How to buy cheese

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Material Information

Title:
How to buy cheese
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
23 p. : ill. ; 23 x 11 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Food Safety and Quality Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher:
Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and Quality Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Edition:
Slightly rev. May 1977.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cheese -- Varieties   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 77013058
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Food Safety and Quality Service.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021915953
oclc - 03130304
System ID:
AA00013713:00001


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CHEESE(
A


UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE


HOME AND
GARDEN BULLETIN
NUMBER193


PREPARED BY
FOOD SAFETY
AND QUALITY
SERVICE


/
V


. DE" --TO

U.ll. DEPOeITORry













CHEESE












Many countries have developed one or more
varieties of cheese peculiar to their own condi-
tions and culture.
When the colonists settled in the New World
they brought with them their own methods of
making their favorite kind of cheese. The first
Cheddar cheese factory in the United States was
built by Jesse Williams, near Rome, Oneida
County, N.Y., in 1851. As the population increased
in the East, and there was a corresponding in-
crease in the demand for market milk, the cheese
industry gradually moved westward. Cheesemak-
ing in the United States and in the other leading
cheese-producing countries of the world is now
largely a factory industry.
Many of the popular varieties, although orig-
inating in Europe, are now produced in the United
States and are available in most food stores,
delicatessens and specialty cheese stores.


MAKING NATURAL CHEESE

The making of natural cheese is an art cen-
turies old. It consists of separating most of the






milk solids from the milk by curdling with rennet
or bacterial culture or both and separating the
curd from the whey by heating, stirring, and pres-
sing. Most cheeses in this country are made from
whole milk. For certain types of cheese both milk
and cream are used and for other types, skim
milk, whey or mixtures of all of these are used.
The distinctive flavor and body and texture
characteristics of the various cheeses are due to:
(1) the kind of milk used, (2) the method used
for curdling the milk and for cutting, cooking,
and forming the curd, (3) the type of bacteria or
molds used in ripening, (4) the amount of salt or
other seasonings added and (5) the conditions
of ripening such as temperature, humidity and
length of time. Sometimes only minor differences
in the procedures followed may make the dif-
ference between one variety of cheese and
another.
After the cheese has been formed into its
characteristic shape it is given a coating of wax
or other protective coating or wrapping and al-
lowed to cure or age for varying lengths of time
depending upon the kind or variety of cheese
being made.
When the cheese has reached its proper curing
stage it is often cut or sliced from larger blocks
or wheels into more suitable sizes for consumer
use. The refrigerated showcase in a modern food
market is most enticing with its display of various
shapes and sizes of cheese packages such as
wedges, oblongs, segments, cubes, slices, blocks
and cut portions.


CARE IN THE HOME

All natural cheese should be kept refrigerated.
Soft unripened cheeses, such as cottage, cream
or Neufchatel, are quite perishable and should
be used within a few days after purchase. Ripened
or cured cheeses keep well in the refrigerator for
several weeks if protected from mold contamina-
tion and drying out. When possible the original
wrapper or covering should be left on the cheese.
The cut surface of cheese should be covered






with wax paper, foil, or plastic wrapping material
to protect the surface from drying. If large pieces
are to be stored for any extended length of time,
the cut surface may be dipped in hot paraffin.
Small pieces may be completely rewrapped. Mold
which may develop on cheeses should be scraped
or cut from the surface of the cheese. The particu-
lar mold in the interior of such cheeses as Blue,
Gorgonzola, Roquefort or Stilton has been care-
fully developed to produce the characteristic color
and distinctive flavor of those varieties and is con-
sumed as part of the cheese.
Ends or pieces of cheese that have become
dried out and hard may be grated and kept refrig-
erated in a clean, tightly covered glass jar, and
used for garnishing or accenting.
Cheese with an aromatic or a strong odor such
as Limburger should be stored in a tightly cov-
ered jar or container. Such cheeses are fast
curing and are best when used within a reason-
able time after purchase.
Normally cheese should not be allowed to
freeze as this may damage the characteristic body
and texture and cause the cheese to become
crumbly and mealy. However, small pieces (1
pound or less) not over 1 inch thick of certain
varieties may be frozen satisfactorily for as long
as 6 months if handled and stored properly. Since
it is necessary that the cheese be frozen quickly,
the temperature of the freezer should be 0 F.
or lower. Cut cheese should be carefully wrapped
(foil or other moistureproof freezer wrapping
should be pressed tightly against surfaces to
eliminate air, and to prevent evaporation), then
frozen immediately. Among the varieties of
cheese which can be successfully frozen in small
pieces are: Brick, Cheddar, Edam, Gouda,
Muenster, Port du Salut, Swiss, Provolone, Moz-
zarella, and Camembert. Small sizes as in the
case of Camembert can be frozen in their original
package. When removed from the freezer, cheese
should be thawed in the refrigerator and used as
soon as possible after thawing.
Except for soft unripened cheeses such as cot-
tage and cream cheese, all cheese should be






