Ancient art of the Florida peninsula


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Ancient art of the Florida peninsula 500 B.C. to A.D. 1763
Physical Description:
xiv, 413 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Wheeler, Ryan J


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology thesis, Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 385-412).
General Note:
General Note:
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ryan J. Wheeler.

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University of Florida
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Copyright 1996


Ryan Joseph Wheeler


Many people have contributed, in a myriad of ways, to

the completion and improvement of this study. The following

individuals, and their respective institutions, have made

collections available, provided photographs used in the

following pages, or granted permission for illustration of

copyrighted material: Steve Tuthill and Gail Meyers (Temple

Mound Museum); Jerald T. Milanich and Elise V. LeCompte-Baer

(Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural

History); Jim Miller, Dave Dickel, Calvin Jones, and Louis

Tesar (Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research); Remko

Jansonius (Historical Museum of Southern Florida); Wm.

Jerald Kennedy (Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic

University); Glen Doran (Department of Anthropology, Florida

State University); Alan Bohnert (Southeastern Archeological

Center, National Park Service); Gabrielle Vail and Lucy

Fowler Williams (University Museum, University of

Pennsylvania); Laura Branstetter (South Florida Museum);

Gypsy Graves, Sheila Soltis and Kate Yinger (Graves Museum

of Archaeology and Natural History, Broward County

Archaeological Society); Susan L. Duncan (Historical Society

of Palm Beach County); and Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge

Library of Florida History). Many of these individuals

provided not only assistance with collections, but also

shared their own knowledge of ancient Florida art with me.

Their help and encouragement is greatly appreciated.

Conversations with George Luer have perhaps helped

most, not only with ideas and details about Florida art and

archaeology, but also with particular directions to take and

the ways in which to do so. I greatly appreciate his help

and friendship. Other friends and colleagues who have

provided help and encouragement include Linda Spears Jester,

Ray McGee, James Pepe, Clark Wernecke, Ken Winland, William

Hyler, Claudia Kemp, Merald Clark, and Wes Coleman. I also

would like to thank my parents for their patient support and


The members of my dissertation committee, Michael

Moseley, Peter Schmidt, William Marquardt, Lynette Norr and

John Scott, have provided helpful comments and encouragement

throughout the course of my research and writing. Their

assistance is greatly appreciated. I would especially like

to thank Dr. Moseley for agreeing to chair my committee.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................

LIST OF FIGURES ........... ...... ......... ...........

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS ............ .....................

ABSTRACT .................................. ............


1 GLADES TRADITION ART ..........................

The Glades Tradition..........................
Time and Space in Southern Florida.............
Approaches to Native Arts.....................
Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art...
An Alternative Model ..........................
Organization of the Chapters..................


Two Florida Art Trajectories ..................
Yent and Green Point Complexes ................
Hopewellian Ceramics in Florida ...............
Other Arts... ................. ......... .....
Hopewellian Symbolism..........................
Incipient Glades Tradition....................

3 FORT CENTER WOODEN EFFIGIES ...................

Fort Center.. .................................
Wooden Effigies................................
Mortuary Pond.................................
Fort Center and the Glades Tradition..........

4 AN OSSEOUS BESTIARY ...........................

Bone Animal Carvings ..........................
Early Glades Tradition........................














5 KEY MARCO .................................... 148

Temporal, Spatial and Ethnic Position......... 150
Key Marco Iconography ........................... 157
Belle Glade.................................... 187
Tick Island....................... ............ 189
Key Marco and the Glades Tradition............. 190


Weeden Island Culture......................... 213
Ceramic Arts.................................. 214
Weeden Island Symbolism....................... 226
Weeden Island and the Glades Tradition........ 229

7 LATE GLADES TRADITION ART...................... 247

Mississippian Horizon.......................... 249
Safety Harbor Ceramics......................... 252
Geometric Bone Carving ........................ 261
Human Idols or Effigies....................... 279
Late Glades Tradition.......................... 285

8 TERMINAL GLADES TRADITION ART................. 306

Culture Contact and Culture Change............ 307
Ceremonial Tablets............................. 311
Metal Crested-Woodpeckers..................... 320
Other Metal Zo6morphic Cut-Outs.............. 331
Terminal Glades Tradition..................... 335

9 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION...................... 351

Periodicity in Peninsular Art................. 351
Structural Position ........................... 356
Process....................................... 364
Iconography and Symbolism...................... 366
Evaluation of Questions Posed................. 373
Notes for Further Study ....................... 375
Conclusion .................................. 376

REFERENCES........................................ 385

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... 413


Figure page

1-1. Culture regions of the Florida peninsula....... 29

1-2. Carved bone and antler, pre-Glades tradition... 30

2-1. Florida Hopewell sites......................... 64

2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs............ 65

2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted vessels.......... 66

2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels....................... 67

2-5. Naturalistic bird forms .................. ...... 68

2-6. Abstract bird forms ............................ 69

2-7. Stylized bird forms .......................... 70

2-8. Basin Bayou Incised bowl, Safford.............. 71

2-9. Unidentified animal forms ...................... 72

2-10. Human hands .................................... 73

2-11. Human figurines ................................ 74

2-12. Hopewellian figurine, Block-Sterns ............ 75

2-13. Copper and shell artifacts...................... 76

2-14. Exotic stone plummets .......................... 77

2-15. Bird effigy plummets ........................... 78

2-16. Deer effigies................................. 79

2-17. Duck or spoonbill effigy plummets.............. 80

2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets........................ 81


Figure page

2-19. Hopewellian ceramics ........................... 82

2-20. Animals and birds in Hopewell art.............. 83

2-21. Hopewell effigy pipes .......................... 84

3-1. Plan of Fort Center, mound-pond complex,
and mortuary platform. ......................... 103

3-2. Large birds and beasts......................... 104

3-3. Tenoned animals ................................ 105

3-4. Two-legged style carvings...................... 106

3-5. Two-legged and tenoned animals................. 107

3-6. Tenoned hawk carving........................... 108

3-7. Bird head fragments and miscellaneous
carvings ............................... 109

3-8. Miscellaneous and utilitarian
carvings .............................. 110

3-9. Running panther carving in situ................ 111

3-10. Plan of carvings in mortuary pond............... 112

3-11. Wood carvings and burials in situ.............. 113

4-1. Geographic extent of the "osseuos bestiary".... 137

4-2. Bone and antler carvings of birds............... 138

4-3. Bone carvings of mammals ....................... 139

4-4. Doe or juvenile male deer carving, Onion Key... 140

4-5. Antler carving of bear, Fort Florida............ 140

4-6. Bone carvings from Nebot ....................... 141

4-7. Bone carvings of reptiles ...................... 142

4-8. Serpent carving, Jupiter Inlet ................ 142

4-9. Rattlesnake tail pin heads..................... 143

4-10. Bone carvings of aquatic animals............... 144


Figure page

4-11. Wheeling dolphin s, Key Marco................... 145

4-12. Dolphin tablet, Key Marco ...................... 145

4-13. Zo6morphic bone bead, Mound Key................. 146

4-14. Human images in bone ........................... 147

5-1. SECC themes and motifs ................ ........ 194

5-2. Mortuary plaques ............................. 195

5-3. Plan of "Court of the Pile Dwellers"........... 196

5-4. Wooden figureheads ............................. 197

5-5. Deer figurehead .............................. 198

5-6. Alligator figurehead............................ 199

5-7. Pelican figurehead ............................. 200

5-8. Sea turtle or falcon figurehead................ 201

5-9. Painted masks .................................. 202

5-10. Long Nosed God masks............................ 203

5-11. Feline figurine ........................... ..... 204

5-12. Zo6morphic tool handles ....................... 205

5-13. "Horned" alligator box lid, pigment on wood.... 206

5-14. Crested woodpecker, pigment on wood............. 207

5-15. Tenoned ceremonial tablets, wood................ 208

5-16. Duck and Dolphin tablets, wood................. 209

5-17. Wood carvings, Belle Glade...................... 210

5-18. Vulture effigy tool handle, Tick Island........ 211

6-1. Geography of Weeden Island..................... 233

6-2. Some Weeden Island vessels and designs.......... 234

6-3. Weeden Island incised motifs................... 235

Figure Dage

6-4. Avian effigies................................. 236

6-5. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies............ 237

6-6. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies............ 238

6-7. Weeden Island mammal effigies .................. 239

6-8. Deer effigy vessel, Mound Field ................ 240

6-9. Dog and vulture effigy vessel, McKeithen....... 241

6-10. Rattlesnake/vulture effigies ................... 242

6-11. Human effigy, Ware Mound ....................... 243

6-12. Weeden Island human effigies ................... 244

6-13. Additional human effigies ...................... 245

6-14. Wooden effigy.................................. 246

7-1. Late Glades tradition sites .................... 287

7-2. Safety Harbor bottles.......................... 288

7-3. Safety Harbor vessels ......................... 289

7-4. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, True.............. 290

7-5. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, Picnic............ 291

7-6. Point Washington Incised vessel, Tatham......... 292

7-7. Safety Harbor Incised with medallion heads..... 293

7-8. Rectilinear motifs in bone ..................... 294

7-9. Curvilinear motifs in bone ..................... 295

7-10. Knot and braid motifs.......................... 296

7-11. Bone pendants.................................. 297

7-12. Interlocking motif ............................. 298

7-13. Loop and pendent-loop motifs................... 299

7-14. Zoned-hatched motif ............................ 299

Figure page

7-15. Zoned-punctated motif................. ......... 300

7-16. Baton-shaped bone pins......................... 301

7-17. Mississippian style antler carvings............ 302

7-18. Antler carving, Margate-Blount ................. 303

7-19. Wooden idols.................................... 304

7-20. Wooden idol, Palm Hammock (8GL30).............. 305

8-1. Terminal Glades tradition sites ................ 337

8-2. Ceremonial tablet distribution.................. 337

8-3. Tablet style analysis.......................... 338

8-4. Classic style tablets ......................... 339

8-5. Fort Center style tablets...................... 340

8-6. Zone 4 or Concentric Arc style tablets......... 341

8-7. Nicodemus style tablets ........................ 342

8-8. Zone 3 style tablets .......................... 343

8-9. Caloosahatchee style tablets................... 344

8-10. Miscellaneous tablets.......................... 345

8-11. Crested woodpeckers ............................ 346

8-12. Crested woodpeckers......................... ..... 347

8-13. Crested woodpecker, Mound Key.................. 348

8-14. Zo6morphic metal cut-outs ...................... 349

8-15. Kite-shaped and related pendants............... 350

9-1. Comparison of deer imagery...................... 379

9-2. Comparison of serpent imagery.................. 381

9-3. Comparison of duck or spoonbill imagery......... 382

9-4. Comparison of human imagery..................... 384


BCAS Broward County Archaeological Society, Dania

FAU Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton

FBAR Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,

FLMNH Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville

FSU Florida State University, Tallahassee

HMSF Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Miami

NMAI-SI National Museum of the American Indian,
Smithsonian Institution (formerly the Heye
Foundation), New York

NMNH-SI National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C.

SEAC-NPS Southeastern Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee

SFM South Florida Museum, Bradenton

TMM Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach

UM University Museum, University of Pennsylvania

YPM Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut

NOTE: Site numbers appear in parentheses after site names.
The site number is composed of three parts: "8" refers to
Florida, the two letter abbreviation refers to the
appropriate county, and the final numerals refer to site
number within each county.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

500 B.C. TO A.D. 1763


Ryan J. Wheeler

May 1996

Chairperson: Michael E. Moseley
Major Department: Anthropology

Six thousand years ago changes in water level and

climate helped create the Everglades and St. Johns River,

major hydrographic features of southern and eastern Florida.

Archaic cultures developed unique adaptations to these

regions, and produced carvings in bone and wood, an artistic

tradition that extended across peninsular Florida.

Around 300 B.C. these local cultures participated in an

exchange network that involved groups throughout the

Southeast and Midwest. Contact with these Hopewellian

cultures introduced a new art style and its associated

symbolism, and provided the impetus for several major

artistic traditions in Florida, including those of Weeden

Island and the Glades tradition. The Mississippian horizon

of A.D. 1000 introduced another set of artistic themes, some

of which were incorporated into the local systems.


