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aMt. publicatos of the:
Fores t Product Laboratory
January I to Jun 30, 1969
a .FL -t Service
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LOW-COST WOOD HOMES FOR RURAL AMERICA:
by L. 0. Anderson
Ag. Handbk. No. 364, 112 pp., May 1969
Building craft workers ranging from highly trained
carpenters to neophyte learners will find this useful
guide to good construction for houses of wood.
Liberally illustrated with clear drawings, the book
is a carefully defined text based on the best available
knowledge on sound construction of well-designed
houses at low cost. The result is a judicious blend of
practical experience with results of research onwood
house construction over the past half century.
The manual was produced in response to urgent
requests for a simple handbook showing the basics of
good house construction with emphasis on low cost.
Concurrently, FPL researchers prepared five sets of
plans and specifications for low-cost rural houses,
the construction of which is treated in detail in the
manual. The design details and techniques illustrated
and discussed in the manual are, however, generally
applicable to conventional wood house construction.
A glossary defines construction terminology from
Airway to Weatherstrip.
OF WOOD PROPERTIES
by A. N. Foulger
PA-900. 41 pp., Apr. 1969
Ever wonder about wood--its fibrous structure, how
it grows and is nourished by air, sun, and soil, how
and why it behaves as it does when put to use? Now,
with the aid of this new publication, you can find out
In a series of 20 experiments, the pamphlet guides
students, from grade school through college, toward
a better insight into the properties and behavior of
this wonderful substance of trees. A brief introduction
tells about the basic structure of wood, which governs
its behavior as lumber, veneer, plywood, and even
paper. This is followed by an experiment designed to
illustrate wood structure.
In succeeding experiments, the student is shown
progressively how water moves in plants, character-
istic growth and anatomy features and how these affect
mechanical and physical properties, species differ-
ences, cell structure and properties, and such basic
properties as strength, specific gravity, and dimen-
ITEMS FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION are numbered, and
available from the Forest Products Laboratory while
the supply lasts. To request publications simply circle
the appropriate number on the back cover of this list,
detach, and mail to the Laboratory. Blanket requests
for publications cannot be filled.
Reports of slight interest to the layman are designated
DIVIDENDS FROM WOOD RESEARCH
Other recent FPL publications
3. Dip treatment in polyethylene glycol not effective in
preventing surface checking, by Raymond C. Rietz.
USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0204, 6 pp.,
Dipping green red oak boards in a nearly saturated poly-
ethylene glycol solution was not effective in reducing surface
checking. In fact, the treatment increased surface-check
development as compared with untreated controls. The experi-
ment verified the benefit ofpresurfacing as a means of reducing
FUNGUS AND INSECT CONTROL
4. Control of pulp chip deterioration with kraft green
liquor, by E. L. Springer, W. E. Eslyn, L. L. Zoch,
and G. J. Hajny. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL
110, 4 pp., May 1969.
A laboratory- prepared kraft green liquor (7.7% Na2CO3'
1.9% Na2 S) applied by a dip treatment to fresh red pine and
aspen pulp chips prevented loss in wood substance from fungal
action and prevented temperature rise in simulators of chip
5. Natural decay resistance of fifteen exotic woods im-
ported for exterior use, by Joe W. Clark. USDA
Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL 103, 5 pp., Mar. 1969.
The woods, mostly tropical with good service reputations,
were appraised for decay resistance, using both laboratory
and field tests. Three species proved very resistant, one was
resistant, and the remainder were moderately resistant.
6. Subterranean termite studies in southern Ontario, by
G. R. Esenther and D. E. Gray. The Canadian
Entomologist 100(8): 827-834. Aug. 1968.
The effectiveness of a new method of termite control is
described. The method is based on an attractant-insecticide
bait. It suppresses the movement of termites through soil. Its
effect on a parent colony is obscure.
7. A new method for appraising decay capabilities of
micro-organisms from wood chip piles, by W. E.
