Psychological type and leadership practices of women student leaders

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Psychological type and leadership practices of women student leaders
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2001.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 89-101).
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by Tracey Elizabeth Reeves.
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PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AND LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS
OF WOMEN STUDENT LEADERS
















By

TRACEY ELIZABETH REEVES


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA





























Copyright 2001



by


Tracey Elizabeth Reeves































I would like to dedicate this work to my parents, Mac and Betty Reeves, who have always
given me unconditional love and support in all of my endeavors.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many individuals were instrumental in the completion of this undertaking and are

deserving of special recognition.

Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. Mary F. Howard-Hamilton, chair of my

committee, for her guidance and patience during the writing of this dissertation. She was

instrumental in helping generate a research topic and in critiquing my work throughout

the process. Gratitude is also extended to my committee members, Dr. Phyllis Meek, Dr.

James Pitts, and Dr. Art Sandeen, who helped and guided me through this process.

A special thank you is given to my supervisors over the years, Jim Grimm, Norb

Dunkel, and Lisa Diekow, as well as my colleagues, for their support while I worked on

this project. I am grateful to the staff in the Murphree Area, especially the Residence

Directors, Janice Gerweck, Roberto Carrero, and Scott Francis, for their patience and

understanding.

Special acknowledgment is due to Jennifer Ford and Lisa Wertz for their

assistance during data collection and to Scott Bums for providing statistical skills.

Thanks are extended to the many women student leaders who took the time to

complete the instruments for this study. I have learned from all them.

My heartfelt thanks are given to my brother Win Reeves and his family: Kathy,

and Tori, my sister Debbie McElvey and her family: Mac, Leslie, and Micheil, but most

of all to my parents, Mac and Betty Reeves, who through their love and nurturance have

made me the person I am.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................. ................................ iv

LIST OF TABLES .................................. .......... viii

ABSTRACT .......................... ..... ..................................... ix

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION .................. .................................. 1

Overview ................................ ......... ................. 1
Theoretical Framework ...................................... 3
Statement of the Problem ................. ........................ .......... 5
Need for the Study ............................. ......... ... .. .............. 6
Purpose of the Study .............................. ...................... 9
Rationale for Approach to the Study ..................................................... 9
Research Questions .......................................................... 10
Definitions of Terms .............................................. 11
Overview for the Study .................... ............................. 14

II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ...................................... 15

Leadership Theories ......................... ..... .................... 15
Women's Leadership ............................... .................. 22
Research on Type and Leadership .................... ........ ................ 28
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator .................................... ................ 30
Student Leadership Practices Inventory ............................................. 34
Summary ........................ ......................... .......... 36

III METHODOLOGY ........................................................... 39

Overview .................................................. ............................ 39
Population ................... .............................................. 39
Sampling Procedures ......................... .... ..................... 40
Research Procedures ........................ ......................... 41
Hypotheses ...................................... ... ...................... 42
Research Questions ........................................................ 42









Assessment Instruments ................................................ 42
Demographic Inventory ................ 43
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ............. ............... ...................... 43
Student Leadership Practices Inventory ...... .............. .............. ........ 45
Research Design and Data Analysis .................... ....................46
Lim stations ........................ .................. ............................. .... 48
Sum m ary ...................................................................................... 49

IV RESULTS .......................... ....................... .. ... ............. 50

H ypotheses ........................ .................. ................................. 50
Research Questions ................... .................... .. ....................... 51
Results and Analysis ............................. ............ .... .......... ..... 51
Demographic Information ................................... ............. ..... 51
Hypothesis One ........................ ................... ......................... 53
Hypothesis Two ............................................ .... ................ 55
Hypothesis Three ...................... ................... ............... 56
Hypothesis Four ................... ..................... ..... ......... 56
Research Question One ............................................... 57
Research Question Two ..................................... .............. 59
Summary ............................................................ .................. 60

V DISCUSSION ............................... ............ 61

Limitations ........................... ............ ...... ....... ............ 61
Summary ................... ... .................... ......62
Hypotheses .............................. .............................. 62
Research Questions ............................ ..................... 62
Psychological Type and Leadership Practices ..................................... 62
Type of Leadership Experience ................................................... 63
Gender Composition of Organizational Membership ............................. 63
Length of Leadership Experience .................................................... 63
Conclusions ..................... ................... 63
Implications ........................................ ... ..................... 67
Recommendations ....................................... ...................... 71

APPENDICES

A APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD .............................................. 73

B CONTACT LETTER FOR PARTICIPATION ...................................... 75

C INFORMED CONSENT FORM ...................................................... 76

D DEMOGRAPHIC INVENTORY ....................................................... 77











E LETTER OF PERMISSION TO USE THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE
INDICATOR ........................ .............. ...... ... ................ 78

F SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR .... 81

G LETTER OF PERMISSION TO USE THE STUDENT LEADERSHIP
PRACTICES INVENTORY ........................................ .................. 84

H QUESTIONS FROM THE STUDENT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
INVENTORY ......................... ................................................. 86

REFERENCES ............................... ...................................... 89

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................... ................... 102














LIST OF TABLES


Table _a

1. Age-Women Student Leaders .................. .............................. 51

2. Racial/Ethnic Background-Women Student Leaders ............................ 52

3. Current College Classification-Women Student Leaders ........................ 52

4. Type of Leadership Position-Women Student Leaders .......................... 53

5. Gender Composition of Organizational Membership Women Student
Leaders ........................................ ..................... 53

6. Pearson Correlations of Psychological Type and Leadership Practices .......... 54

7. Effects of Psychological Type on Leadership Practices (ANOVA) .............. 54

8. Chi-Square Values from Logistic Regression Analysis for Type of Leadership
Position-Employee ..................................... ...... ............ ... 55

9. Pearson Correlations of Gender Composition of Organizational
M membership ............................... ............ ........ ...... 56

10. Pearson Correlations of Length of Leadership Experience ...................... 57

11. Psychological Types of Women Student Leaders and Sampled Population of
Women College Students ................................................... ... 58

12. Means of Leadership Practices for Women Student Leaders and Sampled
Population of Women Student Leaders .......................................... 59














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
OF WOMEN STUDENT LEADERS

By

Tracey Elizabeth Reeves

August 2001

Chair: Mary F. Howard-Hamilton
Major Department: Educational Leadership, Policy, and Foundations

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between self-perceptions

of psychological type and empowering leadership practices of women student leaders.

While there has been much research on women's effectiveness as leaders, only in the last

decade has the focus turned to the development of transformational leadership.

Participants in this study were 200 women student leaders at a major public

research university. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Form M (MBTI), was used to

study psychological types and dynamics. The Student Leadership Practices Inventory

(Student LPI) was used to measure the empowering leadership practices of "challenging

the process," "inspiring a shared vision," "enabling others to act," "modeling the way,"

and "encouraging the heart." A demographic inventory solicited additional information

including type of leadership position, gender composition of organizational membership,

and length of leadership experience. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics








(means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages), correlation, analysis of

variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression.

The results revealed significant statistical support for a relationship between

psychological type and leadership practices. Relationships were also demonstrated

between leadership practices and type of leadership experience, gender composition of

organizational membership, and length of leadership experience.

The most common psychological types in the sample were ENFP (20%) and

ENFJ (18.5%). Similarities were found in comparing the means for the sample on each

of the leadership practices subscales with sample populations from previous research.

"Challenging the process" is consistently the lowest subscale, while "encouraging the

heart" and "enabling others to act" were consistently the strongest practices.

Recommendations for future research includes concentrating on women student

leaders at different types of higher education institutions, the interaction of gender and

race/disabilities/religion/sexual orientation, women leaders in predominately male

organizations, "whole" four-letter type, followers' perceptions of empowering leadership,

and reasons behind the low rating for "challenging the process."














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Western society has been undergoing a significant transformation in which the

values of the industrial era are changing in order to meet the needs of a more complex

world (Parks, 1995; Rogers, 1996; Rost, 1991). This new view of the world is

characterized by "a disintegration of the patriarchal world with its emphasis on male-

oriented values of rationality, competition, and independence" (Rogers, 1988, p. 1). The

shift is affecting many different fields of study, including law, history, economics, and

physics (Kuh, Whitt, & Shedd, 1987).

The old "masculine" standards of success are not only being questioned but are

being phased out as this transformation takes place (Capra, 1982; Rogers, 1988). The

ideals of the female ethos (i.e., mutuality, cooperation, and affiliation) are becoming

recognized as valuable and will be considered the norm (Bernard, 1981; Capra, 1982). In

order to cope with the ambiguities of modem life this postindustriall" paradigm will be

accepted by mainstream society during the twenty-first century (Rogers, 1996).

Overview

Leadership is also one of the basic tenets that have been radically changing during

this transitional period. Leadership approaches have evolved over the years beginning

with the great man theories, which were prevalent during the 1800's through early 1900's

(Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 1998). The foundation for these theories was that








leadership development was based on Darwinist principles or a "survival of the fittest"

philosophy.

The trait approach, popular during 1907 through 1947, held the underlying belief

that leaders possessed superior or endowed qualities (Komives et al, 1998). During the

1950's and 1960's the focus shifted to the behavioral theories that posited that there was

one best way to lead. Situational or contingency theories also originated during the

1950's and continued in popularity through the 1980's (Komives et al., 1998). According

to these theories, leaders acted differently depending on the situation.

In the most recent past, leadership has been thought of in terms of influence

(Komives et al, 1998) or a transactional relationship in which subordinates' needs are

met if they perform as contracted with their leader (Bass, 1990; Hersey & Blanchard,

1988). This type of leadership is commonly referred to as transactional leadership and

represents the traditional or "masculine" view (Rogers, 1992).

Components of the "masculine" leadership model include a competitive operating

style, a hierarchical organizational structure, a basic objective of winning, and a rational

problem-solving style. Other significant aspects are the need for high control,

assertiveness or aggressive behavior, the ability to think analytically or strategically, and

the ability to maintain an objective, nonemotional attitude (Loden, 1985).

However, in the last two decades there has been a major shift in the concept of

leadership toward an emphasis of a more relational or "feminine" perspective (Rogers,

1988). Foremost in this emergent paradigm is the addition of many traditional

"feminine" behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs (Hughes, 1989; Loden, 1985; Rogers, 1988),

which support empowering followers rather than managing or controlling them.









Theoretical Framework

Transformational leadership is the term most often used to describe this new

"feminine" type of leadership (Bass, 1995; Bums, 1978; Drath, 1998; Komives, 1994a;

Kouzes & Posner, 1995), although it is also used interchangeably with "empowering" and

"generative" (Komives, 1994b). Characteristics of the "feminine" leadership model are a

cooperative operating style, a team organizational structure, a basic objective of quality

output, and an intuitive/rational problem-solving style. Other key components include

the need for lower control, empathic behavior, the ability to think collaboratively, and

high performance standards (Loden, 1985).

Burs (1978) defined transformational leadership as "an ability for a leader to

engage followers in such a way that they mutually... raise one another to higher levels

of motivation and morality" (p. 20). Burs further proposed that there are five necessary

components of transformational leadership:

1. Leadership is collective and must be viewed as occurring in relationships
between people.
2. Leadership exists ... and thrives in conditions of conflict and competition for
followers.
3. The result of the relationship is a change in the motives and needs of leaders
and followers that has a causative effect on organizations and groups.
4. Leadership is morally purposeful, driving the values and visions of the leader
shaped in concert with followers.
5. Leadership is elevating, raising the level of morality of followers and leaders.
(Fink, 1988, pp. 64-65)

Empowerment has also been defined as "an act of building, developing, and

increasing power through cooperation, sharing, and working together. It is an interactive

process based on a synergistic, not a zero-sum, assumption about power; that is, the

process of empowerment enlarges the power in the situation as opposed to merely

redistributing it" (Vogt & Murrell, 1990, P. 8).








Kouzes and Posner (1995) described qualities of empowering leadership as open

to pursuing opportunities, taking chances, and trying new things. A shared vision is

encouraged by connecting people to a common goal and formulating a joint

understanding of the future. An empowering leader aspires to enable others to function

by creating collaborative relationships and strengthening others through shared power.

He or she is a role model for others and builds commitment to act by highlighting "small

wins". Followers are also inspired by having their contributions and achievements

appreciated and celebrated. Clark, Carafella, and Ingram (1998) characterize

transformational leadership as "doing with" versus "doing for" one's subordinates.

Research has shown that "managers who behave like transformational leaders are

more likely to be seen by their colleagues and employees as satisfying and effective

leaders than are those who behave like transactional leaders" (Bass, 1995, p. 121).

Transformational leadership begets superior leadership performance.

Although labeled as the "feminine" model, the characteristics of the

transformational model are by no means limited exclusively to women nor conversely,

are the characteristics of the transactional model limited to men (Loden, 1985). Rather

the traits can be found among either gender, although women tend to exhibit behaviors

particular to transformational leadership to a greater degree than men and men tend to

exhibit behaviors particular to transactional leadership to a greater degree than women.

Ultimately, in order to meet the needs of today's ambiguous society, leadership will

begin to show an integration of both male and female values (Parks, 1995; Rogers, 1988,

1996).










Statement of the Problem

Student leadership development has long been acknowledged as a fundamental

element in many college and university institutional missions (Bass, 1990; Mclntire,

1989; Roberts, 1997; Spitzberg, 1987). The authors of the National Association of

Student Personnel Administrators' (1987) A Perspective on Student Affairs stated that the

role of student affairs professionals is to provide opportunities for leadership

development. The American College Personnel Association's (1996) The Student

Learning Imperative also suggested that leadership development is a part of a learning-

oriented student affairs division. In the Council for the Advancement of Standards in

Higher Education's Book of Professional Standards for Higher Education (1997), the

section on Student Leadership Programs states, "student leadership development should

be an integral part of the institution's educational mission" (p. 113). In fact the primary

objective of many early institutions of higher education was to develop leadership

(McIntire, 1989) and beginning in the late 1980's leadership development and training

have become a significant focus on college and university campuses (McMillon, 1997;

Micas, 1991).

