Solar project description for Saddle Hill Trust single family residence, Medway, Massachusetts

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Material Information

Title:
Solar project description for Saddle Hill Trust single family residence, Medway, Massachusetts
Series Title:
SOLAR ; 1038-79/50
Uncontrolled:
Saddle Hill Trust single family residences, Medway, Massachusetts
Physical Description:
iv, 47 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Boeing Company
United States -- Dept. of Energy
United States -- Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
for sale by the National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Massachusetts -- Medway   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Massachusetts -- Medway   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by the Boeing Company.
General Note:
MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007756
General Note:
"Department of Housing and Urban Development under contract number H-2372."
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Aug. 24, 1979.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022602000
oclc - 05934806
System ID:
AA00013677:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
S1.2 .V 'OLA l / W 10D 5 Wi /S-


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SOLAR/1038-79/50



Solar Project
Description



SADDLE HILL TRUST
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENT
Medway, Massachusetts


August


24,1979


U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program
National Solar Data Program























NOTICE


This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.


Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of
Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $5.25
Microfiche $3.00





Solar/1038-79/50
Distribution Category UC-59







SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION
FOR
SADDLE HILL TRUST
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES MEDWAY, MASSACHUSETTS






















Department of Housing and Urban Development

Under Contract Number

H-2372

David Moore
Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager

By


The Boeing Company
David Beers, Program Manager








TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

I. FOREWORD .......................................... I

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................. 2

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION ....................... 4

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION............................ 7

A. General Overview................................ 7

B. Collector Subsystem. ............................... 9

C. Storage Subsystem .................................. 21

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem. ........................... 26

E. Auxiliary Subsystem............................... 30

F. Modes of Operation............. .... .............. 32

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION. ........... 35

A. The National Solar Data Network....................... 35

B. On-Site Instrumentation. .............................. 38

VI. COST DATA .......................................... 41

VII. APPENDIX. ...... ............. .................... 42

A. Glossary .................... .................. 42

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics .................... 47














ii





LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Title Pace



IV-A-I General Overview ................................... 7

IV-B- Collector Subsystem .............................. 9

IV-B-2 Solar Collector .................................. II

IV-B-3 Collector-to-Storage ............................... 16

IV-C-I Storage Subsystem .................................. 21

IV-C-2 Storage-to-Space. .................................. 23

IV-D-I Energy-to-Load Subsystem ........................... 26

IV-E-I Auxiliary Subsystem................................. 30

IV-F-I Controls Diagram ................................... 32

V-A-I The National Solar Data Network ................ ..... .. 36

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network ........ 37

V-B-I Sensor and Control Diagram .......................... 40


iii









I iATIOI JAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS


F'r-ports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a
'< if ir format. For example, this report for the Saddle Hill Solar demonstration
Iroj:ec Saddle hill project site is designated as SOLAR/1038-79/50. The elements
of this designation are explained in the following illustration:


SOLAR/1038-79/50


FPrr prored for the Report Type
i Intional Solar I I Designation
I ) Ptci lrorramrr


1 )( nonstration Site < Year
I lumber


l;erionstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number 1000
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


I: -port Type Designation:
[iii numrler identifies the type of report, e.g.,


o Monthly Performance Reports -- designated by the numbers 01
(for January) through 12 (for December);
o Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations -- designated by
the number 14;
o Solar Project Descriptions -- designated by the number 50;
o Solar Project Cost Reports -- designated by the number 60.


ihese reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical
Itiforimtion Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.





I. FOREWORD


The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the
Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling
Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is
responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall
goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a
viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use
through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and
synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in
site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar
Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as:


o Solar Project Description.

o Operational Experience.

o System Performance Evaluation.

o Monthly Performance Reports.


Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been
extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such
as the project proposal, designer specifications, grantee submittals, manufacturer
literature, photographs, specific "as-built" dota and other project documentation
available. The remaining reports in thi, series will utilize the Solar Project
Description for supporting reference.





II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The Saddle Hill solar demonstration project is located in Medway, Massachusetts.
The solar system used on this project is designed to provide building heating as well
as domestic water heating, for lot 36. Lots 73 and 76 are designed to provide solar
energy for preheating domestic water.


Salient features of the solar system are as follows:


o Collector Type -

o Manufacturer -

o Freeze Protection -


Lot 36

Air


Daystar

None


Lot 73

Liquid


Daystar

Yes


Lot 77

Air


Solaron

None


o Application -


o Storage -

o New or Retrofit -

o Site-Specific
Features -


Preheat DHW
and House
Heating


750 Gal

New


Oil fired
furnace and
Electric DHW


Preheat DHW


80 Gal

New


Gas fired
DHW


Preheat DHW


120 Gal

New


Gas fired
DHW


The Lot numbers 36 and 73 system was designed by Daystar of Burlington,
Massachusetts. Lot 77 by Solaron of Colorado.