Eslyn. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL 107, 8 pp.,
Describes a new method for determining decay capabilities
of micro-organisms isolated from stored wood chips. Variable
moisture contents among test blocks within each individual
incubator are provided. This permits development of micro-
organisms with diverse water requirements. Utilizing 82 wood
chip isolates, this method is compared with the agar-substrate
method. (Highly technical)
GROWTH CONDITIONS AND STRUCTURE
8. Effect of tension wood on hard maple used for. manu-
factured parts, by David R. Schumann and M. Y.
Pillow. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL 108,
8 pp., May 1969.
Describes effects of tension wood, evidenced by longitudinal
warping and shrinking and machining defects, for hard maple
9. How to predict maximum lumber yields, by David P.
Schumann and Henry A. Huber, Furn. Design &
Mfgr. 41(5):54,56,58,60,62, May 1969.
Results of six furniture plants' cutting yields are presented.
Cuttings were obtained from the four top lumber grades in 4/4
black cherry and soft maple. The actual yields were within
5 percent of the FPL predictions at every plant and in every
10. Through-bark measurement of grain direction; Pre-
liminary results, by A. N. Foulger. Forest Science
Describes a possible method of estimating spiral grain in the
tree stem using sonic probes. Results indicate that the apparatus
used, with some modifications, could be valuable in determining
the degree of spiral grain in standing trees. Stem damage is
PERFORMANCE OF WOOD IN FIRE
11. Ammonium polyphosphate liquid fertilizer as fire
retardant for wood, by H. W. Eickner, J. M. Stinson,
and J. E. Jordan. AWPA Proc. 1969, 12 pp.
Dilute solutions of ammonium polyphosphate liquid fertilizer
(TVA furnace-acid type 11-37-0) were pressure impregnated
into southern pine lumber. This treated wood (4 to 6 pounds
dry chemical per cubic foot) met the Class A interior finish
requirements of building codes, andthe hygroscopicity, acidity,
corrosivity, and strength retention requirements of Military
12. Acoustical absorption properties of wood-base panel
materials, by W. D. Godshall and James H. Davis.
USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL-104, 8 pp.,
Sound absorption properties were not affected by variations
in moisture contents of wood-base materials at relative
humidities between 30 and 80 percent at room temperature.
Values of acoustical absorption for 15 typical materials are
13. Factors affecting permeability and pit aspiration in
coniferous sapwood, by G. L. Comstock and W. A.
Cote, Jr. Wood Science and Technology 2:279-291.
The influence of drying methods on the permeability of red
pine and eastern hemlock sapwood was investigated. Permea-
bility was found to be reduced by normal drying procedures to
only a small percentage of the green permeability. Pit aspira-
tion was shown to be responsible for the reduction. (Highly
14. Longitudinal shrinkage in seven species of wood, by
R. A. Hann. USDA Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0203,
12 pp., Feb. 1969.
Longitudinal shrinkage is recorded for seven species of wood
and longitudinal expansion and variability of longitudinal
shrinkage within a board are noted. (Highly technical)
15. Method for determining sample size when deriving
tolerance limits for a timber species, by B. A.
Bendtsen and Fred Rattner. Materials Research
and Standards 9(6):30-31, June 1969.
Presents a table, developed by nonparametric procedures,
which relates one-sided tolerance limits, sample size, and
confidence level. It is a useful tool for a researcher when con-
sidering demand for precision of estimate of an important
timber strength parameter vs. the cost of a sampling experi-
ment. (Highly technical)
16. Compressive and shear properties of polyamide
honeycomb cores, by Paul M. Jenkinson. USDA
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0202, 24 pp., Jan.
Polyamide honeycomb cores with nominal densities of 1.5
and 3 pounds per cubic foot were evaluated in compression and
SA WING AND MACHINING
17. Sawing to reduce warp of lodgepole pine studs, by
Hiram Hallock, USDA Forest Serv. Res. Pap. FPL
102, 32 pp., Mar. 1969.