This study presents a detailed discussion of the styles

that resulted from involvement in the Hopewellian horizon,

and the changes experienced following contact with

Mississippian expression. The processes of traditionalism

and reinterpretation are the basic interpretive themes

followed throughout the study. These functioned together to

reformulate introduced elements, and produce several unique

systems of visual expression. Changes occurring in art are

magnified during the era of European contact, when changes

in sociopolitical organization confront earlier patterns of




This study brings together a corpus of southern Florida

art, and develops a structural model of the position of this

material culture within the broader sphere of the Glades

tradition and related cultural phenomena of the Florida

peninsula. The objects figured and described here represent

the product of human activity at several levels, ranging

from technical achievement, to symbolism, to expression.

Examination of formal or stylistic aspects of Glades and

related arts is used to interpret meaning and function, and

the position of the objects between human actors.

The Glades Tradition

John Goggin (1949:17) applied the concept of a cultural

tradition to Florida archaeology with a broad stroke, and

created a flexible, integrative organizational system.

Goggin (1949) envisioned ten major culture traditions,

ranging temporally and geographically, with some occasional

overlap, from Paleo-Indian through Seminole. Southern

Florida became equated with the Glades tradition. Willey

and Phillips (1958:36) discuss the metamorphosis that the

concept of tradition experienced in Goggin's hands, emerging

from the ceramic tradition as used in South American

archaeology to the culture tradition of Florida archaeology.

Goggin defines his organizational tool as follows:

My concept of Florida cultural traditions is
similar in theory but more inclusive in content
than a ceramic tradition. A cultural tradition is
a distinctive way of life, reflected in various
aspects of the culture; perhaps extending through
some period of time and exhibiting normal internal
cultural changes, but nevertheless throughout this
period showing a basic consistent unity. In the
whole history of a tradition certain persistent
themes dominate the life of the people. (1949:17)

The concept of horizon, or horizon style, helps provide some

periodicity to the tradition, and is usually characterized

by an intense, distinctive, short-lived art style spread

over a broad geographic area. In the Florida case, major

horizons correlate with the occurrence of Hopewellian and

Mississippian art styles (see Table 1-1).

Specifically regarding the Glades tradition, Goggin

(1949:28-29) notes a strong correspondence between

geography, adaptation, and cultural development. The Glades

tradition is characterized by exploitation of the aquatic

environments that predominate in southern Florida.

Technology reflects this adaptation, with major industries

in shell, bone and wood, giving the tradition an "Archaic

cast" (Goggin 1949:28). In terms of art and ceremonialism,

Goggin (1949:31-32) suggests a late development referred to

as the "Glades Cult." As demonstrated below, and throughout

the following chapters, Goggin's temporal understanding of

the phenomena and paraphernalia included in the cult was

limited, with a much greater time depth then he originally

expected. For this reason Goggin (1949:28, 31-32) included

temporally distinct phenomena in the "Glades Cult,"

including earthworks, large wooden plaques, and artifacts of

precious metals.

Time and Space in Southern Florida

Goggin (1947b, 1948, n.d.), relying on a series of

relatively distinct decorated pottery types, created a

temporal sequence for the Glades Area. Table 1-1 presents

the Glades sequence, as revised and correlated with

radiocarbon dating (Griffin 1988:120-129; Widmer 1988:Table

2). These pottery types are characterized by an assortment

of simple, repetitive geometric designs. While primarily

recognized as temporally sensitive markers, the decorated

Glades series types also vary in their geographic

distribution. Some regions of southern Florida lack

quantities of the decorated Glades types for reliable

seriation, or have only a few specific types. This has led

to the generation of a number of additional chronologies,

though more often than not, the Glades decorated types or

extra-areal marker types (i.e., St. Johns Check Stamped) are

relied on in dating sites or assemblages.

Geographically the Glades Area, or southern Florida

region, comprises approximately one-third of the Florida

peninsula. The Everglades or "Glades" is a major

hydrographic feature of the region, hence Goggin's

designation as the "Glades Area." In fact, hydrographic

components are often more likely the defining elements of

the landscape. For example, the Kissimmee River-Lake

Okeechobee basin forms a major drainage in the north and

central part of southern Florida, and also correlates with

the Belle Glade or Okeechobee culture region, a distinctive

constellation within the Glades tradition. Equally distinct

cultural variants are found in the asterion areas of the

Caloosahatchee and Ten Thousand Islands. Carr and Beriault

(1984) present the best classification for southern Florida

culture regions, and their divisions are followed in Figure


Approaches to Native Art

Morphy (1989:3) suggests five components to the study

of archaeologically known art--identification,

representation, composition, meaning, and interpretation.

Identification refers to the initial stage of research

wherein the subjects of the art are identified and placed

within a time-space framework.

The concept of representation deals with the process of

art--the manner in which meaning is encoded in art objects.

This process involves how the art is intended to be seen and

who the intended audience was. Along these lines Morphy

(1989:7) cites numerous groups where several systems of

meaning are operating at the same time. As will be

demonstrated in the case of the Glades tradition, this

multiplicity of symbol systems may exist in the later phases

of the tradition. Representation is essentially the

relationship of meaning and form, an important structure

stressed by Kubler (1962).

Composition refers to the way in which elements and/or

representations are combined together into a whole. In some

sense composition is the equivalent of a "scene." The bulk

of the art described here for the Glades tradition is

difficult to conceive of in terms of composition. Ceramic

effigies, wood carvings or decorated bone pins do not often

combine smaller subunits of meaning to represent an event or

sequence of action. In some cases context may substitute

for composition, where groups of artifacts are manipulated

together and then deposited together, either intentionally

or accidently. In any case, the use of composition or scene

is of limited use in the study of most Glades tradition art.

Theories of meaning in archaeologically known art are

becoming increasingly complex, and rely more extensively on

ethnographic information. The problem with the Florida case

is that the only ethnographic information is derived from

the incomplete accounts of missionaries, shipwreck survivors

and conquistadors. Continuities between late Glades

tradition, Mississippian and historic southeastern peoples

may also provide some additional ethnographic data for some

of the art considered here.

Interpreting or modelling the system is the goal of the

analysis, and needs to be involved at each of the previous

stages mentioned above. The lack of ethnographic data in

understanding meaning provides a significant limitation to

the types of models that can be applied to the arts of

Florida. This lack requires a focus on representation and

form to inform meaning.

Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art

Two major models, either directly or indirectly

applicable to the study of Florida arts, can be compared and

contrasted as a point of departure for developing a new

integrative model of human and non-human agency and power

negotiation. The first is that of the Hopewell Tradition,

whose center and origin is the Ohio Valley. Some suggest a

major role for corn agriculture in Hopewellian societies

(Prufer 1964; Sears 1971), while others maintain that corn

was of minor importance (Griffin 1979:273, 277-278). Dating

to the Middle Woodland period (ca. 200 B.C. to A.D. 300),

Hopewellian peoples engaged in a far-reaching exchange

network that realized the movement of rare and exotic goods

(as well as artistic themes and motifs) throughout the

Midwest and Southeast. Many cultures of this time period

have ceremonial overlays that reflect interaction within

this exchange network, including Swift Creek, Deptford, St.

Johns, and others in Florida with their attendant Yent and

Green Point overlays (Sears 1962a).

The second model of artistic expression is found in the

Mississippian horizon (ca. A.D. 1000 to 1500). Artistic

expression among Mississippian-related peoples is

characterized by a variable set of themes and motifs

executed in shell, copper, and ceramics. Exchange in exotic

goods, like marine shell and copper, also characterizes

Mississippian era societies. Architecture and artifacts

indicate the existence of an emergent elite class, with

inherited status. Analogies with tribal groups of the

ethnohistoric and ethnographic Southeast also indicate a

greater reliance on corn agriculture during the

Mississippian era, with attendant ritual and sociopolitical

organization. The Fort Walton peoples of the Florida

panhandle exhibit Mississippian cultural patterns, and the

Lake Jackson site is a major center of this era. Platform

mounds and elite burials also are known from the St. Johns

River basin, and the central Gulf Coast and Manatee regions.

Hopewellian Expression

Naturalistic representations of animals characterize

much of Hopewellian artistic expression. A diverse array of

animals is portrayed, especially in effigy platform pipes,

but also in mica cut-outs, cut and repousse copper, engraved

bone and shell. An abstract or emblematic style of

zo6morphic symbolism exists alongside the naturalistic

portrayals. Headdresses and masks depicting animals, like

the deer, wolf, and bear, are also known. Parts of animals,

especially teeth and mandibles were used as ornaments. Most

of the animals depicted by Hopewell artists were those

native to the Midwest, but exotic species like the Carolina

parakeet, parrot, roseate spoonbill, alligator, manatee, and

ocelot are also known--perhaps through trade or capture of

wandering members of these species. Mythic or composite

creatures rarely occur, including what may be the

"underwater panther" described by contemporary tribes of the

Midwest, Plains, and Southeast. The effigy carvings,

engravings, and cut-outs of these animals come from various

contexts, but primarily from caches in and around the

"altars" discovered within burial mounds. Greber and Ruhl

(1989:287-289) have posited that the ceremonial caches of

Hopewell mounds result from cyclical rituals linked to the

fortunes of the societal leaders.

Several secondary models can be proposed to account for

the prominence of animals in Hopewellian artistic

expression, and all of these may apply in one fashion or

another. Researchers often suggest that the animals

depicted in Hopewell art are clan emblems or totems. Ritual

attention to clan founders is a common pattern in the

Southeast, where social groups with animal and plant names

(and presumed progenitors) are common. Ritual specialists

are often drawn from specific clans or gens, or each social

group may produce specialists who know how to conduct the

rites associated with the clan founder. In many cases

dances are ascribed to specific animals, who are said to

have composed the choreography and music (Howard 1984; Speck

1907). These dances are included as parts of other

cyclically occurring ceremonies, or may be involved in

shamanic performance designed to cure a disease caused by a

specific animal. Witthoft (1949) provides an important

insight in his discussion of "first fruits" rites among

southeastern tribes. The Green Corn Ceremony of

contemporary tribes is a survival of one of many cyclical

rituals dedicated to the first appearance of seasonal wild

plants and animals. Perhaps the best models for the ritual

paraphernalia of Hopewell can be found in the bundle

ceremonies of contemporary Plains, Midwest, and Southeast

tribes. In this case, a ceremonial bundle, often

originating with a particular animal, plant, natural object,

or deity, is owned by an individual who knows how to perform

the bundle's attendant ceremonies. These ceremonies may be

a first fruits or first animals rite (i.e., Green Corn), a

ceremony dedicated to a mythic creature (i.e., the

underwater panther), or a ceremony dedicated to a particular

activity (i.e., warfare, revenge, peace).

Specifically relating to the Hopewell case, Greber and

Ruhl (1989:275-286) suggest a system of complementary

dualities existed in Hopewell society, one which provided a

structuring structure or root metaphor for the organization

of other, more superficial levels of society. This

complementary duality is manifested in the segregation of

certain types of tools and exotic goods in ceremonial

deposits, the lay-out of ceremonial enclosures, the

relationship of deer and bear iconography, and the distinct

forms of avian iconography. Images of the deer and bear

occur in several forms in Hopewell art, including as

elements of costume or headdress. Willoughby (in Greber and

Ruhl 1989:95-96, 99-100, 277) recovered a series of copper

and wood headdresses from the Hopewell site that replicated

the various stages in the life of the male deer, including

juvenile, spike buck, and mature forms. Mills (1922:Fig.

68) recovered the remains of a bear headdress at Mound City,

with movable ears. Copper cut-outs from Hopewell and other

sites unites the abstract representation of the deer and

bear, indicating a link between these two animals (Greber

and Ruhl 1989:278-282). Avian imagery is exceptionally

diverse at Midwestern Hopewell sites, and Greber and Ruhl

(1989:285) recognize four major classes:

(1) passeriforms (i.e., song and perching birds)
(2) raptors (nonpasseriforms)
(3) water birds (nonpasseriforms)
(4) other nonpasseriforms (i.e., woodpeckers and

The significance of these groups is unclear, though the

roseate spoonbill, a prominent theme found in Hopewellian

ceramics and carved pipes, may have served as a "game

master" as Hall (1979:258-259) suggests.

