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Wild woman and her sisters in medieval English literature

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Wild woman and her sisters in medieval English literature
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Lambert, Anne H
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Female animals ( jstor )
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Folktales ( jstor )
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Marriage ( jstor )
Mothers ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Sirens ( jstor )
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2003.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Printout.
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Vita.
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by Anne H. Lambert.

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THE WILD WOMAN AND HER SISTERS
IN MEDIEVAL ENGLISH LITERATURE













BY

ANNE H. LAMBERT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................... iii

ABSTRACT ............ .................... ............. iv

INTRODUCTION ........... ................................ 1

CHAPTER

1 GRENDEL'S MOTHER ................................... 9

2 HARPIES, SIRENS, AND MERMAIDS ............................ 33

3 BIROUL'S ISEUT .... .......... ........... ........... 52

4 CHAUCER'S EMELYE ....................................... 68

5 THE WIFE OF BATH ................ ...................... 87

6 CONCLUSION ............. ........................... 113

ANNOTATED LIST OF WORKS CITED ............................. 120

NON-ANNOTATED LIST OF WORKS CITED ........................ 126

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....................................... 135












II













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Without Marie Nelson, my efforts would have been as naught. She

became my chairperson, inspired me, and kept me going through years of

research and struggle. I also wish to acknowledge the help and inspiration of the

other members of my committee: Patricia Craddock, M.J. Hardman, R.A. Shoaf,

and Robert Thomson.

Further, I appreciate the help of the research librarians at the University

of Florida's Smathers Library, who helped me adapt to new ways of finding and

doing things.

Rob Martin, my computer assistant, was indispensable in guiding me in

the use of a medium I did not grow up with and imperfectly understood. Jim

Collis, typist extraordinaire, also deserves warm commendation.

On the home front, Robert Lambert was my severest critic, and Clyde and

Sara, the Computer Cats, my most indefatigable helpers.













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE WILD WOMAN AND HER SISTERS
IN MEDIEVAL ENGLISH LITERATURE

By

Anne H. Lambert

May 2003


Chair: Mare Nelson
Major Department: English

The Introduction discusses subcategories of Wild Woman: the Terrible

Mother, as exemplified in Grendel's mother of the Old English poem Beowulf the

Seductress, represented here by the mermaid; the Untamable Wild Woman,

represented by B1roul's Iseut and Chaucer's Wife of Bath; and the Tamed Wild

Woman, Chaucer's Emelye and the Wife of Bath. Each individual chapter

considers one of these figures.

In Chapter 1, Grendel's mother is a figure from the depths of the psyche,

"both subhuman and superhuman, a creature of dark and cold waters." Beowulf's

psychological makeup in confrontation with this being is also examined.

Chapter 2 traces the harpy through the siren and the mermaid of folklore.

The Middle English Physiologus is used as a medieval example of a being who

lures men and kills them.











Iseut in Chapter 3 defies the conventions of court life; an adulteress, she

and her lover flee to the forest. Chaucer's Emelye in Chapter 4 also loves the

forest, but is faced with the necessity of marriage and submission.

The Wife of Bath (Chapter 5) struggles against convention through four

marriages. She and her fifth husband, the clerk Jankyn, learn that marriage must

be a compromise to be successful. The Wife is tamed-but still gets her way.

Chapter 6 is a summary bringing together all these figures, comparing

and contrasting them in the hope that this journey will prove meaningful for the

reader in understanding literature and woman.













INTRODUCTION

The subject of this work is the concept and figure of the Wild Woman. The

primary focus will be on various forms this figure assumes in medieval English

literature: Grendel's mother-the second monster Beowulf faces-and

Chaucer's Wife of Bath, along with other figures.

The intended audience for this work is varied. First and foremost, it is

intended for medievalists and students of medieval literature, but it should also

be of interest to teachers and students of women's studies, and to general

readers who are interested in the topic of the Wild Woman as well.



I am not defining the Wild Woman as a not-man or a not-Wild Man. In at

least part of the long extended period from which my examples are drawn,

women were considered wild just because they were women. As Jeanne

Addison Roberts points out: "Forces outside [the] ethnic human male Cultural

core were and have been continued to be thought of as parts of the Wild"1

simply because they were "outside" (2). And Thomas G. Bergin comments, "Only

in a society prepared to appreciate and enjoy the things that the world of the

living has to offer can normal women be observed and portrayed without the



'Roberts is writing about Shakespeare's Wild Woman, but what she says is often
applicable to the medieval period as well.










distortions or sublimations of one kind or another" (169). We exclude here most

of the female characters portrayed by the otherworld-looking, celibate male

clergy (or even those who did not fall into this category, such as Gower or

Chaucer). Such characters tend to be either passive, compliant dolls (like

Chaucer's patient Griselda) or hypersexual, rampant women. Not all the figures

we shall be discussing fall into these two categories: Grendel's mother, for

example, or Iseut.

We need to begin by asking two questions: Who and what is the Wild

Woman? What does the term mean? I divide the concept into several parts,

chronologically presented as follows:

The most frightening Wild Woman of all, Grendel's mother of the Old

English heroic poem Beowulf (Chapter 1), is well described by Erich Neumann's

Jungian concept of the Terrible Mother (149-70). The Terrible Mother is a figure

evolved from the small child's split good/bad mother image. (See Melanie Klein.)

Possessing both masculine and feminine aspects, Grendel's mother fiercely

takes up her sword to avenge the mutilation and death of her son. She is both

subhuman and superhuman, a creature of dark and cold waters, evoking for the

modern reader a reluctant admiration accompanied by revulsion and fear.

The Wild Woman as Seductress is represented here by the mermaid

(Chapter 2). She is in part a subset of the Innocent type (see below), but in

reality she only looks, and pretends to be, innocent; in medieval times she was

also thought of as a dangerous seductress. I call her the "Half Human Wild










Woman" or the "Seductive Wild Woman," and find it worthwhile to call attention

to the evolution of the mermaid over the centuries, from the loathsome and

hideous harpy through the dangerous siren to the lovely and innocuous creature

of modern folklore (beginning probably with the literary tale by Hans Christian

Andersen, "The Little Mermaid," and recently evoked by the film Splash).

Type three, the Untamable Wild Woman, falls into two separate, or

separable, subtypes. One is illustrated by B6roul's Iseut, who pretends to follow

the conventions of life expected of a queen and court lady but who is, and is

determined to continue to be, wild and unrepentant. Not only does she live in the

forest for a short while, but she is adulterous and scheming, telling clever lies

that are only half lies to keep her reputation pure. She is, of course, also

seductive. She is presented here in Chapter 3. The other type, exemplified here

by the Wife of Bath, who has dominated four older husbands and won the right

to do as she pleases with the fifth, serves as the subject of Chapter 5.

The Gentle and Sweet Wild Woman, whom I call the "Innocent Wild

Woman," I do not discuss at any length here. The Innocent Wild Woman in

figure 1, a character of folklore, seems to do little but enjoy the company of her

wild family and suckle her children. Ability to live in the forest is one of her

attributes, which she shares with Iseut. However, unlike Iseut, she is not "wild" in

the sense in which I use the word for the other types. The Emelye of Chapter 4,

a character in Chaucer's "Knight's Tale," also has some attributes of the

Innocent Wild Woman in her love of the forest and its pleasures.















































Fig. 1. The Innocent Wild Woman (Husband 26).

The Tamed Wild Woman is a title I apply to the woman who was originally

wild but became tame (without, I hope, losing quite all of her wildness). Emelye

is an example of this type; another is Zenobia or "Cenobie" of the same author's










"Monk's Tale," a warrior and hunter who goes into battle both with and without

her husband. Zenobia "fledde/Office of women" and "many a wilde hertes blood

... shedde" but also marries and bears children (Chaucer 245-6). Perhaps

Zenobia should be considered a partially tamed Wild Woman-although, of

course, all Wild Women cannot be tamed.

The second type of Untamable Wild Woman is one who lives in society

but can be found anywhere and who breaks social conventions for women by

her assertive and even aggressive (including sexually aggressive) behavior.

Examples of this kind of Wild Woman are such fictional characters as Godelief,

briefly introduced as Harry Bailly the innkeeper's wife in Chaucer's Canterbury

Tales, and Chaucer's Wife of Bath, a female figure to be discussed at length in

Chapter 5. I call this subtype the Worldly Wild Woman. The Wife may be

adulterous; on the other hand, she may merely be a "battle-ax," to use the

colloquial phrase for this type.

Another figure enters into the development of the Wife of Bath character:

the Loathly Lady of folklore (Thompson 259, motif D732). She appears not only

in the "Wife's Tale" but also in such works as John Gower's "Tale of Florent" in

Confessio Amantis and The Weddynge of Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell and

Child's "The Wedding of Sir Gawain." Changing from repulsive hag to lovely

woman as soon as she is promised "her will," she is a shapechanger and the

bearer of an important truth: Women are human and deserve a voice in

marriage. In her hag shape she overlaps with the Jungian Terrible Mother.










Since my main approach in this study is a psychoanalytic one, it may be

helpful to prepare the way by considering the thoughts of two great

psychoanalytic masters-Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung--and their

followers on these types of woman.

Importantly, a follower of Freud, Wolfgang Lederer, published The Fear of

Women in 1968. As the title promises, his subject is the fear of women that men

may have and the reasons for this fear. Woman is "as much dreaded as adored,"

"a deep, dangerous and alluring space ... the vessel that cannot be adequately

filled by man." Grendel's mother is the Jungian Terrible Mother, goddess of

death and the underworld; she is a denizen of water, that feminine element

"connected with danger and with death" (Lederer 25, 235, 126-7). The Jungian

approach, however, because of Jung's emphasis on myth, has proved more

helpful to me than Freud's.

Erich Neumann, a Jungian analyst, connects the Terrible Mother with

earth rather than with water: "[T]his woman who generates life and all living

things on earth is the same who takes them back into herself, who pursues her

victims and captures them with snare and net" (149). One does not have to be a

Jungian to see that this concept is always present in the figure of the mother.

Earth is thought of as a mother, and dead bodies go into the earth or may even

be eaten.

In Jungian thinking, various types of woman correspond to archetypes. In

his "Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious," Jung defines archetypes, a










concept of major importance in his theory, as "primordial types ... universal

images that have existed since the remotest times" (6). In his description of the

anima, "not the soul in the dogmatic sense... but a natural archetype that

satisfactorily sums up all the statements of the primitive mind, of the history of

language and religion," Jung seems to subsume both the Innocent Wild Woman

and the mermaid type.2 The anima is "the serpent in the paradise of the

harmless man with good resolutions and still better intentions," but she can also

appear as "an angel of light, a psychopomp [guide or conductor of souls] who

points the way to the highest meaning" (28, 29).

In the same way as the Innocent Wild Woman and the mermaid are

subsumed in the anima, the Wife of Bath and the Terrible Mother are subsumed

in aspects of the mother figure. A patient of Jung's had a fantasy of a "divine

woman ... wearing a blood-red garment that covers the lower half of her body"

who "hands [a young girl] as a present to the many men who are standing by"

("Archetypes," 192). The red garment reminds us of the Wife of Bath with her red

stockings, and the role of the woman in "initiating" girls seems a not impossible

one for her. The mother figure is further developed as the loving and terrible

mother. The loving mother is characterized by solicitude, sympathy, and

helpfulness recognized by medieval writers (who were, as stated above,





2It goes without saying that Jung's use of "primitive" here would not be acceptable to
modem readers; a suitable near-synonym might be "preliterate."










primarily male), while the Terrible Mother frightens men, bringing about a strong

impact on their attitudes toward women, women's bodies, and women's

personalities.

I shall be presenting, then, the stories of five Wild Women, each of whom

must be considered as an individual representation of the group. Chapter 1 goes

to the beginning of English literature with Grendel's mother and her conflict with

Beowulf, portrayed in terms made available by Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, and

Dorothy Bloch. Chapter 2 treats the harpy, siren, and seductive mermaid.

Chapter 3 presents Iseut as Beroul dramatizes her; she is seen as Wild Woman

and as Celt (Leslie Rabino). Chapter 4 discusses Chaucer's Emelye in the light

of Jungian theory, while Chapter 5 takes up in detail Chaucer's Wife of Bath,

including the figure of the Loathly Lady, and the Wife's struggle with the

conventions of her society.













CHAPTER 1
GRENDEL'S MOTHER

In this first chapter of our study, we shall look at the nature of the oldest

Wild Woman in English literature: Grendel's mother of the Old English epic

Beowulf. Is she a monster, a fearsome mere-wife, as she initially appears? Is

she a brave figure, boldly avenging her son Grendel, who has been killed by

Beowulf? It is certainly true that in recent years she has received a better press

than formerly. Edward B. Irving, Jr., for example (70), says, "She has the

perfectly acceptable obligation to avenge [Grendel's] death" and calls her "many

readers' favorite monster" (73). And David Williams says: "Vengeance, a primary

value in Germanic society, is immediately [after Beowulf's wounding of Grendel-

AHL] undertaken by Grendel's mother with the injury to her son, demonstrating

that in her kin, too, it is a value .... [This is] one of the skillful ways in which the

fabulous world of Grendel interlocks with the historical world of the Danes and

provides an implicit didactic comment on it" (54). Grendel's mother is seen not

just as a monster but also as a mother, doing what a mother might do after the

violent death of a son.

