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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013728/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dividends from wood research
Abbreviated Title: Divid. wood res.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher: The Laboratory
Place of Publication: Madison, Wis.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Wood -- Research -- Bibliography -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Bibliography -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Some v. distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
Additional Physical Form: Some issues also available via Internet from the FED web site. Address as of 2/9/2001: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/divcum.htm ; current access available via PURL.
Additional Physical Form: Vols. for <1984> distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with June 30/Dec. 31, 1967 issue.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with: June 30/Dec. 31, 1967.
General Note: Description based on: 1979/1; title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Jan.-June 1990.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 024534274
oclc - 02854562
lccn - sn 84006256
issn - 0748-1276
Classification: ddc - 634
System ID: AA00013728:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: List of publications

Full Text








































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DIVIDENDS FROM WOOD RESEARCH





CONTENTS

Special Features:
Page 2 Construction of Nu-frame house (utilizing
new wood-frame system)
3 Kraft pulps, papers, and linerboard from
southern pine thinnings
4 Container effects in cushioned packages:
Urethane foam cushioning applied as
side pads

Other Recent FPL Publications:
5 Board and Panel Material
5 Drying
6 Fire Performance
6 Glues and Glued Products
7 Mechanical Properties
8 Packaging
9 Sawing and Machining
10 Structure and Growth Conditions
10 Wood Chemistry
13 Wood Fiber
14 Wood Preservation
15 General




ITEMS FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION are numbered,
and available from the Forest Products Laboratory
while the supply lasts. To request publications simply
circle the appropriate number on the back cover of
this list, detach, and mail to the Laboratory. Blanket
requests for publications cannot be filled.

Publications marked with an asterisk (*) are got
available at the Laboratory. They may be consulted
at most college and public libraries, or obtained
from the publisher.

Reports of slight interest to the layman are designated
"Highly technical."
























1. Construction of Nu-frame research house (Utilizing
new wood-frame system), by L. O. Anderson.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 88, 41 pp.,
Mar. 1968.

The cost of housing can be cut by making more
economical use of (1) labor or (2) materials. A new
concept of house construction developed at FPL, called
Nu-frame, does both.
Conventional and new materials are ingeniously
combined in walls and roof to reduce fabrication costs.
The walls are made of three basic components that
can be shop fabricated for later assembly at the site.
Framework consists of conventional 2 by 4 studs
doubled and spaced 4 feet on center, 2 by 4 plates,
and a fiberboard diaphragm that affords both heat and
sound insulation. The exterior is faced with a com-
ponent combining sheathing and siding. The interior
is faced with a third component, consisting of gypsum
board reinforced with 1- by 6-inch lumber. Both the
exterior and the interior wall component are fastened
to framing with mastic adhesive and a minimum number
of nails to hold down site labor costs.
The roof is framed with trusses of a new design,
called dual chord, which permits 4-foot instead of
conventional 2-foot spacing. Covering consists of a
lumber-plywood sheathing, to the weather side of
which is bonded a durable plastic film of polyvinyl
fluoride. This covering is fastened to the trusses with
mastic adhesive and one nail per truss.
Reduction in amount of dimension lumber used and
extensive use of low-grade 1-inch boards provide
further substantial savings in material costs.























2. Kraft pulps, papers, and linerboard from southern
pine thinnings, by D. J. Fahey andJ. F. Laundrie.
U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0182, 8 pp.,
Jan. 1968.
Also published under the title "Southern Pine
Thinnings for Papermaking," in Southern Pulp
& Paper Manufacture 31(8):102-103, Mar. 10,
1968.

