Fusing altruism with design thinking in the high school art classroom

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Title:
Fusing altruism with design thinking in the high school art classroom
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Cranfill, Amy
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
The research described in the following paper focused on the use of design thinking as a way to develop an altruistic project in my art classroom. I used action research as a pragmatic philosophy of study and found that the design thinking process was a very useful tool to investigating and developing altruistically motivated ideas. My students used design thinking to create a solution to the problem: Germs are spread by not washing your hands. This capstone project investigated altruism, the design thinking process, and how I intentionally fused altruism into that process. I documented my students journey to creating a germ-fighting giraffe named “Big G,” their reactions, and some of my own observations during my research. The results of my project, my observations, and a project video are documented on my website http://www.amyswindowseat.com.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project
General Note:
Fall 2012

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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AA00013660:00001


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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 1 FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING IN THE HIGH SCHOOL ART CLASSROOM By AMY CRANFILL A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 2 2012 Amy Cranfill

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank Craig Roland and Elizabeth Delacruz for the not only the educational role they played in my journey, but for all the work they have put, and continue to put, into this online Mas ters of Art Education program I would also like to thank my amazing husband who sacrificed himself so that I could make it through this process and Stephanie Pickens for being my graduate school wing man

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 4 Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts FUSIN G ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM BY Amy Cranfill December 2012 Chair: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract The research described in the following paper focused on the use of design thinking as a way to develop an altruistic project in my art classroom. I used action research as a pragmatic philosophy of study and found that the design thinking process was a very useful tool to investigating and developing altruistically motivated ideas. My students used design thinking to create a solution to the problem: Germs are spread by not washing your hands. This capstone p roject investigate d altruism, the design thinking process and how I intentionally fused altruism into that pro cess. I documented my stud ents journey to creating a germ fighting giraffe named their reactions and some of my own observations during my research The results of my project, my observations, and a project video are documented on my website http://www.amyswindowseat.com

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 5 Contents Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 3 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 5 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 8 Statement of t he Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 8 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 8 Research Question ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 9 Significance of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 9 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 10 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 10 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 The History of Community Involvement in the Classroom ................................ ................................ ..... 15 What Has Been Done Vs. What Needs To Be Done ................................ ................................ ................ 16 New Perspectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Connecting Altruism and Design Thi nking ................................ ................................ .............................. 19 What is Design Thinking ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Phases of Design Thinking ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 21 Why is Design Thinking a Good Match for Introducing Altruism in th e Art Classroom? ........................ 22

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 6 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 24 Research Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 24 Procedures and Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 25 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 26 Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 27 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 28 Firs t Observation: Design Thinking Keeps Students Focused ................................ ................................ 28 Second Observation: Design Thinking Developed Caring in Students ................................ .................... 29 Fourth Observation: Letting Go of Control ................................ ................................ ............................. 35 Summary across all of my Observations ................................ ................................ ................................ 35 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 36 Interpretations of my Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Significance of my Findings, and Recommendations ................................ ................................ .............. 38 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 40 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 46 List of Figures wi th Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 48 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 49

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 7

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 8 Introduction One of my personal goals as a teacher is to bring out in my students a sense of compassion for others. (One Million Bones, 2009) The idea behind the project was to bring awareness to world humanitarian issues, specifically the genocides in Africa by creat ing bone replicas out of clay and plaster. I was inspired by this project to help my students understand how art might instigate change in the world, and the important role altruism can play as the underlying motivation for those art projects I want to give my students opportunities to practice altruism in their thinking and I want to present them with a more comprehensive art program that would allow them to practice developing their altruistic ideas. Statement of the Problem The problem motivating this Capstone research project is that I have noticed a lack of altruistic behavior in my students. The research question to be studied is: How can I teach the idea of altruism to my students ? A solution to this problem might be to create opportunities for my students to practice altruistic behavior through participation in my curriculum. I believe this idea should be studied be cause of it s potential positive long term effect s on the c haracter. The study would also be beneficial to other art teachers that are like me, interested in developing a sens e of altruism in their students. Purpose of the Study observe and document my use of Design Thinking as a process in my art class. I believe that Design Thinking, might be a way to help my students take altruistic ideas and turn them into meaningful art projects. Through this Capstone stu d y, I want to determine whether the design thinking process is a us eful tool for developing well i nformed

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 9 and well rounded ideas in my art room, and if so, how design thinking facilitates the art making we will be doing. As mentioned before, I am interested in art that facilitates a sense of altruism in my students. Resea rch Question In the summer of 2012, I took a Design Thinking class at the University of Florida. In doing so I was intrigued with the design think ing process and decided to include it in the following research question. This question guides my study. 1. How c an I use design thinking as a tool to bring altruism into art projects? Significance of the Problem My study of the interface of design thinking and altruism in the art room is important to me because I believe that using art to affect social change can be meaningful to my students as well as an effective mode of communication. Students that are developing a sense of altruism may benefit from the experience of being helpful to others in their communit y. I believe that making artwork that is being cr eated for someone other than ourselves require s a different type of thought process then a purely self expressive based art project Furthermore, I believe that going through the De sign Thinking process gives students an outline structure and proc ess for a more informed arti stic solution. The field of education may benefit from this type of study because it fits in with research cur rently being done connecting pedagogy and altruism F or example the Forum for Education and Democracy is a movement of teachers that are dedicated to improving education by incorporatin g skills that build students academically as well as opening their eyes to ways they can improve conditions in their community (Glickman & Thompson, 2009 ). Organizations like the Center o f Compassion and Altruism resear ch in Education support and conduct rigorous scientific studies of compass ion and altruistic behavior.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 10 These studies draw from several disciplines including neuroscience, psychology, economics and contemplative traditions wh ich examines methods for cultivating compassion and promoting altruism within individuals (Center of Compassion and Altruism Research 2012) Assumptions I have several assumptions for this study T o begin, I believe most of my art students have n ot been exposed to creating projects that are altruistic oriented in nature. Having written the curriculum for the intermediate age level art class es (fourth through sixth grade) as well as all of the high school art electives at the scho ol where I am doin g my research, I know there has never been an outward reaching focus towards the community through those art clas ses. Furthermore, most of the art classes previously mentioned were driven by a curriculum which did not expose students to projects that require extensive research, communication or group thinking Lastly, I believe despite these deficits, exposure to a n established process like design thinking will have a positive effect on my students. The design thinking process was create d so that the main design project is the result of mini stages of development, each with clear comprehensive agendas. I assume that this type of process will allow my students to experience the short term goal success they are accustomed as well as engaging them to further develop their ideas. Definition of Terms Growth Midset Wilhelm, (2009 ) introduc a term referring to the idea t hat the hand that you are dealt is just the starting point for development and that a disposition toward learning and engagement are necessary ingredients According to Wilhelm, t hese cherished qualities of thoughtf ulness and concern for others can be developed to create a passion for thinking, acting and serving ( Wilhelm, 2009 ) The idea of students being

