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The many kinds of milk and dairy products on
the market today provide a wide choice for con-
sumers. Milk is an excellent source of calcium, a
mineral needed daily to maintain good health.
Milk also contains protein riboflavin many other
vitamins and minerals, sugar, and fat.
The Recommended Dietary Allowances for milk
are established by the National Academy of
Sciences-National Research Council on the
basis of calcium content. They are:
For children under 9, two or three 8-ounce
glasses each day; for children 9 to 12 and preg-
nant women three or more glasses ; for teenagers
and nursing women, four or more ; and for adults,
two or more.
These allowances can be met with whole milk or
the many kinds of milk available with reduced
milkfat content. Cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and
other foods made with milk products can also
substitute for fluid milk to meet the recom-
mended allowances. The milk equivalencies chart
at the end of this pamphlet lists some of these
To help you choose among the various kinds of
dairy products on the market, this pamphlet pro-
vides a dairy dictionary and explains the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) quality grades
which may be found on some manufactured dairy
MARKS OF QUALITY
USDA has established U.S. grade standards that
describe different levels of quality (grades) in but-
ter, Cheddar cheese, and Colby, Monterey, and
Manufacturers use the grade standards to iden-
tify levels of quality, to have a basis for establish-
ing prices at wholesale and to provide consumers
with a choice of quality levels.
USDA also provides inspection and grading ser-
vices which manufacturers, wholesalers, or other
distributors may request. A fee is charged to cover
the cost of the service. Products which are
officially graded may carry the USDA grade shield.
The U.S. Grade AA or Grade A
shield is most commonly found
on butter, and sometimes on
U.S. Extra Grade is the grade
name for instant nonfat dry
milk of high quality. Processors
who use USDA's grading and
inspection service may use the
official grade name or shield on
The "Quality Approved"
shield may be used on cottage
cheese, or other cheeses for
which no official U.S. grade
standards exist, if the products
have been inspected for quality
under USDA's grading and in-
GRADE AA RE
PACKED UNDER INSPECTION OF
THE U. SEPT OF AGRICULTURE
U.S. EXTRA GRADE
PROCESSED AND PACKED
UNDER INSPECTION OF THE
DEPT or c .L T .0E
U.S.DEPT OF AGRICULTURE
QUALITY CONTROL SERVICE
Before grading or inspection of a dairy product
is provided, the processing plant must meet
USDA's specifications for quality and sanitation.
A USDA dairy inspector checks the plant, incom-
ing raw products, and processing and packaging
More information on the U.S. grades is given in
the listings for butter, cheese, and instant nonfat
dry milk in the dairy dictionary that follows.
Milk available in stores today is usually
pasteurized and homogenized.
In pasteurizing, milk is heated briefly to kill
harmful bacteria, and it is then chilled rapidly.
Homogenized milk is processed to reduce the
size of the milkfat globules so the cream does not
separate and the product stays uniform
Depending on its milkfat content, fluid milk is
labeled milk, lowfat milk, or skim milk. Vitamin D
may be added to any of these milks, and the milk
is then so labeled. If added, the vitamin D content
must be increased to at least 400 International
Units (I.U.) per quart. Lowfat and skim milk are
fortified with vitamin A (at least 2,000 I.U. per
quart), usually providing more vitamin A than
whole milk. The protein and other vitamin and
mineral content of milks with reduced milkfat are
equivalent to that of whole milk.
Federal, State, and local laws or regulations
control the composition, processing, and hand-
ling of milk. Federal laws apply when packaged or
bottled milk is shipped interstate.
The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance of the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare, requires that all
packaged or bottled milk shipped interstate be
pasteurized to protect consumers. Milk can be
labeled "Grade A" if it meets FDA or State stan-
dards under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. The
Grade A rating designates wholesomeness rather
than a level of quality. According to the standards
recommended in the ordinance, Grade A
pasteurized milk must come from healthy cows
and be produced, pasteurized, and handled under
strict sanitary controls which are enforced by
State and local milk sanitation officials.
In the definitions that follow, the composition
or milkfat content given for a product (except for
butter) is that required under FDA regulations.
Your State laws or regulations may differ some-
what from FDA's. The milkfat content of butter is
set by a Federal law.
Whole milk is usually homogenized and fortified
with vitamin D. For shipment in interstate com-
merce, it must contain a minimum of 3.25 per-
cent milkfat. The milk must also meet minimum
milkfat requirements set by the State or
municipality where it is sold.
