Alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction among intramural sport participants

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Alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction among intramural sport participants
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ix, 133 leaves : ; 29 cm.
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Lindsey, Robert R., 1970-
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Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Health and Human Performance -- UF   ( lcsh )
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2000.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 107-115).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert R. Lindsey.
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Printout.
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Vita.

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University of Florida
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ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG USE AND
LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG
INTRAMURAL SPORT PARTICIPANTS










By

ROBERT R. LINDSEY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my dearest thanks to Dr. W. William Chen, chairman of my

dissertation committee. His guidance during the past three years, especially during the

dissertation process, has been valuable. I would also like to extend my appreciation to Dr

Jill Varnes, Dr. Milledge Murphey, and Dr. David Miller for serving as members of my

doctoral committee. Without the guidance and assistance of my committee, I would have

never been able to complete this dissertation. I would also like to thank Dr. Steve

Dorman, Dr. Delores James, Dr. Sadie Sanders, and Dr. Sig Fagerberg for their constant

encouragement and support.

I wish to thank my mother Carolyn Lindsey for her lifelong support. I would also

like to thank my family Aunt Audrey EI-Amin, Uncle Robert Temple, Aunt Joy Rumore,

Aunt Lucille Smalls, Grandmother Lindsey, and all of my cousins, teachers, and friends

for their continuous love throughout my educational and professional career. This

dissertation is in memory of my grandmother Althea Russell Temple, whose love, support,

and memory will never be forgotten.

I would like to thank the graduate teaching assistants in the Department of Health

Science Education and Dr. Fagerberg for allowing me to use their students for my study I

would also like to thank the McKnight Foundation for awarding the McKnight Fellowship

which provided me the financial support while completing the Ph.D degree.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.


LIST OF TABLES.........................


ABSTRACT ....... ....


CHAPTERS


1 INTRODUCTION.................. ........

Problem Statement....................... ......
Purpose of the Study..........................
Significance of the Study.......................
Delimitations of the Study..................
Limitations of the Study.............
A ssum options .....................................
H ypotheses......................................
Definition of Terms.............. .......


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ... .. ......................

Alcohol and Other Drug Usage among College Students.........
Consequences of Alcohol and Other Drug Use..........................
Reasons for Using Alcohol and other Drugs among
C college Stu dents........................................................ ....
Alcohol and Other Drug Use to Cope with Pressure....................
Intramural and Recreation Sports as Alternatives for Alcohol
and O their D rug U se........... ............... .............................
Participation and Motivation Factors in
Intramural/Recreational Sports................... ......................
Recreation Sports as a Coping Mechanism for Stress and Alcohol Use
Sport Participation and Healthy Behavior among College Students...
Attitudes Toward and Reasons for Alcohol Use among Athletes......
L ife Satisfaction .... ........................ ...........................
Student Satisfaction and Perceptions in Recreational Sports...........
Life Satisfaction and Alcohol and Other Drug Use......................
S u m m ary .................. .. ...................................
iii


pgge

........ .. ..... ii


.. .. vii


.. 7
........... ..... 10
................. 1 0

...... ... .. 1 1
............ 12
......... .. 12
13








3 METHODOLOGY ............................


S u objects .............................................................. ........... 52
Instruments ........... ......... .... .. .. 53
D ata A analysis ................................................................. 54
P ilot T est ... ... .. ................................... ..... 57

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................ 58

Sam ple D em graphics ................ ...... ...................... 58
D iscu ssio n ........................................................ ... .... 8 5
Alcohol Use between Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport
P articip ants................ ............ ... ...................... ...... 85
Other Drug Use between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport P participants .......................... .................................. 87
Reasons for Alcohol and Other Drug Use between Intramural
And Non-Intramural Sport Participants.................... ........ 90
Life Satisfaction between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport Participants ... ....... .... .... .......... ..... ...... ..... .. 91
Relationship between Alcohol and Other Drug Use among
Intram ural Sport Participants............................................. 92

5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS .......................... ... .... 97

Summary ........... ........ 97
F in d ing s ............ ......................................... .. 100
C o nclu sio n s ........................................................... ... 10 3
Im p licatio n s................................................ ............ .. 10 4
R ecom m endations........ ... ................ .. ... ... ............. 105

R EFER EN C E S .............. ... .......... ... ...... ........ .. .. 107

APPENDICES

A. SURVEY INSTRUMENT ............ .......................... 117
B. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IRB APPROVAL ............ 124
C. LETTER TO TEACHERS........... .......................... 126
D. SURVEY LETTER TO STUDENTS ............. ..... 128
E. INFORMED CONSENT SCRIPT .............. ... .. .... 130
F. THANK YOU LETTER TO TEACHERS .................. 132

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................. .......... 133


.......... ..... 5 2













LIST OF TABLES
Table page

1 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Classification 59

2 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Age ........ ... 60

3 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Ethnicity..... 61

4 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Gender....... 62

5 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Residence.... 63

6 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by GPA ......... 64

7 Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Fraternity/Sorority 65

8 Intramural Level of Participation by Hours .......................... 66

9 B inge D drinking ............ ........................ 67

10 Average Number of Drinks ................ ........ ............. 68

11 How often have you used Alcohol.................... ..... ........ 69

12 How often have you used Cigarettes .................................... 70

13 How often have you used Marijuana ................... 71

14 How often have you used Inhalants ......................... ... ...... 72

15 How often have you used Cocaine ........ .............................. 73

16 Intramural sport participation frequency of alcohol or drug-related... 74
consequences

17 Non- Intramural sport participation frequency of alcohol or drug-related
consequences............ .... .. .......... ....... ... 75

18 Reasons for using alcohol or other drugs ................................ 76

v








Table "a

19 Life Satisfaction between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport Participants...... ........... ........................ 77

20 Relationship between Binge Drinking and Life Satisfaction among
Intram ural Sport Participants......... .. .............................. 78

21 Relationship between Average Number of Drinks and Life Satisfaction
among Intramural Sport Participants ............................... .. 79

22 Relationship between Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction among
Intramural Sport Participants ........................ ........... 80

23 Relationship between Cigarette Use and Life Satisfaction among
Intramural Sport Participants ............ .................. .......... 81

24 Relationship between Marijuana Use and Life Satisfaction among
Intramural Sport Participants ................................ .... 82

25 Relationship between Cocaine Use and Life Satisfaction among
Intram ural Sport Participants .............................. .............. 83

26 Relationship between Inhalant Use and Life Satisfaction among
Intramural Sport Participants.... ...................... .. ...... 84













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG USE AND
LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG
INTRAMURAL SPORT PARTICIPANTS

By

Robert R. Lindsey

August 2000

Chairman: Wei William Chen
Major Department: Health and Human Performance

Alcohol and other drug use is a major problem on today's college campuses.

Almost all college students have used alcohol or other drugs at some time. Reasons for

alcohol and other drug use include to have fun, to relieve academic stress, to relieve other

types of stress, to ease social interactions and to fit in with friends. Given the stressors

that college students have to deal with, recreational activity may be a means of decreasing

alcohol use among college students. Participation in recreational/intramural sports may

lead to a decrease in alcohol and other drug use as well as contribute to a greater life

satisfaction among college students, and especially intramural sport participants.

Research has shown conflicting results concerning the relationship between sport

participation and alcohol and other drug use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to








1) compare the frequency, quantity, and reasons for alcohol and other drug use between

intramural and non-intramural sport participants, 2) compare the perceptions of reported

life satisfaction between intramural and non-intramural sport participants, and 3) examine

the relationship between alcohol and other drug usage and perceptions of life satisfaction

among intramural sport participants.

The subjects were 719 students from personal and family health and medical

terminology courses from a large southeastern university. Alcohol and other drug use was

measured with the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey. Life Satisfaction was measured with

the Satisfaction with Life Scale.

Chi-square analysis, t-tests, and analysis of variance were used to test for

significant differences for the research hypotheses. The findings from the study include 1)

intramural sport participants reported more binge drinking episodes and a higher weekly

consumption of alcohol when compared to non-intramural sport participants, 2) there were

no significant differences of current alcohol users between intramural and non-intramural

sport participants, 3) there were no significant differences in the usage of cigarettes,

marijuana, cocaine, and inhalants between intramural and non-intramural sport

participants, 4) there were no significant differences in the reasons for alcohol and other

drug usage between intramural and non-intramural sport participants, 5) intramural sport

participants reported a significantly higher life satisfaction compared to non-intramural

sport participants, and 6) there was no consistent relationship between the pattern of

alcohol and other usage and life satisfaction among intramural sport participants.







The researcher concluded that intramural sport participation influenced binge

drinking and weekly consumption of alcohol. On the other hand, intramural sport

participation did not significantly influence other drug use. In addition, intramural sport

participation also influenced the perception of life satisfaction. More studies are needed to

examine the relationship of alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction among

intramural sport participants.













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

More than 12 million students are currently enrolled in the nation's 3,600 colleges

and universities. Of these students, approximately 7.1 million are aged 18-24 years,

comprising 57% of the college population. Of all persons aged 18-24 years in the United

States, one fourth are currently either full- or part-time college students. Therefore,

colleges and universities are important settings for reducing important health-risk

behaviors among many young adults (Douglas et al., 1997).

The use and abuse of alcohol and drugs on campus is an enduring problem.

Experimentation with these substances has been generally regarded as a rite of passage

(Wechsler & Isaac, 1992; Bower & Martin, 1999). Although the use of illicit drugs such

as marijuana, LSD, and heroin continues on college campuses, the Commission on

Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities found that alcohol abuse is the most urgent

and most complicated substance abuse problem in colleges (Bower & Martin., 1999).

Recent reports indicate that the percentage of college students who use alcohol is 2.5

times the percentage of those who smoke or use illegal drugs (Wechsler, 1996)

Almost all college students (84-93%) reported having consumed alcohol at some

time (Wechsler, 1996). Although this percentage has remained nearly the same for many

years, the number of students who report binge drinking (i.e., consuming five or more

drinks in one sitting) has shown a marked increase. Eigen (1991) found that 42% of all

college students reported engaging in binge drinking in the 2 weeks preceding








participation in the study. This level of drinking is supported by Wechsler's findings that

44% of all college students are binge drinkers and 19% can be considered frequent

bingers, having engaged in binge drinking three or more times in the 2 weeks before the

Wechsler study.

In 1995, the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) was

implemented. The 1995 NCHRBS was built on previous surveys of health risk behaviors

among college students by assessing in one questionnaire a broad range of health risk

behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity of young

people. Some of their findings included that among all students, 4.2% engaged in current

frequent alcohol use (defined as having a drink of alcohol on more than 20 of the 30 days

prior to completing the survey). Male students were significantly more likely than female

students, and White students were significantly more likely than Black or Hispanic

students to be current frequent users of alcohol (Douglas et al., 1997). About one third

(34.5%) of all students reported current episodic heavy drinking (consuming five or more

drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey).

Nearly half of all the students (48.7%) had used marijuana during their lifetimes, and

14.0% had used marijuana during the past 30 days preceding the survey. Almost one

third (31.3%) of the students had smoked cigarettes daily (at least one cigarette every

day for 30 days) at some time during their lifetimes, and 14.4% had used cocaine at some

time during their lifetimes (Douglas et al., 1997).

From a health education and promotion standpoint, it is important to understand

why college students use alcohol and other drugs. The college experience has been

characterized as a period of transition in which students prepare for independent living.








Students are presented with challenges to stimulate the mind and to develop the mind,

body, and spirit, all of which have been identified as integral to successful student

development (Kanters & Forrester, 1997). Studies have shown that some of the reasons

why college students use alcohol and other drugs include to have fun, to relieve academic

stress, to relieve other types of stress, to ease social interactions, to get high or drunk, to

enhance sex, and to fit in with friends (CADRC, 1999).

Additional findings from the studies of alcohol and other drug usage have found

that there are consequences to this behavior, and many of them have implications within

the academic setting. Some of these consequences include poor test scores, missing

classes, hangovers, experiencing memory loss, arguments and fights, driving while

intoxicated, having unplanned and unprotected sex, and having trouble with the police

Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Gledhill-Hoyt, and Lee (1998) found information on

alcohol-related consequences, including frequent binge drinkers (defined as those who

had binge drunk three or more times in the past two weeks) encountered specific types of

alcohol related problems: 58.9% were injured, 58.8% damaged property, 58.4% had

trouble with the police, 53.9% fell behind in their school work, 53.8% missed class,

52.3% experienced blackouts and had unprotected sex, and 49.7% had unplanned sex.

Given the stressors that college students have to deal with, having some kind of

recreational activity may be an excellent means of decreasing alcohol and other drug use

as well as relieving stress (Carruthers & Hood, 1992). One trackable means of

recreational activity is intramural sports. The goal of intramural sports is to provide an

opportunity for individuals to be able to participate without concern for winning or losing

(Sattler, Graham, & Bailey, 1978). Intramural sports are especially common at the junior








high, high school and college levels (Mueller & Reznik, 1979), and offer benefits to those

who participate. First, intramural sports are important because they provide individuals

with a means of obtaining physical activity, and as a result, the possibility of bettering

their physical conditioning (Mueller & Reznik, 1979). Second, physical fitness has direct

moral implications. According to Sattler et al. (1978), individuals who are more

physically fit will also be better prepared mentally and spiritually. Third, intramural

sports are fun and enhance social skills. Means (1973) states that through participation in

intramural sports individuals can learn the social values of competition. These social

values include sportsmanship, compatibility, relaxation, and the benefits of long-term

activity.

Two of the more recent studies involving recreational sports participation were

done by Smith and Missler (1994) and Bourgeois, LeUnes, Burkett, Dragges-Bourgeois,

Friend, & Meyers (1995). Smith & Missler (1994) investigated the personal meaning of

intramural sport participation by assessing the motivations of intramural softball

participants. Their findings show that the number one reason for continued involvement

in intramural recreational sports was "having fun." Their most significant differences on

why student chose to participate were between male and female students. According to

their study, males participate in intramural recreational sports with a competitive attitude.

This competitive attitude manifests itself in their desire to dominate an opponent, win,

and show off their skills. Alternatively, females appear to participate with a more

cooperative attitude. Females reported participation in intramural recreational sports for

reasons of health, fitness, social benefits, and experiencing nature. It was evident from

this study that male and advanced players embraced the competitive model toward








participation, while females and beginners valued the cooperative model (Smith &

Missler, 1994).

Bourgeois et al. (1995) examined factors influencing intramural recreational sport

participation by questioning 237 volunteers from an introductory psychology class Their

study concluded that intramural recreational sports can serve as a means for students to

meet their needs for power and success, for fulfilling the need for psychological and

physical well-being, and perhaps to provide a more well-rounded collegiate experience

(Bourgeois et al., 1995).

Recreational sports has received increased attention on college campuses across

the United States as issues of recruitment, retention and student satisfaction have

emerged as institutional priorities. Banta, Bradley, & Bryant (1991) indicated that

recreational sport facilities and programs serve as recruiting highlights, enhance overall

satisfaction with the collegiate experience and make positive contributions to an

institution's retention efforts. Research concerning the beneficial effects of participation

in out-of-class activities consistently identifies such involvement with greater satisfaction

of college choice and an increased likelihood of persistence (retention). Participation in

extracurricular interest groups, publications, teams and residential societies have been

shown to have a major impact on the emotional, moral, social, physical, and intellectual

abilities of their student members (Miller & Jones, 1981).

Kovac and Beck (1997) investigated student perceptions and life satisfaction of

recreational sport services. Their results included that students reported being generally

satisfied with their recreational sport experiences; felt the availability of recreation

facilities and programs was an important factor in deciding to attend and continue at an








institution; and perceived that participation in recreational activities provided individual

benefits in terms of fitness, feelings of physical well-being, sense of accomplishment,

stress reduction and physical strength. Primarily through participation in open recreation

activities and supporting services, recreational sports produced the highest levels of

student participation and satisfaction in all aspects of campus life.

