How to buy dairy products

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Material Information

Title:
How to buy dairy products
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Home and garden bulletin
Physical Description:
15 p. : ill. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Edition:
Slightly rev. Dec. 1974.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Dairy products -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Supersedes How to buy butter, G-148 and How to buy instant nonfat dry milk, G-140 issued in Aug. 1972.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027300196
oclc - 01276491
System ID:
AA00013722:00001


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How to Buy

DAIRY

PRODUCTS






Milk is an excellent source of calcium, pro-
tein, and riboflavin, and contains many other
vitamins and minerals as well. It also supplies
fat and sugar. Getting enough milk should be a
pleasure. This booklet can help you shop wisely
for the whole array of dairy products that you
can use to get your daily supply of milk.

DAIRY DICTIONARY
Dairy products include not only milk and
cream, but also products such as butter, cheese,
and frozen desserts. The following dictionary de-
fines the dairy products you use, and offers buy-
ing and using tips where applicable.

MILK AND CREAM
MILK
Fresh Fluid Whole Milk
Fresh whole milk is usually homogenized and
fortified with vitamins. It must meet the require-
ments for minimum milkfat content set by the State
or municipality where it is sold. The milkfat con-
tent is usually about 3.25 percent, the minimum
recommended by the Food and Drug Administra-
tion standards of identity.





All Grade A milk and milk products sold to-
day are pasteurized-heated to kill harmful bac-
teria. Grade A pasteurized milk, according to the
standards recommended in the Pasteurized
Milk Ordinance, must come from healthy cows
and be produced, pasteurized, and handled under
strict sanitary control enforced by State and local
milk sanitation officials. Requirements may vary in
different localities. The "Grade A" rating desig-
nates wholesomeness rather than a level of
quality.
Homogenized milk has been treated to reduce
the size of the milkfat globules. In homogenized
milk, the cream does not separate and the product
stays uniform throughout.
In Vitamin D milk, the vitamin D content has
been increased to at least 400 U.S.P. units per
quart. This is the minimum daily requirement for
children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers.
Tips on Fresh Whole Milk:
Get enough milk. Children under 9 need the
equivalent of two to three 8-ounce glasses each
day; children 9 to 12 and pregnant women need
three or more; teenagers and nursing mothers
need four or more; adults need two or more. See
the Milk Equivalencies Chart at the back of this
book to find out what foods can be substituted
for fresh whole milk to meet these requirements.


Chocolate Flavored Milk and Chocolate
Flavored Milk Drink
Chocolate flavored milk is made from pasteur-
ized whole milk with sugar and chocolate sirup or
cocoa added. In most States, regulations require
that to be labeled chocolate flavored milk, the
product must be made from whole milk; to be
labeled chocolate flavored milk drink, it must be
made from skim or partially skimmed milk.
Strawberry, coffee, or maple flavorings are
sometimes used for other flavored milk and milk
drinks.
Tips on Chocolate Flavored Milk:
Chocolate flavored milk (or milk drink) can
be heated for quick and easy hot chocolate.





It can also be used in cookie or cake recipes
that call for both milk and chocolate or cocoa.


Cultured Buttermilk
Cultured buttermilk is made by adding a lactic
acid-producing bacterial culture to fresh pasteur-
ized skim or partially skimmed milk. The result-
ing buttermilk is much thicker than skim milk
with the same nutritive value. It has an acid
flavor and it's a good thirst quencher. Almost all
commercially marketed buttermilk is cultured.
There is, however, a natural type which is a by-
product of buttermaking.
Tips on Buttermilk:
*Always keep cultured buttermilk chilled. If
allowed to warm, it may separate. If your butter-
milk should separate, just stir it.
Natural buttermilk is not sold in consumer
packages. It's dried and used in pancake mixes
and bakery products.


Dry Whole Milk
Dry whole milk is pasteurized whole milk with
the water removed. It has only limited retail dis-
tribution. Where it is distributed, it's used mostly
for infant feeding and by persons such as campers
who don't have access to fresh milk. Dry whole
milk is distributed mostly to manufacturers of
chocolate and other candy.
Tip on Dry Whole Milk:
Because of its fat content, dry whole milk
doesn't keep as well as nonfat dry milk. If it is
not used soon after the package is opened, it
develops an off-flavor.


Nonfat Dry Milk
Nonfat dry milk is made by removing nearly all
the fat and water from pasteurized milk. "Instant"
nonfat dry milk is made of larger particles which
are more easily dissolved in water. Nonfat dry
milk has about half the calories of whole milk
and the same nutritive value as fresh skim milk.