served unchilled in order to help bring out its
distinctive flavor and texture characteristics. This
usually requires 20 minutes to 1 hour or more
at room temperature.


USES

Cheese is one of the most nutritious and versa-
tile foods. Because it is an excellent source of
many important nutrients in the diet and because
it is a well-liked food, cheese is used freely by
nutritionists and homemakers in planning meals
and in the preparation of many flavorful dishes.
With the wide variety of flavors, colors, and con-
sistencies to choose from, natural cheeses are
suitable for any meal of the day, from appetizers
to desserts, and between-meal snacks as well.
Whether served separately or in combination
dishes, cheese adds zest and flavor to other foods.
There is a cheese to suit every taste, mood or
occasion.
Some of the many ways of using different kinds
of cheese are as follows:
(a) Main dish in the form of fondue, souffle,
Welsh rabbit, omelet, pizza, or in combination
with potatoes, other vegetables, rice, macaroni,
Noodles or spaghetti.
(b) Salads and salad dressings.
(c) Assorted cheeses on trays with fruit, nuts
and crackers or chips.
(d) Appetizers in the form of cut cheese or as
spreads and dips.
(e) Sliced in toasted or cold sandwiches or as
an ingredient in sandwich spreads and sauces.
(f) Grated as a garnish for soups, sauces and
hot dishes.
(g) Desserts, as cheese and crackers, cheese
cakes, cheese pies, or fruit pies with cheese.





RIPENING CLASSIFICATIONS

Unripened
The soft unripened varieties such as cottage
cheese contain relatively high moisture and do
not undergo any curing or ripening. They are con-
sumed fresh-soon after manufacture. The firm
unripened cheeses such as Gjetost and Mysost
also may be used soon after manufacture but
because they contain very low moisture may be
kept for several weeks or months.


Soft Ripened
In the soft ripened cheeses, curing progresses
from the outside or rind of the cheese, towards
the center. Particular molds or culture of bacteria
or both, which grow on the surface of the cheese
aid in developing the characteristic flavor and
body and texture during the curing process.
Curing continues as long as the temperature is
favorable. These cheeses usually contain more
moisture than semi-soft ripened varieties.


Semisoft Ripened
Unlike the soft ripened varieties, these cheeses
ripen from the interior as well as from the surface.
This ripening process begins soon after the
cheese is formed, with the aid of a characteristic
bacterial or mold culture or both. Curing con-
tinues as long as the temperature is favorable.
These cheeses contain higher moisture than the
firm ripened varieties.


Firm Ripened
These cheeses ripen with the aid of a bacterial
culture, throughout the entire cheese. Ripening
continues as long as the temperature is favorable.
The rate and degree of curing is also closely
related to the moisture content. Therefore, these
cheeses, being lower in moisture than the softer
varieties, usually require a longer curing time.






Very Hard Ripened
These cheeses also are cured with the aid of
a bacterial culture and enzymes. The rate of
curing however is much slower because of the
very low moisture and higher salt content.


Blue-Vein Mold Ripened
Curing is accomplished by the aid of bacteria
but more particularly by the use of a character-
istic mold culture that grows throughout the
interior of the cheese to produce the familiar
appearance and characteristic flavor.


KINDS OF CHEESE

The charts in this pamphlet will help you in
learning some of the more popular and generally
available varieties of natural cheese, their general
classification, principal characteristics, and some
of their uses.








CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME POPULAR VARIETIES OF NATURAL CHEESES


Kind or name Kind of milk used Ripening or Flavor Body and texture Color Retail packaging Uses
Place of origin in manufacture curing time

SOFT, UNRIPENED VARIETIES
Cottage or Low- Cow's milk skim- Unripened.. Mild, acid... Soft, curd particles White to creamy Cup-shaped con- Salads, with fruits,
fat cottage med, cream added. of varying size. white, tainers, tumblers, vegetables, sand-
Dry curd cottage Cow's milk skim- dishes. wiches, dips, cheese
(Unknown) med. cake.
Cream, plain Cream from cow's Unripened.. Mild, acid... Soft and smooth.... White............ 3- to 8-oz. pack- Salads, dips, sand-
(U.S.A.) milk. ages wiches, snacks,
cheese cake, des-
serts.
Neufchatel Cow's milk......... Unripened.. Mild, acid... Soft, smooth similar White............ 3-to 8-oz. pack- Salads, dips, sand-
(NG-shs'-til'). to cream cheese ages. wiches, snacks.
(France) but lower in milkfat. cheese cake, des-
serts.


Ricotta (RW-co'-ta)
(Italy)


Cow's milk, whole
or partly skimmed,
or whey from cow's
milk with whole or
skim milk added.
In Italy, whey from
sheep's milk.


Unripened.. Sweet, nut- Soft, moist or dry... White............ Pint and quart
like. paper and plas-
tic containers,
3 Ib. metal cans.


Appetizers, salads,
snacks, lasagne,
ravioli, noodles and
other cooked dishes,
grating, desserts.






Kind or name Kind of milk used Ripening or Flavor Body and texture Color Retail packaging Uses
Place of origin in manufacture curing time

FIRM, UNRIPENED VARIETIES


Gjetost,l
(Yqt'ost).
(Norway)


Whey from goat's
milk or a mixture of
whey from goat's
and cow's milk.


Mysost (Mus-ost)
also called
Primost
(Prgm'-ost).
(Norway)
Mozzarella
(M6-tsa-rel'la)
also called
Scamorza.
(Italy)


Whey from cow's
milk.


Whole or partly
skimmed cow's
milk. In Italy,
originally made
from buffalo's milk.


Unripened..


Unripened..


Unripened


Sweetish,
caramel.


Sweetish,
caramel.


Delicate,
mild.


Firm, buttery
consistency.


Firm, buttery
consistency.


Slightly firm,
plastic.


Golden brown..... Cubical and
rectangular.


Light brown....... Cubical,
cylindrical,
pie-shaped
wedges.

Creamy white..... Small round or
braided form,
shredded, sliced.


Snacks, desserts,
served with dark
breads, crackers,
biscuits or muffins.
Snacks, desserts,
served with dark
breads.


Snacks, toasted
sandwiches, cheese-
burgers, cooking,
as in meat loaf, or
topping for lasagne,
pizza, and
casseroles.


I Imported only.


--










CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME POPULAR VARIETIES OF NATURAL CHEESES-Continued


Kind or name
Place of origin


Brie (BrE)
(France)


Kind of milk used Ripening or
in manufacture curing time


Cow's milk......... 4 to 8 Mild
weeks. genl


Camembert Cow's milk......... 4 to 8 Mild to pun-
(Kam'em-bar). weeks. gent.
(France)


Flavor


Body and texture


Color


Retail packaging


SOFT, RIPENED VARIETIES
to pun- Soft, smooth when Creamy yellow Circular, pie-
t. ripened, interior; edible shaped wedges.
thin brown and
white crust.


Soft, smooth; very Creamy yellow
soft when fully interior; edible
ripened, thin white, or
gray-white crust.


Small circular
cakes and pie-
shaped por-
tions.


Uses


Appetizers, sand-
wiches, snacks,
good with crackers
and fruit, dessert.
Appetizers, sand-
wiches, snacks,
good with crackers,
and fruit such as
pears and apples,
dessert.


Limburger Cow's milk......... 4 to 8 Highly pun- Soft, smooth when Creamy white Cubical, rec- Appetizers, snacks,
(Belgium) weeks. gent, very ripened; usually interior; reddish tangular. good with crackers,
strong. contains small yellow surface. rye or other dark
irregular openings, breads, dessert.


F--- -- -- -... ...


~_~_





Kind or name
Place of origin


Bel Paese 2 (B1l
Pa-a-ze).
(Italy)


Kind of milk used
in manufacture


Ripening or
curing time


Cow's milk.......... 6 to


Flavor Body and texture Color Retail packaging


SEMISOFT
8 Mild to
ks. moderately
robust.


Uses


,RIPENED VARIETIES


Soft to medium Creamy yellow
firm, creamy, interior; slightly
gray or brownish
surface some-
times covered
with yellow
wax coating.