Life satisfaction is also a component that can be important in college student

lives. Life satisfaction is defined as a "global assessment of a person's quality of life

according to his chosen criteria" (Shin & Johnson, 1978, p. 478). It is important to point

out that the judgment of how satisfied people are with their present state of affairs is

based on a comparison with a standard which each individual sets for himself or herself

For example, good health behavior may be stated as a desirable component by college

students, but different individuals may place different values on it. Therefore, it is

important to ask people for an overall evaluation of their lives, especially college

students, to assess their overall perception of personal life satisfaction.

Theoretically, participation in intramural/recreational sports can be analogous to

participating in the athletic environment. Participation in sports traditionally has been

regarded as a means of encouraging the development of healthy habits and deterring

young people from risky behaviors. A report from the President's Council on Physical

Fitness and Sports stated that by participating in athletics, young people will be less

likely to get involved with drugs and alcohol (Vidmar, 1992). A study by Escobedo,

Marcus, Holtzman, & Giovina (1993) found sports participation to be associated with

lower rates of regular and heavy smoking among adolescents. Smoking at a young age

was also reported to be more likely to occur in adolescents who did not participate in








interscholastic sports. A more recent longitudinal study found that female athletes were

nearly three times less likely to report cigarette use than non-athletes (Skolnick, 1993).

Page, Hammermeister, Scanlan, and Gilbert (1998) found that male and female students

who reported participating on one or two teams and three or more teams were

significantly more likely to report not having engaged in cigarette smoking and illegal

drug use than those not playing on any sports teams.

There is an abundance of literature on alcohol and other drug usage among

college students, but limited literature on sports participation and alcohol and drug usage.

It would be beneficial to investigate the frequency, prevalence, and consequences of

alcohol and other drugs among intramural sport participants, a population within the

college student environment. Another benefit to this study is that it will investigate the

concept of life satisfaction among intramural sport participants. Furthermore, studying

the relationship of alcohol and other drug usage and life satisfaction among intramural

sport participants can demonstrate if intramural sport participation has had any impact in

curbing alcohol and other drug use while increasing life satisfaction among this

population.

Problem Statement

Alcohol and other drug use is a serious problem for college students. Several

studies have assessed alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among national samples of

college students. These studies include the Monitoring the Future Study, Core Alcohol

and Drug Study, and Wechsler's College Alcohol Study (Johnston, O'Malley &

Bachman, 1996; Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1996; Wechsler et al., 1998). However,








few studies have examined the relationship between intramural sports participation and

alcohol and other drug usage among college students.

Intramural sports can provide college students a means of an alternative to alcohol

and other drug use. The goal of intramural sports is to provide an opportunity for

individuals to be able to participate without any concern for winning or losing.

Intramural sports is important to college students because they can provide individuals

the opportunity of obtaining physical activity, bettering their physical conditioning, and

having fun (Mueller et al, 1979; Sattler et al., 1978; Means, 1973).

Several studies have addressed the relationship between recreation participation

and alcohol use (Swisher & Hu, 1983; Scarinci, 1994). Swisher and Hu (1983) found

that participation in sports was associated with less use of marijuana and depressants,

hallucinogens and stimulants, and with more use of beer. Scarinci (1994) reported that

outdoor recreation and sports participation were found to have a significant relationship

with alcohol consumption. However, few studies have looked at the extent of alcohol

and other drug use among intramural sport participants.

Some studies have addressed life satisfaction and substance abuse behaviors

(Clark & Kirisci, 1996; Newcomb, Bentler, & Collins, 1986; Zullig, Valois, Drane, &

Huebner, 1999). In Clark & Kirisci (1996), life satisfaction was reserved for a single

domain of quality of life, psychological functioning, and measured by the interviewers on

a four-point scale from "always satisfied" to "never satisfied" in its relationship to

posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. The other quality of life domains in this study

were physical functioning, social functioning, and role functioning. These are all

individual, subjective measures of quality of life, but they fail to differentiate between








other specific domains that have been demonstrated to be important to children such as

family, friends, school, and living environment.

The study by Newcomb et al. (1986) made direct, causal links between alcohol

use and some of the life satisfaction domains (self, peer relationships, future life

opportunities, and global perceived environment), but reserved its conclusions only for

alcohol They also found that early alcohol use did not directly affect later dissatisfaction

with future opportunity, however, early dissatisfaction caused a direct, but small, increase

in young adult alcohol use.

Zullig et al. (1999) examined the relationship between selected substance abuse

behaviors and perceptions of life satisfaction among public high school students. While

examining the relationship between reported life satisfaction and other selected substance

use behaviors, they found that inhalant use, thirty day prevalence of smoking cigarettes,

and life cocaine use were the top three risk behaviors that were most significantly related

to reported life satisfaction.

The literature has shown that alcohol use has been found to be predictive of

reduced life satisfaction among public high school adolescents (Newcomb et al., 1986;

Zullig et al., 1999). In addition, marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, and steroids have also

been associated with reduced life satisfaction among high school adolescents (Zullig et

al., 1999). Although there have been studies which have examined satisfaction in

recreational sports in regards to participation, there have been no studies which have

examined the extent of alcohol and other drug use among intramural and non-intramural

sport participants as well as the relationship of life satisfaction and alcohol and other drug

use. Therefore, this study was designed to 1) compare the extent of alcohol and other








drug use among intramural and non-intramural sport participants, and 2) compare the

perceptions of reported life satisfaction between intramural and non-intramural sport

participants, and 3) examine the relationship between alcohol and other drugs and life

satisfaction among intramural sport participants.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the frequency, quantity, and reasons

for alcohol and other drug use between intramural and non-intramural sport participants,

2) compare the perceptions of reported life satisfaction between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants, and 3) examine the relationship between alcohol and other

drug usage and perceptions of life satisfaction among intramural sport participants.

Significance of the Study

Alcohol and other drug use is high among college students, a behavior that

is a major concern to health educators. Participation in intramural sports may be

beneficial to help alleviate the problems and alcohol and drug use. This study will help

investigate the relationship between alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction

among the college student population. It is important to examine the relationship

between recreation participation and alcohol and other drug use to establish if

recreational activity has any value in the prevention of alcohol and drug abuse.

In addition, it is also important to examine whether intramural sport participation

contributes to life satisfaction. Ideally, intramural sport participation should be helpful in

reducing alcohol and other drug use and increasing the global perception of life

satisfaction among college students. This study may also be an asset to substance abuse








prevention and intervention programs. Ingalls (1982) suggested that the most successful

substance abuse programs include some kind of recreational activity.

Delimitations of the Study

This study was subject to the following delimitations:

1. The subjects were undergraduate university students.

2. The subject pool were selected from a single large southeastern university.

3. The study were delimited to 2 categories, intramural and non-intramural sport

participants.

4. The data was collected by the investigator during the Spring semester of the year

2000.

Limitations of the Study

This study was limited to the following factors:

1. This study was limited to the examination of alcohol and other drug use and its

relationship to life satisfaction at this institution.

2. This study was limited to the behaviors and consequences of alcohol and other

drugs found on the CORE survey instrument.

3. This study's findings were limited to the students at this institution, who stated

that they did or did not participate in intramural sports.

4. The mood and temperament of the students at the time of the survey could

possibly affect the students' willingness to respond honestly and completely.








Assumptions of the Study

This study was based on the following assumptions:

1 The subjects surveyed were representative of the university's undergraduate

student population. It was assumed that a cross-section of students with a wide variety of

academic majors and ethnic backgrounds was represented.

2. It was assumed that the subjects in the study were honest in reporting the

frequency and any problems they experienced as a result of alcohol and other drug use.

3. It was assumed that the CORE Alcohol and Other Drug Usage and the Life

Satisfaction Survey instruments were reliable and valid.

Hypotheses

This study was designed to test the following hypotheses in regards to alcohol and

other drug use, life satisfaction, and the relationship between alcohol and other drug use

and life satisfaction.

1. There is no difference in alcohol use between intramural and non-intramural sport

participants.

a) There is no difference in the frequency of binge drinking episodes between

intramural and non-intramural sport participants,

b) There is no difference in the average number of drinks between intramural and

non-intramural sport participants.

c) There is no difference in the frequency of alcohol use between intramural and

non-intramural sport participants.








2. There is no difference in frequency of other drug use between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants.

a) There is no difference in the frequency of cigarette use between intramural

and non-intramural sport participants.

b) There is no difference in the frequency of marijuana use between intramural

and non-intramural sport participants.

c) There is no difference in the frequency of cocaine use between intramural and

non-intramural sport participants.

d) There is no difference in the frequency of inhalant use between intramural and

non-intramural sport participants.

3. There is no difference in the percentage of reasons for alcohol and other drug use

between intramural and non-intramural sport participants.

4. There is no difference in reported life satisfaction between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants.

5. There is no significant relationship between alcohol and other drug use and life

satisfaction among intramural sport participants.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following definitions were used:

Alcohol. Alcohol is a substance which affects physical and cognitive functioning

and includes beer, wine, and hard liquors

Alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse is a maladaptive pattern of use manifested by

recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of alcohol.

Average number of drinks. The average number of drinks consumed in one week.








Binge drinking. Binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in one sitting.

For male students, it is defined as those who have consumed > 5 drinks of alcohol in a

row and female students who have consumed > 4 in a row in one sitting.

Consequences of use. Consequences of use are the behavioral effects resulting

from the use of alcohol or other drugs and reported by the user.

Current alcohol use. Defined as at least one drink of alcohol during the 30 days

preceding the survey.

Current cigarette use. Defined as smoking a cigarette on more than 1 of the 30

days preceding the survey.

Current episodic heavy drinking. Defined as having five or more drinks of

alcohol on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey.

Current frequent alcohol use. Defined as at least one drink of alcohol on more

than 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.

Current inhalant use. Defined as either sniffing glue, breathing the contents of

aerosol or spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high at least once during the

30 days preceding the survey.

Current marijuana use. Defined as using marijuana at least once during the 30

days preceding the survey.

Drink. A drink is defined as a bottle of beer, a glass of wine, a wine cooler, a shot

glass of liquor, or a mixed drink).

Intramural recreational sports. Intramural sports consist of structured leagues

and/or tournaments requiring design and external leadership (Mull, Bayless & Ross,

1987). The word intramural is a combination of two Latin words, "intra" meaning








within and muraliss" meaning wall (Bourgeois et al., 1995). Examples include college

intramural sports such as softball, basketball, flag football, wallyball, volleyball,

racquetball, tennis, and so on; community sponsored leagues such as softball, volleyball,

tennis, soccer, and so on; and/or commercial sponsored leagues such as bowling,

volleyball, racquetball, tennis, and so on.

Life satisfaction. Defined as a "global assessment of a person's quality of life

according to his chosen criteria" (Shin & Johnson, 1978, p. 478).

Lifetime alcohol use. Defined as at least one drink of alcohol in a person's

lifetime.

Lifetime cigarette use. Defined as smoking a cigarette as least once during their

lifetime.

Lifetime cocaine use. Defined as using some form of cocaine at least once during

their lifetime.

Lifetime inhalant use. Defined as either sniffing glue, breathing the contents of

aerosol or spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high at least once during their

lifetime.

Lifetime marijuana use. Defined as using marijuana at least once during their

lifetime.

Recreational sports. Recreational sports are defined as sport activity for the pure

sake of participation and fun (Mull, Bayless, & Ross, 1987). For the purpose of this

study, one category of recreational sports will be examined, intramural recreational

sports.













CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The literature related to alcohol and other drug usage in regards to college

students is reported in this chapter. In addition, research on information regarding

intramural sport participation is reported, as well as information regarding life

satisfaction and substance use behaviors. For organizational purposes, the literature is

presented under the following main topics:

1) Alcohol and Other Drug Usage among College Students

2) Consequences of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

3) Reasons for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among College Students

4) Alcohol and Other Drug Use to Cope with Pressure

5) Intramural and Recreation Sports as Alternatives for Alcohol and Other Drug Use

6) Participation and Motivation Factors in Intramural/Recreational Sports

7) Recreation Sports as a Coping Mechanism for Alcohol and Other Drug Use

8) Sport Participation and Healthy Behavior among College Students

9) Attitudes Toward and Reasons for Alcohol Use among Athletes

10) Life Satisfaction

11) Student Satisfaction and Perceptions in Recreational Sports

12) Life Satisfaction and Alcohol and Other Drug Use

13) Summary








Alcohol and Other Drug Usage Among College Students

Health promotion attempts to promote adaptations and adjustments in individuals

and communities to encourage maintenance and improvement of health for whole

populations, usually by applying wellness principles to organizations and institutions that

are conducive to health. Health promotion can take place in a variety of settings utilizing

a variety of strategies. An important setting where health educators can deliver health

promotion strategies are at our nations academic institutions. Colleges and universities

are ideal settings for delivering health promotion programs and services. More than 12

million students are currently enrolled in the nation's 3,600 colleges and universities. Of

these students, approximately 7.1 million are aged 18-24 years, comprising 57% of the

college population. Of all persons aged 18-24 years in the United States, one fourth are

currently either full- or part-time college students. Therefore, colleges and universities

are important settings for reducing important health-risk behaviors among many young

adults (Douglas et al., 1997).

The use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs on campus is an enduring problem.

Experimentation with these substances has been generally regarded as a rite of passage

(Bower & Martin, 1999; Wechsler & Isaac, 1992). Although the use of illicit drugs, such

as marijuana, LSD, and heroin, continues on college campuses, the Commission of

Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities found that alcohol abuse is the most urgent

and most complicated substance abuse problem in colleges (Bower & Martin, 1999).

Several studies have assessed alcohol, tobacco, other drug use, and sexual

aggression using national samples of college students. One important study is called the

Monitoring the Future study. Since 1980, Monitoring the Future has conducted annual








follow-up surveys of American high school seniors as they become 19 to 22 years of age

and enroll full time in 2- or 4- year colleges and universities. Monitoring the Future

measures tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, inhalant, stimulant, cocaine and other drug use

(Johnston et al., 1996). In 1994, 52% of male and 31% of female college students

reported consuming five or more drinks of alcohol in a row on at least one occasion

during the 2 weeks preceding the survey. In addition, 24% of male and 23% of female

college students reported smoking cigarettes; 20% of male and 12% of female college

students reported using marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey.

In 1997, Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Grossman, & Zanakos (1997) examined

the nature and extent of binge drinking among a national sample of students in 4-year

colleges and universities. Their findings were consistent with the results of the

Monitoring the Future Survey: 50% of college men and 39% of college women were

binge drinkers (defined as male students who consumed > 5 drinks of alcohol in a row

and female students who consumed > 4 in a row during the 2 weeks preceding the

survey). Other findings included 45% of the students who were under the age of 21 had

reported binge drinking. Among the different ethnicities, the highest rate of binge

drinking was in Whites at 48.1%, followed by Hispanics at 38.5%, then Asian/Pacific

Islander (21.9%) and Blacks (16.5%). Sixty-seven percent of the students who were

involved in a fraternity or sorority reported binge drinking.

Wechsler et al. (1998) resurveyed and found that 42.7% of the respondents to the

survey had reported binge drinking in the past two weeks. Comparison by gender

indicated 48.4% of the males and 38.9% of the females had reported this behavior.

Students also reported that within the past 12 months, 80.7% had used alcohol, 39.2%








had used cigarettes, and 27.5% has used marijuana. By ethnicity, Whites still had the

highest rate of binge drinking (46.8%) followed by Hispanics (37.6%), Asian/Pacific

Islander (24.9%), and Blacks (18.3%). Sixty-five percent of those who were involved in

a fraternity or sorority reported binge drinking. The information by age found that

students under the age of 24 years had reported binge drinking 45.5% as compared to

28.5% who were over the age of 24 years.

