor except of smut or
garlic; or which contain seeds of wild brome
grasses of a character and in a quantity suffi-
cient to cause the grain to be of low quality
for feeding purposes; or which are otherwise
of distinctly low quality.


1 Feed Oats that are badly stained or materially weathered
hall not be graded higher than No. 3.

Bleached Feed Oats
Definition.-Bleached Feed Oats shall be feed
oats which, in whole or in part, have been
treated by the use of sulphurous acid or any
other bleaching agent.
Grades.--Bleached Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such feed
oats if they were not bleached, and there shall
be added to, and made a part of, the grade
designation, the word "Bleached."


41







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Weevily Feed Oats
Definition.-Weevily Feed Oats shall be feed
oats which are infested with live weevils or
other insects injurious to stored grain.
Grades.-Weevily Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such feed
oats if they were not weevily, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word "Weevily."

Smutty Feed Oats
Definition.-Smutty Feed Oats shall be feed
oats which have the kernels covered with smut
spores, or which contain smut masses and/or
smut balls in excess of 0.2 percent.
Grades.-Smutty Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such feed
oats if they were not smutty, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word Smutty."

Ergoty Feed Oats
Definition.-Ergoty Feed Oats shall be feed
oats which contain ergot in excess of 0.3 per-
cent.
Grades.-Ergoty Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such feed
oats if they were not ergoty, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word "Ergoty."

Definitions
Basis of grade determinations.-All determi-
nations shall be upon the basis of the grain as a
whole.


42






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
eight.
Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
re shall be that ascertained by the air oven
d the method of use thereof described in
vice and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
united States Department of Agriculture, or as-
rtained by any device and method which give
uivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
ushel shall be the weight per Winchester
hel as determined by the testing apparatus
d the method of use thereof described in Bul-
t No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued by
e United States Department of Agriculture, or
determined by any device and method which
eve equivalent results in the determination of
st weight per bushel.
Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
ude all matter except kernels and pieces of
rnels of cultivated oats, other grains, and
ild oats; but shall include oats clippings and
tached hulls.
SFine seeds.-Fine seeds shall include all mat-
er which can be removed from feed oats by the
b e of a metal sieve perforated with equilateral
triangular perforations the inscribed circles of
iwrhich are 5/64 inch in diameter.
'" Other grains.-Other grains shall include
heat, rye, corn, grain sorghums, barley, hull-
s barley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn,
lish wheat, poulard wheat, cultivated buck-
heat, and soybeans.
Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
s shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
tivated oats, wild oats, and other grains
ich have been materially discolored and dam-
by external heat or as a result of heating
used by fermentation.


43







44 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR MIXED FEED OATS
For the purposes of the official grain stand-
ards of the United States for Mixed Feed Oats:
Mixed Feed Oats.-Mixed Feed Oats shall be
any grain which consists of less than 30 percent
of cultivated oats, but either (a) not less than
65 percent of cultivated and wild oats com-
bined, or (b) not less than 65 percent of wild
oats; may contain not more than 25 percent of
other grains; and may contain not more than
10 percent of foreign material, which 10 percent
may include not more than 5 percent of fine
seeds.
Grades.-Mixed Feed Oats shall be graded
and designated according to the respective
grade requirements of the numerical grades and
Sample grade of these standards, and accord-
ing to the special grades when applicable.
Special Grades for Mixed Feed Oats
Tough Miwed Feed Oats
Definition.-Tough Mixed Feed Oats shall be,
mixed feed oats which contain more than 14.51
percent but not more than 16 percent of:
moisture.
Grades.-Tough Mixed Feed Oats shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such:
mixed feed oats if they were not tough, and.
there shall be added to, and made a part of,
the grade designation, the word "Tough."
Bleached Mixed Feed Oats
Definition.-Bleached Mixed Feed Oats shall
be mixed feed oats which, in whole or in part,

7 The specifications of these standards shall.not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


45


D e been treated by the use of sulphurous acid
any other bleaching agent.
Grades.-Bleached Mixed Feed Oats shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
uirements of the standards applicable to such
lied feed oats if they were not bleached, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of, the
grade designation, the word Bleached."


Mixed


Feed Oats


Grade requirements for Mixed Feed Oats


Grade No.


Mini-
mum
test
weight
per
bushel


Maximum limits of-


Heat-damaged
kernels (oats,
wild oats, and
other grains)


Foreign material


SuPounds Percent Percent Percent
i1.--------- ---32 2 5 2
2 29 4 7 3
31------------- 26 6 10 4
Bample grade-_ Sample grade shall include mixed feed oats
which do not come within the requirements
of any of the grades from No. 1 to No. 3, in-
clusive; or which contain more than 16 per-
cent of moisture; or which are musty, or sour,
or heating, or hot; or which have any com-
mercially objectionable foreign odor except of
smut or garlic; or which contain seeds of wild
brome grasses of a character and in a quan-
tity sufficient to cause the grain to be of low
quality for feeding purposes; or which are
otherwise of distinctly low quality.

Mixed Feed Oats that are badly stained or materially weath-
mied shall not be graded higher than No. 3.
Weevily Mixed Feed Oats
Definition.-Weevily Mixed Feed Oats shall
be mixed feed oats which are infested with live
weevils or other insects injurious to stored







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Grades.-Weevily Mixed Feed Oats shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
mixed feed oats if they were not weevily, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of, the
grade designation, the word Weevily."

8Hmitty Mimed Feed Oats
Definition.-Smutty Mixed Feed Oats shall
be mixed feed oats which have the kernels cov-
ered with smut spores, or which contain smut
masses and/or smut balls in excess of 0.2 per-
cent.
Grades.-Smutty Mixed Feed Oats shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
mixed feed oats if they were not smutty, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of,
the grade designation, the word Smutty."

Ergoty Mixed Feed Oats
Definition.-Ergoty Mixed Feed Oats shall be
mixed feed oats which contain ergot in excess of
0.3 percent.
Grades.-Ergoty Mixed Feed Oats shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to
such mixed feed oats if they were not ergoty,
and there shall be added to, and made a part
of, the grade designation, the word Ergoty."

Definitions
Basis of grade determinations.-All determi-
nations shall be upon the basis of the grain
as a whole.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained
by weight.


