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Environmental Education + Art 1 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION + ART: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS IN THE ART CLASSROOM By BARBARA J. RAY A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
Environmental Education + Art 2 2012 Barbara J. Ray
Environmental Education + Art 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank all Manor Heights Elementary school staff for providing positive support and recycled items throughout my environmental unit. Thanks to Dr. Thompson, our principal, who offered advice and actively promoted the sculpture garden. Specia l thanks to Ms. Brown and Mrs. Mayhue, the fourth grade teachers who assisted me in collecting permission slips for each student involved in the study and wholeheartedly supported student involvement by allowing me to pull students from class to work on pr ojects when needed. Ms. Maddox and Mr. Furman deserve special recognition for working around the considerable pile of recyc led items and sculptures in proc ess as they maintained cleanliness in the art room. I am grateful for a group of fourt h graders who w ere willing and active participants in my study. They showed a measure of maturity, perseverance, and fortitude well beyond their years. I am so proud of them! I would like to thank the University of Florida for implementing the Master of Art in Education program. The quality of instruction, personal involvement by professors and degree of excellence is exactly why I chose this program of study. Elizabeth Delacruz and Jodi Kushins became my mentors, mo tivators and friends. Thank you ladies, for propelling me forward with your ideas and intuitive suggestions regarding the direction of my study. When I was stuck, you pried me out of my rut and when I was on target you praised me. You both have a heart for teaching that is exemplary
Environmental Education + Art 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTON E PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION + ART: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS IN THE ART CLASSROOM By Barbara J. Ray December 2012 Chair: Elizabeth Delacruz Committee Member: Jodi Kushins Major: Art Education Abstract Environmental education presents a commanding contribution toward educating the public on important environmental issues, a rt has long been a conduit for env ir onmental awareness and t here is an urgent need today to open up all channels of communication in order to address the pressing environmental issues of our time. For these reasons, it makes sense to bring environmental and art education together in th e art classroom. My study employed a new approach to art education that emp hasized environmental literacy, investigate d the ways environmental educa tion (EE) inform ed art making and discover ed the capacity of art to connect humans to the environment. My study was in a curriculum that included the five key EE
Environmental Education + Art 5 principles of awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and collective action. In addition, I illuminate d the role of art and artists who meet environmental education goals through their work. I applied actio n research methods for my study and used several tools to help me triangulate data and situate my work in the real world. A journal, a cam era/video recorder, the Plan, Do Study Act ( P.D.S.A. ) tool a survey worksheets and interviews helped me to k eep track of the activities in the classroom. Action research allowed me to take my study to its fullest potential by making daily connections in the real classroom while evaluating teaching and learning as it occurred as I moved through the EE + Art unit of study. My findings concluded that EE + Art are a good fit, that EE works to improve personal responsibility and art intersects with the environment through conceptual works of art. D ocumentation for my study can be found on my website at http://www.artandenvironment.weebly.com which includes a week by week summary of activities a gallery of student work, stories, photos, interview trans cripts and journal pages My capstone paper chron icles the systematic processes and findings of my study. I outline the EE component first, as this was the primary focu s of my study and the most crucial element because it informed and educated students on real and current environmental issues. Then I ill uminate the role of conceptual art and artists who meet environmental educational goals through their work. These examples provided students with inspiration for their own work and encouraged conceptual thinking I describe the art project s trash people a nd conceptual sculptures using recycled/reclaimed material s which culminated in a sculpture garden on the school courtyard where students exhibited their art to parents and attendees at parent/teacher conference nights
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Environmental Education + Art 8 A fter weeks of preparation, my plans materialized into something tangible and I realized that my classroom transformed from an ordinary art room into something quite extraordinary. In the corner I had a cache of curious and unusual recycled items, garnered from barns and dumpsters, and an assortment of garage sale cast offs. Envir onmental education posters replaced the Elements and P rinciples of art posters. It was not that I wanted students to cast a side everything I had taught them about art the past five years, rather, I wanted them to see art in a new way and take their knowled ge of art to a new level. Learning in this context necessitated that I moved beyond traditional teaching methods an d enter into a realm of critical thinkers and free choice. Statement of the Problem Art education and environmental education do not coinc ide consistently in the art classroom. Art education relies on a random philosophy when it comes to including EE in an art curriculum for many different reasons. National and state standards allow some room for environmental education but do not s pecifical ly address EE + Art concepts as a unit of study The Standards address competence in the arts disciplines first of all, b ut that competence provides a firm foundation for connecting arts related concepts and facts across the art forms, and from them to th e sciences and humanities. For example, the intellectual methods of the arts are precisely those used to transform scientific disciplines and discoveries int o everyday technology" (National Standards for Arts Education, 2000). I propose that now is an imp ortant time to address major environmental issues in the art classroom. The National Science Board' s Environmental Science and Engineering for the 21 st Century report supports my view when it states, The environment is a critical element of the knowledge base we need to live in a safe and prosperous world" (National Science Foundation,
Environmental Education + Art 9 1999 p. 9 ). In addition, the article, What is Environmental Literacy (Environmental L iteracy Council, 2008) states "w hile w e cannot predict all the issues th e next generation will confront, we can be certain that among them will be issues related to the environment. Health, quality of life, and our relationship with nature are all shaped by environmental actions" ( p ara 1). Environmental education, in turn, do es not actively seek the input of art education or artists in solving environmental issues. According to the 2002 report, Developing Environmental Awareness through Art (greenmuseum.org, 2002) d ecision makers in th e environmental realm do not involve artis ts in decision making processes. Engineers, architects, and even landscape architects do not, as a matter of routinely engage in dialogue or collaborative efforts with artists. Even scientists, ecologists and environmental consultants do not view artists a s partners in the process o f environmental problem solving ( p ara 6). I hope to develop a collaborative relationship between art education and environmental education which may result in solutions that offer effectual resolutions to environmental issues. My study is especially relevant to the 21 st century because, in many ways, time is indeed running out regarding how our expec ted quality of life will sustain itself in the future. Now is an opportune time for young people to be aw are of and knowledgeable about environmental issues, develop attitudes and skills that contribute to the health of the planet, and develop a plan for collective action. It is time for art education to embrace environmental literacy in order to create citiz ens who are educ ated on environmental issues, encouraged to evaluate their relationsh ip with the environment, and able to enlighten others through art.
Environmental Education + Art 10 Goals of the Study For my study, I desi gned and implemented a fourth grade curriculum that included e nvironmental literacy a nd environmental art projects. My intent was investigate how the five key EE principles (awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and collective action) inform ed students, challenge d attitude s about the environment, foster ed environme ntal action and introduce d a new dimension to students' art, culminating in an outdoor sculpture garden. Through a variety of outdoor extension activities, EE resources, and making art from recycled materials, students will learn and be able to: Understan d and discuss important environmental issues Recognize personal responsibility for the environment Create art using recycled materials that makes an environmental statement Create a public installation of art in the school courtyard Research Questions The following questions became the guiding focus of my investigat ion into EE + Art. 1. How can the five key Environmental Education components (awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and collective action) apply to the art classroom? a. How will students transf er learning to life outside of the classroom? b. How will these components challenge and inform art making? 2. What negative human exploits and positive human achievements affect the environment ? a. How w ill students make a connection between their a ctions and envi ronmental issues and develop life skills that will help the planet? b. How w ill students make c onnections between art and the environment? c. What are other young people doing to be good stewards?