The Saddle Hill Trust solar energy systems are installed in three single family
dwellings (Lots 36, 73, and 77). Each of the dwellings are four bedroom, two story
frame structures. Lot 36 has 1944 square feet, lots 73 and 77 have 1696 square
feet.


All these dwellings are fully instrumented for performance monitoring and eval-
uation. The three systems are designed to preheat domestic water. Lot 36, in
addition to preheat domestic water includes solar energy for house heating.





The data in this report is for lot 36, since this system is more complex and provides
building heating. In this system, water is the heat transfer fluid. Solar energy is
collected by two banks of flat plate collectors with a gross area of 315 square feet.
Solar energy storage is provided by circulating water through the solar collectors
and a heat exchanger in a 750 gallon basement equipment room storage tank.


Space heating demands are met by circulating water from storage through a
heating coil in the air distribution system in the house heating system.


Auxiliary space heating is provided by an oil-fired warm air furnace.


Solar energy for pre-heating domestic hot water is provided by circulating water
from the solar storage tank through a heat exchanger in an electric domestic hot
water heater.


The performance of the Saddle Hill Trust Solar Energy System has been monitored
since December 1978.


Original cost estimates for provisioning and installation of the solar system are in
Section VI of this report. However the final cost of its instrumentation are not
included in this report.





III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION























(No information available at this time)
























Figure 111-1. Site Plan





Site Description (See Figure IIl-1)

o Topography Flat

o Latitude 420

o Longitude 710

o Elevation 200 Feet

o Annual degree days

o Heating 5643

o Data location Boston, Massachusetts

o Data reference Local Climatological Data Annual
Summaries, Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic
and Atmlospheric Administration

o Average horizontal insolation

o January 555 Btu/ft2/day

o July- 1881 Btu/Ft2/day

o Data location Blue Hill, Massachusetts

o Data reference ASHRAE System Handbook

o Shading

o Heating season None

o Cooling season None

Building Description

o Occupancy

o Type of dwelling Single family

o Family of six

o Four bedroom, family/living/dining, kitchen, solar equipment
room, 2 bathrooms, attached garage

o Total area Approximately 1944 square feet

o Solar conditioned area 1913 square feet





o Height Two story (33 ft. above grade)

o Roof slope at collector 420 pitch

o Special features Ventilated attic

Mechanical System

o Heating

o Solar -

o Auxiliary Oil fired furnace for space heating.


o Cooling (Non-Solar) Absorption

o Auxiliary -

o Distribution -

Domestic Hot Water

o Daily water demand 120 gallons per day

o Solar Heat exchanger located in solar storage tank

o Auxiliary Electric element





IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


A. General Overview


This residential solar demonstration project (Saddle Hill Grant H-2594) located at
Medway, Massachusetts is a liquid system utilized for heating, space and domestic
hot water. Auxiliary units are provided for heating, cooling and domestic water.


Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary
subsystem. Specific details of the operating modes and controls are described in
the final section. Figure IV-A-I is a system schematic diagram.


COLLECTOR =
SUBSYSTEM


STORAGE LOAD ,
SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM


Figure IV-A-I. General Overview


i





Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary
subsystems. Specific details of the operating modes and system controls are
described in the final section. Appendices A and B present a glossary and a legend
of symbols.


Solar System and Component Summary

o Number of Collector types One

o Number of circulation loops Three

o Liquid Three

o Air One






B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure IV-B-I)









CO,,IC',/ *" .'
S. --------- ------ r"

/ ......
--- - -


S...... ,......
VVVV! W .... .. ..:


S........ ..-----.
... ,,

.
.. -...
4 40-V-----------------




C l t ,, g, flat pl
Sp r o V ---






r t ......... --
0 V

0 ............... .. .






COLLECTOR s\

SUBSYSTEM


Figure IV-B-I. Collector Subsystem








Collector array system consists of 14 single glazed selective surface, flat plate

collector panels. Anti-freeze fluid is circulated through the collectors to the solar

storage tank.





