Meat and poultry products


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Meat and poultry products a consumer guide to content and labeling requirements
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
23 p. : ill. ; 23 x 10 cm.
United States -- Meat and Poultry Inspection Program
United States -- Food Safety and Inspection Service
The Service
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Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Labeling -- United States   ( lcsh )
Meat -- Labeling -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Food Safety and Inspection Service.
General Note:
"Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture"--P. 23.
General Note:
"July 1981"--P. 23.
General Note:

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text

Meat and Poultry


A Consumer Guide to Content
and Labeling Requirements

United States
Department of

Food Safety
and Inspection

Home and
Garden Bulletin
Number 236



Introduction .................................. 3
Food Standards ................... ............. 3
USDA Standards of Identity and Composition ......... 4
Content and Labeling Requirements ................. 4
Meat and Poultry Product Inspection ................ 4
Label Approval ................. ................. 5
How Standards Are Established .................... 5
How You Can Participate ......................... 6
Why You Should Know About Content and
Labeling Requirements ........................ 6
M eat Products ................... .... ... ....... 8
Poultry Products................................... 18
Definitions .................................... 22
For M ore Information ............................ 23

Meat and Poultry Products
A Consumer Guide to Content and Labeling Requirements

If you were to visit a modern American supermarket
for the first time, you'd probably be surprised to find
boxes, bottles, packages, and jars outnumbering raw,
unpackaged foods in almost every aisle. In fact, well over
half of our national food supply consists of foods that are
commercially prepared and packaged. These "processed
foods" can pose a real challenge to anyone who shops for
For example, you can usually rely on your sense of
sight, touch, and smell in selecting unprocessed foods like
fresh fruits, vegetables, or meats. But processed foods are
more complex. Their manufacture involves combining a
wide variety of ingredients in a number of different ways.
Using the information available on product labels can be
one of the most effective ways to untangle some of the
mysteries behind these foods.
This brochure tells you how to use the most promi-
nent labeling feature-the product name-to determine
the minimum amount of meat or poultry required in a
number of popular processed products.

Food Standards
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and
Inspection Service (FSIS) and the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services' Food and Drug Administra-
tion (FDA) share the responsibility of assuring truthful and
accurate information on product labels. FSIS has authority
over all products containing more than 3 percent fresh
meat or at least 2 percent cooked poultry meat. FDA
oversees the labeling of most other food products.
Both agencies use a system of "food standards."
These standards set requirements on the kinds and
amounts of ingredients used in the manufacture of pro-
cessed foods. Basically, these standards assure consumers
that, if a product goes by a particular name, it will have
certain characteristics.

USDA Standards of Identity and Composition
Almost all standards enforced by FSIS are called
"standards of composition." These standards identify the
minimum amount of meat or poultry required in a prod-
uct's recipe. For example, the standard of composition for
"chicken a la king" states that, if a product carries this
name on its label, at least 20 percent cooked poultry meat
must be used in the recipe.
But standards of composition don't prevent a manu-
facturer from increasing the meat or poultry content, or
adding other ingredients, to increase a product's appeal.
For instance, a processor has the option of using more
than the required amount of chicken in chicken a la king
and adding other ingredients to make the product unique.
"Standards of identity," on the other hand, set specific
requirements for a food's makeup: the kind and minimum
amount of meat or poultry; maximum amount of fat or
moisture; and any other ingredients allowed. Corned beef
hash and chopped ham are two FSIS-regulated products
that have standards of identity.

Content and Labeling Requirements
All meat and poultry product standards can help
assure consumers that the name on a product's label
accurately identifies that product. Therefore, it may be
helpful to think of these standards as "content and label-
ing requirements."

Meat and Poultry Product Inspection
Product standards are only one part of a comprehen-
sive program to protect consumers from mislabeled or
unwholesome meat and poultry products. Two laws en-
forced by FSIS-the Federal Meat Inspection Act and the
Poultry Products Inspection Act-require inspection of all
meat and poultry products. Inspection extends throughout
every phase of the manufacturing process. It begins with


the approval of plans for slaughtering and processing
plants to ensure that all facilities, equipment, and proce-
dures meet the criteria for safe and sanitary operations.
FSIS personnel inspect meat and poultry before and after
slaughter and monitor the processing, packaging, and
labeling of the finished products.