Environmental Education + Art 11 3. How does art intersect with the environment ? a. How do environmental artists affect public perception of environmental issues ? b. How can student art relate environmental concepts ? Rationale and Significance of the Study: Environmental education provides the k nowledge that lays the groundwork for analyzing environmental prob lems, resolving conflicts, and preve nting new problems from arising ( North American Association for Environmental Education 2012). My study utilized environmental education principles to foster environmental literacy in the art classroom. The Environmental Literacy Council (ELC) describes environmental literacy as "requiring a fundamental understanding of the systems of the natural world, the relationships and interactions between the living and the non living environment, and the ability t o deal sensibly with problems that involve scientific evidence, uncertainty, and economic, aesthetic, and ethic al considerations" (ELC, 2002 p. 2). Assumptions My fundamental assumption was that EE would help students connect their art to environmental issues. Ultimately, I hoped that they would connect human actions to the health of the environment as well. I assumed that fourth graders were capable of attaining some level of personal responsibility and commitment to a healthy environment. I hoped to tr ansfer my personal be liefs that humans can have a positive impact the environment and reverse the damage we have done by exhibiting responsible behavior. At the same time, I wanted them to thi nk for themselves, to for m their own opinions, to internali ze th e information they received and to take action. I anticipated that as I introduced new ideas and dimensions to art making that they would
Environmental Education + Art 12 embrace these new ideas and create their own conceptual work s of art. Furthermore, I predicted that my population was comprised of a typic al cross section of fourth graders and that my methodology was right for the study, measurable and as accurate as possible. Definition of Terms Environmental Literacy. The Environmental Literacy Council (ELC) describes environmental literacy as "requiring a fundamental understanding of the systems of the natural world, the relationships and interactions between the living and the non living environment, and the ability to deal sensibly with problems that involve scientific evidence, u ncertainty, and economic, aesthetic, and ethic al considerations" (ELC, 2002 p. 2 ) Environmental Education. According to the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) Environmental education (EE) teaches children and adults how to le arn about and investigate their environment, and to make intelligent, informed decisions about how they can take care of it. EE is taught in traditional classrooms, in communities, and in settings like nature centers, museums, parks, and zoos. Learning abo ut the environment involves many subjects earth science, biology, chemistry, social studies, even math and language arts because understanding how the environment works, and keeping it healthy, involves knowledge and skills from many disciplines. EE works best when taught in an organized sequence. In schools, EE often reflects state and national learning standards. "Done right," EE not only leads to environmentally literate people, but also helps increa s e student academic achievement. (What is Environmental Education, NAAEE website para. 1 ).
Environmental Education + Art 13 Environmental Art. Greenmuseum.org describes environmental art as art that helps improve our relationship with the natural world ( What is Environmental Art, greenmuseum.org website, 2010 ). Sam Bower, executive dire ctor at greenmuseum.org, adds, At greenmuseum.org we use "environmental art" as an umbrella term to encompass "eco art" / "ecological art", "ecoventions", "land art", "earth art", "earthworks", "art in nature" and eve n a few other less common terms" (A pr ofusion of terms, greenmuseum.org, p ara 3). Conceptual Art. The definition derived from Encarta¨ World English Dictionary North American Edition states that conceptual art is art conveying concepts: art designed to present an idea rather than to be appreciated for its creative skill or beauty, often making use of unconventional media instead of painting or sculpture ( http://www.bing. com/Dictionary/search?q=define+conceptual+art&qpvt=what+is+conce ptual+art&FORM=DTPDIA ). Artist Statement. According to Artstudy.org a n artist statement lets you convey the reasoning behind your work -why you chose a particular subject matter, why you wor k in a certain medium, etc. F urther, a well written statement shows the relationship of you to your artwork, and helps creates a connection with the viewer that will make your work (and your name) more memorable ( http://www.artstudy.org/art and design careers/artist statement.php ). Limitations of the Study Limitations include how to make EE + Art fit within state and district standards and essential curriculum requirements. This is less of a problem at the elementary level an d curriculum guidelines vary by state and district. Other limitations include variables such as personal or family belief systems and the tendency for this age group to succumb to peer influence. Another limitation was time t he six week unit afforded only six hours of actual class
Environmental Education + Art 14 time. Another lim itation was student absenteeism students who were absent one class period missed critical EE information. Still another was a general lack of production and f abrication skills, which required extra work on my part. Literature Review My thesis in this project is that t he principles that drive environmental education can serve as a model for art educators who want to include environmental art in their curriculum. The goal of environmental education is to improve quality of life by providing people with strategies to solv e and prevent environmental problems. The underlying principle of environmental education is that environmental distress decreases the quality of life. The aim of environmental education is to persuade people to take responsibility to maintain the earth's resources in a sustainable way. The principle behind this aim is that knowledge lays the groundwork for analyzing environmental problems, resolving conflicts, and preventing new problems from arising (NAAEE 2012 ). I maintain that a rt education can benefit by taking note of environmental education principles and including them in an art curriculum. The obje ctive of my literature review was to provide an overview of environmental education's abiding principles in order to demonstrate how environmental litera cy can benefit art education. My literature review includes interpretations on how art education can benefit environmental e ducation as well, because it is my view that col laboration can contribute to distribution of the environmental literacy message. In addition, my review includes artists wh o meet environmental education's principles and goals through their work. Examples of successful art and art activists demonstrate how environmental art that takes environmental principles to heart can educate and inf luence the public.
Environmental Education + Art 15 Principles of Environmental E ducation In a lecture by Thomas Hudspeth, Professor of Environmental Studies and Natural Resources at the University of Vermont, he positions environmental education within the broad context of environmentalism (Hudspeth, 2002). According to Hudspeth, e nvironmental education consider s the total environment and is a continuous lifelong interdisciplinary process that examines major environmental issues from local, national, regional and international points of view Environmental education focuses on current and potential environmental situations while taking into account the historical pers pective. It pr omotes the value and necessity of local, nationa l and international cooperation and explicitly considers environmental aspects in plans for development and gro wth. Environmental education relates environmental sensitivity, knowledge, problem solving skills and values, helps learners discover the symptoms and real causes of environmental problems, emphasizes the complexity of environmental problems, critical thinking and problem solving skills and utilizes diverse learn ing environments. According to the Inte rgovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, "it would be the task of education to make people aware of their responsibilities in this connection, but in order to do so must first be reoriented and based on an ethos of the environment" ( UNESCO, 197 8, p. 6) The Campaign for Environmental Literacy describes five essential components to obtaining environmental literacy ( http://www.fundee.org/facts/envlit/components.htm ). Awareness Awa reness is holding a general impression, or consciousness, about something. An individual may be aware that climate change is an issue or that human life depends on a healthy environment without knowing much more. Environmental awareness can arise from many activities education being just one.
Environmental Education + Art 16 Knowledge Developing knowledge requires more than acquisition of new information or data. It requires an orderly comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of that material as well as the intell ectual framework within which new informatio n can be placed. Developing knowl edge often requires a pedagogy a formal methodology for con structing knowledge with the student. Attitudes Developing attitudes of appreciation and concern for the environment is a subtle process that is difficult to deliberately program. Many educators believe that attitudes change primarily from a variety of life experiences which can take place outside as well as inside the classroom. Skills. Most consider skill development to be a practical exercise, often with an orientation towards a future career, even though the line between knowledge development and skill development can be im precise. Skill development is an essential part of a formal (or non formal) education program. Action The ultim ate goal of environmental literacy programs is developing the capacity for action and participation, a complex process that requires adopting new behaviors. In addition, it often requires all of the steps above as well as such elements as personal mentors and life changing experiences Placed in the context of art edu cation these components are useful in forming an EE + Art curriculum that works. The following figure represents the l evels of understanding that lead to action on environmen tal issues.