What, then, is our direction in this, one of the many reexaminations of this

character? While we can certainly see Grendel's mother as a Wild Woman, we

need to ask two questions in our attempt to understand her: (1) What, exactly, is

Grendel's mother-monster, human being, or goddess? (2) More importantly,

9










what is she doing in the poem? If we need a monster, isn't Grendel enough?

Why a female monster? Why a mother?

Let us return to Irving's phrase "many readers' favorite monster." The

American Heritage Dictionary gives among its definitions of "monster" ... [a]

creature having a bizarre or frightening shape or appearance ... [a] very large

animal, plant, or object... [o]ne who inspires horror or disgust" (812). Is this

true of Grendel's mother? She and her son are like humans, but larger. They are

not giants, however, Andy Orchard (58) assures us, as the term gigant is used

only for those who were drowned in the Flood. Grendel is "larger than any other

man" (line 1353), so presumably his mother is larger than any other woman, but

they are still referred to, in the passage describing them (lines 1345-53), as

humans of a sort. Are they really so fearsome-looking? Are they partly human

and partly animal (as monsters tend to be)? Are they folk characters?

Supernatural beings?

Let us look at some of the views that have been advanced. Christine

Alfano argues that Grendel's mother is not a monster but human: "Instead of

being what Sherman Kuhn calls 'a female warrior,' the modern Grendel's mother

[of contemporary translations] is a monster..... Grendel's mother disrupts

gender conventions; to the Anglo-Saxons, this made her atol, 'terrible' (line

1332), but to contemporary translators, it makes her 'monstrous'" (2). Alfano

concludes that translators have divested Grendel's mother of humanity.












.- -. w-,

LI 2.7


Fig. 1-1. The Monster of Noves. From Jones (frontispiece).

On the monster side, Gwyn Jones uses as the frontispiece of his book

Kings Beasts and Heroes the figure of the Monster of Noves (Bouches-du-

Rh6ne, France), a not unengaging creature with a likable grin and a human arm

protruding from its mouth (fig. 1-1). Jones says: "The Monster of Noves is not

Grendel or Grendel's Mother... but he is monsterly enough even so, with a










human arm protruding from his devouring mouth and two long-visaged Celtic

heads poised with hideous precision betwixt his fore and hinder paws." He

describes Grendel as "in human form but devoid of humanity... [I]ike the Norse

draugr or animated corpse," and speculates that Beowulf himself might originally

have been half-human and half bear. In some of the Bear's Son stories the hero

is the son of a bear who has stolen his mother (xxiv, 8-9, 12). Can this bear-

father have developed into Grendel? A bear seen from a distance, standing up,

could resemble a shaggy half-human-and probably the most dangerous wild

animal is a mother bear defending her cub!

Signe Carlson (362) speculates that Grendel, and hence his mother, may

be just large "men," i.e., humans (this is indeed how they are described in the

poem), possibly cannibals (she notes that Grendel and his mother antedate

Christianity and that eoten 'giant' probably has the same root as eten 'to eat and

may have been applied to real cannibals). Perhaps, she suggests, such people

may have been real aboriginal inhabitants of England. Hrothgar states (lines

1345-53):1

Ic baet londbOend, 16ode mine, I heard hall-counselors tell the story
seleraedende secgan hjrde, of the land-dwellers, O my people,
past hie gesAwon swylce twdgen that they saw such two [beings],
micle mearcstapan mrras healdan, great march2-wanderers living on the
moors,



'All quotations from Beowulf are from Klaeber's edition as translated by the present
author.
border.










ellorgaestas. Dara 66er waes, alien spirits. One of them was
bass ie hie gewislicost gewitan most likely, as far as [the counselors]
meahton, knew,
idese onlicnes; 66er earmsceapen in a woman's likeness; the other, poor
wretch,
on weres waestmum wraeclastas treed, trod the paths of exile in a man's form,
naefne h6 waes mara ionne aenig except that he was larger than any
o8er.... other man....

Eoten, however, is defined in Clark Hall's Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

as "giant, monster, enemy" (107). "Monster" has been discussed above. "Enemy"

is important and sums up the way in which we first perceive Grendel. Both J.R.

Clark Hall and Fr. Klaeber (325) refer the reader to etan, eten "eat, glutton," thus

agreeing with Carison. Indeed, much of what Grendel and his mother do is to

eat, though we would hardly approve of their diet.

H. Munro Chadwick and N. Kershaw Chadwick say, "Grendel and his

mother seem to be partly anthropomorphic... although they do not speak...."

(209, 209n), and, in support of this, cite Grendel's use of a bag and his mother's

use of a knife. The "boar-imaged helmet" makes her seem half-animal, while

some have argued that she may be superhuman, a goddess in fact. The human

warriors of Beowuff wear boar helmets.

What in fact does Grendel's mother do, and what does that reveal about

her? First of all, we must go to the poem itself. In lines 1258-61 and 1277-95 we

see that she,

ides &glaecwif yrmle gemunde, warrior-woman, mind full of misery,
s e e waeteregesan wunian who by dreadful water was wont to
scolde, live ...
gifre ond galgmid gegdn wolde greedy and gloomy, wanted to go










sorhfulne si8, sunu deod wrecan.

C6m pa to Heorote, 6aer Hring-Dene

geond at saeld swafun. O& 6asr
s6na wearO
edhwyrft eorlum, silban inne fealh

Grendles m6dor. Waes se gryre lasssa
efne swd micle, sw& bi6 msegla craft,
wiggryre wifes be waepnedmen,

bonne heoru bunden, hamere
gebrnen,
sweord swAte fAh swin ofer helme

ecgum dyhtig andweard scire6.

DA wass on healle heardecg togen

sweord ofer setlum, sidrand manig
hafen handa fasst; helm ne gemunde,

byrnan side, b hine se br6ga angeat.

Heo wages on ofste, wolde Ot banon,
f6ore beorgan, 1& hdo onfunden
wages;
hra6e heo aebelinga anne haefde


a sorrowful path, to avenge her son's
death.
[She] came then to Heorot, where the
Ring-Danes
along the hall slept. At once there was

reverse for the warriors, as in [there]
came
Grendel's mother. The horror was less
just by so much as her strength was,
the wife's war-terror than the weapon-
men's,
when an adorned sword, hammer-
forged,
shining with blood, the boar-imaged
helmet
cut through, opposing, with a strong
edge.
Then was in the hall hard-edged sword
drawn
over the seats, many broad shields
raised firm by hands; when horror
seized him,
no one thought of helmet or of broad
mail.
She was in haste, wanted to escape,
preserved by fear, when she was
discovered;
quickly she caught fast one of the


nobles,
faeste befangen, Pa h6o t6 fenne gang. when she went [back] to the marsh.

What kind of picture of Grendel's mother does this give us? The poem,

while it describes actions, does not provide an answer. Is she a human or

humanlike warrior-woman bent on revenge and then escape? Is she a

nonhuman monster? Or can we see her as a goddess figure? Significantly, Hilda

Ellis Davidson suggests that Grendel's mother may be a hunting-goddess, a

"Mistress of the Wild to whom hunters turned for assistance," that her presence










in the poem may indicate memories of hunting-goddesses in Anglo-Saxon

England (21). Although Grendel's mother lives under a lake, she ranges over

boundaries with her son, a mearcstapa, moor-stepper or striderr over the

marches" as Davidson translates the compound word. She is described as

"associated with both the wilderness and the depths of the water":

She is called brimwylf, wolf of the lake (1566), grundwyrgen,
accursed monster of the deep (1518), and merewif mihtig, mighty
woman of the mere (1519).... Moreover, she is specifically called
the ruler or guardian of the depths, grundhyrde (2136), which
would be appropriate for a being remembered as a Mistress of the
Wild. Such a power might rule the creatures of water as well as the
forest and the mountain.... The mother of Grendel was clearly a
powerful and dangerous adversary, and she appears in the poem
to be a kind of hag, a monster-woman (aglcsc-wif, 1259), of dark
intent (galgmod, 1276). (22)

Beowulfs killing of a water-creature on the way to Grendel's mother's lake

could be the basis for the mother's ferocious attack on Beowulf, Davidson

suggests, if water-creatures are under her protection. Stags, too, may be under

her protection; the building of Heorot adorned by antlers could have angered

both Grendel and his mother even before the wounding of Grendel. Also, as

Davidson argues, Grendel's father is not known; this is traditional for sons of

hunting-goddesses (23).

Pursuing this idea further, we may wonder why the term ides 'lady' is

applied to the mother. Again, Davidson has a suggestion: "In view of the well-

established ability of the hunting-goddess to alternate between the form of a

beautiful, seductive woman and that of a fearful hag, this deliberate use of ides










would strengthen the case for taking Grendel's mother for a being of this kind"

(22). Is Grendel's mother, then, a Loathly Lady who alternates between hag and

beautiful woman, a seductress perhaps in either role? Is she a tamer of both

animals and men? Do we have another Circe here?

Others give support to the Grendel's-mother-as-goddess concept. Anne

Ross, in her Pagan Celtic Britain, points out that Celtic goddesses are often

connected with healing waters (275, 279, 455); hag goddesses (cailleachs) are

connected with sacred wells (281, 293, 421). This unites the hag figure with the

goddess. The Morrigan, a Celtic war goddess, or rather one of a trio of war

goddesses, can appear as a "terror-inspiring hag," a beautiful young woman, or

a crow or raven; this seems to unite the hag with the Valkyrie (48, 313). Thomas

D. Hill too quotes Orosius as saying that the Gothic "witch" race with its "unclean

spirit" companions "dwelt at first in the swamps" (Hill 2001; see below).

Mostly, however, Grendel's mother is seen as a monster, a hag, usually

fearful but sometimes speechless and stupid, as John Gardner describes her in

his novel Grendeland as the illustration by Fl6ki seems to present her (fig. 1-2).

The monster interpretation has been supported by many translators, as Alfano

points out (see above). John D. Niles also describes Grendel and his mother as

being "like people, with a kind of rudimentary culture," who at the same time

"have the size and appetites of giants or trolls. On one hand they recall the

night-striders of Germanic folk-belief... On the other, they are the devils of








17
Christian belief ...." (138) Like the Chadwicks, Niles notes the resemblance of

the Beowulf story to folktale, specifically AT301 "The Bear's Son" (401-2).

















Fig. 1-2. Grendel's Mother. Drawing by Fl6ki reprinted, with
permission, from Halld6ra B. Bjornsson's Bj6lfskvida
(Reykjavik: Fjolvi, 1983), 61. From Osborn.

Let us look now at Grendel's mother in action, in the scene of the battle

with Beowulf (fig. 1-3) (lines 1497-1507, 1518-28, 1537-69):












Fig. 1-3. The fight with Grendel's mother. From Bone, unpaged.
Fig. 1-3. The fight with Grendel's mother. From Bone, unpaged.










S6na baet onfunde s6 8e fl6da begong At once he found the place of the
floods,


heorogifre behold hund missera,

grim ond gadig, baet ber gumena
sum
alwihta eard ufan cunnode.

GrAp ba to6ganes, guorinc gef6ng
atolan clommum; n6 WPaer in gesc6d
hAlan lice; hring Otan ymbbearh,
bast hdo Pone fyrdhom 6urhfon ne
mihte,
locene leo6osyrcan l&pan fingrum.

Baer P seo brimwyl[f], Ia heo t6
botme c6m,
hringa pengel to hofe sinum....

Ongeat Pa se g6da grundwyrgenne,

merewif mihtig; masgenies forgeaf

hildebille, hond sweng ne oftdah,

bat hire on hafelan hringrnml Ag6b

graedig gudloo. DA se gist onfand,

baet se beadoleoma bitan nolde,

aldre sceblan, ac seo ecg gesw&c

O6odne aet bearfe; Oolode ar fela

hondgemota, helm oft gescaer,
jges fyrdhragl; 6a wages forma si8

d6orum madme, baet his d6m Aleg.