Label Approval
Before a product may be marketed, its label must be
examined and approved by FSIS staff specialists. Food
manufacturers submit over 100,000 labels a year for
agency review. Label approval applications mustinclude
the product name, formula, method of preparation, type
of container, and how the label is to be used.
A number of labeling regulations apply across-the-
board to all meat and poultry products. These include:
Appropriate product name; ingredients listed from most to
least, by weight in the product recipe; net quantity of the
package contents; name and address of the manufacturer,
packer, or distributor; the USDA mark of inspection; and
any special care or handling instructions, such as "keep
refrigerated." In addition, label photographs or artwork
depicting a product must not be misleading.
To assure consumers that the names of meat and
poultry products accurately reflect the contents of these
products, label reviewers evaluate product formulas and
methods of preparation by comparing them with official
standards in the meat and poultry inspection regulations.
Because unpublished standards are used to evaluate some
products, FSIS labeling policies also provide guidance.
Sometimes, no standard exists for a certain product. In
these cases, a manufacturer can either give the product a
"descriptive" name, such as "Chopped and Formed
Cured Pork Product," or use a "fanciful" name accom-
panied by a descriptive name-"Breakfast Strips: Chopped
and Formed Cured Pork Product." A manufacturer may
also submit a proposal to FSIS, requesting a standard for
the product.

How Standards Are Established
Development of a standard is especially important
when a number of manufacturers are requesting approval
for the same product, or when the product's economic
impact is significant.



To write an appropriate standard, FSIS staff assembles
information on a product by checking cookbooks, recipes
of similar commercial products, and official agency files.
Sometimes, restaurants and foreign embassies are also

How You Can Participate
When a standard is to be incorporated officially in
FSIS meat and poultry inspection regulations, it is an-
nounced as a "proposed" standard. That's when you have
an opportunity to express your views.
Proposed standards are published in the Federal Reg-
ister. This document is a legal newspaper, published every
weekday, to keep the public informed about regulations,
hearings, and other items pertaining to Federal rules and
Copies of the Federal Register are available at libraries
and county courthouses, or you can have a specific FSIS
proposal mailed to you by contacting FSIS Information,
USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250.
FSIS notifies the public about proposals by sending
press releases to the news media, consumer groups, and
other interested organizations. Sometimes, the agency also
issues background papers which explain certain proposed
standards to consumers.
Food standards are designed with your rights as a
consumer in mind. Whether you agree or disagree with a
proposed standard, FSIS wants to hear from you. Your
comments will help determine if a standard is to be
adopted and how it will be used.

Why You Should Know About Content and
Labeling Requirements
Although Federal labeling laws and regulations are
established to protect the public, consumers are some-
times unaware of how to use the information on product
labels. FSIS content and labeling requirements provide a
simple means by which consumers can learn what to ex-
pect from a product if it is labeled with a particular name.

If you know that product names are required to truth-
fully reflect product content, much can be learned just by
noting the order in which major ingredients appear. For
example, the name "Beef with Gravy" tells you that there
is more beef in that product than in one called "Gravy
with Beef."
This guide includes listings for over 250 popular meat
and poultry products-from baby food to won ton soup.
The information can help you to:
Increase your awareness of the composition of
meat and poultry products.
Have more confidence in your shopping deci-
sions. You can be sure that all inspected meat
and poultry products meet the minimum re-
quirements set by FSIS.
Choose products containing the kinds and
amounts of ingredients you want.
Get an idea of a product's nutritional value,
such as the maximum fat content you can expect.
Learn what you're getting for your food dollars.
For example, knowing ahead of time that a cer-
tain expensive meat product may contain as lit-
tle as 10 percent meat, you may decide to
choose another product higher in meat content
or lower in cost.
Add variety to your diet by expanding your
awareness of the many meat and poultry prod-
ucts available.
For your convenience, the list of meat and poultry
product content and labeling requirements is divided into
two sections-"Meat Products" and "Poultry Products."
Some product definitions include terms that are further
defined elsewhere in the guide. For example, the "meat-
balls" in "spaghetti and meatballs" (page 16) is defined on
page 14. The term "byproducts" is explained on page 22,
in the DEFINITIONS section.