An evaluation of the relation of sawing methods, log position
in tree, eccentricity, position of stud in log, and presence of
compression wood to warp in 2- by 4-inch studs of lodgepole
18. Surfacing softwood dimension lumber to produce good
surfaces and high-value flakes, by John F. Lutz,
B. G. Heebink, H. R. Panzer, F. V. Hefty, and
A. F. Mergen. Forest Prod. J. 19(2):45-51, Feb.
Two experimental cutting methods were evaluated as means
of blanking softwood dimension lumber to produce flakes and
at the same time develop smooth surfaces onthe lumber. Good
quality particleboards were made from the flakes produced in
the experiment. Wood surfaces were intermediate in smoothness
between sawn surfaces and planed surfaces.
19. Wood wastes for animal feeding, by R. W. Scott,
M. A. Millett, and G. J. Hajny. Forest Prod. J.
19(4):14-18, Apr. 1969.
Presents a review of past work on the use of wood residues
as an animal feedstuff, both as a non-nutritive roughage and as
an energy feed. Discusses the effectiveness of various physical
and chemical pretreatments for enhancing the digestibility of
wood carbohydrates. Also describes direction of current
20. The absence of proton exchange during the conversion
of hexose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, by
Milton S. Feather and J. F. Harris. Tetrahedron
Letters No. 55, pp. 5807-5810, 1968.
The mechanism of dehydration of hexose sugars was studied
by reacting d-glucose and d-fructose in acidified deuterium
oxide and examining the product, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furalde-
hyde, for deuterium incorporation. In both cases, the product
contained no carbon-bound deuterium as determined by NM R.
21. Extractives of jack pine bark: Occurrence of cis-
and trans-pinosylvin ether and ferulic acid esters,
by John W. Rowe, Carol L. Bower, and E. R.
Wagner. Phytochemistry 8:235-41, Jan. 1969.
A new natural product, cis-pinosylvin di methyl ether, has been
isolated. The only other nonpolar benzenoid extractives isolated
were trans-pinosylvin dimethyl ether, wax alcohol esters of
ferulic acid, dehydroabietic acid and related diterpenes, and
phlobatannin esters. Data are given also on the wax alcohols,
free and esterified wax acids, and n-paraffins. (Highly technical)
22. Furfural from spent sodium-base acid sulfite pulping
liquor, by L. L. Zoch, J. F. Harris, and E. L.
Springer. Tappi 52(3): 486-488, Mar. 1969.
Spent sodium-base acid sulfite pulping liquor from a mixture
of hardwoods was evaluated for furfural yields. A maximum
yield of 2.04 grams of furfural per 100 grams of spent liquor
was obtained with 4.0 grams sulfuric acid and 10 seconds
reaction time at 240 C. (Highly technical)
23. New structures from the enzymic dehydrogenation of
lignin model p-hydroxy-a-carbinols, by J. C. Pew
and W. J. Connors. J. Org. Chem. 34(3): 580-584,
The enzymic dehydrogenation of the important lignin model
compound guaiacylglycerol B-guaiacyl ether and of simpler
models gave the novel dibenzo [d,f] [1,3] dioxepin structure
with one side chain being expelled per four units involved.
This reaction is very significant in consideration of the
structural features of the lignin macromolecule. (Highly tech-
24. New structures from the enzymic dehydrogenation
of lignin model p-hydroxy-propiophenones, by
J. C. Pew and W. J. Connors. J. Org. Chem.
34(3): 585-589, Mar. 1969
Enzymic dehydrogenation studies of lignin model p-hydroxy-
propiophenones have led to new concepts on some structural
features of the lignin molecule. Among these are the importance
of cyclohexadiene radicals which, in the present work, gave
aryl esters of aliphatic acids by side chain transfer and o,p'-
biphenyl linkages. (Highly technical)
25. Effect of stock consistence during refining on pulp
and paper properties, by Von L. Byrd. Indian Pulp
and Paper 23:365-375, Dec. 1968.