The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey is used by institutions funded by the US

Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education

(FIPSE) (Presley et al., 1996). In 78 FIPSE funded surveys at 2- and 4-year colleges and

universities during 1989 to 1991, 51% of male and 35% of female college students

reported binge drinking (2> 5 drinks of alcohol in one sitting during the 2 weeks preceding

the survey). Tobacco use was reported by 46% of male and 36% of female college

students, and marijuana use by 30% of men and 24% of women during the 12 months

preceding the survey.

More recent data from the 1996 Core Alcohol and Drug Survey has shown that

within the past year prior to completing the survey, 82.8% of the students reported using

alcohol, 44.4% cigarettes, and 31.3% marijuana. Within the 30 days prior to completing

the survey, 69.7% of the respondents reported using alcohol, 34.2% tobacco, and 18.6%

marijuana. Overall, the average number of drinks consumed by the students in the

sample was 5.1 per week. For binge drinking, 41.7% of the students engaged in binge

drinking at least once in the 2 weeks prior to completing the survey. Of the 46,616

students who reported being under the age of 21 years, 82.4% reported using alcohol

within the year prior to completing the survey, and 68.8% reported using alcohol within








the 30 days prior to completing the survey. Other drug usage included hallucinogens,

cocaine, and amphetamines. In the 30 days prior to completing the survey, 3.1% reported

using amphetamines, 2.7% hallucinogens, and 1.6% cocaine (Core Institute, 1998)

In 1995, the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) was

implemented. The 1995 NCHRBS was built on previous surveys of health risk behaviors

among college students by assessing in one questionnaire a broad range of health risk

behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity of young

people. The NCHRBS was the first national survey to measure health risk behaviors in

six areas. The areas were categorized as 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional and

intentional injuries, 2) tobacco use, 3) alcohol and drug use, 4) sexual behaviors that

contribute to unintended pregnancy and STDs, 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors, and 6)

physical activity (Kolbe, Kann, & Collins, 1993).

Results from the 1995 survey noted 4.2% engaged in current frequent alcohol use.

Male students were significantly more likely than female students, and White students

were significantly more likely than Black or Hispanic students to be current frequent

users of alcohol (Douglas et al., 1997). About one third (34.5%) of all students reported

current episodic heavy drinking (consuming five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one

occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey). Nearly half of all the students

(48.7%) had used marijuana during their lifetime, and 14,0% had used marijuana during

the past 30 days preceding the survey. Almost one third (31.3%) of the students had

smoked cigarettes daily (at least one cigarette every day for 30 days) at some time during

their lifetime, and 14.4% had used cocaine at some time during their lifetime.








Studies have also been conducted at individual institutions in regards to alcohol

and other drug use. Alcohol consumption at the University of Florida, as reported by the

Office of Student Services, has increased since 1987. According to the results of an

alcohol and other drug use survey conducted at the University of Florida in 1999, 76.5%

of the respondents reported that they had consumed an alcoholic beverage in the past 30

days. When asked the question how many times had they indulged in binge drinking (_> 5

drinks or more in one setting), 46.3% reported that they had so at least once. Twenty-

three percent said they had indulged in binge drinking once or twice within the past two

weeks, 15.8% had indulged in binge drinking three to five times, and 6.7% had done so

six or more times (CADRC, 1999).

By gender, it was found that in the past 30 days, 78 3% of the men had reported

using alcohol in the past 30 days, 29.0% reported using cigarettes, and 27.4% reported

using marijuana. By comparison, 75.1% of the women reported using alcohol in the past

30 days, 28.0% reported using cigarettes, and 20.5% marijuana. When asked how many

times they had indulged in binge drinking, 55.7% of the males reported that they had

while 39.7% of the females reported this behavior. In the response of what is the average

number of drinks they consume in a week, 25.5% of the males reported 1-4 drinks, 33.1%

5 to 10 drinks, and 16.3% 11 or more drinks. By contrast, 39.5% of the females reported

1 to 4 drinks, 21.8% 5 to 10 drinks, and 8.9% 11 or more drinks (CADRC, 1999).

Information about alcohol and other drug use has also been studied between

students who are involved in fraternities and sororities. When students in Greek and

Non-Greek organizations were asked about their substance use, 92.5% of Greeks reported

drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, 40.4% reported using cigarettes, and 37.6% reported








using marijuana, while 71.6% of the non-Greeks reported using alcohol, 28.4%

cigarettes, and 25.6% marijuana. When asked the question how many times had they

indulged in binged drinking, 66.6% of the Greeks reported that they had while 41.7% of

the non-Greeks reported this behavior. Also, in responding to questions on the average

number of drinks consumed in a week, 30.4% of the Greeks reported 1-4 drinks, 39.3%

reported 5 to 10 drinks, and 19.2% reported 11 or more drinks. By comparison, 34.2% of

the non-Greeks reported 1-4 drinks, 23.9% reported 5 to 10 drinks, and 10.3% reported

11 or more drinks (CADRC, 1999).

The data from the University of Florida study also revealed alcohol and other

drug use information among students of different ethnicity. In regards to alcohol use,

White students reported the highest percentage of alcohol use in the past 30 days at 80%,

followed by Hispanics (79 6%), American Indian/Alaskan Natives (75.0%), Asian/Pacific

Islander (63.2%) and Blacks (44.3%). For cigarette use, Hispanics reported the highest

percentage of use in the past 30 days at 36.0%, followed by American Indian/Alaskan

Natives (33.3%), Whites (29.1%), Asian/Pacific Islander (27.9%), and Blacks (4.6%).

For marijuana use, American Indian/Alaskan Natives reported the highest percentage of

use in the past 30 days at 58.3%, followed by Hispanics (28.3%), Whites (24.5%),

Asian/Pacific Islander (13.4%), and Blacks (11.6%). When asked how many times they

had engaged in binge drinking, 25.3% of Whites reported this behavior once or twice,

24.9% followed by Hispanics (24.1%), Asian/Pacific Islander (17.6%), and Blacks

(13.9%) Furthermore, in regards to binge drinking, 25.0% of American Indian/Alaskan

Natives reported this behavior between 3 to 5 times, followed by Hispanics at 19.9%, and

Whites at 17.0%. When asked what was the average number of drinks consumed in a







week, Hispanics reported the highest percentage of 1 to 4 drinks a week at 40.7%,

followed by American Indian/Alaskan Natives (36.4%), and Whites (32.9). Whites

reported the highest percentage of averaging 5 to 10 drinks in a week at 29.5%, followed

by American Indian/Alaskan Natives (27.3%), Asian/Pacific Islander (23.9%) and

Hispanics (23.6%) (CADRC, 1999).

The University of Florida study also included data with regards to student

classifications. In regards to alcohol use, 81.3% of the seniors reported alcohol use in the

past 30 days, followed by sophomores (77.7%), juniors (75.1%) then freshmen (67.1%)

As for cigarette use, 35.4% of the freshmen reported cigarette use in the past 30 days,

followed by sophomores (30.4%), seniors (27.5%), and juniors (26.3%). In regards to

marijuana use, 28.9% of the freshmen reported marijuana use in the past 30 days,

followed by sophomores (25.3%), seniors (23.9%), and juniors (21.5%). When asked the

question of how many times they had engaged in binge drinking, 24.9% of the juniors

reported this behavior once or twice, followed by seniors (24.8%), sophomores (24.4%),

and freshmen (21.1%). In addition, 17,8% of the sophomores and seniors reported this

behavior 3 to 5 times, followed by freshmen (16.7%) and juniors (14.5%). In their

response to the average number of drinks they consume in a week, sophomores reported

the highest percentage of 1 to 4 drinks at 34.6%, followed by juniors (33.4%), seniors

(33.2%), and freshmen (26.0%). In addition, 32.2% of the seniors reported an average of

5 to 10 drinks a week, followed by freshmen (26.6%), sophomores (25.3%), and juniors

(24.7%) (CADRC, 1999).

Although alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and cigarettes seem to be the drugs that are

used the most by college students, other drug usage has been reported as well. In the








University of Florida study, 6.3% of the students indicated that they had used

methamphetamines, but not in the past 30 days. In addition, 5.9% reported using

hallucinogens, and 6.9% reported using inhalants, and 5.1% reported using LSD. By

classification, 5.8% of the freshmen reported using inhalants in the past 30 days, followed

by juniors (4.9%), sophomores (4.7%) and seniors (3.1%). Sophomores reported the

highest use of methamphetamines in the 30 days prior to the survey at 5.4% followed by

freshmen (4.5%), seniors (4.4%) and juniors (3.3%). By gender, 6.4% of the males

reported using inhalants in the past 30 days, as compared to females at 3.2%. Males also

reported higher use of methamphetamines at 5.1% followed by females at 3.7%. In

comparison of Greeks to non-Greeks, 7.5% of the Greeks reported using inhalants in the

past 30 days, while 5.1% of the non-Greeks reported this behavior. Greeks also reported

a higher use of methamphetamines at 6.5%, followed by non-Greeks at 4.0%. By

ethnicity, freshmen reported the highest use of inhalants at 18.2% followed by Hispanics

(6.0%) and Whites (4.9%). Freshmen also reported the highest use of methamphetamines

at 8.3%, followed by Whites (5.0%) and Hispanics (4.4%) (CADRC, 1999).

Consequences of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

When college students engage in alcohol and other drug use, college students are

likely to have negative consequences, and many of these consequences have implications

in the academic setting. Some of these consequences include poor test scores, missing

classes, hangovers, experiencing memory loss, arguments or fights, driving while

intoxicated, and trouble with the police. Presley et al. (1996), in the Core Alcohol and

Other Drug Survey, found that 21.3% of the students reported performing poorly on a test

or project, and 29.1% reported missing a class due to substance use. Other consequences








from the alcohol and other drug use included that 60.6% of the students reported

experiencing a hangover within the past year, with 13.5% experiencing ten or more

hangovers; 26.8% had a memory loss or blackout due to drinking or drug use; and 47.9%

said that they became nauseated from drinking or other drug use "in the last year." By

gender, it was found that 15.8% of the men believed that they had a substance abuse

problem as compared to 7.9% of the women, and 17.5% of the men had been in trouble

with police or other campus authorities compared to only 7.5% of the women. In

addition, 9.6% of the men reported that they took advantage of someone sexually

compared with 3.0% of the women.

Wechsler et al. (1998) found results in relation to alcohol and other drug related

consequences. Some of their findings included 60.3% experienced a hangover, 30.1%

had missed a class, 35.8% drove after drinking alcohol, 26.7% forgot where they were

and what they did, 23.5% argued with friends, 23.2% got behind in school work, 22.5%

engaged in unplanned sexual activity, and 19.8% reported to have five or more different

alcohol-related problems. Wechsler et al. (1999) also found additional information on

alcohol-related consequences. Their findings included that frequent binge drinkers

(defined as those who binged three or more times in the past two weeks) encountered

these type of alcohol related problems: 58.9% were injured, 58.8% damaged property,

58.4% had trouble with the police, 53.9% fell behind in their school work, 53.8% missed

class, 52.3% experienced blackouts and had unprotected sex, and 49.7% had unplanned

sex.

When students at the University of Florida were asked about some alcohol and

other drug-related consequences they have experienced one or more times, some of the








included 70.1% had a hangover, 56.8% had vomited, 48.1% had driven while under the

influence, 47.9% had missed a class, and 30.9% experienced memory loss, 29.7%,

performed poorly on a test or project, and 29.1% had gotten into a fight or argument. By

gender, 68.1% of the males reported that they had a hangover, 56.5% had vomited, 54%

had driven under the influence, 50.7% had missed a class, 28.85% had unexpected or

unplanned sex, and 31.6% fell behind in academic work. By contrast, 71.6% of the

women reported having a hangover, 57% had vomited, 46.3% had missed a class, 44%

had driven under the influence, 28.9% performed poorly on a test or project, 30.7% had a

memory loss, 21.1% had unexpected or unplanned sex, and 13.2% had been taken

advantage of sexually (CADRC, 1999).

Reasons for Using Alcohol and Other Drugs among College Students

The college experience in the United States has traditionally been characterized as

a period of transition in which students prepare for independent living. During this

transition, students are presented with challenges to stimulate the mind and opportunities

to develop the body and spirit, all of which have been identified as integral to successful

student development (Kanters & Forrester, 1997). In developing programming, colleges

often assume that students have similar health behavior practices because most students

are moving from adolescence to young adulthood. Students are drawn to a college

campus because of the physical, economical, and psychological characteristics it

possesses. The characteristics of the students are influenced by the environment of that

campus. The educational setting, then, makes a difference both socially and

academically in students' lives (Moos, 1987).








How students cope with the stressors of college and university life is influenced

by their level of self-esteem and availability of emotional supportive networks.

Researchers agree that the way people consciously think about a stressful situation affects

how they respond emotionally (Antonovsky, 1979). People who perceive that they can

control the stressful event are more likely to successfully cope with the stressor. People

with negative self images tend to perceive themselves as having little control over both

present and future life events. Therefore, students with low self esteem may be at a risk

for substance abuse related to stressful situations.

Presley et al. (1996), with the Core and Alcohol Drug Survey, examined what are

some of the social and sexual effects that alcohol and other drugs have. According to

their respondents, 68% felt that alcohol breaks the ice, 66% felt that it embraces social

activity, 62% felt that alcohol gave them something to do, 55% felt that alcohol gave

people something to talk about, and 53% thought that alcohol allowed people to have

more fun. Other findings from the study were that 50% felt that alcohol facilitated male

bonding and peer connections, 47% felt that it facilitated sexual opportunities, 36% felt

that it facilitated female bonding, 21% felt that it made women sexier, and 12% felt that it

made men sexier.

When students at the University of Florida were asked what were their reasons for

using alcohol and other drugs, overall, 78.9% responded to have fun, 63.6% responded to

relieve other stress, 53.8% responded to ease social interactions, 48.9% responded to

relieve academic stress, 47.5% responded to get high or drunk, 15.1% responded to

enhance sex, and 14.4% responded to fit in with friends. To have fun was the number








one reason for consuming alcohol among gender, classification, ethnicity, and

Greek/non-Greek involvement (CADRC, 1999).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use to Cope With Pressure

From a health promotion standpoint, it is important to understand why college

students use alcohol and other drugs to cope with the pressures of college life. A study

conducted by McCormack, Laybold, Nelson, and Budd (1993) related to stress and

substance use found alcohol and drug abuse to be a negative coping factor for college

students under stress. According to their findings, almost a quarter of the students (23%)

reported that it is acceptable for a student to drink when under stress. In addition, 12%

reported marijuana use acceptable, and 2% indicated cocaine use as an acceptable means

of dealing with stress. The results also indicated that males were more likely than female

resident students to use alcohol or marijuana to relieve stress. In addition, it was shown

that this difference increased for students who had low self-esteem levels. McCormack et

al. (1993) stated that "the results of the present study argue that educational officials can

increase the effectiveness of their intervention by incorporating programs designed to

mediate the stress process into college and university life" (p. 222).

A study conducted by Morris and Schneider (1992) discussed stress and coping

behaviors of students from five campuses. The three most popular coping behaviors on

all campuses were seeking out a friend, watching television or reading, and sleeping.

Students at land-grant institutions were most likely to use negative coping behaviors such

as alcohol, drugs, or food (9% drinking, 1% drugs, 7% food). Students on land-grant

(16%) and all-female campuses (11%) were most likely to be involved in a violent

encounter. Eighty-three percent of the students from all types of colleges reported

drinking regularly. The liberal arts college campus had the highest average of drinking








regularly at 99% and the lowest average at 60% on land-grant. Finally, the most

commonly used drug other than alcohol was reported as marijuana. The highest reported

usage of marijuana was on the land-grant campuses with 32% of the respondents

reporting that they used marijuana. This research provides evidence to support the effect

of environment on health and other behaviors.

Loneliness and low self-esteem are reported to be causes of alcohol abuse.

According to Berkowitz and Perkins (1986) students use alcohol to escape, escalate low

self esteem, and as a coping mechanism for stress. Alcohol as a negative coping

mechanism for stress is reported on many college campuses (Berkowitz & Perkins, 1986;

McCormack et al., 1993; Morris et al., 1992). The need for alternatives to alcohol use as

a coping mechanism is important to increase the overall wellness of the college

population.