Meat Products
All percentages of meat are on the basis of fresh un-
cooked weight unless otherwise indicated. Keep in mind
that meat may shrink in weight after cooking because fat
and water cook away.

Baby Food
High Meat Dinner-At least 26% meat.
Meat and Broth-At least 61% meat.
Vegetable with Meat-At least 8% meat.

Bacon (cooked)-Weight of cooked bacon is 40% of un-
cooked, cured, smoked bacon.

Bacon and Tomato Spread-At least 20% cooked bacon.

Bacon Dressing-At least 8% cured, smoked bacon.

Barbecue Sauce with Meat-At least 35% meat (cooked

Barbecued Meat-Weight of meat when barbecued can't
exceed 70% of the fresh uncooked meat. Must have
barbecued (crusted) appearance and be prepared over
burning or smoldering hardwood or its sawdust. If cooked
by other dry heat means, product name must mention the
method of cooking.

Beans with Bacon or Ham in Sauce-At least 12% bacon
or ham (cooked basis).

Beans with Frankfurters in Sauce-At least 20% franks.

Beans with Meat in Sauce-At least 12% meat.

Beans with Meatballs in Sauce-At least 20% meatballs.

Beef a la King-At least 20% beef (cooked basis).

Beef a la Mode-At least 50% beef.

Beef Almondine with Vegetables-At least 18% beef
(cooked basis). Product must contain almonds.

Beef and Dumplings with Gravy or Beef and Gravy with
Dumplings-At least 25% beef.

Beef Burgundy-At least 50% beef; enough wine to char-
acterize the sauce.

Beef Carbonade-At least 50% beef.

Beef Roulade-At least 50% beef (cooked basis).

Beef Sausage (raw)-No more than 30% fat. No byprod-
ucts, no extenders, and no more than 3% water.

Beef Stroganoff-At least 45% fresh, uncooked beef or
30% cooled beef and one of the following: at least 10%
sour cream; or a combination of at least 71/2% sour cream
and 5% wine; or 91/2% whole milk, 2% sour cream, and
21/2% wine.

Beef with Barbecue Sauce-At least 50% beef (cooked

Beef with Gravy-At least 50% beef (cooked basis).

Breaded Steaks, Chops, etc.-Breading can't exceed 30%
of finished product weight.

Breakfast (frozen product containing meat)-At least 15%
cooked meat based on total net weight of breakfast.

Breakfast Sausage-No more than 50% fat. May contain
31/2% binders and extenders, and 3% water.

Brown and Serve Sausage-No more than 35% fat and no
more than 10% added water.

Brunswick Stew-At least 25% meat, made up of at least
two kinds of meat, including poultry meat. Must contain
corn as one of the vegetables.

Burgundy Sauce with Beef and Noodles-At least 25%
beef (cooked basis) and up to 20% noodles; enough wine
to characterize the sauce.

Burrito-At least 15% meat.

Cabbage Rolls with Meat in Sauce-At least 12% meat.

Cannelloni with Meat and Sauce-At least 10% meat.

Cappelletti with Meat in Sauce-At least 12% meat.

Cheesefurter-Shall contain sufficient cheese to charac-
terize the product.

Chili con Came-At least 40% meat.

Chili con Came with Beans-At least 25% meat.

Chili Hot Dog with Meat-At least 40% meat in chili.

Chili Mac-At least 16% meat. Must be qualified with true
product name: "Beans, Macaroni, and Beef in Sauce."

Chili Sauce with Meat-At least 6% meat.

Chop Suey (American Style) with Macaroni and Meat-
At least 25% meat.

Chop Suey Vegetables with Meat-At least 12% meat.

Chopped Ham-Must be prepared from fresh, cured, or
smoked ham, plus certain kinds of curing agents and sea-
sonings. May contain dehydrated onions, dehydrated
garlic, corn syrup, and not more than 3% water to dis-
solve the curing agents.

