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Wood structures survive hurricane
by H. F. Zornig and G. E. Sherwood
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 123, 16 pp.,
Wood-frame buildings exhibited remarkable re-
sistance to the 190-mile-an-hour winds with which
Hurricane Camille lashed the Mississippi Gulf coast
the night of August 17, 1969, the authors report.
The few cases of severe wind damage were due to
poor nailing practices that resulted in poor interaction
and support between structural components. Heaviest
damage was caused by pounding of 20-foot waves and
flooding near the beaches.
Good construction practices are essential for sur-
vival of houses and other buildings in such heavy
winds, the authors conclude. Wave and flood damage
could be lessened by building well-anchored struc-
tures on poles. Mobile homes are easily blown over
unless tied down, they found.
Locating lumber defects
by K. A. McDonald, R. G. Cox, and E. H. Bulgrin
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 120, 12 pp.,
An ultrasonic scanning system proved a highly
promising way of locating and recording lumber
defects in experiments aimed at automated control
of lumber processing.
Knots, and the distorted grain around knots, were
located in rough green hardwood lumber by evaluating
relative differences in transit time. Sound pulses pass
through knots and along distorted grain faster than
across the grain in clear wood.
Ultimately the scanning system would provide a
mathematical description of a board and its defects
as imput to a computer-controlled processing system.
Further research is needed to ascertain how well
this ultrasonic technique works with other defects,
such as holes, checks, decay, and wane.
ITEMS FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION are numbered, and
available from the Forest Products Laboratory while
the supply lasts. To request publications simply circle
the appropriate number on the back cover of this list,
detach, and mail to the Laboratory. Blanket requests
for publications cannot be filled.
Reports of slight interest to the layman are designated
DIVIDENDS FROM WOOD RESEARCH
Other recent FPL publications
BOARD AND PANEL MATERIAL
3. Treatments to reduce thickness swelling of phenolic-
bonded particleboard, by B. G. Heebink and F. V.
Hefty. Forest Prod. J. 19(11):1 -26, Nov. 1969.
Ten-minute treatments of phenolic.-bonded p.Lrticleboard in
saturated steam ait 360' F. were exceedingly effective in
reducing thickness swelling and springback. Treatments in hot
air (2 hrs. at 4250 F.) were effective in reducing springbuck,
but severely dried the boards. Superheatedsteamandpretreat-
ment of the flakes with saturated steam at 360' F vere
4. Designs for low-cost wood homes, by
and Harold F. Zornig. USDA Forest
L. 0. Anderson
Service, 28 pp.,
Eleven house designs of varying style and size are described.
These houses, which can be built at approximately one-half of
normal construction costs, have all the essentials necessary
to provide comfortable living for families with upto 12 children.
5. Experimental pole-type structure: Initial evaluation,
by D. V. Doyle. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 115, 20 pp., Sept. 1969.
This first report details the increase in rigidity that resulted
from addition of each component to a pole-type building erected
at the Forest Products Laboratory. Also gives an initial
evaluation of the trussed rafters used in the structure,
including adequacy of materials and methods of attachment for
6. Accelerated kiln drying of presurfaced 1-inch northern
red oak, by J. M. McMillen. USDA Forest Serv.
Res. Paper FPL 122, 31 pp., Dec. 1969.
The first report from a research program whose goal is a
30 percent reduction in drying time for oak. Reviews back-
ground, and indicates that northern red oak fully surfaced
on both faces to 1.00 inch can be kiln dried from 87 to 5 per-
cent average moisture content in 14-1/4 days, using a mod-
erately accelerated kiln schedule.
7. Influence of initial drying temperatures on the de-
velopment of warp in one-inch hard maple, by
Raymond C. Rietz. Forest Prod. J. 19(7):37-40,
In drying hardwoods, the dry-bulb temperature used during
the period of free-water evaporation influences shrinkage.
Higher temperatures cause greater shrinkage. Increased warp
was therefore expected. This study detected no significant
differences in warp when I-inch green hard maple lumber was
dried at initial temperatures up to 1600 F.
GLUES AND GLUED PRODUCTS
8. Odor problems from some plywoods, by D. F. Zinkel,
J. C. Ward, and B. F. Kukachka. Forest Prod. J.
19(12):60, Dec. 1969.