Considering the details provided by Greber and Ruhl

(1989), it is possible to comment on the structures of

Hopewellian symbolism, and the relationship between ritual

and art. Greber and Ruhl (1989:287-289) suggest two cycles

that governed the ceremonies that resulted in the deposit of

the elaborate arts and exotic goods, namely a socially

recognized cycle derived from cosmology, and a cycle based

on the fortunes of leaders. Considering the animal forms of

the costumes recovered and the naturalistic themes of other

arts, it is likely that animal ceremonialism was an integral

component in the mediation between deeper social structures

and the lives of people in Hopewellian societies. This is

likely the kind of animal ceremonialism posited by Witthoft

(1949) as the background of contemporary ritual in the


Considering the emphasis on animals in Hopewell art and

ritual, some comments on Native American perceptions of

animals and humans may be pertinent. Both Hallowell

(1926:7-9) and Miller (1982:274) point out that to the

Native people of North America the distinction between human

and animal is blurred, with a broader range of recognized

types of people, only some of which are human. This

anthropocentricc universe," as described by Douglas

(1970:98, 104), may or may not be universal among pre-

industrial people, but certainly characterizes some Native

societies in eastern North America. Speck (as cited in

Hallowell 1926:7-8) notes that the Penobscot viewed birds as

a mirror image of human society, with tribes and bands,

separated by their different structures, languages and

customs. Elements of this belief appear in the Cherokee

cosmology where the "Upper World," the realm of celestial

deities and birds, existed as an ideal model for "This

World," and its human inhabitants (Hudson 1976:123-125). In

this sense, the animal symbolism of Hopewell might best be

understood as an extension or alternative aspect of the

human world. Or perhaps these human and animal worlds exist

as a reflexive models of one another. Concerning the

Florida example, evidence comes from the Calusa

ethnohistoric documents of Juan Rogel who recorded the

following belief on the soul:

They have another error also, that when a man
dies, his soul enters into some animal or fish.
And when they kill such an animal, it enters into
another lesser one so that little by little it
reaches the point of being reduced into nothing.
(Hann 1991:238)

Mississippian Expression

Mississippian artistic expression inherits elements

from earlier Hopewellian systems, including the use of

marine shell and copper, as well as the exchange of exotic

and rare goods, presumably between the elites of the centers

of power. Some Mississippian themes and motifs also have

antecedents in Hopewell art, including the bi-lobed arrow,

the horned serpent, and the hawk or peregrine falcon.

Shared rituals include the use of "black drink" medicine and

marine shell cups or dippers, as well as the ritual use of

tobacco. A major thematic shift, however, is a focus on

human and composite human-animal images, largely absent from

the earlier, naturalistic representations of Hopewell.

These images often take the form of humans in animal

costume, as in the engraved shell gorgets and shell cups.

Large stone statues and pipes also depict humans, the former

of which often received burial just as "real" human beings.

Despite early definitions of a "Southern Cult" or

Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Waring and Holder 1945),

recent studies have pointed to considerable regional

variations in the themes, motifs, and forms or expression

(Brown 1976; Muller 1966; 1989).

Howard (1968) has presented extensive evidence for

historical links between contemporary southeastern tribes

and the groups of the pre-contact Mississippian world. In

this analysis the art and paraphernalia of the SECC are

interpreted in terms of the mythology and ceremonialism of

ethnographically known Southeast Indians, namely that

surrounding the Green Corn Ceremony. Howard's (1968) model

of Mississippian ritual and art suggests that the Green Corn

Ceremony emerged as the primary religious and artistic focus

from a plethora of earlier rites dedicated to animal and

plant species. The motifs and themes of the SECC are

interpreted within this system.

Knight (1986) provides a model of Mississippian

religion, suggesting three interrelated cults, each with its

own organization, leadership, and iconic manifestations.

These cults include a warfare/cosmogony complex with

membership restricted to a particular unilineal descent

group or clan; a communal cult with membership cross-cutting

descent, sex, and age groups; and a priesthood composed of

highly trained initiates drawn from specific age graded and

sex bound groups (Knight 1986:680-681). This latter cult

served a mediating role between the chiefly and communal

ritual organizations. The warfare/cosmogony cult controlled

knowledge related to mythological beings and success in

military affairs; office-holders may be identified as

warrior-chiefs and their councilors. Presumably the copper

and marine shell representations of warriors, as well as the

maces, clubs, atlatls, and other ritual weapons, are

associated with this cult. The communal cult is evidenced

in periodic rites of intensification, which result in mound

building. Knight (1986:683) compares the activities of this

cult with those known for the Green Corn ceremony. The

priestly cult was primarily dedicated to maintenance of the

temple statuary, the sacred fire, and mortuary ritual.

Presumably the focus of this cult was some form of ancestor


Knight's model (1986:681-682) is interesting in that it

is not tied to specific economic systems (i.e., maize

agriculture), and further suggests an expansion of these

cult institutions into a diverse array of cultures across

the Southeast, including Safety Harbor, Fort Walton and

Pensacola in Florida. The mechanism for this expansion is

explained by Knight (1986:681-682) within the context of

changing sociopolitical forms in the Southeast, and

emphasizes the spread of particular cult institutions in

attempts to expand spheres of influence and increase power

through control of esoteric knowledge.

On a deeper structural level Hudson (1984:11-15) uses

ethnographic information on the Cherokee to generate a model

that might be applicable to interpreting aspects of the SECC

and Mississippian iconography. One important element of

this model is the tripartite division of the cosmos into

"this world (the earth), the upper world, and the under

world (11-12)".

An Alternative Model

The Glades and related traditions of the Florida

peninsula lend themselves to a study of periodicity as

described by Kubler (1970). In this sense there are a

succession of periods, alternatively characterized by

processes of traditionalism or reinterpretation, or

relationships with external sources. The earliest of these

periods is characterized by a pre-Glades or Archaic


Pre-Glades Tradition Expression

I have described elsewhere the Paleo-Indian (12500-8000

B.C.) and Archaic (8000-500 B.C.) substratum upon which much

of Florida's native art rests (Wheeler 1994). A cohesive

set of geometric designs, incised and engraved on antler and

bone, is known from a number of early river localities, and

from a group of pond burials located throughout the Florida

peninsula (Figure 1-2). Form and design are united to

portray rattlesnakes or serpents, with cross-hatched

engraving augmenting the carved antler shaft "serpent" form.

Serpent imagery would appear to be the earliest zo6morphic

symbolism evidenced in the Glades tradition, and this is

added to in subsequent styles.

During this early period antler seems to gain

importance as a medium for carving the form of the serpent--

an association that persists throughout the duration of the

Glades tradition. The most notable carvings, which take the

form of the serpent (emphasized by cross-hatched incising

and/or diamond-shaped incising) are found with individuals

buried in shallow pond cemeteries. The Gauthier site

contained the remains of one such individual, a robust male

buried with over 50 artifacts (Jones in Carr 1981:84, 86).

Even at this early stage there is evidence for the

black drink ritual. Material expression of this ritual is

best found in the shell cups and dippers cut from large

marine shells. The black drink ritual was a component of

other southeastern ceremonies, and was documented in

southern Florida in A.D. 1696 by Dickinson (in Andrews and

Andrews 1945:46-47). Wheeler and McGee (1994:365) have

suggested the development of the technological aspects of

the black drink in the direct-fire cooking method of the

yaupon leaves (Ilex vomitoria) in the shell vessels. Le

Moyne (in Hulton 1977:148, 152, Pls. 121, 132) witnessed the

use of black drink among the Timucua in the 16th century,

including the inclusion of a shell dipper in a burial mound.

A Model of Glades Tradition Aesthetics

Considering the two models of Hopewellian and

Mississippian artistic expression discussed above, as well

as general knowledge of Glades and pre-Glades art, a

diachronic model of Glades expression, with several

attendant questions, can be formulated. Contact and

involvement in the Hopewell horizon introduced an elaborate

set of iconographic elements, primarily naturalistic animal

themes, into Florida. These themes were compatible with

existing systems of expression (i.e., pre-Glades and Mount

Taylor antler carving), and were reinterpreted in the local

media and styles. Two parallel trajectories resulted,

Weeden Island in northwestern, northern, and north-central

Florida, and the Glades in southern and eastern Florida.

The artists of the former elaborated ceramic arts, while the

artists of the latter maintained expression in wood, bone,

and antler carving. The question arises: "Did the people of

Florida adopt deeper systems of Hopewellian symbolism--the

structuring structures--or was their borrowing restricted to

more superficial levels of iconography, form, and design?"

By definition, the Glades tradition does not engender

change. However, the peoples of Florida were involved in

the Mississippian phenomenon described above. The areas

previously characterized by the Weeden Island culture

underwent dramatic changes, including major shifts in

artistic expression. Influences of Mississippian

iconographic systems are more subtle in southern Florida,

though there are manifestations of Mississippian art and

architecture in Safety Harbor, a culture of the Manatee and

Central Gulf Coast regions. Other elements of Mississippian

art occur in the Okeechobee basin and in southeastern

Florida. In all these cases the patterns of

reinterpretation or syncretism are observed (e.g., Safety

Harbor ceramics incorporates Mississippian form and

iconography with Weeden Island form, decorative treatment,

and design). Earlier patterns of naturalistic expression

continue alongside these new themes, motifs, and forms. A

more complicated question arises: "Do these changes reflect

superficial borrowing; major changes in deeper systems of

belief, symbolism, and sociopolitical organization; or

limited changes in deeper structures emphasized by borrowing

and reinterpretation?"

Assuming that systems of representation are related to

deeper "structuring structures" of kinship, religion, and

political organization, it can be argued that the

differences in Hopewellian and Mississippian art reflect

changes at these deeper levels. Regarding the Glades

tradition, the questions involve the level of changes, the

new structures influencing representation, and older

structures dedicated to maintenance of traditional systems

of expression. By comparing the art of the Glades with the

continuum of Hopewell into Mississippian, the aesthetic

system of southern Florida can be situated with respect to

internal changes and external relationships.

Ethnohistoric Evidence

Ethnohistoric accounts of the production and use of art

by Native Floridians is limited, but that which does exist

closely parallels the archaeological remains discussed in

the following chapters. Information from contact era

sources indicates that analogs to the art objects described

in this study can be found in the ritual paraphernalia,

architecture, and personal adornment of the 16th and 17th

century Florida Natives. Images of birds carved in wood

were reported as gods of the cemetery, or as elements of

temple architecture (Alaha in Hann 1991:422; Gentleman of

Elvas in Clayton et al. 1993:57), and there are some

descriptions of "ugly masks" used in ritual processions

(Rogel in Hann 1991:287). Other accounts mention objects of

precious metal worn as adornment by the Florida Natives (Le

Moyne in Hulton 1977:Pl. 106; Rogel in Hann 1991:268).

Considering the ritual context for some of the arts

described in the ethnohistoric documents, it may be valuable

to understand the types of ritual specialists and their

ceremonies, such as existed in the contact era. The

majority of the evidence points to a shamanic context for

art and ritual. This includes wildly ecstatic performance,

spirit journey, divination, and curing. Dickinson saw

several shamanic performances, including one among the Jobe:

An Indian, who performeth their ceremonies stood
out, looking full at the moon making a hideous
noise; and crying out acting like a mad man for
the space of half an hour; all the Indians being
silent till he had done: after which they all made
fearful noise some like the barking of a dog, wolf
and other strange sounds. (Andrews and Andrews

Juan Rogel describes spirit journey rituals among the 16th

century Calusa, a process involving fasting and physical

exertion, with the result being an encounter with the gods

or ancestors (in Hann 1991:242). Alaha describes spirit

death for an 18th century shaman of southern Florida, noting

that "he drinks many times till he passes out. .and they

think that such a one dies and returns sanctified" (in Hann

1991:422). Le Moyne describes the 16th century Timucua

shaman who was summoned to predict enemy forces (Hulton

1977:143, P1. 104). Le Moyne notes that the shaman's trance

was so intense that he hardly resembled a human being, and

de Bry captures this scene in his contorted and twisted

image of the old man (Hulton 1977:Pl. 104). These

descriptions fit the "classical shamanistic voyage" as

documented by Eliade (1964:300-302) and Steadman and Palmer


There are hints, however, that this pattern of shamanic

ritual, which undoubtedly characterized the religion of both


the Hopewell horizon and much of the Glades tradition, had a

rival in an emergent class of priests during the later

phases of the tradition (Marquardt 1991:xvi-xvii). There is

evidence in the ethnohistoric documents that the shaman was

becoming increasingly involved in affairs of state, as well

as a concentration of esoteric knowledge in the Calusa chief

and his retinue (Lewis 1978:23). This situation parallels

the model presented by Knight (1986, see above), where the

ruling class controlled information related to warfare and

cosmogony. In most cases, however, the "priest" or "bishop"

of southern Florida seems to fill multiple roles, combining

priestly and shamanic duties. This composite type religious

specialist seems to have existed prior to contact, and is

evidenced in the Key Marco collection. Cushing (1897:378-

380) describes an assemblage of artifacts from Key Marco

that he terms the outfit of a "Shamanistic Priest." This

material includes a host of very personal objects like

painted animal skulls, rattles, sucking-tubes, scratchers,

black-drink utensils, as well as many of the larger,

corporate objects described in Chapter 5.