Chow Mein Vegetables with Meat-At least 12% meat.

Chow Mein Vegetables with Meat and Noodles-At least
8% meat and the noodles must equal no more than V3 of
the product.

Corn Dog-Must be accompanied by true product name,
"Batter Wrapped Franks on a Stick." Limited to 65% bat-
ter and a minimum of 35% frankfurter.

Corned Beef and Cabbage-At least 25% corned beef
(cooked basis).

Corned Beef Hash-At least 35% beef (cooked basis).
Must contain potatoes, curing agents, and seasonings. May
contain onions, garlic, beef broth, beef fat, or others. No
more than 15% fat; no more than 72% moisture.

Country Ham-A dry-cured product frequently coated
with spices. Minimum 4% salt content.

Creamed Meat Products or Creamed Sauce with Meat
Products (Chipped Beef, Cooked Beef, Cured Beef, Ham,
Franks, Meatballs, etc.)-At least 18% meat product
(cooked basis).

Crepe with Meat-Based on total net weight of product; at
least 20% meat (cooked basis) if filling has no other major
characterizing ingredient, or 10% meat (cooked basis) if
one other major characterizing ingredient ("Crepe with
Meat and Cheese," for example).

Croquettes-At least 35% meat (cooked basis); 50% fresh

Curried Sauce with Meat and Rice (casserole)-At least
35% meat (cooked basis) in the sauce and meat part. No
more than 50% cooked rice.

Deviled Ham-No more than 35% fat; no added moisture;
no cereal.

Dinner (frozen product containing meat)-At least 25%
meat or meat food product (cooked basis) figured on total
meal minus appetizer, bread, and dessert. Consumer
package must weigh at least 10 ounces (284 grams).

Dumplings with Meat in Sauce-At least 18% meat.

Egg Foo Yong with Meat-At least 12% meat.

Egg Roll with Meat-At least 10% meat.

Egg Roll with Meat and Seafood-At least 5% meat.

Eggs Benedict-At least 18% cured smoked ham.

Enchilada with Meat-At least 15% meat.

Entree: Meat or Meat Food Product and One Vegetable-
At least 50% meat or meat food product (cooked basis).

Frankfurter, Bologna, and Similar Cooked Sausage-May
contain only skeletal meat. No more than 30% fat, 10%
added water, and 2% corn syrup. No more than 15%
poultry meat (exclusive of water in formula).

Frankfurter, Bologna, and Similar Cooked Sausage with
Byproducts or Variety Meats-Same limitations as above
on fat, added water, and corn syrup. Must contain at least
15% skeletal meat. These products must be specifically
labeled, such as "Frankfurters with Byproducts," and each
byproduct or variety meat must be specifically named in
the list of ingredients. These include heart, tongue, spleen,
tripe, and stomach.

Frankfurter, Bologna, and Similar Cooked Sausage with
Byproducts or Variety Meats and which also Contain
Nonmeat Binders-Product made with the above formulas
and also containing up to 31/2% nonmeat binders (or 2%
isolated soy protein). These products must be distinctively
labeled, such as, "Frankfurters with Byproducts, Nonfat
Dry Milk Added." The binders must be named in their
proper order in the list of ingredients.

Fried Rice with Meat-At least 10% meat.

Fritter-At least 35% meat; no more than 65% breading.

German Style Potato Salad with Bacon-At least 14%
bacon (cooked basis).

Goulash-At least 25% meat.

Gravy-At least 25% meat stock or broth, or at least
6% meat.

Gravy and Sauerbraten-35% meat (cooked basis).

Gravy and Swiss Steak-At least 35% meat (cooked basis).

Gravy and Yankee Pot Roast-At least 35% meat (cooked

Gravy with Beef-At least 35% beef (cooked basis).

Ham (canned)-Limited to 8% total weight gain after

Ham, Cooked or Cooked and Smoked (not canned)-
Must not weigh more after processing than the fresh ham
weighs before curing and smoking; if contains up to 10%
added weight, must be labeled, "Ham, Water Adde

Ham a la King-At least 20% ham (cooked basis).

Ham and Cheese Spread-At least 25% ham (cook.