Some plywood made from South American lupuna and banak
woods emitted unpleasant odors when the finished panels were
subjected to hot, humid atmospheres. The odors were identi-
fied as volatile fatty acids, the products of bacterial fermenta-
tion which occurred during water storage and transportation of
9. Performance of southern pine plywood during 5 years
of exposure to weather, by M. L. Selbo. Forest
Prod. J. 19(8):56-60, Aug. 1969.
Evaluates phenolic-resin-bonded Douglas-fir and southern
pine plywood, overlaid and not overlaid, and painted with
acrylic-emulsion paint, before exposure to the weather. Except
for mold growth (heaviest on the pine), overlaid panels of both
species were in excellent condition after 5 years' exposure.
10. Charts for calculating dimension yields from hard
maple lumber, by George H. Englerth and David
R. Schumann. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL
118, 12 pp., Oct. 1969.
Charts are given for determining yields of dimension from
various grades of hardwood lumber. The basic chart for each
grade is for 2-inch-wide material, with an adjustment for
determining yields in other widths.
11. Evaluating Appalachian woods for highway posts, by
D. V. Doyle and T. L. Wilkinson. USDA Forest
Serv. Res. Paper FPL 111, 20 pp., July 1969.
Appraises strength characteristics of round and sawed posts
of hickory, oak, and pine for guard posts, sign posts, and other
accessory items for highway use. Also provides applicable
data on treating characteristics of these species for these
12. Fatigue strength of finger joints, by Billy Bohannan
and Karl J. Kanvik. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 114, 8 pp., Sept. 1969.
Specimens of two types of finger joints used for end-jointing
dimension lumber were evaluated under cyclic loading at
various stress levels. The relative fatigue strength of the
joints in tension parallel to grain after 30 million cycles of
load equalled about 40 percent of static strength.
13. Large glued-laminated timber beams with two grades
of tension laminations, by Billy Bohannan and
R. C. Moody. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL
113, 45 pp., Sept. 1969.
Bending strength of 26 glued-laminated timbers was ap-
praised as a basis for more precise design. Part of the beams
were manufactured according to present AITC and lumber
industry specifications, while the other beams had improved
14. Modulus of elasticity and bending strength ratio as
indicators of tensile strength of lumber, by I. Orosz.
J. of Materials 4(4):842-864, Dec. 1969.
Modulus of elasticity (E) measured over 4-foot span was
found to be a better predictor of tensile strength than E
measured over full span. The combination of the short-span E
and bending strength ratio is a better estimator than either
variable by itself. Together, they explain 75 percent of the
variation of tensile st rength.
15. Rail shear test for evaluating edgewise shear prop-
erties of wood-base panel products, by J. Dobbin
McNatt, USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 117,
16 pp., Oct. 1969.
The rail shear test used extensively at the Forest Products
Laboratory to determine the edgewise shear strength of wood-
base panel products is described and evaluated.
16. Structural timber research at the Forest Products
Laboratory, by Fred Werren. J. of the Structural
Div., Proc. of the Amer. Soc. of Civil Engineers,
95(ST12):2891-2906, Dec. 1969.
Reviews recent Laboratory progress in areas of structural
lumber grading, wood-base and related materials, glued-
laminated construction, round timber evaluations, housing,
timber bridges, wood building foundations, trussed rafters,
shear stiffness of wood decks, adhesives for structural lami-
nating, and fire research.
17. Residual stresses in curved larmnated wood beams,
by John J. Zahn. J. of the Structural Div., Proc. of
the Amer. Soc. of Civil Engineers 95(ST12):2873-
2890, Dec. 1969.
Residual stresses due to bending of the laminations to curva-
ture and due to variations in subsequent shrinkage of individuji
laminations are analyzed. Time-related effecLs are ignort.d.
Possible relation to radial tension separations is discussed.
Equations of elastic ity are derived for a curvilinear-orthotropic
material in polar coordinates. (Highly technical)
18. Appalachian hardwoods for pallets: Effect of fabrica-
tion variables and lumber characteristics on per-
formance, by R. S. Kurtenacker. L'SDA Forest Serv.
Res. Paper FPL 112, 20 pp., Aug. 1969.