Small wheels,
wedges, seg-
ments.


Appetizers, good
with crackers,
snacks, sandwiches,
dessert.


(Brick)
(U.S.A.)



Muenster (MUn'
stir).
(Germany)



Port du Salut
(Por dunSa-IU").
(France)


Cow's milk..........


Cow's milk..........


Cow's milk..........


2 to 4
months.


1 to 8
weeks.


6 to 8
weeks.


Mild t(
modern
sharp.


Mild to
mellow


o Semisoft to me-
rately dium firm, elastic,
numerous small
mechanical open-
ings.

o Semisoft, numer-
N. ous small me-
chanical openings.
Contains more
moisture than brick.


Mellow to
robust.


Semisoft, smooth,
buttery, small
openings.


Creamy yellow.... Loaf, brick
cut portion


Creamy white
interior; yellow
tan surface.


,slices, Appetizers, sand-
is. wiches, snacks,
dessert.


Circular cake,
blocks, wedges,
segments, slices.


Creamy yellow.... Wheels and
wedges.


Appetizers, sand-
wiches, snacks,
dessert.


Appetizers, snacks,
served with raw
fruit, dessert.


I Italian trademark-licensed for manufacture in U.S.A.;


I-*
'-I


I


---~


--~---


~-----~


also imported.

































MEET THE FAVORITE






































:HEESES 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.


8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.


Cheddar
Colby
Monterey or Jack
Pasteurized Process Cheese
Cheese Foods
Cheese Spreads
Cold Pack Cheese Food or
Club Cheese
Gouda and Edam
Camembert
Muenster
Brick
Swiss
Limburger
Blue
Gorgonzola
Provolone
Romano
Parmesan
Mozzarella and Scamorze
Cottage Cheese
Cream Cheese


13






CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME POPULAR VARIETIES OF NATURAL CHEESES-Continued
Kind or name Kind of milk used Ripening or Flavor Body and texture Color Retail packaging Uses
Place of origin in manufacture curing time
FIRM RIPENED VARIETIES
Cheddar Cow's milk......... 1 to 12 Mild to very Firm, smooth, White to me- Circular, cylin- Appetizers, sand-
(England) months or sharp, some mechanical dium-yellow- drical loaf, pie- wiches, sauces, on
more. openings, orange. shaped wedges, vegetables, in hot
oblongs, slices, dishes, toasted
cubes, shredded, sandwiches, grat-
grated. ing, cheeseburgers,
dessert.
Colby Cow's milk......... 1 to 3 Mild to Softer and more White to me- Cylindrical, pie- Sandwiches, snacks
(U.S.A.) months. mellow, open than dium-yellow- shaped wedges. cheeseburgers.
Cheddar. orange.
Caciocavallo (KN' Cow's milk. In 3 to 12 Piquant, Firm, lower in Light or white Spindle or ten-pin Snacks, sandwiches,
cht-k'a-val'I1). Italy, cow's milk months. similar to milkfat and mois- interior; clay or shaped, bound cooking, dessert;
(Italy) or mixtures of Provolone ture than Pro- tan colored sur- with cord, cut suitable for grating
sheep's, goat's, but not volone. face. pieces. after prolonged
and cow's milk. smoked. curing.
Edam (E'dam) Cow's milk, partly 2-to 3 Mellow, nut- Semisoft to firm, Creamy yellow Cannon ball Appetizers, snacks,
(Netherlands.) skimmed, months. like. smooth; small or medium shaped loaf, cut salads, sandwiches,
irregularly shaped yellow-orange pieces, oblongs. seafood sauces,
or round holes; interior; surface dessert.
lower milkfat than coated with red
Gouda. wax.








Kind or name
Place of origin


Gouda (Gou'-da)
(Netherlands)




Provolone
(Pr6-v6-lo'-ne)
also smaller
sizes and shapes
called Provo-
lette, Provo-
loncini.
(Italy)


Kind of milk used
in manufacture


Cow's milk, whole
or partly skimmed.




Cow's milk.........


Ripening or
curing time


2 to 6
months.




2 to 12
months or
more


Swiss, also called Cow's milk......... 3 to 9
Emmentaler. months.
(Switzerland)


Flavor


Body and texture


Color


Retail packaging


Uses


FIRM RIPENED VARIETIES: Continued


Mellow, nut- Semisoft to firm,
like. smooth; small
irregularly shaped
or round holes;
higher milkfat
than Edam.