Collector (COL-I) (See Figure IV-B-2)

o Manufacturer Daystar

o Model name/number 2001

o Type Liquid flat plate, tube and plate

o Location Roof

o Orientation Fixed 00 E of S

o Tilt angle 58 from horizontal

o Number of collector panels 14

o Array configuration Two rows of seven panels

o Collector

o Total gross area of array 315 Ft2

o Net aperture area 293 Ft2

o Net absorber area 286 Ft2

o Weight per panel, empty 134 Ib

o Weight per panel, full 140 Ib

o Weight of filled array and support structure -

o Panel length 72.8 inches

o Panel width 44.5 inches

o Frame depth 5.5 inches

o Standoff height 22 inches

o Glazing (cover plate)

o Number of cover plates Two

o Cover plate No. I Outer

o Manufacturer ASG Industries

o Product Name/Number ASG Low Iron Glass

o Material Glass, low iron tempered

o Thickness .187 inches

o Coating None

























































f, / Mil lllij1
C2 ;;s.
0 m




''/ -I'' Hi:I
u* S.j Sa








'~2 9

lih''.F I I *fli
1i S
1 :: ?* l.^ ~-; S | |g

: ~O 'E^- ,*s t ^ s*
C.





7' 3 'i
___ <*


M m c
S C

ii I -
Es
a 03
Zi t2i


go
li
sle
CBll


E*


f g!
a



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rt :
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o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region)

Transmittance 88% 83%

Reflectance 0.9% 0.5%

Emittance 9.3%

o Edge or surface treatment, other than coating Mechanical ground

o Coating on cover plate material None

o Cover plate No. 2 Inner

o Manufacturer Daystar

o Product Name/Number Heat trap

o Material Polycarobonate sheet

o Thickness .008

o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region)

Transmittance 94% 1%

Reflectance 1%

o Edge treatment Accordian folded with ss clamp to reinforce pleats

o Coating None

o Absorber

o Manufacturer Daystar

o Material Copper CDA I10

o Substrate material dimension

Thickness 0.020 inches

Length 70 inches

Width 42 inches

o Coating

o Manufacturer 3M

o Model Name/Number Black nextel, Series 401-C 10





o Application method Painted

a Material Epoxy

o Absorptance Properties Solar Region Infrared

o Absorptance 97% 95%

o Reflectance 30% 3%

o Emittance 97%

o Heat transfer fluid passages

o Location Beneath absorber

o Pattern Serpentine

o Materials Copper, CDA 122

o Wall thickness 0.28 inches

o Internal diameter 0.569 inches

o Fluid passage spacing 6.0 inches on center

o Maximum operating conditions

Temperature 3000 F

Pressure 320 psi

o Fluid passage bond to substrate Solder (60% Sn, 40% Pb)

o Protective coating inside fluid passage None

o Insulation

o Layer one sides

Manufacturer Celotex

Product Name/Number CPR 496

Material Isocyanurate

Thermal resistance R-8





o Layer two Sides

Manufacturer Celotex

Product Name/Number CPR 496

Material Isocyanurate

Thermal Resistance R-8

o Layer one back

Manufacturer Celotex

Product Name/Number CPR 496

Material Isocyanurate

Thermal resistance R-15

o Gaskets and sealants

o Manufacturer General Electric

o Product Name/Number Construction, 1200

o Material Silicone

o Frame

o Manufacturer Daystar

o Product Name/Number Case

o Material

Aluminum 3003 H 14



o Protective coating Painted

o Number of structure attach points per module to
building 4

o Desiccant None

o Freeze protection Anit-Freeze

o Overheating protection Heat exchanger

o Standoffs used Yes





o Collector performance

o Method of evaluation ASHRAE (t.-ta)/It converted from NBS

o y intercept FR(ta)n = 690 F Ft2 hr/Btu

o Slope FRUL = 70

o Point Number 1 2 3 4

o n = Collector thermal efficiency (%) 69.3 60.6 51.6 41.3

o t. = collector inlet temperature (OF) 91 134 180 216

o t = ambient air temperature (OF) 94 94 94 88

o I = insolation intensity Btu/hr ft 302 327 330 323

o ASHRAE (ti-t )/I 0.01 0.12 0.26 0.40

o Test flow rate 241.7

o Total heat loss Coefficient UL = 0.76 Btu/hr Ft2 OF

o Test wind speed 6.19 mph

o Back side thermal loss 0. 13 Btu/hr ft2

o Edge thermal loss 0.04 Btu/hr ft2

o Thermal response time constant 3 minutes

o Fluid specific heat 1.00 Btu/lbo F

o Test fluid medium 100% water

o Test collector area

Gross 22.6 ft2

Net 20.9 ft2





Liquid Circulation Loop No. I (COL-I to TSU-I)

o Design maximum operating temperature 2000 F

o Pressure 40 psi

o Heating design liquid flow 7 gpm

o Cooling design liquid flow None

o Provision for expansion Expansion tank

o Anticipated liquid temperature 200 F






I OLLCO







V --3 .. "_+ t
S/ f ---- \ ----. .... -





(- 1
--- --


I ---- .... ------- ...-------- -


0 r ....... ....