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 11 able to learn positive behaviors is one of the most important ideas underlying teaching altruistic behavior. Service Learning. Service learning is a pedagogical approach that encourages & Thompson, 2009). Service learning, in short, means learning in school subject areas through service activities in the larger community. This approa ch to teaching is reciprocal in nature, benefiting both the community and the students and is an effective way for teachers to encourage active citizenship ( Glickman, 2009 ) This approach is found throughout the US, because this service learning is the most common way teachers are incorporating the community in their classroom. Situated Cognition Situated cognition, in short, is learning in specific, real world context, rather than merely from book s or other classroom instructional materials. Platt Gross (2010) talks about t based on the research of educational researchers John Brown, Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid, (1989) who aim to: embed learning in activity and m ake deliberate use of the social and physical context, cognitive apprenticeship methods try to enculturate students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in a way similar to that evident and evidently success ful in craft apprenti ceship ( Platt Gross, 2010, p. 359) In situated learning, motivation needs to be internalized through the satisfaction that comes from doing meaningful real world work. The challenge in situated cognition is that in a classroom setting there may often be little option for motivating th e students other than external rewards Extrinsic motivation is using rewards such as grades or money to perpetuate a behavior (Beehr, LeGro & Porter, 2010). Intrinsic motivation is internal and is based on the enjoyment o r

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 12 interest in the activity itself. This type of motivation, (Clary etal, 1999; Clary & Snyder, 1999; Russell & Hutzel, 2007; Jones & Marks, 2004) is clearly much more effective to develop an altruistic character. Primary Socialization Prima ry socialization refers to influences of family and close caregivers towards ones enduring values and dispositions in early development ( Jones, 2004 ) Secondary Socialization Secondary socialization occur s within the neighborhood, chur ch, schools and youth organizations ( Jones, 2004 ) Reciprocal learning experience In reciprocal learning experience (Hutze l & Russell 2007) both parties join in a collaborative effort that share mutual benefits and responsibilities. In service learning ventures, where one often sees reciprocal learning, t he community has its own responsibilities and competen cies as does the student team. This allows both parties to grow and the project or service is not a burden to either parties. Collaborate and Create A collaborate and create pedagogy, refers to projects that are based on a collaboration with th e artist and the public and in which artworks are meant to better the community, usually by addressing a political or so cial issue ( Hutzel, 2007 ) Design Thinking Design thinking is a step by step process of set procedures that uses ologically feasible (Brown, 2008 ). Design thinking process is broken d own into five main phases: define, research, ideate, prototype, choose and implement (IDEO, 2008). Altruism P hilosopher Thomas Nagel describes altruism as a willingness to act in consideration of the interests of other persons, withou t the need of ulterior motives (1979)

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 13 Limitations of the Study There are several limitations to my research. Firstly, I teach at a Christian private school which limits the spectrum of demographic in my students. Observations that I make in this situation may not occur in a different teaching setting. There are also limitations to the amount of data due to the fact that the research phase o nly covered one project spanning a two week period. I am also only using freshman and sophomores who are enrolled in my Art Technique class, which is a beginning level art class. Future research may be done over a longer period of time with a series or multiple project opportunities. Another avenue for rese arch on altruism may be looking at how the different genders react to different types of proje cts or various lengths of time. There may be limitations to my research method as well. Although the process may be well planned, action research in itself is ba sed on life, which is never simplistic or predictable (Waters Adams, 2006). Action research is also subjective by nature and because the observations, ideas and opinions of the students are so personal it may be harder to bring a more collaborative practice into play. This sense of collaboration can be very important to action research because what is being researched is the education process in the classroom as a whole ( Waters Adams, 2006 ) Lastly due to the regulations of the University of Florida, I am required to have my researched plan approved by the Institutional Review Board. My research plan was approved by the IRB office and I am obligated to the binding of t hat agreement ( Appendix A ). I am also required to acquire signed consent forms from the guardians of the students who are involved in my research project ( Appendix B ). I must remain in compliance with all the rules and regulations

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 14 set up by the Institution al Review Board and the University of Florida in order in insure the safety of the students I am involving in my research. Literature Review Altruism is something that I would like to see more of in my students. I believe that if I intentionally expose th em to situations in which this type of behavior is perpetuated, I may begin to see more independently motivated altruistic acts in my classroom. The research revie wed was selected for its relevance in assist ing me on my journey to find the best techniques and philoso phies to develop altruism through art education. Altruism is roughly defined as motivation to provide something of value to someone else. Altruism is the opposite of selfishness, and can be a great motivator for individuals that work wit h others in their community. David Horton Smith research professor at Boston College states A ltruism is an aspect of human motivation that is present to the degree that the individual derives intrinsic satisfaction of one or more other persons without the conscious expectation of participating in an exchange relationship whereby those others would be obligated to make similar or related satisfaction optimized e fforts in return. (Smith, 1981, p. 25 ) Altruism is rela ted to concepts of community and service to others. The following essays all focus on the subject of community service and its effects on either the students or the community. I have chosen these essays because it is important to understand what has already been done concerning community inclusion in the classroom, as well as variables surrounding the different opportunities o f service and the short or long term effect altruistic actions c an have on the students. Russell and Hutzel (2007) observe that the social character of service learning and the emotional challenges faced by its participants makes it s service a natural nurturer of