Ham Chowder
Ready-to-Eat-At least 5% ham (cooked basis).
Condensed-At least 10% ham (cooked basis).

Ham Salad-At least 35% ham (cooked basis).

Ham Spread-At least 50% ham.

Hamburger, Hamburg, Burger, Ground Beef, or Chopped
Beef-No more than 30% fat; no extenders.

Hash-At least 35% meat (cooked basis).

Hors d'Oeuvre-At least 15% meat (cooked basis) or 10%
bacon (cooked basis).

jambalaya with Meat-At least 25% meat (cooked basis).

Knish-At least 15% meat (cooked basis).

Kreplach-At least 20% meat.

Lasagna with Meat and Sauce, or Cheese Lasagna with
Meat-At least 12% meat.

Lasagna with Meat Sauce-At least 6% meat.

Lasagna with Sauce, Cheese, and Dry Sausage-At least
8% dry sausage.

Lima Beans with Ham or Bacon in Sauce-At least 12%
ham or bacon (cooked basis).

Liver Products, such as Liver Loaf, Liver Paste, Liver
Pate, Liver Cheese, Liver Spread, Liverwurst, Braun-
schweiger, and Liver Sausage-At least 30% liver.

Macaroni and Beef in Sauce-At least 12% beef.

Macaroni and Cheese with Ham-At least 12% ham
(cooked basis).

Macaroni and Meat-At least 25% meat.

Macaroni Salad with Ham or Beef-At least 12% meat
(cooked basis).

SManicotti with Meat in Sauce (contains a meat filling)-
At least 10% meat.

Margarine or Oleomargarine-If product is entirely of
Animal fat or contains some animal fat, it is processed
under Federal inspection. Must contain-individually or in
combination-pasteurized cream, cow's milk, skim milk,
' combination of nonfat dry milk and water or finely ground
soybeans and water. May contain butter, salt, artificial
coloring, vitamins A and D, and permitted functional sub-
stances. Finished product must contain at least 80% fat
from animal or vegetable sources. Labels must clearly state
which types of fat are used.

Meat and Dumplings in Sauce-At least 25% meat.

Meat and Vegetables-At least 50% meat.

Meat Casserole-At least 25% fresh, uncooked meat or
18% cooked meat.

Meat Curry-At least 50% meat.

Meat Loaf (baked or oven-ready)-At least 65% meat and
no more than 12% cereal products.

Meat Pasty-At least 25% meat.

Meat Pie or Vegetable Meat Pie-At least 25% meat.

Meat Ravioli-At least 10% meat in ravioli.

Meat Ravioli in Sauce-At least 10% meat in ravioli; at
least 50% ravioli in total product.

Meat Salad-At least 35% meat (cooked basis).

Meat Sauce-At least 6% meat.

Meat Soup
Ready-to-Eat-At least 5% meat.
Condensed-At least 10% meat.

Meat Spread-At least 50% meat.

Meat Stew-At least 25% meat.

Meat Taco-At least 15% meat.

Meat Taco Filling-At least 40% meat.

Meat Turnover-At least 25% meat.

Meat Wellington-At least 50% cooked tenderloin spread
with liver pate or similar coating and covered with not
more than 30% pastry.

Meatballs-No more than 12% extenders, including tex-
tured vegetable protein. At least 65% meat.

Meatballs in Sauce-At least 50% meatballs (cooked

Meatball Stroganoff-At least 45% meatballs (cooked

Mince Meat-At least 12% meat.

Mousaka-At least 25% meat. Must be qualified on label
as "Eggplant and Meat Casserole."

New England Boiled Dinner-At least 25% cooked corned

Omelet with Bacon-At least 9% bacon (cooked basis).

Omelet with Dry Sausage-At least 12% dry sausage.

Omelet with Ham-At least 18% ham (cooked basis).

Omelet with Meat Food Product, such as Creamed
Chipped Beef or Corned Beef Hash-At least 25% meat
food product.

Omelet, Western-At least 18% cooked ham. Contains
onions and green and/or red bell peppers.

Pate de Foie-At least 30% liver.