Intramural and Recreation Sports as Alternatives for Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Given the stressors with which college students have to deal, the ability to deal

with stress effectively is an essential skill. Carruthers et al. (1992) proposed that

engaging in leisure or recreational activities is an ideal means to decrease stress and

decrease alcohol and drug abuse. In their research, Carruthers et al. (1992) stated that

leisure involvement is a form of stress management, in that involvement in activities

which are meaningful and engaging generally results in relaxation. Individuals

experiencing can use leisure and recreation activities as a release or distraction, rather

than turning to alcohol or other drugs.

One means of recreational activity readily available on college campuses is

intramural sports. Intramural sports refers to activities and games administered within a








specific institution (Mueller & Reznik, 1979). The goal of intramural sports is to provide

an opportunity for individuals to be able to participate without concern of winning or

losing (Sattler et al., 1978). Intramural sports are especially common on the junior high,

high school and college levels (Mueller & Reznik, 1979), and offer benefits to those who

participate. First, intramural sports are important because they provide individuals with a

means of obtaining physical activity, and, as a result, the possibility of bettering their

physical conditioning (Mueller & Reznik, 1979). Second, physical fitness has direct

moral implications. According to Sattler et al. (1978), individuals who are more

physically fit will also be better prepared mentally and spiritually Third, intramural

sports are important socially. Means (1973) states that through participation in

intramural sports individuals can learn the social values of competition. These social

values include sportsmanship, compatibility, relaxation, and the benefits of long-term

activity.

Intramural sports have been part of the American society for many years. As long

ago as the colonial period, settlers engaged in intramural type activities such as leisure

and recreational events and sports clubs (Kleindienst & Weston, 1964). During the

second century of American settlement, leisure and recreation facilities began to be

constructed. Between 1820 and 1840, several gymnasiums were opened in schools and

colleges to provide organized recreational programs for the students. Sports clubs were

being organized during this period. From these recreational activities and clubs evolved

the more modern form of intramural sports (Kleindienst & Watson, 1964). However, the

participants of these activities were men. Not until the late nineteenth century did

women's needs for physical activity emerge (Kleindienst & Watson, 1964). As women







gained acceptance for continue physical activity, women's sports clubs of tennis, boating,

and cycling began to become popular. However, women's participation in intramural

sports did not become immediately accepted.

Participation and Motivation Factors in Intramural/Recreational Sports

Since intramural sports seems to provide college students opportunities for

physical activity, competition, and socialization, it is important to understand why they

participate and what are their motivations to intramural sports. Several studies have

examined motivational factors for recreational sports participation at the collegiate level.

In the mid-1950s, McGuire (1956) surveyed male students at the University of Texas to

determine why they participated in intramurals. The top three reasons reported by

McGuire were 1) They liked the activity, 2) To help the organization (fraternity) win a

trophy (extrinsic), and 3) As a recreational avenue. In 1963, Cain reported that the

women at the University of Arkansas participated because they 1) Enjoyed sports, 2)

Played sports in high school, 3) Enjoyed friendly competition, and 4) Enjoyed meeting

new people.

Other studies examining motivational factors for recreational sports participation

include a study at Kansas State University by Edmonson (1975) which reported that male

and female students participated because of 1) Social values, 2) Aesthetic values, 3)

Health and fitness, and 4) The pursuit of the athletic high. At the University of

Maryland, Zuercher et al. (1980) found that students participated in intramural sports

because 1) They were fun, 2) Physical exercise, 3) Organization needed the points, 4) To

meet or be with other students, 5) Competition, and 6) Friends expectations (peer

pressure). At the University of Michigan, Hammit and Hammit (1980) surveyed student








users of recreational sports facilities finding that physical exercise, mental relaxation, and

a change in routine were very important reasons for participation.

At the University of Minnesota, recreational sports participants were surveyed to

determine their reasons for participating, use patterns, and opinions (Chestnutt & Haney,

1984). Their findings revealed that most students preferred co-ed sport participation to

single gender leagues, and team sports to individual and dual sports. The top three

reasons for recreational sports participation were. 1) Keeping physically fit, 2) Releasing

or reducing built-up tension and stress, and 3) Giving your mind a rest, a change of pace

(Chestnutt & Haney, 1984). University of Michigan participants and non-participants

were also questioned about the university's recreational sports program. The results

indicate that 35% of the students did not participate, and twice as many males as females

participated (Stevenson, Reznik, & Zuecher, 1979).

Another study examined the recreational preferences of commuters and campus

residents at the University of Maryland (Foster, Sedlacek, & Hardwick, 1977) Their

study showed that residents participated in nearly twice as many activities as commuters,

and were less likely to use off-campus recreational sports facilities. Also, at the

University of Maryland, Zuercher et al. (1982) interviewed undergraduates to determine

their experiences and perceptions of the intramural program. Their results revealed that

females were more interested in sports outside of the intramural program (informal and

fitness programs).

Zuercher et al. (1982) at the University of Maryland identified several reasons for

participation in intramural sports. The results of Zuercher et al. (1982) indicated that

32% of the women surveyed participated for physical exercise, while only 21% of the








men surveyed participated for physical exercise. Twelve percent of the women indicated

a desire to meet people as their reason for participation. Only 7% of the males surveyed

participated to meet people. In addition, 6% of the females participated because of their

friends' expectations.

Since intramural sports seems to provide college students opportunities for

physical activity, competition, and socialization, it has been found that individuals do not

participate in intramural sports for various reasons. The major reasons reported Zuercher

et al. (1982) at the University of Maryland for not participating indicated that 27% of the

individuals did not have time, 11% were not interested, 10% had conflicts with work, 6%

lacked information about the activities, 5% lived too far away, and 4% had conflicts with

study time. Thirty-three percent of the women surveyed indicated they did not participate

because of insufficient time. Only 10% of the males interviewed indicated they did not

have time. In addition, 7% of the women had conflicts with study time. Nine percent of

the women reported insufficient information, while only 3% of the men reported

insufficient information. The study also reported that many of the women who did not

participate in intramural sports participated in outside activities such as jogging, ice-

skating, roller-skating, and dancing. These are non-competitive activities in which the

women could participate for enjoyment, exercise, and comradeship (Zuercher, et al.

1982).

Snodgrass and Tinsley (1990) examined motivations for participation in

recreational sports by way of descriptive statistics. They found that the overall

motivation for participation in recreational sports was highest in the physical wellness

and competence mastery areas, with reducing stress and maintaining a balanced lifestyle








being somewhat important. Motivation to compete was only important to half of the

respondents overall, but twice as important for males as compared to females. The

findings of this study also show that while women participated overall as much as men,

they do not participate in intramural team sports as often as men do.

Two of the more recent studies involving recreational sports participation were

done by Smith and Missler (1994) and Bourgeois et al. (1995). Smith and Missler (1994)

investigated the personal meaning of intramural sport participation by assessing the

motivations of intramural softball participants. Their findings show that the number one

reason for continued involvement in intramural recreational sports was "having fun."

Their most significant differences on why student chose to participate were between male

and female students. According to their study, males participate in intramural

recreational sports with a competitive attitude. This competitive attitude manifests itself

in their desire to dominate an opponent, win, and show off their skills. Alternatively,

females appear to participate with a more cooperative attitude. Females reported

participation in intramural recreational sports for reasons of health, fitness, social

benefits, and experiencing nature. It was evident from this study that male and advanced

players embraced the competitive model toward participation, while females and

beginners valued the cooperative model (Smith & Missler, 1994).

Bourgeois et al. (1995) examined factors influencing intramural recreational sport

participation by questioning 237 volunteers from an introductory psychology class. They

found that intramural recreational sport participants display relatively high vigor and low

confusion, report less competitive anxiety, and have a much higher motivational level

Their study concluded that intramural recreational sports can serve as a means for








students to meet their needs for power and success, for fulfilling the need for

psychological and physical well-being, and perhaps to provide a more well-rounded

collegiate experience (Bourgeois, et al., 1995).

Recreation Sports as a Coping Mechanism for Stress and Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Since college students may engage in leisure or recreation activities, it is

important to note if the literature shows how this type of activity can help reduce the

perception of stress in college students. The purpose of a study by Ragheb and

McKinney (1993) was to examine how leisure or campus recreation contributed to the

reduction of perceived academic stress in college students. They found that the more

students participated in recreation activities, the less they perceived academic stress.

In a study of the association between recreational activities and the use of various

substances, Swisher & Hu (1983) reported the following patterns: Participation in sports

was associated with less use of marijuana and depressants, hallucinogens and stimulants,

and with more use of beer. Active participation in hobbies was associated with less use

of beer and stimulants. Entertainment, social activities, and extracurricular activities

were associated with more use of all substances except hallucinogens. Scarinci (1994)

investigated the relationship exists between recreation participation and alcohol use in

college students at the University of Florida. She found that outdoor recreation, sports

participation, social activities, and hobbies were also found to have a significant

relationship with alcohol consumption. It appears that the literature between recreation

participation and alcohol and other drug use are inconsistent and more studies are needed

to further examine this relationship.









Sport Participation and Healthy Behavior among College Students

The benefits that individual's receive from participation in recreation or leisure

activities is analogous to participation to sport activities in general. Athletics has been

regarded widely as a means of encouraging children and adolescents to develop healthy

habits and steering them away from smoking, drug abuse, and other detrimental behavior.

Participation in sports traditionally has been regarded as a means of encouraging the

development of healthy habits and deterring young people from risky behaviors. A report

from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports stated that by participating in

athletics, young people will be less likely to get involved with drugs and alcohol

(Vidmar, 1992). A study by Escobedo et al. (1993) found sports participation to be

associated with lower rates of regular and heavy smoking among adolescents. Smoking

at a young age was also reported to be more likely to occur in adolescents who did not

participate in interscholastic sports. A more recent longitudinal study found that female

athletes were nearly three times less likely to report cigarette use than nonathletes

(Skolnick, 1993).

Page et al (1998) found that male and female students who reported participating

on both one or two teams and three or more teams were significantly more likely to have

not engaged in cigarette smoking and illegal drug use than those not playing on any

sports teams. They also found that sports participation was not associated with the

likelihood of ever drinking alcohol, drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, or drinking

heavily in the past 30 days.

Thorlindsson et al. (1990) examined the relationship between sport participation

and perceived health. They found that adolescents who are active participants in sports








tend to experience less anxiety, be less depressed and have fewer psychophysiological

symptoms such as aches and pains and dizziness. Those who have fewer psychological

symptoms in turn are more likely to view their health positively. They also found that

sport participation is inversely related to smoking and the use of alcohol. Adolescents

who are active in sports clearly tend to use these substances less than others.

An explanation for positive findings towards sport participation and health

behavior may be that participation in school sports increases opportunities for young

people to bond in a prosocial way with peers and the school. Social bonding theorists

assert that the availability of bonding opportunities in the school environment may

enhance an individual's social bonding and reduces risk-taking behavior (McBride et al.,

1995). Participation in sports may enhance bonding by increasing opportunities for

students to feel a sense of belonging, attachment, and participation within their social

environment. These feelings may "operate as protective factors by buffering stress,

enhancing social integration, and in turn, decreasing adolescents' risk-taking behavior"

(McBride et al., 1995)

Although the theory suggests that sport participation enhances positive health

behavior, there have been some studies which have not found favorable results amongst

sport participation and health behavior. Some investigators have speculated that athletes

would be more inclined to maintain top physical fitness and would therefore be less likely

to drink than non-athletes (Straus & Bacon, 1953). However, it appears that athletes are

as likely than the general student population to engage in deleterious alcohol

consumption and use of other substances. Aaron et al. (1995) found that the most active

males or males who participated in competitive athletics appeared more at risk for







initiating alcohol consumption that their less active counterparts. Skolnick and Winkler

(1992) found that collegiate student athletes were more likely to report engaging in risky

behavior than students not involved in athletics. Wechsler et al. (1995) found that

students who strongly valued athletics were more likely to binge drink.

Anderson et al. (1991) surveyed college athletes at 11 institutions in five men's

and women's sports and found that 89 percent of the athletes reported alcohol use in the

preceding 12 months. A similar study conducted in the mid 1980's by Anderson and

McKeag (as cited in Anderson et al., 1991) found that 88 percent of student and amateur

athletes reported alcohol use in the preceding 12 months, suggesting that alcohol use had

remained fairly stable in this population. Anderson et al. (1991) also found that alcohol

was by far the most used drug among college athletes when compared with cocaine,

crack, marijuana, hashish, smokeless tobacco, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, major

pain medications (e.g. Tylenol, morphine, etc.) and prescription weight loss products.

In a study of 216 students (109 intercollegiate athletes and 107 nonathletes) at one

college, researchers found that athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per occasion

than nonathletes (54% v. 36% respectively) (Nativ & Puffer, 1991). Researchers who

studied students at four Mississippi institutions reported that male and female athletes

were more likely than other students to drink beer (Overman & Terry, 1991). These

researchers also found that male nonathletes were significantly more likely to drink

during the week, whereas male athletes were inclined to drink on special occasions.

Wechsler et al. (1997) in a survey of 140 colleges, extended research findings that

highlighted differences in alcohol consumption between athletes and nonathletes. They

surveyed 17,251 college students to examine binge drinking rates for students involved,








partly involved, and not involved in athletics. Their findings suggested that rates of binge

drinking (defined as five or more drinks in a row for men, four or more for women)

increased as involvement in athletics increased. Sixty-one percent of the men involved in

athletics reported binge drinking, compared with 55% of the men somewhat involved and

43% of men not involved in athletics. Similar findings were reported for women: Binge

drinking was reported by 30% of the women in athletics, 46% of those partly involved,

and 36% of those who were not involved. They also found that the strongest predictors

of binge drinking among college students involved in athletics included living in a

fraternity or sorority, viewing parties as important, and having binged in high school

(Wechsler et al., 1997)

Researchers reported that, along with higher consumption levels, college athletes

had a tendency to experience more drinking-related consequences, exhibit more high-risk

behaviors, and engage in more sexual violence than their nonathletic counterparts (Nattiv

& Puffer, 1991). Specifically, Nattiv & Puffer (1991) found significantly higher rates of

intercollegiate athletes driving while under the influence of alcohol and riding with

intoxicated drivers. In addition, college athletes were reported as having more sexual

partners and contracting more sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) than nonathletes.

Recent research has looked at differences in use and consequences of alcohol use among

leaders, team members, and nonparticipants in intercollegiate athletics. Leichliter et al.

(1998) found that athletes (team members and leaders) consumed significantly more

alcohol than nonathletes. They also found that students in athletic leadership roles

consumed more alcoholic beverages in a week than other team members and

nonparticipants. Another finding was that for the sample as a whole, the percentage of








students who engaged in binge drinking increased as the degree of athletic involvement

increased.

Other findings from the Leichliter et al. (1998) study were that athletes were more

likely than nonathletes to experience negative consequences as a result of drug or alcohol

use. In addition, a higher proportion of athletic leaders than team members and

nonathletes reported consequences resulting from their substance use (Leichliter et al.,

1998). Another study by Meilman et al. (1999) analyzed the data looking at athletic

involvement and Greek involvement. Their findings included that students who

participated in both Greek life and intercollegiate athletics consumed the most alcohol

and engaged in the most binge drinking. Greek athletes were reported to consume the

most alcohol by weekly consumption, and were most likely to experience negative

consequences as a result of their substance use (Meilman et al., 1999). The findings from

the studies on sport participation and alcohol and other drug use are inconsistent, and

therefore, more studies are needed to examine this relationship among college students.

Attitudes Toward and Reasons for Alcohol Use amone Athletes

There are three primary reasons why athletes use drugs: 1) as ergogenic aids to

facilitate physical performance, 2) as restorative agents to allow continued performance

despite injury, and 3) recreational drugs to cope with problems or to experience altered

mental or physical states (Nuzzo & Waller, 1988). Though it is difficult to place alcohol

solely in one of the three categories, its use by athletes is generally for recreational

purposes.