Structure and Process in Glades Tradition Art

The new model for Glades tradition arts developed above

places the artist in a central position in the negotiation

of power through their special access to esoteric knowledge,

and their interaction with local and distant elites, as well

as more general audiences. This makes the native artist a


cultural mediator, whose personal vision melds with broader

societal structures to create the artistic product. The

mediating position of the artist also suggests integrative

knowledge at several levels.

This model of Glades tradition art requires some

discussion of the context in which art objects are produced.

The adherence to style suggests that artistic endeavors are

a formal process that may involve apprenticeship or style

schools, as postulated by Phillips and Brown (1978:34-37).

For artists to attain the special symbolic and ideologic

knowledge for expression of their craft suggests some

proximity to the elite classes, like those documented among

the Calusa and Timucua of the contact era. In both groups,

the chief and his principals held special esoteric knowledge

(Hann 1991:224-225). To create art in service of, or in

counterpoint to, this ideology, the artist must have some

knowledge of it. The technical proficiency in evidence in

most styles also suggests that artists have some specially

developed knowledge and skill of their chosen craft. The

influence of horizon styles indicates that artists were

involved in exchange networks or travel, at least throughout

the state, and maybe beyond. During the contact era there

is evidence for contact between the Calusa and the

Apalachee, as the chief of the former was said to speak both

of these languages (L6pez in Hann 1991:160). The Apalachee

were a Mississippian culture of the Florida panhandle, and

are usually associated with the Fort Walton culture. The

reinterpretation of exotic arts in native forms and media is

the process behind much of this artistic mediation. This is

the origin of many of the styles discussed below, including

Weeden Island art, which results from a merging of

Hopewellian and local styles. The arts of the Glades also

grow out of a merger of Hopewellian and pre-Glades styles.

It is difficult to decide if the symbolic expression of

donor styles is also being manipulated, or if only formal

and iconographic features are borrowed. Formal qualities

are an expression of deeper symbolic meaning, so it seems

likely that artists had more than a passing familiarity with

the outward appearance of objects, but also grasped the more

esoteric elements. For example, the bone and antler

carvings discussed in Chapter 4 preserve some of the formal

and iconographic elements of their Hopewellian antecedents

(i.e., effigy pipes, plummets), but also retain the personal

nature of the artifacts on which they are patterned. Other

examples--like the larger, publicly displayed carvings of

Fort Center, or the pedestaled effigies of Weeden Island--

suggest a movement away from the personal quality of

Hopewellian art.

Reinterpretation not only involves shifts in scale and

style, but also in media. Antler, bone and wood are the

primary artistic media of pre-Glades Florida, and are

maintained by Glades tradition artists as the preferred

media. This stands in considerable contrast to Weeden

Island arts, which have a common Hopewellian origin, but

rely principally on ceramics for artistic expression.

Parochial adherence to ancient media in southern Florida

comes partly from necessity, but may have a symbolic quality

as well. The desire of artists to incorporate new media is

evidenced when Spanish shipwreck metals becomes available,

and it is likely that this material also had strong symbolic


Four major phases or style systems have been identified

within the Glades tradition. Description of these phases

will comprise the bulk of the following chapters, and will

serve as a contextual base to use in observing changes and

continuities within Glades art, as well as acting as a

reference for thematic studies of Florida art. As noted

above, the principal components of this study are those of

identification of the art system elements and determining

how the system encodes meaning.

Organization of the Chapters

The bulk of Chapters 2 through 8 are dedicated to the

task of identification, as outlined by Morphy (1989:4-6).

This is the basic level of analysis whereby the elements of

the art and symbol systems are brought together, organized

within time and space, and with respect to one another.

Each of these chapters contains information on what Morphy

(1989:6-8) calls representation. This is a somewhat

autonomous system of meaning that relates to human use

(Kubler 1962, 1987:170-171). Essentially, this is the

system by which meaning is encoded in art--how it was

intended to be seen, who the intended audience was.

Meaning is addressed in each chapter, not only in terms

of form, but also through the process of ethnographic

analogy with other southeastern and midwestern tribes, and

comparison with the limited ethnohistoric literature of

Florida. The process of discovering meaning also includes

the identification of the animals depicted, and attempts to

correlate inferred meaning with inherent characteristics of

these animals (Kinsey 1989).

Chapter 2 addresses the direct influences of the

Hopewellian horizon in Florida--including discussion of

imported items, and those copied in local media, but based

on Hopewellian forms. This is an important chapter in that

it sets the stage for two major artistic traditions, namely

the Glades and Weeden Island. The material discussed here

represents an "incipient" Glades tradition, providing many

of the basic elements of form and iconography in southern

Florida art.

Chapter 3 focuses on Fort Center, the first evidence of

a Glades tradition artistic system, borne out of the merging

of pre-Glades and Hopewellian systems. Fort Center offers

an excellent example of the process of reinterpretation, in

which elements of Hopewellian iconography (and symbolism?)

are reworked and modified within the earlier contexts of

pre-Glades carving and ceremonialism. The context of the

wooden effigies of the Fort Center mortuary pond also allow

for a study of composition, or how the elements of the

artistic system are combined.

Chapter 4 represents a second case of the "early"

Glades tradition, in which Hopewellian zo6morphic imagery is

reinterpreted in the bone carving tradition that dates back

to the Archaic or pre-Glades era. Unlike the corporate art

of Fort Center, the "osseous bestiary" represents different

scale of use, perhaps reflecting the more personal

relationship between humans and animals.

Chapter 5 is dedicated to an analysis of the art of Key

Marco, and provides the first real test of the method

outlined above. Key Marco represents the third major form

exhibited within Glades tradition art, namely that of non-

mortuary ceremonial paraphernalia. Key Marco has remained

an enigma due to the presence of what appear to be

Mississippian elements and a chronology that pre-dates the

Mississippian era and its attendant ceremonial complexes.

This mystery is mitigated by comparison of the Key Marco

material with both Hopewellian and Mississippian

iconography, as well as an attempt to identify the

underlying patterns of expression.

Chapter 6 presents an outline of Weeden Island art and

symbolism, the other major artistic trajectory of Florida

that is borne out of the Hopewellian horizon. Weeden Island

represents an important case, since it shares and overlaps

with the Glades tradition in iconography. Unlike the Glades

tradition, which reinterprets exotic themes and motifs in

the traditional media of bone and wood, Weeden Island

develops and elaborates on the ceramic arts of the

Hopewellian horizon.

Chapter 7 discusses three major styles related to the

Mississippian horizon, and introduction of Mississippian

artistic and symbolic elements into the arts of southern

Florida. These include Safety Harbor ceramics, the end

point in the Hopewellian-Weeden Island continuum, as well as

wood and bone carving styles of the Glades tradition.

Regarding the model of Glades tradition artistic expression

discussed above, this "late" phase represents an important

case. The primary question becomes an element of larger

questions regarding the changes in sociopolitical

organization of southern Florida. Despite the appearance of

new or modified art forms, the older naturalistic forms

persist, suggesting that the new aspects of warfare,

military leadership, and elite power, coexist with more

traditional shamanic practices.

Chapter 8 presents evidence for the "terminal" phase of

Glades tradition arts. The process of reinterpretation is

obvious in this phase in the incorporation and reworking of

Spanish shipwreck goods into native forms. The chapter

focuses on two forms--the metal ceremonial tablet and the

metal crested-woodpecker--the first with a long history, the

second emblematic of the new element of warfare and military

leadership seen in Glades arts. What may be most

significant in the arts of this final phase are the merging

of traditional themes (i.e., the spoonbill) with

Mississippian themes and motifs (i.e., the cross-in-circle,

the woodpecker) in media associated with the Spanish

presence (i.e., silver, gold, brass). Evidence from

ethnohistoric accounts and ethnographic analogy indicates

this may be a conscious attempt to create alliances

(symbolic or real) or appropriate power.

Chapter 9 presents a synthetic and thematic study of

the material presented in Chapters 2 through 8 in an attempt

to evaluate the model and its attendant hypotheses outlined

above. This is the point, as Morphy (1989:12) suggests,

where the final goal of analysis meets its beginning.

Northwest Gulf Coast\j N\

North (

Figure 1-1. Culture regions of Florida
(based on Carr and Beriault 1984:12;
Milanich 1994:xix).

St. Johns

lan River



Ten Thousand



Figure 1-2. Carved bone and antler, pre-Glades Tradition.
a, bone tube, Windover (8BR246), FSU 103.17, 8.0 cm; b, bone
tube, Windover, FSU 121.45, 10.3 cm; c, antler, Republic
Groves (8HR4), FLMNH 93-18-26, 5.6 cm; d, antler, Republic
Groves, FLMNH 93-18-51, 10.6 cm; e, antler, Gauthier
(8BR193), FBAR, 17.0 cm.

Table 1-1. Chronological sequence for three neighboring cultural trajectories, correlated
with major artistic horizons and traditions of the Southeast and Midwest.














I late

Glades I early



St. Johns

St. Johns




St. Johns IIa










Safety Harbor

Weeden Island II

Weeden Island I

Yent/Green Point





St. Johns Ib

St. Johns Ia

St. Johns Ia



Mount Taylor



200 B.C.







Two Florida Art Trajectories

Contact with Hopewellian artists and art work inspired

two distinctive artistic and cultural traditions in Florida.

To the north, Weeden Island artists built on the base of

Hopewellian ceramics originally introduced in the Yent and

Green Point complexes. To the south, Glades artists adopted

Hopewellian animal symbolism from effigy pipes and plummets

to create a host of animal images in antler, bone and wood.

This common origin, coupled with geographic proximity, helps

explain convergences and correspondences in Weeden Island

and Glades arts. This chapter focuses on the Florida

Hopewell horizon styles and symbol systems that produce a

platform for these later traditions or trajectories. A

major distinction between the two traditions lies in the

parochial character of Glades artists, who cling to the

earlier media of wood and bone, with Weeden Island artists

largely abandon the earliest substrate and develop

techniques of ceramic modeling and incising. What unites

the Weeden Island and Glades traditions are shared art and

symbol systems based on the patterns introduced during the

Hopewell horizon.


The close of the era of fiber-tempered ceramics, circa

500 B.C., finds a period of several hundred years during

which the arts of Florida are influenced by the Hopewellian

styles of the Ohio Valley. Temporally the Hopewell climax

is usually dated to A.D. 200-300. Geographically many

neighboring states have expressions of Hopewellian art,

including Marksville in Louisiana; Porter in Alabama;

Mandeville and Swift Creek in Georgia; Copena in the mid-

South; and Candy Creek in Tennessee and North Carolina

(Griffin 1967; Gibson 1970; Walthall 1975; Kellar et al.