(Klaeber 56-7)
Gefeng ba be eaxle -nalas for fash6e
meam-


where she lived, fiercely hungry, a
hundred half-years,
grim and greedy; there a man could

explore from above the aliens'
dwellings.
She grasped at him, in her terrible grip
caught the warrior; not yet was his
body injured, [but] protected by
ring mail outside, so that she could not

break through the war-dress, the linked
coat of mail
with her hostile fingers. The female
sea-wolf
bore when she came to the bottom the
ring-clad prince to her dwelling. ...
The good man saw the cursed bottom-
dweller,
the mighty mere-wife; he gave a great
blow
with his battle-sword, nor held back his
stroke,
so that on her head the ring-patterned
sword
sang a greedy war-song. Then the
guest found
that his gleaming sword would not bite
her,
[would not] harm her life, but the blade
failed
the prince in his need; before, he'd
endured
many hand-battles, his helmet cleaved
and his war-coat of death; this was the
first time
that the precious treasure failed his
glory ....

The Geatish man grabbed by the hair-










GOO-Geata 16od Grendles modor;
braegd Pf beadwe heard, P he
gebolgen wages,
feorhgeniSlan, P.et heo on flet geblah.
Heo him eft hrape andlean forgeald
grimman grApum ond him togeanes
fOng;
oferwearp A werigmrd wigena
strongest,
f6pecempa, past he on fylle wearO.
Ofsaet p bone selegyst, ond hyre seax
get6ah
brad [ond] brOnecg; wolde hire beam
wrecan,
Angan eaferan. Him on eaxle lasg
brdostnet broden; past gebearh feore,

wid ord ond wi6 ecge ingang forstod.

Hafde O6 forsiood sunu Ecgleowes

under gynne ground, G6ata cempa,

nemne him heaoobyrne help
gefremede,
herenet heard, ond hAlig God
gew@old wigsigor; witig Drihten,
rodera Redend hit on ryht gesc6d
9delice, syC)an he eft Ast6d.
Geseah Oa on searwum sigedadig bil,

ealdsweord eotenisc ecgum pyhtig,

wigena weorOmynd; paet [waes]waepna
cyst,-
b0ton hit waas mare 6onne anig mon
o6er
to beadulAce astberan meahte,
g6d ond geatolic, giganta geweorc.


without regret-Grendel's mother;
flung in the fight's hardness-he was
enraged-
at the deadly foe; she fell on the floor.
Quickly she in turn paid his reward,
with her grim grip she grabbed at him;

weary he stumbled, the strongest
warrior,
the foot-warrior, so that he fell.
Upon that hall-guest she drew her short
sword
broad and bright-edged; she would
avenge her son,
her only offspring. On his shoulder lay
his woven mail-coat; that protected his
life,
against point and edge it forbade
entrance.
He would have perished, Ecgtheow's
son,
under the wide ground, the Geatish
warrior,
if his war-corslet had not helped him,

his hard mail-coat; and holy God
wielded his victory; the wise Lord,
the heavens' Ruler, rightly decided
easily, when [Beowulf] stood up.
He saw among arms the battle-blessed
sword,
ancient and giant-worked, strong in its
edge,
warrior's glory, most choice of weapons,

but it was more than any other

might bear away to battle-sport,
good and well-adomed, by giants
worked.


H gefing Pa fetelhilt, freca Scyldinga He seized the chained hilt, the bold
Scylding,










hreoh ond heorogrim, hringrrml savage and sword-grim, he drew the
gebraegd ring-sword
aldres orwena, yrringa sl6h, despairing of life; angrily he struck,
past hire wid halse heard grapode, grasped hard at her throat,
banhringas brasc; bil eal 6urhwod broke her bone-rings;3 the sword went
through
fagne ftschoman; hdo on flet the body with joy; she fell to the floor,
gecrong,
sweord waes swatig, secg weorce the sword was bloody, in its work
gefeh. rejoiced.
(Klaeber 58-9)

Here the mother is variously described as "fiercely hungry," "grim and

greedy," "the cursed sea-woman," with a "grim grip." This description recalls the

harpy figure (Chapter 2) in her terrible hunger and greed; can there be a remote

connection here through Latin literature? It seems more likely that in both the

Latin and the Old English cases, this terrifying female figure is a visualization of

human fear.

There is also a likeness to the ogress figure of Grettir's Saga: "a great

she-troll" who carries "a trough in one hand and a big cleaver in the other," the

most powerful monster Grettir has ever seen. "She held him so tightly to herself

that he could not use either of his hands ..." certainly a "grim grip" (Fox and

Palsson 137). Certainly her behavior seems like that of the ogress. Another

description of her in this passage, however, is "cursed bottom-dweller"

(grundwyrgenne [1518]). This is glossed by Klaeber (347) as "accursed (female)

monster of the deep." Klaeber, whose Christian interpretations occur with some


vertebrae.










frequency, refers the reader to wertho, which he glosses as "damnation,

punishment in hell" (423).

This leads us to the motif of Grendel and his mother as descendants of

Cain. Orchard (58) states that they are of the race of Cain, as were the giants,

but they themselves are not giants. Martin Puhvel speculates that the tradition

of "monstrous broods descended from Cain" may be derived from "Irish

ecclesiastical writings" and compares Grendel's mother to the "demonic hag" in

Celtic lore (11, 18-23).

Williams feels that Grendel's role "cannot be evaluated outside of [the

Cain] legend" (48). Giants and other monsters were said to eat human flesh.

They lived either underground or underwater; the underwater tradition probably

arose from the scriptural account of the Flood. The evil giants surviving after that

event were descendants of Ham (not Cain), who reintroduced evil into the world.

However, there was an idea that Cain sired the monstrous race on his own

mother; "[t]he dramatic purpose of Grendel's mother in the poem is to present a

certain order within the monstrous, an inverted kin ..." (48, 34-6, 53). I shall not

treat this theme further, as to me the idea of Grendel and his mother as

descendants of Cain sounds like an after-the-fact explanation: Grendel and his

mother are so terrible, they must be descendants of Cain. (If they are indeed

descendants of Cain, they must be at least half-human, of course.)

Another suggestion, proposed by Thomas D. Hill (2001), is that Grendel

and his mother, called helrunnan in line 163, belong to the race of Haliurunnas








22
referred to by Orosius as the ancestors of the Huns, as Jordanes says (Mierow,

trans. 1915). Haliurunnas are women, called by Orosius magas mulieres "mage-

women" or, more prosaically, magnas mulieres "big women," "giant women," who

were expelled from the Getae by Filimer, son of Gadaric the Great. Wandering

through the swamps, they mingled with "unclean spirits" and became the

ancestresses of the Huns. We note the affinity here with water and marshlands,

and the "magic" quality of the women (if magas is not a scribal error for

magnas), but the Huns were a horse-riding race. Clark Hall (176, 177) gives for

"hellerune" the translations pythonesss, sorceress, /E[lfric]: demon, B[eowulf]

163" and for "helruna" "hellish monster, B 163." The AlEfric source is not further

given.

We have so far seen a tangle of concepts: Grendel and his mother are

human; they are giants or monsters; Grendel's mother is a hag (a kind of

monster, but recalling the Loathly Lady [Chapter 5] in her hag avatar); Grendel's

mother is a sorceress; Grendel's mother is a goddess. It appears that several

motifs coalesce here: a folk motif of the hag or ogress; a kind of sympathy with

the two figures, which makes them seem human or quasi-human; the motif of a

witch or sorceress; finally, memory (and demonization) of a goddess figure.

We have presented above various answers to the question of who or

what Grendel's mother is. We shall now examine the role of Grendel's mother in

the poem and see what light this throws on her as a character. In doing this, we










need to attempt, presumptuous as it may seem, to psychoanalyze Beowulf, for

his progress toward heroism is bound up with the battle against the monster.

One psychoanalytic interpretation, following Erich Neumann's (1963) line

of reasoning, of Grendel's mother and Beowulfs relationship with her is that she

is the Jungian Terrible Mother-"[t]he negative side of the elementary character"

of the feminine, the positive elementary character being the "[b]ody-vessel and

mother-child situation" (147). Neumann goes on to say, "The symbolism of the

Terrible Mother draws its images predominantly from the 'inside'.... The reason

for this is that the Terrible Female is a symbol for the unconscious. And the dark

side of the Terrible Mother takes the form of monsters. .. ." (148) He compares

this figure to the Valkyrie; Medusa; and the Egyptian goddess Nut, who in her

avatar as "Nuit, the black night sky... is identified with the devouring darkness

of the earth and of water" (164-5). Here again we have the coalescence of

monster and goddess.

In a Freudian way, I at first saw the killing of Grendel's mother by Beowulf

as a rite of passage in which Beowulf is involved in a struggle with parent

figures; however, I gradually moved toward Jung and Klein in my attempt to

explain what is going on in the poem. The good and the bad mother are split, as

the analyst Melanie Klein points out: "[O]bject relations exist from the beginning

of life, the first object being the mother's breast which to the child becomes split

into a good (gratifying) and bad (frustrating) breast; this splitting results in a

severance of love and hate" (175-6). Of Beowulfs real mother nothing is known,










but Hrothgar and Wealhtheow function as his adopted father and mother

(Hrethel took him in as a boy and treated him as one of his own sons, but

Hrothgar protected Beowulf's father once). Grendel's mother then corresponds

to Wealhtheow in being a "foreign slave" (the meaning of Wealhtheow's name),

an exile. Helen Damico says: "Grendel's mother and Wealhtheow exist in an

antipodal relationship. They are contrapuntal ... in the status each assumes in

the poem.... This pairing is the most extreme example of the poet's style of

characterization, the juxtaposition of opposite" (21). She adds, later in her book,

that "this device of fragmentation-especially of mirroring" is "not foreign to the

consciousness of the Anglo-Saxon artist.... The method was apparently a

common device of characterization in Germanic poetry" (114).

Grendel has his own role to play as a double or "shadow" of Beowulf: In

Jungian terms he represents Beowulf's "shadow," the dark side of the

personality. So we have a set of pairs or triples: Beowulf and Grendel;

Wealhtheow, Grendel's mother, and Beowulfs mother; Hrethel, Hrothgar, and

Ecgtheow, Beowulfs father. Grendel's father is not known.

Beowulf kills Grendel, his Jungian shadow, but apparently this is not

enough: he has not yet reached full maturity. He must also defeat the Terrible

Mother within himself (symbolized by Grendel's mother). This killing will free him

and establish his identity as an adult man. This should, according to the usual

folktale pattern, lead to his marriage to the princess. But something is missing

here: why does Beowulf, having vanquished the Terrible Mother, not marry? Is










the split of Good and Terrible Mother not sufficient to free him? We note that

Beowulf does not achieve the triumph and the loosing of "food, energy and

grace" into the world which the hero is supposed to achieve, according to

Joseph Campbell (37-8). He returns successful, yes, but apparently mentally

maimed.

We might try to untie this knot through "history"-Freawaru, Hrothgar's

daughter, is already betrothed to someone else (lines 2024-5). Beowulf is

apparently a fictional person, since his name does not alliterate with anyone

else's and he has no descendants. He cannot therefore marry a "real" person

and have "real" heirs. This way of getting out of our difficulty seems feeble,

however. All we can say from what we read in the poem is that when Beowulf

lies dying he gives Wiglaf a gift that he would have given his son if he had had a

son.

We may now ask: Is the Jungian interpretation just sketched out valid?

Can it explain what we need to explain about the meeting with Grendel's

mother? Niles feels that it is unsatisfactory; it might not have sufficed for the Old

English audience. He does say, however: "Since archetypes are prelogical, they

cannot be explained rationally but surface only in symbolic form in myths,

dreams, fairy tales, and the like. There is no need to prove their existence; it is

enough to know that individuals have access to them through the work of

interpreters" (222-4).








26

I do not know whom Niles means by "interpreters." I do not think we need

to prove the existence of the archetype; it is accepted as such in the Euro-

Semitic world. The psyche is always the same, however modified by social

conditions. As we have seen, however, the Jungian interpretation is insufficient

in this case. Folktale and myth do not explain everything. What is the

"interpreter" of this story to do?

This question poses a dilemma. In my attempt to find a solution for it, I

have had recourse to the work of Melanie Klein and Dorothy Bloch, two

practitioners who through child analysis have uncovered explanations I have not

found elsewhere. We shall take Kleinian theory first.

Juliet Mitchell, in her introduction to The Selected Melanie Klein (1987),

explaining Klein's work, says of the Oedipal situation: "A primary relationship to

the mother becomes culturally problematic at the stage or level when the child

wants to occupy the place already filled by the father, when, in a phallic and

hence competitive way, it wants to be everything for the mother, to have

everything she needs to satisfy her and thus to have exclusive rights to her"

(13). This refers, of course, to a male child. Is Beowulfs situation Oedipal? Does

he "marry" the mother as well as kill her? Is he psychologically maimed by the

encounter? (See fig. 1-4, in which the bodies of Grendel's mother and Beowulf

blend sexually and seductively.)





























Fig. 1-4. Grendel's Ma & Beowulf. Drawing by Charles Keeping, reprinted
from Kevin Crossley-Holland's Beowulf(Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1982). By permission of Oxford University Press. From
Osborn.