46






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 47

Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
re shall be that ascertained by the air oven
d the method of use thereof described in
servicee and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
f the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
united States Department of Agriculture, or
certained by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
ushel shall be the weight per Winchester bushel
determined by the testing apparatus and the
ethod of use thereof described in Bulletin No.
065, dated May 18, 1922, issued by the United
states Department of Agriculture, or as deter-
ined by any device and method which give
uivalent results in the determination of test
eight per bushel.
Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
lude all matter except kernels and pieces of
kernels of cultivated oats, other grains, and
ild oats; and shall include oats clippings and
iletached hulls.
i1 Fine seeds.-Fine seeds shall include all mat-
lIer which can be removed from Mixed Feed Oats
iy the use of a metal sieve perforated with
equilateral triangular perforations the inscribed
circles of which are 5/64 inch in diameter.
Other grains.-Other grains shall include
wheat, rye, corn, grain sorghums, barley, hull-
ess barley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn,
Polish wheat, poulard wheat, cultivated buck-
rheat, and soybeans.
SHeat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
pels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
cultivated oats, wild oats, or other grains, which
have -been materially discolored and damaged
y external heat or as a result of heating caused
y fermentation.
127675-35---4







48 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR RYE

For the purposes of the official grain stand-
.ards of the United States for rye:
Rye.-Rye shall be any grain which, before
the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent
or more of rye and not more than.10 percent
of other grains for which standards have been
established under the provisions of the United
States Grain Standards Act.
Grades.-Rye shall be graded and designated
according to the respective grade requirements
of the numerical grades and Sample grade of
these standards, and according to the special
grades when applicable.
Dockage
Dockage includes weed seeds, weed stems,
chaff, straw, grain other than rye, sand, dirt,
and any other foreign material, which can be
removed readily from the rye by the use of
appropriate sieves and cleaning devices; also
undeveloped, shriveled, and small pieces of rye
kernels which are removed in properly separat-
ing the foreign material, and which cannot be
recovered by properly rescreening or recleaning.
The quantity of dockage shall be calculated
in terms of percentage based on the total weight
of the grain including the dockage. The per-
centage of dockage so calculated, when equal to
1 percent or more, shall be stated in terms of
whole percent, and -when less than 1 percent
shall not be stated. A fraction of a percent
shall be disregarded. The word "Dockage",
together with the percentage thereof,, shall be
added to the grade designation.

-s The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
.and Drugs Act.







49


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Rye

Grade requirements for Rye


Grade No..


S1---- ----
2-----------
3 --------------
a-------
Sample grade.


Mini-
mum
test
weight
per
bushel


Maximum limits of-


Damaged
kernels (rye Foreign material
and other
grains)


Total


Heat-
dam-
aged


Total


Foreign
matter
other than
wheat


Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
56 2 0.1 3 1
54 4 .2 6 2
52 7 .5 10 4
49 15 3.0 10 6
Sample grade shall include rye which does not
come within the requirements of any of the
grades from No. 1 to No. 4, inclusive; or
which contains more than 16 percent of mois-
ture; or which contains inseparable stones
and/or cinders; or which is musty, or sour, or
heating, or hot; or which has any commer-
cially objectionable foreign odor except of
smut or garlic; or which contains a quantity
of smut so great that any one or more of the
grade requirements cannot be applied ac-
curately; or which is otherwise of distinctly
low quality.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Special Grades for Rye

Tough Rye
Definition.-Tough rye shall be rye which
contains more than 14 percent, but not more
than 16 percent, of moisture.
Grades.-Tough rye shall be graded and des-
ignated according to the grade requirements of
the standards applicable to such rye if it were
not tough, and there shall be added to, and
made a part of, the grade designation, the
word "Tough."
Smutty Rye
Definition.-Smutty rye shall be rye which
has an unmistakable odor of smut, or which
contains balls, portions of balls, or spores, of
smut, in excess of a quantity equal to 14 balls
of average size in 250' grams of rye.
Grades.-Smutty rye shall be graded and des-
ignated according to the grade requirements
of the standards applicable to such rye if it
were not smutty; and
(1) In the case of smutty rye which has
an unmistakable odor of smut, or which con-
tains balls, portions of balls, or spores, of
smut, in excess of a quantity equal to 14
balls but not in excess of a quantity equal
to 30 balls of average size in 250 grams of rye,
there shall be added to, and made a part of,
the grade designation, the words "Light
Smutty"; and
(2) In the case of smutty rye which con-
tains balls, portions of balls, or spores, of
smut, in excess of a quantity equal to. 30 balls
of average size in 250 grams of rye, there shall
be added to, and made-a part of, the grade
designation, the word Smutty."


50






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 51

Garlicky Rye

Definition.-Garlicky rye shall be rye which
tains 2 or more green garlic bulblets, or an
ivalent quantity of dry or partly dry bulblets,
S1,000 grams of rye.
Grades.-Garlicky rye shall be graded and
signated according to the grade requirements
the standards applicable to such rye if it
re not garlicky: and
(1) In thee case of garlicky rye which contains
or more but not more than 6 green garlic bulb-
or an equivalent quantity of dry or partly
Sbulblets, in 1,000 grams of rye, there shall
Added to, and made a part of, the grade
signation, the words "Light Garlicky "; and
(2) In the case of garlicky rye which con-
more than 6 green garlic bulblets, or an
iivalent quantity of dry or partly dry bulb-
,in 1,000 grams of rye, there shall be added
and made a part of, the grade designation,
word "Garlicky."
Weevily Rye

Definition.-Weevily rye shall be rye which is
tested with live weevils or other insects in-
ious to stored grain.
Grades.-Weevily rye shall be graded and des-
ted according to the grade requirements of
e standards applicable to such rye if it were
t weevily, and there shall be added to, and
de a part of, the grade designation, the word
.Weevily."






52 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Ergoty Rye

Definition.-Ergoty rye shall be rye which
contains ergot in excess of 0.3 percent.
Grades.-Ergoty rye shall be graded and des-
ignated according to the grade requirements of
the standards applicable to such rye if it were
not ergoty, and there shall be added to, and
made a part of, the grade designation, the word
"Ergoty."
Definitions

Basis of grade determinations.-Each deter-
mination of dockage, temperature, odor, garlic,,
and live weevils or other insects injurious to,
stored grain, shall be upon the basis of thet
grain as a whole. All other determinations shall
be upon the basis of the grain when free from
dockage.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case;
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained
by weight.
Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
ture shall be that ascertained by the air oven,
and the method of use thereof described in
Service and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of theta
United States Department of Agriculture, orP
ascertained by any device and method which
give equivalent results in the determination of1
moisture.
Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
bushel shall be the weight per Winchester,
bushel as determined by the testing apparatus
and the method of use thereof described imn
Bulletin No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued
by the United States Department of Agriculture,,
or as determined by any device and method
which give equivalent results in the determina-
tion of test weight per bushel.