Environmental Education + Art 17 Figure 1.1 Chart detailing levels of understanding Capacity for personal and collective action and civic participation Problem solving and critical thinking skills Attitudes of appreciation and concern for the environment Knowledge and understanding of human and natural systems and processes General awareness of the relationship between the environment and human life Figure 1.1 C hart obtained from the Camp aign for Environmental Literacy website ( CEL 2007), clearly de monstrates the need for knowledge that begins with awareness and leads to action. E nvironmental literacy leads to understanding of the interdependency between humans and the planet, another key principle of environmental education. Environmental educators view this interacti on in three parts: dominion ( humans over nature ), stewardship (humans caring for nature) and union ( humans as part of nature ) (Boulding & Senesh, 1983). Art educator Don Krug (2003) describes dominion as the exertion of human control ov er the natural environment, stewardship as the balance between nature and constructed spaces, and union as a principle that values ecological, sustainable development. Dominion, stewardship and union are prominent principles for art educators to grasp beca use they convey the perspectives people embrace, which influences their action or inaction regarding environmental issues. Dominion, stewardship and union are critical elements to understanding human interaction with the environment. Similar to Krug, Heiml ich (1992) asserts that environmental education is the process of moving individuals
Environmental Education + Art 18 toward stewardship and ultimately a union view. Along these same lines, Schultz (2000) clarifies that environmental concerns relate directly to the degree with which indiv iduals see themselves as part of the natural world. Recognizing the importance of connecting humans to the environment, e nvironmental educators promote a union view through education measures aimed at influencing people to examine their attitudes and behav iors. Some educators suggest specific tools to assist educators in this endeavor. For example, t he nature relatedness scale developed by Nisbet, Zelenski, and Murphy ( 2009) is a tool that measures an individual's level of affective, cognitive and experien tial connectedness with the natural world. The guiding principle here is human connection to the planet and the ability to embrace environmental concerns. The nature relatedness scale is useful measurement for art education because it encourages reflective and critical thinking about an individual's perspective on their habits and behavior in relation to the environment Self examination of personal behavior s can create personal resp onsibility as individuals examine their views, patterns and manner of think ing Shifts in thinking about personal responsibility can benefit art education by understanding the sense of responsibility or irresponsibility humans have toward the environment. Environmental stewardship a component of environmental education noted by Krug and others, is an important concept that directly relates to personal responsibility. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005) defines stewardship as "the responsibility for environmental quality shared by all whose actions affect the environ ment" (p. 8). Such actions require learning and steps in the learning cycle have been identified as awareness, concern, understanding and action (McHardy, Blanchard & deWet, 2009). Awareness leads to c oncern, result s in understanding and can lead to action These steps align with the principles of
Environmental Education + Art 19 environme ntal education and can provide a strong foundation for including environmental education in an art curriculum. The principle of sustainability is a nother foundational ethical standard and principle in e nvironmental education from which art education can benefit Wood (1997) described sustainability as "development that uses natural resources in an efficient way without destroying the basis of their productivity. Sustainable development allows natural res ources to regenerate" (p. 4). This basic understanding is fundamental to environmental education. This primary concept is important because the study of ecology and responsibility for the planet is a natural fit for contemporary concepts in art education ( Miraglia & Smilan, 2009). The ecological crisis is one we should all own, and the crisis of sustainability affects all humans. A sustainable future includes environmentally sound, socially equitable, culturally sensitive and economically just education roo ted in an environment of knowledge, interaction and change. A sustainable future comprises formal learning that is relevant to life outside school while addressing the problems of our world (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2012). My literature review captures some of the important dialogue taking place regarding the role of environmental education in relation to art education. Although art has played a role in bringing awareness to environmental issues in the past and present, it is my view that art education as a discipline has not widely broached the s ubject with clear understanding or systematic educational approaches Perhaps the guiding principles in art education should be re examined in light of the environmental principl es outlined within this section.
Environmental Education + Art 20 The Arts and Environmental Education My literature review thus far has yielded some principles that can be nefit art education, but raises questions about how environmental education fits into the art classroom. B ranagan (2005) adamantly asserts that the arts benefit environmental education, not the other way around. Art carries a powerful visual ability to communicate complex ideas in simple ways. Text based communications can be ineffective because people do not respond to long discourses regarding environmental issues. Additionally, Branagan (2005) claims that the arts play a role in exposing corporations and government covert processes and promote open debate. The arts create a liminal atmosphere whereby resista nce to behavior change is broken down. The arts assist with interactive communication, foster emancipatory learning and reach large, diverse audiences. Zakai (2002) proposes promoting the artist's role as a means toward environmental progress. These ar e not entirely new concepts. The history of art and environmentalism goes back as early as 1872 with artist and naturalist Thomas Moran, who was instrumental in illustrating the beauty of the American west. John Muir's writings in the late 1800's also capt ured the imagination of the public with 300 articles and 10 major books that recounted his travels, expounded his naturalist philosophy and passed it on to others. Muir was keenly aware of the devastation of mountain meadows and forests by sheep and cattle (Perrottet, 2008). Recent h istory highlights many contemporary examples of art's contribution to environmental awareness with artists such as Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, Richard L ong and Agnes Denes. In my research, I explore d the relationship betw een environment al artists and education Did environmental education principles drive these artists to create their work, and did the work s contribute to environment al progress? How can artists and educators re ly on art education principles to communicate concern for the environment through art?
Environmental Education + Art 21 Activi ties currently emerging on the international art scene can serve as models for a new partnership between art education and environmental education. International art projects such as the 2012 Chen Long Wetland s Environmental Art Project generates warranted attention to negative and pos itive environmental occurrences because the project reflect s on environmental issues surrounding food production and emphasize s organic aquaculture. C ontemporary art education ca n benefit by abiding by the environmental education principles of interdependency, sustainability and reflective perception of collective and individual behaviors. Many contemporary artists devote their life and art to the exploration and response to envir onmental problems and become educators through their art. Subhankar Banerjee demonstrates the relationship between environmental and art education and meets the above criteria through art and educational practices. His conc ern for environmental issues lead s the way for art to engage in activism for environmental causes. Banerjee's work promotes the preservation of ecology and culturally significant areas of the arctic and prompts debate about human to land disconnections. In Banerjee's (2007) view, d evastat ion of the planet should no t be a normal part of progress. At the heart of environmental education and environmental artworks is a respectful regard for nature and preservation of the land. Although some scholars debate the usefulness of environmental ar t in creating awareness of environmental issues at this point I will leave that topic for further review. My personal view aligns with Brady's (2007) in defense of art and artists. Earthworks, ephemeral and ecological art forms "enable diverse forms of ae sthetic moral interaction with natural environments and provide insight as to how humans value nature" (p. 297). Connection to nature can occur on a local and global scale, bringing attention to human responsibility in relati onship to environmental issues through art.
Environmental Education + Art 22 Research Methodology I used action research methods for my study, a type of applied research in which the researcher is actively involved in every aspect. Action research is a "research technique employed by teachers to improve upon the educa tion environment in the classroom. The Center for Collaborative Action Research describes action research as a process of deep inquiry into one's practices in service of moving towards an envisioned future, aligned with values. Action research is the sys tematic, reflective study of one's actions, and the effects of these actions, in a workplace context" (Riel, M. Understanding action research. Center for Collaborative Action Research website). Usually informal, action research can take the form of teachers analyzing behavior and various classroom situations to better understand their classroom environment ( Education.com 2012, Glossary of education) According to "How to do Action Research in your Cl assroom" (Rust, F & Clark, C.) t he cycle of acti on research includes five key steps: 1) Making the commitment (The call to inquiry) 2) Designing a study (Questions & answers) 3) Making sense of the experience (Data & analysis) 4) Beginning again (New & better questions) 5) Improving your practice (Lessons from experie nce) Utilizing t hese steps has helped me gather data systematically and consistently evaluate results. First, I researched EE principles and developed essential questions. Then, I designed an EE + Art unit of study relevant to fourth grade students. Next, I used a journal, a camera/video recorder, the Plan, Do, Study, Act tool (P.D.S.A.) as mandated by my district a survey, worksheets and interviews to analyze and reflect on the classroom experience during and after
Environmental Education + Art 23 each lesson. Reflection yielded new and better questions as I developed an understanding of students' knowledge base and capabilities. Finally, I learned what worked and what did not work in the classroom in order to improve teaching practices. Subjects My study, comprised of two fourth grade classes at Manor Heights Elementary School in Casper, Wyom ing involved a total of 49 students, 29 male and 20 female. 1 General demographics indicate 94% white with a median household income of $52,000. Research Site Casper, the second larges t city in Wyoming with a population of 55,316, is primarily an agriculture and mining community. The c ity of Casp er, surrounded by small rural towns and vast expanses of open prairie, offers five museums, city park s, an international airport, restaurants and shopping opportunities. Casper Mountain is just 10 miles from the city and offers summer and winter recreation activities. Manor Heights School is relatively small with approximately 356 students. It is a great place to teach. All of my art endeavors have full support and throughout my EE + Art unit teachers and staff brought in items for the recycled art project. It is now common for me to come into the lounge and find items earmarked for the art room. The sculp ture garden was advertised on the school website and I received many emails of praise for student work Readers can f ollow the story at http://www.natronaschools.org/story.php?id=70&s tory=2277 R esearch took place in my art classroom which i s a portable building located a short distance from the school, adjacent to the playground. I relocated there this school year due to the addition of a fourth kindergarten class. In my five years o f teaching, this is the second time I 1 Although I conducted my research with real students, I have changed names in order to pro tect their confidentiality.