Superior printing and tissue papers can be made from
the wood of young immature loblolly pine trees. The
printing papers are smoother and the tissues softer
and more absorbent than similar papers made from
mature wood of this southern pine species, pilot-scale
experiments demonstrated.
The 8-year-old trees used were typical of those
normally thinned from plantations to give remaining
trees room to grow to maturity. Their wood is gener-
ally weaker and lighter in weight than that of mature
trees. Its softer fibers, however, were found to con-
tribute superior properties to the bleached kraft pulps
used for the experimental printing and tissue papers.
The same experiments showed that unbleachedpulps
made from thinning yield kraft liners for corrugated
containerboard that are better formed and stronger,
except in tear resistance, than comparable liner stock
made from mature wood.
Research Note FPL-0182 describes the pulping,
bleaching, and papermaking procedures used and gives
detailed findings on the woods, pulps, and papers
discussed. Similar exploratory pulping experiments
conducted on thinnings of slash pine, another southern
pine species, are also reported.






















3. Container effects in cushioned packages: Urethane
foam cushioning applied as side pads, by
C. A. Jordan. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 91, 20 pp., Apr. 1968.

Does a container enhance or detract from the
protection afforded its contents by cushioning?
The answer to that question is being sought in a
new line of packaging research under way at FPL.
First findings are reported in Research Paper FPL 91.
The shock-absorbing capacity of cushioning, points
out the author, is generally determined by striking it
with falling masses of various weights. The conditions
of this test differ, he notes, from actual service con-
ditions inside a container.
The exploratory experiments reported by the author
show pronounced container effects on shock-absorbing
properties of cushioning. Dummy loads of various
weights were cushioned in cleated plywood and cor-
rugated fiberboard containers, both of which are
extensively used by the Air Force, which supported
the research. Electric accelerometers mounted in
the load measured the acceleration, in gravity units,
generated when the package was dropped 2 feet onto
a concrete base.
The cleated plywood boxes showed a clear advantage
in helping to absorb shock forces under the test con-
ditions. The experiments also demonstrated that the
shock spectrum, graphically represented as the natural
vibration frequency of hypothetical mechanical ele-
ments of the load plotted against their peak response
acceleration, is a more accurate criterion of damage
potential than the peak acceleration of the load in a
cushioned package.








Other Recent FPL Publications



BOARD AND PANEL MATERIAL

4. Portable apparatus for measuring surface irregu-
larities in panel products, by F. V. Hefty and
J. K. Brooks. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note
FPL-0192, 12 pp., May 1968.
Portable apparatus developed at the Forest Products Labora-
tory makes possible approximate measurement of vertical
deformations on wood surfaces. Fixed-focus camera unit
provides photographs of surface under study, using a shadow-
casting technique.

5. Steam post-treatments to reduce thickness swelling
of particleboard (Exploratory study), by B. G.
Heebink and F. V. Hefty. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Note FPL-0187, 29 pp., Mar. 1968.
For post-treatment, special apparatus was designed for a
small hotpress so that particleboards could be steamed, with
or without restraint against thickness swelling. Ten-minute
treatments at 3600 F. saturated steam, without restraint, were
exceedingly effective in removing springback.




DRYING


6. Prevention of pinkish-brown discoloration in drying
maple sapwood, by John M. McMillen. U.S. For-
est Serv. Res. Note FPL-0193, 9 pp., May 1968.
Hard maple lumber producers have difficulty in consistently
kiln drying the wood to a light natural color. This experiment
showed that either white or discolored lumber could be pro-
duced during the kiln drying of air-dried or summer-cut
green 5/4 hard maple by adjusting kiln conditions.

7. Transverse strains during drying of 2-inch pon-
derosa pine, by John M. McMillen. U.S. Forest
Serv. Res. Paper FPL 83, 28 pp., Jan. 1968.
Quantitative information is given on drying times, strains,
and sets as affected by type of wood, EMC reduction pattern,
and temperature. Results provide a basis for computation of
drying stresses, possible modification of moisture movement
theory and kiln schedule modification to control checking in
denser pieces of some softwoods.


_1_1~___ II ~ _1_1







8. Forest Products Laboratory list of publications on
the drying of wood, 29 pp., Mar. 1968.
Includes publications that give general information and the
results of research by the U.S. Forest Service on experimental
and applied kiln drying, physical properties, air drying, and
steam bending.