Nearly every college and university has established a leadership education

program, which furnishes support for the belief that leadership can be learned and

enhanced through educational experiences (Hirschom, 1988). A 1998 survey by the

Center for Creative Leadership (Schwartz, Axtman, & Freeman) found that nearly 700

colleges and universities provided some type of leadership program. Student leaders








occupy a variety of positions such as resident assistants, academic aides, and peer

counselors (DeJulio, Larson, Dever, & Paulman, 1981).

Posner and Brodsky (1992) raised concerns about the use of educational programs

based on managerial and organizational models as student leaders differ from these types

of populations by age, experience, organizational type, type of follower (volunteer and

peer), and the rate of turn-over. Additionally, few of the leadership programs in place

provide information on women's development and women's leadership (Micas, 1991,

Salerno, 1999). Shavlik and Touchton (1992, p. 52) noted the following:

The continuing identification and development of leaders should be a major
institutional priority, and a special commitment should be made to women and
men, of color and White, who have potential to move into significant leadership
roles. Institutional leaders must also specifically commit to the identification,
encouragement, and development of women leaders.

Need for the Study

Recently, the campus climate and its effect on all students, particularly female

students, has received increased attention (Sandler, Silverberg, & Hall, 1996; Pascarella,

Whitt, Edison, Nora, Hagedom, Yeager, & Terenzini, 1997; Whitt, Edison, Pascarella,

Nora, & Terenzini, 1999) as women students have comprised over half of all enrollments

in colleges and universities for over a decade (Astin, 1998; The Nation, 2000; Wenniger

& Conroy, 2001). However, women still do not hold as many leadership positions as

men in institutions of higher education (Astin, 1993, 1998; Shavlik & Touchton, 1992;

Shavlik, Touchton, & Pearson, 1989).

Researchers have become more interested in studying women's leadership issues

over the past ten years. Many of the early studies focused on stereotypical sex roles in

small group behavior or management issues (Forsyth, Schlenker, Leary, & McCown,








1985; Gale, 1989; Guido-DiBrito, Carpenter, & DiBrito, 1986; Owen, 1986). More

recently, researchers have begun to look at "the influence of perspective and perception"

(Kezar, 2000, p. 724) as well as "examining other fundamental aspects of a person's

identity that might be related to the way they interpret leadership" (Kezar, 2000, p.723).

Whitt's (1994) study, which explored the leadership experiences of students in

three women's colleges to determine the effects of their learning experiences and the

environment, showed a need for attention to "the context for leadership development,

affirmative opportunities for women to develop and practice leadership skills, and

environment assessment" (p. 204). Both Neff and Harwood (1990), and Sagaria (1988)

made the case for an expansive view of leadership development for women and of

programs that focus on women only as well as women and men together.

The most advantageous programs for developing women student's leadership

seem to be those exclusively for women" (Astin, 1993; Sagaria, 1988). Research at

women-only colleges has shown that female students' leadership development is greater

than at co-ed institutions (Kim & Alvarez, 1995; Langdon, 1997; Smith, Wolf, &

Morrison, 1995). Failing to account for gender as an issue in fostering leadership

development in women and men is a serious flaw in many leadership programs. Ignoring

gender differences can stifle the progress of the individual, group, or institution (Guido-

DiBrito & Batchelor, 1989, Kim, 2001; Wolf-Wendel, 2000).

The women's leadership programs currently in place in colleges and universities

range from those considered extracurricular such as seminars and retreats (Adams &

Keim, 2000; Guido-DiBrito & Batchelor, 1989; Leonard & Sigall, 1989; Pomrenke,

Dambrot, & Hazard, 1983) to courses which count toward academic credit (Adams &








Keim, 2000; Gerber, 1986). There are even combinations of both academic and co-

curricular activities (Adams & Keim, 2000; Micas, 1991). "How to specifically tailor

these programs to meet the unique developmental needs of women students remains a

less studied aspect of leadership development and warrants additional consideration"

(Salerno, 1999, pp. 2-3).

Research focusing on gender differences in leadership in the past decade,

indicates that men and women are equally effective as leaders (Bass, 1990; Posner &

Brodsky, 1994). Powell (1989) in a review of literature focusing on leadership behaviors

of men and women found no differences as well. However, men and women seem to

differ on their self-perceptions of their leadership abilities (Adams & Keim, 2000; Kezar

& Moriarty, 2000).

Additionally, gender differences influence leadership according to studies using

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Findings indicated that two-thirds of women

prefer feeling oriented or subjective approaches and two-thirds of men prefer a thinking

or objective orientation (McCaulley, 1990). Parks (1995) recommends that the

relationship between psychological type and transformational leadership practices be

investigated thoroughly.

As the review of literature suggests, further research expanding on current

leadership models as they pertain to women is needed. Women students are now in the

majority at institutions of higher learning and their specific needs must be addressed in

order to adequately implement the mission of leadership education.








Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess self-perceptions of psychological type as

measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and empowering leadership

practices as measured by the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (Student LPI) of

women student leaders to determine which psychological types relate to which

empowering practices. In addition to the MBTI and the Student LPI, the participants will

complete a demographic form, which includes questions regarding age, ethnic

background, current student classification, type of leadership experience, and length of

leadership experience in college. The results could have important implications for the

future leadership education of women students.

Rationale for the Approach to the Study

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) developed from Jung's theory of

personality type (1921/1971), shows the differences in the way individuals "take in and

process information, how they perceive their environments, and how they make

judgements, or reach conclusions about the information they take in" (Evans, Forney, &

Guido-DiBrito, 1998, pp. 243-244). There have been a number of researchers who

examined the relationship between personality type and different areas of development

such as learning style, psychosocial development, and conceptual level (Evans et al,

1998).

Anchors and Robinson (1992) found that personality type was correlated with the

accomplishment of developmental tasks in their research in which they "merged" the

MBTI with the Student Development Task Inventory-2. They concluded that there is a








"need to incorporate psychological type, or other models of individual differences, into

our understanding of student development" (p. 135).

Other researchers have looked at personality type as related to several areas in

student affairs including residence life (Kalsbeek, Rodgers, Marshall, Denny, & Nicholls,

1982; Schroeder, 1976; Schroeder, Warner, & Malone, 1980), discipline (Anchors &

Dana, 1992; Griffin & Salter, 1993; Williams & Nelson, 1986), counseling (Carskadon,

1979; Erickson, 1993; McBride & Martin, 1988), advising (Crockett & Crawford, 1989),

and career development (Apostal, 1991; Dillon & Weissman, 1987). Research has also

indicated a relationship between personality type and learning styles (Lawrence, 1993;

Schroeder, 1993) as well as teaching styles (Lawrence, 1993).

Kouzes and Posner (1995) developed the Student Leadership Practices Inventory

(Student LPI) for use specifically with college students. It measures five

transformational or empowering leadership practices used by successful leaders. A study

of the relationship between psychological type and leadership practices of women student

leaders may have implications for leadership training and education for women.

Additionally, leadership has been associated with power (Kezar, 2000), therefore

focusing on traits related to power such as type of leadership position, length of

leadership experience, and gender composition of organization is an important

consideration.

Research Questions

There are six research questions that will be addressed in this study:

1. Is there a relationship between the distributions of psychological types, as
measured by the MBTI, and leadership practices, as measured by the Student LPI, among
women student leaders?








2. Is there a relationship between the distributions of psychological types, as
measured by the MBTI, and leadership practices, as measured by the Student LPI, based
on type of leadership experience among women student leaders?

3. Is there a relationship between the distributions of psychological types, as
measured by the MBTI, and leadership practices, as measured by the Student LPI, based
on the gender composition of organizational membership in college among women
student leaders?

4. Is there a relationship between the distributions of psychological types, as
measured by the MBTI, and leadership practices, as measured by the Student LPI, based
on the length of leadership experience among women student leaders?

5. How does the distribution of psychological types, as measured by the MBTI,
of women student leaders compare with a sample population of other women college
students?

6. How does the distribution of leadership practices, as measured by the Student
LPI, of women student leaders compare with a sample population of female college
student leaders?

Definition of Terms

For the purposes of this study, the following definitions apply:

Challenging the Process-a leadership behavior characterized by searching for

opportunities, experimenting, and taking risks (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

Empowerment-"an act of building, developing, and increasing power through

cooperation, sharing and working together" (Vogt & Murrell, 1990. p. 8).

Enabling Others to Act-a leadership behavior characterized by fostering collaboration,

and strengthening others (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

Encouraging the Heart-a leadership behavior characterized by recognizing individual

contribution, and celebrating accomplishments (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

Extraversion (E)-"the attitude (orientation) that identifies the direction and flow of

energy to the outer world" (Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998, p. 390).








Feeling (F)-the judging function "by which decisions are made through ordering choices

in terms of personal values" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 390).

Feminine Paradigm-characterized as heterarchically ordered, perspectival, holographic,

and using mutual causality (Rogers, 1988).

Generative Leadershipstresses developing productivity, creativity, and a sense of self-

esteem, accentuates mutual empowerment between leaders and followers, emphasizes

collaboration as a means of recognizing and achieving goals, and is synergistic (Sagaria

& Johnstrud, 1988).

Inspiring a Shared Vision-a leadership behavior characterized by envisioning the future

and enlisting others (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

Introversion (I)-"the attitude (orientation) that identifies the direction and flow of

attention and energy to the inner world" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 390).

Intuition (N)-the perceiving function "that is concerned with meanings, relationships,

patterns, and possibilities" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 391).

Judging (J)-"the attitude (orientation) that indicates that either thinking or feeling is the

preferred way of dealing with the outer world and is likely to appear in observable

behavior" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 391).

Leadership-"the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations

(Kouzes & Posner, 1995, p. 30).

Masculine Paradigm-characterized as hierarchically ordered, objective, machine like, and

linear (Rogers, 1988).

Modeling the Way-a leadership behavior characterized by setting the example and

planning small wins (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).









Perceiving (P)-"the attitude (orientation) that indicates that either sensing or intuition is

the preferred way of dealing with the outer world and is likely to appear in observable

behavior" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 391).

Personality Type-the combination and interaction of the four preferences chosen:

Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I), Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N), Thinking (T)

versus Feeling (F), and Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P) based on the Myers-Briggs

Type Indicator (Myers, 1989).

Sensing (S)-"the perceiving function that is concerned with experiences available to the

senses" (Myers et aL, 1998, p. 392).

Thinking (T)-the judging function "by which decisions are made by ordering choices in

terms of logical cause-effect and objective analysis of relevant information" (Myers et al.,

p. 393).

Transactional Leadership-characterized by a transaction or exchange the pay or praise

for good performance and punishment for bad performance (Bass, 1995).

Transformational Leadership-occurs "when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of

their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purpose and

mission of the group, and when they stir their employees to look beyond their self-

interest for the good of the group" (Bass, 1995, p. 120).

Woman Student Leader-a female college student in a leadership position such as an

executive member of a student organization or a sorority, a member of student

government, a peer educator, or a resident assistant.





14


Overview for the Study

The remainder of this study is organized into four chapters. The second chapter is

a review of the literature relevant to the study. Chapter III includes the research

methodology. In Chapter IV, results of the data analyses will be presented. Chapter V

will include the discussion, implications, limitations, suggestions, and recommendations.














CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The theoretical framework of this study is built around two major areas in which

much research has been done: theories on the nature of leadership and the theory of

psychological type. This chapter presents an examination of the theories on leadership, a

discussion on women's leadership, a summary of the relevant research studies of

leadership and psychological type, a description of the theory of psychological type and

the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, an explanation of the Student Leadership Practices

Inventory, and a summary of the chapter.

Leadership Theories

Leadership is an old English word that means "to guide on the path" (Slack,

1990) and currently there are more than 350 definitions of leadership (Jablonski, 1996).

The earliest leadership theories were the "great man" theories (Bass, 1990) in which the

underlying belief was that leaders were born into their role. The trait approach popular

until the late 1940's posited that leaders possessed certain characteristics, including

intelligence, self-confidence, sociability, initiative, and dependability (Bass, 1990).

In the 1950's and 1960's the behavioral theories originated which were based on

the concept of operant conditioning. Leaders used certain observable behaviors that

affected the observable behaviors of their subordinates (Bass, 1990). Reinforcement was

contingent upon the employee performing the desired behavior.








Situational theories were basically the opposite of both the earlier great man and

trait theories and were prevalent from the 1950's through the early 1980's. The

hypothesis of these theories was that a leader was the product of environmental factors

(Bass, 1990). Person-situational theories provided a combination of trait and

environmental models in that in order for leaders to emerge during a time of crisis, it

was thought that they had to possess certain personal characteristics (Bass, 1990). This

approach was often used to predict the potential of leaders as supervisors and managers.

Contingency theory widely accepted during the 1970's (Komives et al., 1998),

had the premise that each situation required a different leadership style in order for the

leader to be effective (Gray & Starke, 1984). That is, a task-oriented leader may be most

effectual in conditions that are most favorable or unfavorable to him or her, while a

relationship-oriented leader may be most effectual in conditions that lie between the two

extremes.