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 15 social and emotional learning. To clarify, service learning is not the same thing as altruism. Service learning is the action in an attempt to develop altruism. The History of Community Involvement in the Classroom The idea of service learning dates back to Socrates, who was interested in educating free humans for the common good ( Wilhelm, 2009 ) learning was renewed when the ideas of Martin Luther King, Ghandi and Dorthy Day showed us that we as individuals could be re sponsible for social change (Mc Lellan Yates & Yoniss, 19 99). Susan [which] is a central feature that affiliates our minds with our social and cultural networks (as cited in Platt Gross, 2010, p. 362 ) V ygotsky asserted (1971, p. 362). Beliefs like these began to inspire teacher researchers to start involving community service in their pedagogies Researchers began to study service learning to piece together what students thought about connecting this type of service work with their education ( McLellan, 1999 ) As teacher researchers observed the link s between art, community involvement and social tions to affect change. Public school s personnel began to notice the trend of community service as a positive acti vity for their students. Keith reports that as a result, o increase levels of volunteer ary, Snyder & Stukas, 1999, p. 59). However, studies also show that attaching a mandate to volunteering is counterproductive. In fact, some studies reveal that students that felt external pressure towards service had a negative association with the process and that they were less likely to continue in service to othe rs in the future (Clary, et al, 1999). Research has also been conducted in an

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 16 attempt to find the most successful timing for the introduction of service educa tion as well as other variables (Clary, et al, 1999). Each of these studie s begin to build insight about the most optimal service learning experience. What Has Been Done Vs. What Needs To Be Done It is clear that t eachers these days are learning how important community involvement is and are being more proactive to include ser vice learning in their curriculum. Teachers are also setting up reciprocal partnerships with the community and involving collaborate projects where the expertise of others in the community can be utilized in the students learning (Hutzel & Russel l 2007). Organizations dedicated to facilitating these partnerships have emerged. For example, Learn and Serve America, a service learning resource for teachers has developed a model, PARC (Preparation, Action, Reflection and Celebration), for implementing service learning in schools and universities (Glickman & Thompson, 2009 ). This model of learning uses the key elements; preparation, action, reflection and celebration in a structured lesson to expose their students to the educational and emotion al benefits of se rvice learning (Glickman & Thompson, 2009). Unfortunately many e ducational systems are opting to increase levels of volunteering by requiring community service activities as part of a grade. In fact, according to Clary and his colleagues (1999) a number of institutions, mainly high schools are requiring community service in order to graduate. The idea is that requiring community service will perpetuate a sense of value or duty. This is, however not to be confused with service learning. Community service n egates the educational component because the core purpose is to be of assistance. Glickman & Thompson t is important to distinguish these service activities

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 17 [community service] from the powerful learning that results from the purpo seful connection between studen ( 2010, p. 11) According to most of the research done about the correlation of this requirement and its long term effects of volunteering is not positive. Researchers have concluded that we must find a balance between creating service learning encounters that can be graded and drowning those encounters with requirements. Students that are forced to do something for a grade are not likely to repeat that same behavior on their own (Beehr, 2010; Clary et al, 1999). Looking forward, research still need s to be done on how certain forms of motivation affects certain types of behaviors rather than focusing on which type of motivation has stronger effects ( Berger, 2002 ) Berger (2002) out how and why participation in particular types of service lead to certain outcomes 99). In the findings of such research, we may begin to understand other types of characteristics our students possess and how those characteristics may impact the service they chose to engage (Berger & Milem, 2002). New Perspectives There is much work left to be done on the relationship between altruistic intentions and community invo lvement in the classroom. One of the ideas from Berger and Milem, (2002) is outcomes rather than focusing on which types of motivation has stronger effects than the o thers on a l imited range of outcomes (p. 99) service is the only type of community service to have a positive effect of self concept, but we need to know more about how and why participation in part icular types of se rvice leads to certain outcomes 99) In fact such studies have since emerged. For example,

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 18 Serow (2012) is interested in the differences between the genders and moral thinking. He quotes Gilligan who identified that moral development among women diverge from that derived from studies of men. Women's construction of the moral problem as a problem of care and responsibility in relationships rather than as one of rights and rules ties the development of their moral thinking to changes in their understanding of responsibility and relationships just as the conception of morality as justice ties development to the logic of equality and reciprocity. (as cited in Serow, 2012) Based on such considerations i n looking at the classroom, it may be important to take into account the differences in genders as a partial explanation for differences in response s to or interest in community involvement. Varied teaching strategies and experiments with grouping the different gender s together may be appropriate As mentioned earlier r esearch also demonstrates that external control over volunteering has negative effect (Clary et al, 1999). Clary and his colleagues found that students who perceive high levels of external control are less likely to build a connection of experience and intentions. The trick, then, is to expose students to experiences without attaching extrinsic motivation or build in a sense of more complete ownership of the task. A possible solution to this problem is to allow the students to design and focus specific areas of their service, using their own creativity to solve problems within the parameters of their own personal agendas (Clary & Snyder, 1999; Clary et al, 1999). I n addition it may be useful to emphasize internal rewards such as feelings of satisfaction rather than external rewards Wilhelm (2009) brings forth the idea of our students being agents of possibility. He goes we are sure

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 19 to have a grounded, problem solving curriculum that mea ns something (Wilhelm, 2009, p. 35). Even further, Jones and Jones (as cited in Hutzel & Russell, 2004) conclude that this type of behavior must be explicitly taught to students, like any other curriculum. We must not only give students opportunities to participate, but we must help them to become critically engaged in the entire process of positively affecting the community. Connecting Altruism and Design T hinking Having reviewed the lit erature, I now see that extrinsic motivation is a huge stumbling block in the effort for continuing service or developing altruistic behaviors. Marks and Jones (2004) talk about the importance of primary socialization and how it is during this time in some that the largest amount of character development occurs. Secon dly, I believe that altruism can be taught by intentional teacher example and by participating in lessons that affect change soc ially. I also believe that education is a perfect pl ace to integrate these ideas into concrete lessons. Even further, my hope is that my C apstone research project will help me and like minded teachers integrate altruism in their classroom through the use of Design Thinking. I understand that students cannot be productive if they only study a topic from the topic (Edmunds & Wall, 2009, p. 18). In other words involving the students in developing the service learning projects they participate in, can be paramount to a successful education This may be a perfect match for the design thinking approach because the students are the ones making the decisions in each of the steps of the design thinking process. What is Design Thinking Tim Brown, t he CEO and president of IDEO, an award winning global design firm defines design thinking as a human centered approach to innovation that draws from the