Some instant nonfat dry milk contains added
vitamins A and D.
Tips on Nonfat Dry Milk:
Nonfat dry milk needs no refrigeration and
can be stored for several months in a cool dry
place. After it is reconstituted, however, it should
be refrigerated and handled like fresh milk.
Nonfat dry milk can be used both as a
beverage and in cooking. When using as a bev-
erage, reconstitute it several hours before serving
to allow time to chill. Use cool water.
Nonfat dry milk is very economical. A family
of four that has 21 quarts of whole milk delivered
each week could save more than $3.00 each week
by using nonfat dry milk instead.


Skim Milk
Fresh skim (or nonfat) milk has less than 0.5
percent milkfat, the percentage allowed under Fed-
eral requirements. It is fortified with vitamin A.
Addition of vitamin D is optional.


I






Tips on Skim Milk:
Skim milk contains all the nutrients of
whole milk except the fat.
The flavor and food value of skim milk can
be improved by adding a teaspoonful of instant
nonfat dry milk to each glass.

Lowfat Milk
Lowfat milk usually has between 0.5 and 2 per-
cent milkfat, depending on State regulations. It
also is fortified with vitamin A. Addition of vitamin
D is optional.

Tip on Lowfat Milk:
Lowfat milk can be "made" at home by
using half whole milk and half skim or instant
nonfat dry milk.

Evaporated Milk
This type of milk is prepared by heating
homogenized whole milk under a vacuum to
remove half of its water, then sealing it in cans
and sterilizing it. When mixed with an equal
amount of water, its nutritive value is about the
same as whole milk. Evaporated skim milk is also
available.

Tips on Evaporated Milk:
Refrigerate after opening.
Evaporated milk is handy to store and is
usually less expensive than fresh whole milk.
A mixture of water and evaporated milk
makes an inexpensive infant formula.
Evaporated milk, with an equal amount of
water added, may replace fresh milk in recipes.
(Used full-strength, evaporated milk adds extra
nutritive value.) It also can be used in coffee or
on hot or cold cereal.

Sweetened Condensed Milk
Sweetened condensed milk is a concentrated
milk with at least 40 percent sugar added to help
preserve it. This canned milk is prepared by re-
moving about half the water from whole milk. It
is often used in candy and dessert recipes.






CREAM
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has
standards of identity for many of the different
types of cream if they are shipped in interstate
commerce. These standards give minimum milk-
fat requirements for each type of cream.

Light Cream (Coffee or Table Cream)
Light cream must have at least 18 percent
milkfat according to Federal standards of identity
and most State standards.
Tip on Light Cream:
For maximum shelf life, do not return un-
used cream from a pitcher to its original con-
tainer. Store it separately in the refrigerator, or
better, pour only the amount to be used at one
time.

Half-and-Half
Half-and-Half is a mixture of milk and cream,
homogenized. Under Federal requirements, it must
have a minimum of 10.5 percent milkfat.
Tips on Half-and-Half:
Half-and-half can be mixed at home using
half homogenized whole milk and half table
cream.
As with light cream, do not return unused
half-and-half to its original container.

Light Whipping Cream
Light whipping cream must have at least 30
percent milkfat under Federal standards of
identity.
Tip on Light Whipping Cream:
To whip this kind of cream, have both the
bowl and the cream well chilled.

Heavy Whipping Cream
Heavy whipping cream must have at least 36
percent milkfat.
Tips on Heavy Whipping Cream:
Although heavy whipping cream is more





easily whipped than light whipping cream, it is
still good to have the cream and the bowl well
chilled.
Don't overwhip heavy cream. It may get
grainy.

Sour Cream
Sour cream is made by adding lactic acid
bacteria culture to light cream. It is smooth and
thick and contains at least 18 percent milkfat.
Tips on Sour Cream:
Sour cream is sometimes called "salad
cream" or "cream dressing" in the supermarket.
It's great on vegetables or baked potatoes.

Sour Half-and-Half
Sour half-and-half is the same as half-and-half
except that a culture is added.
Tip on Sour Half-and-Half:
This can replace sour cream, if you prefer
less fat.


OTHER DAIRY PRODUCTS

BUTTER

Butter is made by churning pasteurized cream.
It must have at least 80 percent milkfat, accord-
ing to Federal law. Salt and coloring may be
added. Whipped butter is regular butter that has
been whipped for easier spreading. Whipping also
increases the volume of butter.
Tips on Butten
Unsalted butter may be labeled sweet butter
or unsalted butter. Some people prefer its flavor.
Nothing beats butter for flavor in baking,
or basting turkey or chicken.
When using whipped butter in place of
regular butter in recipes, use 3 to V2 more than
the recipe calls for if the measurement is by
volume (one cup, one half cup, etc.). If the meas-
urement is by weight ( pound, V pound, etc),
then use the same amount.