Mitchell continues: "Its own destructive feelings-emanations of the death

wish-make the baby very anxious. It fears that the object on which it vents its

rage... will retaliate.... As developmentally the ego becomes able to take in

the whole person ... it [the baby] continues to rage against the mother for the

frustration she causes, but now, instead of fearing retaliation, it feels guilt and

anxiety for the damage it itself has done in phantasy." This is what Klein calls the

depressive position. In overcoming this, the baby wants to repair the destruction

it has caused in phantasyy," as Mitchell spells the word. It "takes in the damaged

and then restored mother, adding these new internalizations as part of the self's

inner world" (20-1).








28

This guilt and its association with the desire to make reparation, besides

being part of the child's individual development, remind me of the demonization

of the old gods and goddesses at the coming of Christianity. Indeed, Marie-

Louise von Franz feels that Christianity has "repressed out of existence" the

pagan goddess figure, leaving only the perfect Virgin Mary (84). The ancient

mother goddess, however, remains as a half-forgotten, half-unconscious figure

who is at once worshiped and feared. After the conversion to Christianity, guilt

must have been felt by some for the renunciation and demonization of earlier

deities. These deities' internal power is still great; civilization lost much in losing

them. Reparation may have been made by means of secret sacrifice to them.

Von Franz emphasizes that "an aspect of the mother goddess ... has

been very much forgotten in our civilization, but... exists in many primitive

civilizations, and in antiquity ... a feminine principle which contains a strange

kind of severity and revengefulness. .. ." (138) If this goddess-so different from

Mary, who is held to be perfect (84)-is revengeful, she could inspire great fear

not only in children but in adults, and make even adults feel not only driven to

revenge themselves on her but also to protect themselves from her rage by

making reparation.

Klein herself writes that when a child damages a toy, she/he feels guilt,

depression, and the wish to make reparation (42). In an earlier article, she writes

that one component of the Oedipal situation is a "particularly strong sense of

guilt." She describes a child patient who "was inwardly playing both parts: that of










the authorities who sit in judgment and that of the child who "was inwardly

playing both parts: that of the authorities who sit in judgment and that of the child

who is punished" (61, 63). This may be the kind of mental process that Beowulf

goes through after his killing of Grendel's mother: "I killed the monster; I'm

good/I killed my mother; I'm bad." Beowulf, as we have seen, does not achieve

the complete triumph required of the hero. He only achieves complete reparation

at the end of his life, when he kills the dragon and acquires its hoard-which is

at once buried in his tomb! But all we see after the battle with Grendel's mother

is the triumphant return.

Elsewhere Klein writes, in a 1928 article called "Early Stages of the

Oedipus Conflict":

Not only by means of the anal frustrations which she [the mother]
inflicts [in toilet training] does she pave the way for the castration
complex: in terms of psychic reality she is also already the
castrator.... This dread of the mother is so overwhelming
because there is combined with it an intense dread of castration by
the father..... [The boy feels] dread of his mother whom he
intended to rob of the father's penis, her children and her female
sexual organs. (74-5)

Beowulf has robbed Grendel's mother of her child. In undertaking the task of

killing her, he may fear a symbolic castration by her and possibly also by

Hrothgar, who will, to say the least, be very upset if Grendel's mother is not

killed. After the killing, as I have suggested earlier, Beowulf feels both relief at

the removal of the dreaded Terrible Mother and guilt at the symbolic killing of his

mother.










Another analyst, Dorothy Bloch, in her fascinating book So the Witch

Won't Eat Me, explains further: The child feels guilty about everything bad that

happens in the family. The "igniting factor" is the child's own feelings of rage.

The child's aggressive feelings are forbidden both by the parents and by the

child her/himself, who thinks that aggressive feelings have "a devastating

power." The child then fears retribution (5).

The hope of eventually winning the parents' love is "the foundation of the

psychic structure." The child hopes to be loved as soon as she/he becomes

worthy of love (11). One way of becoming worthy of love, of course, is killing

dangerous monsters. Bloch points out that the terror directed onto monsters

preserves an idealized image of the parents (12). But what if the monsters you

have killed are doubles of yourself and your parent?

This has perhaps gone too far from what we can read in the lines of the

poem, but this digression-a semipsychoanalysis of Beowulf--may have value

in our struggle to understand who Grendel's mother really is. I find myself

returning to Davidson's suggestion that she is a goddess, a hunting-goddess, a

goddess of the water, a Ruler of the Wild. We may see her also as a goddess of

death, like the Nordic Hel, described by Davidson (178) as "a loathsome female

figure symbolizing physical death" and ruler of the underworld. A goddess of

death may be both loathsome and transcendent: Davidson reminds us of the

Indian Kali, "terrifying in appearance, black or dark in colour, usually naked,








31
adorned with severed heads or arms... her lips smeared with blood" (178), who

is nevertheless adored by many.

If Grendel's mother is a goddess, she has supreme right to avenge the

killing of animals under her protection (stags, water creatures) and of her son.

Killing a goddess would be an act of sacrilege, yet the killing of one who has

destroyed allies and endangered your whole group is a noble act. If you have

killed the goddess of death, you may have stepped outside the human realm

altogether. Beowulf will never be the same again.

The role of Grendel's mother in the poem, then, is that of the Terrible

Mother located firmly in the psyche, that of a dangerous monster who must be

destroyed, and that of a goddess whose killing is sacrilege. Folklore, myth, and

religion coalesce here.

Why does Grendel's mother appear overtly as a monster and a

subhuman, cannibalistic hag-a goddess in troll's clothing? The conflict of

Christianity and paganism coalesces here: It is sacrilege to kill a goddess of

paganism, but a pagan goddess becomes to Christians only a monster, whom it

is acceptable and even necessary to kill. This is added to the psychological split

of Good/Terrible Mother and the struggle to rid oneself of the Terrible Mother.

The act of killing this threefold being could induce a lasting psychic conflict, as it

seems to do in Beowulf. Killing her is threatening, as she is a dominant female

figure in a male-bonded society.








32

How, finally, can Grendel's mother be seen as a Wild Woman? Chance

points out that she is "described in human and social terms: inversion of the

Anglo-Saxon ideal of woman as both monstrous and masculine"-as sinnige

secg'sinful warrior,' mihtig manscada 'mighty evil-doer,' gryrelicne grundhyrde

'terrible keeper of the abyss' (249; the translations of the various terms,

however, are mine). This Wild Woman is infinitely more than a particular being

in conflict with established convention. She means to destroy. She is both less

and more than human, transcending and descending from the human, the

Terrible Mother in her most archetypal aspect.













CHAPTER 2
HARPIES, SIRENS, AND MERMAIDS

Modem readers know the mermaid as a beautiful, fish-tailed maiden who

swims in the seas or sits on a rock or on the shore, singing and combing her

long, flowing hair. Humans often fall in love with her, or she with them, or both.

They seem less likely to remember that stories of mermaids often end with the

mermaid bride, who cannot live on land, returning to the sea.

The mermaid as she appears in medieval literature is a type of the Wild

Woman as Seductress: she is willful, beautiful, lustful, and deceitful. The sweet

mermaid we know from Hans Christian Andersen and from the films Splash and

The Little Mermaid is a modern transformation that omits half the truth. Janus-

faced, the classical mermaid is the epitome of the cliched feminine: she is both

sweet and deceitful, lovable and dangerous. She is at the core of a conception

of the feminine that has endured through the ages.

To understand the concepts of harpy, siren, and mermaid, which play a

large part in folklore and interest us for the light they throw on concepts of

woman as threatening or seducing, we need to understand medieval ideas on

female sexuality. These ideas, inherited from Greco-Roman culture, included a

perception of women as profoundly sexual. Women "embodied sexuality"; their

sexuality was "open and receptive," as Joyce Salisbury (84, 85-7) says. This

idea of woman as always receptive may sound more like a projection of male










desires than a description of female being, but the mermaid in medieval times

was seen as a supreme seductress, luring men to their doomn-that is, to

forbidden sexual experience in which they might "drown." She was certainly

unchaste. Men feared the temptation represented by seductive women, and the

mermaid came to be a symbol of that temptation, as well as of the deceitfulness

associated with women. As Carl Jung says in his description of the mother

archetype, she combines "the magic authority of the female" on the positive side

with, on the negative side, "anything that devours, seduces, and poisons, that is

terrifying and inescapable like fate" ("Archetypes," 16).

Although the mermaid is not portrayed in any significant text, I shall begin

with two medieval descriptions. The first of these is found in the Middle English

Physiologus, a manuscript written in Norfolk about 1300 (the edition quoted is

that of Hanneke Wirtjes, 1991). In this text we read:

In 6e se senden selcu6es manie. In the sea there are many marvels.
De mereman1 is a meiden ilike; The merman is like a maiden:
On brest & on bodi oc (al 6us 4e is In breast and in body but (thus she is
bunden): bound):
Fro 6e noule ni6erward ne is ,e (no From the navel downward she is like no
man like) man
Oc fis to ful iwis mid finnes waxen. But [from] fish grown to bird truly with
fins.
Dis under wuned in wankel stede This wonder lives in an insecure place
6er 6e water sinked. where the water sinks.
Sipes e sinke6 & scade Ous worked. She sinks ships and thus causes injury.





1In early English, "man" could refer to both male and female human beings; "mereman"
is thus "a human being of the sea," although mer-people are really only half human.










Mirie 4e singeO, 6is mere,2 & haue6
manie stefnes,
Manie & sille, oc it (ben wel ille.
Sipmen here) steringe foreten for hire
stefninge,
Slumeren & slepen & to late waken:
De sipes sinken mitte suk, ne cumen
he nummor up.

Oc wise men & warren aen cunen
chare,
Ofte ar atbrosten mid he[re]* best
ouel.
He hauen told of dis mere, 6at Ous
uniemete,
Half man & half fis,3 sum 6ing tokned
bi Ois.

'Significacio'

Fele men hauen 6e tokning
Of 6is forbisnede 6ing:
Widuten weren [sepes] fel;
WiOinnen arn he wulues al.
He speken godcundhede
& wikke is here dede.
Here dede is al vncu6
Wi6 Oat speke6 here mu6.
Twifold am on mode:
He sweren bi 6e rode,
Bi 6e sunne & bi de money
& he de leben sone.
MiO here sae & miO here song
He 6e swiken berimong:
Din ate wi6 swiking,
Di soule wif losing.
(Modem English Physiologus 15-16)


Merrily she sings, this mermaid, and has
many voices,
Many and sonorous, but they are bad.
Shipmen forget their steering because
of her voices,
Slumber and sleep and too late wake:
The ships sink in the middle of a
sucking action, nor do they ever come
up again.
But wise men and cautious turn back,

Often are escaped with all the strength
they have
They have told of this mermaid, who
thus, grotesque one,
Half man and half fish, betokens
something by this.

Signification

Many men have the meaning
Of this allegorical thing:
Without they wear sheep's skin;
Within they are all wolves.
They speak [in] pious talk
And wicked is their deed.
Their deed is all unacquainted
With what their mouths speak.
They are twofold in behavior:
They swear by the cross,
By the sun and by the moon
And they [will] deceive thee soon.
With their words and with their song
They betray thee meanwhile:
Thy possessions with betrayal,
They soul with lying.
(Translation AHL)


A short form for "mereman."

3The "half man [person] and half fish" nature of the mermaid described here leads to the
warning of the "Significacio" against the danger posed by half-human beings.








36

The bestiary genre goes back to Aristotle, whose approach is scientific. In

the Middle English Physiologus, however, "Nature has become a metaphor, a

book to be studied by all good Christians" (Ixix). As usual in bestiaries, the

animal or half-human creature is used as a religious example: The nature of the

creature is an allegory for the danger to religion that must be warned against. In

this case the poet warns us against the deceitful nature, not only of mer-people,

but also of human "wolves in sheep's clothing" who may try to deceive the reader

and lead her/him into unchristian ways. Appearances are misleading. "Many men

have the meaning" (tokning) means that they betoken or show forth the

"meaning" of the mermaid, the allegorical (forbisnede) thing.

Our second description comes from a thirteenth-century Latin account

attributed to Bartholomew Anglicus and quoted by Gwen Benwell and Arthur

Waugh in their book Sea Enchantress (1961). The mermaid is described in

terms of her appearance and characteristic behavior (translated by Stephen

Batman, Batman upon Bartholome [1582]), as follows:

The mermaid is a sea beast wonderly shapen, and draweth
shipmen to peril by sweetness of song. The Gloss on Is. [Isaiah] xii
sayth that sirens are Serpents with crests. And some men say, that
they are fishes of the sea in likeness of women. Some men feign
that there are three Sirens some-deal maidens and some-deal
fowls with claws and wings, and one of them singeth with voice,
and another with a pipe, and the third with a harp, and they please
so shipmen, with likeness of song, that they draw them to peril and
to ship-breach, but the truth is, that they were strong whores, that
drew men that passed by them to poverty and to mischief. And
Physiologus saith it is a beast of the sea wonderfully shapen as a
maid from the navel upward and a fish from the navel downward,
and this wonderful beast is glad and merry in tempest, and sad










and heavy in fair weather. With sweetness of song this beast
maketh shipmen to sleep, and when she seeth that they are
asleep, she goeth into the ship, and ravisheth [seizes, captures]
which [whomever] she may take with her, and bringeth him into a
dry place, and maketh him first lie by her, and if he will not or may
not, then she slayeth him and eateth his flesh.