Although previous research (Hayes & Tevis, 1977) found that nonathletes held

more tolerant attitudes toward alcohol use and reported greater incidence of heavy

drinkers than athletes, some other findings (Rooney, 1984; Stuck, 1988) have suggested








that nonathletes and athletes are more similar than dissimilar in their attitudes toward the

use of alcohol. It has been suggested that sport is a microcosm of the social world and

reflects the profile of American life existing at the time (Edwards, 1973). Therefore,

when drug and alcohol use are part of the social fabric, we can expect them to be part of

the sport world as well.

Similar to the general population, reasons for alcohol use by athletes differ

depending on age and circumstances. In a recent study of high school athletes (Green,

1995), some reasons reported for alcohol use were to have a good time with friends, to

celebrate, to feel good, and to deal with the pressures of school and athletics. Not

surprisingly, collegiate athletes report similar reasons to high school athletes for using

alcohol. In a survey of collegiate athletes' drug use, Evans et al. (1992) found that

respondents cited three primary reasons for alcohol. Seventy-eight percent said they used

alcohol for recreation and social reasons, 47 percent indicated they used alcohol to feel

good, and 28 percent said they used alcohol to deal with stress from college life. This

study also found that those athletes who use alcohol the most scored significantly higher

of the subscales of anger, fatigue, and vigor on the Profile of Mood States pomsS), a

questionnaire designed to measure six major mood states.

Heyman (1990) described psychological and personal factors that may influence

the use of alcohol by an athlete. It is noted that these factors do not only apply to the

collegiate athlete, but high school, professional and intramural as well. While not

actively promoting alcohol use, the sports world has unknowingly influenced and

encouraged the use of alcohol by athletes Young athletes are exposed to alcohol use

when attending athletic games, particularly professional games. Victories are celebrated








and losses mourned with the use of alcohol (Duda, 1986). All of these factors are telling

young athletes, male and female, that alcohol is a part of sports.

Peer pressure or influences may be greater in an athletic population of children or

young adults than in a non-athletic population. Athletes are taught to think like a team.

Heyman (1990) believed that the age old adage 'there is no "I" in "TEAM" teaches

young athletes that it is their responsibility to do what is best for the team. If members of

the group are using alcohol or other drugs, those athletes who are uncertain on how they

feel about alcohol use may be more likely to participate because they are a part of the

team (Heyman, 1990). Heyman also suggested that athletes form their primary

friendships with team members. This could also help to predispose, enable, or reinforce

alcohol use.

Life Satisfaction

Throughout the course of this literature review, involvement in intramural sports

and sport participation has been shown to have a positive effect on the lives of college

students Intramural sport participation can also lead to positive life satisfaction as well.

In order to understand the concept of life satisfaction, one must first understand the

concept of subjective well-being (SWB). Subjective well-being is a psychological

construct that has generated considerable research in the past 20 years (Diener, 1994).

Subjective well-being (SWB) has been classified into two components, the cognitive

aspect of overall life satisfaction, and the affective aspect, including positive and negative

affect. The cognitive component has been defined as the intellectual evaluation of one's

life satisfaction either globally or with respect to specific life domains (Myers & Diener,

1995; Pavot & Diener, 1993). The affective components include the presence of positive








affect such as happiness or good feeling and the absence of negative affect. Negative

affect refers to unpleasant feelings such as anxiety and anger (Myers et al., 1995).

Life satisfaction refers to a cognitive, judgmental process. Shin & Johnson (1978)

define life satisfaction as a "global assessment of a person's quality of life according to

his chosen criteria" (p. 478). Judgments of satisfaction are dependent upon a comparison

of one's circumstances with what is thought to be an appropriate standard. It is important

to point out that the judgment of how satisfied people are with their present state of

affairs is based on a comparison with a standard with which each individual sets for

himself or herself It is a hallmark of the subjective well-being area that it centers on the

person's own judgments, not upon some criterion which is judged to be important by the

researcher (Diener, 1984). For example, good health behavior may be a desirable

component by college students, but different individuals may place different values on it.

That is why it is important to ask people for their overall evaluation of their life, rather

than summing across their specific domains to obtain a measure of overall life

satisfaction.

Many scales have been developed to address the affective component of SWB

(Bradburn, 1969; Campbell et al., 1976; Watson et al., 1988). Other scales have been

generated to examine the related affective component, emotional balance and happiness).

In order to assess the life satisfaction component of SWB, Diener et al. (1984) developed

the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to measure global life satisfaction. Diener et al.

(1984) defined life satisfaction as a global construct of satisfaction that each individual

makes for him or herself Specifically, they defined life satisfaction as a subjective

judgment that crosses over many possible well-being domains, such as health, vigor, and








mood, and designed the SWLS to assess the overall judgment of life satisfaction and

avoid specific well-being concepts (Pavot et al., 1991).

Since its development, this scale has been widely used because of its

demonstrated reliability and validity, as well as its brevity (Alfonso, 1995; Diener et al.,

1984). Some studies have addressed life satisfaction among college students. Pilcher

(1998) examined how well affect and daily events predict life satisfaction in college

students utilizing the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Results from this study were

that affective and daily events were related to and significantly predicted the SWLS in

college students. Specifically, she found that an increase in subjective life satisfaction

was predicted by decreases in depression, negative affect, and frequency of illness and by

increases in vigor.

Some studies have looked at the effects of age, sex and university status on life

satisfaction measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Some studies have indicated a

positive relationship between age and life-satisfaction (Lewinsohn et al., 1991), while

others reported that younger people are satisfied with their life more than older people

(Shmotkin, 1990). A majority of the studies have found no age effects on life satisfaction

(Geis & Klein, 1991; Poloma & Pendleton, 1990).

The relationship between gender and life-satisfaction has also produced

inconsistent findings. Some studies have reported that men are more satisfied than

women (Geis & Klein, 1990), while other studies have shown that women are more

satisfied with their life than men (Heady & Wearing, 1991). No differences in life

satisfaction between gender has also been reported in the literature (Shmotkin, 1990;

Lewinsohn, et al., 1991).








The relationship between university status and life satisfaction has rarely been

addressed. A study by Palys and Little (1983) compared university students with

community members and found that community members showed slightly higher life

satisfaction than university students. It should be noted that they tested very small

samples. In a more recent study, Hong & Giannakipoulos (1994) investigated the effects

of age, sex, and university status on life satisfaction utilizing the SWLS. Their results

found higher satisfaction among older adults as compared to younger people, but they did

not find any significant differences in life satisfaction among gender and university

status.

College students often face many stressors that can affect their environment. The

pressures that an adolescent or a college student faces in making the transition to

adulthood and establishing independence from parents and/or guardians, physical

maturation, and developing a sense of self often can result in experimentation and risk-

taking (Konopka, 1991). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, 1998),

approximately 70% of the nations adolescents have tried cigarette smoking, 9% have

used smokeless tobacco, 79% have had at least one drink of alcohol, 47% have used

marijuana, 8% have used some form of cocaine, 3% have used illegal steroids, 2% have

injected illegal drugs, and 16% have used inhalants. As a result, the importance of

studying these risk behaviors helps gain an insight into these behaviors during this period.

Student Satisfaction and Perceptions in Recreational Sports

Recreational sports has received increased attention on college campuses across

the United States, and issues of recruitment, retention and student satisfaction have

emerged as institutional priorities. Banta et al. (1991) indicated that recreational sport

facilities and programs serve as recruiting highlights, enhance overall satisfaction with








the collegiate experience and make positive contributions to an institution's retention

efforts. Research concerning the beneficial effects of participation in out-of-class

activities consistently identifies such involvement with greater satisfaction of college

choice and an increased likelihood of persistence (retention). Participation in

extracurricular interest groups, publications, teams and residential societies has been

shown to have a major impact on the emotional, moral, social, physical, and intellectual

abilities of their student members (Miller & Jones, 1981).

Alexander Astin's Theory of Involvement (1993) provides a strong argument in

favor of participation in extracurricular student activities and organizations by indicating

that such participation contributes to the education of students. Based upon the simple

principle that students learn by becoming involved, Astin (1993) asserts that the amount

of learning and personal development that takes place in college is directly proportional

to the quality and quantity of involvement. Astin (1993) also asserts that involved

students tend to achieve better grades, persist in college, have greater chances of

implementing career objectives and are more satisfied in their college experience. As

Cross (1980) notes, the greater the contact of students with colleges, the greater the

impact colleges have on students. Students involved in such activities have also been

reported to be more satisfied with their college experience and more likely to graduate

(Garland, 1985).

Kovac and Beck (1997) investigated student perceptions and life satisfaction of

recreational sport services Their results included that students reported being generally

satisfied with their recreational sport experiences; felt the availability of recreation

facilities and programs was an important factor in deciding to attend and continue at an








institution; and perceived that participation in recreational activities provided individual

benefits in terms of fitness, feeling of physical well-being, sense of accomplishment,

stress reduction and physical strength. Primarily through participation in open recreation

activities and supporting services, recreational sports produced the highest levels of

student participation and satisfaction in all aspects of campus life.

Kovac & Beck (1997) also explored the differences in males vs. females in terms

of perceived benefits and rates of participation in intramurals. They found that women

were generally more satisfied with their recreational experiences than their male

counterparts, and that they participated in recreational sports for a wide variety of

reasons, viewing such participation as providing individual as well as social benefits.

While the motivations for male participation in recreational sports tended to cluster

around benefits related to the self, female responses identified reasons for participation

that included social and community concerns.


Life Satisfaction and Alcohol and Other Drug Use

A few studies have addressed life satisfaction and substance abuse behaviors

(Clark & Kirisci, 1996; Newcomb et al., 1986; Zullig et al., 1999). In Clark & Kirisci's

study (1996), life satisfaction was reserved for a single domain of quality of life,

psychological functioning, and measured by the interviewers on a four-point scale from

"always satisfied" to "never satisfied" in its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder

and anxiety. The other quality of life domains in this study were physical functioning,

social functioning, and role functioning. They are all individual, subjective measures of

quality of life, but they failed to differentiate between other specific domains that have








been demonstrated to be important to children such as family, friends, school, and living

environment.

The study by Newcomb et al. (1986) makes direct, causal links between alcohol

use and some of the life satisfaction domains (self, peer relationships, future life

opportunities, and global perceived environment), but reserves its conclusions only for

alcohol. The study followed adolescents in 7o' through 9th grade into early adulthood and

found that early alcohol use created an exacerbation in peer dissatisfaction and of

dissatisfaction with perceived environment in young adulthood. In addition, they found

that early alcohol use did not directly affect later dissatisfaction with future opportunity,

however, early dissatisfaction caused a direct, but small increase, in young adult alcohol

use.

Zullig et al. (1999) examined the relationship between selected substance abuse

behaviors and perceptions of life satisfaction amongst public high school students. After

examining the relationship between reported life satisfaction and other selected substance

use behaviors, they found that inhalant use, thirty day prevalence of smoking cigarettes,

and lifetime cocaine use were the top three risk behaviors that were most significantly

related to reported life dissatisfaction.

Some specific findings from the Zullig et al. (1999) study were that white

adolescent females who had smoked within the past 30 days increased the odds or

reporting dissatisfaction with their life by 1.8 times in comparison to White females who

had not smoked within the past 30 days. White females who had used marijuana in the

past 30 days had 1.5 times greater odds of reporting dissatisfaction with their lives

compared to those who had not used marijuana in the past 30 days. Also, white females








who reported using cocaine during their lifetime had increased odds of reporting

dissatisfaction with life of 2.3 times in comparison to white females who had never used

cocaine.

For black females, those who reported using marijuana in the past 30 days

increased the odds of reporting dissatisfaction with life by 2.0 times compared to those

who had never reported marijuana use. Black females who had drank at least once in

their lifetime had 1.4 times greater risk of reporting dissatisfaction with life versus black

females who had never drank during their lifetime. Also, black females who reported

binge drinking in the past 30 days increased the odds of reporting dissatisfaction with life

by 1.6 times when compared to those who did not report binge drinking (Zullig et al..

1999).

For white males, those who reported smoking in the past 30 days reported

dissatisfaction with life 1.6 times more often compared to those who had not smoked in

the past 30 days. Those white males who reported lifetime cocaine use were 1.9 times

were more likely to report dissatisfaction with their lives than those who had never used

cocaine. Finally, white males who reported lifetime inhalant use, compared to those who

hadn't, had a risk of reporting dissatisfaction with their life by 1.5 times (Zullig et al.,

1999).

For black males, those who reported smoking at least once in the past 30 days

were 1.9 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those who had

not smoked during the past 30 days. For lifetime cocaine use, the likelihood of being

dissatisfied with life increased by 2.8 times compared to those who had never used

cocaine. Black males who reported lifetime crack or freebase forms of cocaine use were








7.2 times more likely to report life dissatisfaction as compared to those who didn't report

drug use (Zullig et al., 1999).

Summary

The research reviewed in this chapter has indicated that alcohol and other drug

usage is common among college students (Douglas et al., 1997; Wechsler et al., 1994;

Presley et al., 1996). The reasons that college students are using alcohol and other drugs

are related to dealing with stress among the college environment, low self-esteem, social

interactions, and having fun. Considering the usage of alcohol and other drugs by college

students and the serious consequences related to alcohol and other drug use, the need for

an alternative is important for the wellness of the college population.

One means that college students can use to deal with stress and the college

environment is intramural/recreational sports. The goal of intramural sports is to provide

an opportunity for individuals to be able to participate without concern of winning or

losing (Sattler et al., 1978). Some of the reasons that have been cited for participation in

intramural sports include physical exercise, mental relaxation, enhancing their social

skills, releasing or reducing built up tension and stress (Hammitt & Hammitt, 1980;

Chestnutt & Haney, 1984). More recent studies have shown that participation in

recreational sports can serve as a means for students to meet their needs for power and

success, fulfilling the need for a psychological and physical well-being, and providing a

more well-rounded collegiate experience. Studies have also shown how participation in

recreational activities can contribute to the reduction of perceived academic stress among

college students (Ragheb & McKinney, 1993). Additionally, participation in recreational








activities can be associated with less use of marijuana and depressants (Swisher & Hu,

1983; Scarinci, 1994).

Life satisfaction is also a component that can be important in college student's

lives. Some studies have investigated students perceptions and satisfaction of

recreational sport services. The results from these studies have shown that students who

are satisfied with their recreational sport experiences have the perception that

participation in recreational activities can provide individual benefits in terms of fitness,

feeling of physical well-being, sense of accomplishment, stress reduction and physical

strength (Jovac & Beck, 1997). They also found that participation in recreational

activities produced the highest levels of student participation and satisfaction in all

aspects of campus life.

Although there have been studies which have examined satisfaction in

recreational sports in regards to participation, there have been no studies which explored

the relationship of life satisfaction and alcohol and other drug usage amongst intramural

and non-intramural sport participants. Zullig et al. (1999) in their study found significant

relationships between selected substance use behaviors and life satisfaction, but their

study was limited to public high school adolescents. Because of the inconsistent findings

in the literature, there is a need to further examine the relationship of sports participation

and alcohol and other drug use. In addition, the inconsistent findings in the literature

pertaining to alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction also demonstrates the need

for studies examining this relationship. This study will be helpful to provide information

of alcohol and other drug usage as well as life satisfaction among students who

participate in intramural sports.













CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the frequency, quantity, and reasons

for alcohol and other drug use between intramural and non-intramural sport participants,

2) compare the perceptions of reported life satisfaction between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants, and 3) examine the relationship between alcohol and other

drug usage and perceptions of life satisfaction among intramural sport participants. This

chapter describes the methods and procedures that were used to acquire subjects, obtain

and analyze the data. Description of the subjects, instruments, and data analysis are

included.