Accelerated methods of drying thick-sliced and
thin-sawed loblolly pine, by K. E. Kimball.
Forest Prod. J. 18(1):31-38, Jan. 1968.
This investigation clearly indicates that it is technically
feasible to dry thick-sliced and thin-sawed loblolly pine very
rapidly by press or jet drying as compared to kiln drying or
air drying and that further research and development work is
merited.



FIRE PERFORMANCE


9. Effect of inorganic salts on pyrolysis of wood,
cellulose, and lignin determined by differential
thermal analysis, by Walter K. Tang and
Herbert W. Eickner. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Paper FPL 82, 37 pp., Jan. 1968.
Pyrolysis and combustion reactions of wood are analyzed by
differential thermal analysis conducted in both helium and
oxygen atmospheres on wood, cellulose, and lignin, untreated
and treated with 2 and 8 percent by weight of eight inorganic
salts and an acid.

10. Specific heat of wood--further research required
to obtain meaningful data, by F. C. Beall. U.S.
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0184, 8 pp., Feb.
1968.
Discusses current data on the specific heat of wood and the
limitations, particularly when considered for use in analysis
of heat transfer in wood drying, fire performance, and other
high-temperature applications.



GLUES AND GLUED PRODUCTS

11. Contribution of end-wall and lumen bonding to
strength of butt joints, by J. T. Quirk, T. T. Koz-
lowski, and R. F. Blomquist. U.S. Forest Serv.
Res. Note FPL-0179, 14 pp., Jan. 1968.








Magnitude of the difference in tensile strength between
earlywood and latewood joints was directly associated with
the capacity of the bonds, adhesive-end wall and adhesive-
lumen perimeter, to distribute stress. End wall bonding was
independent of adhesive age; glue penetration into open cell
lumens provided continuity in the joint.

12. Fluorescence microscopy for detecting adhesives
on fracture surfaces, by John T. Quirk. U.S.
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0191, 2 pp., Apr.
1968.
When wood-adhesive joints fail, it is sometimes difficult to
judge whether failure is in adhesion or cohesion. Fluorescence
microscopy proved to be a fast and efficient way of examining
surfaces. If adhesive is present on the wood surface, it masks
the natural bluish autofluorescence of the wood even though
the adhesive itself may fluoresce.

13. Forest Products Laboratory list of publications on
glue, gluedproducts, and veneer, 32 pp., Apr. 1968.
Includes publications that present the results of research by
the Forest Products Laboratory on the development of water-
proof glues, preparation and application of various glues, and
plywood manufacturing problems.



MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


14. Mechanical properties and specific gravity of a
randomly selected sample of spruce pine, by
B. A. Bendtsen. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 92, 8 pp., May 1968.

Presents the first mechanical properties reported for spruce
pine (Pinus glabra), as determined from a randomly selected
sample.

15. Method for evaluating shear properties of wood,
by B. P. Munthe and R. L. Ethington. U.S. Forest
Serv. Res. Note FPL-0195, 19 pp., June 1968.
A test procedure is described for determining shear prop-
erties of wood where shear stress is in radial or tangential
planes.

Structural engineering research in wood, by Billy
Bohannan. J. of the Structural Div.; Proc. of
ASCE 94(ST2):403-416, Feb. 1968.
Four structural engineering research studies ofwoodbeams,
in progress or recently completed at the Forest Products
Laboratory, are presented and discussed. These studies include


Ill I I II 1 II I I I i0







size-bending strength relationship of wood beams, lateral
stability of deep beams, tapered wood beams, and prestressed
laminated wood beams.

16. Finite element techniques for orthotropic plane
stress and orthotropic plate analysis, by
A.C. Maki. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper FPL 87,
45 pp., June 1968.
Develops finite element techniques for use in plane stress
problems involving such orthotropio materials as wood and
plywood. (Highly technical)

17. Hardness modulus as an alternate measure of
hardness to the standard Janka ball for wood and
wood-base materials, by Wayne C. Lewis. U.S.
Forest Serv. Res. Note FPL-0189, 13 pp., Mar.
1968.
Comparisons of Janka-ball hardness values with hardness
modulus (load versus depth of penetration of the hardness
tool) on representative wood and wood-base materials indicate
that a constant relationship exists between the two values.