Pepper Steak (Chinese)-At least 30% thin, braised strips
of beef (cooked basis).

Peppers and Italian Sausage in Sauce-At least 20%
sausage (cooked basis).

Pizza with Meat-At least 15% meat.

Pizza with Sausage-At least 12% sausage (cooked basis)
or 10% dry sausage, such as pepperoni.

Pork Sausage-Not more than 50% fat or 3% water; may
contain no byproducts or extenders.

Pork with Barbecue Sauce-At least 50% pork (cooked

Pork with Dressing-At least 50% pork (cooked basis).

Pork with Dressing and Gravy-At least 30% pork
(cooked basis).

Proscuitto-A flat, dry-cured ham coated with spices.

Quiche Lorraine-At least 8% bacon or ham (cooked
basis) and 10% swiss or gruyere cheese.

Rice with Meat-At least 12% meat.

Salisbury Steak-At least 65% meat and no more than
12% extenders, including textured vegetable protein.

Sandwich, Meat-At least 35% meat in total sandwich;
bread component may not exceed 50% of the sandwich.

Sauerbraten-At least 50% beef (cooked basis).

Sauerkraut Balls with Meat-At least 30% meat.

Sauerkraut with Wieners and Juice-At least 20% wieners.

Sausage with Sauerkraut in Sauce-At least 40% sausage
(cooked basis).

Scalloped Potatoes and Ham or Sausage-At least 20%
ham or sausage (cooked basis).

Scallopini ("Veal Scallopini," for example)-At least 35%
meat (cooked basis).

Scrambled Eggs with Ham in a Pancake-At least 9%
ham (cooked basis).

Scrapple-At least 40% meat and/or meat byproducts.

Shepherd's Pie-At least 25% meat; no more than 50%
mashed potatoes.

Sloppy Joe-At least 35% meat (cooked basis). Must
be qualified with true product name, "Barbecue Sauce
with Beef."

Snack-At least 15% meat (cooked basis) or 10% bacon
(cooked basis).

Spaghetti Sauce with Meat-At least 6% meat.

Spaghetti with Meat or Meatballs in Sauce-At least 12%

Spanish Rice with Meat-At least 20% meat (cooked

Stuffed Cabbage with Meat in Sauce-At least 12% meat.

Stuffed Pepper with Meat in Sauce-At least 12% meat.

Sukiyaki-At least 30% meat.

Sweet and Sour Meat-At least 25% meat and at least
16% fruit.

Swiss Steak with Gravy-At least 50% meat (cooked basis).

Tamale-At least 25% meat.

Tamale with Sauce or Gravy-At least 20% meat.

Tamale Pie-At least 20% meat; filling must be at least
40% of total product.

Taquito-At least 15% meat.

Tongue Spread-At least 50% tongue.

Tortellini with Meat-At least 10% meat.

Tortellini with Meat in Sauce-At least 50% cooked meat

Veal and Peppers in Sauce-At least 30% meat (cooked

Veal Bird-At least 60% meat and no more than 40%

Veal Cordon Bleu-At least 60% veal, 5% ham, and con-
taining swiss, gruyere, mozzarella, or pasteurized process
swiss cheese.

Veal Fricassee-At least 40% meat.

Veal Parmigiana-At least 40% breaded veal in sauce.

Veal Scallopini-At least 35% veal (cooked basis).

Veal Steak-Chopped, shaped, cubed, frozen. Beef can be
added up to 20% with product name shown as, "Veal
Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped, Shaped, and Cubed." If
more than 20% beef, must be labeled, "Veal and Beef
Steak, Chopped, Shaped, and Cubed." No more than
30% fat in total product.

Vegetable and Meat Casserole-At least 25% meat.

Vegetable and Meat Pie-At least 25% meat.

Won Ton Soup-At least 5% meat.

Poultry Products

All percentages of poultry are on cooked, deboned basis
unless otherwise indicated. When standard indicates poul-
try meat, skin, and fat, the skin and fat are in proportions
normal to poultry.

Baby Food
High Poultry Dinner-At least 18/%% poultry meat,
skin, fat, and giblets.
Poultry with Broth-At least 43% poultry meat, skin,
fat, and giblets.