Environmental Education + Art 24 have taught in the portable. It has disadvantages, as it does not have bathrooms or a sink so s tudents use a water jug with a spout and a basin for cleanup. Research also took place outside of the classroom via outdoor extension activities on or near school property. Data Collection Proce dures and Instrumentation D ata collection methods used in action research were especially relevant to my study because the stages coincide with the Plan, Do, Study, Act method (P.D.S.A .) employed by my school district. Appendix A, obtained from the Center for Collaborative Action Research, illustrates this correlation. Several tools to helped me gather, disseminate and triangulate data and sit uate my work in the real world. A journal, a camera/video recorder, the Plan, Do, Study, Act tool (P.D.S.A.), a survey, worksheets and interviews helped me to keep track of the activities in the classroom. The camera and video became an important way to record student interactions. In addition, the survey and P.D.S.A. provided written responses that I could use to tally and record results. For me, action research became a way to learn what was working and how students were developing and learning throughout the unit. Journaling : Journaling helped me keep track of the activities throughout my unit and provided a record of student comments and interactions. It also helped me reflect on the progress of the EE + Art unit, my teaching methods and resources, and to what degree students were assimilating the material. Interviews : Student interviews helped me assess their learning, confirmed what they were or were not learning, and afforded students a voice. Observations : Observation was a skill that I had to learn. Once I tuned in and listened to student interactions, however, I found that students were quite articulate, that they enjoyed
Environmental Education + Art 25 discussing their opinions and that they were interested in the opinions of their classmates. My observations helped me gauge student learning and opinions about the unit. The Plan, Do, Study, Act Chart : The P.D.S.A (see Appendix B) chart yielded responses that demonstrated some understanding of EE + Art and why we used recycled materials. The Survey : I administered a condensed version of the Nature Relatedness Scale (see A ppendix C). The Nature Relatedness S cale (Nisbet, Zelenski, & Murphy, 2009) is a tool that measures an individual's level of affective, cognitive and experiential connectedness with the natural world. I used the Promethean ActiVote system to record and tal ly results. The ActiVote is a hand held wireless Learner Response System Teachers poll students at any time during class to assess progress and, based on responses, customize lessons to create a more personalized learning environment that is tailo red to i ndividual student needs" (Prometheanworld.com). Data Analysis Procedures Data analysis helped me make sense of my study by reflecting on the evidence I collected. The procedures I used to collect and analyze data for the length of my study included a Plan Do, Study, Act (P.D.S.A.) chart (Appendix B), a survey (Appendix C), journaling, interviews, and observations. The P.D.S.A. chart is a tool for measuring teaching and learning developed by my school district. The components are Plan (What are we going to learn?), Do (How are we going to learn it?), Study (What do the results tell us?) and Act (What will the teacher do to improve teaching and learning? What will the student do?). The chart helped me to clearly articulate the goals of my unit. Student respo nses helped me to recognize what went well and what did not. The NR survey helped me to gather data before and after my unit. I administered the survey via the ActiVote system at the onset of the unit and at the conclusion compared and
Environmental Education + Art 26 contrasted responses to determine if EE made a difference in how students responded to the questions. Journaling helped me evaluate and re evaluate the activities in the art classroom by providing a written record of student interactions throughout the unit. Interviews helped me gauge student understanding and to what degree they were making connections between EE and art. Observation helped me scrutinize activities as I listened to student comments and reactions to the various EE + Art components to my study. Limitations Limi tations of my study include the fact that s ome students may have answered survey questions because they thought there was a right or wrong answer or may have influenced one another's opinions or views. Also, s tudents may not have fully understood the survey questions Site limitations included the lack of space to work on sculptural projects, and the fact that the portable does not have water or bathrooms. Another limi tation that I did not anticipate was hunting season. Some students missed cl ass due t o hunting expeditions and seemed to come back from hunting with a different view regarding the suffering of animals. One student commented that he was a hunter, so he did not think about the suffering of animals. Findings For my study, I designed and impl emented a fourth grade curriculum that merged environmental literacy with conceptual art projects. My intent was investigate how five key EE principles could combine with art making to inform students, challenge attitudes about the environment, foster envi ronmental action and introduce the new dimension of conceptual art to students culminating in an outdoor sculpture garden. Utilizing an action research approach in my inquiry, t he following questions guided my investigation:
Environmental Education + Art 27 1. Ho w can the five key Environmental Education components ( awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and collective action) apply to the art classroom? 2. What negative human exploits and positive human achievements affect the environment? 3. How does art intersect wi th the environment? My findings suggest that EE + Art are a good fit that EE works to improve personal responsibility and art education intersects with the environment al education through the planning and creation of environmentally oriented conceptual wo rks of art in the classroom. The remainder of this paper discusses these findings in more detail. Environmental Edu cation and Art Education are a Good F it I found t he EE component to be a crucial element in my cur riculum, as it i nformed and educated students about real world and current environmental issues. C arefully chosen current, a n d interesting resources about environmentalism and contemporary art practices heightened student interest and c oncern for the environment. My curriculum included an EE component based on the five principles articulated earlier 2 presented at the beginning of each lesson. Video clips, worksheets and discuss ion supported the EE principles present in my curriculum. In turn, the EE compone nt informed and influenced student artwork. Students made trash people from collected waste that became a learning tool as student photographers took them to various settings in and around the school. They gathered a following of students who questioned them about what they were doing. Stu dents also made outdoor sculptures for the sculpture garden. The sculptures captivated the interest of parents, staff and visitors during the exhibition. Through systematic study and collective art making I am convinced that students developed a comprehen sive view of environmental issues and contemporary art making. I found 2 The five key components of EE are awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and collective action.
Environmental Education + Art 28 Figure 2.1. Follow the Waste Stream Concept Map that students were interested and engaged in learning about important environmental issues that were relevant to their daily lives. Lively discussion and inquiry showed me that students were concerned about the issues presented. I assigned groups for all of the exposed environmental issues we cr eated concept maps students worked together to report on findings and they made environmen tally themed conceptual art. Through systematic study and collective art making it was apparent that students developed a comprehensive view of both environmental issues and contemporary art making. I found that students were attentive and absorbed in learning about important environmental issues relevant to their daily lives. Lively discussion and inquiry showed me that students were concerned about the issues presented. Figure 2.1 is a concept map based on the worksheet "Follow t he Waste Stream and shows student understanding of what happens to recycled waste. Students learned about the amount of energy it takes to recycle and how important it is to use less as a first defense against excessive waste. Figure 2.1 shows what students learned about recycling and connections between recycling and energy use.
Environmental Education + Art 29 Figure 3.1. Categorizing Trash Environmental Education W orks to Improve Personal R esponsibility One aspect of my study was the trash collection and categorizing activity (see Figure 3.1 ). This activity drew attention to the amount of trash in our own backyards. The activity helped students be come aware of the consequences of a wasteful society. T he 19 students on trash collection duty collected 438 pieces of tras h in just ten minutes Another aspect of my study involved looking at young people currently doing something to help the environment. Resources for this segment included: Earth Rangers: A kid friendly, interactive site where members learn how to get involved in environmental issues. Retrieved from http://www.earthrangers.com/ Kids Saving the Rainforest (KSTR) : This si te is authored by kids who are doing something to help the environment and for kids who want to do more. Retrieved from http://www.kidssavingtherainforest.org/ KSTR Wildlife Rehabilitation Cente r: A p rogram whereby school children adopt and care for displaced rainforest animals. Retrieved from Figure 3.1 shows students analyzing trash and placing it into categories.