Load distribution in multiple-bolt tension joints,
by Calvin 0. Cramer. J. of Structural Div., Proc.
of Amer. Soc. of Civil Engineers ST 5, 1101-1117,
May 1968.
Presents investigation of the distribution of bolt loads in
multiple-bolt tension joints having several bolts in a row. An
analytical method is derived that closely predicts experimental
results showing uneven distribution of loads to bolts. The two
end bolts together usually carry more than one-half the load.




PACKAGING

18. Flat-crush cushioning capability of corrugated
fiberboard pads under repeated loading, by
R. K. Stern. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Note
FPL-0183, 27 pp., Feb. 1968.
To provide information on ability of corrugated fiberboard
to cushion against repetitive shocks, the Forest Products
Laboratory evaluated cushioning capability of two to five layers
of A- and B-flute corrugated fiberboard under impact conditions.


Tests show corrugated pads' performance as
cushioning, by R. K. Stern. Package Engineering,
Feb. 1968.








Research with 1-5 layer, B- and C-flute fiberboard pads
established (1) their shock absorption effectiveness, quantita-
tively; (2) that cushioning effectiveness increases with flute
size; and (3) that pads having even numbers of layers are more
effective as shock absorbers than those with odd numbers.



SAWING AND MACHINING

19. The 'taper-tension' saw--a new reduced kerf saw,
by Hiram Hallock. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.'Note
FPL-0185, 8 pp., June 1968.
Presents design characteristics and performance data for a
new circular saw that reduces kerf by about 3/32 inch when
sawing pine cants into 4/4 boards.


Sacrificing short butt log to chips may reduce
lodgepole stud warping, by F. B. Malcolm. Forest
Industries 95(5):88-89, May 1968.
Demonstrates that certain internal growth characteristics in
the first 4-foot butt length of small diameter trees of lodgepole
pine had a strong influence on crook and bow in studs sawed
from logs produced from this tree length area.


Warp in studs from small-diameter loblolly pine,
by F. B. Malcolm. South. Lbrman. 216(2687):
27-30, Apr. 1, 1968.
Maximum crook and bow deflection measurements in the
length of studs were found to be greatest in the first 46 inches
of length, as measured from the butt end of the stud. Average
deflection values were markedly lower in studs from butt logs
than from upper logs.

20. Forest Products Laboratory list of publications
on milling and utilization of timber products,
30 pp., Mar. 1968.
Includes publications on methods and practices in the lumber
producing and wood-consuming industries; standard lumber
grades, sizes, and nomenclature; production and use of small
dimension stock; specifications for small wooden products;
utilization of little-used species and commercial woods; and
low-grade and residue surveys.

Effects of roller-bar compression and restraint in
slicing wood 1 inch thick, by C. C. Peters,
R. R. Zenk, and A. Mergen. Forest Prod. J.
18(1):75-80, Jan. 1968.
Chestnut oak, Douglas-fir, and yellow-poplar were sliced
1 inch thick on a modified milling machine equipped with a


_ ~~~_ _~1_








conventional knife and 1-1/4-inch-diameter pressure bar that
applied various amounts of compression and restraint. Hot
cutting with moderate compression and restraint appeared
best. Forces as high as 2,180 pounds per inch of length were
recorded.



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH CONDITIONS


A new method for marking xylem growth, by
Karl E. Wolter. Forest Science 14(1):102-104,
Mar. 1968.
A new method is described for marking the position of the
cambial zones and differentiating xylem during the growing
season. Minute injury to the cambial zone with micro-needles
cause aberrant cells to form; these cells are permanently
retained as a mark with the annual ring.

21. Observations on form of juvenile core in loblolly
pine, by Hiram Hallock. U.S. Forest Serv. Res.
Note FPL-0188, 4 pp., Feb. 1968.
Describes results of an investigation on butt and upper logs
of loblolly pine, seeking a better definition of the characteristics
of juvenile core.