Mellow to
sharp,
smoky,
salty.


Firm, smooth.......


Sweet, nut- Firm, smooth with
like. large round eyes.


Creamy yellow
or medium
yellow orange
interior; may or
may not have red
wax coating.
Light creamy
interior; light
brown or golden
yellow surface.


Ball shaped with
flattened top and
bottom.



Pear shaped,
sausage and
salami shaped,
wedges, slices.


Light yellow....... Segments,
pieces, slices.


Appetizers, snacks,
salads, sandwiches,
seafood sauces,
dessert.


Appetizers, sand-
wiches, snacks,
souffle, macaroni
and spaghetti
dishes, pizza, suit-
able for grating
when fully cured
and dried.
Sandwiches, snacks,
sauces, fondue,
cheeseburgers.


_ ~~_~ ~~~~~__~____i_~__~~~~~~I______~______~~






CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME POPULAR VARIETIES OF NATURAL CHEESES-Continued


Kind or name Kind of milk used
Place of origin in manufacture


Parmesan (Pa*r
me-zan) also
called Reggiano.
(Italy)


Partly skimmed
cow's milk.


Ripening or
curing time


14 months
to 2 years.


Flavor


Body and texture


Color


Retail packaging


Uses


VERY HARD RIPENED VARIETIES


Sharp,
piquant.


Very hard, gran-
ular, lower mois-
ture and milkfat
than Romano.


Creamy white....


Cylindrical,
wedges, shred-
ded, grated.


Grated for season-
ing in soups, or
vegetables,
spaghetti, ravioli,
breads, popcorn,
used extensively in
pizza and lasagne.


Romano (Ro-m5'- Cow's milk. In 5 to 12 Sharp, pi- Very hard granular.. Yellowish-white Round with flat Seasoning in soupS,
no) also called Italy, sheep's milk months. quant, interior, greenish- ends, wedges, casserole dishes,
Sardo Romano (Italian law). black surface, shredded, ravioli, sauces,
Pecorino Ro- grated. breads, suitable for
mano. grating when cured
(Italy) for about one year.
Sap Sago I (Sap'- Skimmed cow's 5 months Sharp, pun- Very hard........... Light green by Conical, shakers.. Grated to flavor
sa-go). milk. or more. gent clover- addition of dried, soups, meats,
(Switzerland) like. powdered clover macaroni, spaghetti,
leaves. hot vegetables;
mixed with butter
makes a good
spread on crackers
or bread.
1 Imported only.






Kind or name Kind of milk used Ripening or
Place of origin in manufacture curing time


Blue, spelled Bleu Cow's milk.......... 2 to 6
on imported mcnths.
cheese.
(France)


Flavor

BLUE-VEIN
Tangy,
peppery.


Retail packaging


MOLD RIPENED VARIETIES


Semisoft, pasty,
sometimes
crumbly.


White interior,
marbled or
streaked with
blue veins of
mold.


Cylindrical,
wedges, oblongs,
squares, cut
portions.


Appetizers, salads,
dips, salad dress-
ing, sandwich
spreads, good with
crackers, dessert.


Gorgonzola Cow's milk. In 3 to 12 Tangy, Semisoft, pasty, Creamy white Cylindrical, Appetizers, snacks,
(Gor-gon-zo'-Il). Italy, cow's milk or months. peppery, sometimes interior, mottled wedges, salads, dips, sand-
(Italy) goat's milk or mix- crumbly, lower or streaked with oblongs. which spread, good
tures of these, moisture than Blue. blue-green veins with crackers,
of mold. Clay dessert.
colored surface.
Roquefort 1 Sheep's milk........ 2 to 5 Sharp, Semisoft, pasty, White or creamy Cylindrical, Appetizers, snacks,
(R6k'-f.'rt) months or slightly sometimes white interior, wedges. salads, dips, sand-
or more. peppery. crumbly. marbled or which spreads, good
(ROk-f6r'). streaked with with crackers,
(France). blue veins of dessert.
mold.
Stilton (England). Cow's milk......... 2 to 6 Piquant, Semisoft, flaky; Creamy white Circular, wedges, Appetizers, snacks,
months. milder than slightly more interior, marbled oblongs. salads, dessert.
Gorgonzola crumbly than Blue. or streaked with
or Roque- blue-green veins
fort. of mold.
1 Imported only.