Environmental Education + Art 30 https://picasaweb.google.com/103954040360189330762/KSTRWildli feRehabilitationCe nter Piedmont Earth Day Fair : The Piedmont Environmental Alliance (PEA) in North Carolina hosts a yearly "zero waste challenge" Earth Fair. Retrieved from http://peanc.org/earth day fair As we discussed the slide sho w from the KSTR Wildlife Rehabilitation Center I found t hat students were especially concerned about animal species affected by deforestation and global warming. The images of orphaned animals really touched them and some student s asked if there was anything similar in Casper. Students gained inspiration from the fact that other students adopted some of t he animals as a class project. As we viewed Earth Day events sponsored by the PEA, students saw this as a way for them to promot e EE at the school. They were impressed that the fair helps the environment rather than just talking about it through efforts to make the fair "zero waste". One student council member claimed that she was going to spearhead an Earth F air at Manor Heights f or Earth Day this year. Students demonstrated an increase d concern for environmental issues as my unit unfolded. As shown in Table 1.1, the NR Scale surv ey results, yie lded some common trends. T here was a general favorable increase in desired responses, except for a decrease in group B regarding q uestion 5: I think a lot about the suffering of animals. Possible explanation for this could be that hunting season was in full swing here in Wyoming, and that is an important recreational activity not typically viewed as animal friendly by environmental activists I overheard one student say, "I am a hun ter" when question 5 came up on the ActiVote screen and this may have influenced othe rs. Table 1.1 details the results of the survey as administered before and a fter the unit of study.
Environmental Education + Art 31 Table 1.1 shows a general increase in favored responses after the unit, which demonstrates that EE principles made a difference in how students view their relationship to the environment. Additional findings include students' learning, as evidenced on EE worksheets and in v ideo clips of them talking about environmental issues, which showed a real concern for their world and interest in learning about the environment. In conclusion, study of human interac tion with the environment helped students form opinion s about where they stand and target areas where they could be involved. Throughout the unit, o bserv ations and student comments confirmed that students took EE concepts to heart. One student said, "I never thought about all the plastic water bottles, but I d o now"! In addition, Table 1.1 NR Scale Results at end of unit Survey Question Group A Responses Group B Responses 1. Nature means a lot to me Yes increased by 1% Yes increased by 2% 2. I always think about how my actions affect the environment Yes increased by 37% Yes increased by 11% 3. My relationship to nature is an important part of who I am Yes increased by 17% Yes increased by 17% 4. I am very aware of environmental issues Yes increased by 22% Yes increased by 15% 5. I think a lot about the suffering of animals Yes increased by 2% Yes decreased by 27% 6. Humans have the right to use natural resources any way we want No increased by 29% No increased by 20% 7. Conservation efforts are important to help nature recover from human impact Ye s increased by 5% Yes increased by 9% 8. Animals, birds and plants have fewer rights than humans No increased by 13% No increased by 22% 9. Some species are meant to die out and become extinct No increased by 9% No increased by 13% 10. I can't solve environmental problems No increased by 22% No increased by 18% 11. I like being outdoors whenever I can Yes decreased by 2% Results stayed the same 12. I notice wildlife wherever I am Yes increased by 6% Yes increased by 4%
Environmental Education + Art 32 s urvey results show ed an overall increase in preferred responses to questions that targeted personal respon sibility toward the environment. Art I ntersects with the E nvironment Inclusion of the study of artists whose work connects EE to a rt was central to my curriculum because the artists we examined illustrate conceptual art. The first artist we studied was HA Schult via his website, "Art is Life" ( http://www.haschult.de/ ). We discussed the arti st's trash people and how the trash people represent conceptual art because they are a critical reflection on a wasteful society. Then, based on the art of HA Schult, students made and photographed their own "trash people" in and around the school. The tra sh people appear ed in various se ttings and as the photogra phers carried them around, the activity gathered interest from everyone who saw them. The following photos, as shown in Figures 4.1 and 4 .2 show work by student photogra phers. Figure 4.1.Trash pe rson playing Figure 4.1 Students photographed their trash people on the playground.
Environmental Education + Art 33 Next, we studied the following art ists whose work s also conceptually co nnect EE + art. Andy Goldsworthy : ( http://www.ucblueash.edu/artcomm/web/w2005_2006/maria_Goldsworthy/works.html ) Vic Muniz : ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6z66AT1Ap2g ) Robert Smithson: ( http://www.robertsmithson.com/ ) Agnes Denes: ( htt p://agnesdenesstudio.com/ ) These artists intensified the study of conceptual art They were enamored with Andy Goldsworthy's ice sculptures in particular. They really liked the vi deo segment of Earthworks by Vic Muniz. As they began to plan the ir own conceptual works of art using recycled mater ials, I found that students were excited about making art from "junk". One student commen ted that he Figure 4.2.Trash people reading Figure 4.2. Students photograph their trash people in the library.
Environmental Education + Art 34 did not know you could "make art from stuff". My website shows all of the students work from the planning stage to completion (see Figure 5 .1) on the Plans to Projects page. I nspired by EE and the artists studied, students made 25 finished sculptures that were installed in the school courtyard and available for viewing during parent/teacher conference nights. The sculpture garden as shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, gave student s a chance to see how art can draw attention to and educate the public on environment al issues and it made them feel good about their art. Figure 5.1. Screen shot of Plans to Projects page F igure 5.1. Details of student art work form the planning stage to completion illustrates critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity.
Environmental Education + Art 35 F ig. 7 .1 View 1 of the Sculpture The sculpture garden was the grand finale to the unit. The following figures show the sculpture garden installed in th e school courtyard. Fig. 7.2. View 2 of the Sculpture Figure 7.1 One view of the Sculpture Garden Figure 7.2. Another view of the Sculpture Garden
Environmental Education + Art 36 Figure 6.2. More Students Respond Figure 6.1 More students respond and share their feelings about the Sculpture Garden. The sign in register that I had put out to record visitor comments was a great tool to validate students' work. I asked students how they felt about the commen ts from visitors and they indicated that they liked showing off their work because other people liked it. Figures 6.1 and 6.2 show student responses to visitor comments from the register. Figure 6.1. Students Respond Figure 6.1. Students responded to comments from the register on sticky notes.