Lowfat milk has between 0.5 and 2 percent
milkfat and is fortified with vitamin A. The addi-
tion of vitamin D is optional.
Tip on Lowfat Milk
Lowfat milk can be made at home by mixing half
whole milk with half skim milk or reconstituted in-
stant nonfat dry milk.
Skim milk must have less than 0.5 percent
milkfat and must be fortified with vitamin A. The
addition of vitamin D is optional.
Tip on Skim Milk
The flavor and food value of skim milk can be
improved by adding a teaspoonful of instant non-
fat dry milk to each glass.
Flavored milks are made by adding fruit, fruit
juice, or other natural or artificial food flavorings
such as strawberry, chocolate sirup, or cocoa to
Tips on Chocolate-Flavored Milk
Regular, lowfat, or skim chocolate-flavored
milk can be heated for quick and easy hot chocol-
You can use chocolate-flavored milk in cookie
or cake recipes that call for both milk and choco-
late or cocoa.
All commercially sold buttermilk is cultured,
which means that a lactic acid-producing bac-
terial culture is added to freshly pasteurized skim
or partially skimmed milk to produce the butter-
milk. It is much thicker than skim milk. Buttermilk
is a good thirst quencher.
Tips on Buttermilk
Always keep cultured buttermilk chilled. If it
is allowed to warm, it may separate. If it does
separate, just stir it.
Dried buttermilk, a byproduct of buttermak-
ing, is used in pancake mixes and bakery pro-
Dry Whole Milk
Dry whole milk is pasteurized whole milk with
the water removed. It has limited retail distribu-
tion- mainly for use in infant feeding and for
people without access to fresh milk, such as cam-
pers. Dry whole milk is usually distributed to
chocolate and candy manufacturers.
Tip on Dry Whole Milk
An opened package should be tightly sealed
and stored in a cool, dry place. It develops off-
flavors if not used soon after opening.
Nonfat Dry Milk
Nonfat dry milk made by removing nearly all of
the fat and water from pasteurized milk, contains
about half the calories of whole milk.
"Instant" nonfat dry milk is made of larger par-
ticles that dissolve more easily in water. Some in-
stant nonfat dry milk contains added vitamins A
To earn the "U.S. Extra
Grade" shield, instant nonfat
dry milk must have a sweet and U.S.EXTRA GRADE
pleasing flavor and a natural PROCESSio ANo PACKE
UN0ER INSPECTION OF THE
color. It must also dissolve im- UNDER INSPECTION O THE
mediately when mixed with
Tips on Nonfat Dry Milk
Nonfat dry milk needs no refrigeration and
can be stored for several months in a cool, dry
place. An opened package should be tightly
resealed. After nonfat dry milk is reconstituted,
refrigerate and handle like fresh milk.
Use nonfat dry milk both as a beverage and in
cooking. When you use it as a beverage, recon-
stitute it several hours before serving to allow
time to chill.
This type of milk is prepared by heating
homogenized whole milk under a vacuum to
remove half its water, sealing it in cans and ther-
mally processing it. When evaporated milk is mix-
ed with an equal amount of water, its nutritive
value is about the same as whole milk. Evaporated
skim milk is also available.
Tips on Evaporated Milk
Always refrigerate after opening.
Used full strength, evaporated milk adds ex-
tra nutritive value to your diet.
Evaporated milk, with an equal amount of
water added may replace fresh milk in recipes. It
can also be used in coffee or on hot or cold cereal.
Sweetened Condensed Milk
This concentrated canned milk is prepared by
removing about half the water from whole milk.
Often used in candy and dessert recipes,
sweetened condensed milk has at least 40 per-
cent sugar by weight.
FDA sets standards of composition for milk and
different types of cream. These standards give
minimum milkfat requirements which must be met
if the product is to be shipped in interstate com-
Cream or Light Cream
Cream or light cream must have at least 18 per-
cent milkfat and less than 30 percent.
Tip on Cream and Light Cream
For maximum shelf life, do not return unused
cream from a pitcher to its original container.
Store it separately in the refrigerator. Try to pour
only as much from the original container as you
need at one time.
Half-and-Half is made by homogenizing a mix-
ture of milk and cream. It must contain at least
10.5 percent milkfat, but not more than 18 per-
Tip on Half-and-Half
Half-and-half can be mixed at home using half
homogenized whole milk and half light cream.