This is the typical mermaid, singing beautifully but deceitful and (in

Bartholomew Anglicus's account) aggressive, homicidal, and cannibalistic. What

is the historical background of this strange being?

The common notion that this legendary figure is based on sightings of

manatees and dugongs is unsatisfactory to Benwell and Waugh and also to me.

The mermaid is too firmly rooted in folklore (and too closely related to her

ancestors, the harpy and the siren) to be derived from sailors' chance sightings

of water animals. To understand her we must find her origins, and we may take a

pseudo-Darwinian approach in this search backward in time. This approach can

lead us back to the harpy of classical times, her evolution into the siren, and that

of the siren into the mermaid-the Babylonian fish goddess coalesced with the

siren, and the mermaid crossed with the animal (often a seal or swan) wife. To

understand this better, we shall first look at some pictorial representations.

The earliest figures resembling sirens or winged women seem to be the

keres or death spirits found on Greek grave jars and described in a fascinating

way by Jane Ellen Harrison (35, 43, 165-86). A grave jar (fig. 2-1, Harrison's Fig.

7) shows "two winged Keres (or souls)" fluttering upward from it, a third emerging

and a fourth diving back into it. This is, Harrison says, a comment on the








38

Anthesteria or spring festival, when souls departed. (There was a similar festival

at Rome, the Lemuria, when family ghosts were exhorted to depart from the

house.)




L. AJ, ,








Fig. 2-1. Keres in Greek vase-painting.

Why are the Keres or souls winged? Harrison conjectures that "the notion

of the soul as a human-faced bird is familiar in Egyptian, but rare in Greek,

art..... To conceive of the soul as a bird escaping from the mouth is a fancy so

natural and beautiful that it has arisen among many peoples" (200-201).

However, according to John Pollard (141), there is no evidence that the Greeks

ever thought of the soul as a bird. It is possible that the Keres are winged not

because they themselves are souls but because they carry off souls to the realm

of the dead (see below). John Cherry (174) describes them as "black winged

female creatures with huge white teeth and pointed talons, who tear corpses

apart and drink the blood of the wounded and the dead." He relies on the Iliad

for this. If the Keres descended to the battlefield like the Norse Valkyries, they

needed wings.










However that may be, the Keres soon became figures of fear in the

popular mind. They were "dreaded as sources of evil... like a sort of

personified bacilli, [they] engendered corruption and pollution. ." according to

Harrison (165-6). Some of them were said to cause nightmares, blindness,

madness, and even blisters. Harrison cites a poem attributed to Stobaeus that

mentions them:

... Drive far away the disastrous
Keres, they who destroy the herd of the vulgar and fetter
All things around with curses manifold. Many and dreadful
Shapes do they take to deceive.... (168)

From being souls of the dead or death-spirits, the Keres seem to have

developed into snatchers of souls (perhaps from the belief that souls of the dead

return for the living). They thus fuse with Harpies, whose name derives from

Greek harpazein, to snatch, and to which we now turn.


Fig. 2-2. Harpies in Greek vase-painting.
















'. *





Fig. 2-3. Harpy as Gorgon.

On a vase-painting from the Berlin Museum (fig. 2-2, Harrison's Fig. 18),

the winged demons are clearly represented as Harpies (harpeuia) although they

form part of the scene of the slaying of Medusa, which, according to Harrison,

shows that they are Gorgons. On another vase-painting from Berlin (fig. 2-3,

Harrison's Fig. 19), a Gorgon with "the typical Gorgon's head and protruding

tongue [performs] the function of a Harpy, i.e., of a Snatcher" (177).

What is the nature of harpies? The Encyclopaedia Britannica describes

the harpy as

a fabulous creature, probably a wind spirit. The presence of
harpies as tomb figures, however, makes it possible that they were
also conceived of as ghosts [note this link with the Keres]. In
Homer's Odyssey they were winds that carried people away.
Elsewhere, they were sometimes connected with the powers of the
underworld.... (Micropaedia, 15th ed., 1992, 717)

These early Harpies were in no way disgusting. Later, however,

especially in the legend of Jason and the Argonauts, they were represented as

birds with the faces of women, horribly foul and loathsome. Accompanying this










encyclopedia article is an illustration of a "Harpy from a tomb frieze from the

acropolis of Xanthus, Asia Minor, c. 500 BC" in the British Museum (fig. 2-4); this

shows the harpy as a girl with braids or curls, bird's wings and feet, not unlike a

modern angell The bird identification may begin here.















Fig. 2-4. Harpy from a tomb frieze.

The harpies we moderns know, however, seem to have developed from

Virgil, who describes them as "horribly foul and loathsome" creatures who snatch

food. In Book III of the Aeneid, Aeneas and his men settle down for a feast upon

the beach:

But instantly, grotesquely whirring down,
The Harpies were upon us from the hills
With deafening beat of wings. They trounced our meat,
Defiling everything they touched with filth,
And gave an obscene squawk amid the stench. (309-13; 73)

They are described a few lines earlier as follows:

...flying things
With young girls' faces, but foul ooze below,
Talons for hands, pale famished nightmare mouths..... (299-301)










Here one may surmise an equation of these bird-women with real birds--

vultures-associated with death. This would have aided the Keres' evolution

from souls of the dead, to soul-snatchers, to more realistic and carnal food-

snatchers. The Harpies were seen as disgusting creatures because they were

associated with death and decay. Beryl Rowland remarks that

the wings and avian body symbolize feminine, nurturing
characteristics; the talons represent an infantile projection of
destructive impulses which converts the maternal figure into a cruel
predator.... For this reason nearly all the great mother-goddesses
had birdlike features. Horapollo described the Egyptian mother-
goddess as a vulture.... She possessed traits sometimes
ascribed to the Harpies--she was made pregnant by the wind, and
she had the gift of prophecy. She was also death-bringing and
corpse-devouring.... Yet references to the Harpies' flowing hair
and virginal faces as well as subsequent illustrations of firm,
seductive breasts or soft avian curves suggestive of fecundity point
to their dual role. (1987:159-60)

In another publication (1978:76) Rowland cites a Greek monument on

which a harpy holds a child in her arms in a suckling position and at the same

time clings to the child's legs with her talons. This is the nursing mother who

arouses the child's anger by weaning, and the child projects onto the mother-

the source of anger and deprivation-its own anger.4

To the Greeks the siren came to be represented as a bird-woman similar

to the harpy, with the head and bust of a woman and the body and claws of a

bird. Homer did not describe the sirens, which are only voices in the Odyssey,




'Here again, as in the Grendel's mother chapter, we see the good/bad mother split and
the evolution of the Terrible Mother.










nevertheless, early Greek artists always portrayed the sirens of Homer as

woman-faced birds. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, the sirens are daughters of

Achelous, the river-god, who were turned into birds (Benwell and Waugh 41-3).

















Fig. 2-5. Harpy/siren, north side, church of Saint-Etiene,
Cahors (from Benton 1996:154).

As Janetta Benton (1992:36) delightfully remarks, the harpy "lacks the

siren's surface charm." In spite of the similarity in form, it is a little difficult to

trace the evolution of the harpy into the siren. Nevertheless, I do believe that

they are connected and that the physical loathsomeness of the harpy is

transformed into the moral dangerousness of the siren, as the harpy's snatching

of souls and of food is transformed into the siren's snatching of men whom she

captures or eats (see Bartholomew Anglicus above). Both are associated with

water, Erich Neumann's "primordial womb of life" (47), the sea or the seashore.

Both, as long as the siren is a bird-woman, hover above men. Rowland does not








44

see harpies and sirens as really so different, remarking that "the siren as incuba

[female demon] is the lewd demon of the nightmare" (1978:155). Both are

associated with water, as birds fly above water or swim on it (Baring and

Cashford 58-9). Both are connected with death; finally, both are frustrating

mothers and terrifying demons. (What may be a transitional figure is a gargoyle

from Cahors in France, fig. 2-5).

The Encyclopedia Britannica (Micropaedia, 15th ed., 1992) describes the

siren as

a creature half bird and half woman who lured sailors to destruction
by the sweetness of her song.... In art they appeared first as
birds with the heads of women, later as women, sometimes winged,
with bird legs.
The Sirens seem to have evolved from two elements: a
primitive tale of the perils of early exploration combined with an
Oriental image of a bird-woman. Anthropologists explain the
Oriental image as a soul-bird-i.e., a winged ghost that stole the
living to share its fate. In that respect the Sirens had affinities with
the Harpies. (843-4)

It is not clear what a "primitive tale of the perils of early exploration" could

have been: possibly simply a tale of welcoming maidens from some tribe rowing

out to meet early explorers' boats or at least singing from the shore.

As for the personality of the siren, she has the same dual nature as the

harpy, being lovely (as the harpy was in her earliest appearances) and










loathsome (Dante's Siren in the Purgatorio comes to mind), seductive and

deceiving, apparently life-giving but in reality dealing death.5

How did the siren evolve into the mermaid, similar in character but fish-

tailed rather than bird-winged? Probably two legends crossed here, as the siren

coalesced into the Babylonian fish-gods and goddesses. The first merman is Ea,

or Oannes, a Babylonian god, who is sometimes shown as fish-tailed. He is

known to have been worshiped from about 1900 BC to about 200 BC, according

to Michael Jordan's Encyclopedia of Gods (72). Ea was the god of the sea and

its spirits and demons, so it is natural that he became associated with a being of

the sea or at least of the seashore. His wife was Damkina, Queen of the Waters.

They had six sons, all fish-tailed, and a daughter, Nina, whose sign was the

House of the Fish. There was another fish-tailed god of legend, Dagon of the

Philistines; some identified the biblical Noah, as well as Dagon, with Oannes

and made him, too, fish-tailed. Damkina and Nina, Oannes' wife and daughter,

were probably fish-tailed, as was Atargatis or Derceto, a Semitic moon-goddess

(Benwell and Waugh 23-9). In most of Atargatis's cult centers there was a

sacred lake filled with fish. Her cult reached Egypt by the third century BC, and

she is mentioned by Hellenistic Greek writers (30). The bird-siren gave way only

slowly to the fish-tailed mermaid; according to Edmond Faral, "the fish tail starts





sis it possible that the harpy and the angel have the same origin but diverge, one
becoming loathsome and one semidivine?










appearing in the late seventh or eighth century" in medieval bestiaries (Wirtjes

Ixxxviii). The fish element doubtless comes from the image of fish as

representing fecundity because of their enormous number of eggs and because

of the belief that life originated in the depths of the sea (as in fact, of course, it

did), as found in Charbonneau-Lassy's Bestiary of Christ (295). Helen King

remarks that women are often associated with water and that Greek medical

writers thought women were thought to be wetter than men:

Because their spongy flesh retained more fluid from their diet,
menstruation was necessary to remove the excess. The sea is
then, in a sense, the female element, and the tradition that the
presence of women is unlucky on board ship can be seen as
expressing this belief; if the sea is female, the ship which masters it
should be crewed by men. (152)

Transitional forms ("missing links?") between the bird-siren and fish-tailed

mermaid include beings with both wings and fish tails. T.H. White, attempting to

trace this evolutionary stage, states, "The true Sirens were not mermaids" (135);

yet his illustration, from a twelfth-century bestiary, shows a buxom lass with

wings, eagle-like feet, and a fish's tail. (Since the wings are around her waist, it

is not clear how she could have flown.)

Other variants include serpent or half-serpent forms. White's translation

tells us, "[Tlhere are in Arabia certain white snakes with wings which are known

as SYRENS" (181); Melusine is a half-serpent (O'Clery 117-25), and some

sirens have a serpent's tail, identifying them with Satan and his works. Indeed,

the serpent of Eden is sometimes seen as female, in which case two women


































Fig. 2-6. The temptation of Eve. Speculum Humanae Salvationis, London,
British Library, M.S. Harley 4996. fol. 4v (detail). (Reprinted with
permission of the British Library). From Flores 178.

would be responsible for the Fall! This representation begins with Peter

Comestor's Historia Scholastica in the last half of the twelfth century. Comester

felt that this was reasonable "since similar things attract one another," that is,

Eve and the virgin-like serpent (Flores 167-8, 173, 179) (See fig. 2-6, Flores'

Figure 2, from the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, written around 1324 [176].)