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 20 designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the req uirements for business success ( http://designthinking.ideo.com/?s=Definitions+of+design+thinking ) Design thinking is based on the assumptions that anyone, not only a designer is able to find new solutions by applying a specifically defined process and is a specialized approach to problem solving that uses design methodologies to identify new opportun ities. These methods include observation, prototyping, building, and storytelling, and can be applied on a broad scale for organizational and innovation challenges (Faces of Design, 2012). Richie Thimmaiah, the founder of Richworks Design B log defines d esi gn thinking as a process for practical, creative resolution of problems or issues that looks for an improved future result. It is the essential ability to combine empathy, creativity and rationality to meet user needs and drive business success (2010). I am interested in using design thinking as a tool in my classroom to introduce the idea of altruism to my students. I feel like this process is a well thought ap proach towards solving any type of problem because it thus elim inating the fear of failure and encouraging maximum input and participation in the ideation and prototype phases (steps in the design process, which I will be talking about later ). Design thinking incorporates the following steps, or phases in order to gr ow information into a problem solving product. I have noticed in researching this topic that although the process remains the same, there are slight variations in wording or the clumping of mini phases in the different phases. I, too, will be using the con cepts of the 5 phases used by IDEO, however, in order to better adapt it to my students, I will be breaking down the process into seven phases; empathy, the search for opportunities, storytelling and brainstorming, think and research, ideate, prototype and finally building and testing the product.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 21 taken from the IDEO Toolkit, ( http://www.ideo.com/images/uploads/hcd_toolkit/HCD_INTR O_PDF_WEB_opt.pdf ) a handbook written by the IDEO Company to assist educators as they implement design thinking. Phases of Design Thinking Phase One : Empath y and Designing the Challenge This is the first phase of the design thinking process. This is the stage where the concept of altruism is most easily introduced because the phase depends on becoming aware of the world around you. Other features of this phase is building your team and understanding what each team member has to contribu te ( IDEO 2008). D uring my research we will be designing our challenge around solving a problem that affects the students at our school. Phase Two: Searching for Opportunities This phase is where you immerse yourself in what you are researching. This will be the chance fo r my students to interview teachers, students, administration as well as each other, as experts in order to gather idea s, problems, and stories ( IDEO 2008). The goal is to pinpoint the problem areas from the people who experience them on a daily basis. Gathering this information first hand is important because it allows the students to attach a face (or people) to the problem ( IDEO 2008). Phase Three: Share What You Learned and Search for Meaning IDEO refers to the first part of t This is an opportunity for everyone to come back and share what they have discovered through the interviewing process. In order for students to be better heard, I will be breaking them into small g roups or four or five students ( IDEO 2008). This will allow more personal interaction and insure that they are able to share everything they learned. Students will then as sort through the stories and interviews to search for main areas of concern and finally d evelop a s olid problem to solve (IDEO 2008 ).

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 22 Phase Four: Think and Research After landing on a solid problem, students will spend time in more focused research. This phase is where researchers may go back to their sources and ask more pointed questions (IDEO 2008). They may also do I nternet rese arch or other research techniques to gather suitable background information about different aspects of the problem, for example; what has been done before? What has not worked as a solution? Why? Those issues need to be investigated in order to not repeat an already failed solution to the problem (IDEO 2008) Phase Five: Ideate Ideate means to generate lots of new ideas without constraints. This is where the creativity will come in to play. They will be asked to brainstorm any and all possible solutions an d narrow those ideas into a small group of promisin g ideas that will be prototyped (IDEO 2008). Phase Six: Prototype This phase is a practice run at the solutions that were most promising in the Ideate session. The purpose for the prototype is creating a tangible version of your idea, this allows the designers to be able to easily introduce their promising idea to th e group for further evaluation ( IDEO 2008). It is also an opportunity to discover any flaws or missing links in the idea itself. After the p rototypes have been introduced and scrutinized, designers are able to narrow down the promising ideas to one winning idea. This idea will then be built. Phase Seven: Build it This is the final phase of the design thinking process. It is where the winning idea is built and use d to solve the original problem ( IDEO 2008). Why is Design Thinking a Good Match for Introducing Altruism in the Art C lassroom ? Design thinking is a natural fit for introducing altruism because it is a solution seeking process. Altru ism is seeing a problem and being the solution to that problem. Design thinking

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 23 becomes a tool to analyze research and develop the best solution for the problem. Introducing an idea like altruism can be intimidating for teachers and students because it is easy to feel overwhelmed by the vastness of options and solutions. Using a phase by phase process allows the students to slowly and methodically work their way to a solution while providing the teacher with an outline to keep his/her students focused on th e main goal, which is helping someone. Wiggins and Mc Tigh e discuss the importance of showing understanding in their book Understanding By Design (Wiggins and McTighe, 2007) I am particularly interested the last two steps of the six steps they discuss, which are empathy and self knowledge They describe empathy as being sensitive open receptive and tactful and self knowledge as being self aware and self adjusting which are all important parts of altruistic behavior (Wiggins and McTigh e 2007) Empathy, in general, is noted to be important in shaping pro social development which is not normally associated with altruistic behaviors (Serow, 1991). More importantly, I believe that by using design thinking, students are given opportunities to practi ce these understanding behaviors by intentionally revolving the results around the beneficiary of the solution, and by collaborating with each other to reach the solution. Methodology I used action research techniques as a pragmatic meth od of studying my o wn practice. Carr and Kemmis (1 986) describe action research as concerned with three types of improvement; the improvement of practice, the improvement of understanding of practice and the improvement of the situation in which the practice takes place. I mp rovement in this case, is based on gathering evidence from the classroom and making informed, intuitive and pragmatic judgments and decisions to solve or better the problem in question ( Carr, 1986 ) My research was conducted around the question: How c an I use design thinking as a tool to bring altruism into my art