Another example of a situational contingency theory was the Path-Goal theory,

the basis of which was that leaders aroused their followers to perform and to gain

gratification from the task to be completed. The leaders defined the goals of their

employees as well as the route to those goals (Bass, 1990). Path-Goal Theory has been

reinterpreted in terms of operant conditioning.

The development of unified and successful organizations was the focal point of

the humanistic theories, as "humans are by nature, motivated organisms and

organizations are by nature, structured and controlled" (Bass, 1990, p. 43). The purpose

of leadership was to alter the organization so that individuals discerned their own ability

to satisfy their own needs and simultaneously contributed to the goals of the








organization. An example of this type of theory was McGregor's (1966) Theory X and

Y (Manning, 1992) in which the underlying belief was that a leader's view of people

shaped his or her behavior.

Influence theories were popular beginning in the mid 1920's through 1977

(Komives et al., 1998); Freudian projection by the followers was the basis for the intense

love and loyalty to the leader. Charismatic/heroic leaders tended to appear as saviors in

political, organizational and military settings in times of crisis. There was a belief in the

leader on the part of the followers because of their personage alone (Bass, 1990).

The exchange theories were based on the supposition that interaction was a form

of exchange in which individuals in a group made contributions at a sacrifice to

themselves and obtained returns at a sacrifice to the group or other individuals. Both the

group and the individual found the exchange rewarding so it continued (Bass, 1990).

Transactional leadership represents the traditional or "masculine" view of

leadership. Both contingency and social exchange theories are examples of transactional

leadership in which leaders promote exchanging pay, praise or punishment for employee

effort (Bass, 1990). This transaction or exchange the pay or praise for good

performance and punishment for bad performance characterizes effective leadership

(Bass, 1995). Smith and Smits (1994) also identified the following qualities as

"masculine": "leader as master (leadership from above), influence through exercise of

legitimate power (position), competitive (play hard), individualism (by me for me), and

exclusionary (divide and conquer)" (p. 44).

After much research, transactional leadership was found to promote mediocrity

in managers (Bass, 1995). Transactional leaders can be competent managers,








motivational, attain goals, and foster job contentment, yet transactional approaches are

inadequate in explaining the higher degrees of follower motivation, loyalty, satisfaction,

and aspirations associated with the transformational leader (Bass, 1990).

Rogers (1988, 1996) discussed a paradigm shift, which is currently taking place

in Western culture from the masculine or conventional paradigm characterized as

hierarchically ordered, objective, machine like, and linear, to a new paradigm grounded

in the values of the female ethos. Beginning in late 1970 reciprocal leadership theories

were postulated. The focus of reciprocal theory was "the relational and reciprocal nature

of the leader-follower interaction" (Komives et al., 1998, p. 42) and thus feminine

leadership had begun to take shape (Loden, 1985). Currently feminine leadership is

identified as transformational, empowering or connective (Komives, 1994b).

Smith and Smits (1994) identified the following qualities as "feminine": "leader

as a colleague (leadership from within), influence through persuasion (interpersonal

networking), cooperative (play fair), collectivism (team first), and inclusionary (power

sharing, sense of family)" (p. 44). Cantor and Bernay (1992) believed that the

relationship between leaders and followers would be less hierarchical and more

interactive as women began to influence leadership theory. Romano (1996) found that

women student leaders use many of the same terms when describing their leadership

styles.

Women in leadership positions have different views on leadership than men

(Kezar, 2000) and tend to operate differently (Helgeson, 1990; Wenniger & Conroy,

2001). Clark, Carafella, and Ingram (1999) discussed the relational character of women

leaders, and Pierce (1998, p. 60) believed that "women bring a unique set of








perspectives, a different orientation, an alternative pattern... ". Ketelle (1997, p.35)

stated "recognition that stereotypical female qualities can add positive dimensions to

leadership is vital in helping women find a place in leadership".

According to Allen (1990) the following are new assumptions about leadership:

(a) Organizations will not be structured hierarchically... ; (b) leaders will need
to think and work in the intangible realm of ideas, meaning, and symbols; (c)
leaders in a dynamic system will need to lead from the heart as well as the head;
(d) leaders in a dynamic system will think about power differently and it will be
used to empower others ... ; (e) leaders will need to focus on the big picture; (f)
leaders will ... be flexible instead of rigid; (g) leaders will experience and be
comfortable with rapid change; and (h) leaders of a dynamic system will involve
other people in decisions and treat them with respect and consideration. (pp. 58-
59)

Muller (1994, p. 81) created a definition of empowerment based on her

phenomenological research with six women leaders: "the process of acknowledging the

latent potency of others and assisting them to act purposefully and assertively to reach

their potential growth potential". Komives (1994b, p. 53) developed a schema of

"Dimensions of Individual Empowerment Within an Organizational Setting" to help

explain the concept of empowerment with regard to an individual in an organization.

The quadrants are as follows: (a) individuals are unmotivated, passive, or resistant when

organizational conditions that promote empowerment are absent and individual self-

empowerment is absent; (b) individuals are uncomfortable or become empowered when

organizational conditions that promote empowerment are present and individual self-

empowerment is absent; (c) individuals are surviving, swimming upstream, or frustrated

when organizational conditions that promote empowerment are absent and individual

self-empowerment is present; and (d) individuals are empowered and valued when








organizational conditions that promote empowerment are present and individual self-

empowerment is present.

Generative leadership (Sagaria & Johnstrud, 1988) is guided by four premises:

"(a) leadership is taught and learned; (b) the opportunities to cultivate leadership are

limitless; (c) leadership is not a zero-sum game; and (d) shared leadership is desirable"

(pp. 15-16). Generative leadership stresses the commitment to developing productivity,

creativity, and a sense of self-esteem. Mutual empowerment between leaders and

followers is accentuated as it is synergistic and emphasizes collaboration as a means of

recognizing and achieving goals.

Transformational leadership encourages superior leadership performance (Bass,

1995). It occurs

when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they
generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, and
when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the
good of the group. (p.125)

Research has shown that "managers who behave like transformational leaders are more

likely to be seen by their colleagues and employees as satisfying and effective leaders

than are those who behave like transactional leaders" (p.125).

These results may be accomplished in several ways. Leaders may inspire their

followers because they are charismatic: their employees want to identify with them and

are excited by the thought that with extra effort they may be able to achieve great things.

Leaders may also meet the emotional needs of their subordinates: they understand and

appreciate the diversity among their followers and are sensitive to their employee's

individual needs. Finally, leaders may intellectually stimulate their subordinates: they








are willing to teach employees innovative ways of solving routine problems and

accentuate rational solutions.

Rogers (1988) stated that when the shift of paradigms in the Western culture is

complete, "leadership, which integrates the values of the female ethos" characterized as

heterarchically ordered, perspectival, holographic, and using mutual causality "will be

the norm rather than the exception" (p. 1). Although transactional leadership is

identified as the masculine leadership model and transformational leadership is seen as

the feminine leadership model, by no means are the characteristics of each model limited

exclusively to men and women respectively (Loden, 1985). Rather either set of traits

can be found among either gender. The key distinction is that as a class, men exhibit

behaviors particular to transactional leadership to a far greater degree than women and

women exhibit behaviors particular to transformational leadership to a far greater degree

than men. Over the long term the distinctions between the two models may begin to

blur. At this point feminine leadership provides an effectual complement to the

conventional model of leadership (Cantor & Bernay, 1992).

In fact ideal leaders may use a combination of both models (Book, 2000; Guido-

DiBrito, Noteboom, Nathan, & Fenty, 1996; Munson, 1988) in order to capitalize on

men's and women's strengths (Foote, Powell, & Shelton, 1995). The traditional model

may indeed be beneficial to use at times (Jablonski, 1996). Wislocki-Goin (1993)

introduced the "Tantric Proposition" in which leadership is seen as synergistic between

the male and female models, and Regan and Brooks (1995) proposed a double-helix

leadership model in which one strand represents the masculine way and the other the

feminine way.








This new approach to leadership ny help revitalize not only higher education but

American society at large (Foote, Powell, & Shelton, 1995). Guido-DiBrito et al (1996)

studied the leadership framework of both a male and female student affairs professional.

They found that both alternated between traditional and transformational leadership, but

the woman was more heterarchical in her approach and the man was more hierarchical.

More research is needed to provide more information about the qualities that

transformational leaders possess (Lincoln, 1989).

Women's Leadership

Historically, the term leader brings about images of men, as leaders were

monarchs, military leaders, or priests. Women were ineligible for these positions as they

were thought to be lacking the strength and moral character (Slack, 1990; Wislocki-

Goin, 1993). Early theories valued more masculine characteristics like rationality,

logical thought, and objectivity. Women became followers and thus were denied any

kind of leadership role model (Tully, 1989). They were also barred from institutions of

higher learning and thus had no means to practice their leadership skills (Wislocki-Goin,

1993; Chliwniak, 1997). They did not receive 'the same level of support,

encouragement, and range of opportunities as men to develop their leadership skills"

(Person & Cochran, 1997, p. 111).

It is only recently that women have begun to be included in texts and research

about leadership. Stogdill's Handbook ofLeadership: Theory and Research added a

chapter on women in 1975 (Tully, 1989), however there are still a number of books on

leadership that emulate the masculine model and provide numerous examples of








governmental, military, and religious leadership models (Rusch, Gosetti, & Mohoric,

1991; Wislocki-Goin, 1993).

James MacGregor Bums' Leadership (1978), one of the first works on

transformational leadership mentions no women as examples of transformational leaders

(Irby & Brown, 1995). Early research also focused almost entirely on White males

including The Ohio State classic behavioral leadership studies during the late 1950's,

which drew their sample from populations of Air Force flight crews, school

superintendents, foremen in manufacturing plants, and ROTC cadets (Tully, 1989).

According to Bass (1990) by the late 1980's women had made some progress in

the area of leadership as several countries including Britain, India, Norway, Pakistan, Sri

Lanka, and the Philippines had women Prime Ministers, Canada had a female Governor-

General, and the United States had a female candidate for Vice President. A number of

women had also held leadership positions in education, health care, and business and

industry. However, these women made up only a small percentage in contrast to the

number of men in leadership positions.

Between 1987 and 1999, women-owned businesses increased by 103% and in

1999 there were 9.1 million women-owned companies in the United States (Book,

2000). Women also filled 12% of the senior executive positions in the Fortune 500 and

held 2% of board seats in a study of 200 Internet companies (Book, 2000). In a survey of

students regarding their perceptions of leaders for the year 2000, Karnes and McGinnis

(1995) found that students believed that women would have a "larger and stronger role"

(p.32), including potential for the offices of President and/or Vice President of the

United States.








The same trends have held true for higher education where women make up

over half of the undergraduate population (Astin, 1998; The Nation, 2000). Leonard and

Sigall (1989) found that although most organizations have a membership of both men

and women, men were more likely to hold leadership positions. Larger institutions do

not offer as many opportunities for women (Kuh, Schuh, Whitt, Andreas, Lyons,

Strange, Krehbiel, & MacKay, 1991) and women student leaders are not elected as often

as men, especially at large universities (Astin, 1993; Leonard & Sigall, 1989).

Leadership is considered an equally significant developmental activity in higher

education for both men and women (Astin, 1993; Miller & Jones, 1981, Morrell &

Morrell, 1986; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991) so women who are not realizing their

ability as leaders are missing out on an important developmental pursuit (Cress, Astin,

Zimmerman-Oster, & Burkhardt, 2001; Guido-DiBrito & Batchelor, 1989; Person &

Cochran, 1997; Romano, 1996).

Women tend to shy away from being in charge of campus-wide organizations

and are sometimes ignored in organizational settings (Silien, Lucas, & Wells, 1992).

They are not seen as serious students or leaders and thus have to work harder for respect.

They are often intimidated by the competiveness of men, are unwilling to assert

themselves (Astin, 1993; Leonard & Sigall, 1989), and are more likely to be influenced

by peers (Baxter-Magolda, 1992; Holland & Eisenhart, 1990).

Leonard and Sigall (1989) found that women lost peer support in holding a

leadership role, and were rejected when seen as assertive or powerful. Women are more

likely to preserve relationships rather than strive to win (Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger,

& Tarule, 1986). Women may also fear being labeled "not dateable" if they hold a








leadership position (Wolf-Wendel, 2000). Holland and Eisenhart (1990) discovered that

the value of romantic relationships tended to be emphasized by the co-ed culture for

women while for men the value of academics, athletics, and other achievements was

emphasized.

Astin (1993, p. 406) established that "... educational programs preserve and

strengthen, rather than reduce or weaken stereotyped differences between men and

women in behavior, personality, aspirations, and achievement." Irby and Brown (1995)

found that both males and females have stereotypical ideas about gender difference in

effective leaders. Lips' (2000) study of college student's visions of power supported

this in that women were less sure than men about holding a position of power.

Developmentally, women want a sense of belonging and self-knowledge (Silien

et aL, 1992) and due to the "chilly climate" (Hall & Sandler, 1982, 1984; Sandler,

Silverberg, & Hall, 1996) they feel they are not a part of the academic environment

(Belenky et al., 1986). Their experiences at co-ed institutions may negatively impact

their social confidence and activism (Kim, 2001, Wolf-Wendel, 2000) as well as their

personal and intellectual development (Pascerella et al., 1997; Whitt et al., 1999).

Women are more likely to engage academically and extracurricularly if their institutions

care about learning (Smith et aL, 1995). However, Drew and Work (1998) found no

evidence that women are experiencing a chilly climate.