Nana C. Flores adds: "On some representations [of sirens], the scaly fishtail

looks suspiciously like a scaly serpent's tail except for the fin at the end, and

even Romanesque bird sirens (generally identified as harpies) often bore a








48

serpent's tail" (173). This links all three of our characters. The beauty (and lovely

French braid) of the female serpent is striking and resembles that of the

mermaid (except that the latter has long flowing hair); the character of the female

serpent is even more reprehensible than the mermaid's.

The mermaid, then, has a long history, a history not confined to classical

tradition and continuations of that tradition represented by texts like the Middle

English Physiologus and Bartholomew Anglicus's commentary. Beginning,

perhaps, with a relationship to creatures of the air, in further developments she

becomes a creature capable of entering into relationships with human beings.

This development, as Barbara Leavy demonstrates, accompanies her

association with a folklore figure known as the animal bride or swan maiden.

Leavy states that mermaid tales "frequently form subgroups among swan maiden

narratives..." as the woman (swan maiden, mermaid, etc.) is "rescued from the

wild" and is tamed and "fitted for marriage with men" (44, 45). The swan maiden

story, Leavy says, is found "in virtually every comer of the world" because in

most cultures "woman was a symbolic outsider, was the other... and marriage

demanded an intimate involvement in a world never quite her own" (2). It seems

that man deals with his fear of woman by making her in his mind at least partly

animal; the female equivalent of this process, of course, is found in tales such as

"Beauty and the Beast" or "The Frog Prince" in which the girl, fearing male

roughness and sexuality, finds that at least some male beasts, when kissed,

become princes. Leavy says that to undo the effects of sexual repression the








49
man must have intercourse with an animal or loathly lady, who then turns into a

beautiful woman (233); the kiss given by the Knight to the Loathly Lady (see

Chapter 5) or by a girl to the frog or beast prince may have the same effect.

Collections like Helen O'Clery's Mermaid Reader are rife with tales of

mermaids who marry mortal men but long for the sea and eventually return to it.

Some of them even have children (though how this can be done, since the

sexual organs are in the fish part of the body, remains obscure). We may recall

the English folk song "The Eddystone Light":

My father was the keeper of the Eddystone Light,
He married a mer-my-aid one night,
Out of the match came children three,
Two were fish and the other was me.

The mermaid, then, has the double nature of a castrated woman (since

the human female sexual organs are gone) and a non-castrated one (the fish tail

stands for the penis). Thus she both stirs up and allays men's fears of castration.

And, as Wolfgang Lederer (232-5) points out, man's fear of woman derives from

the incest taboo and the yearning for a return to the mother, who is not really the

actual mother but the mother-archetype, the unconscious-in-fact, the Goddess.

Lederer cites legends about bottomless lakes in which a water spirit (an Ondine,

a naiad, etc.) lives. Such creatures (and mermaids can also live in inland waters)

are a threat to men: a man tempted by these spirits may be drawn down into the

water and never reemerge.








50

This has been, perhaps, a long preamble to a question: Can the mermaid

be considered to fall within the class of Wild Women? Does her nature as

inhabitant of the air or of the deep preclude her consideration here? My answer

is that her half-animal, harpy-like nature (throwback to an earlier evolutionary

stage) and her seductiveness and unchastity characterize her as wild.

The mermaid of medieval and earlier times, then, was a danger to men.

But she (or he?) could also, as at least two early sightings demonstrate, be a

harmless creature. A "merman" (without a fish tail, of course) was caught in a net

at Orford, Suffolk, in 1197. He looked like a man, but could not talk and lived on

raw fish, and eventually fled back to the sea. Similarly, a "mermaid" was found in

a broken dike in Edam, Holland, after a storm. She leased to do domestic work

but never to speak, and lived fifteen years after she was found (Benwell and

Waugh 74, 81). Possibly these were autistic persons, whose social ignorance

made them incapable of living as ordinary humans do.

A greater virtue even than innocence was the mermaid's longing for a

human soul. Benwell and Waugh (61-2) tell us of the myth of Liban, the Irish

mermaid, said to have been captured in Ireland in the year 558. She was

originally a human girl who prayed to be changed into a salmon, but the prayer

was only half effective. She swam the seas for three hundred years, and

eventually was captured, baptized by St. Comgall, and died, presumably having

reacquired humanity and a soul. Another mermaid was said to have visited a

monk living on lona, begging for a human soul. The monk said that first she must










give up the sea. She was unable to do so, and swam away weeping. Her tears

were transformed into greenish-gray pebbles, still found on the shores of lona

and called "mermaid's tears" (63).

Leavy has well summed up the nature of the harpy/siren/mermaid as well

as the animal bride: "The wild woman appears in many shapes, ranging from

loathly lady to beautiful temptress, and virtually all supernatural female folklore

characters are imbued with features of the wild woman, that is, the animal side of

the human being" (221). The dangerous and even unpleasant nature of the

harpy/siren/mermaid in the Middle Ages may be related to fear of the once-

giving but later withholding mother, but it is also the product of a defense

mechanism: woman, who is so feared, and loved, and toward whom feelings are

so ambivalent, can best be dealt with by making her half-human-an easy way

of making her other, and therefore not to be considered an equal or indeed

someone who has to be really encountered at all. She can be explained away as

animal, supernatural, or even nonexistent; she can be Christianized by the myth

of her longing for a human soul; or, finally, she can be made less dangerous by

being made sweet and inoffensive. As an animal bride, she cannot fit into human

life or reconcile herself to it, and must return to the sea. The mermaid at last

comes to seem more pitiable than threatening, and yet we must remember that

even in the film Splash, the man who loves the beautiful mermaid goes down to

the sea with her: The half-animal woman is forever alienated and alienating, and

therefore forever a danger to normal life.













CHAPTER 3
BtROUL'S ISEUT

One of the characterizing features of the Wild Woman and Man was the

ability to live in the natural world. We find that Tristan and Iseut, the two famed

lovers best known to us as Tristan and Isolde, were during a critical time of their

development as lovers able to do this. As B6roul tells their story in his Romance

of Tristan, the two live happily in the forest after fleeing from the court of King

Mark, Iseut's husband. I am therefore, for this and other reasons, suggesting

that Iseut be considered an example of the type (though I have other reasons for

so considering her, as will be seen).

I have chosen to use the Iseut story of B6roul, a French author, rather

than that of Sir Thomas Malory, for a number of reasons. First, B6roul antedates

Malory by three centuries. Second, the Iseut of Malory (spelled "Isoud") is far

from wild. She is a pleasant and gracious lady who performs a noble action in

preventing Tristan from killing the pagan Sir Palomides: "[B]ecause he is not

christened I would be loth that he should die a Saracen" (1:358-9). Most

importantly, after Iseut is punished for unchastity by being put into a "lazar-cote"

or hut for lepers, Tristan rescues her and brings "her into a forest with a fair

manor," in which he lives with her (366)-hardly the rough life described by

B1roul. In the latter's poem, after the lovers flee:










They slept that night in the forest of Morrois on a hillside ...
[Tristan] cut branches to make a leafy bower and Yseut covered
the ground thickly with leaves .... Governal [the squire] knew how
to cook and made a good fire from some dry wood..... They had
no milk or salt in this lodging..... They were a long time in the
wood. Each morning they had to leave the place where they had
spent the night.... They were leading a rough and hard life, but
they loved each other with such true love that neither felt any
hardship because of the other. (76-8)

While romantic enough, this hardly describes life in "a forest with a fair manor."

Malory omits the dramatic scene at the ford (see below) that in BEroul

precedes the lovers' escape into the forest. In Malory, Isoud is removed from the

forest manor by Mark, eventually escapes again, and lives with Tristan at

Lancelot's castle, Joyous Gard. Although she is an adulteress, her life and

behavior are those of a courtly lady. "To speak of her beauty, bounty, and mirth,

and of her goodness, we saw never her match as far as we have ridden and

gone," two knights report to Queen Guenever. Guenever replies, "[S]o saith all

the people that have seen her and spoken with her" (2:171). When Tristan

prepares to go to court for Pentecost, Isoud refuses to accompany him, "for then

shall I be spoken of shame among all queens and ladies of estate" (2:231). If

Tristan does not go to the feast, she says, other knights will make fun of him for

"cowering" in a castle with a lady and not coming to the king's feast. "It is pity I

have my life," she says, "that I will hold so noble a knight as ye are from his

worship" (2:231).

Isoud is kept at Joyous Gard three years, being finally brought to Mark by

Tristan "by means of treaties," at which time Mark slays Tristan (2:467-8). This is








54

Malory's last mention of Isoud. It can be seen that Malory's Isoud is a court lady

who never really lives in the wild.

We return now to BMroul's poem, considered by its editor, Alan Fedrick,

"the oldest of the Tristan romances" (12n.). First we must answer the question:

Why use a French work in a study of English medieval characters? My reason is

that Beroul's presentation of the internationally renowned character Iseut fits

well into the Wild Woman concept and is far more interesting than the Malory

presentation discussed above. Further, as Jacques Chocheyras (171) states, the

manuscript is from England; one of its owners was Antoine de Chalfont and

Chalfont was the name of a Buckinghamshire family. Hence, B6roul's work must

have been known in England; J.A. Burrow (4), in fact, feels that it was probably

composed for audiences in England. Also, although Broul seems to have been

from southern Normandy, his knowledge of Cornwall shows that he may really

have visited the Tristan-lseut area (Chocheyras 171, 187-8).

Like most of our Wild Women, Iseut defies convention; not only does she

do that, but she slyly assumes the appearance of convention. In contrast with

Malory's Isoud, she is not just a gracious lady who happens to be overcome by a

love potion, but a crafty and deceptive character. She is an excellent example of

the Untamed, and indeed the Untamable, Wild Woman. While she never repents

her adultery with Tristan, at King Mark's court she plays the virtuous wife,

feigning submissiveness. Although she spends a brief time in the forest, this time

sequence does play a part in the definition of her character, and perhaps we










might say that the wilderness of the forest is an exteriorization of her wild

character (see fig. 3-1). But what is most important to Iseut's self-realization is

the ability she acquires to define herself in opposition to established norms. As

Peter S. Noble says, she has skill with words, acting ability, and an "ability to

think on her feet" (20).


Fig. 3-1. Louis Rhead (1857-1926). La Belle Isault, Tristan and Isolde,
3 Nov. 2001 rhead1.2.jpg>.

In medieval Christianity, the ideal woman was asexual, or rather stripped

of her sexuality (the virgin martyr) or (next best) chaste, having sexual relations

only with her husband. Iseut fulfills neither of these requirements. She is a bold,










assertive, fighting, convention-breaking creature. She constantly manipulates

people by her ingenious "lies," which are really truths expressed in such a way

as to make lies the truth. This kind of strategy can be linked to the "female

mimesis" described by E. Jane Burns (1993:207-8). Burns feels that Iseut, while

she "[defines] herself within the masculinized traditions of chivalry, courtliness,

and feudal jurisprudence that construct [the medieval context] ... [remains]

significantly outside them" (208). With this mimesis, she manages to get by

socially at court. She is certainly highly intelligent, in fact more so than Tristan,

as she is the one who hatches the plan to have Tristan disguise himself as a

leper while she takes an oath that is nothing but one of her adroitly disguised

truthful "lies." She recognizes that she cannot take an oath whose wording is

devised by someone else, but if she herself offers the oath, she can word it as

she wishes. In an important incident, she, on trial for adultery, asks Tristan,

disguised as a leper, to carry her over a muddy ford (Noble 20-21):

"Heavens, leper, you are fat!" [she says]. "Turn your face
this way and your back this way. I will get on like a boy."
Then the leper smiled and bent his back. The queen
mounted. Everyone was watching, kings and counts. Leaning on
his crutch he raised one foot and kept the other firmly on the
ground. Several times he pretended to fall, and looked as though
he was in great pain. The fair Yseut rode on his back with her legs
round him....
[Accused of adultery, she says:] "[M]y lords ... by the mercy
of God I see holy relics here before me. Listen now to what I swear,
and may it reassure the king: so help me God and St. Hilary, and
by these relics, this holy place, the relics that are not here and all
the relics there are in the world, I swear that no man ever came
between my thighs except the leper who carried me on his back
over the ford and my husband, King Mark." (136, 141-2)










In this episode, and elsewhere in the poem, both Tristan and Iseut are

tricky opportunists with very little moral sense (Tristan is fully cognizant of Iseut's

stratagems). They know that they can be considered guilty by the Christian

church, but they are more worried about Mark's honor-and about their own

places at his court-than about God. They call on God freely, even while

violating his laws, and feel that he is on their side. An example of this is the

episode of Tristan's leap. Tristan, condemned to be burnt to death, asks to be let

into the chapel for a moment's prayer:

Tristan did not move slowly. He went to the window behind the
altar, pulled it towards him with his right hand and leaped through
the opening. He would rather jump than be burnt before that
assembly. My lords, there was a big, wide stone in the middle of
those rocks [of the ledge on which the chapel is built]; Tristan
jumped on to it very easily. The wind caught his clothes and
prevented him from crashing to the ground.... God had shown
him great mercy. (68-9)

Iseut, too, after the incident at the ford, invokes both God and St. Hilary

(as well as all the relics in the world) when she swears that "no man ever came

between my thighs except the leper who carried me on his back over the ford

and my husband, King Mark" (142). The joke here, as Pierre Jonin tells us, is

that St. Hilary condemned lying, though with exceptions (343, 345-6). This must

have been intentional on the part of B1roul, who is usually on the side of the

lovers without hiding their faults from himself or the audience.