Store butter in its original wrapping or con-
tainer so it won't pick up odor from other foods.
Butter can be kept frozen for up to a month.
Butter is sold in 1-pound, V2-pound, and /4-
pound packages. It may be less expensive in the
larger packages, and the reserve can be frozen.
For easier spreading, let butter warm to
room temperature. (This isn't necessary for whip-
ped butter.)
Make butter the first ingredient on sand-
wiches. It adds moisture and flavor and keeps the
filling from soaking into the bread.

CHEESE

Natural cheese is cheese made directly from
milk. There are virtually hundreds of varieties of
natural cheese.
Process cheese is a blend of natural cheeses
which have been shredded, mixed, and heated.
This cheese may contain pimentos, fruits, vege-
tables, or meats.
If the label says "process cheese food," other
ingredients such as nonfat dry milk and whey
solids have been mixed in.
"Process cheese spread" has higher moisture
content and lower milkfat content than process
cheese and cheese food. It's more spreadable.
Process cheese products usually come packed
in slices, loaves, and jars.
Cottage cheese is a soft unripened natural





cheese that can be bought in cup-shaped con-
tainers or tumblers. It may be bought plain or
creamed and in different curd sizes. Federal
standards require that it have no more than 80
percent moisture. Creamed cottage cheese con-
tains a minimum of 4 percent fat Cottage cheese
should be used within a few days of purchase.
Tip on Cheese:
Cheese has a high food value and comes in a
wide variety of flavors to suit every taste. For
complete details on the great variety of cheeses
available, see "How to Buy Cheese," G-193. For
a free copy, order by number from the Office of
Information, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

YOGURT
Yogurt is a custard-like product made by
fermenting milk with a special culture. It is
usually made from homogenized, pasteurized
whole milk, but may be made from skim or
partly skimmed milk. Yogurt has the same nutri-
tive value as the milk from which it is made. Often
yogurt is sweetened and fruit flavored.
Tips on Yogurt:
Yogurt can be served at any meal or as a
snack. A fruit-flavored yogurt is good for break-
fast, or for dessert.
Yogurt should be kept cold, but not frozen.
If allowed to warm to room temperature, it might
separate slightly.


10






FROZEN DESSERTS

Frozen desserts include ice cream, ice milk,
sherbets, and ices in their various fdrms (car-
toned, cones, popsicles, etc.) If they are shipped
in interstate commerce, they must meet U.S. Food
and Drug Administration standards of identity. In
addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has
issued recommended standards for the manu-
facture of frozen desserts. These can be adopted
voluntarily by any State. They set minimum
quality requirements for the product as well as
for its dairy ingredients. The standards also pro-
vide criteria for plant sanitation.

Ice Cream
Ice cream is made from cream, milk, sugar,
flavorings, and stabilizers. It must contain at
least 10 percent milkfat.
Tips on Ice Cream:
Keep ice cream in a tightly closed carton
and try to use it within a week if you store it in
your refrigerator frozen food compartment. If you
store it in a deep freezer, it will keep for a month
or two (so long as the temperature is kept below
zero). It should be kept hard frozen to prevent it
from becoming "icy."
Ice cream is easier to serve if it is transferred
from the frozen food compartment to the refrigera-
tor section a short time before serving-about 10
minutes for a pint and 20 minutes for a half
gallon.

Frozen Custard (French Ice Cream)
Some ice cream has egg yolks added. This may
be called frozen custard, French ice cream, or
New York ice cream.

Ice Milk
Ice milk is made from milk, stabilizers, sugar,
and flavorings. It must contain between 2 and 7
percent milkfat if it is sold in interstate com-
merce. The soft-serve frozen dessert you can buy
at the roadside stand is like ice milk except that
it's specially processed to be served soft.


11





Tip on Ice Milk:
Treat ice milk as you do ice cream. (See
"Tips for Ice Cream.")

Sherbet
Sherbet is made from milk, fruit or fruit juice,
stabilizers, and sugars. Sherbet has a high level
of sugar-about twice as much as ice cream.
It must have 1 to 2 percent milkfat.
Tip on Sherbet:
Handle sherbet like ice cream. (See "Tips
for Ice Cream.")

Water Ice
Water ice is like sherbet except that it con-
tains no milk solids.