Additionally, women college students tend to have a lower self-concept than men

(Hafner, 1989; Silien et al., 1992); they have been conditioned socially that they are out

of place as leaders and have been provided relatively little support (Person & Cochran,

1997). Some feel conflicted between the expectations that they have as leaders and








those that they have as women (Tully, 1989) and they face a dilemma of whether to

express or suppress their feelings (Silien et al., 1992).

Romano (1996) through her qualitative study on women student leaders found

that they use a collaborative, empowering leadership style. They see leadership as

"inclusive rather than exclusive" (Wislocki-Goin, 1993, p. 9) and lead through

connections with others (Silien et al., 1992). They also seek to maintain harmony within

a group by using a participative decision-making style (Chliwniak, 1997; Fisher, 1991).

Finally, their communication style favors more indirect means, the individual voice

(Kezar & Moriarty, 2000; Silien et al., 1992), and building rapport (Chliwniak, 1997).

Typically, women have had to adjust the male leadership model in order to make

it "user-friendly" (Kezar & Moriarty, 2000; Wislocki-Goin, 1993). However, Romano's

qualitative study of women organizational presidents at three large universities also

showed that women student leaders modeled themselves after women rather than

traditional leadership models and they felt the experience helped their development.

Existing leadership theories need to be modified to include both men's and women's

experience (Shakeshaft, 1987) and leadership training programs need to be reevaluated

in order to include the differences of men and women in developing leadership (Kezar &

Moriarty, 2000), particularly focusing on the feminine perspective (Irby & Brown,

1995).

Student leadership programs are becoming more reflective of these emerging

paradigms (Fisher & Sartorelli, 1992). Allen (1990) stated that student leadership

education needs to include the perspectives of women and diverse cultures, as leadership

is a "complex phenomenon." Allen (1996) further asserted leadership programs need to









include the following components: "leadership education, leadership development, and

a leadership culture" (p. 14). Silien et al. (1992) indicated that in order to effectively

teach leadership the following should be recognized:

1. Leadership programs should be grounded in self-awareness experiences and
exercises...
2. Leadership programs must address ways in which students can develop
relationships with one another.
3. A leadership program should include basic skills training.
4. Leadership programs should recognize positional and non-positional student
participants.
5. The evaluation of a leadership program must be on-going.
(pp. 36-37)

Mclntire (1989) determined that women may need special skills in order to

prepare them to confront the glass ceiling that many women face. Howard-Hamilton

and Ferguson (1998) recommended that women participate in programs that will

enhance their assertiveness and Adams and Keim (2000) believed that women would

benefit from programs focusing on building self-confidence. Opportunities for women to

develop in a women-only environment, like a women-only college may provide a more

comfortable atmosphere for women to excel (Kim & Alvarez, 1995). Additionally,

Wolf-Wendel (2000) showed that "women-friendly" colleges pushed female students to

get involved in leadership activities where there maybe a gender imbalance.

The 1991 National Leadership Symposium's focus group on women's

leadership suggested that leadership development for women needs to include a lot of

processing time as well as personal reflection. Women also need more opportunities in

which to refine their leadership skills and they need visible mentors and role models.

Pascarella et al. (1997, p. 124) stated that ". .. programs aimed at fostering a climate of








gender equity are justifiable primarily because they are the right thing to do, not just

because they enhance student development."

Research on Type and Leadership

There are three studies, which indicated a significant relationship between type

and transformational leadership. Van Eron (1991) found that intuitive and perceiving

types were more likely to self-report the use of a transformational leadership style than

sensing or judging types in a study of senior executives of a pharmaceutical company.

Sanchez (1988), using the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire in a study of YMCA and

YWCA executive directors, discovered that type rather than situation determined

transformational leadership behavior. Also Roucsh and Atwater (1992) found in their

research with Naval Academy midshipmen that sensing and feeling types had a

significant association with transformational leadership as measured by the Multi-factor

Officer Questionnaire.

No relationship has been found between psychological type and leadership style

using the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description Questionnaire and the

Fiedler Contingency Model Questionnaire (Berg, 1993; Davis, 1981; Dietl, 1981;

Dobbs, 1988; Flores, 1987; Frankowski, 1992; Pierson, 1984; Savelsbergh, 1989; Vail,

1991). Henry-Lucas's (1993) study of self-perceived leadership styles of community

college deans of instruction, failed to establish any significant differences between

psychological type and self-perceived leadership styles.

Routemaa and Ponto (1994) did find some relationships between type and

leadership style using Reddin's 3-D model and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational








Leadership Model (1988). Extravert types were more "executive," sensing types were

more "bureaucratic," and feeling types were more "missionary."

Hammer and Kummerow's (1996) study comparing the MBTI with the

Leadership Style Scale of the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory indicated that extravert and

intuitive types were correlated with "leading by delegating" and "taking charge," and

introvert and sensing types were correlated with "leading by example." Also, Vanover

(1998) using the Leadership Behavior Analysis II, concluded that the introverted-

sensing-feeling-perceptive and extraverted-sensing-feeling-perceptive types had the

greatest leadership effectiveness among Army Civil Service middle-level leaders.

Walck (1991) in a case study analysis of undergraduate students determined that

feeling types used the philosophy of participative management better than all of the

other types. However, Conlen (1992) found no relationship between participative

leadership behaviors and type using the Group Environment Scale.

Intuitive types described themselves as "facilitators and process managers" and

Sensing types described themselves as "planners," in a structured interview study of

corporate planners conducted by Chung (1986). Johnson and Golden (1994) found that

extravert, intuitive, or feeling type industry managers were rated more highly on

motivation and morale measures by their subordinates.

Anderson (1992) using the Leadership Practices Inventory and personal

interviews determined that intuitive types were significantly related to "challenging the

process," extravert types were related to "encouraging the heart," and introverted

judging types as well as thinking judging types were related to "modeling the way" in

her research with counseling center directors. However, Parks' (1995) study of women








university student's care/justice aspect of psychological development and

transformational leadership practices found no significant differences between thinking

types and feeling types using the Student Leadership Practices Inventory. There was a

difference indicated on the "encouraging the heart" subscale but not at the statistically

significant level of .05.

Fitzgerald (1994) established that ratings of mangers on the Management Skills

Profile by peers and subordinates showed significant correlations between sensing,

thinking, and judging types and administrative skills like time management, planning,

and organizing. Mills, Robey, and Smith (1985) found that when handling conflict,

feeling types had a tendency to use accommodation and cooperation, extravert types

were assertive and integrative, judging types used compromise, and thinking types were

competitive.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is based on Carl Gustav Jung's theory of

psychological type, which was first published in 1921. Jung initially thought that there

are two types of people extroverts and introverts. Extraverts are defined as directed

toward the external world of people and activities, while introverts are drawn toward the

internal world of thoughts and occurrences. Extraversion and introversion were seen as

two different attitudes; attitude referring to "a readiness of the psyche to act or react in a

certain way ... having an attitude is synonymous with an a priori orientation to a

definite thing" (1921/1971, p.414).

Ten years after his preliminary research, Jung decided that these two types didn't

provide the full picture. He then identified two sets of functions: opposite perceiving








functions sensation (or sensing) and intuition, and opposite judging functions -

thinking and feeling (1921/1971). A function is "a particular form of psychic activity

that remains the same in principle under varying conditions" (1921/1971, p. 436).

Perceiving functions are used to take in information and are considered irrational, "not

as denoting something contrary to reason, but something beyond reason" (1921/1971, p.

454). Judging functions are used to draw conclusions about what has been perceived

and are considered rational "because they are characterized by the supremacy of the

reasoning and judging functions" (1921/1971, p. 359).

He also determined that each person typically uses one of the two attitudes,

extraversion or introversion with the dominant mental function of sensing, intuition,

thinking, or feeling. The dominant function is the one that directs the personality and is

used most often. Jung defined eight types (1921/1971): (a) extraverts with dominant

sensing, (b) introverts with dominant sensing, (c) extraverts with dominant intuition,

(d) introverts with dominant intuition, (e) extraverts with dominant thinking, (f)

introverts with dominant thinking, (g) extraverts with dominant feeling, and (h)

introverts with dominant feeling. Jung stated, "I distinguish these functions from one

another because they cannot be related or reduced to one another" (1921/1971, p.437).

Myers and Briggs built on Jung's theory with the addition of the judging -

perceiving dichotomy (Myers, et al., 1998). This further developed Jung's ideas about

an auxiliary function, which would provide a complement to the dominant function for

every type. Thus bringing the total to sixteen types:

(a) extraverts with dominant sensing and auxiliary thinking (ESTP), (b) extraverts with

dominant sensing and auxiliary feeling (ESFP), (c) introverts with dominant sensing and








auxiliary thinking (ISTJ), (d) introverts with dominant sensing and auxiliary feeling

(ISFJ), (e) extraverts with dominant intuition and auxiliary thinking (ENTP),

(f) extraverts with dominant intuition and auxiliary feeling (ENFP), (g) introverts with

dominant intuition and auxiliary thinking (INTJ), (h) introverts with dominant intuition

and auxiliary feeling (INFJ), (i) extraverts with dominant thinking and auxiliary sensing

(ESTJ), (j) extraverts with dominant thinking and auxiliary intuition (ENTJ),

(k) introverts with dominant thinking and auxiliary sensing (ISTP), (1) introverts with

dominant thinking and auxiliary intuition (INTP), (m) extraverts with dominant feeling

and auxiliary sensing (ESFJ), (n) extraverts with dominant feeling and auxiliary intuition

(ENFJ), (o) introverts with dominant feeling and auxiliary sensing (ISFP), and

(p) introverts with dominant feeling and auxiliary intuition (INFP).

Hirsh (1985, p. 17) created a model which demonstrates the interplay between

the attitudes and function:

Sensing

Introvert Perception
Intuition

Behavior

Thinking

Extravert Judgement F
~ Feeling


It is imperative to note that there is a dynamic interaction between the attitudes

and functions of each type. All people use the four mental processes of Sensing (S),

Intuition (I), Thinking (T), and Feeling (F). However, each type differs by the priority








of each function and in the attitudes extraversionn and introversion) used with the

function. This is analogous to the fact that everyone has a right and left hand, but

typically each individual gives preference to one hand or the other.

The dominant function, which is considered the most conscious, establishes the

order of conscious energy of the other three functions. For example, if Intuition is

dominant, then Sensing will be inferior, and thinking and feeling will be somewhere in-

between.

An individual's results to the MBTI are presented in the form of a four-letter

type based on the four dichotomies:

1. Extraverts (E) versus Introverts (I)-Preferences characterized by energies
focused on the outer world of people and objects (E) or the inner world of ideas and
reflection (I).

2. Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N)-Preferences which are characterized by
perceiving by use of the senses (S) or perceiving by use of insight into possibilities,
meanings, and relationships (N).

3. Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)-Preferences which are characterized by
making decisions based on logic of connections of ideas (T) or by making decisions
based on weighing values and merits of the issues (F).

4. Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)-Preferences which are characterized by
living in an orderly way, seeking closure, planning activities, and taking a judging (T or
F) attitude (J) or by living in a flexible, spontaneous way, and using a perceptive (S or
N) process (P).

The MBTI differs from other personality instruments according to Myers et al.

(1998). It is based on Jung's (1921/1971) theory, which proposes dichotomies that are

unbiased toward mental health and functioning. The numerical preference clarity index

is indicative of the strength of an individual's preference for one of the two poles of a

dichotomy as well as "the degree of confidence in the accuracy of placement of a

respondent into a particular type or category" (Myers et al., 1998, p.5).








The MBTI is also a self-report instrument and as such respondents are seen as

the best able to determine the accuracy of the depiction of their particular type as based

on their self-report. Further, there are certain dynamic relationships between the four

dichotomies that are the basis for the descriptions and characteristics of the 16 different

personality types. Another aspect of this theory is that there is development of type

throughout the lifespan. Finally, there is a broad scope of practical applications for the

MBTI as the scales of attitude and function that relate to almost every aspect of

behavior. These applications include counseling and psychotherapy, education, career

counseling, organizations, and leadership (Myers et al., 1998).

Student Leadership Practices Inventory

Kouzes and Posner (1995) stated that belief in the traditional, masculine

approach to management "prevents people from becoming effective leaders" (p. 15).

They define leadership as "the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared

aspirations" (p.30).

Many of the leadership programs developed for use in colleges and universities

are based on models from management and the corporate sector (Freeman, Knott, &

Schwartz, 1994). The Student Leadership Practices Inventory is one of the first

instruments designed specifically for college students (Kouzes & Posner, 1998).

Kouzes and Posner (1995) believe that leadership is a process; it is "an

observable, learnable set of practices" (p. 16). Through their case-study research in

developing the original Leadership Practices Inventory, they discovered that there were

five significant leadership practices used by successful leaders. By using the same type








of approach, they found that these practices held true for college students as well

(Posner & Brodsky, 1992)

The first practice is termed "challenging the process." Effective leaders look to

change the status quo in order to improve and they have learned to identify good ideas

and adopt them (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

"Inspiring a shared vision" is the second practice. Leaders imagine what could

be, they see the possibilities and are able to enthusiastically communicate their dreams

to their constituents (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

The third leadership practice identified is "enabling others to act." Leaders

realize that they cannot accomplish great things alone; they need a team. They are able

to empower others and instill a sense of ownership. From the subordinates view, this is

the most important practice of the five (Kouzes & Posner, 1995).

"Modeling the way" is the fourth practice established from Kouzes and Posner's

(1995) research. Leaders are role models and set an example through their actions.

They must be aware of their personal beliefs and be consistent through their words and

behaviors.

Kouzes and Posner (1995) chose "encouraging the heart" as the fifth leadership

practice. Leaders encourage their followers and recognize and reward their

achievements. Leaders help keep their constituents making progress even during

challenging times. True leaders love what they do and this provides self-

encouragement.