-- --.. ..- --- d-- -- -0

-- .PI ............... ..
- - ---- -


i


COLLECTOR

SUBSYSTEM


s


II

i
!00,f w_____ l 2
*^ NS------ ~ /2


kiI


Figure IV-B-J. ('oi;e( fo11-') ti ())-,,<





o Heat

0

o








0
o

o

o

o

o


transfer medium 40% water and 60% glycerine

Specific heat .77 Btu/lb/F

Density .45 Ib/ft3

Heat capacity 34.7 But/ft3/OF at 700 F

Viscosity over working temperature range 1.5 to 4.5 poises/100

Boiling point 2200 F

Freezing point 310 F

Maximum recommended use temperature 2570 F

Toxicity Non-potable

I .


o pn TacTor o.u

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor None

o Inhibitor None

o Piping

o Rigid Copper Type L

o Piping insulation Polyurethane foam

o Location Basement to roof

o Filters None

o Circulator pump (P-1)

o Manufacturer Grundfos

o Model Name/Number UPF-20-42

o Type Centrifugal

o Maximum operating conditions

Dynamic pressure -

Temperature 2200 F

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid Stainless steel

o Motor size 0.05 hp, I 15V, I phase, 60 Hz





0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
SHeat









0
o

o

o
o

o






o






Ha


Maximum motor speed -

Drive -

Speed -

Pump speed -

Circulating volume Low head mode 14 gpm

Circulating volume High head mode 0 gpm

Operating head (dynamic) Low head mode 0 gpm

Operating heat (dynamic) High head mode 4.4 psi

Motor operation -

Exchanger (HX-1)

Manufacturer Daystar

Model Name/Number Mod 10

Type of flow Convection one side

Design


Tube inside tank with fins

Number of separations Single

o Thermal insulation R value None

o Convection

Side one Forced

Side two Natural

o Located

Side one TSU

Side two TSU

o Circulation Loop (s) I, 2, and 3

o Maximum manufacturers rated

Temperature Side one 3000 F; Side two 3000 F

Pressure Inside 200 psi; Outside 200 psi





Inside
o Heat transfer/surface area 10.9 ft

o Design heating capacity 49480 Btu/hr

o Effectiveness 85%

o Design flow rate 7 gpm

Related pump PI

o Liquid temperatures Side One

Entering 150.00 F

Leaving 130.00 F

o Heating Coefficient 2474

o Material Copper

o Heat exchanger (HX 4)

o Manufacturer Daystar

o Model Name/Number #20 Heat pump panel

o Type Natura convection one side

o Convection

Air side Natural

Liquid side Forced

o Distribution Valve (V-1)

o Manufacturer Treice

o Model Name/Number 9200

o Function Flow adjusting

o Operation Automatic motorized

o Type Temperature controlled

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid -


Outside
55.2 ft









Side Two

100.00 F

100.00 F





o Distribution Valve (V-3)

o Manufacturer -

o Model Name/Number -

o Function On/Off

o Operation Manual

o Type -

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid -

Control Mode Selector (CMS-1)

o Manufacturer Rho Sigma

o Model Name/number Differential thermostrat 106

o Modes controlled

o Collector to storage

ON (SN-0 1) (SN-02) + 40

OFF (SN-0I) (SN-02) + 20

Control Mode Selector (CMS-5)

o Modes controlled Emergency energy dump

o Storage to space (SN-03) 8.5

ON Greater than 1500 F (SN-012),
Electric power off, PI-ON

Off Power on

o Fail Safe Control (FC-1)

o Manufacturer -

o Product Name/Number -

o Type Backflow preventor

o Flow Control (FC-5)

o Manufacturer -

o Type Flow control





C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C-I)


STORAGE
6 SUBSYSTEM


Figure IV-C-I. Storage Subsystem




Solar energy storage is provided by a 750 gallon storage tank located in the
basement. This tank is made of steel with a galvanized interior. It measures 5
feet in diameter, 9 feet in height and is insulated with foil backed fiberglass
sheeting. A heat exchanger is installed in the tank for heat transfer from solar
heated water to the energy storage tank.