This study, limited to yellow-poplar and hickory, considers
the effect of different assembly methods and lumber charac-
teristics on pallet performance. Rough h.indling tests indicated
that serviceable bin pallets of at least two designs can be
fabricated from Appalachian hickory and sellow-popl'r.
19. Container effects in cushioned packages: urethane
foam corner pads, by C. A. Jordan. L'SDA Forest
Serv. Res. Paper FPL 109, 20 pp., Aug. 1969.
Cushioning applied as corner pads produced results .inrl.,r
to side-pad cushioning studied earlier. A direct relationship
was indicated between rigidity of outer container and the
severity of shock to the contents.
20. Cushioning properties of five-layer corrugated filjer-
board pads: Load applied to central area only, by
C. A. Jordan. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL
116, 12 pp., Sept. 1969.
The response to dynamic compression of multilayer cor-
rugated fiberboard cushioning partially loaded in the central
area is substantially different than the response of the same
material fully loaded. A simple relationship between load area
diameter and optimum performance criteria is given for the
material and load method studied.
21. Effect of glue skips on corrugated fiberboard con-
tainer compressive strength, by J. W. Koning,Jr.
and R. C. Moody. Tappi 52(10):1910-1915, Oct. 1969.
Theoretical analysis and experimental results both indicated
that glue skips adversely affect the compressive strength of
corrugated fiberboard containers and that the magnitude of the
effect is related to the width of the glue skip and characteris-
tics of the component paperboards. Varying width glue skips
significantly increased the variability of compressive strength
within a specific lot of containers.
22. Now you can easily check your corrugated box ad-
hesive's water resistance, by J. W. Koning, Jr.
Package Eng. Aug. 1969.
A cantilever beam test of corrugated fiberboard was found
to be a better indicator of the corrugated adhesive's perform-
ance than the test most commonly used. Experiments indicated
that the beam test is simple to conduct, requires inexpensive
equipment, and the results correlate well with container
23. Testing corrugated corner pads, by C. A. Jordan.
Modern Pack. Sept. 1969.
Cushioning with multilayer corrugated fiberboard corner
pads depends greatly on the nature and rigidity of the outer
container. The work also showed that shock cushioning design
curves for pads loaded under these conditions couldbe derived
from a relatively small quantity of pertinent experimental
PERFORMANCE OF WOOD IN FIRE
24. Thermogravimetric analysis of wood lignin and
hemicelluloses, by F. C. Beall. Wood and Fiber,
pp. 215-226, Oct. 1969.
Dynamic thermogravimetric analyses were performed on
five types of lignin and nine preparations of hardwood and
softwood hemicelluloses. Kinetic parameters were determined
for pyrolysis reactions in nitrogen and combustion reactions
in oxygen at a heating rate of 600 C. per minute between 250
and 1000 C.
25. Exploratory investigation of fire-retardant' treat-
ments for particleboard, by Arthur D. Syska. USDA
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0201, 20pp.,Aug. 1969.
Douglas-fir and aspen flake-type particleboards made with
combinations of common fire-retardant chemicals applied in
several ways are evaluated for flammability and mechanical
strength and diniensional stability.
26. Sapwood thickness of Douglas-fir and five other
western softwoods, by L. E. Lassen and E. A..
Okkonen. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 124,
16 pp., Oct. 1969.
Sapwood thickness measurements, of primary interest to
preservative treating of forest products, showed an increase
with increasing tree diameter. In addition, Douglas-fir sap-
wood thickness was greater in the Coast lype than in the Interior
type for trees of the same diameter. Also for Coast Douglas-
fir, sapwood thickness decreased with increasing elevation,
and trees having the most rapid diameter growth had thL'
27. Reflected-light and scanning electron microscopy
of ultraviolet irradiated redwood surfaces, by
V. P. Miniutti. 1969 Proc. of Engis International
Stereoscan Colloquium, pp. 135-147.
The usefulness of two types of microscopes in research on
degraded, fragile wood surfaces is discussed. Photographi.
comparisons of bordered pits and crassulae in redwood
tracheids before and after ultraviolet irradiation are pre-
sented. Each microscope has particular advantages for specific
purposes, and both are very useful in research on wood
surfaces. (Highly technical)
PROTECTION FROM TERMITES
28. Termites in Wisconsin, by Glenn R. Esenther. Annals
of the Entomological Society of America 62(2):
1274-84, Nov. 1969.