MARKS OF QUALITY
To help you buy dairy products, the U.S. De-
partment of Agriculture has quality grades, or a
"Quality Approved" rating, for manufactured
dairy products. For a manufacturer to use the
USDA grade or "Quality Approved" shield on his
product labels, his plant must meet USDA's speci-
fications and must operate under the continuous
inspection of USDA's Agricultural Marketing
Service.
To qualify, a plant must pass an initial survey
by a USDA dairy inspector and subsequent in-
spections made a number of times a year. The
inspector checks the plant and surrounding areas
to see if they are clean, orderly, soundly con-
structed, and in good repair. Processing and
packaging techniques must be sanitary. Incoming
raw products are checked regularly, and the plant
must have a laboratory testing program to main-
tain proper quality control. Even the labels must
be approved by USDA before the packages can
carry the shield. The labels may carry no con-
flicting or misleading statements.
During processing, a USDA inspector keeps
constant check on all aspects of product quality,
right down to a final check on the product in
consumer packages. Some brands of the fol-
lowing products bear a USDA shield.


12








COTTAGE CHEESE
AND PASTEURIZED
PROCESS CHEESE


QUALITY APPROVED
US.DEPT.OF AGRICULTURE
GRADING AND
QUALITY CONTROL SERVICE
\^^^^^^^^P^-1^^M Iy


Cottage cheese and pasteurized process
cheese may bear the USDA "Quality Approved"
shield if they are of good quality and are made
under USDA supervision.

BUTTER

One way to be assured of high quality butter
is to look for the USDA grade shield on the
package. The grade shield (AA, A, or B) means that
the butter has been tested and graded by ex-
perienced government graders. Butter graders
judge quality by U.S. grade standards that set
forth the requirements for each grade. They also
test the keeping quality of butter.



SSAAWHEN
GRADE GRADED
PACKED UNDER INSPECTION OF
THE U S DEPT OF AG CULTUREE
OFFICIALLY GRADED
U.S. Grade AA Butter:
has delicate sweet flavor, with a fine highly
pleasing aroma;
is made from high-quality fresh sweet
cream;
has a smooth, creamy texture with good
spreadability;
has salt completely dissolved and blended
in just the right amount.






1111


13










U.S. Grade A Butter


has a pleasing flavor;
is made from fresh cream;
is fairly smooth in texture;
rates close to the top grade.


U.S. Grade B Butter:


may have a slightly acid flavor;
generally is made from selected sour cream;
is readily acceptable to many consumers.




S U S WHEN
PACKED UNDER IISPECTIO OF PACKED UNDER INSPICTIOI OF
CHEDDAR TE U S. DEPT OF AGICULTU E T U S I DEP OF ACULTU
OFFICIALS GOADED OFFICIAllY GRADED
CHEESE

USDA Grades AA and A are used on Cheddar
cheese. As with butter, U.S. Grade AA is the best
and Grade A is almost as good. For more on
Cheddar cheese grades, see "How to Buy Cheese,"
G-193.


INSTANT NONFAT
DRY MILK


U.S. EXTRA GRADE
P CESSE AM PACK
I l Es CTI F TME


To earn the "U.S. Extra Grade" shield, instant
nonfat dry milk must have a sweet and pleasing
flavor and a natural color. It must also dissolve
immediately when mixed with water.


14






















MILK
EQUIVALENCIES
On the basis of the calcium they provide, the
following are alternatives for 1 cup of fresh whole
milk:
1% ounces natural Cheddar cheese
1 -ounces process Cheddar cheese
1 cups creamed cottage cheese
1 cup cocoa made with milk
1 cup custard
1% cups ice cream
1 cup ice milk, soft serve
% cup homemade macaroni and cheese
1 milkshake (made with 2 cup milk and
cup ice cream)
1 cup oyster stew
% of 15-inch-diameter round pizza, made with
cheese topping
1 cup pudding, made with milk and cornstarch
1% cups canned cream soup, prepared with
equal volume of milk
1 cup yogurt




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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U.S. EXTRA GRADE
PROCISILED ID PCKED
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QUALITY APPROVED
US DEPn OF AgoImCULTURE
GoADIIG AND
OUALITI CONTROL SRVIEE
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Here are some general tips
for buying and using dairy
products wisely:
.


* Keep them cool,
and covered.


clean,


* Most dairy foods are
highly perishable. This is
not true for nonfat dry milk,
sweetened condensed milk,
and evaporated milk, which
will keep for a few months
unrefrigerated (if unopened).


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* Look for the USDA grade
shield or "Quality Ap-
proved" shield on manu-
factured dairy products.
It's a sign of quality.


* GPO: 1974 0-564-237


Slightly revised December 1974




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