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 53

Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
de all matter other than rye, which is not
ated from the rye in the proper deter-
dtion of dockage, except that smut balls
1 not be considered as foreign material.
Other grains.-Other grains shall include
t, oats, corn, grain sorghums, barley, hull-
s barley, flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn,
lish wheat, poulard wheat, cultivated buck-
heat, and soybeans.
Damaged kernels.-Damaged kernels shall be
rnels and pieces of kernels of rye and other
gains which are heat damaged, sprouted,
ted, badly ground damaged, badly weather
aged, or otherwise materially damaged.
Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
ls shall be kernels and pieces of kernels of
e and other grains which have been materially
colored and damaged by external heat or as
result of heating caused by fermentation.






I




",ii
I
I


ii, ,: ..







54 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR GRAIN SORGHUMS1

For the purposes of the official grain stand-
ards of the United States for grain sorghums:
Grain sorghums.-Grain sorghums shall be
any grain which, before the removal of dockage,
consists of 50 percent or more of grain sorghums
and not more than 10 percent of other grains
for which standards have been established
under the provisions of the United States Grain
Standards Act, and which, after the removal of
dockage and of "cracked kernels, foreign ma-
terial, and other grains ", contains not more
than 25 percent of nongrain sorghums.
Classes.-Grain sorghums shall be divided
into five classes, as follows: Class I, White
Grain Sorghums; Class II, Yellow Grain Sor-
ghums; Class III, Red Grain Sorghums; Class
IV, Brown Grain Sorghums; and Class V, Mixed
Grain Sorghums.
Grades.-Grain sorghums shall be graded and
designated according to the respective grade re-
quirements of the numerical grades and Sample
grade of their appropriate class or subclass, and
according to the special grades when applicable.

10 The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Food
and Drugs Act.







OFFICIAL GRAIN


STANDARDS


W. a CP
E-1 t. 0 0
&.1o
0.44J


55


1!t

Ito

.5





V.-
a.
Vl

Ik


I..
V,
Al:






56 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

White Grain Sorghums (Class I)

This class shall include all varieties of whit
grain sorghums, and may include not more than
10 percent of grain sorghums of other colors.
Colored spots upon kernels that are otherwise
white shall not affect their classification a
white. This class shall be divided into there
subclasses, as follows:
Subclass (A) White Kafir
This subclass shall include grain sorghums of
the white kafir type, including hegari, and may
include not more than 10 percent of other white
grain sorghums, grain sorghums of other colors,
or nongrain sorghums of other colors, singly or
in any combination.
Subclass (B) White Durra
This subclass shall include grain sorghums of
the white durra type, and may include not more
than 10 percent of other white grain sorghums,.
grain sorghums of other colors, or nongraint
sorghums of other colors, singly or in any com-
bination.
Subclass (C) White Grain Sorghums
This subclass shall include all grain sorghumst
of the class White Grain Sorghums not coming
within the classification for subclass (a) White
Kafir or subclass (b) White Durra.
Yellow Grain Sorghums (Class II)
This class shall include all varieties of yel-
low and salmon-pink grain sorghums, and may
include not more than 10 percent of grain sor-
ghums of other colors. This class shall be
divided into two subclasses, as follows:






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 57

Subclass (A) Yellow Milo

SThis subclass shall include grain sorghums of
Ibe yellow milo type, and may include not more
than 10 percent of other yellow grain sorghums,
train sorghums of other colors, or nongrain sor-
ghums of other colors, singly or in any com-
lination.

Subclass (B) Yellow Grain Sorghumni

SThis subclass shall include all grain sorghums
df the class Yellow Grain Sorghums not coming
within the classification for subclass'(a) Yellow
Wilo.

Red Grain Sorghums (Class III)

This class shall include all varieties of red
rain sorghums, and may include not more than
,0 percent of grain sorghums of other colors.
Chis class shall be divided into two subclasses,
is follows:

Subclass (A) Red Kafir

This subclass shall include grain sorghums of
he red kafir type and may include not more
ban 10 percent of other red grain sorghums,
rain sorghums of other colors, or nongrain
prghums of other colors, singly or in any
mbination.

Subclass (B) Red Grain Sorghums

This subclass shall include all grain sorghums
Sthe class Red Grain Sorghums not coming
thin the classification for subclass (a) Red
afir. -






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Brown Grain Sorghums (Class IV)

This class shall include all varieties of brow
grain sorghums, and may include not more thar
10 percent of grain sorghums of other colors.

Mixed Grain Sorghums (Class V)

This class shall include all mixtures of grai
sorghums not provided for in the classes from
I to IV, inclusive.
Grade requirements and designations.-Th
grade designation for Mixed Grain Sorghums
shall include, successively, in the order named:
(1) The number of the grade or the words
" Sample grade ", as the case may be; (2) th
words Mixed Grain Sorghums "; (3) the name
and the approximate percentage of each class
of grain sorghums which constitutes 10 per-
cent or more of the mixture, in the order oi
its predominance, but if only one class ex-
ceeds 10 percent of the mixture, the name and
approximate percentage of that class shall
included in the grade designation, followed b
the name and approximate percentage of a
least one other class. In those cases where
Mixed Grain Sorghums consist of 70 percent
or more of grain sorghums of the types white
kafir, white durra, yellow milo, or red kafir,,
singly or combined, and not more than 10 per-
cent of brown grain sorghums, the word
" Mixed" shall be substituted for the words
" Mixed Grain Sorghums", and the name of
the appropriate -subclass or subclasses for such
type or types, as the case may be, shall be,
substituted for the class names, in the grade
designation.


58






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Dockage

Dockage includes sand, dirt, finely broken ker-
weed seeds, and other foreign material,
which can be removed readily from the grain
orghums by means of a metal sieve perforated
dith round holes 2%/64 inch in diameter. The
quantityy of dockage shall be calculated in terms
If percentage based on the total weight of the
rain including the dockage.
Dockage. shall be stated in terms of whole
percent. A fraction of a percent shall be dis-
regarded. The word Dockage ", together with
the percentage thereof, shall be added to the
grade designation.
Special Grades for Grain Sorghums
Bright Grain Sorghums
Definition.-Bright grain sorghums shall be
grain sorghums, of any class or subclass, which
have good, natural color.
Grades.-Bright grain sorghums shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
grain sorghums if they were not bright, and
here shall be added to, and made a part of,
he grade designation, preceding the name of the
lass or subclass, the word "Bright."