22. Wood quality of loblolly pine after thinning, by
Diana M. Smith. U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper
FPL 89, 12 pp., May 1968.
Compares loblolly pine wood produced 4 years after heavy
thinning and pruning of 9-year-old stands with wood of unthinned
stands of the same age. A three-fold increase in radial growth
was found, accompanied by a significant increase in specific
gravity and percentage of latewood.

Effect of aphid infestation on properties of grand
fir, by A. N. Foulger. Forest Prod. J. 18(1):
43-47, Jan. 1968.
Aphid infestation of grand fir stems resulted in reduced
tracheid length and modulus of elasticity and greater fibril
angle, ring width, percentage of latewood, specific gravity,
and longitudinal shrinkage than would be expected in the absence
of aphid attack. Percentage lignin increased and total sugars
decreased.



WOOD CHEMISTRY


The analysis of low-angle light scattering from
S simple mixtures, by Daniel Caulfield, Yung-Fang








Yao, and Robert Ullman. In "X-Ray and Electron
Methods of Analysis," Plenum Press, 1968.
pp. 127-161.
The basic theory of low-angle light scattering is presented.
When dealing with simple solids mixtures, the experimental
data may be analyzed to provide a measure of particle size,
size distribution, surface area, and distance of heterogeneity
of the scattering sample. Experimental methods and results on
model systems are discussed. (Highly technical)


* Cell wall density of dry wood, by R. C. Weatherwax
and Harold Tarkow. Forest Prod. J. 18(2):83-85,
Feb. 1968.
The density of the cell wall of dry wood was measured by
displacement of silicone fluids with viscosities 0.65 and
30,000 times that of water. The cell wall density was shown
to be independent of the displacement fluid and essentially the
same as the density of the cell wall substance. (Highly technical)

* Gas chromatographic analysis of phenols from
lignin, by Ira T. Clark. J. of Chromatography 6:
53-55, Jan. 1968.
Mixtures of catechols, guatacols and other phenols were
resolved by gas chromatography on column that used Apiezon L,
Apiezon N, or polyphenyl ether liquid phases. Procedures are
described for the quantitative analysis of these mixtures as
their trimethylsilyl ethers on these columns. (Highly technical)

* Hydrolysis of xylan in different species of hard-
woods, by Edward L. Springer and Lawrence L.
Zoch. Tappi 51(5):214-218, May 1968.
Thin cross sections of quaking aspen, paper birch, American
elm, and red maple were hydrolyzed in 0.10M HCL at 120 C.
and in distilled water at 1700 C. With 0.10M HCL at 1200 C.
only very small differences in xylan removal rates were
observed. In distilled water at 170 C., larger differences were
found. (Highly technical)

* Lignans of Ulmus thomasii heartwood-I. Thomasic
Acid, by M. K. Seikel, F. D. Hostettler, and
D. B. Johnson. Tetrahedron Vol. 24, pp. 1475-
1488. 1968.
The compound principally responsible for the vivid yellow-
green fluorescence of basified aqueous extracts of Ulmus
thomasii Sarg. heartwood has been shown to be an unusual new
3
cyclolignan in the free acid form with a double bond at A .
The compound has been named thomasic acid. (Highly technical)

* New sesquiterpenes from the yellow wood of slip-
pery elm, by M. Fracheboud, J. W. Rowe, 1







R. W. Scott, S. M. Fanega, A. J. Buhl, and
J. K. Toda. Forest Prod. J. 18(2):37-40, Feb. 1968.
Slippery elm wood which developed a yellow stain on paint
films contained a yellow cadalene derivative, 8-isopropyl-5-
m ethyl- 3 hydroxy- 2 -naphthaldehyde. Its or a n g e-colored
7-methoxy derivative, a tetrahydro derivative, and
7-hydroxycadalene were also identified chemically. The yellow
compound being relatively volatile is able to cause staining
by migration into paint films. (Highly technical)


Preparation and gas chromatography of the tri-
methylsilyl derivatives of resin acids and the
corresponding alcohols, by D. F. Zinkel, Mary B.
Lathrop, and L. C. Zank. J. of Gas Chroma-
tography 6(3):158-160, Mar. 1968.
A method for the quantitative trimethylsilylation of resin
and fatty acids and the corresponding alcohols is described.
The instability of the trimethylsilyl esters limits the liquid
phases usable in gas chromatographic analysis. (Highly
technical)