~~_ ~


Body and texture


Color


Uses





PASTEURIZED PROCESS
CHEESE

Pasteurized process cheese is a blend of fresh
and aged natural cheeses which have been
shredded, mixed and heated (pasteurized), after
which no further ripening occurs. It melts easily
when reheated. The blend may consist of one or
two or more varieties of natural cheese and may
contain pimentos, fruits, vegetables, or meats.
Smoked cheese or smoke flavor may also be
added.
The flavor of pasteurized process cheese de-
pends largely upon the flavor of the cheese used
which may be modified by flavoring materials
added. Pasteurized Gruyere cheese has a nut-
sweet flavor, somewhat similar to Swiss.
Some other available varieties are: pasteurized
process American cheese, pasteurized process
Swiss cheese, pasteurized process Swiss cheese
blended with American, and pasteurized process
Brick cheese.
Process cheese is packaged in slices, V2-, 1-
and 2-pound loaves and cut portions.
It may be used in main dishes, for snacks and
cheeseburgers, with cold cuts and salads, on
grilled or toasted sandwiches, in numerous sand-
wich combinations and in casseroles.


PASTEURIZED PROCESS
CHEESE FOOD

Pasteurized process cheese food is prepared in
much the same manner as process cheese except
that it contains less cheese, with nonfat dry milk,
or whey solids and water added. This results in
a lower milk fat content and more moisture than
in process cheese. Pasteurized process cheese
food also may contain pimentos, fruits, vegeta-
bles or meats or may have a smoked flavor.
Cheese food is milder in flavor, has a softer
texture, spreads more easily and melts quicker
than process cheese due to the higher moisture.
The most popular variety is pasteurized process





American cheese food and is packaged in slices,
rolls, links and loaves.
It may be used in any place where process
cheese is used though it is not likely to add as
much cheese flavor.


PASTEURIZED PROCESS
CHEESE SPREAD
Pasteurized process cheese spread is made in
much the same manner as pasteurized process
cheese food but generally contains higher mois-
ture, and the milk fat content is usually lower.
A stabilizer is used in the preparation of this
product to prevent separation of ingredients. It
is normally more spreadable than cheese food.
Cheese spread also may contain pimentos, fruits,
vegetables or meats or may have a smoked flavor.
The flavor of pasteurized process cheese
spread depends largely upon the flavor of the
cheese used which may be modified by flavoring
materials added.
Some available varieties are: pasteurized
process American cheese spread, pasteurized
process pimento cheese spread, pasteurized
process pineapple cheese spread and pasteur-
ized process Blue cheese spread.
Spreads are packaged in jars and loaves con-
venient for use as snacks, in stuffing celery stalks,
and in deviled eggs, noodle casseroles, meat
balls, hot vegetables, sandwiches, sauces, and
dressings.


COLDPACK CHEESE

Coldpack cheese or Club cheese is a blend of
the same or two or more varieties of fresh and
aged natural cheese, as in process cheese, except
that the cheese is mixed into a uniform product
without heating. It may have a smoked flavor.
The principal varieties are coldpack American
cheese and cold pack Swiss cheese.
The flavor is the same as the natural cheese
used and usually is aged or sharp. The body is


19






softer than the natural cheese and it spreads
easily.
Coldpack cheese is packed in jars, rolls, or
links and it is especially good as an appetizer,
snack, or dessert.


COLDPACK CHEESE FOOD

Coldpack cheese food is prepared in the same
manner as Coldpack cheese but includes other
dairy ingredients as used in process cheese food.
In addition, sweetening agents such as sugar
and corn sirup may be added.
Coldpack cheese food may contain pimentos,
fruits, vegetables or meats or may have a smoked
flavor.
The flavor resembles the cheese from which it
is made but is milder. It is softer than the natural
cheese and spreads more easily due to the other
ingredients added and the higher moisture
content.
It is packaged in the same way as Coldpack
cheese and may be served in the same manner.


BUYING CHEESE

CHECK THE LABEL

The labels of natural cheese, pasteurized
process cheese, and related products carry im-
portant descriptive information. The name of a
natural cheese will appear as the variety such
as "Cheddar cheese", "Swiss cheese", or "Blue
cheese."
Pasteurized process cheese labels will always
include the words "pasteurized process", together
with the name of the variety or varieties of cheese
used, for instance, "pasteurized process American
cheese" or "pasteurized process Swiss and
American cheese".
Cheese food also contains ingredients other
than cheese and therefore is labeled as "pasteur-
ized process cheese food". Cheese spreads have
a different composition from cheese foods and


20





are labeled as "pasteurized process cheese
spread". All the ingredients used in the prepara-
tion of these products are listed on the respective
label along with the kinds or varieties of cheese
used in the mixture. Also the milkfat and moisture
content may be shown.
Coldpack cheese ana coldpacK cheese food
are labeled in the same manner as other cheese
and cheese foods except that "club cheese" or
comminutedd cheese" may be substituted for the
name "coldpack cheese".