59






60 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Discolored Grain Sorghums

Definition.-Discolored grain sorghums shall
be grain sorghums of any class or subclass
which are discolored, but which are not badly
weathered.
Grades.-Discolored grain sorghums shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
grain sorghums if they were not discolored,
and there shall be added to, and made a part of,
the grade designation, the word "Discolored."

Weevily Grain Sorghums

Definition.-Weevily grain sorghums shall be
grain sorghums which are infested with live
weevils or other insects injurious to stored
grain.
Grades.-Weevily grain sorghums shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
grain sorghums if they were not weevily, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of.
the grade designation, the word Weevily."

Smutty Grain Sorghums

Definition.-Smutty grain sorghums shall bd
grain sorghums which have the kernels covered
with smut spores, or which contain a quantit/
of smut masses in excess of a quantity equal to
10 masses in 50 grams of grain sorghums.
Grades.-Smutty grain sorghums shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
grain sorghums if they were not smutty, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of,
the grade designation, the word Smutty."






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Definitions
Basis of grade determinations.-Each deter-
ination of cracked kernels, foreign material.
d other grains", shall be upon the basis of
e grain when free from dockage. Each de-
rmination of class, subclass, nongrain sor-
ums, damage, heat damage, and inseparable
ones and/or cinders, shall be upon the basis
the grain when free from dockage and when
e from that part of the "cracked kernels,
reign material, and other grains" which can
removed readily by the use of a metal sieve
rforated with equilateral triangular perfora-
ons the inscribed circles of which are 5/64
ch in diameter. All other determinations
all be upon the basis of the grain as a whole.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
eight.
SPercentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
Kure shall be that ascertained by the air oven
And the method of use thereof described in
Service and Regulatory Announcements No. 147
i the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
united States Department of Agriculture, or
acertained by any device and method which
ve equivalent results in the determination of
moisture .
STest weight per bushel.-Test weight per
blshel shall be the weight per Winchester
nsehel as determined by the testing apparatus
d the method of use thereof described in
Bulletin No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued by
he United States Department of Agriculture,
as determined by any device and method
which give equivalent results in the determina-
ion of test weight per bushel.
. Other grains.-Other grains shall include
heat, rye, oats, corn, barley, hull-less barley,


61






62 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

flaxseed, emmer, spelt, einkorn, Polish wheat,
poulard wheat, cultivated buckwheat, and soy-
beans.
Nongrain sorghums.-Nongrain sorghum
shall include broomcorn, Sudan grass, Johnso
grass, and chne seed.
Cracked kernels, foreign material, and othe
grains.-Cracked kernels, foreign material, an
other grains, shall include kernels and piece
of kernels of grain sorghums, and all other mat-
ter except dockage that will pass through
metal sieve perforated with equilateral trian
gular perorations the inscribed circles of which
are 5/64 inch in diameter; also other grain
and all other matter except grain sorghums and[
nongrain sorghums remaining on such sieve
after screening.
Damaged kernels.-Damaged kernels shall b
kernels and pieces of kernels of grain sorghums,
nongrain sorghums, and other grains which
are heat da-maged, sprouted, frosted, badl
ground damaged, moldy, or otherwise mate-
rially damaged.
Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
nels shall be kernels and pieces of kernels oft
grain sorghums, nongrain sorghums, and other
grains which have been materially discolored
and damaged by external heat or as a result
of heating caused by fermentation.







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


63


STANDARDS FOR FLAXSEED "

For the purposes of the official grain stand-
of the United States for flaxseed:
Plaseed.-Flaxseed shall be any grain which,
ore the removal of dockage, consists of 50
et or more of flaxseed and not more than
percent of other grains for which standards
ve been established under the provisions of
United States Grain Standards Act.
Grades.-Flaxseed shall be graded and desig-
ted according to the respective grade require-
ents of the numerical grades and Sample
de of these standards.

Flaxseed

Grade requirements for Flaxseed

Minimum test Maximum limits of
Grade No. weight per bushel damaged flaxseed
;________:_____________________


pie grade ....
----------


1k


49 pounds_---------- 20 percent
47 pounds ---------- 30 percent
Sample grade shall include flaxseed which
does not come within the requirements
of either of the grades No. 1 or No. 2; or
which contains fire-damaged flaxseed; or
which contains more than 11 percent of
moisture; or which is musty, or sour, or
heating, or hot; or which has any com-
mercially objectionable foreign odor; or
which is otherwise of distinctly low
quality.


1 The specifications of these standards shall not excuse failure
maply with the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act.
127675 --35-- 5







64 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Dockage

Dockage shall include all matter other than
flaxseed which is contained in the lot of grain
as a whole; also undeveloped, shriveled, and
small pieces of flaxseed removed with the.dock-
age and which cannot be recovered by properly
rescreening or recleaning. The quantity of
dockage shall be calculated in terms of per-
centage based on the total weight of the flax-
seed including the dockage.
Dockage shall be stated in terms of whole
percent. A fraction of a percent shall be dis-
regarded. The word Dockage ", together with
the percentage thereof, shall be added to the
grade designation.

Definitions

Basis of grade determinations.-Each deter
mination of test weight, moisture, damage, anc
" fire damaged ", shall be upon the basis of the
grain after the removal of that part of the
dockage which can be removed readily by the
use of appropriate sieves and cleaning devices
All other determinations shall be upon thi
basis of the grain as a whole.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the cas,
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained
by weight.
Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of moist
ture shall be that ascertained by the air oven
and the method of use thereof described ii
Service and Regulatory Announcements No. 141d
of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the
United States Department of Agriculture, o0
ascertained by any device and method whielc
give equivalent results in the determination o'
moisture.








OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARD 6;5

Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
ushel shall be the weight per Winchester
hel as determined by the testing apparatus
nd the method of use thereof described in
bulletin No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued
the United States Department of Agricul-
re, or as determined by any device and method
which give equivalent results in the determina-
on of test weight per bushel.
Damaged, flaxseed.-Damaged flaxseed shall
seeds and pieces of seeds of flaxseed which
re heat damaged, sprouted, frosted, badly
round damaged, badly weather damaged, or
Otherwise materially damaged.







I .









:f.
'im.
I !