Fedrick emphasizes (18-20) that the role played by God in B6roul's story

is "both active and ambiguous." God in this story is remarkably flexible; he is








58

often invoked as a support for the lovers' illicit and deceptive actions. Why is he

helping them in this way? Is the action of the magic potion a satisfactory

justification for their actions? And why do they continue their affair after the

potion's effect has expired?

Beroul states that the potion was made to be effective for "three years of

love" (95). The affair does not end with the potion's expiration, I feel, because by

now the love between Tristan and Iseut has become part of their characters and

their defiance of the court and its social rules. Iseut does enjoy court life as long

as she can have things her own way, even if that means occasionally fleeing

from court. The game of deceit is a delight to her. The potion in B6roul is

perhaps never more than a literary trick; it may be derived from a more seriously

romantic plot device in some earlier version of the story. There is another

explanation for the continuance of the affair, however (see below).

With regard to the attitude to God here shown both by B6roul and his

characters, we may cite George Duby. Duby feels that there was a psychological

shift at the beginning of the thirteenth century: "[I]n the great shift that brought

about the internalization of religion, they [knights] gradually learned that rites

count for little when acts and intentions are not blameless" (283). The world of

the poem is a world existing prior to the internalization of religion: Tristan and

Iseut seem to think that they can get away with anything as long as they at least

pretend to stick to outward forms. The externalized concept of "honor" is more

important to them than the state of their souls, and yet honor is not all-important










to them either. God seems to have no importance except as he is called in to

help them in their escapades (and I call them escapades, because the lovers

enjoy them so much-even if their adventures are death-defying). The possibility

that God might actually punish them, or that they might suffer remorse later,

does not seem to bother them. The Iseut of B1roul would not understand the

Isoud of Malory, who worries about the state of Sir Palomides' soul; what would

it matter to her? God is external.

What seems to be really important to Tristan and Iseut is their passionate

love and sexual desires. In a general sense this might be considered a cause of

"wildness." They live in a society in transition between externalized and

internalized religion, as we have just seen. Perhaps they are becoming "extinct."

But I do not think their wildness lies solely in this; they are wild both because

they find they can live outside of "civilized" society (in the forest) and because

they choose to live in ways that satisfy their elemental sexual desires. What

makes Iseut's wildness apparent is the visibility of its contrast with what is

expected of her. As the wife of Mark, she could be expected to be chaste and

submissive; as the lover of Tristan, she has to think and act boldly and

assertively. What individualizes Iseut as a Wild Woman, I think, is the pleasure

she takes in playing her game with the conventions.

As we have seen, women could be considered to be wild just because

they were women. As Jeanne Addison Roberts, writing of a later (but not too

much later) period, points out in her book about the Shakespearean Wild:









"Shakespeare's women are neither male nor female but may be understood as

projections of male fantasies of the Wild female other... the male's foray into

the mysterious female forest" (14, 18). She adds: "[T]he female is not at the

center of the hero's world but in a strange, enticing, and threatening Wild

territory overlapping but not identical with his own.... The male must venture

into this territory; he may even find its terrors exciting; but he will soon return to

his familiar world" (28).

Tristan makes an effort to "return to his familiar world" when the effects of

the love potion (the duration of which in B6roul is three years [Fedrick 21-2])

come to an end; the lovers agree to return to Mark, and the hermit Ogrin writes

to Mark for them. But Iseut, when she returns to court, does not give up her inner

wildness: She sends a message to Tristan to come to her at court while Mark is

away. Tristan, reinfected by Iseut's wildness, kills two of the three barons who

are spying on the lovers and joins Iseut, who (according to Fedrick's annotation)

exchanges love tokens with him. They swear each to be always at the service of

the other (B6roul 145-8; Fedrick 148). The manuscript breaks off at this point,

but we know from other versions, as summarized by Fedrick (149-50), that

Tristan goes to Brittany and marries Iseut of the White Hands, though he is still

in love with Queen Iseut.

Iseut, the exciting lady of the forest, can be seen as a figure of male fears

and erotic fantasies given form and/or a figure of female yearnings given form.

Thus it is no wonder that the tale was so popular. While Iseut was, for the male










audience, a figure of fear and fantasy, for some of the women who read and

heard her tale, it seems entirely possible that she was a wish-fulfillment figure,

portraying the freedom they might wish for. To view this unconventional woman

and her effect on listeners/readers in more depth, we may resort to historicolegal

or psychoanalytic methods. The question becomes: What has made her the way

she is? We shall take the historical aspect first.

Joan Tasker Grimbert points out that in Celtic analogues to the legend,

the heroine is "a kind of goddess with magical powers" who casts a spell over

her mate. This spell is replaced by the potion in the Tristan-lseut story we know,

a potion that "renders both partners impotent in the face of an inexorable fate

that pits their individual desires against those of the community" (xvi). I would

add that the Circean quality of the female character in the Celtic legend has, in

the continental legend, been lost by Iseut and transferred to her mother, who

prepares the potion. The inexorability of the potion's effects in B6roul's poem is

partly-but only partly-replaced by character development. Iseut in her Circean

quality brings about Tristan's wildness as well as her own, "transforming" him

into a leper and a wild man of the forest and causing him to be as deceptive and

full of lies as she is.

It is important to remember, however, that the result of magic, provoked

by Iseut, is not really magical but comes about through her deliberate use of

deception. As E. Jane Burns has noted, "the potion ... contains the seeds of the

text's metaphors of deviance .... As victims of fol'amor... Tristan's psycho-








62

physical problems (his impotence with his wife, Iseut aux Blanches Mains). It is

interesting that Iseut, in contrast, seems to have no problem having intercourse

with both Tristan and Mark. Iseut is only a partially successful Circe.

It is possible to take a broader, historical approach-or approaches-to

the story of Iseut than I have presented here. Leslie W. Rabine reminds us that

the restructuring of the feudal order in the late twelfth century assigned a

subordinate place to women and established an exclusively patrilineal system;

this excluded women from active roles. To ensure the legitimacy of heirs, the

legal system stringently enforced the chastity of women. Romantic love, in this

fragmented and transitional society, came to be seen as a means of attaining

freedom. However, in Ireland, both in folklore and in history, women had more

freedom than in the rest of Europe. A woman was free to divorce under certain

conditions and to keep her property, while receiving compensation and a fine.

Her clan, which was in Ireland more important than the family, protected her.

Further, in Celtic society, boundaries between this world and the Other World

were as fluid as the boundaries between matriliny and patriliny; relationships

were multiple and ambiguous, preventing the formation of a rigid hierarchy and

dominance (Rabine 39-43, 50-57, 73-4). Considered with this context, Iseut may

be seen simply as a "wild Irish girl," which she is; she may also be seen as a

woman coming from a place of relative social freedom to a place of repression.

Looking at another aspect of history, we find that Roger Pensom, in

discussing the historical problem of "the beliefs and social institutions








63

surrounding leprosy," stresses that physicalcl and moral uncleanness expressed

themselves in terms of each other." Lepers were socially excluded. The bow

Tristan receives on entering the forest is a non-chivalric weapon; its acquisition

"marks a transition away from the chivalric state." The lovers are "desocialized"

as they leave the forest without bread and with tor clothes. They are also

underfed; B6roul tells us that "[f]or three years they had suffered greatly, their

flesh had grown pale and limp" (95). Their moral uncleanness and separation

from the courtly society of Mark mimics the physical uncleanness and separation

from society experienced by lepers (Pensom 40-4, 50).

Further, Pensom reminds us that Mark, when he discovers the lovers

sleeping in the forest, takes his ring from Iseut's finger (which has by now

become very thin) and replaces it with the gloves that she brought from Ireland,

which fall onto her breast (Pensom 59; B6roul 93-4). It seems that Mark is here

giving Iseut back to herself, especially if we remember that Irish women kept

their own property after marriage and at divorce (Pensom 60).

Finally, we may wish to look at Iseut from a psychoanalytic standpoint, as

with the other characters in this study. I do not see Iseut as a phallic woman, as I

do the Wife of Bath (Chapter 5), whom she otherwise strongly resembles,

especially in the Wife's cheerful defense of bigamy in her Prologue:

But of no nombre mencion made he [God],
Of bigamye, or of octogamye;
Why sholde men thane speke of it vileynye? (32-4)
Thogh maydenhede preferred bigamye. (96) (Chaucer 105, 106)










Rather, we may perhaps see her as a case of borderline personality, as

evinced by her manipulation and deception of others and her "splitting" of herself

(the good wife, the reckless lover) and of other people (Tristan, Governal,

Husdant, and Ogrin on one side, the three barons on the other). She seems

further to have the characteristic of thinking that she is always right. As Pensom

says, she "avoids accepting any responsibility for their [the lovers'] situation" and

is at best "ambiguously penitent." She prostrates herself to the hermit, but this is

"not an attitude of religious submission but a supplication to the hermit for his

good offices" (66, 67). Melanie Klein (181-9) and Susan Nolen-Hoekema (422-3)

describe this splitting of other people into "all bad" and "all good" as

characteristic of the borderline personality. Iseut sees herself and Tristan as "all

good" and everyone else as "all bad." She also controls and manipulates Tristan

and Mark (see the episode of "The Vindication of Yseut," B1roul 115-27, in

which Iseut controls Mark and then Tristan). The lovers' escapades are directed

by Iseut. Klein says:

[The relation to another person on the basis of projecting bad
parts of the self into [the other] is of a narcissistic nature, because
... the object strongly represents one part of the self... The
impulse to control other people is... an essential element in
obsessional neurosis. The need to control others can to some
extent be explained by a deflected drive to control parts of the self.
When these parts have been projected excessively into another
person, they can only be controlled by controlling the other person.
(187)










Iseut sees the good parts of herself in Tristan and projects them into him

and the bad parts into everyone else. She also uses men to do the things she

cannot as a woman do (kill barons, for example).


Fig. 3-2. Kali, goddess of destruction. Copper, southern India, xix century.
Neumann 67.

Seen from a Jungian perspective, Iseut is a dangerous goddess of

destruction like the Hindu Kali, an aspect of the Terrible Mother whom we have










seen discussed by Erich Neumann (150-3; see fig. 3-2); she brings peril and

death to herself and Tristan. Iseut is not a mother and does nothing constructive;

her only act of kindness in BEroul is her fondness for the dog Husdant (in

contrast to the episode in Malory where she saves Sir Palomides from dying

unchristened). As Carl Jung reminds us, "any helpful instinct or impulse" belongs

to the positive side of the mother archetype, while the negative side "may

connote anything ... that devours, seduces, and poisons, that is terrifying and

inescapable like fate" (Jung 1959:16). And Neumann adds: "[D]eath and

destruction, danger and distress, hunger and nakedness, appear as

helplessness in the presence of the Dark and Terrible Mother" (149). The

"danger and distress, hunger and nakedness" remind us of the lovers' sojourn in

the forest; the helplessness is Tristan's, and death eventually takes both of the

lovers, Tristan from battle wounds and despair and Iseut from grief at Tristan's

death-a tender emotion or rage at the loss of her obsessional object?

But we cannot be content with only one interpretation of Iseut, her

personality, and her story. This may be one reason for the proliferation of

versions of the legend. As Edith Whitehurst Williams (125) says, Iseut is one of

the figures who reappear in literature throughout the centuries: "A composite

Isolt, gleaned from all the surviving fragments, essays duplicity, murder, escape,

repentance, endurance, and despair. But in the end she steps boldly forward to

embrace her destiny of life and death." Her character, in collaboration with the

various authors who have written about her, takes[] on a kind of autonomy'";








67

"[w]ith this powerful personality as a donn6e, a starting point, [the poet] allows

the presence to emerge." The poet must present the character "in a manner

consistent with an established identity.... [A] self-effacing or evasive Isolt is not

Isolt" (126). Like all the women we discuss here, Iseut transcends her existence

as a flat being on a page; she is a powerful figure of fantasy, fear, and

fulfillment, as well as a romantic figure lost in the forest of her audience's

dreams.