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 24 projects? I used my students that are enrolled in my Art Technique class where I am currently employed. These students are mostly freshman and sophomores and I will be studying them for the duration of one project. Population Elliott (1987) discusses the importance of specific criteria when choosing a population to research while using action research. There are several reasons why it was so important for me to use my own students in this study. Firstly, t he research itself should be taken from the perspective of the students that will be affected by the study. Secondly, i t is imperative that these students have opportunities of unconstrained dialogue and have ready access to my observ ations, accounts and other data. Lastly, I need to and feelin gs. This type of a relationship is not found in outside the classroom ( Elliott, 1987 ) So, I will be using 25 students that are already enrolled in my freshman and sophomores grade Art Technique class. My students will be appropriate for my study because they are able to give me immediate feedback, opinions an d will be easy for me to access during the entire process. 1 Research Site My research t ook place in my classroom. The school campus building holds the high school, the middle school and one of the elementary schools which allowed easy access to the studen ts we are used as our problem inspiration as well as the bathroom where we installed the finished product. My classroom itself is large, with separated large tables which allowed the students space to break off into smaller groups during some of the design thinking phases. Doing the project in my classroom also allowed me to have easy access to all of my art supplies and gave the students a familiar and safe place to experience a new style of learning. 1 Although I will be conducting my research with real people, I will be usin g pseudo names to protect their confidentiality.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 25 Procedures and Data Collection Elliott (1987) writes t hat action research problem, and that this understanding does not determined appropriate action but appropriate action must be grounded in understanding. What I like d about the action research techniques is t hat there is an interest in developing an understanding of process Once I underst ood my problem, I was able to create and implement a solution to that problem. Once I attempted the solution, I analyzed the outcomes and made changes to my curriculum accord ingly. Therefore it was very important, through this process, that I recorded my own observations. I began my research project with an introduction to the idea of altruism and how artists have used altruistic motivation to make a positive change in their community. As a class, we talked about the One Million Bones movement (One Million Bones, 2007) the Wasteland Project (Wasteland, 2010) and the Empty Bowls project (Empty Bowls, 2012), which are all examples of altruistically motivated art projects. From there, I introduced design think ing and explained the different phases of the process and how we could practice altruism in each different phase. I also explained that although the design thinking process can be used in all types of art projects, we would be focusing on a design project specifically, that would solve a problem affecting our school. The next step in my research was to have the students participate in a design project where altruism was the motivator. As a class we chose to focus our attentio ns on problems faci ng elementary students and through researching and gathering inspirations my class decided to focus on the problem that germs are being spread because the students are not washing their hands. I found that although my students were the i dea generators I was able to maintain my research agenda by being both the referee between groups and the person that made lists on the

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 26 board and prompted students with directive questions. For example, I was the starter and stopper of group time, and I wa s in charge of keeping the flow of the design thinking process moving. If there was a lull, I would make sure that students were engaged with the activity at hand. This type of intervention allowed the students to focus on their ideas and not on the proces s itself. Through the final phases of design thinking my students created a solution which was a three part installation to encourage and inform the students about the importance of washing their hands. The first of the installation see Figure 3 ) an eight foot The second part was posters ( see Figure 4 and 5 ) designed by the students with images of on the inside of the stall doors for easy access. The final pieces of the installation were hoof prints) that were placed from the toilets leading to the sinks in the bathrooms (see Figure 6) Analysis Action research uses the participant observers as part of the collaborate team. Baskerville and Myers (2004) suggest both teachers and students need to be involved in the reasoning, formulation of action as well as the action taking. Elliott (1988) encourages interviewing, participants self reflection and participant observation in order to understand the problem from my students view point. Understanding reflections, opinions and reactions account ed for the largest amount of data to be analyzed. Each research day, I would journal exactly what happened during the class. I also noted what I did that was successful as well as what I would do differently. I ended every entry with my general reactions t o the events. These details were cataloged in my observations for furthe r consideration and assistance as I create future design projects.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 27 Action research is part of a pragmatic philosophy of study. As a philosophy, pragmatism concentrates on asking the right questions, and getting empirical answers to those questions. By using pragmatic action research techniques I had the freedom to use the knowledge and familiarity I have with my subject to design the best answer for the questions that I was asking. I discovered what I felt needed to be changed, for example, during the storytelling phase, I realized that having the students in large groups was not working. Some students were talking over each other, while others were staying silent. After n oticing this problem, I broke the students into small groups of four and five students so that students could more easily communicate their information. I relied on my intuition or my pragmatic reaction to implement my solution. My research project last ed seven days and was broken into the seven different phases of the design thinking process. about the design thinking process However, not wanting to ask them leading questions I centered my inquiry on two main questions: What did you think about this particular phase of the design thinking process? What are your feelings about this project? I presented these questions to individual students as well as groups of students and I collected these answers ev ery day. A full documentation of my daily process, observations and some of my ideas and opinions can be found on my personal website D ata I kept a field journal of the daily observations I ha d during the course of this study. Each day I would journal what procedures were accomplished in the class. These writings include d my observations, reactions of my students, what I found to be successful and some general ideas about what I might do differently.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 28 Findings to introduce a Design Thinking and altruism oriented curriculum unit in my high school art class and to observe how the Design Thinkin g pedagogy help ed my students take altruistic ideas and turn them into meaningful design projects. My goal was to observe the design thinking process and see if it would help develop well informed and well rounded solutions to these problems I started with one main questi on : How can I use design thinking as a tool to bring altruism into design projects ? The following section will summarize wh at I discovered during my observations First Observation : Design Thinking Ke eps Students Focused The Design Thinking allows for very little down time. In order to get to the next phase in the process my students were constantly researching and editing the ideas of the class, as well as their own ideas. The format for design thinking is divided in a way that each phase can seem like a mini project. This type of teaching promote s fresh attitudes because students did not become stuck in one aspect of the process. Each phase of design thinking is different from the one before, so it is not repetitive in nature. For example the ideate session was centered on list making, brainstorming ideas, and discussing solutions and was done in a small groups of students sitting around a table. The next phase, the Prototype phase was completely different here students were physically engaged in bui lding the giraffe, hoof prints and posters. This phase was done as a class, and students had more freedom to talk to each other and work at their own pace. Every different phase had a new goal, which energized the students and helped to kept them focused.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 29 Second Observation : Design Thinking Developed Caring in Students The Design Thinking process provided opportunities for my students to develop a sense of caring for the K 3 students we chose to help. Students were required to research these they began to understand what life may be like at the elementary. I first noticed caring in my students during the storytelling phase. Mostly by the way they told the stor ies about the different elementary students. They also related themselves to the stories and began to reminisce about when they were little kids. I actually extended the time I allotted for this phase because the students were having so much fun and I kn ew how important it was for my students to identify with the elementary students. I also saw caring in my students, reflected in how good they wanted the art project to be, especially the kids that were in charge of the posters. They were so careful abo ut making sure the font was readable and the phrasing was something the elementary students could understand. The students were constantly filtering ideas thro ugh what they discovered in their research i n order to come up with an age appropriate solutio n (see Figure 1). T hey had to keep reminding themselves how old the elementary students were and what things they might like This type of conversation happened over and over throughout the process and I overheard several students in diffe rent groups sayi ng things like, ( Referring to the elementary students ) f awareness shows that the students are caring about the effectiveness of the projects result. Key word here is caring.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 30 Figure 1 Brainstorming as a way to develop ideas. Third Observation : Design Thinking Brought Out the Best Ideas in My Students The Design Thinking process encourages a survival of the fittest for design project ideas. It allows for reforming ideas so that the best solution is presented. Students broke into sm all groups where they shared the stories and other information they had learned in the interview and research process. They also accumulated and narrowed down ideas for the