A '::"d~E







66 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

STANDARDS FOR MIXED GRAIN12

For the purposes of the official grain stand-
ards of the United States for Mixed Grain:
Definition.-Mixed Grain shall be any mixture
of those grains for which standards have been,
or hereafter may be, established under the pro-
visions of the United States Grain Standards
Act, that does not come within the requirements
of any of the standards for such grains, and
that does not contain more than 50 percent of
foreign material. Wild oats in Mixed Grain
shall le classed as a grain.
Grades.-Mixed Grain shall be graded and;
designated either as Mixed Grain" or as
" Sample grade Mixed Grain ", and according to
the special grades when applicable.

Grade Requirements

Mixed Grain (Grade).-The grade "Mixedi
Grain shall include all mixed grain which
does not come within the specifications for
Sample grade Mixed Grain.
Sample grade Mixed Grain.-The grade
" Sample grade Mixed Grain shall include all
mixed grain which contains more than 16 per-
cent of moisture, or nore than 15 percent ol
damaged kernels, or more than 3 percent o
heat-damaged kernels; or which is musty, o
sour, or heating, or hot; or which contains
stones and/or cinders; or which has any com-
mercially objectionable foreign odor except ob
smut or garlic; or which has a quantity of smut
so great that any one or more of the grade
requirements cannot be applied accurately; o
which is otherwise of distinctly low quality.

12 The specifications of these standards shall not ex-
cuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Foodt
and Drugs Act.






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 67

Grade Designations
The grade designation for Mixed Grain shall
Include, in the order named:
(1) The words Mixed Grain or the words
"Sample grade Mixed Grain ", as the case may
be;
(2) The name and approximate percentage
,of each kind of grain, including wild oats.
-which constitutes 10 percent or more of the
.I mixture, in, the order of predominance; and
(3) When applicable, the words "Other
Grains", followed by a statement, of the per-
centage of the combined quantity of those kinds
of grain, including wild oats, each of which is
present in a quantity less than 10 percent; and
(4) The words Foreign Material ", together
with a statement of the percentage thereof.
All percentage statements shall be in terms of
whole percent. A fraction of a percent shall be
Disregarded.

Special Grades for Mixed Grain

Tough Mimed Grain

Definition.-Tough Mixed Grain shall be
mixed grain which contains more than 14.5 per-
cent but not more than 16 percent of moisture.
Grades.-Tough Mixed Grain shall be graded
i:and designated according to the grade require-
Sments of the standards applicable to such mixed
grain if it were not tough, and there shall be
y added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
Snation, the word "Tough."






68 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Snmtty Mixed Grain

Definition.--Smutty Mixed Grain shall be
(a) mixed grain in which wheat or rye pre-
dominates, and which contains balls, portions
of balls, or spores, of smut, in excess of a
quantity equal to 14 balls of average size in
250 grams of mixed grain, or (b) any other
mixed grain which has the kernels covered
with smut spores, or which contains smut
masses and/or smut balls in excess of 0.2 per-
cent.
Grades.-Smutty Mixed Grain shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such mixed
grain if it were not smutty, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word Smutty."

Ergoty Mixed Grain

Definition.-Ergoty Mixed Grain shall be
mixed grain which contains ergot in excess of
0.3 percent.
Grades.-Ergoty Mixed Grain shall be graded
and designated according to the grade require-
ments of the standards applicable to such mixed
grain if it were not ergoty, and there shall be
added to, and made a part of, the grade desig-
nation, the word Ergo ty."
d






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 69

': Garlicky Mixed Grain

SDefinition.-Garlicky Mixed Grain shall be
S(a) mixed grain in which wheat or rye pre-
dominates, and which contains 2 or more green
:garlic bulblets, or an equivalent quantity of
dry or partly dry bulbets, in 1,000 grams of
Mixed grain; or (b) mixed grain in which oats
or barley predominates, and which contains 4
or more green garlic bulblets, or an equivalent
quantity of dry or partly dry bulblets, in 500
grams of mixed grain.
Grades.-Garlicky Mixed Grain shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
mixed grain if it were not garlicky, and there
shall be added to, and made a part of, the grade
designation, the word "Garlicky."

Weevily MiEed Gra4n

Definition.-Weevily Mixed Grain shall be
mixed grain which is infested with live weevils
or other insects injurious to stored grain.
Grades. Weevily Mixed Grain shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
mixed grain if it were not weevily, and there
shall be added to, and made a part of, the grade
designation, the word "Weevily."

Blighted Mised Grain

Definition.-Blighted Mixed Grain shall be
all mixed grain in which barley predominates.
and which, as a whole, contains more than 4
percent of barley damaged or materially dis-
Scolored by blight and/or mold.
"'I






70 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

Grades. Blighted Mixed Grain shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to such
mixed grain if it were not blighted, and there
shall be added to, and made a part of, the grade
designation, the word Blighted."

Treated Mixed Grain

Definition.-Treated Mixed Grain shall be
mixed grain which has been scoured, limed,
washed, sulphured, or treated in such a manner
that its* true quality is not reflected by either
the numerical grade or the Sample grade desig-
nation, alone.
Grades.- Treated Mixed Grain shall be
graded and designated according to the grade
requirements of the standards applicable to
such mixed grain if it were not treated, and
there shall be added to, and made a part of, the
grade designation, a statement indicating the
kind of treatment.

Definitions

Basis of grade determinations.-All deter-
minations shall be on the basis of the grain as
a whole.
Percentages.-Percentages, except in the case
of moisture, shall be percentages ascertained by
weight.
Percentage of moisture.-Percentage of mois-
ture shall be that ascertained by the apparatus
and the method of use thereof specified in the
official grain standards of the United States for
the kind of grain which predominates in the
mixture.







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 71

Test weight per bushel.-Test weight per
bushel shall be the weight per Winchester
bushel as determined by the testing apparatus
and the method of use thereof described in
Bulletin No. 1065, dated May 18, 1922, issued
by the United States Department of Agriculture,
or as determined by any device and method
which give equivalent results in the determina-
tion of test weight per bushel.
Foreign material.-Foreign material shall in-
clude all matter other than grains for which
Standards have been established under the pro-
visions of the United States Grain Standards
Act, but shall not include wild oats.
Damaged kernels.-Damaged kernels shall be
all kernels and pieces of kernels of those grains
for which standards have been established
under the provisions of the United States Grain
Standards Act, which are heat damaged,
Sprouted, frosted, badly ground damaged,
Badly weather damaged, or otherwise materially
damaged.
Heat-damaged kernels.-Heat-damaged ker-
nels shall be kernels and pieces of kernel of
those grains for which standards have been
established under the provisions of the United
States Grain Standards Act, which have been
materially discolored and damaged by external
heat or as a result of heating caused by
fermentation.
:i i

a i ":ii:
iF:

I:H:.