Thermal Storage Unit (TSU-I)

o Container

o Total storage volume I 13 ft3 (750 gallons)

Length 9.0 ft

Diameter 5.0 ft

o Storage medium

o Heating design temperature 2000 F

o Medium 100% water

o Specific heat 1000 Btu/lb/F

o Density 64 lb/ft3 at 700 F at standard atmospheric pressure

o Boiling point 2120 F

o Freezing point 320 F

o Recommended medium temperature 2000 F

o Toxicity Potable

o pH Factor 7.0

o Inhibitor None

o Container construction

o Type Steel tank, galvanized interior

o Location Basement

o Auxiliary heaters None

o Insulation Polyurethene (R-I I)

o Exterior finish Red lead

o Filters None





Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (TSU- to HX-3)


TUN -A



. 0 suSFY "AM
O-L O U "'Ly. '\MUS-)


__STORAGE
SSUBSYSTEM

Figure IV-C-2. Storage-to-Space





o Design operating temperature 2000 F

o Pressure 40 psi

o Design liquid flow 5 gpm






o Heat

0

0

0
o

o








o

o

o

o
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0













o Heat

o

0

0

o

o


transfer medium

Medium 100% water

Specific heat 1.00 Btu/lb/0 F

Density 64 Ib/ft3

Boiling point 2120 F

Freezing point 320 F

Maximum recommended use temperature 2000 F

Toxicity Potable

pH factor 7.0

Chemical feeder None

Inhibitor None

Pressurizer Yes

Piping

o Rigid Copper, Type L

o Insulation Polyurethene foam (R-l I)

o Location Basement

o Exterior finish PVC

o Finish and Insulation Joint type Tape and mastic

Exchanger (HX-3)

Manufacturer Singer

Model Name/Number ZG- IOp 1-030-084 BM 6113611

Type of flow Cross

Design Fin coil

Convection Air side Liauid side


Forced


Forced





o Circulation loops 2 and 4

o Material Copper

o Heat transfer surface Aluminum

o Exposed to fluid Aluminum and copper

o Design flow quality Air side 1400 cfm, Liquid side 5 gpm

o Distribution Valve (V-4)

o Manufacturer -

o Model Name/Number -

o Function ON/OFF

o Operation Manual

o Type -

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid -

Control Mode Selector (CMS-3)

o Manufacturer

Model Name/Number Dual thermostat

o Modes controlled

o Storage to space

ON (SN-06) 700 F

OFF (SN-03) 850 F or (SN-06) 700 F

o Storage to auxiliary

ON (SN-06) 680 F

OFF (SN-06) 680 F

o Type Temperature resistance thermometer

o Flow Control (FC-01) Backf low preventor

o Flow Control (FC-02) Pressure relief valve

o Flow Control (FC-03) Pressure/Temperature Control relief valve





D. Energy To Load Subsystem (See Figure IV-D-I)


t LOAD
SUBSVSTEM

Figure IV-D- I. Energy-to-Load Subsystem




Solar energy stored in the 750 gallon storage tank is used to meet the space heating
demands by solar heater water circulating it through heating coils in the air
distribution system. Auxiliary space heating, supplementing this source, is
provided by an oil fired forced air furnace.





Liquid Circulation Loop No. 3 (TSU-I to DHW-I)

o Design maximum operating temperature 2000 F

o Heating design liquid flow 7 gpm

o Heat transfer medium

o Medium 100% water

o Specific heat 1.00 Btu/lb/o F

o Density 64 Ib/ft3

o Boiling point 2120 F

o Freezing point 320 F

o Maximum recommended use temperature 2000 F

o Toxicity Potable

o pH factor 7.0

o Chemical feeder None

o Inhibitor None

o Circulator pump (P-2)

o Manufacturer Taco

o Model Name/Number Circulator /007

o Type Centrifugal

o Maximum operating conditions

Dynamic pressure 30 psi

Temperature 2000 F

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid Cast iron

o Motor size 0.04 hp, I 15 v, I phase, 60 Hz

o Maximum motor speed 3450 rpm

o Drive Yes

o Speed Single

o Pump Speed 3450





0

0

0

o Heat

o

o

o




o
o

o

o


0



0


Circulating volume Low head mode 23 gpm

Operating head (dynamic) Low Head Mode 4.4 psi

Motor operation 0.05 bhp

Exchanger (HX-2)

Manufacturer Vaughn

Model Name/Number C80 SNR-15

Type of exchanger Liquid to liquid

Type of flow Convection

Heat exchanger design Tube inside tank with fins

Number of separations Single

Convection

Side one Forced

Side two Natural

External exposed surface area 8.7 ft2

Design flow rate 23 gpm

Material Copper


o Piping

o Rigid Copper, type L

o Insulation Polyurethene'

o Location Basement

Control Mode Selector (CMS-2)

o Modes controlled


o Storage to hot water ON (SN-04) (SN-003 + 50 F Differential

o Storage to space OFF (SN-04) (SN-03) + 50 F Differential

o Sensors (SN-03) and (SN-04)

o Type Thermister





Air Circulation Loop No. 4 (HX-3 to Space Heating)