Kouzes and Posner (1995) also have created the "Ten Commitments of

Leadership" which correspond to the five leadership practices. They are:








(a) Challenging the Process-search out challenging opportunities to change,
grow innovate, and improve and experiment, take risks, and learn from the
accompanying mistakes; (b) Inspiring a Shared Vision-envision an uplifting and
ennobling future and enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their
values, interests, hopes, and dreams; (c) Enabling Others to Act-foster
collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust and strengthen
people by giving power away, providing choice, developing competence,
assigning critical tasks, and offering visible support; (d) Modeling the Way-set
the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values and
achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and build commitment;
(e) Encouraging the Heart-recognize individual contributions to the success of
every project and celebrate team accomplishments regularly. (p.18)

Posner and Rosenberger (as cited in Kouzes & Posner, 1998) suggested that the

leadership practices of student leaders are not affected by the type of leadership

experience in which the student is engaged (e. g., paid employment vs. volunteer).

Additionally, they determined that student leaders who served in a leadership position

for a second year engaged "in each of the five leadership practices significantly more

often than those who were just starting in the same positions" (p. 10) reinforcing the idea

that leadership is a learned behavior. By using the Student Leadership Practices

Inventory, student leaders are able to identify which practices they are accomplished at

implementing and which practices they may need to improve.

Summary

As we begin the twenty-first century, leadership has been undergoing some vast

changes. Historically, leaders were men and thus leadership theory and research focused

on men. However, currently, there is a shift to a more feminine approach to leadership.

It is thought that the ideal leader will incorporate both male and female paradigms into

their style of leadership, especially focusing on empowerment.

Because women's participation in leadership has been limited, today, they face

many challenges. Although women college students outnumber men, women students








are less inclined to be in major leadership positions. They may need some special

assistance in order to overcome personal and societal issues regarding leadership.

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) has been used extensively in studying

leadership. Although there have been no correlations between psychological type and

leadership style, there have been some correlations between type and leadership

behaviors or practices, including those measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory.

The Student Leadership Practices Inventory (Student LPI) was developed

specifically for college students based on the original Leadership Practices Inventory.

As is indicated by past research, women student leaders need programs that focus

particularly on their needs as leaders.

This chapter presented a review of the literature relevant to psychological type

and the nature of leadership. It also provided a discussion on the theories of leadership,

and an examination of women's leadership. Additionally, it summarized the relevant

research studies of leadership and psychological type. Finally, it presented a description

of the theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as well as an

explanation of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory.

The purpose of this review was to identify factors such as psychological type

preference and demographics, which might influence empowering leadership practices

of women student leaders. In the next chapter, an examination of the quantitative data

gathered from women student leaders through measurement of psychological type and

leadership practices will be presented. The effects of type of leadership experience,

gender composition of organization, and length of leadership experience will also be





38


explored. Additionally, a comparison of the sample group in this study with other

sample populations will be provided.














CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

Overview

The purpose of this study was to determine which psychological types of women

student leaders related to empowering leadership practices. Specifically, this study

examined the relationship between Jung's (1921/1971) concept of psychological type and

leadership practices of female college students.

This chapter contains an explanation of the research methodology and procedures

to be used in this study. Included are descriptions of the population, sample and

sampling procedures, instrumentation, and data analyses. The chapter concludes with a

discussion of the methodological limitations of this study.

Population

The population of interest for this study was women college students who were

identified as campus leaders. The sample of women student leaders was selected from

student organizations, sororities, student government, peer educators, and housing staff.

Those women selected from student organizations, sororities, and student government

were considered student leaders if they held an elected position. Those women who were

peer educators or resident assistants were considered leaders as they were selected for

these types of positions based on their leadership abilities and potential rather than

elected by peers. Additionally, resident assistants are paid employees of the university.








The University of Florida is described as a major, public, comprehensive, land-

grant, research institution. Students from more than 100 countries are represented, as are

all 50 states, and each of the 67 counties in Florida. Of the 44,276 students enrolled

during the fall 1999 semester, 51% were women, 75% were undergraduates, 18% were

graduate students, and 7% were in professional programs (University of Florida, March

2001).

The ethnic breakdown includes 9.4% Hispanic, 6.5% African-American, and

6.0% Asian-American or Pacific Islander. There are over 500 student organizations on

campus, 19 sororities, 160 resident assistants, 80 senators, and 43 cabinets in the

executive branch of the student government (University of Florida, March 2001).

Sampling Procedures

Prior to contact with the potential participants, permission (Appendix A) was

received from the University of Florida's (Human Subjects) Institutional Research

Review Board (IRB). Each organization, sorority, and housing area received a letter

(Appendix B) requesting participation from women leaders.

Within a week after the letter was mailed the researcher was contacted by the

organization presidents or directors, sorority presidents, and housing supervisors either by

phone or e-mail in order to explain the research and to arrange for the study to be

conducted. The researcher also used an alphabetical listing of organizations, chapters,

and housing areas to supplement the initial respondents. If an organization, chapter, or

housing area was unavailable to participate or was not interested, the researcher contacted

the next one following on the alphabetical listing until enough potential participants were

selected.








The organizational/staff meetings where participants were recruited were held at

various locations including the student union, classrooms, sororities, and housing

facilities. At the respective meetings the researcher introduced the study and asked for

volunteers to participate. Those women agreeing to complete the study received and

signed the informed consent form (Appendix C). Students were advised that this form

would be kept separate from other materials collected, as to maintain the anonymity of

the participants. The sample for this study consisted of 218 women college students who

held a leadership role in student organizations, sororities, student government, or served

as a peer educator or member of the housing staff. The sample size was chosen based on

the research design used, which was causal-comparative. According to Borg and Gall

(1989, p. 232), "in causal-comparative... research, it is desirable to have a minimum of

15 cases in each group to be compared."

Research Procedures

This study was conducted by administering a demographic form, the Myers-

Briggs Type Indicator, Form M, and the Student Leadership Practices Inventory- Self

form to 218 women student leaders. After reading the informed consent form, each

woman completed the demographic form, the MBTI and the Student LPI.

Information provided on the demographic inventory was recorded. The MBTI

was hand-scored using the Consulting Psychologists Press (CPP) template scoring

method. The Student LPI is a self-scoreable instrument, so they were hand-scored as

well. Of the 218 participants in the study, 18 did not complete all of the requested

materials. Therefore, the sample size used was 200.








All data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS).

Computations included descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, frequencies,

and percentages), correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression.

Hypotheses

There are four hypotheses that were addressed in this study:

1. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, among women student leaders.

2. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on type of leadership experience among women student
leaders.

3. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on gender composition of organizational membership.

4. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on length of leadership experience.

Research Questions

There were two additional research questions addressed in this study:

1. How does the distribution of psychological types as measured by the MBTI
among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution among
a sample population of women college students?

2. How does the distribution of leadership practices measured by the Student LPI
among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution among
a sample population of women college student leaders?

Assessment Instruments

The instrumentation for this study included a demographic inventory, the Myers-

Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Form M, and the Student Leadership Practices Inventory


-Self form (Kouzes & Posner, 1998).








Demographic Inventory

The demographic inventory (Appendix D) solicited information from participants

with regard to age, racial/ethnic background, current student classification, type of

leadership experience, length of leadership experience in college, and gender composition

of organizational membership.

Mvers-Briggs Type Indicator

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Appendix F) was developed beginning

in 1942 by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katherine Briggs (Myers et al., 1998). This

instrument is used to assess personality traits based on Jung's (1921/1971) theory of

psychological types.

It differs from other personality inventories in that its theoretical basis is in

dichotomies, which represent four opposite domains of mental functioning. The

interactions of the four preferences make up the sixteen possible personality types.

Further, the MBTI identifies an individual's preference on one of two opposite

poles of a personality category. In other words, it reflects on how clearly one's

preference is for a particular category or "the degree of confidence in the accuracy of

placing a respondent into a particular type category" (Myers et al., 1998, p. 5) versus

variation along a continuum.

The MBTI is a self-reported indicator as individuals are viewed as the best

qualified judges of the accuracy of the resulting type description. There is a dynamic

relationship among the four preferences and the 16 personality types result from a

specified interaction and not just a sum of the four preferences.








The theory pertains to development throughout an individual's life span. Also the

basic attitudes and mental functions that are measured by the indicator pertain to almost

every aspect of an individual's behavior. There are many varied applications for the

MBTI including career counseling, counseling and psychotherapy, education,

multicultural applications, health, teams, and leadership.

In order to make the results as accurate and precise as possible, the decision was

made to revise the MBTI. Form M differs from all other previous forms of the MBTI in

that outdated or awkward language was eliminated, all items are scored for type, the

method of item response theory is used to score for type, which provides a more precise

indication of preference, and the need for different weights according to gender were

eliminated.

As in previous forms both word-pair and phrase questions are used, and all ties

are broken toward introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), or perceiving (P).

Additionally, Form M uses a step I scoring method and is based on a national

representative sampling of adults over the age of 18.

According to the MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the

Myers Briggs Type Indicator (Myers et al., 1998), the reliability scores for Form M are

also higher than for previous forms. Internal consistency of continuous scores based on

split-half correlations range from .90 to .92 on logical split-half and .89 to .92 on

consecutive split-half. Internal consistency of continuous scores range from .91 to .92

based on coefficient alpha.

Form M also demonstrates higher test-retest reliabilities as test-retest correlations

of continuous scores range from .83 to .95 for a four-week interval. The internal








consistency reliability of Form M by age group shows a range from .89 to .94 for ages 18

to 21 and .90 to .92 for ages 22 to 25.

There are two categories of research used to demonstrate the validity of the

MBTI. The first, deals with the validity of the four preference scales that make up the

indicator. Evidence includes exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations

of continuous scores with other scales, comparison of the MBTI with the Jungian Type

Survey, evidence for dichotomies, studies of behavioral differences of the types, studies

of creativity, and studies of differences between preferences.

The second category of studies focuses on the validity of whole types. Research

on this category includes:

comparisons of MBTI types and self-estimates of type, analysis of type
distributions, analysis based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), analyses
involving whole types as the unit of analysis (attraction and satisfaction in
couples, rebelliousness and distress in veterans, and type and time orientation),
and comparisons with factor scores derived from other measures. (Myers et aL,
1998, p. 172)

Form M consists of 93 forced-choice items, and takes approximately 15 to 25 minutes to

complete.

Student Leadership Practices Inventory

The Student LPI (Appendix H) is an instrument developed by Kouzes and Posner

(1998) to assess leadership development for college students. It consists of two forms:

Self and Observer, which are completed by the student leader and a person who has

observed the "leadership behavior" of the student leaders.

Each form has 30 statements designed to measure five different leadership

practices: "challenging the process," "inspiring a shared vision," "enabling others to

act," "modeling the way," and "encouraging the heart." Each practice corresponds to six








statements on the inventory and are measured using a five-point Likert scale (1 meaning

rarely and 5 very frequently). Scores on each of the five subscales range from a low of 5

to a high of 30.

According to the Student Leadership Practices Inventory Facilitators Guide

(Kouzes & Posner, 1998), the reported internal reliability scores include .66 for

"challenging the process," .79 for "inspiring a shared vision," .70 for "enabling others to

act,".68 for "modeling the way," and .80 for "encouraging the heart." Other studies have

indicated internal reliabilities as high as between .83 and .92. Additionally, test-retest

reliability is at levels greater than .91 correlation over periods ranging from one or two

days to three or four weeks.

In terms of validity there are a number of studies that have used the Student LPI.

In research conducted with fraternity chapter presidents, sorority chapter presidents,

resident assistants, and orientation counselors, all were found to be more effective in their

positions the more that they engaged in each of the five leadership practices.

For the purposes of this study, only the Student LPI-Self form will be used.

Directions for completing it appear on the first page of the questionnaire. The Student

LPI takes about 5 or 10 minutes to complete.

Research Design and Data Analysis

The causal-comparative method, also called the ex post facto method is used to

discover causal relationships between variables (Borg & Gall, 1989). It is used when

individuals possess a certain characteristic before the study, which cannot be manipulated

experimentally as in the case of the variables in this research.








This method was also appropriate because the sample used could be differentiated

on variables being studied (psychological type, and leadership practices). Finally, this

method was desirable because of the homogeneous nature of the overall sample as

variables generally shared by the participants include gender, leadership ability,

leadership activity, and leadership interest. The causal-comparative method is strongest

when variables not being studied are controlled.

When this particular design is used, it cannot be assumed that if a relationship is

established, one variable caused the other (Borg & Gall, 1989). However, when the

sample population is more homogeneous, causal connections can be made with greater

credibility.

Data for this study were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS).

Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages) were

computed.

For the first null hypothesis, the relationship between the distribution of the MBTI

preference scales and Student LPI practices was tested using Pearson correlations. A

separate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with each of the Student LPI

practices as dependent variables, and MBTI preference scales as independent variables.

Because the Extravert/Introvert (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N), Thinking/Feeling (T/F),

and Judging/Perceiving (J/P) scales are all dichotomous, they were considered linked,

with I, N, F, and P as the dummy variables.

A logistic regression was performed using each specific type of leadership as the

dependent variable to test the relationship with the independent variables of MBTI

preference scales and Student LPI practices for the second null hypothesis. I, N, F, and P








were considered dummy variables. Because of the non-ordinal nature of the type of

leadership positions, a correlation analysis was not run.