IMPORTANT FEATURES OF
GRAIN INSPECTION

The United States Grain Standards Act pro-
vides in part as follows:
INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS
SE. 4. That whenever standards shall have
been fixed and -established under this act.. for
any grain no person thereafter shall ship or
deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign
commerce any such grain which is sold, offered
for sale, or consigned for sale by grade unless
the grain shall have been inspected and graded
by an inspector licensed under this act and the
grade by which it is sold, offered for sale, or
consigned for sale be one of the grades fixed
therefore in the official grain standards of the
United States: Provided, That any person may
sell, offer for sale, or consign for sale, ship or
deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign
commerce any such grain by sample or by type,
or under any name, description, or designation
which is not false or misleading, and which
name, description, or designation does not
include in whole or in part the terms of any
official grain standard of the United States:
Provided further, That any such grain sold,
offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade
may be shipped or delivered for shipment in
interstate or foreign commerce without inspec-
tion at point of shipment by an inspector
licensed under this act, to or through any place
at which an inspector licensed under this act is
located, subject to be inspected by a licensed
inspector at the place to which shipped or at
some convenient point through which shipped
for inspection, which inspection shall be under
such rules and regulations as the Secretary of
Agriculture shall prescribe, and subject further
72







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


to the right of appeal from such inspection, as
ovided in section 6 of this act: And provided
further, That any such grain sold, offered for
le, or consigned for sale by any of the grades
ed therefore in the official grain standards
ay, upon compliance with the rules and regu-
lations prescribed by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture, be shipped in interstate or foreign com-
merce without inspection from a place at which
there is no-inspector licensed under this act to a
I place at which there is no such inspector, sub-
Sject to the right of either party to the transaction
Sto refer any dispute as to the grade of the grain
I to the Secretary of Agriculture, who may deter-
mine the true grade thereof. No person shall
in any certificate or in any contract or agree-
ment of sale or agreement to sell by grade,
either oral or written, involving, or in any
I invoice or bill of lading or other shipping docu-
ment relating to, the shipment or delivery for
I shipment, in interstate or foreign commerce, of
iany grain for which standards shall have been
Fixed and established under this act, describe, or
iin any way refer to, any of such grain as being
oof any grade other than a grade fixed therefore
in the official grain standards of the United
" States."
I MISREPRESENTATION
Snc. 5. That no person, except as permitted
in section 4, shall represent that any grain
shipped or delivered for shipment in inter-
state or foreign commerce is of a grade fixed
p the official grain standards other than as
oown by a certificate therefore issued in com-
liance with this act; and the Secretary of
Agriculture is authorized to cause examinations
to be made of any grain for which standards
shall have been fixed and established under
this act, and which has been certified to con-
form to any grade fixed therefore in such offi-


73







74


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


cial grain standards, or which has been shipped
or delivered for shipment in interstate or for-
eign commerce. Whenever, after opportunity
for hearing is given to the owner or shipper
of the grain involved, and to the inspector
thereof if the same has been inspected, it is
determined by the Secretary that any quantity
of grain has been incorrectly certified to con-
form to a specified grade, or has been sold,
offered for sale, or consigned for sale under
any name, description, or designation which
is false or misleading, he may publish his
findings."

APPEALS, FINDINGS, AND FEES
SEC. 6. That whenever standards shall have
been fixed and established under this act for
any grain and any quantity of such grain sold,
offered for sale, or consigned for sale, or which
has been shipped, or delivered for shipment in
interstate or foreign commerce shall have been
inspected and a dispute arises as to whether
the grade as determined by such inspection
of any such grain in fact conforms to. the
standard of the specified grade, any interested
party may, either with or without reinspection,
appeal the question to the Secretary of Agri-
culture, and the Secretary of Agriculture is
authorized to cause such investigation to be
made and such tests to be applied as he may
deem necessary and to determine the true
grade: Provided, That any appeal from such
inspection and grading to the Secretary of
Agriculture shall be taken before the grain
leaves the place where the inspection- appealed
from was made and before the identity of the
grain has been lost, under such rules and
regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture
shall prescribe. Whenever an appeal shall be
taken or a dispute referred to the Secretary






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 75

of Agriculture under this act, he shall charge
and assess, and cause to be collected, a rea-
sonable fee, in amount to be fixed by him.
which fee, in case of an appeal, shall be re-
funded if the appeal is sustained. All such fees,
not so refunded, shall be deposited and covered
into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
The findings of the Secretary of Agriculture as
to grade, signed by him or by such officer or
officers, agent or agents, of the Department of
Agriculture as he may designate, made after
Sthe parties in interest have had opportunity
to be heard, shall be accepted in the courts of
Sthe United States as prima facie evidence of
the true grade of the grain determined by him
at the time and place specified in the findings."

LICENSING OF INSPECTORS
S" Sro. 7. The Secretary of Agriculture may
Issue a license to any person, upon presentation
to him of satisfactory evidence that such person
is competent, to inspect and grade grain and
to certificate the grade thereof for shipment or
i delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign
j commerce, under this act and the rules and
regulations prescribed thereunder. No person
authorized or employed by any State, county,
City, town, board of trade, chamber of com-
Imerce, corporation, society, partnership, or
association to inspect or grade grain shall cer-
ttify, or otherwise state or indicate in writing,
that any grain for shipment or delivery for
Shipment in interstate or foreign commerce,
which has been inspected or graded by him, or
by any person acting under his authority, is of
Sone of the grades of the official grain standards
of the United States, unless he holds an unsus-
pended and unrevoked license issued by the
Secretary of Agriculture. *"






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


PENALTIES
SEO. 9. That any person who shall knowingly
violate any of the provisions of sections 4 or 7
of this act, or any inspector licensed under this
act who shall knowingly inspect or grade im-
properly any grain which has been shipped or
delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign
commerce, or shall knowingly give any false
certificate of grade, or shall accept money or
other consideration, directly or indirectly, for
any neglect or improper performance of duty,
and any person who shall improperly influence
or attempt to improperly influence any such
inspector in the performance of his duty, shall
be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction
thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000, or be
imprisoned not more than one year, or both."