Light Whipping Cream
Light whipping cream must have at least 30 per-
cent milkfat and less than 36 percent.
Tip on Light Whipping Cream
To whip this kind of cream, have both the
bowl and cream well chilled.
Heavy cream must have at least 36 percent
Tip on Heavy Cream
Although heavy cream is more easily whipped
than light whipping cream, it will whip still more
easily if you have the cream and the bowl well
chilled. Don't over-whip heavy cream; it may be-
Sour cream is made by adding a special bac-
terial culture to light cream. The bacteria produce
lactic acid, which sours the cream. Sometimes
manufacturers use food-grade acid instead of bac-
teria to make sour cream. The product must be
labeled acidified sour cream if this process is
used. Acidified sour cream has the same
wholesomeness as sour cream; the only
difference is the manufacturing process. Both
sour cream and acidified sour cream are smooth
and thick and meet the milkfat requirements for
A bacterial culture or a food-grade acid is used
to make sour half-and-half. FDA standards of iden-
tity require the product to be labeled acidified
sour half-and-half if food-grade acid is used.
Tip on Sour Half-and-Half
Use sour half-and-half instead of sour cream
if you prefer less fat.
Butter is made by churning pasteurized cream.
It must have at least 80 percent milkfat according
to Federal law. Salt and coloring may be added.
Whipped butter is regular butter whipped for
easier spreading. Whipping increases the amount
of air in butter and increases the volume of butter
The USDA grade shield on butter packages
means that butter has been tested and graded by
experienced Government graders. In addition to
checking the quality of the butter, the graders also
test its keeping ability.
U.S. Grade AA butter
has a delicate sweet flavor,
with a fine, highly pleasing
is made from fresh sweet
has a smooth, creamy tex-
ture with good spreadability.
has salt completely dis-
solved and blended in just the
U.S. Grade A butter
has a pleasing flavor
is made from fresh cream
is fairly smooth in texture.
s A WHEN
HE U. S DEPTH OF AGRICULTURE
P^i -I AC U I PE
u S WHEN
PACKED UNDER INSPECTION OF
THE U S DEPT OF AGRICULTURE
Tips on Butter
Unsalted butter may be labeled "sweet" or
"unsalted" butter. Some people prefer its flavor.
Butter adds flavor in baking or basting turkey
When using whipped butter in place of regular
butter in recipes, use 1/3 to 1/2 more than the
recipe calls for if the measurement is by volume
(1 cup, 1/2 cup, etc.). If the measurement is by
weight (1/4 pound, 1/2 pound, etc.). use the
amount called for.
Store butter in its original wrapper or con-
tainer so it won't pick up flavors from other foods.
Make butter the first ingredient on sand-
wiches. It adds moisture and flavor and keeps the
filling from soaking the bread.
There are hundreds of varieties of natural
cheese. Cheese is generally made from whole
milk, although skim milk, cream, and goat's milk
are also used. Cheesemaking consists of separat-
ing most of the milk solids from the milk by co-
agulating with bacterial culture and rennet or a
microbial enzyme. The curd is then separated from
the whey by heating, stirring, and pressing.
After the cheese has been formed into its
characteristic shape, it is given a wax or other
protective coating and allowed to age for varying
lengths of time, depending on the kind of cheese
being made. When the cheese has reached its
proper aging or curing state, it is cut into sizes
suitable for consumer use.
You may find the U.S. Grade AA shield on Ched-
dar Cheese in some stores.
U.S. Grade AA cheese has
fine, highly pleasing Ched-
smooth, compact texture
uniform color and attrac-
I tive appearance.
USADE A A
/CRAD[O W LRAUD[P
EPACKD U NDIR SPTO IO IOfI
THE U. S DEPTH Of AGRICULIURi
Process cheese is a blend of cheeses which
have been shredded, mixed, heated, and then
molded. No further ripening occurs. Process
cheese may contain pimentos, fruits, vegeta-
bles, or meats.
If the label says "process cheese food ," other
ingredients such as nonfat dry milk or whey solids
and water have been added, resulting in a lower
milkfat content and more moisture than process
"Process cheese spread" has an even higher
moisture content and lower milkfat content than
process cheese and cheese food. As a result, it's
Process cheese products usually come packed
in slices, loaves, and jars.