Beans and Rice with Poultry-At least 6% poultry meat.

Breaded Poultry-No more than 30% breading.

Canned Boned Poultry
Boned (kind), Solid Pack-At least 95% poultry meat,
skin, and fat.
Boned (kind)-At least 90% poultry meat, skin, and fat.
Boned (kind), with Broth-At least 80% poultry meat,
skin, and fat.
Boned (kind), with Specified Percentage of Broth-At
least 50% poultry meat, skin, and fat.

Cannelloni with Poultry-At least 7% poultry meat.

Chicken Cordon Bleu-At least 60% boneless chicken
breast (raw basis), 5% ham, and either swiss, gruyere, or
mozzarella cheese. (If breaded, no more than 30%


Creamed Poultry-At least 20% poultry meat. Product
must contain some cream.

Egg Roll with Poultry-At least 2% poultry meat.

Eggplant Parmigiana with Poultry-At least 8% poultry

Entree: Poultry or Poultry Food Products and One Vege-
table-At least 371/2% poultry meat or poultry food

Gravy with Poultry-At least 15% poultry meat.

Noodles or Dumplings with Poultry-At least 6% poultry

Poultry a la Kiev-Must be breast meat (may have attached
skin) stuffed with butter and chives.

Poultry a la King-At least 20% poultry meat.

Poultry Almondine-At least 50% poultry meat. Product
must contain almonds.

Poultry Brunswick Stew-At least 12% poultry meat. Must
contain corn.

Poultry Burgers-100% poultry, with skin and fat not in
excess of natural proportions.

Poultry Burgundy-At least 50% poultry meat; enough.
wine to characterize the product.

Poultry Burrito-At least 10% poultry meat.

Poultry Cacciatore-At least 20% poultry meat, or 40%
with bone.

Poultry Casserole-At least 18% poultry meat.

I Poultry Chili-At least 28% poultry meat.

I Poultry Chili with Beans-At least 17% poultry meat.

Poultry Chop Suey-At least 4% poultry meat.

Poultry Chow Mein (without noodles)-At least 4%
poultry meat.

Poultry Creole with Rice-At least 35% cooked meat in
poultry and sauce portion. Not more than 50% cooked
rice in total product.

Poultry Croquette-At least 25% poultry meat.

Poultry Croquette with Macaroni and Cheese-At least
29% croquettes.

Poultry Dinner (a frozen product)-At least 18% poultry
meat, figured on total meal minus appetizer, bread, and

Poultry Empanadillo (a poultry turnover)-At least 25%
poultry meat.

Poultry Fricassee-At least 20% poultry meat.

Poultry Fricassee of Wings-At least 40% poultry wings
(cooked basis, with bone).

Poultry Hash-At least 30% poultry meat.

Poultry Lasagna-At least 8% poultry meat (raw basici .

Poultry Livers with Rice and Gravy-At least 30% live
poultry and gravy portion, or 17'/2% in total profit

Poultry Meat Loaf-A minimum of 65% raw poultry .i'
50% poultry meat, and a maximum of 12% extender..

Poultry Paella-At least 35% poultry meat or 35% poultry
meat and other meat (cooked basis); no more than 35%
cooked rice. Must contain seafood.

Poultry Parmigiana-At least 40% breaded poultry.

Poultry Pie-At least 14% poultry meat.

Poultry Ravioli-At least 2% poultry meat.

Poultry Roll-No more than 3% binding agents, such as
gelatin, in the cooked product; no more than 2% natural
cooked-out juices.

Poultry Roll with Broth-Contains more than 2% poultry
broth in addition to natural cooked-out juices.

Poultry Roll with Gelatin-Gelatin exceeds 3% of cooked

Poultry Roll with Natural Juices-Contains more than 2%
natural cooked-out juices.

Poultry Salad-At least 25% poultry meat (with normal
amounts of skin and fat).

Poultry Scallopini-At least 35% poultry meat.

Poultry Soup
Ready-to-Eat-At least 2% poultry meat.
Condensed-At least 4% poultry meat.

Poultry Stew-At least 12% poultry meat.