Environmental Education + Art 37 Summary A cross all Findings Looking at my study as a whole, I found that EE + Art can coexist as a unit of study by including both EE principles and contemporary art practices in the art classroom. I found that the tried and true principles of awareness, knowledge, at titudes, skills and action educated students' about important environme ntal issues, invited inquiry, developed a sense of personal r esponsibility and informed students' art making. The study of artists who demonstrate a concern for the environment through their work further illuminated students' art. All of these outcomes are equal ly important because my goal was to merge EE and Art in to a curriculum unit. P erhaps the most delightful outcome however, was the artwork students created and how they felt about their sculptures. Students emitted a great deal of pride and satisfaction, and they felt that they had made a difference through th eir art. The following stories encapsulate what I observed about some of my students as they participated in this curriculum. Stories The following stories illustrate real world learning and connections between EE + Art. I include them because they are telling examples of what I learned from students during my study. Sam Sam was always a quiet student who normally did just what was required but when he saw the stovepipe, football, and light bulbs in the cache of recycled items, he knew just what to do! He was the first student to create a plan, pitch his idea, claim the items he wanted and come back at recess begin making his idea a reality. His sculpture demonstrates an intuitive ability to put things together and his confidence in art reached a new level. I am anxious to see if this experience influences his future art practices. Jean & Anne These two girls were good students who always did their best work. They decided to make a fish tank, using a live fish that intended to show that fish require clean water
Environmental Education + Art 38 to thrive. Jean met me at PetSmart with her mother to pick out the fish. I made it clear that her and her partner were to care for the fish or it would become available to someone else. Neither student came in at all for a week an d a half. After one final admonition, they still forgot' so I had to make the fish available to someone else. They were upset about this and I was afraid that I had alienated them but they came around when I suggested another project that would still incl ude living things but might be easier to care for. They became excited again and made a wonderful terrarium. It was fun to watch them figure out how to plant which one to put in first, when to put the dirt in, and so on. What I learned from these students is that they learned from the experience, and that they were willing to reinvent and devise a new project with positive reinforcement and direction. Micky. Micky had trouble getting started because she just could not come up with an idea she liked.but th en the fish came up for grabs! She quickly came up with her fish in a frying pan' idea to bring attention to global warming. Micky attended the Saturday school and made her sculpture in a couple of hours. She diligently came in three times a day everyday thereafter to feed the fish and clean the jellybean jar tank she confiscated from her grandmother. What I learned from Micky was that students need a project that excites them and that it is up to me to provide that experience. Jake. Jake had a great plan for a dryer vent, a mirror and a bicycle pump. He just could not figure out how to make the pump move the dryer vent. He was working desperately, trying to make his idea work when all of a sudden three other boys came to his rescue. They worked together i n a way that I not witnessed before. The boys brainstormed, experimented, and ultimately solved the problem to a degree that was acceptable to Jake. Photo documentation of this process can be found on my website. My committee members pointed out the fact t hat these
Environmental Education + Art 39 boys were exhibiting the 4C learning and innovation skills (critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity) outlined in the "Framework for 21 st Century Learning" (Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 2011, p. 21). This added to my present enthusiasm and confirmed that my EE + Art unit was progressive and relevant to what i s expected of today's students because these students, along with others, demonstrated thinking that was purposeful, reasoned and goal directed. Joe This studen t did not get on board right away. I noticed that he held back a bit, not participating in discussions or interacting with other students a whole lot. The day I brought in a bleach bottle, a laundry detergent bottle and a pop bottle and suggested making an imals with them, however, Joe he immediately lit up! He ended up making a turkey, a pig, a duck, 2 cows and a horse, much of them made during recess and at home over the weekend! He called it The Recycled Animal Farm' and even made a feeder out of a wet w ipe container. He was the first to show up with his mom and brothers, taking care of the animals by rearranging them (he helped me set them up during recess on the big day) and feeding them by twisting off the caps (the mouth) and filling them with the pop corn that was in the feeder! Joe taught me that the unit afforded a level of creativity for the student that gave him confidence in his artistic abilities, pride in his work, and a level of engagement that he had not previously experienced. Discussion and Conclusion The intent of my study was to investigate how five key EE principles could inform fourth graders challenge attitudes about the environment, foster environmental action and introduce a new dimension to students' art making via making contemporary art such as trash people and sculptures using recycled materials. My literature review convinced me that the principles that drive environmental education could serve as a model for art educators who want to include
Environmental Education + Art 40 environmental art as an art form in their curriculum. I was satisfied that art that makes an environmental statement is a noble way to get students involved in their world. M any contemporary artists devote their life and art to the exploration and response to environmental pr oblems and become educators through their art. Vic Muniz, for example, made art from trash collected at the world's largest trash dump outside of Rio de Janeiro, as documented in the film, Wasteland ( http://www.wastelandmovie.com/vik muniz.html ) Andy Goldsworthy is an artist and naturalist who makes art a part of nature, and nature a part of art http://w ww.ucblueash.edu/artcomm/web/w2005_2006/maria_Goldsworthy/works.html ). Still another artist was Robert Smithson, well known for his Earthworks ( Robertsmithson.com ). My conviction was also that environmental education cou ld improve qual ity of life by providing students with strategies to solve and prevent environmental problems. I intended to show how contemporary art education could benefit by abiding by the environmental education principles of interdependency, sustainab ility and reflective perception of collective and individual behaviors. For my study, I designed and implemented a fourth grade curriculum that included environmental literacy a nd environmental art projects. My intent was investigate how five key EE princ iples could inform students, challenge attitudes about the environment, foster environmental action and introduce a new dimension to students' art, culminating in an outdoor sculpture garden. Action research allowed me to take my study to its fullest poten tial, make connections within the real classroom and gauge the effects of my unit. My study findings indicate that art education and art education can consistently work together to bring attention to environmental issues. When art and EE become equal partn ers with shared responsibility the goal of environmental literacy can become a reality sooner than later. showed that a rt education
Environmental Education + Art 41 and envi ronmental education can consistently work together to bring attention to environmental issues. When art education and environmental education (EE) become equal partners with shared responsibility the goal of environmental literacy can become a reality sooner rather than later. I now believe that the five EE principles that I i ntegrated into my art curriculum fit into the art classroom beautifully by situating responsible citizenry within art through study of environmental art and artists. Students demonstrated that they internalized EE concepts and made connections between EE + Art, as m ost were able to rationalize and explain their art via artist statements. My study was progressive, informative, innovative and invigorating. Throughout the study, what struck me was that th is was no ordinary art classroom. I enjoyed the sometimes chaotic, playful atmosphere. I was impressed with my students' perseverance and attention through the long unit and I realized that as the focus shifted from the art making itself to the process of making art, students learned so much more. I required critical thinking to a level that I had not reached before in my teaching career. Some students complained at first, claiming that they could not figure out what to do. Some were impatient at how long i t took to develop an idea and bring it to fruition. Others reveled in the thinking process and were contemplative. All were successful in the end. This unit can be a great addition in any classroom for the art teacher who wants to teach environmental conce pts, get to know students, and work conceptually. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings Findings indicate that EE + Art can coexist and that students are capable of grasping EE concepts and transferring these concepts into a work of art. What I witness ed astounded me lively discussions and interactions about environmental issues, thoughtful collaboration and problem solving and a sense of play. I interpreted, however, a negative and positive aspect of
Environmental Education + Art 42 play. Some students seemed to spend a lot of time messing around' and I found myself pressuring them to do something'. Fortunately I caught myself, as I recognized that this way my issue, not theirs because I encouraged play and discovery throughout the unit. Ultimately, the students who I perceived as goofing around' surprised me in the end by pulling off a wonderful sculpture. Looking at my findings, I realized that a common theme emerged; that students' excitement about the unit spread to other students and staff as students shared what they were doin g in the art room. This was perhaps the most rewarding finding, along with the fact that students demonstrated a great deal pride in their work. They talked about the unit with their families and friends, and shared their conceptual work with parents and s iblings. There was a contagious atmosphere of excitement and interest that spread throughout the school during the unit as other students and staff heard about the goings on in the art room. This illuminated one thing that I learned from my literature revi ew; namely how environmental art that takes environmental principles to heart can educate and influence the public. For indeed, t he ecological crisis is one we should all own, and the crisis of sustainability affects all humans. A sustainable future includ es environmentally sound, socially equitable, culturally sensitive and economically just education rooted in an environment of knowledge, interaction and change. A sustainable future comprises formal learning that is relevant to life outside school while a ddressing the problems of our world (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2012). Initially, I did not realize that this would be an outcome, but I am so delighted that school and community involvement became an important part of the study and this development influenced my decision to work toward getting the sculpture garden installed for parent/teacher conference nights.
Environmental Education + Art 43 In summary, I found that the five EE principles fit into the art classroom beautifully by situating responsi ble citizenry within art through study of environmental art and artists. One shortcoming to my study was that I was not able to determine whether the EE component will affect change in student attitudes and a measure of personal responsibility over time. A ll I can say for certain is that they made connections in the here and now. Finally, I found that students did internalize EE concepts, as their conceptual art and artist statements demonstrate. Most were able to explain their art and how it related to th e environment. A rtist statements can be viewed on my website at http://www.artandenvironment.weebly.com Significance, Implications, and Recommendations What stands out at the conclusion of my study is that this is just the beginning! I have had other grade levels ask me if they could make art using recycled materials, and at the sculpture garden debut, I had a former student express dismay (in her dramatic sixth grade manner) at not doing this when she was in fourth grade. The EE and art components were equally significant parts of the study While EE provided the knowledge needed to tackle environmental issues, environmentally themed art provided the inspiration for art projects. My study showed strong implications that by including EE in an art curriculum; students develop environmental literacy and demonstrate understanding of environmental concepts, making connections through their art. EE + Art as a curriculum unit may or may not be a v iable path for all art teachers. I t certain ly did what I hoped it would do, however. It informed students about environmental issues, created a measure of personal responsibility for the environment and resulted in conceptual works of art that m ade an environmental statement, while drawing attention to environmental concerns.