WaEwlA4E oS WEIGHT
BRAND
O ;0 SI r- DISTRIBUTOR
S-CURING CATEGORY

CHEESE NAME
A ----QUALITY

PSTEURiZEO
MIALK



CHECK THE CURE

A very important bit of information on the label
of certain varieties of natural cheese pertains to
the age or degree of curing. For instance, Cheddar
cheese may be labeled as "mild", "medium" or
"mellow", or "aged" or "sharp". In some cases
pasteurized process cheese may be labeled to
indicate a sharp flavor when a much higher pro-
portion of sharp or aged cheese was used in its
preparation.


CHECK THE NAME

Look for the name of the article. Do not con-
fuse the brand name with the name of the cheese.
For some purposes you may want natural cheese,


21






for others, process cheese or cheese food, and
for still others, pasteurized process cheese spread
or coldpack cheese may best serve your needs.
In many cases they may be packaged alike but
the names on the labels will be different.




US DA
GRADE A RADI
PA(If ,f D .E.1 I I ',P(I rTiIh OF
IHIE U S DEPT OF AGRI(ULTURE
OFFICIALLY GRADED



CHECK FOR QUALITY


The U.S. Department of Agriculture has estab-
lished U.S. grade standards for four varieties of
cheese: Cheddar, Colby, Monterey, and Swiss.
The cheese industry uses the grade standards to
identify levels of quality, to have a basis for
establishing prices at wholesale, and to provide
consumers with the qualities they want.
Cheddar cheese carrying the USDA grade
shield on the label of consumer-size packages is
available in several sections of the United States.
The# USDA grade shield means that the Ched-
dar cheese has been inspected and graded by an
experienced and highly trained Government
grader. And it means the cheese was produced
in a USDA inspected and approved plant, under
sanitary conditions. It is your guarantee of con-
sistent and dependable quality.
Cheddar cheese carrying the U.S. Grade AA
shield is the highest quality. It meets exacting
USDA standards, has a fine, highly pleasing
Cheddar flavor, a smooth compact texture, uni-
form color, and attractive appearance.
To earn this grade, cheese must be produced
with special care-in the quality of the milk,
cheese-making skill, curing or ripening process,
and packaging.
The AA shield is assurance of consistently fine
Cheddar flavor and texture in every package.


22


















Cheddar cheese bearing the U.S. Grade A
shield on the package is also of good quality-
but not as high as AA. The flavor is pleasing;
however, there may be more variation in flavor
and texture between packages.
Cheese and cheese products not covered by
U.S. grade standards may be inspected for quality
according to other quality specifications and bear
the USDA "Quality Approved" shield on the label.
Cottage cheese is an example of a cheese product
bearing the "Quality Approved" shield.
To carry the "Quality Approved" shield, the
product must be manufactured in a plant meeting
the USDA sanitary specifications for plant and
equipment.


QUALITY APPROVED
LIP.OiAC AGRICULiVLT
S RAlIMNG AM
wAUIT COmTM I SrRViCE


23


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\i t ."
"
,,r
,r I
I
rl,




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
111Mliii H111111 IE 11 11111111111111I1lll
3 1262 08582 9801
HOW TO uu I ,.,..6J.


CHECK
THE TYPE


Natural,
pasteurized process,
or coldpack


LOOK
FOR THE AA 4
TA i IP ( OA R INSPICTIO
USDA SHIELD E U s ODPI NGICU'
V~~l~UNl^ jniiP|iTIO O^mimfi


U.S. Grade
AA &
U.S. Grade A








Quality
Approved


Found on
Cheddar cheese.
Grade AA is
top quality; fine
flavor, smooth
texture.
Grade A
is almost as good.

Found on cottage
cheese, may be
used on other
cheeses. Means
good quality.


ISSUED SEPTEMBER 1971
SLIGHTLY REVISED MAY 1977


GPO : 1077 0 235-429




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