o Location Below grade in basement

o Ducting Steel, Galvanized

o Joint Type Pressure sensitive tape, clamped

o Internal insualtion None

a Design air flow I400' cfm

a Hieat Exchanger (HX-3) Described in Loop 2

o Distrilbuti.on Blower (BL-01)

o Type Squirrel coge fan

Control Mode Selector (CMS-3)

o Modes controlled

o Storage to space ON (SN-06) 700 F

o Storage to space OFF (SN-03) 850 F

o Sensors (SN-5) and (SN-6)

o Type Thermostat





E. Auxiliary Subsystems (See Figure IV-E-1)


'N


LOAD I
SSUBSYSTEM


Figure IV-E-I. Auxiliary-to-Load Subsystem





The auxiliary subsystems, oil fired furnace and domestic hot water tank, mentioned
in the foregoing Energy to Load Subsystem have been grouped in this section for
descriptive purposes, their function and purpose have been previously described.





Auxiliary Loads (DHW)

o Domestic Water Heater (DWH-1)

o Manufacturer Vaughn

o Model C8NR

o Energy source Electrical (115 V, single phase, 60 Hz)

o Tank size 80 gal

o Energy input 14676 Btu/hr

o Energy output 14676 Btu/hr

o Heating stages Single

o Maximum recovery rate -18.5 gal/hr

o Yearly average inlet temperature 600 F

o Design output temperature 1400 F

o Thermal resistance R-7

o Furnace (Furn I)

o Manufacturer Friedrich

o Model Name/Number QUA-1 12-AMA

o Energy source Oil fired (Oil No. 2)

o Energy input 140,000 Btu/hr

o Energy output II 2000 Btu/hr

o Control Mode Selector (CtMS-4)

o Modes controlled Auxiliary hot water

o Sensor (SN-05)

o Type Thermostat





F. Modes of Operation (See Figure IV-F-I)


COLLECTOR < STORAGE I LOAD
S SUBSYSTEM p SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM

Figure IV-F-I. Controls Diagram



The Saddle Hill Trust solar system is shown on Figure IV-F-I. The system consists
of the following four subsystems: a) Collector subsystem, b) storage subsystem,
c) load (space heating) subsystem and d) auxiliary loads subsystem. A heat
rejection subsystem is incorporated in the collector subsystem to provide for heat
rejection preventing overheat conditions. The auxiliary subsystem consists of an
oil fired furnace for space heating and an electric domestic water heater.





Operation of the solar system and the auxiliary subsystems may involve one or
more of the modes of operations described below.


Mode I Collector-to-Storage:


When the collector temperature control sensor, located in the collector outlet
manifold, indicates a temperature 40 F greater than the storage temperature
control sensor, located at the bottom of the storage tank, collector pump (P-I) is
activated and will circulate water through the storage tank and the collectors.
Collector pump (P-1) continues to run until the collector temperature becomes less
than 20 F greater than the storage temperature.


Mode 2 Space Heating-from-Storage:


Solar energy from storage is used for space heating when there is a demand from
the space heating thermostat and there is sufficient thermal energy in storage, as
indicated by the storage tank top temperature, not being less than 700 F. In this
mode space heating circulating pump and the fan in the air distribution system are
activated. Valve V-I is positioned to allow flow from the storage tank through the
heating coils of the heat exchanger and back to the storage tank. The oil fired
furnace does not operate in this mode.


Mode 3 Auxiliary-Space Heating:


The auxiliary heating mode is used when there is a demand for space heating from
the space thermostat and there is not sufficient thermal energy in storage to meet
the demand, in this mode the oil fired furnace is activated.


Mode 4 Domestic Hot Water Heating:


Energy from solar storage is used to heat domestic hot water when the tem-
perature differential between the storage tank top and DHW tank top is greater
than 5 F is met, pump P-2 is activated, circulating water from the DHW heater
through a heat exchanger located in the DHW-I tank. Auxiliary electric DHW
heating occurs if the temperature of the hot water in the tank drops below 1200 F.





Mode 5 Excess Heat Rejection


Whenever the collector liquid
dumping mode will be initiated.
through the heat rejection heat
heat.


heat transfer media exceeds 1500 F, the energy
In this mode, valve V-I is positioned to allow flow
exchanger and pump P-I is activated to remove the





V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION


A. The National Solar Data Network


The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A-1) has been developed for the
Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demon-
stration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data
flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports
describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems.


The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is
part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of
the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in
calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar
system (see NBSIR 76-1137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumen-
tation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically,
the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following:


o Total insolation in the plane of the collector array

o Ambient temperature

o Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures

o Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures

o Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures

o Storage temperature

o Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures

o Auxiliary fuel flow rates

Site data are recorded automatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data
Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the
Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The
communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade
telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the
SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are time-
tagged correctly.