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 31 prototype project t hat they presented to the class Figure 2. Students working prototype ideas they later presented to the class. Next, each group presented their prototype idea, and as a class we combined the best elements of these prototypes to create the final project. I found that design thinking is very helpful for students that tend to commit to the first idea they come upon. Some of these ideas were discarded or reimagined for example one group came up with an interactive tissue box that teachers could keep in their room for the students to use, and another grou p came up with a bat character to encourage students into their elbows like a vampire. But these were not age appropriate or doable within the time allotted. S tudents also used the ideate session to combine ideas together to form what we called a (see Figure 3)

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 32 the posters (see Figure 4 and 5), and hoof prints (see Figure 6) What is most significant about s design choices, based on their own research and their own motivations. Which is exactly what research has shown to be the most effective way to encourage altruistic m anners in future art or design projects. Figure 3

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 33 Figure 4 Samples of students design posters Figure 5. Sample of students posters

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 34 Figure 6 Giraffe hoof prints from the s talls to the sinks Next, each group presented their prototype idea, and as a class we combined the best elements of these prototypes to crea te the final project. I found that design thinking is very helpful for students that tend to commit to the first idea they come upon. Not only were ideas discarded or reimagined but students used the ideate session to combine ideas together to form a giraffe, posters and hooves. choices, based on their own research and their own motivatio ns. This observation reflects the

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 35 research that Clary and his colleagues experienced as being the most effective way to encourage altruistic motivations in future art or design projects (Clary et al, 1999) Fourth Observation : Letting Go of Control The mos t surprising discovery was how hard it was for me to not control the outcome of the final product. If I truly wanted this to be an altruistic project; one that was created by my students, for someone else, I need to completely let go of the control of the outcome. I asked the students questions that were open ended trying to keep them focused on where their research was leading, but I was constantly checking myself as to whether my leadings had ulterior motives. It became particularly tricky during the br ainstorming sessions where they needed guidance and during prototype stage where the students pulled the best ideas from each group and created the final project. For example, I had one group that was trying to come up with clever phrases for their poste rs and they were using saying that were not age appropriate, instead of saying anything, which was really hard, I waited, and saw that one of the other students noticed it as well and was able to say to the rest of the group that maybe an easier saying wo uld work better. I was so glad project that I almost took away. It also happened with the prototype phase, where I saw a great project right away but I had to wait and keep my mouth shut and let the class hash out what they thought would be the best. Summary across all of my Observations The observations I made during my research showed me that design thinking can create positive side effects in my studen t students focused and centered on the task in front of them, but it brought out the best solution

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 36 they could create. My students were also able to develop a sense of caring by the conversation they had with the elementary school students, teachers and administration and by the research they did as they were developing their ideas. This was evident in m y students interest in the elementary students after the project was completed. I had several students that inquired about the success of the project and whether the elementary students enjoyed the posters. Students also wanted to visit the students and t he project to see their reactions first hand. I also observed in myself a conflict between wanting to be in control of the outcome of the solution and allowing my students to work through the design thinking process and come to their own solution. Lookin g back on this entire process specifically in the brainstorming and prototype phases where the ideas were being generated, I see it was imperative for me to let go of control because it allowing the design thinking process to do the work Many of m y st udents were able experience caring through the design thinking process. Design thinking gives the students structure and process where the responsibility of ideation, planning, decision making and execution were all placed on the students. As my students t ook ownership of the results, they were able to experience self motivation, which is a key component of altruism. Discussion and Conclusion My goal in this study was to observe if using th e design thinking strategy might be an ef fective way to int egrate altruism into a design project. Developing a way to better in fuse altruism in art education has many positive effects on an individual, for example, empathy, caring, and service to others. Research shows that allowing students to design and focus specific areas of their service and use their own creativity to solve problems within the parameters of their own personal agendas builds a connection with the recipient of the project as well as inspiring the student to participate in future service proje cts ( Clary & Snyder, 1999; Clary et al,