Subjects

The subjects in this study were chosen from a convenient sample of an

undergraduate student population of a large southeastern university. Students in personal

and family and medical terminology courses were utilized for this study. These courses

were used because they were considered to be representative of the undergraduate student

population with its racial and ethnic makeup. A number of 400 subjects was determined

to be needed to achieve a power of .90.

This approach was implemented due to the availability of students and the low

cost of administering the questionnaires. Prior to administering the questionnaire, the

investigator obtained approval by the University of Florida's Institutional Review Board.

The investigator then contacted the instructors of the personal and family health and








medical terminology classes offered in the 2000 Spring Semester. After the investigator

was granted permission to administer the questionnaire during class time, the investigator

arranged a time at which he could administer the questionnaire. The subjects were

advised that their participation was voluntary and that their responses were anonymous.

Instruments

Data was collected using two self-administered questionnaires. Alcohol and

Other Drug Usage was measured by the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley,

Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994). The questionnaire was developed in 1988 to address and

investigate alcohol and drug use on all types of college campuses and environments The

Core Alcohol and Drug survey has been administered to approximately 1,000,000 college

students on over 800 college campuses in the United States. Content-related validity was

established for .90 for item inclusion. Test-retest reliability was reported at 98 and

Cronbach's alpha was reported at .61.

Demographic items that were utilized from this survey included classification,

age, ethnic origin, gender, current residence, grade point average, member of a fraternity

or sorority. Alcohol and other drug items that were utilized on the survey for this study

included binge drinking, average number of drinks, how often have they used different

types of drugs, and the consequences from drinking and other drug use. Additional

questions that were utilized were reasons for alcohol and other drug use, extent of

problems at school, and the importance of participating in some activities at college.

Life satisfaction was measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). The

Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen and

Griffin (1984) to measure global life satisfaction, or satisfaction with one's life as a








whole rather than with specific life domains. This scale consists of five items. The scale

is a 7 point Likert Scale ranging from (7) agree to (1) disagree with each of the items.

The SWLS has consistently shown strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87).

Higher numbers of the SWLS indicate greater self-report of life satisfaction.

In order to determine if the students participated in recreational sports, a

definition of intramural sports was given on the questionnaire. The definition of

intramural sports participation has been reviewed and utilized in a study by Kiger (1996).

Students determined their level of participation by checking yes or no to the question of

participation in intramural sports and the amount of time that they participate on the

following question.

Data Analysis

Alcohol and Other Drue Use

The design of this study incorporates two questionnaires that were completed by

undergraduate students selected from a large southeastern university. The demographic

data from the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The demographic

variables in this study included classification, age, ethnicity, gender, residence, grade

point average, and member of a fraternity or sorority. Chi-square analysis was utilized to

examine differences between the categories. Further information obtained from this study

included participation level in intramural sports. Intramural sport participation was

measured on a scale ranging from one hours or less per month to five hours or more per

week.

Chi-square analysis was utilized to examine difference in binge drinking and

average number of drinks consumed in a week. The dependent variables were binge

drinking and the average number of drinks consumed in a week and the independent








variables was the two groups, intramural and non-intramural sport participants. Chi-

square analysis was utilized to test for significant differences between usage of alcohol,

marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, and cigarettes. The dependent variables were alcohol,

marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, and cigarettes, and the independent variable were the two

groups, intramural and non-intramural sport participants. Finally, chi-square analysis

was utilized to test the differences for the reasons of alcohol or other drug use between

the two groups. The reasons for alcohol and other drug use were the dependent variable

and the independent variable was the two groups, intramural and non-intramural sport

participants. The data was analyzed using a .05 level of significance.

Descriptive statistics was utilized for the questions concerned with to what extent

is the behavior a problem, how important is it for a person to participate in the following

activities, and the consequences of alcohol and other drug use separately for each of the

two groups, intramural and non-intramural sport participants.

Life Satisfaction

For life satisfaction, means and standard deviations were calculated for each of

the items. The life satisfaction score comprised of the sum for each of the items. These

scores were distributed among intramural and non-intramural sport participants. An

independent t-test was utilized to test for the mean difference of the SWLS scale between

the 2 groups, intramural and non-intramural sport participants. The data was analyzed

using a .05 level of significance.

Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

In the relationship between binge drinking and life satisfaction among intramural

sport participants, the subjects were placed into the categories of no and yes. The

category of no were the students who checked none on the survey to this question. The








category of yes were the students who checked once, twice, 3 to 5 times, and 6 or more

times on the survey. The mean scores of reported life satisfaction were calculated for the

students in each of these categories. An independent t-test was utilized to test for the

mean difference between the 2 categories. The data was analyzed using a .05 level of

significance.

In the relationship between average number of drinks consumed in a week and

life satisfaction among intramural sport participants, the subjects were placed into the

categories of None, 1-4, and 5 to 10, or 11 or more, according to their responses on the

survey. The mean scores of reported life satisfaction were calculated for the students in

each of these categories. An analysis of variance was utilized to test for the mean

difference between the 4 categories. The data was analyzed using a .05 level of

significance.

In the relationship between usage of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, inhalants, and

cigarettes among intramural sport participants, the subjects were placed into the

categories of never, used but not in the past 12 months, used but not in the past 30 days,

and current use, according to their responses on the survey. Current use was defined as

using a substance at least once during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and this

corresponds with the answer of used in the past 30 days on the survey. The mean scores

of reported life satisfaction were calculated for the students in each of these categories.

An analysis of variance was utilized to test for the mean difference between the 4

categories. The data was analyzed using a .05 level of significance.








Pilot Test

A pilot test was conducted to confirm the administrative procedures and survey

comprehensibility. Students from a recreation class were selected for the pilot test. The

purpose of the pilot study was to: I) Sharpen the specificity of the research hypotheses,

and 2) Implement data analysis techniques planned for the study. After administering the

questionnaire to the pilot group, the data analysis techniques utilized by the researcher

was implemented.













CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the data analysis. Chapter

four includes the presentation, discussion, analysis, and interpretation of the responses to

the study's questionnaire. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the frequency,

quantity, and reasons for alcohol and other drug use between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants, 2) compare the perceptions of reported life satisfaction

between intramural and non-intramural sport participants, and 3) examine the relationship

between alcohol and other drug usage and perceptions of life satisfaction among

intramural sport participants. This chapter is organized into the following sections: 1)

demographics, 2) level of participation in intramural sports, 3) alcohol and other drug

use, 4), alcohol and other drug use consequences, 5) reasons for alcohol and other drug

use, 6) life satisfaction among intramural and non-intramural sport participants, and 7)

relationship between alcohol and other drug use and life satisfaction among intramural

sport participants.

Sample Demographics

The subjects for this study were undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age.

The sample was taken from five sections of Personal and Family Health (N = 369) and

four sections of Medical Terminology (N = 350). The total sample size was 719. There

were approximately 400 students in the 5 sections of the personal and family health

classes and 400 students in the 4 sections of the medical terminology courses for a total

of 800. Of the 800 students that were given a survey in each class, 73 students chose not

to participate because they did not want to or they had filled out the survey in an earlier









class. Another 11 surveys were excluded for being incomplete, for a response rate of

89%.

The subjects were divided into intramural and non-intramural sport participants.

There were 268 (37.27%) intramural sport participants and 451 (62.73%) non-intramural

sport participants. For the intramural sport participants, there were 37.69% freshmen,
th
22.76 % sophomores, 23.51% juniors, 14.18% seniors, and 1.87% 5 year or beyond.

For the non-intramural sport participants, there were 28.16% freshmen, 25.28%
th
sophomores, 26.16% juniors, 17.29% seniors, and 3.10% 5 year or beyond. The chi-

square analysis revealed no significant difference between the intramural and non-
2
intramural sport participants, (X = 7.71, df= 4, p = .09.). The results for the

classification are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Classification

Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268) Participants (N= 451)

Classification % N % N X2 p

7.71 .09
Freshman 38.06 102 28.16 127

Sophomore 22.76 61 25.50 115

Junior 23.13 62 25.94 117

Senior 14.18 38 17.29 78

th
5 year or beyond 1.87 5 3.10 14



The subjects' ages are listed in Table 2. For the intramural sport participants,

there were 22.01% 18 years old, 31.72% 19 years old, 22.01% 20 years old, 11.19% 21

years old, 8.58% 22 years old, and 4.48% who selected other. For the non-intramural









sport participants, there were 19.51% 18 years old, 25.06% 19 years old, 24.61% 20 years

old, 15.96% 21 years old, 5.99% 22 years old, and 8.87% who selected other. The chi-

square analysis showed a significant difference in age between the intramural and non-
2
intramural sport participants, (X = 12.51, df= 5, p = .03.) Post hoc analysis revealed

that 1) there was a higher percentage of intramural sport participants who were 19 as

compared to non-intramural sport participants, 2) there were a higher percentage of non-

intramural sport participants who were 21 as compared to intramural sport participants,

and 3) there were a higher percentage of non-intramural sport participants who reported

their age as other as compared to non-intramural sport participants. The results for the

subjects' age are presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Intramural and Non-Intramural Sports Participation by Age
Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N= 451)

Age % N % N X2 p

12.51 03*
18 22.01 59 19.51 88

19 31.72 85 25.06 113 *

20 22.01 59 24.61 111

21 11.19 30 15.96 72 *

22 8.58 23 5.99 27

Other 4.48 12 8.87 40 *

* p< .05
** p <.01

Ethnicity was reported for the subjects. For the intramural sport participants,

there were 6.34% Asian/Pacific Islanders, 8.96% Blacks, 8.21% Hispanics, 72.76%

Whites, and 3.74% who selected American Indian/Alaskan Native or other. For the non-








intramural sport participants, there were 9.98% Asian/ Pacific Islanders, 13.08% Blacks,

11.53% Hispanics, 63.86% Whites, and 1.55 % who selected American Indian/Alaskan

Native or other. The chi-square analysis showed a statistical difference in ethnicity
2
between the intramural and non-intramural sport participants, (X = 12.39, df= 4, p =

.03.) Post hoc analysis revealed that 1) there were a higher percentage of whites who

were intramural sport participants as compared to non-intramural sport participants, and

2) there were a higher percentage of Hispanic and Blacks who were non-intramural sport

participants as compared to intramural sport participants. The results for ethnicity are

presented in Table 3

Table 3
Intramural and Non-Intramural Sports Participation by Ethnicity

Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N =451)

Ethnicity % N % N X2 p

12.39 .03*
Asian/Pacific 6.34 17 9.98 45
Islander

Black 8.96 24 13.08 59 *

Hispanic 8.21 22 11.53 52 *

White 72.76 195 63.86 288 *

Amer Indian/ 3.74 10 1.55 7
Alaskan Native
Or Other

* p<.05
** p <.01

Gender was reported for the subjects. For the intramural sport participants, there

were 42.54% male and 57.46% female. For the non-intramural sport participants, there

were 19.96% male and 80.04% female. The chi square analysis revealed a significant









difference in gender between the intramural and non-intramural sport participants, (X =

42.18, df= 1, p = .00.) Post hoc analysis revealed that there were a higher percentage of

students of intramural sport participants who were males, and a higher percentage of

students of non-intramural sport participants who were females. The results for gender

are presented in Table 4.


Table 4

Intramural and Non-Intramural Sports Participation by Gender

Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N = 451)

Gender % N % N X2 p

42.18 .00**
Male 42.54 114 19.96 90 **

Female 57.46 154 80.04 361 **

* p< .05
** p <.01

Residence was reported for the subjects. For the intramural sport participants,

57.09% lived in a house/apartment, 38.06% lived in the residence hall, 3.73% lived in a

fraternity/sorority house, and 1.12% who selected approved housing or other. For the

non-intramural sport participants, 65.41% lived in a house/apartment, 31.04% lived in the

residence hall, 0.22%, lived in a fraternity/sorority house, and 0.88% selected approved

housing or other The chi-square analysis did not reveal a significant difference in

residence between the two groups, (X = 6.32, df= 3, p = .18.) The results for residence

are presented in Table 5.









Table 5

Intramural and Non-Intramural Sports Participation by Residence
Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N= 451)

Residence % N % N X2 p

632 .18
House/apartment 57.09 153 65.41 295

Residence Hall 38.06 102 31.04 140

Fraternity/Sorority 3.73 10 2.66 12

Approved Housing/
Other 1.12 3 0.89 4


GPA was reported for the subjects. For the intramural sport participants, 33.21%

reported a GPA of 3.51-4.00, 39 55% reported 3.01-3.50, 20.15% reported 2.51-3.00, and

7.09% reported below 2.50. For the non-intramural sport participants, 30.60% reported a

GPA of 3.51-4.00, 39.02% reported 3.01-3.50, 23.45% reported 2.51-3.00, and 6.44%

reported below 2.50. The chi-square analysis did not reveal a significant difference in
2
GPA between the intramural and non-intramural sport participants, (X = 1.67, df= 3, p =

.80.) The results for GPA are presented in Table 6.








Table 6

Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by GPA

Intramural Sport Non-Int
Participant (N = 268) Particip

GPA % N %


tramural Sport
.ant (N =451)

N X2 p


1.67 .80
3.51-4.00 33.21 89 30.60 138

3.01-3.50 39.55 106 39.02 176

2.51-3.00 20.15 54 23.45 108

Below 2.50 7.09 19 6.44 29



Fraternity/Sorority Participation was reported for the subjects. For the intramural

sport participants, 30.60% responded that they were in a fraternity/sorority, while 69.40%

responded that they were not in a fraternity/sorority. For the non-intramural sport

participants, 16.85% responded that they were in a fraternity/sorority, while 83.15%

responded that they were not in a fraternity/sorority. The chi-square analysis revealed a

significant difference in fraternity/sorority participation between the intramural and non-
2
intramural sport participants, (X = 18.52, df= 1, p = .00.) Post-hoc analysis revealed

that there was a higher percentage of students who were involved in a fraternity/sorority

for the intramural sport participants as compared to non-intramural sport participants

The results for fraternity/sorority are presented in Table 7.








Table 7

Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participation by Fraternity/Sorority

Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N= 451)

Fraternity/Sorority % N % N X2 p

18.52 .00**
Yes 3060 82 165S 76 **


No 69.40 186 83.15 375 **


* p < .05
** p <.01
Level of Participation in Intramural Sports

The levels of participation in intramural sports were measured for participants

who checked "yes" regarding whether they participate in intramural sports. Subjects who

checked "yes" were then asked to report their level of participation. The respondents

were given six choices as to levels of participation. The six choices were: 1) one hour or

less per month. 2) two to three hours per month, 3) one hour per week, 4) two to three

hours per week, 5) four to five hours per week, and 6) more than five hours per week.

Table 8 reports the descriptive statistics for the levels of participation of the intramural

sport participants. Of those who participated in intramural sports (N = 268), 5.60%

participated less than 1 hour/month, 14.93% participated 2 to 3 hours/month, 16.42%

participated 1 hour/week, 38.06% participated 2 to 3 hours/week, 12.31% participated 4

to 5 hours/week, and 12.69% participated 5 hours/week. A majority of the intramural

sport participants reported their level of participation at 1 to 3 hours per week (54.48%).