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The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code
transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications
Processor cnd processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measure-
ment checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not
beyond the known instrument limits Wn! ~at they are not erratic. Data which
appear questionable are discarded ana are not used in the solar system preformance
analyses.


Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired perform-
ance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A
performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity
of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component.
All vaid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate
hourly performance actors. Hourly performance factors are integrated into daily
and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance
factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include
measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site
identification: and specific site data used in generating the performance factors.


3. On-Site Instrumentation


The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of
the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that
stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A-I and V-A-2).
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-B-1.





SENSOR


1001
TOO I
T100
T150
WI00
EPI00
TIOI
T151
T200
T201
T202
T300
T350
T301
T351
W300
EP300
T302
T352
W301
EP301
T400
T450
W400
EP400
T40 I
T451
W401
T402
T452
T453
F400


EP401
T600


heat exch. input
heat exch. output
storage tank, upper
storage tank, middle
storage tank, bottom
return from HX (in DHW tank)
supply to HX (in DHW tank)
DHW return
DHW supply


Flow, HW heat exch.
Power, preheat loop pump and controls
Temperature, CW supply
Temperature, HW tank, High
Flow, Total, CW supply
Power, DHW electric heater
Temperature, tank return from heat coil
Temperature, tank to heat coil
Flow, tank to heat coil
Power, pump (P-3)
Temperature, return from heat coil
Temperature, heating coil, high
Flow, return air to domestic furnace
Temperature, return air to domestic furnace
Temperature, upstream of heat coil
Temperature, heated air supply
Fuel consumption, 120 MBtu/hr furnace


Power, blower, domestic furnace
Temperature, return air from heat space


DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENT


Insolation, total
Temperature, outside ambient
Temperature, collector, Low
Temperature, collector, High
Flow, collector
Power,collector pumps (P- l)


Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,
Temperature,


MODEL NO.


Eppley PSP
S53P-60
S57P-60
S53P-60
MKV-I" 1-10
PCS-1
S57P-60
S53P-60
S53P-122
S53P-266
S53P-426
S57P-60
S53P-60
S57P-60
S53P-60
MKV-3/4,1.5-15
PC5-I
S57P-60
S53P-60
Hersey 430
PC5-29
S57P-60
S53P-60
MKV-3/4, I-10
PC5-1
S57P-60
S53P-60
KURZ 430DC
S57P-100
S57P-100
S53P-100
Magnecraft
W88ACPX-4
PC5-10
S53P-60















































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VI. COST DATA


A. General


The following cost data depicts only solar energy portion of the construction costs.
Costs of instrumentation is not included since it is not part of the construction
effort.


B. Construction Grant Funds


Solar Subsystem


Applicants Request


Construction Grant


Lot 36 Lot 73 Lot 77


Collectors
Energy Storage
Distribution
and Controls
Installation
Other*


Total


$17,000 $3,500 $3,900


C. Construction Period:


October 1977 through June 16, 1978


* Consists of promotional and minor work.


$10,030
1,190


4,760
Included
1,020


$1,260
140


1,645
Included
455


$1,443
156


1,716
Included
585


$24,400





VII. APPENDIX


A. Glossary


ABSORBER PLATE The surface in a flat plate collector that absorbs incident
solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid.
ABSORPTANCE The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident
radiation on that surface.
ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air
by an absorption process.
ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system, consisting of
collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or
preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner.
AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which air is
the heat transfer fluid.
AIR CONDITIONING The process of treating indoor air by controlling the
temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the
occupants in the conditioned space.
AMBIENT AIR A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be
conditioned or circulated.
ANTI-FREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that
uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its
freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors
and the exterior piping.
AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM The equipment, utilizing conventional energy
sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used
to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable.
RACKF LOW The reversal of flow in a distribution system.
BACKFLOW PREVENTOR A device or means to stop backflow.
BEAM RADIATION Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be con-
centrated.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) A unit of energy that is required to heat ori
po' nd of water frorn 590 F to 600 F.
Ri: ILD)IrG F JVFLOPE The exterior surface of a building that encloses the
condi t ione, space.