Cottage cheese is a soft unripened cheese that
comes in three styles: cottage cheese, dry curd
cottage cheese, and lowfat cottage cheese. The
milkfat content of each is defined in FDA stan-
dards of identity.
Dry curd cottage cheese must contain less than
0.5 percent milkfat.
Cottage cheese must have a milkfat content of
at least 4 percent. To make cottage cheese, curd
is mixed with a creaming mixture to raise the milk-
fat content to the required level.
The milkfat content of lowfat cottage cheese
must be between 0.5 and 2 percent. FDA regula-
tion require that the milkfat content of lowfat cot-
tage cheese be listed on the container to the
nearest one-half percent.
Cottage cheese may bear the
USDA "Quality Approved"
shield if it is of good quality QALITY APPROVED
and made under USDA supervi- U. SDEPTOFAGRICULTURE
sion. During processing, a QUALITY COMROLSERVICE
USDA inspector keeps constant
check on all aspects of product
quality, right down to a final
check on the product in con-
Tips on Cottage Cheese
No matter what kind of cottage cheese you
buy, use it within a few days after purchase.
For more information on the great variety of
cheeses available, see "How to Buy Cheese,"
G-193. For a free copy, order by number from the
Office of Governmental and Public Affairs, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
Milk is cultured with a special bacteria to make
custard-like yogurt. It is usually made from
homogenized, pasteurized lowfat milk, and may be
enriched with nonfat dry milk solids. Yogurt has
the same nutritive value as the milk from which
it is made.
Tips on Yogurt
If separation occurs, just stir the liquid back
into the yogurt.
Sweetened and fruit-flavored yogurt is availa-
ble in sundae-style with the fruit at the bottom,
and swiss-style with the fruit distributed
throughout the yogurt. A frozen form of yogurt is
Unopened fruit-flavored yogurt may be kept
frozen for as long as 6 weeks. To defrost, let the
yogurt stand at room temperature about 3 hours.
Ice cream is made from cream, milk, sweeteners,
flavorings, stabilizers, and emulsifiers. To be
shipped in interstate commerce, it must contain at
least 10 percent milkfat.
Frozen Custard (French Ice Cream)
Frozen custard also called French ice cream or
New York ice cream, has egg yolks added.
Ice milk, made from milk, stabilizers, sweeten-
ers, and flavorings, must contain between 2 and 7
percent milkfat if shipped in interstate com-
merce. The soft-serve frozen desserts are similar
to ice milk, but are specially processed to be served
Sherbet, made from milk, fruit or fruit juice,
stabilizers, and sweeteners, has about twice as
much sweeteners as ice cream. It must have 1 to 2
Tips on Frozen Dessert
Keep frozen desserts in tightly closed car-
tons. If you store them in the freezer of your
refrigerator, try to use them within a week. Frozen
desserts stored in a deep freezer at temperatures
below zero will keep about a month. Hard freezing
prevents formation of ice crystals.
Frozen desserts are easier to serve if placed
in the refrigerator before serving- about 10
minutes for a pint and 20 minutes for a half
On the basis of the calcium they provide, the
following are alternatives for 8 ounces of fresh
1-1/3 ounces Cheddar cheese
1-1/2 ounces process American cheese
1-1/3 cups cottage cheese
1 cup cocoa made with milk
1 cup custard
1-1/3 cups ice cream
1 cup ice milk, soft serve
3/4 cup homemade macaroni and cheese
1 milkshake (made with 2/3 cup milk and
1/2 cup ice cream)
1 cup oyster stew
1-1/2 to 1-2/3 cup canned cream soup,
prepared with equal volume of milk
1 cup unflavored yogurt
SUS. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1979 0-298-682
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock No. 001-000-04020-1
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
O W TCIIlIIIIII1111 11IIIIIIIIIIIIIII 1 111 IIII
HOW TC 3 1262 08582 9512
Fluid milk: whole,
Dry milk: whole,
Butter: salted or
sweet, regular or
LOOK FOR i
THE USDA U.S.EXTRAGRADE
THE USDA u. r"\
RPRODEiD ANM PACED
DG R E UNDER INSPECTION TIHE
G3~\/ RA D E^E9
AA & U.S.
Found on butter,
Mean good flavor,
texture; high quality.
Found on instant non-
fat dry milk. Means
Revised January 1978
Slightly Revised July 1979
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