Termites appear to be introduced to northern municipalities
by human transport. Discusses factors affecting the ability of
termites to become established. The seasonal activity and
development in areas of cold winter climates is described. A
graphic life cycle of the termite and a nutritional mechanism
of caste determination also are presented.
SAWING AND MACHINING
29. Control of veneer thickness during rotary cutting,
by J. F. Lutz, A. F. Mergen, and H. R. Panzer.
Forest Prod. J. 19(12):21-28, Dec. 1969.
Shows that the uniformity of thickness of rotary-cut veneer
can be improved by keeping all moving parts of the lathe close
fitting, keeping the pressure bar shut during roundup and
throughout the cutting, using low nosebar pressure, and pre-
loading the knife carriage against the wood bolt.
30. Effect of cutting speed during thick slicing of wood,
by C. C, Peters, A. F. Mergen, and H. R. Panzer.'
Forest Prod. J. 19(11):37-42, Nov. 1969.
Red oak, southern pine, and yellow-poplar at 1900 F. were
sliced 1/2 and 1 inch thick at 5, 50, 200, and 500 fpm with a
200 knife and 150 conventional-with-restraint bar. Depth of
fractures rapidly increased with increasing speed, while
thickness uniformity was unaffected. Knife and bar forces were
measured. (Highly technical)
31. Slicing wood one-inch thick; four types of pressure
bars, by C. C. Peters, A. F. Mergen, and H. R.
Panzer. Forest Prod. J. 19(7):47-52, July 1969.
One-inch-thick slices of red oak, Douglas-fir, and aspen
were cut at low speed and 200 F. with a 21 knife and four
pressure bars. The bars included 1-1/4-inch-diameter, free-
rolling and driven, conventional 15 and conventional-with-
restraint. The latter bar performed best. Forces were meas-
ured. (Highly technical)
32. A simplified method of determining the age of trees
from ring counts, by Robert R. Maeglin. Forest
Farmer 29(1):8, Oct. 1969.
To aid ring counting on increment cores a simple method
using soft chalk is described. B\ rubbing the increment core
with chalk and then wiping it clean the annual rings become
visible to the eye.
33. Effect of rainfall and elevation on specific gravity of
coast Douglas-fir, by L. E. Lassen and E. A.
Okkonen. Wood and Fiber 1(3):227-235, Oct. 1969.
Analysis is made of the effects of five ranges of summer
precipitation and three ranges of elevation on variation in
specific gravity of coast Douglas-lir. Specific gravity, per-
centage of latewood, and thickness of latewood tracheid w% ll
decreased with wet summers and to some degree with increas-
ing elevation. (Highly technical)
34. Relationship of black walnut wood color to soil
properties and site, by Neil D. Nelson, Robert
Maeglin, and Harold E. Wahlgren. Wood and Fiber
1(1):29-37, Spring 1969.
Evaluation of black walnut wood color showed greater dif-
ferences between trees in luminance than in dominant wave-
length and purity. Luminance values were also higher lor
Indiana-grown trees than for Missouri-grown and were related
to specific soil properties. (Highl] technical)
35. Seasonal development of secondary xylem in Pinus
strobus L., by L. Murmanis and I. Sachs. kood Sci.
and Tech. 3:177-193, 1969.
Investigation of the development of secondary xylem shows
that it was gradual. X.lem mother cells at first are small
cells with thin cell walls and then enlarge radially. When these
cells reached the radial diameter of mature tracheids, the
secondary wall deposition began. This investigation shows that
physical properties of tracheids can differ with stages of
development. (Highly technical)
36. Structure of pit border in Pinus strobus L., by
L. Murmanis and I. Sachs. Wood and Fiber 1(1):
7-17, Spring 1969.
Sections from white pine trees were studied by electron
microscopy in a search for the organization of cell wall layers
in the pit border. Depending on the developmental stage of the
tracheids, differences appeared in the pit border within the
same tree species. A diagram was reconstructed that appears
to be the most representative structure for the pit border in
white pine. (Highly technical)
37. Lignin and its uses by John M. Harkin. USDA Forest
Serv. Res. Note FPL-0206, 9 pp., July 1969.