CLIMATE The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic
region as described by temperature and other meteorological data.
COLLECTOR MANIFOLD The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a
collector plate.
COLLECTOR PLATE A term used for an absorber plate.
COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM The assembly that absorbes solar radiation and
transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid.
COMBINED COLLECTORS An assembly that both collects solar radiation and
stores the thermal energy in the same unit.
CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR A solar collector which focuses beam
radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can
normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors.
CONCENTRATOR A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing
insolation onto an absorber.
CONDITIONED SPACE The space in a building where the air is conditioned by
heating or cooling.
CONTROL SUBSYSTEM The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic
actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the
auxiliary energy subsystems.
COOLING TOWER A heat exchanaer that transfers waste heat from an
absorption cooling system to ambient air.
DIFFUSE RADIATION Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust,
or other substances suspended in the air.
DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that
prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior piling by
automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as
air, nitrogen, etc.
DUCT HEATING COIL A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution
system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system.
EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS The seasonal cooling load for a
building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system
will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load.
[ MITTANCE The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a
black body at the same temperature.
EXPANSION TANK A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is
heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components.





FIXED COLLECTOR A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the
sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations.
FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR A basic heat collection device used in solar heating
systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and
covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing
aids in a flat plate collector.
FOCUSING COLLECTOR A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens,
or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber.
FRESNEL COLLECTOR A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens
to focus beam radiation onto an absorber.
GLAZING The transparent covers) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy
losses from the top of the collector.
HEAT TRANSFER FLUID The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar
collector to the storage subsystem or to the load.
INCIDENCE ANGLE The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the
normal for that surface.
INSOLATION The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of
time.
LAMINATED GLASS A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded
together by intervening layer or layers of plastic.
LANGLEY The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm2, (I
Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft2).
LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which
either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid.
LOAD The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that
are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem.
NOCTURNAL RADIATION The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to
the sky at night.
NO-FLOW CONDITION The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not
flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction.
OPAQUE A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either
reflected or absorbed.
OUTGASSING The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during
exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure.





PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT A factory-made assembly consisting of an
indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space
cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the
condition space.
PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR A concentrating collector which focuses
beam radiation by a parabolic reflector.
PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system that can provide for
space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun.
REFLECTANCE The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total
incident radiation on the surface.
REFLECTED RADIATION Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as
the ground, and is incident on the solar collector.
ROCK BED A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in air-
based solar collector systems.
SELECTIVE SURFACE A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation
and a low emittance for thermal radiation.
SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE The area in a building that depends on solar
energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs.
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar
energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into
thermal energy for space heating requirements, as well as the addition of an
auxiliary backup system.
SOLAR RETROFIT The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure.
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM The components used to store solar energy so that the
stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of
low insolation.
STRATIFICATION The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature
differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water.
THERMOSTAT A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and
cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater.
TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL Angle between the horizontal plane and the
plane of collector.
TON OF REFRIGERATION A unit of refrigeration which is equivalent to 12,000
Btu/hr.
TRACKING COLLECTOR A set of solar energy tracking collectors that auto-
matically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun.






VAPOR BARRIER A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water
vapor.
ZONE A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of
their similar heating and cooling requirements.





Legend For Solar System Schematics


PIPING SPECIALITIES


-4--

















-1---
0 -
r%-





---'-1|----

---------





-Ar
----- -----


GATE VALVE
CHECK VALVE
BALANCING VALVE
GLOBE VALVE
BALL VALVE
PLUG VALVE
BACKFLOW PREVENTER
VACUUM BREAKER
RELIEF OR SAFETY
PRESSURE REDUCING


ANGLE GATE VALVE


ANGLE GLOVE VALVE

CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY


CONTROL VALVE, 3 WAY

BUTTERFLY VALVE

4 WAY VALVE
ITTINGS

DIRECTION OF FLOW
CAP
REDUCER, CONCENTRIC
REDUCER, ECCENTRIC
TEE
UNION
FLANGED CONNECTION
CONNECTION, BOTTOM
CONNECTION, TOP
ELBOW, TURNED UP
ELBOW, TURNED DOWN
TEE, OUTLET UP
TEE, OUTLET DOWN


I 1

._-- L__





9 FS
9 PS
9




St




--IF-





cw>-
CW) ---



AS

EXP TK

WS

HED


VALVES


AUTOMATIC AIR VENT
MANUAL AIR VENT
ALIGNMENT GUIDE.
ANCHOR
BALL JOINT
EXPANSION JOINT
EXPANSION LOOP
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION
FLOWMETER FITTING
FLOW SWITCH
PRESSURE SWITCH
PRESSURE GAUGE
PUMP
PIPE SLOPE
STRAINER
STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF
TRAP
CONTROL SENSOR
INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR

THERMOMETER
THERMOMETER WELL ONLY


COLD WATER SUPPLY

BLOWER

AIR SEPARATOR

EXPANSION TANK

WATER SOFTENER

HOSE END DRAIN











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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