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 37 1999). I attempted to incorporate altruism in a design project by going through the design thinking process. My goal was to observe whether or not using design thinking helped to bet ter in fuse altruism in a design pr oject. I used action research as a method for studying my own practice. My intention was to observe this project as it unfolded, figure out what was effective and what could be changed and use those findings to inform my future teaching. In the following sections I will interpret my findings; discuss the significance of these findings as well as my recommendations based on what I have learned. Interpretations of my Findings Based on my observations I believe the design thinking process is a very useful an d effective way to bring the practice of altruism into an art project. Combining these two ideas; altruism and design thinking, I was able to give my students an opportunity to develop their creative ideas and at the same ti me develop their sense of caring through research and personal communications with the people we wanted to help. I believe that one without the other would not have produced as successful and well rounded project. A design project based on altruistic motivations provides students with a more meaningful prompt and also allowed then to be a part of bettering their community. Using the design thinking process properly informed the students of what elements they needed to consider building the best solution to the problem. B ecause design thi nking forces students to research, communicate and understand the problem, it also inadvertently creates a relationship with the people being affected and in turn supports the altruistic motivation by such a connection. I observed this connection as my stu dents reminisced about memories of themselves as elementary students. The association my students had through similar experiences created a desire to help the younger students.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 38 Significance of my Findings, and Recommendations Teachers that are interested in developing the idea of altruism in their students can use the design thinking approach to inform their own teaching pedagogy. As my research demonstrates, t he significance of finding a successful vessel like design thinking to teach altruism is important because it gives teachers a concrete instructional and creative process to implement a very abstract idea. Research is showing that forcing students to do community service is proving to be counterproductive (Beehr, 2010; Cla ry et al, 1999) What is more successful is allowing students to develop their own projects based on their own research and internal, altruistic motivations (Edmunds & Wall, 2009) My own research confirms these earlier findings made by other researchers. I have found that altruism can be taught by intentional teacher example, I also believe that art education is a perfect place to integrate altruism, design thinking and art making Altruistic behavior must be taught to students, like any other curriculum. Like Jones and Jones, I am convinced that we must not only give students opportunities to extend themselves to others in selfless ways but we must help them to become critically engaged in the entire process of positively affecting the community (Jones a nd Jones, cited in Hutzel & Russel, 2004) I will continue to use the design thinking process to accomplish that task in my teaching and I would recommend that same to art educators who believe in the importance of altruism being integrated into their cur riculum. I n the future, I would like to see further research on the effects of this type of integration (combining design thinking with altruistic themed art projects) on different age groups. I acknowledge that design thinking requires a certain level of mat urity, however it can and must be presented at an age early enough to make the most impact on the student s character.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 39 Altruism is an important character trait for students to not only understand but to begin to develop in themselves Altruism inspired work can be a huge motivator for art projects projects that can have a positive effect on a community and I believe my findings dempnstrate one way altruism can be taught. I have created the following website that houses my field notes http://www.amyswindowseat.com/capstone field notes.html and a brief overview of my project and a video documenting my involvement in my research. http://www.amyswindowseat.com/capstone project.html My goal through the website documentation is to make an easily accessible and informative to other teachers that are interested in tryi ng the same type of integration in their curriculum.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 40 References Agogino, A. M., Dym, C. L., Eris, O., Frey, D. D., & Leifer, L. J. (2005). Engineering design thinking, teaching and learning. Journal of Engineering Education 9(1) 103 120 Barry, M. & Beckman, S. L. (2007). Innovation as a learning process: Embedding Design Thinking. California Review Management 50(1), 25 56. Baskerville, R. & Meyers, M. (2004). Making research relevant to practices MIS Quarterly 28(1), 229 236. Beehr, T. A. LeGro, K. & Porter, K. (2010). Required volunteers: Community volunteerism among students in college classes. Teaching of Psychology 37(4), 276 280. Berger, J. B. & Milem, J. F. (2002). The impact of community service involvement on three measures of undergraduate self concept. Naspa Journal 40(1), 85 102. Blum, F. (1955). Action research A scientific approach? Philosophy of Science 22(1), 1 7. Bringle, Robert G., and Julie A. Hatcher. "Implementing service learning in higher educatio n." The Journal of Higher Education 67(2), 221 239. Blatt Gross, C. (2010). Casting the conceptual net: Cognative possibilities for embracing the social and emotional richness of art education. Studies in Art Education 51(4), 353 367. Brown, T. ( 2008, September 7 ). Definitions of design thinking [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://designthinking.ideo.com/?p=49 Brown, T. & Wyatt, J. (2010). Design thinking for social innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 8(1), 30 35. Center for Compassion and Altruism Research in Education. (2011). Mission. Retrieved from

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 41 http://ccare.stanford.edu/aboutus/mission Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986) Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research. Lewes: Falmer. Clary, E. G. (1999). The motivations to volunteer: Theoretical and practical considerations. Psychological Science 8(1), 156 159. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M. & intension to volunteer. Psychological Science 10(1) 59 64. Edmunds, J. S. & Wall, A. (2009). Schoolwide literacy and learning through the millennium development goals. Voices from the Middle 17(1), 16 23. Edutopia Staff. (2012). Week Three: Ideation. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/design thinking for the educators introduction week one Elliott, J. (1987). What is action research. Journal of Curriculum 10(4) 355 357. Empty Bowls Project. (2012). Welcome to the empty bowls project. Retrieved from: http://www.emptybowls.net/ Faces of Design. (2012). Faces of Design Academy: What is design thinking? Retrieved from: http://facesofdesign.com/content/faces of design academy what design thinking Glickman, C & Thompson, K. (2009). Tipping the tipping point: Public engagement, education and service learning. Voices from the Middle 17(1) 9 15. Hutzel, K. & Russell, R. L. (2007). Promoting social and emotional learning through service learning and art projects. Art Education 60(3), 6 11. Jones, S. R. & Marks, H. M. (2004) Community service in translation. Journal of Higher Education 75(3), 308 339. McLellan, J. A., Yates, M. & Youniss, J. (1999) Religion, community service, and identity in