1962; Chapman and Keel 1979). Within Florida Hopewellian-

influenced sites are primarily known from the panhandle, but

occur well into the peninsula on both coasts. Figure 2-1

illustrates Florida Hopewell sites discussed in this

chapter. The varied expressions of the Hopewellian

phenomena are related by similar mortuary patterns and

exotic exchange goods (Seeman 1979b; Caldwell 1964). This

chapter explores primary expressions of this Hopewellian

art, including locally made and imported ceramics, as well

as copper work and effigy plummet forms. This exotic art

represents an important horizon in the ancient art of

Florida, providing a substratum for much of the forms and

images found in the styles that follow. The thematic

studies presented in the following chapters often begin with

objects of the Florida Hopewell.

Yent and Green Point Complexes

Moore (1895:509; 1907a:422) was one of the first to

recognize the similarities between artifacts of Florida

sites and those of the Ohio Valley and Midwest. Many of

Florida sites contained copper artifacts, galena (native

lead), rock crystal, meteoric iron, and other non-local

ceramic items linking them to the Hopewellian cultures.

Further recognition of these similarities can be found in

Greenman (1938), Caldwell (1958), Willey (1945, 1948a,

1948b, 1948c, 1949a), McMichael (1964), Ruhl (1981), and

most notably, Sears (1962a). Sears (1962a) provides the

most extensive treatment of what he calls the Yent and Green

Point complexes, essentially Florida Gulf Coast Hopewell,

other Hopewellian manifestations in Florida are unnamed.

These complexes are conceived of as mortuary and

ceremonial overlays upon the local Deptford and Santa

Rosa/Swift Creek cultures, each with a varying degree of

Hopewellian influence. Artifacts typifying Yent and Green

Point include exotic goods, as well as unusual locally

produced objects. McMichael (1964) has argued that Yent and

Green Point should be subsumed under the rubric of Crystal

River Complex. All writers have acknowledged that this

phenomenon has an extralocal source, with many of the

defining artifacts being foreign. For example, the vessels

described in the Crystal River series are constructed from

micaceous clay and were not likely to have been made at the

Crystal River site where they are most numerous. These

vessels may have been made in the Florida panhandle where

Yent and Green Point ceremonialism can also be found. While

most writers (i.e., Sears 1962a) point to Hopewellian

cultures to the north and west as the source of the Yent and

Green Point complexes, McMichael (1964) suggests that there

is contact with Mesoamerica, specifically Veracruz.

McMichael's (1964) model intimates that the traits of the

Crystal River Complex, as well as those of Hopewellian

cultures further north, originated in the "Temple Formative"

cultures of Veracruz. The flaw in this model is apparent in

the extralocal nature of the Yent Complex traits themselves,

in that they are not merely locally made copies of

Mesoamerican forms, but are primarily derived from further

west or are unusual one-of-a-kind objects. Brose (1979:141)

has recently criticized Sears' original concept, suggesting

that the Crystal River, Yent, Green Point, and Kolomoki

complexes "represent a polythetic set of materials and

interrelated cultural patterns," with few ties to Hopewell

and few Hopewell-derived materials. The basis of Brose's

(1979) argument is the lack of similarity between the

Hopewellian mortuary pattern and that of the above mentioned

complexes, as well as the limited amount of Hopewellian

materials in any given site. This chapter, and those that

follow, will correct this misconception. Brose also draws

this argument from the similarity of Yent, Green Point, and

Weeden Island artifacts and ceremonial patterns. While

Brose's arguments have some validity, Sears' concept of Yent

and Green Point as ceremonial overlays seems appropriate,

especially in a study of art history, and will be retained

here. It is also important to recognize a primary

distinction between the earlier, Hopewellian art of Yent,

Green Point and Crystal River, and the locally developed

Weeden Island tradition.

Hopewellian Ceramics in Florida

As noted above, the ceramics of the Yent and Green

Point complexes are a diverse array of local and non-local

forms. Some idea of the variation in vessel shape can be

found in the illustrations following this chapter. The

micaceous paste of many of these vessels attests to their

transport prior to interment. Vessel shapes and overall

morphological characteristics, including scalloped lips,

narrow or collared necks on globular vessels, cylindrical or

squared beakers and small tetrapodal bases, ally these

ceramics with those of Hopewellian cultures of Georgia,

Alabama, and Louisiana, as well as the Ohio Valley (Setzler

1933; Wimberly 1960). Sears (1962a) mentions that many

vessels, especially of the earlier Yent Complex, are unique

and unusual in shape.

Decorative techniques include dentate-stamping,

incising, deep excising or champleve, punctations as zone

fill, applique, zoned-red painting, and negative or resist

painting. These techniques are often combined in execution

of the overall vessel decoration. Design elements include

arcs, circles, loops, pendent-loops, as well as more

complicated aspects involved in zo6morphic themes.

Rectilinear forms, including nested rectangles and the

swastika, as well as curvilinear forms are illustrated in

Figure 2-2. Broad flowing lines characterize most incised

decoration, especially in the Santa Rosa series. The

Crystal River series is typified by an emphasis on smaller

design elements and their interrelation. The distinctive

line with terminals, so characteristic of Weeden Island

decoration, is occasionally present as a Yent and Green

Point design element.

Vessels with negative-painted designs have been

identified as a unique and rare element of the Crystal River

Complex (Sears 1962a assigned Crystal River to the earlier

Yent Complex, though some authors have argued for the

separate classification of this southern manifestation).

Figure 2-3 illustrates examples of this type, with painted

rectilinear and curvilinear designs. Willey and Phillips

(1944) originally reported on the occurrence of this type at

Crystal River, discussing two examples found by Moore

(1903b). Only six specimens are known, all classified as

Crystal River Negative-Painted (Willey 1948a, 1949a).

Negative-painting, which involves painting a design in wax,

and then applying a black or dark grey pigment, so that when

the wax is removed the original painted design appears light

against a dark background, is commonly associated with

Central and Middle American art. Willey and Phillips

(1944:175) indicate that negative-painted pottery is also

found in the Ohio Valley, Tennessee-Cumberland area, and

several other portions of the Southeast, but would appear to

be earliest in Florida and Hopewellian-related styles

(Willey 1948a). It is interesting to note that

Mississippian textile fragments have been found with

negative-painted designs, and it is possible that this

technique was transferred from non-ceramic to ceramic

decoration (Willey and Phillips 1944:182-183).

Vessels painted with zoned-red geometric figures have a

wider distribution than the negative-painted designs, and

Willey (1949a:389-392) distinguishes two types. Some

examples are illustrated in Figure 2-4, and another can be

found in Figure 2-10d. This type is similar to incised

vessels of the Crystal River series, with the distinction

being red or crimson paint applied to geometric or

naturalistic incised patterns.

Distinctive paddle-stamped vessels, called Swift Creek

Complicated Stamped (Kelly 1938; Willey 1949a:378-383), are

also characteristic of the Yent and Green Point art styles.

Like the incised and painted vessels just described, this

complicated stamping represents an intrusive element in

Florida, though it persists for some time and becomes

incorporated into the more locally derived Weeden Island

tradition. Unlike the flamboyant relationship found between

surface decoration and vessel form in other Yent and Green

Point pots, overall morphology is more limited. Scalloped

lips, a common element of these styles, are often evidenced

on stamped vessels. Like some earlier stamping traditions,

Yent and Green Point complex stamped designs were produced

with a carved wooden paddle, applied while the clay is

beginning to dry. Cosmic symbols, cosmic symbol and eye, as

well as other curvilinear forms are known. Rectilinear

motifs also occur. Recent work at the Block-Sterns site

near Tallahassee has produced additional motifs, including

cross-in-circle, zo6morphic and cross-and-eye motifs,

indicating the rich and untapped iconographic aspects of

Swift Creek Complicated Stamped and related stamped types

(Tesar and Jones 1995).

Broken Vessels. Ritual Pavements, and Pottery Caches

Sears (1958:276) discusses three major types of burial

mounds present in Florida and adjacent areas. Among these

types is the patterned burial mound with east side pottery

deposits. Sears (1958:276) suggests that these mounds,

which occur in Hopewellian and Weeden Island cultures (and

possibly in Safety Harbor), reflect burials of prominent

leaders and their retinues. Further analogies have been

made by Sears (1954) between these patterned mounds, a focus

on prominent leaders, and the mortuary ceremonialism of the

Natchez-Taensa. Continuous use type mounds are more common

among the earlier Yent Hopewellian complex, but occur

throughout the later part of the sequence, especially in

peninsular Florida. These mounds have numerous burials

placed over a period of time, some with vessels. Ceramic

vessels and sherds occur in clusters. The Hope Mound,

excavated by Wells Sawyer (Cushing 1897; Smith 1971:113-

115), had an interesting "pavement" of broken ceramic

vessels. Fairbanks (1965:58) counters Sears' hierarchial

model of burial mound and pottery cache types by suggesting

these mass deposits of "killed" pottery reflect rites

designed to bring the spirits of the dead into a more

salubrious relationship with the living. This is important

in understanding the use of these types of vessels, as well

as realizing that breakage patterns were not accidental, but

were planned elements in the life of the ritual vessels.

Evidence from ethnohistoric and historic sources

indicate the use of medicines in many of the ceremonies of

the Florida and Southeastern Natives (Dickinson in Andrews

and Andrews 1945:59-61; Le Moyne in Hulton 1977:148, P1.

121; Hudson 1984:19-21). Some shell engravings from Spiro,

Oklahoma, illustrate the brewing of such medicines (Phillips

and Brown 1984:Pl. 126-127). Often this was the purifying

ritual of the black drink. It is possible that some of the

broken vessels interred with individuals, in pavements, or

in east side mound caches, were used in purification or

similar rituals prior to their interment.

The ritual "killing" of ceramics and other objects

included in burial mounds may also be subject to principles

of shamanism and magical death. If this is so, the renewal

and purification aspects of mound construction and

ceremonial deposition make sense. The pottery, often

ceramic effigies, are "killed" in anticipation of their

rebirth, much as the human bones defleshed and deposited in

the same mounds. Luer (1993:245-246) comments on the

intentional mutilation of Safety Harbor vessels, noting that

effigy elements are often removed or "freed" from their

parent vessels. This may reflect beliefs about the

animation of effigy forms, which would support the above


Iconocraphic Elements

Several distinct iconographic elements can be

identified in the ceramics of Yent and Green Point. These

include the designs most commonly ascribed to a Mesoamerican

source, though the Hopewellian cultures outside of Florida

seem a more likely derivation. The basic complex of bird,

mammal, serpent, and human forms are in evidence here, and

provide an iconographic basis for the subsequent Weeden

Island and Glades tradition styles, and as Willey (1948b)

notes, perhaps prefigure the "Southern Cult" of the

Mississippian era.

Birds. Avian imagery becomes the focal point of the

subsequent Weeden Island and Glades tradition styles, so it

is not surprising to find a great diversity of species

depicted in several distinct ways in Yent and Green Point.

These range from very obvious portrayals of birds, either

incised or modeled on ceramics, to abstract forms. A

unifying feature is an association of naturalistic birds

with more abstracted imagery, probably intended to represent

wings, tails and other features of the avian body. This is

most evident in the relationship of the applique duck or

spoonbill adorno and the decorated bands bearing intricate

loop, scroll and spiral motifs, as well as the line-with-

terminals motif (see Figure 2-5a).

The avian form is found in greater abstraction in the

globular bowl from Aspalaga (8GD1) that bears five deeply

engraved designs (Figure 2-6a). These designs probably

represent the wings, tail and body of one or more birds,

with the groups of finely incised parallel lines depicting

feathers. Two additional vessels, one from Tucker (8FR4)

and the other from Hall (8WA4), are both representative of

the abstract bird, with head, wings, body and tail

integrated into a series of complex rectilinear and

curvilinear forms (Figure 2-6c). A vessel from Basin Bayou

(8WL14) exhibits a motif commonly found on Weeden Island

bird effigies (Figure 2-6b). Four figures are represented,

with a version of the line-with-terminals motif, as well as

the distinctive shell-stamping of the type called Alligator

Bayou Stamped. One figure exhibits four lobes with a wedge-

shaped projection--this is modified in later styles, but

clearly is designed to represent a bird's tail plumage.