BASIS OF INSPECTION

Inspection and grading of a lot or parcel of
grain for the purposes of the United States
Grain Standards Act, consists of taking and ex-
amining a representative sample or samples of
the grain, making such tests as are necessary
to determine its grade, and the issuing, by a
licensed grain inspector or by a Federal grain
supervisor, of a certificate of grade therefore.
No licensed inspector or grain supervisor may
issue a certificate of grade for any lot or parcel
of grain unless the inspection and grading
thereof be based upon a correct and representa-
tive sample of the grain and be.made under con-
ditions that permit the determination of its true
grade. No sample is deemed to be representa-
tive unless of the size, and procured in accord-
ance with the methods, prescribed in current
instructions issued by the Chief of the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics or by such officer of


76





F
t


OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


77


the Department as may be designated by him
for the purpose.
In the inspection and grading of any lot or
parcel of grain, including cargoes of grain
loaded aboard boats, barges, and other vessels,
licensed inspectors and Federal grain supervi-
sors are governed by the following require-
ments:
(1) If any lot, parcel, or cargo of grain ten-
dered for inspection and grading be uniform in
quality amid condition, the grade shall be based
upon an average sample thereof.
(2) If any lot, parcel, or cargo of grain being
loaded aboard a vessel for inspection is not uni-
form in quality and condition by reason of the
presence therein of a material portion of grain
of a different grade, the licensed inspector or
Federal grain supervisor is required to consider
the portions of such lot, parcel, or cargo which
are of different grades. as separate lots tendered
for inspection, and to separately inspect, grade,
and certificate as to grade such different por-
tions; and each such certificate of grade shall
bear a statement to the effect that the grain to
which it applies has been loaded on board with
other grain, the grade, description, and approxi-
mate quantity of which shall be specified.


i.

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0 ti






78 OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS

SAMPLING OF GRAIN

The taking of a correct and representative
sample of a lot or parcel of grain for inspection
and grading purposes is an important and essen-
tial part of grain inspection. If the sample
obtained is not representative no amount of care
in making the determinations for the grading
factors will establish the true grade of the grain
involved. The Department-of Agriculture, in its
administration of the Grain Standards Act,
holds that the licensed inspector is responsible
for the correctness of the sample upon which he
bases the grade of any lot or parcel of grain.
For correct grading it is essential that the sam-
ple, properly identified, be preserved in its
original condition from the time it is taken
until the grade is determined and that it be of
sufficient size for the adequate making of all
necessary tests.
The basic instructions governing the sampling
of grain for inspection and grading purposes are
substantially as follows:
(1) The sample shall be approximately 2
quarts in size. If the time to elapse between
the drawing of the sample and the determina-
tion of the grade would permit of such changes
in the condition of the grain as to affect its
grade, at least 11/s pints should be enclosed in
an air-tight container and the remainder, if any,
in a cloth bag;
(2) In the case of bulk grain in carload lots,
trucks, or wagon lots, or in any other container
in which the grain is of about the same depth
as in a carload, the sample shall be taken with
a double-tube compartment trier 60 inches long
(fig. 1) by probing flaxseed in seven or more


0






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 79

places, and all other kinds of grain in five or
more places, well distributed in different parts
of such car, truck, or other container;
S(3) In the case of bulk grain contained in a
canal boat, barge, or steamship, the sample
may be taken with a trier as described above,
Sor with a longer trier of the same design, by
probing flaxseed in seven or more places, and
I all other kinds of grain in five or more places,
. well distributed through each hatch or opening
in the deck, provided such probing, or continued
probing, will reach the grain at all depths;
(4) In the case of bulk grain being loaded
on board a barge, boat, or steamship, the
sample may be taken from the loading spout
or other conveyor to the vessel by means of a
device known as a "Pelican" (fig. 2) or by
means of any other device, approved by the
Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
or by a person designated by him for the
purpose;
(5) In the case of grain contained in sack.,
samples shall be drawn from as many in-
dividual sacks selected at random as will en-
able the procurement of a representative sam-
ple of all the sacks involved in the lot.
During the sampling operation the grain ob-
tained by each separate probe, or by each "cut "
with the Pelican, or otherwise, shall be ex-
amined to note any unevenness of loading,
:odor, weevils, and the condition of the grain.
r If-after examination of the separate probes,
:or cuts with the Pelican, no material portion
4 of- the grain is distinctly inferior to the re-
I:mainder of the grain, the grain from the sepa-
Srate probes or from each separate cut with the
SPelican, shall be combined and the combined
127675-35---6






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


sample shall be regarded as an average sample
of the grain involved.
Whenever it shall appear, as a result of the
sampling, that a material portion of any lot or
parcel of grain is distinctly inferior, in any
manner, to the remainder of such lot or parcel;
also whenever, in the case of grain loaded, or
being loaded aboard, or being discharged from,
a barge, boat, or steamship, a material portion
of such grain is of a different grade- from the
remainder, separate samples shall be taken of
such distinctly inferior grain and of the re-
maining portion, or of the grain of each of the
distinctly different grades, as the case may be.
There shall be filed with each of the separate
samples so taken a statement of the estimated
quantity of grain it represents.
Further detailed information concerning cur-
rent instructions for proper sampling may be
obtained by applying to any office of Federal
grain supervision.

GRAIN TRIER (PROBE) AND SAMPLING
CANVAS
For obtaining a representative sample from
a carload of bulk grain, a double-tube, separate-
compartment grain trier (probe) shown in
figure 1 is used. Such a trier makes it pos-
sible for the sampler ordinarily to note any
unevenness in loading and to ascertain the
approximate location and quantity of any mix-
ture of grain or of dirty, smutty, heating, or
damp spots, etc., found in any part of the grain.
To assist in doing this a canvas 5 feet by
2 feet in dimensions on which to empty the
grain from the trier is used. The grain should
be emptied lengthwise on the canvas, each
separate trierful apart from the others, so that
the grain from each compartment can be noted
separately.


80
















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OPENINGG IN TUSKS


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FlGouR 1.-Grain trier (probe). Double-tubed, sepa-
rate-compartment grain trier (probe) for sampling
bulk grain: A, Trier closed; B, trier open; C, cross
section, showing double tubes; D, sectional view;
and B, longitudinal view, showing compartments.
81


L






OFFICIAL (RAIN STANDARDS


SPOUT SAMPLER OR "PELICAN "

For obtaining a representative sample from a
falling stream of bulk grain, and particularly
for sampling bulk grain being spouted into the
holds of a vessel, a spout sampler, generally
referred to as a "Pelican" (fig. 2), is used.











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I i
FIGURE 2.--Spout sampler (Pelican).

The use of this device makes it possible to
obtain complete cross sections from the stream
of grain being sampled. In operation the
stream of grain is cut at frequent intervals and
the samples obtained are then reduced in size
by being put through a Boerner sampler
(fig. 3).