Environmental Education + Art 44 Conclusion My study provides a basis for other art educators who want to include e nvironmental education in their curriculum by laying the groundwork and authenticating this kind of unit. A unit of this scope however, takes extra time and effort. It is not for the faint of heart! Our school social worker commented to me one day that the sculptures were so unique and asked how I managed to pull it off. I replied that it was a rewarding experience She said that she had not heard a teacher say that in a long time. Perhaps we get stuck in a rut, teaching the same lessons repeatedly. Perhaps its time for change and to take art teaching to a new dimension by including EE + Art.
Environmental Education + Art 45 References Banerjee, S. (2007). Land as home: A portrait of the circumpolar artic in a rapidly changing planet. Santa Fe, New Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.subhankarbanerjee.org/banerj ee.html Belgrade Charter (1975). A global framework for environmental education. Retrieved from http://www.envir.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=previe w/id=1011467/The%2BBelgrade%2 BCharter.pdf Brady, E. (2007). Aesthetic regard for nature in environmental and land art. Ethics, Place & Environment, 10 (3), 287 300. Branagan, M. (2005). Environmental education, activism and the arts. Convergence 38 (4), 33 50. Braus, J. A., & Wood, D. (1993). Environmental education in schools: creating a program that works. Washington, DC: Peace Corps, Information Collection & Exchange. Retrieved from http://multimedia.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0044_Environmental_Educati on_in_the_Schools.pdf Boulding, K. E., & Senesh, L. (E ds). (1983). The optimum utilization of knowledge: Making knowledge serve human betterment. Boul der, CO. Westview Press. Campaign for Environmental Literacy (2007). Components of environmental literacy. Retrieved from http://www.fundee.org/facts/envlit/components.htm Chen Long Wetlands International Environmental Art Project (2012). Taiwan. Retrieved from http://www.transartists.org/article/2012 cheng long wetlands international environmental art project
Environmental Education + Art 46 Colorado Alliance for Environmental Education (Webinar, April 11, 2012). "How do your resources measure up? Using guidelines f or excellence in environmental education." View archived webinar at http://breeze.cce.cornell.edu/p50s2t39dp0/ Education.com (2012). Glossary of education. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/definition/action research/ Environmental Literacy Council (2008). What is environmental literacy? Retrieved from http:/ /www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/1489.html Environmental Literacy Council (2012). About us. Retrieved from http://www.enviroliteracy.org/subcategory.php/1.html Gol dsworthy, A. (n.d.). Works. Retrieved from http://www.ucblueash.edu/artcomm/web/w2005_2006/maria_Goldsworthy/works.html Greenmuseum.org. (2002). Cultivating an interdisciplinary approa ch to environmental awareness: Developing environmental awareness through art. (Part of a document presented at the World Summit as part of Shadow Report to the Government of Israel's Assessment of Progress in Implementing Agenda 21, written by the Environ mental and Social NGO's, Israel 2002). Retrieved from http://greenmuseum.org/content/artist_content/ct_id 106__artist_id 18.html Heimlich, J. E. (1992). Promoting a concern for the environment. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/searc h/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtS earch_SearchValue_0=ED351206&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED3512 06
Environmental Education + Art 47 Hines, J., Hungerford, H. R., & Tomera, A. N. (Winter 1986/87). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta analysis. Journal of Environmental Education 18 (2), 1 8. Hudspeth, T. R. (2002). Guiding principles for environmental education. Unpublished scholarly lecture on environmental education, University of Vermont, Burlington. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~envs001/PrinciplesEnvirEd.doc Krug, D. (2003). Teaching art in the context of everyday life. Retrieved from http://gre enmuseum.org/generic_content.php?ct_id=134 Miraglia, K. & Smilan, K. (2009). Lessons learned from the landscape: An integrated approach. International Journal of Art Education 5 (2 3), 169 185. National Standards for Arts Education (2000 ) What every young American should know and be able to do in the arts. MENC Publications Sales Reston, VA Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/ArtsStandards.html National Science Foundation (199 9). Interim Report: Environmental science and engineering for the 21 st century. Retrieved from www.nsf.gov/nsb/committees/archive/tfe/nsb99133/nsb99133i.pdf North American Association for Environmental Education website. (n.d.). EELink: environmental education on the Internet. Retrieved from http://eelink.net/pages/Principles+of+Environmental+Educ ation Nisbet, E. K. L., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). The nature relatedness scale: Linking individuals' connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment and Behavior 41 (5), 715 740.
Environmental Education + Art 48 Perrottet, T. (2008). John Muir's Y osemite. Smithsonian People and Places. S mithsonian Magazine. July 2008. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people places/yosemite.html Rust, F & Clark, C. ( n.d.). Teachers network.org. Retrieved from http://teachersnetwork.org/tnli/Action_Research_Booklet.pdf Schultz, W. P. (2000). Empathizing with nature: The effects of perspective taking o n concern for environmental issues. Journal of Social Issues 56 (3), 391 406. Smithson, R. Website. Retrieved from http://www.robertsmithson.com/index_.htm Tollefson Hall, K. L (2009). Alternativen ess in art education: case studies of art instruction in three non traditional schools (Doctoral dissert ation, University of Iowa, 2009) Retrieved from: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/322 United Nations Educational Sci entific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2012). Education for sustainable development. Retrieved from http://www.unes co.org/new/en/education/themes/leading the international agenda/education for sustainable development/ United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2007) Intergovernal conference on environmental education. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/24621719/Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Stewardshi p Staff Committee (2005). Everyday choices: opportunities for environmental stewardship: technical report. Retrieved from http://epa.gov/innovation/pdf/techrpt.pdf
Environmental Education + Art 49 Wasteland (2011). Award winning film directed by Lucy Walker. Retrieved from http://wastelandmovie.com/ Zakai, S. (2002) Cultivating an interdisciplinary approach to environmental awareness, Israeli forum for ecological ar t Retrieved from http://greenmuseum.org/generic_content.php?ct_id=87
Environmental Education + Art 50 Appendix A Retrieved from http://cadres.pepperdine.edu/ccar/define.html
Environmental Education + Art 51 Appendix B Plan What are we going to learn? EE principles and how they apply to art making. Create art from recycled materials that mak es a statement about environmental issues. Learn about conceptual art ( art that conveys concepts: art designed to present an idea rather than to be appreciated for its creative skill or beauty, often making use of unconventional media). Learning Targets: 21 st Century Learning Skills: critical thinking, communication, collaboration & creativity Conceptual art based on EE principles Artist statement (articulation of your art) Do How do we plan to learn it? Study EE concepts, study environmental art & artists, create sculpture garden, practice skills, experiment with alternate materials to get desired results. Learning Practices: Teacher will Model Give feedback, encourage learning skills Provide materials, resources and examples Provide extra time in art room Students will Participate in group or personal project of choice Make art and artist statement Study : What do the results tell us? + (plus) Ms. Ray let us stay in at recess So many things to pick from Ms. Ray helped us I li ked how we are helping the world I like how Peyton & I are working together and how we are making recycled art It was fun, I liked using spray paint I liked it because I was doing it with my friend I made my sculpture out of bottle caps It was fun I liked getting to use creativity, its really fun I liked that we recycled a lot of things I liked painting with partners I liked it because I have never done it before It helps the world and turns into something cool I liked it because it was hard and it was fun You can see a lot of other trash that can be cool I liked it because you can build or paint it any way you want It was fun picking out of all the recycled stuff I liked the experience of making it It makes the world more cleaner I liked the challenge that it was to put the stuff together I liked all the nature I feel ok about recycled art, it was fun I like steel It's clever PDSA (Recycled Sculpture ) A measurement tool for teaching and learning