Two other vessels bear designs that combine the type of

abstraction just discussed with a more stylized naturalism

(Figure 2-7). In this case a central circular figure forms

the body or breast of the bird, with tail and wings

extending to the sides. Additional figures to the side

represent the head. In most of the examples of Yent and

Green Point avian imagery it is easy to find this

dismemberment of the bird's body, a trait that continues

into Weeden Island styles. The use of scrolls and other

curvilinear figures to represent these body parts also

continues in subsequent styles, with vessel form modeling

accentuating the associations.

Serpents. Serpent or rattlesnake designs are

exceedingly rare in Yent and Green Point ceramics, and the

one example recorded here may only loosely be associated

with reptilian imagery. The Pierce Zoned-Red vessel

illustrated in Figure 2-4a may represent the body of a

rattlesnake, specifically the diamond pattern found on the

serpent's body. The alternating coloration of the vessel's

incised lines may act to replicate the pigmentation of the


Unidentified animals. Many of the abstract designs

found on Yent and Green Point ceramics may represent other

zo6morphic forms. Several of these unidentified animal

motifs are illustrated in Figures 2-8 and 2-9. Three of

these forms share several characteristics and may represent

animal faces (Figure 2-9a-c). The upper portion of the face

is defined by a pair of scrolls that enclose circular eyes.

A nose or muzzle is formed as these scrolls meet and extend

downward. Triangles pendent to this muzzle are seen in two

of the designs. Cross-hatching, punctations, and shell-

stamping are used to accentuate the background or part of

the design in the three pieces, respectively. Overall

execution and style of these unidentified animal images most

closely corresponds with the intricate and deeply engraved

bone tubes of Ohio Hopewell (Willoughby 1935). These often

depict composite beings, or rabbits, bears, birds, and

humans (see Figure 4-14 for comparison). Greber and Ruhl

(1989:277) suggest that imagery like that described here,

and previously identified as a composite rabbit-human

design, actually represents deer or deer-human designs.

Comparison with the deer effigies illustrated in Figure 2-16

indicates this may be the case, as the scroll or figure-

eight motif of the ceramic vessels matches that used in the

eye of the artifacts in Figure 2-16a-b, and the pendent-

triangle motif is also shared by both effigy forms. The

"Harness Head" from Liberty Township, Ohio, is a portion of


a carved stone pipe with a face closely resembling the style

of the incising on the vessels described here (Coe 1977:62).

Human hands. Human hands are depicted on several

vessels and large vessel fragments. A particularly striking

example is found on a small cylindrical beaker of Crystal

River Zoned-Red (Figure 2-10d). The overall design is

composed of two hands with fingers pointing toward a central

figure. The central figure may be avian, considering the

similarity of arrangement to the birds shown in Figure 2-8.

Broad spirals are evident on the back of each hand, as are

fingernails. Several smaller loop figures are pendent to

the vessel lip. Parts of the incised decoration are filled

with random punctations. Another vessel with a more

abstract hand and spiral decoration is from Safford (8PI3).

In this specimen punctations or stamping define the

background (Figure 2-10b). Fingernails are not in evidence,

but the "fingers" of the hands seem to hold or cradle the

small globular vessel. Perhaps the best known iconographic

elements of the Yent complex are found on two large sherds

recovered by Moore at Crystal River (1903b, 1907a). Though

recovered on different explorations, these are thought to be

from the same vessel (Figure 2-10a, c). Both depict hands,

with fingernails clearly shown. The first sherd shows a

hand supporting or pointing toward a bird within a cosmic

symbol. This is similar to the hands pointing toward a bird

discussed above. The first sherd does not retain the design

with the back of the hand, but the second shows one figure

on the back of the hand and another on the wrist. This

second sherd is unusual in its three-quarters depiction of

the right hand with defined knuckles. The figure depicted

on the back of the hand is presumed to be a prototype for

the hand-and-eye motif of the "Southern Cult," though it may

be related to some zo6morphic symbolism, perhaps avian or

serpent (Willey 1948b). Note the distinctive line-with-

terminals motif, used often on the bodies of living

creatures. The overall outline of this figure bears some

resemblance to rattlesnake imagery known in bone carving of

the Ohio Hopewell (Baby 1961). Human imagery apart from the

hand motif just discussed is also found in numerous

figurines of the Yent and Green Point complexes, though

human hand and the human form in general are elements of the

Hopewellian horizon that are not reincorporated in later

Glades arts.

Human Figurines

Sears (1962a) did not include ceramic human figurines

in his compilation of Yent and Green Point characteristics.

A number of these objects have been described and

illustrated for Florida and adjoining states (Lazarus 1960;

Walthall 1975; Phelps 1969). McMichael (1964) includes

these figurines in his definition of the Crystal River

Complex. These figurines are clearly related in technique

and style to Copena (the Hopewellian expression of the Mid-

South), Marksville, and Ohio Hopewell effigies (Willoughby

1922:71-74; McKern et al. 1945; Ford and Willey 1940:119;

Kellar et al. 1962:342; Converse 1993; Griffin et al.

1970:Pls. 79-88). Both Phelps (1969) and Walthall (1975)

have pointed to the Hopewellian context of these figurines

in Florida. I can only imagine that the village context of

many of these figurines caused Sears to eliminate them from

his definitions of Yent and Green Point. It should be noted

that some figurines, like the example from Block-Sterns (see

Figure 2-12), were recovered from burial mounds (Louis

Tesar, personal communication 1995). Some of the figurines

of this era appear to be kneeling females, bare-breasted and

wearing a high skirt with distinctive waistband, a feature

noted for the Ohio and Illinois Hopewell effigies as well

(Figure 2-l1c and 2-12). One torso fragment illustrated by

Lazarus (1960:64) is wearing a "G-string with front apron,"

and may depict a pregnant woman (Figure 2-llh). Other poses

are also noted, and some male effigies occur (Figure 2-11a,

d). Lazarus (1960:61-63) reports on a small male ceramic

figurine from the Buck Mound which included two holes near

the shoulders, perhaps for suspension (Figure 2-1ii).

Typically the figurines have distinctive elements of dress

and hairstyle, suggesting an attempt at individual

portraiture. Perhaps the most striking example of this type

is from the Block-Sterns site near Tallahassee (Figure 2-

12). This piece is in the traditional kneeling position,

and depicts a woman with a distinctive hair style. Like

examples from the Knight mound group in southern Illinois,

the Block-Sterns figurine is painted (Griffin et al.

1970:74-76). The addition of human imagery to the realm of

artistic themes is an important one that will become

accentuated in some of the subsequent styles. Unlike the

larger human effigies of the Weeden Island style, these

figurines are solid or slab type constructions, though

several parts may be conjoined. An additional contrast is

that the Hopewellian figurines appear to be "alive," or at

least were intended to depict a living person, as some

effigies are actively engaged in specific endeavors (i.e.,

dance, carrying children), unlike the stoic, close-eyed,

Weeden Island forms.

Other Arts

As with the pottery discussed above, non-ceramic

objects of local and extralocal materials characterize the

Yent and Green Point complexes (exotic materials are more

common in the earlier Yent complex).

Copper Objects

Copper artifacts, other than ear spools, are most

commonly associated with the Crystal River site and Yent

complex. Some of these objects are illustrated in Sears

(1962a) and Moore (1903b, 1907a), and reproduced here in

Figure 2-13. Three pairs of copper ear spools recovered

from Crystal River are clearly Hopewellian in style. One

among these is silver-plated (Figure 2-13a), a

characteristic of some Ohio Valley specimens (Willoughby

1917). Another is a composite animal form (Figure 2-13b),

perhaps a bear, with facial designs and claw emblems (cf.

Willoughby 1917:Pl. 6).

Moore (1907a) also found a repousse copper rectangle

and the remains of what may be copper panpipes. An

elongated copper plummet from Safford (8PI3) is another

distinctive Hopewellian item, and Moore (1903b, 1907a)

recovered an extensive collection of these at Crystal River.

Sears (1962a) included these elongated copper plummets as

attributes of the Yent and Green Point complexes.

Two copper tablet-like ornaments from Hope Mound

(8PA12), another site excavated by Cushing and Sawyer in

1896, deserve special mention (see Figure 9-1c). Both

objects are bipartite and had been fastened with copper

ties. One of the two shows traces of repouss6. Smith

(1971:130-131) suggests these may be related to ceremonial

tablets of later styles (see Chapter 7 and 8).

Shell Pendants

Shell pendants, most likely made locally, include some

distinctive forms. A shell ornament, cut from the outer

whorl of the Busycon is illustrated in Figure 2-13e.

Numerous examples of this tenoned form are known from

Crystal River, many with incised concentric circles, a

central perforation, and a tenon for attachment. Additional

ornaments of shell from Yent and Green Point contexts are

also shown in this figure, perhaps the most notable being an

imitation tooth of shell, as well as a fish effigy gorget

(Figure 2-13c-d). Fish gorgets of shell, as well as fish

representations in other material are rare in Florida sites,

but are found occasionally (Ashley 1995:25; see Chapters 4

and 5).

Stone Plummets

Plummets of exotic stone are numerous in mounds with

Yent and Green Point manifestations (Bullen et al. 1970:115-

116). Several of the finest examples are from the Hope and

Safford mounds, and are illustrated in Figure 2-14. Perhaps

the polished rock-crystal plummet from Safford is among the

most striking imported object of this complex (Bullen et al.

1970). Plummet-form objects are a distinctive attribute of

Florida material culture. They range in material and

quality. Some have suggested they were used in fishing

(Walker 1989), while others have pointed to plummets as

decorative items (Reiger 1990). The diversity of forms

suggests a continuum of uses may exist in Florida, as in

other places. All objects discussed here were probably

decorative or ornamental, as demonstrated by form and

provenance. The examples illustrated here link their

respective sites with the gift or exchange network

associated with the Hopewell culture. Materials used

include banded slate, rhyolite, diorite, porphyry, copper,

polished rock-crystal, and galena.

Effigy Plummets

Effigy style plummets are another distinctive element

of Hopewellian art in Florida, though these objects have

received little attention. Like the plummets of imported

stone discussed above, effigy plummets are often of exotic

materials, including igneous and metamorphic stone, as well

as one example in galena. Some effigy plummets are carved

of limestone and fossil bone. Geographically, effigy

plummets are most numerous along the lower Gulf Coast,

though examples are known from the St. Johns River and Lake

Okeechobee areas. Detailed provenances are lacking for most

specimens, though there are indications that these are from

Hopewellian-related sites. Bullen (1952), in his discussion

of the Jones (8HI4) plummets, attributes the site assemblage

to the Weeden Island culture, primarily based on a surface

collection at the FLMNH. Bullen's (1952) attribution is

questionable, however, since no ceramic marker types were

recovered with the burials or among the other grave goods.

Stylistically, the effigy plummets, which primarily depict

avian forms, are closely allied to stone pipe and plummet

carvings of Adena and Hopewell (Setzler 1960; Willoughby

1917; Shetrone and Greenman 1931:442; Griffin et al.

1970:Pl. 101).


Effigy plummets depict a variety of bird life, usually

just the head of the bird, though rare examples depict the

body, wings, feet and tail feathers. Figure 2-15

illustrates a variety of effigy plummets. Of the thirty-two

examples of effigy plummets cataloged for this study, only

one mammal was identified, namely a young, male deer from

Jones. Many of the plummets depict birds with broad

spatulate bills (see Figure 2-17). This form may have

intended a spoonbill or shoveler duck. The spoonbill is a

tropical bird that winters and breeds in Florida, though

individuals occasionally range into the Midwest and Plains

(Allen 1942). Parmalee and Perino (1970) report the

skeletal remains of a roseate spoonbill from a Midwestern

Hopewell mound. Interestingly, the headless body of the

bird was accorded burial as were the humans interred in the

mound (Parmalee and Perino 1970:256). Artistic evidence

from the Hopewell site indicates that the spoonbill was an

element of Hopewellian symbol and art systems (Greber and

Ruhl 1989:212-215; Hall 1989:261-264; cf. Figures 2-19 and

2-20h; Parmalee and Perino 1970:256-257). Other avifauna

portrayed include turkey, vulture, duck, hawk, and eagle.