* Production of phenols by cooking kraft lignin in
alkaline solutions, by Ira T. Clark and Jesse
Green. Tappi 51:44-48, Jan. 1968.
The principal products obtained from the cooking of kraft
lignin in solutions of NaOH and Na S at temperatures of 260
to 310 C. were: guaiacol, catechol, methyl and ethyl-guaiacols,
methyl and ethyl-catechols, phenol, and p-cresol. Maximum
yields were obtained at 3000 C. in 4% NaOH. Inclusion of
Na S reduced yields. (Highly technical)


Separation of resin from fatty acid methyl esters
by gel-permeation chromatography, by D. F.
Zinkel and L. C. Zank, Analyt. Chem 40:1144-
1146, June 1968.
Resin and fatty acid methyl esters are quantitatively sepa-
rated by gel-permeation chromatography. This preliminary
separation simplifies and improves the subsequent gas chroma-
tographic analysis for the individual esters. (Highly technical)


The structure and the stereochemistry of abieslac-
tone, by S. Uyeo, J. Okada, S. Matsunaga, and
J. W. Rowe. Tetrahedron Vol. 24 (2859-2880).
1968.

Abieslactone, a triterpenoid isolated from several firs
(Abies spp.) has been shown to be 3a-methoxylanosta-9(11),
24-dien-27, 23R-olide (I). (Highly technical)


_








* The superswollen state of wood, by Harold Tarkow
and W. C. Feist. Tappi 51(2):80-83, Feb. 1968.
Superswollen state is that condition of a modified wood having
a higher than normal fiber saturation point. It is obtained by
chemical pulping and by treating hardwoods with dilute sodium
hydroxide or liquid ammonia. Such materials have reduced
wet strength, increased transverse diffusion constants, and
increased digestibility by cellulolytic micro-organisms. (Highly
technical)



WOOD FIBER

Deflocculation of swelling clays by nonionic and
anionic detergents, by Hans Schott. Journal of
Colloid and Interface Science 26:133-139, Feb.
1968.
Describes the deflocculation of suspensions of sodiummont-
morillonite by nonionic detergents as studied by turbidity,
viscosity, and sedimentation volume. The results are dis-
cussed in terms of adsorption and of the crystallographical
aspects of clay and adsorbed detergent. Anionic detergents
did not interact with the clay. (Highly technical)

Interactions in the system: Clay-detergent-
cellulose, by Hans Schott. Journal of the American
Oil Chemists Society 45:414-422, June 1968.
Describes the relationships between montmorillonite and
kaolinite clays, nonionic and anionic detergents, and cellulose
when brought into contact in water. Discusses the binary
systems of clay-cellulose, detergent-cellulose, and clay-
detergent as well as the ternary system. (Highly technical)

* Magnesium bisulfite pulping and papermaking with
southern pine, by E. L. Keller and D. J. Fahey.
Tappi 51(2):98-103, Feb. 1968.
Describes magnesium bisulfite pulping andpapermakingwith
southern pine in which two-ply linerboard, various printing
and writing papers, toweling, and tissue paper of good quality
were produced. (Highly technical)


Method for measuring edgewise shear properties
of paper, by Vance C. Setterholm, Roy Benson,
and Edward W. Kuenzi. Tappi 51(5):196-202,
May 1968.
Describes an experimental procedure for determining basic
shear characteristics of paper under edgewise loading that
produces shear distortion in the plane of the sheet. The
procedures are suitable for determining stress-strain char-


I- -







acteristics to failure so that shear strength, proportional-
limit stress, strain, and shear modulus can be obtained. (Highly
technical)

* Microscopical and other fiber characteristics of
high-yield sodium bisulfite pulps from balsam
fir, by R. A. Horn and F, A. Simmonds. Tappi
51(1):67A-73A, Jan. 1968.
Discusses observations by electron, light, and ultraviolet
microscopy of pulps in the yield range of 51 to 94 percent at
various degrees of beating and their relationship to paper-
making properties. (Highly technical)