Environmental Education + Art 52 S tudy: + (plus) continued I love to recycle! I want to do it again Designing I liked putting things together I liked mine because it spins I liked all of it It was the best thing ever, I didn't know you could make art from stuff I liked the experiments with water and the tree it was fun to use the heat gun You got to cho ose what you did and how to make it I liked that you got a lot of choices It was cool how the colored water stuck to the tree with soap I likes building the sculpture because it was hard It was a wonderful collection of trash, fun to use the hair gel I lik ed that we made wheels There was a lot of plastic Study: (delta) It was really hard It took a long time It was dirty, I didn't like all the smelly items using dirty trash I did not like the gluing I had to keep restarting my project like 3 times The first time we started to do our sculpture we had to start over because everyone took the stuff we wanted to use There was so much garbage It was super hard to make We spent a lot of time doing it The fish was hard to take care of he was getting harassed A lot of pieces were bent Making it took forever It was hard to build, I didn't know how It was hard to think of ideas that I can do We kept having to change project I didn't like it because it didn't turn out the way I wanted it to My partners didn't let m e say anything Everyone took everything I was going to use Act What will we do differently in our next learning cycle? Teacher will: Organize materials into categories Anticipate supporting materials such as various paint colors and have a table for painting with materials on hand Change first planned gets first pick this inhibited slower workers Get more volunteers to make the process go more quickly Students will: Recognize that sculptural art takes more time Utilize the resource packet to problem solve before asking for help Take responsibility for clean up
Environmental Education + Art 53 Appendix C NR Scale Unit Beginning
Environmental Education + Art 54 NR Scale Unit End
Environmental Education + Art 55 Appendix D UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Environmental Literacy in Art Education: How can Environmental Education Principles Benefit an Art Curriculum? Principal Investigator: Barbara Ray UFID #: 5379 2914 Degree / Title: MA Art Ed Mailing Address: 111 N. Forest Dr. #50 Casper, Wy 82609 Email : Mountain_jewelry@yahoo.com Department: Atr Education Telephone #: (307) 202 1322 Co Investigator(s): none UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Elizabeth Delacruz UFID# : Degree / Title: Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): Email : Department: Telephone #: Date of Proposed Research: FA 2012 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): none Scientific Purpose of the Study: The objective of my research proposal is to advocate a new approach to art education that emphasizes environmental literacy. The aim of my research is to describe the ways in which environmental education principles can enhance art education by exploring successful cases of applicatio n. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language:
Environmental Education + Art 56 I plan to use a case study approach, utilizing a survey and observation techniques to determine the effects of applying environmental education principles to a public school art curriculum. The study will take place in my own classroom and will consist of 2 fourth grade classes with an anticipated count of not more than 60 students. The setting will be a public school system in Natrona County, Casper, Wyoming. Data collection wil l include a survey, a Plan, Do, Study Act (PDSA) method as required by my district, observation and photos and of student work, as well as the art project included in the curriculum. The art project will be included temporarily in the nature walk area on s chool grounds. Describe Potential Benefits: Environmental literacy Increased environmental awareness for students and others Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) I am not aware of any risks Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited : Participants will include classroom students already assigned to me Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 60 Age Range of Participants: 9 10 years of age Amount of Compensation/ course credit: (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Supervisor' s Signature: Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:
Environmental Education + Art 57 Appendix E Manor Heights Elementary Parental Consent Form Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a graduate student in the Department of Art Education at the University of Florida, conducting research on Environmental Literacy in Art Education. Environmental literacy is a fundamental understanding of the systems of the natural world, the relationships and interactions between the living and the non living environment, and the ability to deal sensibly with problems that involve scientific evidenc e, economic, aesthetic, and ethical considerations. The purpose of this study is to compare the student's comprehension of environmental issues and art before and after being taught environmental principles. The results of the study may support other art e ducators who wish to introduce environmental education into the art classroom and allow them to design instructional practices accordingly. These results may not directly help your child today, but may benefit future students. With your permission, I woul d like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. The fourth grade curriculum unit will be implemented within the first 9 weeks of the 2012 school year and will include an educational component and an environmental art project. I will record observa tions, and collect data by administering a survey before and after the unit. The survey will be anonymous. Participation or non participation in this study will not affect the children's grades or placement in any programs. You and your child have the rig ht to withdraw consent for your child's participation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. Group results of this study will be available in Decemb er upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at (307) 202 1322 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Elizabeth Delacruz, at email@example.com Questions or concerns about your c hild's rights as research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433. Sincerely, Barbara Ray Manor Heights Art Teacher I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, _________________, to participate in Barbara Ray's study of Environmental Literacy in Art Education I have received a copy of this description. ________________________ ____ ___________ Parent / Guardian Date ____________________________ ___________ 2 nd Parent / Witness Date
Environmental Education + Art 58 Appendix F IRB 02: Assent Script Fourth Grade Students, Hello [child's name] For those of you who don't know me, I am Ms. Ray. I have taught art at Manor Heights for the past four years and I am also a graduate student at the University of Florida. This first nine weeks of school we will be studying art and the environment If you decide to participate, yo u will be asked to c omplete a 12 question survey before and after we study the environment. There are no known risks to participation. You do not have to be in this study if you don't want to and you can quit the study at any time. Other than the researchers, no one will kno w your answers, including your teachers or your classmates. If you don't like a question, you don't have to answer it and, if you ask, your answers will not be used in the study. I also want you to know that whatever you decide, this will not affect your grades in class. Your [parent / guardian] said it would be OK for you to participate. Would you be willing to participate in this study?
Environmental Education + Art 59 List of Figures and Captions Figure 1.1 C hart obtained from the Camp aign for Environmental Literacy website Figure 2.1 Follow the waste s tream concept map Figure 2.2 Global w arming concept map Figure 3 .1 Categorizing trash Figure 4 .1 Trash person playing Figure 4.2 Trash person playing Figure 5.1 Screen shot of plans to projects page Figure 6 .1 Student responses Figure 6.2. More student responses Figure 7 .1 V iew 1 of the sculpture garden Figure 7 2 V iew 2 of the sculpture garden
Environmental Education + Art 60 Author Biography Barbara J. Ray Educational Accomplishments MA Art Education University of Florida, Gainesville Graduation Date, Dec. 2012 BA Art Education Montana State University, Billings Graduated Cum Laude, May 2008 AAS Graphic Design Northwest College, Powell, WY Graduated with Honors, May 2004 Workshops Art Teac hing Institute Laramie, WY, 2009, 2010, 2012 Peters Valley Craft Center (metals) 2009 Revere Academy of Jewelry Arts (stone setting certificate) 2004 Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts (metals) 2003, 2004 Work Experience Art Teacher Casper, WY 2008 present Practicing Studio Artist 1980 2008 Picture Me Portrait Studio Photographer May 2008 October 2008 Other Experience Published Illustrator "Natrona County The Place We Call Home", 2011 Studio Assis tantship (metals) Haystack Mtn. Sch ool of Crafts 2008 Artist in Residence Growth Thru Art Billings, MT 2007 Studio Assistantship (metals) Arrowmont School of Arts & Crafts 2005 Big Brothers, Big Sisters of Park County, WY 2000 AmeriCorps National Service Organization, WY 1998
Environmental Education + Art 61 A wards 2012 National Arts Council Casper, WY Third Place Jewelry 2009 Miniature Show Casper, WY Honorable Mention Jewelry 2007 William Garrison Exhibit Garri son Award for Exceptional Work Jewelry 2007 Student Independ ent Art Show MSU Billings Best of Show Jewelry 2004 Crea tions from Within' Competition Laramie, WY Second Place Jewelry 2004 Wy oming Artisans Grant recipient $13,500 award 2004 Juried Art Show Northwest College President's Purchase Award Jewelry
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