A primer for the layman telling in nontechnical language
what lignin is, what its function is in nature in woody plants,
why it is important as a byproduct of pulp and paper produc-
tion and as an environment pollutant, and how it can be put to
many useful purposes.
38. Absolute configuration of calamenene, 7-hydroxy-
calamenenal, and the new naturally occurring ses-
quiterpene, 7-hydroxycalamenene by J. W. Rowe
and J. K. Toda. Chem. and Ind. 27:922-3, July 5,
A new sesquiterpene, 7-hydroxycalamenene, has been iso-
lated from Ulmus thomasii heartwood and correlated with 7-
hydroxycalamenenal and calamenene. Preparation of 7-
hydroxycalamenene from (-)-copaene proves that all three
sesquiterpenes have the S configuration of the isopropyl group.
The secondary methyl group is shown to be probably trans to
the isopropyl group. (Highly technical)
39. Lignans of Ulmus thomasii II, Lignans related to
thomasic acid by F. D. Hostettler and M. K. Seikel.
Tetrahedron 25(11):2325-37 (1969).
Three disyringyl lignans closely related to thomasic acid
have been isolated from aqueous extracts of Ulmus thomasii
heartwood. These are thomasidioic acid, racemic lyoniresinol
and (+)-lyoniresinol-2a-0-rhamnoside. The series has trans
stereochemistry in the 1,2-positions. Also isolated were 6-
hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthoic acid and 2,6-dimethox\-
benzoquinone. (Highl. technical)
40. Methods of attacking the problems of ligninstructure
by J. M. Harkin. Chapter in "Recent Advances in
Phytochemistry," Vol. 1, edited by M. K. Seikel
and V. C. Runeckles. Appleton-Century-Crofts,
New York, 1969.
Reviews with many references physical, chemical, and
biochemical methods used to isolate, purify, and characterize
lignin from wood; explains how lignin is formed in plants and
presents a structural formula for softwood lignin. Good intro-
duction to the lignin field for chemists, biochemists, botanists,
and other nonspecialists. (Highly technical)
41. New carbonyl compounds from dehydrogenation of 2-
cresol by C.-L. Chen, W. J. Connors, and W. M.
Shinker. J. Org. Chem. 34:2966 (1969).
As a simple model for lignin production and decomposition
m nature by phenol oxidation, p-cresol was dehydrogeniaed
with peroxidase/H202 or FeC13. and the resultant prndu'Lts
were compared; the structures of new trimers were elucidated
using NMNR and mass spectroscopy; mechanisms for their
mode of formation are given. (Highly technical)
42. Phenolic constituents of elm wood: 2-naphtholic acid
derivatives from Ulmus thomasii by C.-L. Chen
and F. D. Hostettler. Tetrahedron 25:3223-29 (1969).
Two new 2-naphthoic acid derivatives, 6-hydroxy-5,7-
dimethoxy-2-naphthoic acid and 6-h. droxy-3-h\droxvyn,.-thl-
5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthoic acid lactone, have been isolated
from the aqueous extract of the heartwood of Ulmus thomasii.
43. Phenolic glucosides from needles of Larix laricina,
by Gerard J. Niemann. Phytochemistry, Vol. 8,
pp. 2101-2103. 1969.
Three phenolic glucosides were isolated from needles of
Larix laricina and identified as the f-lglucosides of vanillic
acid and p-coumaric acid and as the a-glucoside of p -
hydroxybenzoic acid. (Highly technical)
44. Unusual resin acids in tall oil, by D. F. Zinkel,
J. W. Rowe, L. C. Zank, D. W. Gaddie, and E. R.
Ruckel. J. of the Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 46(11):
An intermediate distillation function of tall oil has been
shown to contain isomers of isopimaric acids in addition to a
resin acid produced as an artifact in the pulping process.
45. Water-induced recrystallization of cellulose by D. F.
Caulfield and R. A. Steffes. Tappi 52(7):1361-6
The recrystallization of amorphous cellulose upon exposure
to moisture was investigated by physical methods including
X-ray diffraction measurements. It was shown that substantial
increases in crystallinity occur on wetting rather than on
subsequent drying. The possible implications of this recrystal-
lization process in pulp refining are discussed. (Highly
46. Butt swells of water tupelo for pulp and paper, by
J. F. Laundrie and J. S. McKnight. USDA Forest
Serv. Res. Paper FPL 119, 12 pp., December 1969.