Two examples (see Figure 2-15h-i), one from Reedy Creek

(Bullen 1972) and another from Jones (Bullen 1952) depict

what may be the now extinct Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis

carolinensis). Parrot and parakeet-like birds occasionally

appear in Hopewell carving (Henshaw 1883:139-141). McKinley

(1977:19, 23-25) and Parmalee (1958:174, 1967:158) report

zo6archaeological remains of these birds in midwestern

sites. Apparently, like the roseate spoonbill, the parakeet

wandered well outside its home range, with examples known

from the west, midwest, and northeast (McKinley 1985:1-3).

The spatulate-billed birds, and most of the other birds

depicted in the effigy plummets, have corollaries in

Hopewell sculpture.

The exotic materials used in carving the effigy

plummets indicate that these are imported objects. This is

supported by stylistic affinities with Ohio Hopewell art.

Some of the effigies are made of shell (Figure 2-17g),

fossil bone (Figure 2-15d) and limestone or marl (Figure 2-

15b), suggesting that at least some examples were local

copies of the imported items. Simpson (1939:60,62) suggests

that the Jones plummets were carved by local artists from

imported raw materials. The reason for Simpson's conclusion

is unclear, since exotic stone debitage is not reported from

the burial mound.

As noted above, most effigy plummets cataloged here

lack detailed provenances. One exception is the collection

of twelve effigy plummets from Jones (Figures 2-15g, h, 1,

o, q, 2-16a, and 2-17c-f, h-i). Excavated under the

direction of J. Clarence Simpson and funded by the state and

federal emergency relief programs, Jones yielded 179 human

burials, and a collection of associated grave goods. The


current location of the Jones plummets is unknown, but the

illustrations here were made from published and unpublished

photographs, and casts of several of the specimens. Animals

depicted include three spatulate-billed birds, one parakeet,

four ducks, one hawk, two unidentified birds, and one young

male deer. The spatulate-billed birds are rather stylized

examples, distinct from the Fort Center (8GL13) and Turkey

Creek (8BR50) specimens, with features primarily sculpted

and not incised. Bullen (1952) notes an interesting pattern

of associations for the plummets, indicating that female

burials tended to be accompanied by one or more of the duck

head plummets. The deer head plummet (Figure 2-16a) is not

closely associated with any burial, but may have accompanied

interment 146, the burial of an adult female, associated

with a duckbill pendant, several other plummets and shell

beads (Bullen 1952:53-54).

The young male deer effigy from Jones, mentioned above,

is interesting for several reasons (Figure 2-16a). It

represents the only effigy plummet to depict a mammal.

Comparison is made with an Ohio Hopewell effigy boatstone,

rendered in virtually the same style--ears pinned back,

large eye with radiant lashes, and detailed muzzle (see

Figure 2-16c). The choice of mammal is of particular

interest, since the young male deer appears in not only

Hopewell art, but also in Weeden Island ceramics (see Knight

in Milanich 1984), and the bone carvings of the early Glades

tradition, as well as at Key Marco (see Wheeler 1992a; and

Chapters 4, 5, and 6). The other artifact that this

specimen can be compared to is the bone carving from Onion

Key (see Figure 2-16b), again a deer with similar stylistic

and design features.

A galena vulture effigy from Queen Mound (8DU110) is an

unique example within this class of plummets (Figure 2-15f).

Some other effigy plummets are also known from the St. Johns

River area, but the Queen specimen is the only known example

in lead. LaFond (1972) originally suspected that this piece

may have been manufactured from Spanish lead, but chemical

analysis, as well as more recent studies of the site,

indicate it is Hopewellian (LaFond 1972; LaFond and Ashley

1995). This specimen is clearly a representation of a

vulture, complete with the wrinkled skin on the back of its

head. Vulture effigy pipes are known in Ohio Hopewell art,

and galena is an exchange item associated with the Hopewell

Interaction Sphere (Seeman 1979b), and has been recovered at

other Florida Hopewell sites.

Two effigy plummets that depict another distinct avian

species include two fine examples, one from Fort Center and

another from Turkey Creek (Sears 1982:Fig. 6.1p; Schwehm

1983:66-68; Moore 1898:189; Rouse 1951:Pl. 4u). Possibly a

duck of some kind, these two specimens are distinguished by

their low crests (see Figure 2-17a-b). A likely candidate,

as indicated by features of the bill, eye and crest, may be

the cormorant, a winter visitor to Florida. A third

plummet, also from Turkey Creek, also depicts a crested

bird, though in a slightly different style (Figure 2-15a).

Three effigy plummets in the collection of the Brooklyn

Museum require special mention because of the quality and

sensitivity of the carving. Exact provenance is lacking,

though they are attributed to Florida (Brose et al. 1985:86,

207), and probably came from the same site. Birds depicted

include turkey, eagle, and crested bird (again probably a

cormorant), all portrayals typical of effigy plummets.

While most of the plummets realistically portray the

heads of birds, a collection made by Moore (1907b) forms an

interesting subset. Two examples collected from Marco

(8CR48) depict the stylized details of a bird's bill,

leaving out the eye and other aspects of the head (Figure 2-

15j, m). One example is of fine-grained limestone, while

the other is identified as exotic igneous stone, suggesting

that these may have been imported like most other effigy

plummets discussed here.

Another class of stone ornament from southern Florida,

which may be associated with the effigy plummets of the

incipient and early Glades tradition, are the stone

ceremonial tablets (Figure 2-18). These are reported on by

Griffin (1988:100-101,110), Carr (1982) and Allerton et al.

(1984), and range from southwestern Florida into the Florida

keys. Cushing (1897) recovered one example from 8CR45,


though this piece has often been attributed to the Key Marco

site (see Allerton et al. 1984). Like the effigy plummets,

these stone tablets are of exotic stone, as well as local

limestones. Goggin (n.d.:549), following Cushing (1897),

described these tablets as "alligator effigy plummets,"

though an overall abstract zo6morphic form allies them more

closely with the ceremonial tablets known in contact era

metals. Features shared by stone tablets, metal tablets and

some effigy plummets include the spatulate lower half or

bill, the eye-like projections or incisions, and the medial

line. Allerton et al. (1984:12-14, 18) have already

remarked on the possible relationship of the metal

ceremonial tablets and the duck or spoonbill effigy

plummets, with one hypothesis suggesting that the ceremonial

tablets are, in fact, duck or avifaunal images like those

described above. In this case, the lower portion of the

tablet would form the head and bill of the duck, while the

tenoned portion would be the body and wings. Interestingly,

Greber and Ruhl (1989:281) have commented that a major

feature of Hopewell art is the juxtaposition of realistic

and abstract versions of the same animals. This has been

commented on in Chapter 2, under the discussion of animal

representations in Florida Hopewell ceramics.

Effigy plummets represent Hopewellian imagery imported

into southern and eastern Florida. Some of these forms were

copied in local materials, while many originated outside the

area. The bone and antler carvings of animals described in

Chapter 4 are probably a stylistic and symbolic outgrowth of

the plummets--they replicate the subject matter, form in

some cases, and have approximately the same geographic


Hopewellian Symbolism

The art styles of Yent, Green Point, Fort Center and

the "osseous bestiary" would seem to encompass wildly

divergent images, ranging from the abstract or stylized

zo6morphic designs found on Santa Rosa and Crystal River

series pottery, to the graceful realism of the early

Okeechobee basin wood carvings. Somewhere in the balance

are the human figurines; bird head plummets; and copper and

exotic stone items. The dichotomy between abstraction and

realism, however, also characterizes the art of Ohio

Hopewell. Ornamentation of ceramic vessels and carved bone

exhibit the abstract and complicated incised zoomorphic

forms seen in the Florida ceramics as well (Figure 2-19

illustrates examples of Marksville Hopewell ceramics from

Louisiana, Figure 2-20 illustrates bone carving and wood-

copper deer antler headdresses of Ohio Hopewell). Copper

work and mica cut-outs of the Ohio area also exhibit

elements of these abstract zo6morphic forms. At the

opposite end of the spectrum are the delicate animal

sculptures of Hopewellian stone platform pipes (Figure 2-

21). These animals exhibit much of the same realism found

in the Fort Center wood carvings, with the animals often

depicted in a pose typifying the intended animal species.

Of course the scale of the Fort Center carvings exhibits

some geographic and symbolic distance, though a mortuary

context for all of the items discussed above unites the

Hopewellian art styles of Florida and elsewhere.

Regarding the animals depicted, the Florida and Ohio

cadres compare well. A diverse array of avian imagery is

present in both areas, including several types of ducks, the

roseate spoonbill, owls, large and small wading birds,

eagles and raptors (Henshaw 1883). These forms are most

clearly identified in the realistic carvings of Adena tube

pipes, Ohio platform pipes and Fort Center wooden effigies.

The bone carving and ceramic ornaments are more abstract and

less easily ascribed to specific species, though birds are

certainly popular subject matter. Mammals depicted also

show correspondence between Florida and Hopewellian centers.

The fox, otter, and cat appear in Hopewell pipes, often

posed like their counterparts at Fort Center. This includes

the "fishing otter" who bears its prey in its mouth. The

more enigmatic Hopewell bone carvings certainly resemble

some of the unidentified animal depictions found on Yent and

Green Point ceramics, and these may well be the bear and

rabbit that Willoughby (1917) identified. It seems clear

that this pattern of iconography existed in an incipient

stage in Adena art, where the shoveler duck, spoonbill,

human, and composite animal exist in block-end pipes and

fabric-stamps. In fact, the Adena tablets or fabric-stamps

already exhibit the wildly abstract avian and mammal imagery

found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida Hopewell styles

(Penney 1980).

Other correspondences in symbolism include the wooden

antler carvings from Fort Center, the bear emblem from

Crystal River, the human hand motif, as well as the numerous

ceramic figurines found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida

Hopewellian contexts. While the relationship of style and

content is clearly demonstrable, the meaning of Yent and

Green Point symbolism remains cloudy. Normally a

transference of imagery through time and space leaves the

question of meanings in even greater peril, but in this case

the art of Weeden Island makes it clear that the Hopewellian

imagery was understood, and moreover, accepted. The

preeminence of avian imagery continues in Weeden Island

styles, only elaborated and somewhat more recognizable.

Mammal images also persist, apparently necessary, but

definitely secondary to avian forms. Human images undergo a

significant transition, but continue to be produced. A

special case may exist with some types of imagery, for

example antlers already enjoyed a certain status as an

artistic medium, so it is not surprising to find them in

Yent, Green Point and subsequent styles.

Overall, a basic iconographic pattern of avian imagery

is evident in the Hopewellian-influenced art of Florida.

This largely supplants the geometric and serpent styles of

earlier eras. Birds and other zoomorphic figures are

related directly to mortuary ceremonialism. Despite the

similarity in style and content, a drift or distancing

effect is evident when comparing Florida Hopewellian

manifestations to those of more western and northerly

states. Inclusion of high status goods and animal images in

burials is shared, though overall burial patterns differ.

This includes the unusual mortuary pond of Fort Center and

its large wooden animal effigies. The basic pattern of

zodmorphic imagery established during Hopewellian times

provides the basis for the subsequent Weeden Island styles,

as well as Weeden Island related styles of eastern and

southern Florida.

Incipient Glades Tradition

The incipient phase includes those ceremonial or

decorative objects imported from external Hopewellian

centers, or directly derived from Hopewell style arts. This

includes the ceramics and associated artifacts of the Yent,

Green Point and Crystal River complexes--essentially

"Florida Hopewell." Geographically these complexes appear

along the central and northern Gulf Coast, as well as in the

St. Johns River area. The documentation of duckbill and

related plummets demonstrates a Hopewell manifestation well

into the area of southern Florida.

Iconography of the incipient phase is that shared by

Hopewellian manifestations found elsewhere. An emphasis on

avian imagery is strong, and provides a basis for much of

the bird symbolism found in later expressions of the Glades

and Weeden Island traditions, especially the spoonbill or

shoveler duck form. Other naturalistic forms also appear,

including those of the deer and human. These common forms

and images suggest shared patterns of ritual and artistic

organization at levels deeper than the outward manifestation

of mound construction, mortuary ceremonialism, and personal


Stylistically the artifacts of the incipient phase are

quite diverse. Images on ceramics are highly abstracted.