Poultry Stroganoff-At least 30% poultry meat and at least
10% sour cream, or a "gourmet" combination of at least
7/2% sour cream and 5% wine.

Poultry Tamale-At least 6% poultry meat.

Poultry Tetrazzini-At least 15% poultry meat.

Poultry Turnover-At least 14% poultry meat.

Poultry Wellington-At least 50% boneless poultry breast,
spread with a liver or similar pate coating and covered in
not more than 30% pastry.

Poultry with Gravy-At least 35% poultry meat.

Poultry with Gravy and Dressing-At least 25% poultry

Poultry with Noodles au Gratin-At least 18% poultry

Poultry with Noodles or Dumplings-At least 15% poultry
meat, or 30% with bone.

Poultry with Rice-At least 15% poultry meat.

Poultry with Vegetables-At least 15% poultry meat.

SSauce with Poultry or Poultry Sauce-At least 6% poultry

Stuffed Cabbage with Poultry-At least 8% poultry meat.

Stuffed Peppers with Poultry-At least 8% poultry meat.

Turkey Ham-A product made with cured turkey thigh
meat only.

Some terms used throughout this pamphlet are defined

Binders, Extenders-Binders and extenders help to hold a
meat or poultry product together, and also aid in retaining
product moisture. Sometimes, these ingredients are used
to supplement the required minimum amount of meat or
poultry present in a product.

Cure-Curing ingredients are used to preserve such prod-
ucts as ham, frankfurters, and bacon. They also give these
products their characteristic taste and color. Today, almost
all curing of meats is done by adding limited amounts of
nitrite in combination with salt during processing. If nitrite-
cured products are stored at the proper temperature, the
presence of nitrite prevents the growth of organisms that
cause botulism in humans.

Meat-Meat comes from the muscles of cattle, sheep,
swine, and goats. "Skeletal" meat refers to the muscular
cuts which were attached to an animal's bone structure.
Muscle found in the tongue and heart is also defined as
"meat," but is permitted only in some meat products.
Regulations require that all meats be identified by species
(type) of animal, and, if meat from the tongue or heart is
used, it must be named in the list of ingredients.

Meat Byproducts (sometimes known as "variety meats")-
These terms refer to the edible and wholesome parts of
cattle, sheep, swine, and goats, other than skeletal meat.
Whenever byproducts are added to meat products, each
specific byproduct must be named in the list of ingredients.

Meat Food Product (also known as "meat product")-
Any food suitable for human consumption made from
cattle, sheep, swine, or goats, containing more than 3 per-
cent meat.

Poultry-All domesticated birds (chickens, turkeys, ducks,
geese, guineas).

Poultry Byproducts-All edible parts of poultry other than
sex glands and "poultry meat."

Poultry Food Product (also known as "poultry product")-
Any food suitable for human consumption made from any
domesticated bird, containing more than 2 percent poultry

Poultry Meat-This term refers to the white and dark meat
portions of deboned poultry, excluding fat, skin, and other
edible poultry parts.

Vegetable (Plant) Protein--Vegetable protein products
derived from soybeans may be used as binders or extenders
in such meat and poultry products as sausages, luncheon
meats, soups, sauces, and gravies. Sometimes, they are the
main ingredients in meat and poultry product substitutes.
Soybeans are processed into three basic soy protein prod-
ucts: soy flour, soy protein concentrate, and isolated soy
protein, each of which may be converted to textured
vegetable protein. Whenever soy protein is added to a
meat or poultry product, its presence is noted in the ingre-
dient statement on the label. In some instances, it is also
included in the product name, e.g., "Beef and Textured
Vegetable Protein Burritos."

For More Information

To receive single free copies of the following FSIS publi-
cations, write:
FSIS Information
Room 3951-S
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250

FSQS Facts: Meat and Poultry Inspection (FSQS-18)
Federal Food Standards (FSQS-19)
Labels on Meat and Poultry Products (AIB-443)
Information Available From USDA's Food Safety and
Quality Service (FSQS-6)

Meat and Poultry Inspection Program
Food Safety and Inspection Service
United States Department of Agriculture

July 1981

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