Table 8
Intramural Level of Participation by hours (N = 268)
Participation Level Number %

< 1 hour/month 15 5.60

2 -3 hours/month 40 14.93

1 hour/week 44 16.42

2-3 hours/week 102 38.06

4-5 hours/week 33 12.31

> 5 hours/week 34 12.69


Total 268 100.00

Binge Drinking

Subjects were asked to respond to a question concerning binge drinking. Binge

drinking was defined as five or more drinks in one sitting in the past two weeks. For

male students, it is defined as those who have consumed > 5 drinks of alcohol in a row

and female students who have consumed > 4 in a row in one sitting. For the intramural

sport participants, 45.15% reported no binge drinking. However, 17.54% reported that

they had binged both once and twice, 15.30% reported 3 to 5 times, and 4.37% reported 6

or more times. This comes to a total of 54.85% who reported binge drinking at least once

in the two weeks prior to the survey. For the non-intramural sport participants, 60.09%

reported that they did not binge drink, 11.97% reported binge drinking once, 11.31%

reported twice, 12.64% 3 to 5 times, and 3.99% reported 6 or more times. This comes to a

total of 39.91% who reported binge drinking at least once in the two weeks prior to the

survey. Chi square analysis revealed a significant difference between the 2 groups (X =

16.78, df= 4, p = .00.) Post hoc analysis revealed that there was a higher percentage of

no binge drinking among the non-intramural sport participants as compared to the

intramural sport participants, (60% vs. 45%). In addition, intramural sport participants








had a higher percentage of binge drinking episodes for once and twice as compared to

non-intramural sport participants. The data for binge drinking is located in Table 9

Table 9
Binge Drinking


Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268) Participants (N = 451)

Binge Drinking % N % N X2 p

1678 .00**
None 45.15 121 60.09 271 **

Once 17.54 47 11.97 54 *

Twice 17.54 47 11.31 51 *

3 to 5 times 15.30 41 12.64 57

6 or more times 4.47 12 3.99 18

p<.05
** p <.01

Average Number of Drinks

The subjects were asked to respond to the question about the average number of

drinks consumed in a week. For the intramural sport participants, 29.48% reported that

they did not drink in the previous week, 40.30% reported that they averaged I to 4 drinks

per week, 18.66% reported that they averaged 5 to 10 drinks per week, and 11.57%

reported that they averaged 11 or more drinks per week. For the non-intramural sport

participants, 41.46% reported that they did not drink in the previous week, 37.03%

reported that they averaged 1 to 4 drinks per week, 15.52% reported that they averaged 5

to 10 drinks per week, and 5.49 reported that they averaged 11 or more drinks per week.

Chi square analysis revealed a significant difference between the 2 groups (X' = 14.48, df

= 3, p = .00.) Post hoc analysis revealed that non-intramural sport participants had a









higher percentage of no drinks per week as compared to intramural sport participants, and

intramural sport participants had a higher percentage of weekly consumption of 11 or

more drinks per week as compared to the non-intramural sport participants. The data for

the average number of drinks is presented in Table 10.

Table 10
Average Number of Drinks
Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268) Participants (N= 451)

Average Number
of Drinks % N % N X2 p

14.48 .00**
None 29.48 79 41.46 187 **

1 to 4 40.30 108 37.03 167

5 to 10 18.66 50 15.52 70

11 or more 11.57 31 5.49 27 **

* p < .05
** p <.01
Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Subjects were asked how often they used any of the drugs listed on the survey

For this study, the items that were studied were alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, inhalants,

and cocaine. For the intramural sport participants, 10.07% reported that they had never

used alcohol, 4.10% reported that they had used alcohol but not in the past 12 months,

10.82% reported that they had used alcohol but not in the past 30 days, and 75.00%

reported that they had used alcohol in the past 30 days. For the non-intramural sport

participants, 12.64% reported that they had never used alcohol, 6.21 % reported that they

had used alcohol but not in the past 12 months, 14.63 % reported that they had used

alcohol but not in the past 30 days, and 66.52 % reported that they had used alcohol in the








past 30 days. Chi square analysis revealed no significant difference between the 2 groups
2
(X = 5.90, df= 3, p =. 11.) The data for alcohol use is presented in Table 11.


Table 11


How often have you used Alcohol?

Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268)


Frequency of Use %


Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 451)


N X p


5.90 .11
Never 10.07 27 12.64 57

Used but not in past 4.10 11 6.21 28
12 months

Used but not in past 10.82 29 14.63 66
30 days

Current Use 75.00 201 66.52 300



Data was collected for cigarette use. For the intramural sport participants, 56.72

7% reported that they had never used cigarettes, 19.03 % reported that they had used

cigarettes but not in the past 12 months, 8.21% reported that they had used cigarettes but

not in the past 30 days, and 16.04 % reported that they had used cigarettes in the past 30

days. For the non-intramural sport participants, 54.99% reported that they had never used

cigarettes, 13.53 % reported that they had used cigarettes but not in the past 12 months,

9.98 % reported that they had used cigarettes but not in the past 30 days, and 21.51 %

reported that they had used alcohol in the past 30 days. Chi square analysis revealed no

significant difference between the 2 groups (X = 6.50, df= 3, p = .09.) The data for

cigarette use is located in Table 12







Table 12

How often have you used Cigarettes?

Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268) Participants (N = 451)

Frequency of Use % N % N X2 p

6.50 09
Never 56.72 152 54.99 248

Used but not in past 19.03 51 13.53 61
12 months

Used but not in past 8.21 22 9.98 45
30 days

Current Use 16.04 43 21.51 97



Data was also collected for marijuana use. For the intramural sport participants,

55.22 % reported that they had never used marijuana, 14.93 % reported that they had

used marijuana but not in the past 12 months, 11.57 % reported that they had used

marijuana but not in the past 30 days, and 18.28 % reported that they had used marijuana

in the past 30 days. For the non-intramural sport participants, 53.66 % reported that they

had never used marijuana, 12.42 % reported that they had used marijuana but not in the

past 12 months, 14.86 % reported that they had used marijuana but not in the past 30

days, and 19.07 % reported that they had used marijuana in the past 30 days. Chi square

analysis revealed no significant difference between the 2 groups (X = 2.25, df = 3, p =

.52.) The data for marijuana use is presented in Table 13.








Table 13

How often have you used Marijuana?


Frequency of Use


Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268)

% N


Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N= 451)

% N


2.25 .52
Never 55.22 148 53.66 242

Used but not in past 14.93 40 12.42 56
12 months

Used but not in past 11.57 31 14.86 67
30 days

Current Use 18.28 49 19.07 86



Data was collected for inhalant use. For the intramural sport participants, 89.18 %

reported that they had never used inhalants, 4 48 % reported that they had used inhalants

but not in the past 12 months, 3.73 % reported that they had used inhalants but not in the

past 30 days, and 2.61 % reported that they had used inhalants in the past 30 days. For

the non-intramural sport participants, 84.26% reported that they had never used inhalants,

6.87 % reported that they had used cigarettes but not in the past 12 months, 6.87 %

reported that they had used inhalants but not in the past 30 days, and 2.00 % reported that

they had used inhalants in the past 30 days. Chi square analysis revealed no significant

difference between the 2 groups (X = 5.29, df= 3, p = .15.) The data for inhalant use is

presented in Table 14.








Table 14

How often have you used Inhalants?

Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268)

Frequency of Use % N


Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N= 451)

% N X2


5.29 .15
Never 89.18 239 84.26 380

Used but not in past 4.48 12 6.87 31
12 months

Used but not in past 3.73 10 6.87 31
30 days

Current Use 2.61 7 2.00 9



Data was collected for cocaine use. For the intramural sport participants, 95.15%

reported that they had never used cocaine, 3.36 % reported that they had used cocaine but

not in the past 12 months, and 1.49 % reported that they had used cocaine within the past

year. For the non-intramural sport participants, 94.68% reported that they had never used

cocaine, 2.00 % reported that they had used cocaine but not in the past 12 months, 1.77 %

reported that they had used cocaine but not in the past 30 days, and 3.32 % reported that

they had used cocaine within the past year. Chi square analysis revealed no significant

difference between the 2 groups, (X = 3.82, df= 2, p = .28.) The data for cocaine use is

presented in Table 15.









Table 15
How often have you used Cocaine?

Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268)


Frequency of Use %


Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N= 451)

% N X2


3.82 .28
Never 95.15 255 94.68 427

Used but not in past 3.36 9 2.00 9
12 months

Used but not in the 1.49 4 3.32 9
Past 30 days/
Current Use


Alcohol and Other Drug Use Consequences

The subjects were asked to respond on how many times they have experienced

consequences in the past year due to alcohol and other drug use. The data for alcohol and

other drug-related consequences are located in Table 16 and 17 for the intramural and

non-intramural sport participants. The only finding that was significant between the two

groups was performing poorly on a test, (X2 = 13.31, df= 1, p = .02).








Table 16

Intramural sport participation frequency of alcohol or drug-related consequences (N
=268)
"How often have you experienced the following due to your drinking or drug use during
the past year?"


Never

a) Had a hangover 32.09
b) Performed poorly 68.28
on a test
c) Been in trouble 88.43
with police, res. hall
d) Damaged property 90.67
e) Got into a fight 73.88
or argument
f) Vomited 39.93
g) Driven a car while 60.45
under the influence
h) Missed a class 49.25
i) Been criticized by 58.96
someone I know
j) Thought I might 90.67
a drinking or other
drug problem
k) Had a memory loss 66.79
1) Done something I 55.60
later regretted
m) Been arrested 98.51
DUI/DWI
n) Have been taken 90.67
Advantage of sexually
o) Have taken 97.76
advantage of another sexu
p) Tried unsuccessfully to
Stop using 95.52
q) Been hurt or injured 86.94
r) Had unexpected or 82.09
unplanned sex
s) Had unprotected 83.96
t) Required medical 98 13
attention for an overdose
u) Argued with friend 63.81
v) Fell behind in 69.78
academic work


Once Twice 3-5
times
13.81 10.82 18.28
13.43 6.72 8.21

8.58 1.87 1.12


6-9
times
11.57
0.75


10 +
times
13.43
2.61


4.48 2.24 1.12 1.49 -----
8.58 6.72 8.58 1.49 0.75

17.54 15.67 18.28 4.85 3.73
11.19 8.58 9.70 3.73 6.34

11.57 10.07 13.43 5.97 9.70
14.18 9.33 10.82 3.36 3.36

3.73 2.24 1.49 0.75 1.12


17.16 7.09 5.22 2.24 1.49
18.66 10.45 10.07 2.24 2.99

0.75 --- -- 0.37 0.37


2.61 0.75


-- 0.75


--- ----- 0.75


0.75 1.49 0.37 0.00
2.61 2.99 0.75 -----
2.61 5.97 1.49 0.37

4.85 3.36 0.75 2.24
0.37 ----- 0.37 -----


10.45 7.46 1.12
6.72 7.84 1.87


x p

6.17 .29
13.31 .02


---- ----- .59 89


10.56 .06
3.77 .58

6.44 .26
1.09 .95

6.34 .27
5.22 .39

6.71 .24


5.61 .35
2.59 .76

3.98 .41

1.09 .89

1.19 .76


2.48 .78
10.29 .06








Table 17

Non-Intramural sport participation frequency of alcohol or drug-related consequences (N
=451)
"How often have you experienced the following due to your drinking or drug use during
the past year?"


Never Once Twice 3-5 times
a) Had a hangover 37.47 10.86 10.86 19.07
b) Performed poorly 76.72 6.65 6.21 7.76
on a test
c) Been in trouble 90.24 7.32 1.55 0.89
with police, res. hall
d) Damaged property 93.57 2.88 0.44 2.44
e) Got into a fight 77.61 8.65 5.10 5.99
or argument
f) Vomited 46.34 15.30 10.86 17.07
h) Driven a car while 62.97 10.64 6.65 9.76
under the influence
h) Missed a class 58.54 8.65 8.20 11.97
i) Been criticized by 65.85 11.97 8.43 6.87
someone I know
j) Thought I might 93.792.44 1.11 0.22
a drinking or other drug
problem
k) Had a memory loss 72.51 11.31 6.65 5.32
1) Done something I 60.98 16.19 8.20 9.09
later regretted
m) Been arrested 99.11 0.67 0.22 -----
DUI/DWI
n) Have been taken 91.575.10 1.77 1 11
Advantage of sexually
o) Have taken 98.00 1.33 0.44 -----
advantage of another sexually
p) Tried unsuccessfully to
stop using 95.57 1.55 0.67 1.77
q) Been hurt or injured 85.37 6.21 3.77 3.10
r) Had unexpected or 84.26 7.76 2.88 2.66
unplanned sex
s) Had unprotected sex 87.14 4.88 1.77 2.22
t) Required medical 99.33 0.44 0.22 -----
attention for an overdose
u) Argued with friends 68.7410.64 9.98 6.87
v) Fell behind in 75.39 5.32 6.65 7.98
work


6-9 times
7.32
1.55


10 + times
14.41
1.11


0.44 0.22
1.11 1.55


----- 0.44

-- 0.22


1.33 2.66
----- -----









Reasons For Using Alcohol or Other Drugs

The subjects were asked their reasons for using alcohol and other drugs. For the

intramural sport participants, 81.72% reported to have fun was their reason for alcohol

and other drug use, 46.27% reported to get high or drunk, 45.90% reported to relieve

academic stress, 57.84% to relieve other stress, and 58.96% reported to ease social

interactions. As for the non-intramural sport participants, 75.83 % reported to have fun

was their reason for alcohol and other drug use, 43.46 % reported to get high or drunk,

41.24 % reported to relieve academic stress, 55.88 % to relieve other stress, and 54.55%

reported to ease social interactions. For each of the reasons listed in the table, there was

no significant difference found between the intramural and non-intramural sport

participants at the .05 level. The data for the reasons for alcohol and other drug use is

presented in Table 18.

Table 18

Reasons for using alcohol or other drugs


Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participant (N = 268) Participant (N = 451)

Reason % % X2 n


To have fun 81.72 75.83 3.40 07

To get high or drunk 46.27 43.46 0.54 .46

To relieve academic 45.90 41.24 1.49 .22
stress

To relieve other stress 57.84 55.88 0.26 .61

To ease social interactions 58.96 54.55 1.33 .25








Life Satisfaction between Intramural and Non-Intramural Sport Participants

Life satisfaction was measured by utilizing the Satisfaction With Life Scale

developed by Diener (1984). An independent t-test was conducted to test for a

significant difference between the two groups. The results showed that intramural sport

participants reported a significantly higher life satisfaction than the non-intramural sport

participants, (t = 2.26, df = 1, p = .02.) The results for life satisfaction between

intramural and non-intramural sport participants are presented in Table 19.


Table 19

Life Satisfaction Mean Scores by Levels of Participation


Life Satisfaction
Intramural Sport Non-Intramural Sport
Participants (N = 268) Participants (N =451) t-score p


Overall Mean Score 27.21 26.29 226 02*

* p<.05









Relationship between Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction among

Intramural Sport Participants

Binge Drinking and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

This study also investigated the relationship of alcohol and other drug use and life

satisfaction among the intramural sport participants. The results between binge drinking

and life satisfaction are shown in Table 20. Table 20 lists those who have never binged

compared to those who have binged at least once. An independent t-test was utilized to

test for mean differences of life satisfaction between the two different levels of binge

drinking. The life satisfaction score was 26.77 for those who did not binge drink, and

27.57 for those who had binged at least once within the past two weeks. The mean

difference was not found to be significant, (t = 1.53, df= 1, p = .22.)


Table 20

Relationship between Binge Drinking and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants (N = 268)

Life Satisfaction
Binge Drinking Mean N t-score p


None 26.78 121 1.53 .22

At least once 27.57 147









Average Number of Drinks and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of the average number of drinks consumed in a week and life

satisfaction was tested. Analysis of variance was utilized for mean differences between

the different levels for the average number of drinks consumed in a week. The life

satisfaction score was 27.39 for those who averaged no drinks per week, 26.55 for those

who averaged 1 to 4 drinks per week, 28.06 who averaged 5 to 10 drinks per week, and

27 71 who averaged 11 or more per week. There was no significant difference between

the different levels for the average number of drinks consumed in a week, (F = 1.14, df=

3, p = .33.) The results for the average number of drinks consumed and life satisfaction

are presented in Table 21.

Table 21

Relationship between Average Number of Drinks and Life Satisfaction among Intramural

Sport Participants ( N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
Average number of

Drinks in a week Mean N F p

114 33
None 27.39 79

1-4 26.55 108

5 to 10 28.06 50

11 or more 27.71 31









Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of alcohol use and life satisfaction was tested. Analysis of

variance was utilized for mean differences between the different levels of alcohol usage.