To test the third null hypothesis, Pearson correlations were completed on the

MBTI preference scales and Student LPI practices based on the gender composition of

organization. A logistic regression was also performed with gender composition of

organization as the dependent variable and MBTI preference scales and Student LPI

practices as independent variables. I, N, F, and P were considered dummy variables.

For the final null hypothesis, Pearson correlations were completed on the MBTI

preference scales and Student LPI practices based on length of time in a leadership

position. An ANOVA was also performed with length of time in a leadership position as

the dependent variable and MBTI preference scales, and Student LPI practices as the

independent variables, with I, N, F, and P as dummy variables.

The two research questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics including

means, frequencies, and percentages. These were used in order to illustrate additional

comparison information and to provide information which may suggest future research.

Limitations

Methodological limitations exist due to the self-report design of the MBTI and the

Student LPI. Self-reports of leaders are higher in assessing strengths and lower in

assessing weaknesses than followers in work settings (Bass, 1995). Also, the MBTI

results are not considered accurate unless they are confirmed by the person who has take

the instrument. However, both instruments have sufficient reliability coefficients.





49




Chapter 3 developed the methodology and procedures of the study. The

population, sampling procedures, research procedures, hypotheses, research questions,

and the three assessment instruments were all discussed. The research design, data

analysis, and limitations were also presented.

In the next chapter, the results of the data analysis will be examined. Due to the

homogeneous sample, and by employing the causal-comparative method, the researcher

will determine the relationship between psychological type and leadership practices of

women student leaders.














CHAPTER IV
RESULTS

This study investigated the relationship between the psychological type and

leadership practices of women student leaders. Other primary areas of study included

examining correlations between psychological types, leadership practices, and type of

leadership position, gender composition of organizational membership, and length of

leadership experience. Additional areas of study were total group psychological types

and leadership practices of women student leaders.

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, among women student leaders.

2. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on type of leadership experience among women student
leaders.

3. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on length of leadership experience.

4. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
types, as measured by the MBTI and leadership practices, as measured by the Student
LPI, based on gender composition of organizational membership among women student
leaders.









Research Questions

There are two additional research questions addressed in this study:

1. How does the distribution of psychological types, as measured by the MBTI
among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution among
a sample population of women college students?

2. How does the distribution of leadership practices, as measured by they Student
LPI among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution
among a sample population of women college student leaders?

Results and Analysis

Demographic Information

There were a total of 200 women student leaders who fully completed the

requested information for this study. The mean age (Table 1) was 20.2 years, and the

racial/ethnic background (Table 2) of the participants included 61% (n=122) White, 16%

(n=32) Black, 10.5% (n=21) Hispanic, 9% (n=18) Asian, and 3.5% (n=7) bi-racial.

Table 1

Age-Women Student Leaders


Age Frequency Percent


18 6 3.0

19 54 27.0

20 72 36.0

21 43 21.5

22 18 9.0

23 5 2.5

24 1 0.5

29 1 0.5

Note. N=200, M=20.2









Table 2

Racial/Ethnic Background-Women Student Leaders


Racial/Ethnic Background Frequency Percent


White 122 61.0

Black 32 16.0

Hispanic 21 10.5

Asian 18 9.0

Bi-Racial 7 3.5

Note. N=200

The majority of the participants' college classification (Table 3) was either Junior

(35%, n=70) or Senior (35%, n=70). Most participants' leadership position (Table 4) was

either employee (Resident Assistants at 35%, n=70) or executive board member (22%,

n=44), the mean length of leadership experience was 11.97 months, with co-ed

(approximately 50% female and 50% male) being the most common gender composition

of organizational membership (Table 5) at 42.5% (n=85).

Table 3

Current College Classification-Women Student Leaders


College Classification Frequency Percent


First Year 6 3.0

Sophomore 54 27.0

Junior 70 35.0

Senior 70 35.0

Note. N=200









Table 4

Type of Leadership Position-Women Student Leaders


Leadership Position


Frequency


Percent


President 31 15.5

Executive Board Member 44 22.0

Committee/Task Force Chair 23 11.5

Peer Educator 32 16.0

University Employee 70 35.0

Note. N=200

Table 5

Gender Composition of Organizational Membership-Women Student Leaders


Gender Composition Frequency Percent


All Female 52 26.0

Predominately Female 59 29.5

Co-Ed 85 42.5

Predominately Male 4 2.0

Note. N=200

Hypothesis One

A correlation analysis revealed that extravert was significantly positively

correlated with and introvert was significantly negatively correlated with all five

leadership practices: "challenging the process," "inspiring a shared vision," "enabling

others to act," "modeling the way," and "encouraging the heart" (p<.05). Additionally,

there was a significant correlation between sensing (negative)/intuition (positive) with

"challenging the process" and a significant correlation between judging









(negative)/perceiving (positive) with "enabling others to act" (p<.05). The Pearson

Correlations are presented in Table 6.

Table 6

Pearson Correlations of Psychological Type and Leadership Practices


Challenging Inspiring a Enabling
the Process Shared Vision Others to Act


Modeling
the Way


Encouraging
the Heart


Extravert .2008* .2996* .2075* .1395* .3236*

Introvert -.2008* -.2996* -.2075* -.1395* -.3236*

Sensing -.1608* -.1272 -.0919 -.0864 -.0570

Intuition .1608* .1272 .0919 .0864 .0570

Thinking .0629 .0257 -.0884 .0202 -.1165

Feeling -.0629 -.0257 .0884 -.0202 .1165

Judging -.1076 -.1211 -.2052* .0466 -.0878

Perceiving .1076 .1211 .2052* -.0466 .0878

Note. 'Significance at the 0.05 level

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) presented in Table 7, showed a positive effect

for extravert with all five leadership practices, a negative effect for sensing with

"challenging the process", and a negative effect for judging with "enabling others to act"

(p<.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected.

Table 7

Effects of Psychological Type on Leadership Practices (ANOVA)


Challenging Inspiring a Enabling Modeling
The Process Shared Vision Others to Act the Way


Encouraging
the Heart


Parameter Estimate (Standard Error)

Extravertl 1.644(0.699)* 2.437 (0.588)* 1.193 (0.463)* 1.037(0.501)* 2.710(0.646)*

Sensing I -1.316(0.616)* -0.810(0.578) -0.036(0.455) -0.769(0.492) 0.027 (0.569)








Table 7, continued


Challenging Inspiring a Enabling Modeling
The Process Shared Vision Others to Act the Way


Parameter Estimate (Standard Error)

Thinking 0.971 (0.632) 0.513 (0.593) -0.416(0.467) 0.261 (0.505)

Judgingl -0.313 (0.606) -0.379(0.569) -1.005 (0.448)* 0.678 (0.485)

Intercept 21.457(0.699) 21.718(0.656) 24.609(0.516) 23.107(0.559)

F Value 3.87 5.76 4.09 1.85

R-Squared 0.0736 0.1057 0.0775 0.0366

Note. *Significance at the 0.05 level


Encouraging
the Heart




-0.932 (0.584)

-0.180 (0.560)

22.822 (0.646)

6.52

0.1179


Hypothesis Two

A logistic regression analysis, presented in Table 8 demonstrated that the

leadership practice of"inspiring a shared vision" was significantly related to the

position of employee (<.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected.

Table 8

Chi-Square Values from Logistic Regression Analysis for Type of Leadership Position-
Employee


Psychological Type


Leadership Practice


Challenging 1.559
the Process

Inspiring a 5.648*
Shared Vision

Enabling 0.155
Others to Act

Modeling 0.037
the Way

Encouraging 0.001
the Heart

Note. *Significance at the 0.05 level


Extravertl

Sensingl

Thinkingl

Judgingl


0.0534

1.770

3.322

0.771









Hypothesis Three

The leadership practices of "challenging the process" and "inspiring a shared

vision" were both significantly correlated with gender composition of organizational

membership in a negative direction (p<.05) and are presented in Table 9. A logistic

regression was also performed and showed no significant results. Based on the results of

the correlational analysis, the null hypothesis was rejected

Table 9

Pearson Correlations of Gender Composition of Organizational Membership


Leadership Practices Psychological Type


Challenging -.1443* Extravert -.0412
the Process
Introvert .0412
Inspiring a -.1875*
Shared Vision Sensing -.0873

Enabling -.0861 Intuition .0873
Others to Act
Thinking -.0958
Modeling -.0829
the Way Feeling .0958

Encouraging -.1233 Judging -.0076
the Heart
Perceiving .0076

Note. *Significance at the 0.05 level

Hypothesis Four

A correlation analysis, presented in Table 10 revealed a significant positive

correlation between the leadership practice of "modeling the way" and length of

leadership experience (p<.05). However, the ANOVA demonstrated no significant

results. The null hypothesis was rejected due to the results of the correlational anlaysis.









Table 10

Pearson Correlations of Length of Leadership Experience


Leadership Practices Psychological Type


Challenging .0432 Extravert -.0311
the Process
Introvert .0311
Inspiring a .1232
Shared Vision Sensing .0548

Enabling .0477 Intuition -.0548
Others to Act
Thinking -.0249
Modeling .1557*
the Way Feeling .0249

Encouraging .0842 Judging .0418
the Heart
Perceiving -.0418

Note. *Significance at the 0.05 level

Research Question One

Descriptive statistics were used to compare the four-letter psychological types of

the women student leaders of this study and a national sample of women college students

obtained from a table entitled "Multicultural Type Distribution Samples of University

Students" in the MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-

Briggs Type Indicator (Myers et al., 1998, p. 381). Data from the female college student

category were gathered from a composite of 14, 519 college women who took the MBTI

between 1971 and December 1982.

The statistics showed that the most common type for the women student leaders

in the sample group from this study were ENFP (20%, n=40) and ENFJ (18.5%, n=37)

and for the sample population of women college students they were ESFJ (15.1%) and

ENFP (11.7%). The percentages of psychological types of the two samples are









presented in Table 11. Since the women student leaders group was the focus of this

study, specific numbers have been provided. Additionally, of the four dichotomous

preference scales, extravert (73.5%, n=147), intuitive (63%, n=126), feeling (72.5%,

n=145), and judging (62.5%, n=125) were the most prevalent.

Table 11

Psychological Types of Women Student Leaders and Sampled Population of Women
College Students


Psychological Type Women Student Leaders Women College Students
(N=200) (N=14,519)

Frequency Percent Percent


ISTJ 9 4.5 6.7

ISFJ 12 6.0 11.5

INFJ 16 8.0 3.8

INTJ 4 2.0 22

ISTP 0 0.0 2.5

ISFP 2 1.0 5.7

INFP 7 3.5 5.7

INTP 3 1.5 2.1

ESTP 1 0.5 2.8

ESFP 9 4.5 8.3

ENFP 40 20.0 11.7

ENTP 12 6.0 3.5

ESTJ 21 10.5 8.7

ESFJ 20 10.0 15.1

ENFJ 37 18.5 6.4

ENTJ 7 3.5 3.2









Research Question Two

Descriptive statistics were used to compare means of leadership practices of the

women student leaders in this study with a sample population of 484 women student

leaders obtained from normative data for the Student Leadership Practices Inventory in

the Student Leadership Practices Inventory Facilitator's Guide (Kouzes & Posner, 1998,

p. 71).

The statistics showed that with the exception of "enabling others to act," the

means of the two samples vary by less than one point, which is well within two standard

deviations. Scores on the subscales of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory range

from a low of 5 to a high of 30. The means of the leadership practices for the two groups

are provided in Table 12. Standard deviations are also given for the sample used in this

study.

Table 12

Means of Leadership Practices for Women Student Leaders and Sampled Population of
Women Student Leaders


Women Student Leaders Sampled Population of
Women Student Leaders
(N=200) (N~484)


Leadership Practices Means SD Means


Challenging the Process 22.25 3.97 22.63

Inspiring a Shared Vision 23.12 3.80 22.52

Enabling Others to Act 24.73 2.94 25.79

Modeling the Way 24.08 3.11 23.48

Encouraging the Heart 24.46 3.76 24.44





60




The analysis of data provided significant statistical support for a relationship

between psychological type and leadership practices. Support was also detected for

relationships between leadership practices and type of leadership experience, gender

composition of organizational membership, and length of leadership experience.

The next chapter will provide a discussion on the limitations of generalizability of

this study as well as a summary of the results of the data analysis. Conclusions,

implications, and recommendations for future research will also be presented.














CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship

between the psychological type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and

leadership practices as measured by the Student Leadership Practices Inventory, of

women student leaders. Psychological type and leadership practices were also compared

according to type of leadership experience, gender composition of organizational

membership, and length of leadership experience. Another purpose was to compare the

sample in this study with sample populations representing the psychological types of

women college students and the leadership practices of women student leaders.

Limitations

This study has several limitations that should be kept in mind when interpreting

the results. The first is that the participants in this study are primarily traditional aged

students from one institution. They all held some type of leadership position in an

organization or had been selected as peer educators or members of housing staff.

Therefore, it is difficult to generalize the findings to women at other institutions. The

second limitation is that the majority of the women held leadership positions in groups

that were all female, predominately female, or co-ed. Very few held a position in an

organization that was predominately male. Third, not as many women of color

participated in the study, nor were the interactive effects of race, disabilities, religion or

sexual orientation examined.








Summary

All four null hypotheses were rejected. Following the hypotheses are the research

questions.

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
type, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, among women student leaders.

2. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
type, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on type of leadership experience among women student
leaders.

3. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
type, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on length of leadership experience among women student
leaders.

4. There is no significant relationship between the distribution of psychological
type, as measured by the MBTI, and the distribution of leadership practices, as measured
by the Student LPI, based on gender composition of organizational membership.