82







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


SAMPLE DIVIDER (BOERNER SAMPLER)
After a representative sample of the lot or
parcel of grain to be graded is obtained, it is
usually necessary to reduce its size considerably,
in order that the grade may be determined by
careful analysis. To reduce the size of a sample
of grain containing foreign substances of differ-
ent specific gravity or size than of the grain
with whicb they are mixed, and at the same
time obtain a sample as representative as the
Original, is hardly possible except by mechanical
Means.
Figure 3 shows a device, generally referred to
! as the "Boerner sampler", which will divide
a sample into smaller portions and still main-
Stain the proper proportions for the various fac-
tors of the original sample. In the operation of
I this device the grain is placed in a hopper at
Sthe top of the machine and is then released,
When it passes through an opening at the bottom
Sof the hopper and down the sides of a cone,
1 the point of which is directly under the center of
the opening. Around the base of the cone are
I 36 pockets or openings. The grain falling down
Sthe sides of the cone is cut into 36 separate
streams, which, a little farther on, merge into
2 streams. Streams nos. 1, 3, 5, etc., unite into
1 stream which empties into 1 receptacle, and
streams nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., unite into another
Stream which empties into a second receptacle.
SThis device and a simplified form of it are
fully described in United States Department of
Agriculture Bulletins Nos. 287 and. 857.

1
'"I..."f-


83










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1AQfV CW7TZy WZ/WN


FIGURE 3.-Sample divider: A, vertical cross section
of device showing paths taken by the material in
passing from the hopper to the container; B, cross
section of the device at the base of the cone.


84







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


METHODS OF MAKING MOISTURE
TESTS

The official standards for wheat, barley, oats,
eed Oats, Mixed Feed Oats, rye, grain sor-
hums, and flaxseed specify that the percent-
eof moisture shall be that ascertained by
he use of the air-oven method, and the stand-
rds for corn specify that the percentage of
moisture shall be that ascertained by the use
f the water-oven method, or, in all cases, that
scertained by any .device and method which
ive equivalent results in the determination of
moisture. The air-oven and the water-oven
pparatus and their respective methods of use
in the determination of moisture content are
described in Service and Regulatory Announce-
ents No. 147 of the Bureau of Agricultural
economics of the United States Department of
Agriculture.
In order that rapid determinations of mois-
re in grain may be made to meet the routine
requirements of practical inspection work, grain
inspectors may use electric moisture meters or
other apparatus and methods which give mois-
re-test results equivalent to the results ob-
ained with the air-oven method or the water-
Yen method, as the case may be. Although
e air-oven and water-oven methods are speci-
as the basic methods for determining mois-
re content for the purposes of the standards,
is intended that these methods will be used
incipally for the purpose of checking and
andardizing the electric moisture meters or
her moisture-testing equipment and methods
sed in routine grain-inspection work.








.


85







OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


Electric Moisture Meter

An electric moisture meter with which rapid
determinations of the moisture content of grain
can be made is now available. The tests made
with this device, with but few exceptions, check
more accurately with the tests made by oven
methods than the tests made with the Brown-
Duvel device.


FIGURE 4.-Electric moisture meter.

A description of the method of using the elec-
tric moisture meter illustrated in figure 4, in-
cluding the necessary conversion charts, is given
in pamphlet U. S. G. S: A. M. B.-1, copy ofl
which can be obtained from any office of Federal
Grain Supervision.


86









STANDARD METHOD OF MAKING
TEST WEIGHT PER BUSHEL

The conditions given in the method described
low have been found to be essential in mak-
uniform tests of weight per bushel and
obtaining accurate results, and have been
adopted as standard in connection with the en-
forcement bf the United States Grain Standards
Act.
(1) Use an accurate quart-sized' tester.
(2) Fill the kettle from a hopper.
(3) Opening at bottom of hopper must be
round and exactly 1%4 inches in diameter.
(4) Bottom of opening nmst be held exactly
2 inches above center of kettle.
(5) Mark hopper on inside at a point where
it will hold just enough grain to cause overflow
over all sides of kettle.
(6) Use same volume of grain for each test.
(7) Use a stroker made of hardwood with
smooth rounded edges, 12 inches long, % inch
thick, and 1% inches broad.
(8) Place the stroker on the edge of the kettle
lightly without jarring the kettle.
S(9) Stroke the grain from the kettle with
ree full-length zigzag motions of the stroker.
(10) Hold the stroker on the kettle with its
des held in a vertical position.
(11) Make the stroke clean all the way across
e kettle.
S(12) Have the kettle rest on a firm base.
S(13) Do not jar the kettle before or during
he stroking operation.
(14) If the top of the kettle is rough,
ooth down the roughness with a rounded
tal bar, but do not use a file for the purpose.
87






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS


(15) Make the test immediately after the
sample has been brought to the inspection room,
office, or laboratory, to prevent drying out of
the grain with consequent change in its test
weight.


FIGURE 5.-Standard apparatus for determining the
test weight per bushel of grain.

(16) The quart kettle must have a capacity
of exactly 67.2 cubic inches.
(17) Use a beam which is both accurately
graduated and sensitive to one-tenth pound per
bushel.


88






OFFICIAL GRAIN STANDARDS 89

(18) Have the grain tester tested periodi-
cally for-
(a) Accuracy of kettle,
(b) Accuracy of beam readings, and
(c) Sensitiveness of beam.
The method of testing the accuracy of the
test kettle and the accuracy and sensitiveness
of the weighing beam of any weight-per-bushel
testing outfit is given in Department of Agri-
iculture Bulletin No. 1065.
Any office of Federal Grain Supervision will
.be glad to test the apparatus for accuracy or
arrange to have it tested free of charge.
BASIS OF DETERMINATION FOR TEST
WEIGHT PER BUSHEL
The official standards provide that the deter-
mination of the test weight per bushel in the
case of wheat, rye, and barley shall be made
upon the basis of the grain from which the
dockage has been removed; in the case of flax-
seed the test-weight determination shall be
made upon the basis of the flaxseed after the
removal of that part of the dockage which can
be removed readily by the use of appropriate
sieves and cleaning devices; and in the case of
all other grain the test-weight determination
shall be made upon the basis of the grain as a
whole.
As the test weight per bushel is one of the
ain factors in determining the grade of grain,
1% quarts of the grain should be available to
:permit the test weight to be made with a quart
tester.















FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information regarding the United
States Grain Standards Act, the regulations of
the Secretary of Agriculture thereunder, or the
official grain standards, apply to any office of
Federal Grain Supervision or to the Chief,
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
90
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