The life satisfaction score was 27.78 for those who never consumed alcohol, 28.18 for

those who had used alcohol but not in the past 12 months, 27.86 for those who had used

alcohol but not in the past 30 days, and 26.99 for those who had used alcohol in the past

30 days. There was no significant difference between the different levels of alcohol use,

(F = .50, df = 3, p = .68.) The results for alcohol use and life satisfaction are presented

in Table 22.

Table 22

Relationship between Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants

(N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
How often have

You used alcohol Mean N F p

.50 .68
Never 27.78 27

Used but not in past 28.18 11
12 months

Used but not in past 27.86 29
30 days

Current Use 26.99 201









Cigarette Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of cigarette use and life satisfaction was tested. Analysis of

variance was utilized for mean differences between the different levels of cigarette usage.

The life satisfaction score was 27.78 for those who never consumed alcohol, 27.37 for

those who had used cigarettes but not in the past 12 months, 23.72 for those who had

used cigarettes but not in the past 30 days, and 26.77 for those who had used cigarettes in

the past 30 days. There was a significant difference between the different levels of

cigarette use, (F = 4.11, df, = 3, p = .00.) Post hoc analysis revealed that those who

reported never using cigarettes had a higher life satisfaction as compared to those who

were current users of cigarettes or who had used cigarettes but not in the past 30 days.

The results for cigarette use and life satisfaction are presented in Table 23.

Table 23

Relationship between Cigarette Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants

(N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
How often have

You used cigarettes? Mean N F p

4.11 00**
Never 27.78 152

Used but not in past 27.37 51
12 months

Used but not in past 23.72 22
30 days

Current Use 26.77 43

* p<.05

** p < .01








Marijuana Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of marijuana use and life satisfaction was tested. Analysis of

variance was utilized for mean differences between the different levels of marijuana

usage. The life satisfaction score was 27.58 for those who never used marijuana, 26.73

for those who had used marijuana but not in the past 12 months, 25.87 for those who had

used marijuana but not in the past 30 days, and 27.35 for those who had used marijuana

in the past 30 days. There was no significant difference between the different levels of

marijuana use, (F = 1.05, df = 3, p = .37.) The results for marijuana use and life

satisfaction are presented in Table 24.

Table 24

Relationship between Marijuana Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants

(N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
How often have

You used marijuana? Mean N F p

1.05 .37
Never 27.58 148

Used but not in past 26.73 40
12 months

Used, but not in past 25.87 31
30 days

Current Use 27.35 49









Cocaine Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of cocaine use and life satisfaction was tested. Analysis of

variance was utilized for mean differences between the different levels of cocaine usage.

The life satisfaction score was 27.37 for those who never used cocaine, 24.00 for those

who had used cocaine but not in the past 12 months, 30.00 for those who had used

cocaine but not in the past 30 days, and 8.00 for those who had used cocaine in the past

30 days. There was a significant difference between the different levels of cocaine use,

(F = 6.32, df = 3, p = .00.) Those who never used cocaine had a higher life satisfaction

than those who were current users or had used cocaine but not in the past 30 days.

However, this finding should be interpreted cautiously because the cell size for the

current users or users but not in the past 30 days was less than 5. The results for cocaine

use and life satisfaction are presented in Table 25.

Table 25

Relationship between Cocaine Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants

(N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
How often have

You used cocaine? Mean N F p

6.32 .00**
Never 27.37 255

Used but not in past 24.00 9
12 months

Used but not in past 24.50 4
30 days/
Current Use

* p<.05
** p<.01









Inhalant Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport Participants

The relationship of inhalant use and life satisfaction was tested. Analysis of

variance was utilized for mean differences between the different levels of inhalant usage.

The life satisfaction score was 27.46 for those who never used inhalants, 26.08 for those

who had used inhalants but not in the past 12 months, 24.50 for those who had used

inhalants but not in the past 30 days, and 24.43 for those who had used inhalants in the

past 30 days. There was no significant difference between the different levels ofinhalant

use, (F = 1.94, df = 3, p = .12.) The results for inhalant use and life satisfaction are

presented in Table 26.

Table 26

Relationship between Inhalant Use and Life Satisfaction among Intramural Sport

Participants

(N= 268)

Life Satisfaction
How often have

You used Inhalants? Mean N F p

1.94 .12
Never 27.46 239

Used but not in past 26.08 12
12 months

Used but not in past 24.50 10
30 days

Current Use 24.43 7









Discussion

Research Hypotheses #1 Alcohol Use Between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport Participants

This study surveyed students from a convenience sample of personal and family

health classes and medical terminology classes from a large southeastern university.

Results indicated that 54.85% of the intramural sport participants and 39.09% of the non-

intramural sport participants reported binge drinking in the two weeks prior to the survey.

The percentage of binge drinking among intramural sport participants appears to be

higher than the findings of the 1999 University of Florida study, where 46.3% of the

college students reported binge drinking. The findings of the intramural sport

participants are also higher than the findings of the Wechsler (1997) and the Core

Alcohol Study (Presley et al., 1996) study in which 44% and 41.7% respectively, of the

college students reported binge drinking. The percentage of binge drinking among

intramural sport participants is also similar to the findings of the Leichliter et al (1998),

in which 54.4% of the students involved in athletics reported binge drinking.

This study also examined the average number of drinks between intramural and

non-intramural sport participants. The findings were that intramural sport participants

reported a higher amount of alcohol use per week as compared to non-intramural sport

participants. The study found that 71.52% of the intramural sport participants average

more than 1 drink per week, and almost 31% (30.23%) of the intramural sport

participants consume more than 5 drinks per week as compared to 21.01% of the non-

intramural sport participants. This finding is consistent with the findings of Leichliter et

al. (1998) study, in which athletes consumed more alcohol per week as compared to non-

athletes. The level of drinking among intramural sport participants appears to reflect the

overall student population at the University of Florida. The finding of the 1999

University of Florida study indicated that 72.3% of the students reported averaging more

than 1 drink per week, and 38.7% reported averaging more than 5 drinks per week.








This study also investigated patterns of alcohol use between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants. Results indicated that 75% of the intramural sport

participants reported using alcohol in the past 30 days as compared to 66.52% of the non-

intramural sport participants. The level of alcohol use among intramural sport

participants also appears to reflect the overall student population at the University of

Florida. The finding of the 1999 University of Florida study indicated that 76.5% of the

college students reported using alcohol in the past 30 days (CADRC, 1999). However,

the level of alcohol use among intramural sport participants appears to be higher than the

finding of the national studies. Presley et al. (1996) indicated that 69.7% of the students

were current alcohol users. Wechsler et al. (1997) also revealed that 58% of the students

involved in athletics were current alcohol users. Aaron et al. (1995) found that males

who participated in collegiate athletics were significantly more likely to report alcohol

usage than those who did not participate in athletic competition.

Binge drinking, average number of drinks, and alcohol consumption by the

intramural sport participants in this study appeared to be similar or higher than the

general college student population. According to Heyman (1990), psychosocial factors

may influence the use of alcohol by an athlete. It has been noted that these factors do not

only apply to the collegiate athlete, but high school, professional, and intramural as well

While not actively promoting alcohol use, the sports world has unknowingly influenced

and encouraged the use of alcohol by athletes. Young athletes are exposed to alcohol use

when attending athletic games, particularly professional games. Victories are celebrated

and losses mourned with the use of alcohol (Duda, 1986). All of these factors are telling

young athletes, male and female, that alcohol is a part of sports.

Peer pressure may be greater in an athletic population of children or young adults

than in a non-athletic population. Athletes are taught to think like a team. Heyman

(1990) believes that the age old adage 'there is no "I" in "TEAM" teaches young athletes

that it is their responsibility to do what is best for the team. If members of the group are








using alcohol or other drugs, those athletes who are uncertain on how they feel about

alcohol use may be more likely to participate because they are a part of the team

(Heyman, 1990). Heyman (1990) also suggested that athletes form their primary

friendships with team members. These friendships can help to predispose, enable, or

reinforce alcohol use. According to the literature, students participate in intramural

sports because 1) they provide individuals with a means of obtaining physical activity, 2)

Physical fitness has moral implications, and 3) intramural sports are fun and enhance

social skills. It was originally hypothesized that recreational activity might be a means of

decreasing alcohol use as well as relieving stress among college students. The findings

of this study do not support this hypothesis. It appears that students who participate in

intramural sports may be more influenced by peer pressure and the social factors of

having fun rather than the other beneficial factors. This was reflected in their binge

drinking, weekly consumption, and current use patterns.

Research Hypotheses #2 Other Drug Use Between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport Participants

This study also investigated the frequency of other drug use between intramural

and non-intramural drug use. The finding for cigarette use was that 16.04% of the

intramural sport participants were current cigarette users. The percentage of cigarette

users among intramural sport participants appears to be lower than the average students at

the University of Florida. A 1999 University of Florida study indicated that 28 4% of the

students reported cigarette use in the past 30 days (CADRC, 1999). A similar result was

reported in a national study (Presley et al., 1996), which indicated that 34.2% of the

students were current cigarette users. This result is also supported by the Wechsler et al.

(1997) study They indicated that 15% of the men and 20% of the women who were

involved in athletics were current cigarette users. In addition, there were more

nonsmokers among intramural sport participants than the average university student at

the University of Florida (56.72% vs. 45.4%)








While there were no significant differences of current marijuana use between the

intramural (18.28%) and non-intramural sport participants (19.07%), the percentage of

current marijuana users in this study appears to be lower than the average student at the

University of Florida. The 1999 University of Florida study indicated that 23.5% of the

students reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (CADRC, 1999). On the other hand,

the percentage of current marijuana users in this study appears to be consistent with the

1996 Core Alcohol Study (Presley et al., 1996), which indicated that 18.6% of the

students reported marijuana use in the past 30 days. Based on the findings of this study,

it appears that intramural participation may not have a significant advantage of

discouraging marijuana use among intramural sport participants.

There were no significant differences of current inhalant use between intramural

and non-intramural sport participants (2.61% vs. 2.00%), but the percentage of current

inhalant users in this survey appears to be lower than the 1999 University of Florida

study, which indicated that 4.5% of the students reported inhalant use in the past 30 days

(CADRC, 1999). However, a similar percentage of inhalant use was reported by a

national study (Presley et al., 1996) which indicated that 1.0% of the students reported

using inhalants in the past 30 days. In addition, 89.18% of the intramural sport

participants reported never using inhalants. The percentage of intramural sport

participants who never used inhalants appears to be higher than the 1999 University of

Florida study, which indicated that only 78.8% of the students reported never using

inhalants. The findings of this study appear to show that intramural sport participants are

less likely to be inhalant users compared to students at the University of Florida.

Cocaine use was also investigated in this study. The findings were that less than

1% (.37%) of the intramural sport participants and 1.55% of the non-intramural sport

participants reported using cocaine in the past 30 days. The percentage of current

cocaine users also appears to be lower than the average student at the University of

Florida study. The 1999 University of Florida study indicated that 2.1% of the students









reported using cocaine in the past 30 days (CADRC, 1999). Similar results were reported

by a national study, (Presley et al., 1996), which indicated that 1.6% of the students

reported using cocaine in the past 30 days. In addition, 95.15% of the intramural sport

participants and 94.68% non-intramural sport participants reported never using cocaine

The percentage of intramural sport participants who never used cocaine appears to be

higher than the 1999 University of Florida study, which indicated that 89.7% of the

students reported never using cocaine. It appears that intramural sport participants are

not as likely to use cocaine compared to students at the University of Florida.

The findings of other drug use by the intramural sport participants in this study

suggested that other drug use is not a significant problem when compared with non-

intramural sport participants. More than half of the intramural sport participants reported

never using cigarettes or marijuana. In addition, almost 90% of the intramural sport

participants reported never using inhalants, and more than 90% of the intramural sport

participants reported never using cocaine. Results of this study showed that intramural

sport participation may encourage drinking alcohol but it has not caused an increase in

the usage of other drugs.

Intramural sport participation tends to be perceived as a social event, therefore it

may be more acceptable to consume alcohol for the purpose of having fun. On the other

hand, other drug use may be illegal and can be viewed as interfering with performance in

sport participation. Page et al. (1998) found that participation in schools sports may serve

as a protective factor for not engaging in cigarette smoking and illegal drug use. It

appears that sport participation precedes the lowered risk of illegal drug use because the

students are likely to avoid drugs that will interfere with their performance. Male and

female students who reported participation in both one or two teams and three or more

teams were less likely to have engaged in cigarette smoking and illegal drug use than

those not on any sports teams (Page et al., 1998). The findings regarding cigarette

smoking are similar to those found in another study which showed that students who








participated in interscholastic sports were less likely to be regular smokers (Escobedo et

al., 1993). It appears that the lower rates of smoking for students who participate in

interscholastic sports may be the result of greater self-confidence from the participation

and perceptions of reduced sports performance from smoking.

An explanation for these findings may be that participation in school sports

increases opportunities for young people to bond in a pro-social way with peers and their

school. Social bonding theorists assert that the availability of bonding opportunities in

the school environment may enhance an individual's social bonding and reduces risk-

taking behavior (Aaron et al., 1995). Participation in sports may enhance bonding by

increasing opportunities for students to feel a sense of belonging, attachment, and

participation within their social environment. These feelings may operate as protective

factors by buffering stress, enhancing social integration, and decreasing adolescents' risk-

taking behavior. It was hypothesized that recreational activity could be a means of

decreasing other drug use. The findings of this study do support this hypothesis. It

appears that students who participate in intramural sports are less likely to use cigarettes,

marijuana, inhalants, and cocaine.


Research Hypotheses #3 Reasons for Alcohol and Other Drug Use Between Intramural
and Non-Intramural Sport Participants

This study investigated the reasons for alcohol and other drug use between

intramural and non-intramural sport participants. The findings were that among the

intramural sport participants, to have fun was the #1 reason for alcohol and other drug use

at 81.72% This reason was followed by the reasons to ease social interactions at

58.96%, relieving other stress at 57.84%, to get high or drunk at 46.27%, and to relieve

academic stress at 45.90%. The reasons for alcohol and other drug use appears to be

similar for the non-intramural sport participants, in which to have fun was the #1 reason

at 75.83%, followed by relieving other stress at 55.88%, easing social interactions at








54.55%, to get high or drunk at 43.46%, and to relieve academic stress 41.24%. The

reasons for alcohol and other drug use among intramural sport participants appear to be

similar with the average student at the University of Florida. The 1999 University of

Florida indicated that to have fun was the #1 reason for alcohol and other drug use at

78.9%, followed by relieving other stress at 63.6%, easing social interactions at 53.85%,

relieving academic stress at 48.9%, and getting high or drunk at 47.5% (CADRC, 1999).

The reasons for alcohol and other drug use by the intramural sport participants

appear to reflect the overall student population at the University of Florida (CADRC,

1999). When compared to the general population, reasons for alcohol use by athletes

may differ depending on age and circumstances. In a study of high school athletes

(Green, 1995), some reasons reported for alcohol use were to have a good time with

friends, to celebrate, to feel good, and to deal with the pressures of school and athletics.

Not surprisingly, collegiate athletes report similar reasons to high school athletes for

using alcohol. In a survey of collegiate athletes' drug use, Evans et al. (1992) found that

respondents cited three primary reasons for alcohol. Seventy-eight percent said they used

alcohol for recreation and social reasons, 47 percent indicated they used alcohol to feel

good, and 28 percent said they used alcohol to deal with stress from college life. Their

findings are consistent with this study. Results of this study support the notion that the

social influence of intramural sports seems to have an influence on the overall reasons of

alcohol and other drug use among intramural sport participants.


Research Hypotheses #4 Life Satisfaction Between Intramural and Non-Intramural
Sport Participants

This study investigated self-reported life satisfaction between intramural and non-

intramural sport participants. The results were that intramural sport participants reported

a higher life satisfaction as compared to non-intramural sport participants. It was

hypothesized that intramural sport participants would report a higher life satisfaction




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