Research Questions

1. How does the distribution of psychological type, as measured by the MBTI
among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution among
a sample population of women college students?

2. How does the distribution of leadership practices, as measured by the Student
LPI among women student leaders in the sample group compare with the distribution
among a sample population of women college student leaders?

Analysis of the data revealed the following:

Psychological Type and Leadership Practices

The Pearson correlations revealed that extraversion was positively correlated with

all five leadership practices, "challenging the process," "inspiring a shared vision,"

"enabling others to act," "modeling the way," and "encouraging the heart" (p<.05). As








the "opposite side of the same coin," introversion was negatively correlated to these five

practices. Additionally, sensing was negatively correlated and intuition positively

correlated with "challenging the process" and judging was negatively correlated with and

perceiving positively correlated with "enabling others to act" (p<.05). The analysis of

variance (ANOVA) also showed a positive effect for extraversion with all five leadership

practices, a negative effect for sensing with "challenging the process," and a negative

effect for judging with "enabling others to act."

Type of Leadership Experience

The logistic regression analysis showed that the leadership practice of "inspiring a

shared vision" was significantly related to the position of employee (P<.05).

Gender Composition of Organizational Membership

The leadership practices of "challenging the process" and "inspiring a shared

vision" were both negatively correlated with gender composition of organizational

membership (p<.05). The logistic regression showed no significant results.

Length of Leadership Experience

Pearson correlations demonstrated a positive correlation between the leadership

practice of "modeling the way" with length of leadership experience (p<.05). However,

the ANOVA revealed no significant results.

Conclusions

The analysis of data provided significant statistical support for a relationship

between psychological type and leadership practices. Relationships were also detected

between psychological type and leadership practices, and type of leadership experience,

gender composition of organizational membership, and length of leadership experience.








The psychological preference scale, extravert had a positive effect on all five

leadership practices. Extraverts are characterized as "oriented to the outer world,

focusing on people and things, active, using trial and error with confidence, and scanning

the environment for stimulation" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii). The leadership practice

"challenging the process" involves "searching for opportunities and experimenting and

taking risks," "inspiring a shared vision" entails "envisioning an uplifting future and

enlisting others in a common vision," "enabling others to act" includes "fostering

collaboration and strengthening people," "modeling the way" requires "setting the

example and achieving small wins," and "encouraging the heart" necessitates

"recognizing individual contributions and celebrating team accomplishments" (Kouzes &

Posner, 1998, pp. 12-14). Because extraverts are attuned to the outer world, especially

people, it seems that empowering leadership behaviors would be a natural fit for them.

Introverts are described as oriented to the inner world, focusing on ideas, inner

impressions, reflective, considering deeply before acting, and finding stimulation

inwardly" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii). As an introvert's focus is inward, they might not be as

likely to engage in the behaviors necessary to empower their followers.

The psychological type of sensing was found to have a relationship to

"challenging the process." Sensing types are depicted in part as "perceiving with all five

senses, attending to practical and factual details, attending to the present moment," and

"confining attention to what is said and done" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii). Due to their focus

on the present, details, and attending to what is said and done, they may be less inclined

to focus on the big picture and how to improve things in the future which is consistent

with "challenging the process." Intuitive types on the other hand, "see patterns and








meanings, see possibilities, project possibilities for the future, and look for the big

picture" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii), characteristics all associated with "challenging the

process."

It was determined that judging was negatively related to "modeling the way."

The description of judging types includes "deciding and planning, organizing and

scheduling, controlling and regulating, and wanting closure, even when data are

incomplete" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii). Initially, it would seem from that the list of traits

used to illustrate judging types, that it would have a positive effect, however, the terms

"controlling and regulating" bring to mind the masculine style of leadership rather than

the feminine style of empowering others. The preference scale of perception is

characterized as "adapting and changing, curious and interested, open-minded, and

resisting closure to obtain more data" (Lawrence, 1995, p. ii), which is consistent with an

empowering leadership style.

The leadership practice of "inspiring a shared vision" showed a relationship with

the position of employee (Resident Assistant). Due to the nature of their position,

Resident Assistants are likely to work with their residents to build community or strive

for a common goal as well as show enthusiasm as the community strengthens, which are

attributes of "inspiring a shared vision." It is not surprising that behaviors associated

with this practice would be used consistently by Resident Assistants.

"Challenging the process" and "inspiring a shared vision" were also related to the

gender composition of organizational membership. Research has shown that women are

more comfortable excelling in groups that are all female (Kim & Alvarez, 1995), which








may assist them in using the behaviors associated with "challenging the process" and

"inspiring a shared vision."

Finally, the leadership practice of "modeling the way" was related to the length of

leadership experience. A possible explanation for this is that women students who have

more leadership experience are more likely to hold positions such as President and

executive board member thus giving them the opportunity to set an example for those

with less experience. They may also have more knowledge about the organization.

Research questions revealed the most common personality types in the sample

were ENFP (20%) and ENFJ (18.5%), while the national sample of women college

students showed ENFP and ESFJ as the most common. ENFP's are described as

"warmly enthusiastic planner of change; imaginative, individualistic; pursues inspiration

with impulsive energy; seeks to understand and inspire others" (Lawrence, 1993, p. 14).

Characteristics of ENFJ's are "imaginative harmonizer and worker-with-people; sociable,

expressive, orderly, opinioned, conscientious; curious about new ideas and possibilities"

(Lawrence, 1995, p. 14). Both certainly have qualities that relate to empowering

leadership.

Descriptive statistics demonstrated that the means on all five Student LPI

subscales for the sample and the sample population of women student leaders were

similar, with the most difference occurring on "enabling others to act." "Challenging the

process" was the lowest subscale for the sample in this study and the highest was

"enabling others to act." For the comparison sample, "inspiring a shared vision" was the

lowest and "enabling others to act" the highest.








Further examination of the descriptive statistics related to the demographic

inventory also established that less than 40% of the women students completing the

information for this study were women of color. Romano (1996) found that women

student leaders of color experience a variety of issues related to their "visible" differences

from the dominant culture, including "being stereotyped by administrators, faculty, and

students; and misunderstood by students within their cultural group in relation to

important campus issues" (p. 680). They sometimes feel they have "two strikes" against

them (Arminio, Carter, Jones, Kruger, Lucas, Washington, Young, & Scott, 2000) which

may lead to them not choosing to seek leadership positions.

The descriptive statistics also revealed that only 4 participants were leaders in

organizations that were predominately male. Leonard and Sigall (1989) discovered that

men were more likely to hold leadership positions in co-ed organizations as well as

women student leaders were not elected as often as men particularly at large institutions.

Finally, only 6 participants were first year. This may be attributed to the fact that

data was collected starting during the middle of the fall semester and typically leadership

positions are filled during the prior spring semester.

Implications

The improvement of leadership education for women student leaders is the

desired outcome of this research. Since the sample group represents an effective group of

women college student leaders, implications for better meeting the needs of this group

can serve as suggestions for educating students to be empowering leaders.

Extraversion was positively associated with all five leadership practices, while

introversion was negatively associated with the five practices. Those students who have








a preference for introversion may need specialized training in order to develop the five

practices related to empowering leadership. Additionally, leaders who are sensing types

may need assistance with "challenging the process" and leaders who are judging types

with "modeling the way."

These findings are somewhat consistent with Anderson's (1992) study on

Counseling Center Directors, in which she found that extraverts were related to

"encouraging the heart," intuition was related to "challenging the process," and judging

was related "modeling the way." The results also support Parks' (1995) study of women

college student leaders and the care/justice aspects of psychological development in that

no significant relationship was found between thinking and feeling and empowering

leadership practices.

This study also found that there was one significant relationship between type of

leadership experience and leadership practice (employee and "inspiring a shared vision"),

although Kouzes and Posner (1998) have concluded that students who are employees do

not use different leadership practices than those students not employed nor do students in

non-hierarchical positions versus those in elected or hierarchical positions. Some thought

should be given to creating programs that address the different skills and practices that

may be needed for each type of leadership position, particularly those in positions such as

President, and Executive Board Member. Leaders that are non-positional, like peer

counselor, orientation counselor, or Resident Assistant typically receive specialized

training, however this training is not necessarily geared toward transformational

leadership.








Kouzes and Posner (1998) stated that their studies have shown that "leadership

practices are generally not affected by various characteristics of the group or setting that

students are involved in" (p. 9). However, this study did find some significant

relationships between the gender composition of organizational membership and

leadership practices. Kim and Alvarez (1995) found that women feel free to excel in an

all women environment, such as women-only colleges as there is no fear of losing their

femininity. This is further supported by Kim's (2001), Langdon's (1997), and Smith et

al.'s (1995) research focusing on women's colleges which all concluded that women's

leadership development is stronger than at co-ed institutions. Aiding women in feeling

comfortable to reach their full leadership potential no matter what their surroundings is

important.

Finally, a significant relationship between length of leadership experience and the

leadership practice "modeling the way" was discovered. Kouzes and Posner (1998)

determined that students who are just starting out in leadership positions engage in the

five leadership practices less often that those returning for a second year. These

differences need to be taken into account when planning training programs.

ENFP and ENFJ were the most common psychological type and ISTP and ESTP

were the least common for the sample in this study. Providing opportunities for student

leaders to work on their "shadow side" or opposite functions could not only help develop

new skills, but may also encourage those with less represented types to get involved in

leadership endeavors.

As a total group, the women student leaders in this study mean scores ranged

from approximately the forty-seventh to sixty-seventh percentiles on the five subscales of








the Student Leadership Practices Inventory in relation to over 1200 student leaders who

have completed the instrument. Women students need to be provided opportunities to not

only to develop leadership skills, but also to practice them (Whitt, 1994). Large

institutions tend not to offer as many opportunities for women (Kuh et al., 1991), so

efforts need to be made to make these campuses more "women-friendly" including

strongly encouraging women to get involved where gender inequities exist (Wolf-

Wendel, 2000).

The means for leadership practices of the sample in this study are very consistent

with findings from Howard-Hamilton and Ferguson's, (1998), Komives' (1994a), Parks'

(1995), and Salerno's (1999) research on women student leaders. With the exception of

Parks' (1995) study, "challenging the process" was the lowest subscale and both

"enabling others to act" and "encouraging the heart" were the two highest subscales for

all of the groups. Edington (1995) also found "enabling others to act" to be the most

developed leadership practice in her study of college classroom leadership practices. She

concluded that completing the Student LPI caused students to reflect upon themselves as

leaders and to become more aware of their leadership behaviors.

"Challenging the process" was the lowest subscale overall for the sample.

Howard-Hamilton and Ferguson (1998) recommend assertiveness training for women

student leaders, Adams and Keim (2000) suggest incorporating self-confidence building

exercises, and training in conflict mediation may also be of help.

The low number of women student leaders of color participating in this study

indicates a need for programs to address the issues faced by women of color in leadership

positions. Administrators must also be aware of the burden these women face









academically, extracurricularly, and personally (Romano, 1996). The extremely low

number of women in leadership positions in predominately male organizations suggests

that again, women need to be encouraged to participate in activities where gender

imbalances exist (Wolf-Wendel, 2000). The low number of first year students also

implies that programs for incoming students such as first year experience classes and first

year experience housing programs are needed in order to get them involved in leadership

activities.

Recommendations

Recommendations for future research include the following:

1. Research at different types of institutions: small and large, public and private,

predominately white colleges and universities and historically black colleges and

universities, co-ed institutions and women's colleges is needed to better study the

relationship between psychological type and leadership practices.

2. Studies focusing on the interaction of race and gender, disabilities and gender,

religion and gender, and sexual orientation and gender, are also needed to better

understand the relationship between psychological type and leadership practices.

3. More research is needed on the impact of men as organizational members on

psychological type and leadership practices. The sample in this study only included a

small amount of women leaders in organizations that were predominately male.

4. Inquiry on the involvement of first year students in leadership activities is also

needed. There was only a small amount of first year students included in this study.








5. The exploration of the relationship between "whole" psychological type the

combination of the four preference scales and leadership practices is needed. The sample

size in this study was too small to be representative of all of the 16 psychological types.

6. In order to fully understand the concept of empowerment, it is essential to look

at followers' perceptions of leadership practices as well as the leaders'. There is an

Observer form of the Student LPI, which can be completed by 5 "followers" for a given

leader in order to compare with their self rating. This would be useful with a smaller

sample size.

7. Research concentrating on the fact that "challenging the process" is rated the

lowest of the five leadership practices is needed. That it is consistently rated as the

lowest subscale suggests implications for training.

8. The use of qualitative methods, alone or in combination with quantitative

methods is needed in order to properly study the complex behavior of leadership.

Acquiring information about women student leaders and their development is

critical toward improving their leadership practices and the training programs provided

them. There is a relationship between psychological type and leadership practices as well

as type of leadership experience, gender composition of organizational membership, and

length of leadership experience. All of these areas need to be considered when working

with women student leaders, as well as the use of empowering or transformational

leadership, which is necessary in order to meet the needs of today's changing society.

Hopefully, this research has provided some useful knowledge about educating women

student leaders within the expanding body of information about leadership.





























APPENDIX A
APPROVAL OF PROTOCOL FROM THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD









UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Institutional Review Board 98A Psychology Bldg.
PO Box 112250
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250
Phone: (352) 392-0433
Fax: (352) 392-9234
E-mail: irb2@ufl.edu
http://web.ortge.ufl.edu/irb/irb02
DATE: 17-Apr-2000


TO: Ms Tracey Reeves
Murphree Area Office
Campus
FROM: C. Michael Levy, Chair
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board
SUBJECT: Approval ofProtocol # 2000 -303
TITLE: Psychological Type and Leadership Practices of Women Student Leaders
FUNDING: Unfunded
I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has recommended
approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the UF1RB determined that this research presents no more
than minimal risk to participants. Given your protocol, it is essential that you obtain signed documentation
of informed consent from each participant. Enclosed is the dated, IRB-approved informed consent to be
used when recruiting participants for the research.
If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number of participants
authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that the Board can assess their
impact on your protocol. In addition, you must report to the Board any unexpected complications that
affect your participants.