Bleached kraft and neutral sulfite semichemical pulps from
butt swells of water tupelo were found to be suitable for good-
quality greaseproof papers and corrugating medium, respec-
47. Corrugating furnishes and mediums--their micros-
copy, sheet properties, and runnability, by Forrest
A. Simmonds. Southern Pulp and Paper Manufac-
turer, 32(12):66, 68, 70-72, 74, 75. Dec. 10, 1969.
It has been shown that sheet properties of stretch, folding
endurance, and ring crush are strongly related to the run-
nability of corrugating medium. Using reclaimed corrugated
stock also has a marked effect on resistance to failure.
48. How to reduce vessel-element picking in printing
papers containing oak, by Von L. Byrd and D. J.
Fahey. Paper Trade Journal 153:(54-9), November
A method was found for quantitatively estimating thenumber
of "harmful" vessel elements in a pulp furnish. G~ raitor
refining of the hardwood pulp component and surface sizing
were both found to be effective in reducing the picking tenden..
of offset printing papers containing a high percentage ot oak.
49. Alkaline stability of gluconic acid, cellobionic acid,
and cellobiitol, by James L. Minor, Lowell E. Kihle,
and Necmi Sanyer. Tappi 52 (11):2178-81, November
The relative alkali stabilities of modified end groups \-ere
estimated by measuring ihe rates of degradation of cellobionic
acid and cellobiitol as model compounds in 10 percent sodium
hydroxide. The epimerization and degradation of glucniOT and
mannonic acids were also studied. (Highly technical).
50. Assay zones for specifying preservative-treated
Douglas-fir and southern pine timbers, by R. H.
Baechler, L. R. Gjovik, and H. G. Roth. Amer.
Wood-Preservers' Assoc Proc., 8 pp. 1969.
Assay data are presented on "hedistribution of preservatives
in timbers weighed before and after treatment in commercial
charges. Retention gradients were considerably steeper in
Douglas-fir than in southern pine. In both species, the outer
1/2-inch zone showed retentions similar to gain-in-weight
retentions. (Highly technical)
51. Microscopic examination of pressure-treated wood,
by Eldon A. Behr, Irving B. Sachs, B. F. Kukachka,
and J. 0. Blew. Forest Prod. J. 19(8):31-40, Aug.
Softwoods and hardwoods of several varieties were pressure
treated with creosote or pentachlorophenol dissolved in
aromatic gas oil. The disposition of preservative is traced in
the many different types of cells of the xylem tissue. (Highly
52. Protecting stored logs and pulpwood in North America,
by T. C. Scheffer. Material und Organismen 4 Bd.
1969 Heft 3.
An assessment is made of the deterioration during storage
of saw and veneer logs and pulpwood in North America, and
the effectiveness of measures to prevent this deterioration is
discussed. Principal regions dealt with are western United
States and Canada, southern United States, eastern United States
and the Lake States, and eastern Canada.
53. Studies of several methods for determining suita-
bility of creosote for marine use, by R. H. Baechler,
L. R. Gjovik, and H. G. Roth. Amer. Wood-
Preservers' Assoc. Proc., 12 pp., 1969.
Discusses the need for better methods of analyzing marine-
grade creosote. Relatively small amounts of petroleum oils
are revealed by either the TEG-F or the specific gravity of
fractions tests. Thin-layer chromatography offers a more
sensitive test. Several methods are suggested for determining
materials leachable by seawater. (Highly technical)
54. The Forest Products Laboratory--Research for to-
day and tomorrow, by H. 0. Fleischer. Southern
Lumberman 219(2728):115-118, Dec. 15, 1969.
This picture article affords a brief look at some of the ways
that FPL scientists have been able to apply their diverse
skills and disciplines to unlocking the mysteries of wood and
its use and to developing new product ideas for the wood
55. Sawmills of the future, by Herbert 0. Fleischer.
Southern Lumberman 219(2728):169-171, Dec. 15,
Explains the research that the scientists at the FPL are
doing and are proposing to do inorderto automate the decision-
making involved in sawmilling.