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 42 Ame rican youth. Journal of Adolescence 22 (2) 242 253. Nagel, T. (1979). The possibility of altruism Princeton University Press. One Million Bones (2009). One Million Bones Retrieved from: http://www.onemillionbones.org/ Richworks, T. (2010, July 12). The art of design/creative thinking: 10 ways to foster creativity [Blog post] Retrieved on http://richworks.in/2010/07/the art of design creative thinking ways to foster innovation/ Serow, R. (1991). Students and voluntarism: Looking into the motives of community service participants. American Educational Research Journal 28(3) 543 556. Smith D. H. (1981). Altruism, volunteers, and volunteerism. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 10 (1), 21 36. Toolkit, H. C. D. (2008). IDEO. Retrieved on 10th August Wasteland. (2010). Wasteland Retrieved from: http://wastelandmovie.com/index.html Wilhelm, J. D. (2009). The audacity of service: Students as agents of possibility Voices from the Middle 17(1) 34 36. Whitehead, S. (1989). Cambridge Journal of Education 19(1), 41 52. Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development V ygotsky, L. S. (1971.) Psychology of art. Cambridge, MA:M.I.T. Press.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 43 Appendix A UFIRB 02 Protocol Submission Form UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Developing Altruism through Art Principal Investigator: Amy Cranfill UFID #: Degree / Title: Masters of Art In Art Education Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): 3521 Trails End Lexington, KY 40517 Email: amycranfill@ufl.edu Department: School of Art and Art History Telephone #: 859.539.6537 Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Craig Roland UFID#: Degree / Title: PHD Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): College of Fine Arts Office of the Dean 101 FAC PO BOX 115801 Gainesville, FL 32611 5801 Email : Department: School of Art and Art History Telephone #: 217.898.2346 Date of Proposed Research: Fall 2012 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): none

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 44 Scientific Purpose of the Study: To develop a curriculum that promotes altruistic or caring behaviors in the high school art classroom through a service learning project in which the students are able to research, develop and take action in order to affect some change in their community. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) The method of research for this study is Participatory Action Research (PAR) During this study I will be observing students as t hey are involved in an art project. The art project will involve bring awareness to a social issue through peer teaching, sharing ideas and artwork. Participatory Action Research methods will be used for this study. I will observe students as they researc hing social issues, developing art projects and peer teaching fellow student. I will keep field notes that document these classroom observations. I will take pictures of the artwork produced in the project. I will have informal conversations about these pr ojects with the students and I will keep field notes about these conversations. No students will be identified. No recognizable photographs of students will be taken. I will write up my findings in a capstone paper. Some of the photographs of the art proje cts will appear in this paper. This paper will be No students will be pressured or coerced to be participants in this study. All students will have the options to withdraw from the study even after the study is over. Student participation as subjects in this research will be completely voluntary. No students will be pressured to be volunteers to be in this project and students will be treated t he same as others not participating. Describe Potential Benefits: The benefit will be: exposure to the idea of altruism or caring behaviors, Developing a project within the classroom. Long term benefits are developing altruistic or caring behaviors, social awareness and social change through my students future actions. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) NONE Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited: student will be enrolled in my class Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 25 Age Range of Participants: 16 18 Amount of Compensation/ course credit: N/A Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document. See http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/samples.html for examples of consent.) Students already enrolled in my advanced art class will be asked to participate in this study.

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 45 (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: 7/12/12 Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Signature (if PI is a student): Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 46 Appendix B Informed Consent Amy Cranfill Art Teacher Please read this consent document carefully before you decide whether your child can participate in this study. http://irb.ufl.edu/Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of having students, create a project using Design Thinking principles, that positively affects their community. Wh at you will be asked to do in the study: Your child will participate in an design project. All of the students will do the activities as part of the regular class and after final grades are determined; your child will be asked if their data can be used f or Your child will be exposed to the idea of thinking outside themselves by being introduced to previous successful art projects that were used to promote some sort of social change. We will also be discussing the process of design thinking, and using this process as the pedagogy to complete our project. As a class we will take the chosen issue and develop it into an art project that can be integrated into the community. Your child will take part in this class developed project. Time required: One class per day for 2 weeks Risks and Benefits: There are no ri sks to your child expected with this study. The benefit will be: exposure to the idea of altruism, experiencing the theory of altruism, communicating an altruistic idea to other classmates and our child will benefit overall from understanding that art can have a use outside of self expression, as well as seeing a project through from start to finish that positively affects their community. Compensation: Your child will not be compensated for pa rticipating in this study. Confidentiality: assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 47 f aculty supervisor's office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: There is no penalty for not participating. In order to avoid the coercion or the appearance of coercion by having everyone in the class do some activity or exercise as part of the regular class; then after final grades are determined, ask students if the ir data can be used for research purposes. Right to withdraw from the study: Your child has the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: ATTENTION Dr. Craig Roland School of Art and Art History University of Florida 101 FAC P.O. Box 115801 Gainsville, FL 32611 5801 (352) 392 9165 rolandc@ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. PARTIC IPANT: Date: 7/8/12 Parent or Guardian: _________________________ Date: _____________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 48 List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1. Brainstorming as a way to develop ideas. Figu re 2. Students working prototype ideas they later presented to the class. Figure 3 Figure 4 Samples of students design posters Figure 5 Samples of students design posters Figure 6 Giraffe hoof prints from the stalls to the sinks

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FUSING ALTRUISM WITH DESIGN THINKING 49 Author Biography Amy Cranfill has been an art educator f or fourteen consecutive years. She began her career teaching fourth though six grade art, and after nine years moved to the high school level whe re she continues to teach art at the Lexington Christian Academy Amy Cranfill has a Bachelor of Arts in Art Education and a Bachelor of Arts in Art Studio from the University of Kentucky (1999) and plans to gra duate from th e University of Florida with a M asters of Art in Art Education in the Fall of 2012. She regularly att ends professional development across the U. S. and is very active in the art community where she resides in Lexington KY. She has plans to continue teaching high school art and is also interes ted in earning her Ph.D. in Art Education.