If you have not completed this protocol by 6-Apr-2001, please telephone our office (392-0433), and we will
discuss the renewal process with you.
It is important that you keep your Department Chair informed about the status of this research protocol.

CML:bj/js

cc: Dr. Mary Howard-Hamilton










Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution














APPENDIX B
CONTACT LETTER FOR PARTICIPATION


Date


Dear Student Organization/Sorority President/Director/Housing Supervisor:

I am an Assistant Director of Housing at the University of Florida. I am also a doctoral
candidate in the Educational Leadership Department in the College of Education. I
would like to request the participation of the women leaders (i.e. executive board
members or Resident Assistants) in your organization in my dissertation study. Your
participation in this research will assist me immensely.

The purpose of the study is to examine the psychological type and leadership practices of
women student leaders. The method of data collection will involve a demographic
questionnaire and two brief instruments.

Participation in the study is completely voluntary. If you have women leaders in your
organization who are interested in participating, please contact me at 392-6091. I will
schedule an appointment with your organization to complete the questionnaires.

There are no risks involved in participation in the study and no identifying information
will be asked on any of the questionnaires. As a token of appreciation for your
organization's participation in the study, I will be happy to arrange a presentation on
either psychological type or leadership practices.

If you have any concerns or questions regarding this study, please contact me at 392-
6091 or tracevr(aiufl.edu or my dissertation chair, Dr. Mary Howard-Hamilton, at 392-
2391, ext. 277 or marvh(a@coe.ufl.edu.

I will be contacting you in about one week to arrange for an appointment. I will be
grateful for your participation. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Sincerely,



Tracey E. Reeves














APPENDIX C
INFORMED CONSENT FORM

I am a UF Assistant Director of Housing and also a doctoral candidate in the Department
of Educational Leadership in the College of Education. I am investigating the
relationship between psychological type and leadership practices of women student
leaders for my doctoral dissertation research. The information obtained from this study
will be of assistance for UF programming for women students. Therefore, your
participation in this study will be appreciated, as well as useful.

Your participation in this study is voluntary and you are free to withdraw from
participation without penalty or repercussion at any time. Your participation will involve
completion of a demographic form and two instruments. The entire task will take
approximately 25-35 minutes. No identifying information will be asked on any of the
questionnaires. Directions for completing the instruments are noted at the top of each
form. After completing the inventories, please place them in the manila envelope, seal it,
and return it to me. If you choose not to participate in the study, please return the packet
of materials to me. None of the materials is coded. Therefore, your anonymity is
guaranteed.

No monetary or other individual compensation will be provided for participation. There
are no risks involved in participation in the study. You do not have to respond to any
question you do not wish to answer. If you have any concerns or questions regarding this
study, please contact me at 392-6091 or tracevr(lufl.edu or my dissertation chair, Dr.
Mary Howard-Hamilton at 392-2391, ext. 277 or maryh@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or
concerns about research participant's rights may be directed to the UFIRB Office,
University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, 392-0433.




I have read and understand the procedure described above. I have received a copy of this
description. I freely consent to participate and that I may stop the participation at any
time.

Signed Date

I have defined and explained fully this research to the participant whose signature
appears above.

Tracey E. Reeves

Approved for use through April 6, 2001














APPENDIX D
DEMOGRAPHIC INVENTORY

Please respond to the following by selecting the response which best represents you.
Please respond to all items.


1. Age: _

2. Racial/Ethnic Background:

3. Current College Classification:

4. Type of Leadership Position (Please Select Only One):

President/Director
Executive Board Member (e.g., Vice President, Secretary, etc.)
Committee/Task Force Chair
Peer Educator (e.g., Orientation Counselor)
University Employee (e.g., Resident Assistant)

5. Number of Months of Leadership Experience in College:
(Please use the categories from Question 4 as a guide)

6. Gender of Organizational Membership:

All Female (i.e., 100% female)
Predominantly Female (i.e., greater than 50% female)
Co-Ed (i.e., approximately 50% female and 50% male)
Predominantly Male (i.e., greater than 50% male)
All Male (i.e., 100% male)





























APPENDIX E
LETTER OF PERMISSION TO USE THE
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
















Consulting
Psychologists
Press, Inc.

PERMISSION AGREEMENT TO INCLUDE
Tracey Reeves SAMPLE ITEMS IN A RESEARCH PUBLICATION
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Gainsville, FL 32612 Product Code: 6165DL
Permission Number: 12909

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signed Permission Agreement and payment of the Permission Fee, permission is hereby granted to you to include sample
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The permission granted hereunder is limited to this one-time use only.
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This Pemussion Agreement shall be subject to the following conditions:

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6 I Test users should evaluate the available written documentation on the validity and relability of tests for the specific use
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!S 11 4 1: 1", 0 k, I'll lk, 6 1 / "(' lct, ,[I ,l//"Aftl ) tl "" ah() /('), ~![ t1\(O t) )t),''~t














6 3 When a test is to be used for a purpose for which it has not been validated, or for which there is no supported claim for
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(e) Tracey Reeves agrees that the MBTI Form-M as modified under this Agreement is a derivative work of the MBTI
Form-M and hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in any such dervative work created under this Permission
Agreement in perpetuity to Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. (CPP) or as directed by CPP, immediately upon
completion and without further consideration.


CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS, INC.


By A r I.eratv_
Au orized Representative


Date / J' di _


I AGREE TO THE ABOVE CONDITIONS


By 4A4lil e. L idtt
Tracey Reeves


Date ( t IC .'A It() i __)






























APPENDIX F
SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM THE
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
















Consulting
Psychologists
Press, Inc.


SAMPLE ITEMS FROM THE

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" Instrument-Form M

By Katharine C. Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers



Your answers will help show you how you like to look at things and how you like to go about deciding
things. There are no "right" and "wrong" answers to these questions. Knowing your own preferences and
learning about other people's can help you understand what your strengths are, what kinds of work you
might enjoy, and how people with different preferences can relate to one another and contribute to society.



Part I: Which answer comes closest to describing how you usually feel or act?


16. Are you inclined to
A. value sentiment more than logic, or
B. value logic more than sentiment?


20. Do you prefer to
A. arrange dates, paric, etc., well in advance,
or
B. be free to do whatever looks like fun when the time comes?



Part II: Which word in each pair appeals to you more? Think about what words mean,
not about how they look or how they sound.

36. A. systematic
B. casual

58. A. sensible
B fascinating















3803 B ajIorsue Rotad PO. Box itoE6 'ak> Alto, CalifMorua s. Q3I Tl 7(650) X ,9-8W I-x (650) 969-HI)


82















^n sConsulting
1N H Psychologists
Press, Inc.




Part III: Which answer comes closest to describing how you usually feel or act?


59. When you start abig project that is due in a week, do you

A. take time to list the separate things to be done and the order of doing
them, or
B. plunge right in?

67. At parties do you

A. do much of the talking, or
B. let others do most ofthe talking


Part IV: Which word m each pair appeals to you more? Think about what words mean,
not about how they look or how they sound.


79. A. imaginative
B. realistic

91. A. devoted
B. determined



From the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator by Katharine C Bnggs and Isabel Briggs Myers. Copyright 1998
by Peter B. Myers and Katharine D. Myers. All rights reserved. Further reproduction is prohibited
without the written consent of the Publisher, Consulting Psychologist Press, Inc.

You may change the format of these items to fit your needs, but the wording may not be altered. You may
not present these items to your readers as any kind of "mini-test." This permission only allows you to use
these copyrighted Items as an illustrative sample of items from this instrument. We have provided these
items as samples so that we may maintain control over which items appear in published media. This avoids
an entire instrument appearing at once or in segments which may be pieced together to form a working
instrument, protecting the validity and reliability of the test. Thank you for your cooperation. Consulting
Psychologist Press, Inc. Permissions Department

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and MBTI are registered trademarks of Consulting Psychologists Press,
Inc.










380 L. BaVyshor R /oad P)o Box 1009( Palo Alto, C(alforioa 94303 7et (650, 969-W901 Fox (650) XI9-860'





























APPENDIX G
LETTER OF PERMISSION TO USE THE
STUDENT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY









KOUZES POSNER INTERNATIONAL
15419 Banyan Lane
Monte Sereno, California 95030
Phone/FAX: (408) 354-9170


October 2, 2000

Ms. Tracey E. Reeves
Assistant Director of Housing, Murphree Area Office
University of Florida
Gainsville, Florida 32612

Dear Tracey:

Thank you for your facsimile (27 September 2000) requesting permission to use the student
version of the Leadership Practices Inventory (Student-LPI) in your doctoral research. We
are willing to allow you to reproduce the instrument as outlined in your letter, at no charge,
with the following understandings:

(1) That the Student-LPI is used only for research purposes and is not sold or used
in conjunction with any compensated management development activities;

(2) That copyright of the Student-LPI, or any derivation of the instrument, is retained
by Kouzes Posner International, and that the following copyright statement be
included on all copies of the instrument: "Copyright 1998 James M. Kouzes and
Barry Z. Posner. All rights reserved. Used with permission.";

(3 That one (1) bound copy of your dissertation, and one (1) copy of all papers,
reports, articles, and the like which make use of the Student-LPI data be sent
promptly to our attention.

If the terms outlined above are acceptable, would you indicate so by signing one (1) copy of
this letter and returning it to us. Best wishes for every success with your research project.
If we can be of any further assistance, please let us know.

Co ria, r a


Barrj Z IP:6ner Ph.D.
Managing Partner


I understand and agree to abide by these conditions:

(Signticied) -1 Date: cCii of Completio:

Anticipated Date of Completion: Y(





























APPENDIX H
QUESTIONS FROM THE
STUDENT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY










STUDENT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY-SELF


How frequently do you typically engage in the following behaviors and actions?
Circle the number that applies to each statement.


1 2
SELDOM ONCE IN
OR RARELY A WHILE


3 4 5
SOMETIMES FAIRLY VERY
OFTEN FREQUENTLY


1. 1 look for opportunities that challenge
my skills and abilities.

2. I describe to others in our organization what
we should be capable of accomplishing.

3. 1 include others in planning the activities and
programs of our organization.

4. 1 share my beliefs about how things can be
run most effectively within our organization.

5. 1 encourage others as they work on activities
and programs in our organization.

6. 1 keep current on events and activities that
might affect our organization.

7. 1 look ahead and communicate about what
I believe will affect us in the future.

8. I treat others with dignity and respect.

9. 1 break our organization's projects down
into manageable steps.

10. 1 make sure that people in our organization
are recognized for their contributions.

11. 1 take initiative in experimenting with the
way we do things in our organization.

12. 1 am upbeat and positive when talking about
what our organization is doing.

13. I support the decisions that other people in
our organization make on their own.

14. I set a personal example of what I expect
from other people.

15. 1 praise people for a job well done.


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5


Coight -I8 by Jams 9 om.s and 8 B I P81 r, AU rghs r-ed.














SELDOM ONCE IN
OR RARELY A WHILE


3 4
SOMETIMES FAIRLY
OFTEN


16. 1 look for ways to improve whatever project
or task I am involved in.

17. 1 talk with others about how their own interests
can be met by working toward a common goal.

18. I foster cooperative rather than competitive
relationships among people I work with.

19. 1 talk about the values and principles that
guide my actions.

20. 1 give people in our organization support and
express appreciation for their contributions.

21. I ask, "What can we learn from this experience?"
when things do not go as we expected.

22. 1 speak with conviction about the higher purpose
and meaning of what we are doing.

23. 1 give others a great deal of freedom and choice
in deciding how to do their work.

24. 1 follow through on the promises and
commitments I make in this organization.

25. 1 find ways for us to celebrate our accomplish-
ments publicly.

26. 1 let others experiment and take risks even
when outcomes are uncertain.

27. 1 show my enthusiasm and excitement about
what our organization is doing.

28. 1 provide opportunities for others to take on
leadership responsibilities.

29. I make sure that we set goals and make
specific plans for the projects we undertake.

30. I make it a point to tell others about the good
work done by our organization.


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


1 2 3 4 5


Copiht 1998 by Js Bus and Brry L Fos. Pall rights rve


5
VERY
FREQUENTLY














REFERENCES


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Allen, K. E. (1990). Creating a new agenda for student leadership development.
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Allen, K. E. (1996, July-August). Working toward transformational leadership in
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Anchors, S., & Dana, R. (1992). Substance abuse patterns and personality type
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Anchors, W. S., & Robinson, D. C. (1992). Psychological type and the
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Anderson, S. J. (1992). Psychological type and leadership. [On-line]. Abstract
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Astin, A. W. (1998). The changing American college student: Thirty-year trends,
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Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership: theory, research.
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Bass, B. M. (1995). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning
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Baxter-Magolda, M. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related
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Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women's
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Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Cantor, D., & Beray, T. (1992). Woman power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Capra, F. (1982). The turning point. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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ceiling: Women's experience of mid-management roles. Initiatives. 58 (4), 59-70.

Clark, M. C., Carafella, R. S., & Ingram, P. B. (1999). Women in leadership:
Living with the constraints of the glass ceiling. Initiatives, 59 (1), 65-76.




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