Experimental papers made from pulps refined at high con-
sistence had higher tearing resistance, bursting strength,
tensile energy absorption, flatwise tensile strength, anti sheet
shrinkage but they were less stable dimensionally than similar
papers made from the same pulps refined at low consistence
in the 36-inch double-disk refiner. (Highly technical)
26. Is caustic soda suitable for buffering NSSC digestions?
by E. L. Keller, So. Pulp and Paper Manuf. 32(5):
32,34,36. May 10, 1969.
Under conditions falling within the range of commercial
practice, buffering with caustic soda or with conventional soda
ash gave corrugating boards of similar quality. Large amounts
of caustic soda, or restricting the amount of sodium sulfite in
cooking, however, caused some loss in strength. (Highly
27. Swelling of prehydrolysis-kraft pulp fibers in cadmium
ethylendiamine, by F. A. Simmonds and R. A. Horn.
Tappi 52(5):933-938, May 1969.
Swelling techniques showed the differences between hot and
cold caustic soda extraction and the critical relation of the
concentration of caustic soda in cold extraction to the reactivity
of the viscose grade of prehydrolysis-kraft woodpulps. The
helical structure in the swollen fiber that persisted through the
treatments studied was proven to be the S layer of the cell
wall. (Highly technical)
28. Microscale effects of ultraviolet irradiation and
weathering on redwood surfaces and clear coatings,
by V. P. Miniutti. J. of Paint Tech. 41(531): 275-
84, Apr. 1969.
Reflected-light and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated
the need for treatments that will minimize the photodegradation
of exterior wood surfaces and indicated changes needed in the
properties of commonly used exterior varnishes to obtain
greater durability for them on wood surfaces. (Highly technical)
WOOD PRESER VA TION
29. Comparison of wood preservatives in Mississippi post
study, by J. 0. Blew and H. L. Davidson. USDA
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-01, 10pp., Mar. 1969.
Contains service life data on southern pine posts installed
at Saucier, Miss., in 1949 and 1964 as part of a long-time pre-
30. Comparison of wood preservatives in stake tests, by
J. 0. Blew and H. L. Davidson. USDA Forest Serv.
Res. Note FPL-02, 90 pp., Apr. 1969.
Compares wood preservatives used on test stakes of southern
31. Condition of pine piling submerged 62 years in river
water, by T. C. Scheffer, C. G. Duncan, and Thomas
Wilkinson. Wood Preserving, pp. 22-24, Jan. 1969.
Dismantling of an old bridge provided an opportunity to
observe the condition of pine piling that had been in fresh
water more than a half century. Sapwood above mudline had only
half its original crushing strength. Bacteria appeared to be
the cause of the degradation.
32. Preservative treatments for protecting wood boxes,
by A. F. Verrall and T. C. Scheffer. USDA Forest
Serv. Res. Pap. FPL 106, 8 pp., Apr. 1969.
Three-minute dipping in the more effective water-repellent-
preservative solutions gave wood boxes stored in the open off
the ground an average service life of about 10 years in Missis-
sippi and at least 20 years in Wisconsin.
33. Preservative treatments, species characteristics and
desired retentions in poles, by Roy H. Baechler.
Proc., Wood Pole Institute, June 17-19, 1968,
Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, Colo. pp. 93-99.
The relative commercial importance of the leading pole
species and their treating characteristics are reviewed. The
need for proper pretreatment seasoning of thin-sapwood species
is emphasized. Trends in species used, the choice of preserva-
tives, and retentions based on assay are discussed. More users
are requiring a clean final product.
34. Sun-following rack accelerates weathering of wood
products, by E. M. Wengert and A. L. Koster.
Solar Energy 12:267-272, 1968.
The design and operation of the sun-following exposure rack
for finished wood products are described and the climatic
effects of this new exposure, based on one summer's use, are
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