Vessel forms include many unique shapes, and the

relationship between applied design and vessel shape is

rather loose. The use of punctations and zone-fill

techniques provides a substrate for decorative traditions of

the later Glades tradition and Weeden Island. Contrary to

the abstract designs found on ceramics, the bird effigy

plummets are realistic, and can often be identified to

species. The realistic aspect of the incipient phase has a

profound effect on later Glades tradition arts. The wood

and bone carvings described in Chapters 3 and 4 are clearly

derived from the realistic bird imagery of the Hopewellian-

related incipient Glades tradition, and the ceremonial

tablets have a prototype in the two examples from Hope


The "Florida Hopewell" arts described above provide a

substrate upon which two major artistic traditions

developed. The ceramics of Weeden Island, often portraying

both realistic and naturalistic animals, follows closely the

techniques, symbolism, and style engendered in Yent and

Green Point ceramics. Essentially, Weeden Island potters

develop the zo6morphic themes of Hopewell pottery, resulting

in a harmonious union of vessel form and surface decoration.

On the other hand, artists of southern Florida graft

Hopewellian symbolism and design onto traditional arts

previously established in the Early and Middle Archaic.

These are the arts of wood and bone carving. This merger

produces several Hopewellian-inspired styles described in

Chapters 3 and 4.


Queen Mound

Basin Bayou /
Burnt Mill Creek
Anderson's Bayou
Strange's Landing


n Island



Bayshore Homes


Onion Key

Figure 2-2. Florida Hopewell sites.

Turkey Creek

I, k F -'
4 1 --9 F <-


Figure 2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs. a, c-d, Crystal River Incised; b,
Basin Bayou Incised; f, Crystal River Zoned-Red; e, g, Alligator Bayou Stamped; a,
Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:289); b, Anderson's Bayou (8BY21) (after Moore
1902:162); c, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; d, Yent (8FR5) (after Moore 1902:273); e,
8LV2, SFM A6639; f, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:226); g, 8DI53, FLMNH 103707; h,
Anderson's Bayou (after Moore 1902:161). All to scale: b, 19.3 cm; h, 20 cm.

Figure 2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted. a-b, Crystal
River (8CI1) (from Moore 1903b:388, 391). To scale, two-
thirds size.

Figure 2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels. a, Hall (8WA4) (after
Moore 1902:300); b, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:219).
All to scale: a, 21.6 cm; b, 10.9 cm.

^S') K

Figure 2-5. Naturalistic bird forms. a, Basin Bayou Incised,
Basin Bayou, west (8WL13) (after Moore 1901:457); b,
Alligator Bayou Stamped, Porter's Bar (8FR1) (after Moore
1902: 247). All to scale: a, 19.0 cm; b, 15.2 cm.

: t:
. '- -

Y4' -1i,

t II_'


E^'^i f


Figure 2-6. Abstract bird forms, a, e, Crystal River Incised; b, d, Alligator Bayou
Stamped; c, Basin Bayou Incised; a, Aspalaga (8GD1) (after Moore 1903a:485); b, Basin
Bayou, east (8WL14) (after Moore 1918:534-535; c, Tucker (8FR4) (after Moore
1902:267); d, Alligator Bayou (8BY18) (after Moore 1902:151); e, Crystal River (8CI1)
(after Moore 1903b:386-387). All to scale: a, 22.9 cm; c, 17.8 cm.




Figure 2-7. Stylized bird forms, a, Basin Bayou Incised,
Burnt Mill Creek, west (8BY17) (after Moore 1918:543-545);
b, unclassified vessel with Crystal River, Weeden Island and
Hopewellian elements, Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:291).
All to scale: a, 20.3 cm.

Figure 2-8. Basin Bayou Incised, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-
148. Compare abstract animal imagery with Figures 2-9 and
2-20. Reproduced courtesy of the University Museum,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

d, 13.3 cm.
Figure 2-9. Unidentified animal forms. a, Crystal River Zoned-Red; b, Alligator Bayou
Stamped; c-d, Basin Bayou Incised; a, Green Point (8FR11) (after Moore 1902:254-255);
b, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-148; c, Strange's Landing (8BY26) (after Moore 1902:195-
196); d, Refuge Tower (8WL14) (after Moore 1918:534-535). All to scale: a, 24.4 cm;
d, 13.3 cm.




Figure 2-10. Human hands. a-c, Crystal River Incised, both
thought to be from the same cylindrical vessel; d, Crystal
River Zoned-Red; a, Crystal River (8CI1) (after Moore
1903b:384); b, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; c, Crystal
River (after Moore 1907a:411); d, Tucker (8FR4) (Moore
1902:223). All to scale: a, 14.2 cm; b, 8.9 cm.



Figure 2-11. Human figurines, a, Tallapoosa, Alabama (after
Cottier 1970:127); b, Mobile Bay, Alabama (after Walthall
1975:126 ); c, Refuge Tower (8WA14) (after Phelps 1969:22);
d, Kauffman Island (8MR40) (after Goggin 1952:100); e,
80K19, TMM 1321; f, Turner, Ohio (Willoughby 1922:P1. 21);
g, Tallant Collection, SFM 9276; h, Bell (80K19), TMM 1167;
i, Buck (80K11) TMM 1157; j, Turner, Ohio (Willoughby
1922:Pl. 21). All to scale: a, 5.3 cm; i, 10.7 cm; except
d, 25.4 cm and g, 11.4 cm, shown at half scale.

/^L~~~ "-3--
fc ia'* _


Figure 2-12. Hopewellian figurine, Block-Sterns (8LE148), FBAR 74-189-64, 11.0 cm.
Red and white paint are applied over the buff slip. Vertical red stripes are painted
on the figure's skirt and white paint is most obvious on the upper back.

a A

(-' (/


Figure 2-13. Copper and shell artifacts. a-b, e, Crystal
River (8CI1); c-d, Yent (8FR5); a, silver-coated copper ear-
spool (from Moore 1903b:409); b, copper ear-spool with bear
claw and cosmic symbols (after Moore 1903b:409); c shell
fish-effigy pendant (after Moore 1902:270); d, shell,
porpoise tooth and bone pendants (from Moore 1907a:418); e,
shell pendant (after Moore 1907a:418). All to scale: a, 7.4
cm; b, 9.4 cm; c, 12.4 cm.

Figure 2-14. Exotic stone plummets. All specimens from
Safford (8PI3), UM. Reproduced courtesy of the University
Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


O 0

a K FSgr
a 0s



-k U

Figure 2-15. Bird effigy plummets. a, n, Turkey Creek
(8BR50) (after Rouse 1951:P1.4); b, Marco (8CR48) (from
Moore 1905c:310); c, Thomas (8HI1) (after Willey 1949a:122-
123); d, fossil bone, 8CR45 (after Moore 1907b:461); e,
Thomas (Moore 1900:359; after Willey 1949a:123); f, galena,
Queen (8DU110) (after LaFond 1972); g-h, 1, o, q, Jones
(8HI4) (Bullen 1952:Fig. 15, redrawn from photos at FLMNH);
i, Reedy Creek (after Bullen 1972); j, m, Marco (after Moore
1907b:459-460); k, Thomas (after Bullen 1952:Fig. 4); p,
Bayshore Homes (8PI41) (after Sears 1960:PL. 2a); r, Tavares
(8LA52) (from Moore 1895:538). All to scale: a, 9.4 cm; b,
5,8 cm; d, 5.3 cm; e, 5.3 cm; f, 5.0 cm; g, 7.1 cm; h, 5.9
cm; j, 3.0 cm; k, 7.6 cm; 1, 5.9 cm; m, 4.1 cm; n, 7.1 cm;
o, 5.0 cm; p, 7.6 cm; q, 6.0 cm; r, 4.6 cm.



.-rfilSIKS~t..- ~' ^ ta^ ^



Figure 2-16. Deer effigies. a, deer effigy, stone plummet,
Jones (8HI4) (redrawn from photos, FLMNH); b, deer effigy,
bone pin, Onion Key (8MO49), SEAC-NPS 1824; c, deer effigy,
boatstone, Ohio (from Willoughby 1917:Pl. 11). Not to
scale: a, 9.7 cm; b, 4.9 cm; c, 9.7 cm.

q" I

C 3

Figure 2-17. Duck or spoonbill effigy plummets. a, Turkey Creek (8BR50) (after Moore
1898:190; Rouse 1951:P1. 4); b, Fort Center (after Sears 1982:Fig. 6.1p); c-f, h-i,
Jones (8HI4) (Bullen 1952:Fig. 16; redrawn from photos on file at FLMNH); g, shell,
8MA6, Atwood Collection (redrawn from photos on file with George Luer). All to scale:
a, 14.5 cm; b, 10.9 cm; c, 11.5 cm; d, 9.5 cm; e, 11.0 cm; f, 11.2 cm; g, 7.0 cm; h,
9.9 cm; i, 9.5 cm.



Figure 2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets. a, ST# 8, 8M036; b,
ST# 2, 8CR45; c, ST# 5, 8M026; d, ST# 6, 8M049 (from
Allerton et al. 1984:44-45, reproduced with permission of G.
Luer). Photo of ST# 5 from collection of FAU. All to

Figure 2-19. Hopewellian ceramics. Marksville Stamped,
Marksville Incised, and Crooks Stamped (adapted from Ford
and Willey 1940:Figs. 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39). These
Louisiana vessels closely parallel Yent and Green Point
pottery. Note the incised avian (roseate spoonbill?)






k R


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^ ^!
,ir 1i

(f "






Figure 2-20. Animals and birds in Hopewell art. Engraved bone with deer, human,
ocelot, and bear themes, as well as deer antler headdress of copper and wood (from
Willoughby 1917:Pls. 4, 6, and 8).

if A MES

Figure 2-21. Hopewell effigy pipes (from Squier and Davis
1848). Compare with the iconography and style of the
Florida bone carvings in Chapter 4.


A vast wet prairie along Fisheating Creek was the

landscape on which an array of earthworks and mounds were

built. During the time of participation in the Hopewellian

exchange network a cadre of wooden animal carvings, mounted

on posts, were erected in and around a mortuary pond.

Ritual specialists lived on an adjoining mound, probably a

site for processing bodies before placement in the charnel

pond. Fort Center is the first evidence for Glades

tradition corporate art, reinterpreted from Hopewellian

zo6morphic imagery. The context of the wood animal carvings

allows exploration of a complex net of human and animal

relationships. Most obvious is the relationship between the

animal carvings and the deceased interred in the pond.

Other levels exist between the ritual specialists of Mound

A, who may be the authors of the carvings, as well as

secular persons who may visit the site and observed the pond

carvings. The presence of smaller carvings (i.e., deer

antlers, effigy bowls, running mammals) and the movable

tenoned effigies indicates the pond area and surrounding

mounds were the site of occasional rituals, perhaps

paralleling those of Hopewellian mortuary specialists in

other parts of the Midwest and Southeast.


Fort Center

Perhaps not coincidentally, Sears' research led him to

extensive excavations at Fort Center, a mound and earthwork

site along Fisheating Creek in Glades County (Sears 1982).

One of the main components of the site is a multiple mound

feature, enclosing earthwork and associated pond. This

portion of the site produced artifacts suggesting some

relationship to the Hopewellian cultures of the Gulf Coast,

and perhaps those farther afield. The architecture of the

Lake Okeechobee basin, and its relationship to other

southeastern earthworks is the subject of another study,

though comparative studies ranging from Squier and Davis

(1848) to Morgan (1980) attest to the Hopewellian character

of the Fort Center earthworks. Figure 3-1 illustrates a

plan of the Fort Center site, as well as a detail of the

Mound A-B and pond complex. The occupation of Fort Center

at this time is termed "Period II," dating roughly from A.D.

200 to A.D. 600-800 (Sears 1982:186). Exotic goods from the

Mound A and pond component include galena, quartz, and

granite plummets, as well as a duck head effigy plummet of

foreign stone (Figure 2-17b). Sears (1982:27-29) notes that

much of the trade pottery associated with the habitation and

use of Mounds A and B is related to the Yent complex. Among

the fascinating aspects of Fort Center are the mortuary pond

and the wooden animal carvings preserved in it. Sears

(1982:38) describes the pond as "D-shaped," and suggests

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