Rheology of molten polymers. Application of the
cross equation and the viscosity at infinite ithear,
by Hans Schott. Rheologica Acta 7:179-183, May
1968.
The paper shows how the cross equation, applied to purely
viscous flow data of molten polymers measured in the pseudo-
plastic region, can be used to calculate the upper Newtonian
viscosity. This parameter, which is not accessible experi-
mentally, is of considerable theoretical interest. (Highly
technical)

Solubilization of a water-insoluble dye as a method
for determining micellar molecular weights, and
remarks on molecular weight determination of
charged micelles by light scattering, by Hans
Schott. Journal of Physical Chemistry 72:380-382,
Jan. 1968.
Compares molecular weight determination of micelles of
nonionic and ionic surfactants by the two methods. Discusses
the effect of micellar charge on turbidity and the possibility
that accurate extrapolation of Debye plots to concentrations
low enough to eliminate interparticle repulsion might require
dilution below the critical micelle concentration. (Highly
technical)



WOOD PRESERVATION

Field tests on wood dethiaminized for protection
against decay, by L. R. Gjovik and R. H. Baechler.
Forest Prod. J. 18(1):25-27, Jan. 1968.
Dethiaminization continues to show promise as a simple and
inexpensive method of protecting wood against decay organisms.
The method, believed adaptable to the kiln drying operation,
depends on depriving the fungus of an essential nutrient,
Vitamin B-thiamine. The process leaves no residual chemical
in wood, thus should not interfere with any fabrication proc-
esses.








* Further thoughts regarding variable performance
of creosoted marine piling, by R. H. Baechler.
AWPA Proc. 1968.
Reviews changes in commercial creosotes during the 20th
century. When conditions favor the depletion or degradation of
creosote in marine piling, some supplementary protection is
needed. Under moderate conditions, premature destruction by
limnoria may be prevented by heavy treatment with creosote
that combines high toxicity and permanence in sea water.

Retention and distribution of water-borne pre-
servative in redwood treated at different moisture
levels, by J. 0. Blew, H. G. Roth, and H. L. David-
son. AWPA Proc. 1968.
In a study of the pressure treatment of redwood lumber at
14 moisture levels with chromated copper arsenate, preserva-
tive retentions, penetration, and distribution were definitely
improved through drying of the lumber below a 50 percent
moisture content.

* Study of paintability and cleanliness of wood
pressure treated with water-repellent preserva-
tive, by Edw. Panek. AWPA Proc. 1968.
Cleanliness and paintability are difficult to obtain with
Douglas-fir and southern pine pressure treated with a water-
repellent pentachlorophenol preservative. Outdoor exposure of
treated and painted panels for 1 year showed results comparing
favorably with those on untreated controls where treated
southern pine was conditioned by solvent recovery and painted
with an emulsion paint system.



GENERAL

* Electrical analog approach to heat flow through
wood-frame walls, by E. M. Wengert. Forest
Prod. J. 18(1):99-101, Jan. 1968.
An analog simulator for studying the combined effects of
climate and wall construction was designed and built at the
Forest Products Laboratory. The results obtained from the
analog simulator are generally verified with actual data
obtained from buildings.


* Moisture distribution in wood-frame walls in
winter, by John E. Duff. Forest Prod. J. 18(1):
61-64, Jan. 1968.
Moisture distributions during two winters were measured in
three insulated wood-frame wall sections containing different
interior vapor barriers. Comparative results among the test
15








panels clearly demonstrated the importance of a properly
installed vapor barrier. Stud moisture conditions were only
moderately affected by the moisture conditions in the adjacent
panel.


* Utilizing all species and all of the tree, by
Herbert O. Fleischer. Pulp & Paper 42(14):28-30,
32, Apr. 1, 1968.

Pulpwood industry goal of using the whole tree is thoroughly
explored in a paper presented at the recent annual American
Pulpwood Assn. meeting.


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