CHAPTER 4
CHAUCER'S EMELYE

Chaucer's Emelye or Emily, the main female character of "The Knight's

Tale," is often seen as a nonentity. Apparently, she does nothing but pray and

weep; she has no roles but those of love object or female dependent to be

disposed of. Because of this inactivity, as Laura L. Howes has commented,

"[M]any readers of the tale ... dismiss her as a two-dimensional character, one

who serves the Knight's plot as the object of male desire but who does not excite

sympathy or empathy from Chaucer's readers" (87). I will argue here that Emelye

is in fact an interesting character. She is a beautiful figure of romance as well as

an Amazon, a young woman about to take her place in the world. With her

Amazonian background and love of forest sports, she can be seen as a

descendant of the Innocent Wild Woman. She may grow-perhaps into a

conventional wife, perhaps into a Wild and Fighting Woman, like Zenobia

(Cenobie) in Chaucer's "The Monk's Tale" (Chaucer 246). The question to be

considered here, however, has to do with the role played by Emelye in the Tale

told by Chaucer's Knight.

To understand this character better, let us look at some of the

interpretations of Emelye found in the literature. We will first discuss Paul

Thurston's (18) view of the Tale as "a serious romance for the conventional

reader, a satire for the more perceptive (and, it may be said, more sophisticated)

68










reader." We must remember that Chaucer assigned this Tale to the Knight,

whose perceptions are conventional. To him, order must and can be brought

about at all costs; nothing, including love-a primary cause for foolish behavior,

according to Theseus ("Who may been a fool but if he love?" [1799])--can be

allowed to escape from this order. Women exist for Theseus only to weep, be

conquered, or function as pretty puppets, and Theseus can perhaps be seen

throughout as a "stand-in" for the Knight, just as the Loathly Lady serves as a

projection for the Wife of Bath (Chapter 5). The Knight's and Theseus's opinions

must not be confused with Chaucer's; his treatment of these characters is indeed

spiced with satire.

Elaine Tuttle Hansen (1992) takes a different view from Thurston's. In her

discussion of the Tale, Hippolyta, Emelye's older sister and Theseus's wife, and

Emelye herself are "described as Amazons, mythical, fighting, manlike women

who have waged 'grete bataille' with Theseus." As Hansen sees Hippolyta and

Emelye, both women are "erstwhile powerful separatists, rivals to the hero who

first defeats them with martial violence and then domesticates them through

marital union" (218). She continues,

In any naturalistic account, the transformation of an Amazonian
queen into a proper wife for the Athenian king would probably be
difficult and protracted.... The Knight, however, both
acknowledges and eclipses that presumably tempestuous taming
of the wild woman. (218)

One might say that Chaucer's Knight both enjoys the wildness and feels the

taming necessary-but Chaucer has other threads of narrative to develop.










Hansen goes on to remind us that Theseus is throughout the Tale associated

with foreign women (Amazons, Theban widows) and that "the haunting subject of

Theseus's relation to the female Other is fundamental to the... story." As for

Emelye, it is clear that her sexuality must be contained by marriage if she is to

be part of the world of order (218, 220). The gentlemanly Knight "dares not tell"

how Emelye washed herself at the Temple of Diana.

Hansen feels that "there are hints that Emily is not quite as resolutely

devoted to chastity as she appears to be." She is drawn out into the garden in

May, traditionally "a time of disorder and of female sexual excess," while the

garden itself has a sexual connotation, as we shall see. She hedges her prayer

to remain chaste by adding, "Sende me hym that most desireth me" (line 2325).

She "agayn ... caste a freendlich ye" (2679) on Arcite at the tournament

(Hansen 221-2). Such observations can easily be overlooked, but drawn to our

attention they suggest that Emelye is not a saintlike and ornamental figure of

virginity, but a very human young girl.

Margaret Hallissy takes a more sociological or sociohistorical view of

Emelye. She calls to our attention the fact that "Chaucer questions what

obedience to rules might mean to women"(23; italics mine). A father, in both

Theseus's and the Knight's day, was responsible for protecting his daughter and

presenting her intact to her husband. As Hallissy explains,

Of crucial importance... is the smooth transition of a virgin from
father to husband. The young girl in the space between father and
husband is in that most threatening of situations, a borderline









state .... Disruption of any element of the transitional process ...
constitutes the plot-the only possible plot-of a virgin's story. (44)

t-u ':,.::r i

:r I IrI


Fig. 4-1. Illustration from a manuscript of Giovanni Boccaccio's II Filostrato,
ca. 1455, French. Vienna, Natl. Lib. MS 2617, fol. 53. Reprinted by
permission of Bildarchiv de Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek,
Vienna. From Howes.

And Hallissy adds, with reference to Emelye's love of the forest: "Wilderness is

always threatening in medieval literature, even to men; the unenclosed forest,

then, represents a breach in the web of protection that should surround a

woman" (48). She points out that medieval gardens consisted of a larger,










semipublic (though walled) space, often containing a smaller (also walled)

garden called the hortus conclusus, which provided more privacy (fig. 4-1).

The walled garden provides further possibilities for interpretation of

Chaucer's Emelye, as Hallissy demonstrates:

[A]rchitectural metaphors in medieval literature often refer to the
biological structure of the female body. Women not only exist in
architectural space, they are architectural space; their bodies
enclose inner space, and women are themselves enclosed for
protection of that inner space. (94-5)

It is probably the hortus conclusus, the more private and sexual space, in which

Emelye walks in lines 1846-55 of "The Knight's Tale." At this point she has just

risen from bed and dressed herself. We see as she walks in the place laid out

for her that just as she is transformed from a classical wild Amazon to a

fourteenth-century English maiden, so her space is transformed from a

wilderness to a medieval garden. The only forest that remains to her is that

which courtly society uses for hunting, and she is part of that society, subject to

the authority of her male protector, Theseus.



Three views of Emelye have just been presented. To me, only the latter

two-Hansen's of Emelye as Amazon, and Hallissy's of Emelye as lady of the

garden and of both her garden and inner space-have merit.

Chaucer's view is not that of Thurston, of Theseus or the Knight. He sees

women as people, not as puppets; he is, as Hallissy suggests, questioning what








73

the obedience women owed to male authority might mean to them. The question

now becomes: How can we understand Emelye as a person in her context?

A valuable insight has been provided by Linda Schierse Leonard, who

does not discuss Chaucer at all. Leonard is a Jungian analyst whose book, The

Wounded Woman: Healing the Father-Daughter Relationship, centers on the

ways in which women can be wounded by father figures and by a patriarchal

society. She states:

Whenever there is a patriarchal authoritarian attitude which
devalues the feminine by reducing it to a number of roles or
qualities which come, not from woman's own experience, but from
an abstract view of her-there one finds the collective father
overpowering the daughter, not allowing her to grow creatively from
her own essence. (10)

This "abstract view" sounds like the view Theseus has of Emelye.

According to Leonard, authoritarian men often deny their own feminine sides and

tend to focus on what they consider masculine: "obedience, duty and rationality."

"Because their emphasis is on control and doing things right, frequently they are

not open to the unexpected, to the expression of creativity and feelings... they

tend to treat such things with sarcasm and derision" (11-13). This is a good

description of Theseus at his worst, as when he, declaring love to be nothing but

foolishness, describes Emelye as a mere animal: "She woot namore of all this

hoote fare, / By God, than woot a cokkow or a hare!" (lines 1809-10; hares are

notoriously sexual animals). She is not even an animal but an instrument,

nothing but the cause of foolishness, in his following lines: "But all moot ben










assayed, hoot and coold; / A man moot ben a fool, or young or oold ..."

(1811-12).

Leonard continues, setting forth the Jungian concept of the puella aetema

or eternal girl. This is one of the patterns resulting from a wounded relation of a

girl to her father. Another is the "armored Amazon." The eternal girl is forever a

dependent daughter. "[S]he gives over to others her own strength as well as the

responsibility for shaping her identity." The "armored Amazon" pattern, on the

other hand, develops "as a reaction against inadequate fathering, occurring

either on the personal or cultural level" (16, 17). The woman must do what her

father did not do. (For the Amazon of legend, of course, the task of self-

determination is facilitated by the fact that she had no father figure at all.) Such a

woman takes on a masculine identity, becoming alienated from her own

creativity and spontaneity.

These patterns are both possible, and surprising as it may seem, both

patterns can exist in the same woman (17, 18). In the puella's "darling doll"

pattern, woman adapts to men's fantasies of the feminine. In contrast, the

Amazon "warrior queen" "is in touch with her anger and assertion" but "forgets

her feminine feeling and softness." "If the warrior queen can rest in her feminine

center and be assertive when appropriate, she can show the way to develop

feminine strength and power" (39, 143). As Leonard further states, Jung thought

one must see the value of both sides of the personality-feminine and masculine

-and try to integrate them (21). The puella must recognize and accept her inner










strength and consciously make her choices (57-8). Is this what Emelye must

learn to do? How much opportunity for conscious choice will she have?

In my own view, Emelye is a confused young girl in a state of transition

from one society to another and from girlhood to womanhood. (She is, of course,

considered a woman by her society, since she is old enough to be married.) She

must give up the Amazonian self of her earlier life, submit to Theseus's authority,

and become a soft, yielding woman and wife, the ideal of the courtly world. What

can she do? How can she free herself?

The strength of the Amazonic woman, according to Leonard, needs "to

come out naturally from the center of her personality rather than be forced out

from an ego adaptation. What is needed is to bring that strength to the area of

which she is afraid" (81). Emelye is not quite ready to do this yet; she wishes to

avoid the conflict without and within her. As she prepares to pray to Diana, she

decides that the best way to escape from her dilemma would be to remain

chaste forever, and to become a priestess.

In praying to Diana, Emelye is at the brink of a dangerous realm: Diana is

not only "chaste goddesse of the wodes grene / To whom bothe hevene and

erthe and see is sene" (lines 2297-8) but also "Queene of the regne of Pluto

derk and lowe" whose "vengeaunce and ire" are to be feared (2299, 2302).

Emelye feels her existence as an autonomous being is at stake; the only way to

preserve her self is to be chaste all her life, to hunt (both an Amazonian and a

courtly pursuit) and walk in the woods (Amazonian; a protected young gir would








76

not do this) and also (she adds) to serve Diana, presumably as a priestess. But,

it is noted, she stipulates that if her destiny is such that she must marry one of

the two men who love her, she hopes Diana will "sende ... hym that most

desireth me" (2325). She keeps her options open and defines what is desirable

to her-not to be received as a trophy.

While she is praying, the fires on the altar begin to behave strangely. One

goes out and rekindles, while the other burns out, and from the "brondes

[brands'] ende" bloody drops run out (lines 2339-40). This of course prefigures

the end of the story, though the reader and Emelye do not know what that end is

yet. Nevertheless, Emelye is "soore agast" (2341) and begins to weep.

More can be said about these fires. As Howes has pointed out in her fine

study Chaucer's Gardens and the Language of Convention, the quenched

torches of Emelye's fires, with their drops of blood, are "a graphic image of lost

maidenhead following several puns on the female genitalia with the word

'queynt(e).'" "Queynt(e)" can mean "curious" or "strange" or, as a verb, "quench"

besides its meaning of "female genitals" (Howes 93; see Davis et al., 115 [two

entries]).

At this point, Diana, dressed as a huntress, appears and answers

Emelye's prayer by telling her that she will marry one of the two men, although

Diana may not tell her which one; Emelye will have her venturee of love" (line

2355). Her desire to remain chaste must be "quenched," as Diana explains, by

reason of "eteme word written and confirmed" (2350; Howes 93). The word










venturer" reminds us of a knight's quest and may suggest to Emelye that

perhaps love and marriage might not be so bad. At any rate, Emelye accepts the

answer, though in bewilderment: "What amounteth this, alias? II putte me in thy

proteccioun, / Dyane, and in thy disposicioun" (2362-4). Note that word

"disposicioun": it may mean "disposal" (a sense cited by Davis et al., [39],

although they do not cite this passage). If we accept this meaning, we realize

that Diana, a female deity and role model, rather than Theseus, now has the

authority to dispose of Emelye's future--at least in Emelye's mind. Diana, of

course, is not the ultimate decider: as we have seen, Emelye must marry by

reason of "eteme word written and confirmed." Her fate will be determined by the

gods, as in myth and classical epic. (We thus have three authorities: Chaucer

[who writes the tale told by his character, the Knight], the gods, and Theseus). At

any rate, Emelye goes home, apparently both resigned and comforted-perhaps

even a little excited.

Let us stop for a moment and look at what is going on. What is Chaucer

doing here? It seems even a little possible that he is both dramatizing the

quasihistorical transition from matriarchy to patriarchy and the inner conflict in

women between singleness and commitment, individualism and bondedness, as

some may see the opposing ways of life traditionally called "feminine" and

"masculine." Women must reconcile these attitudes within themselves and in

their daily lives. Emelye has accepted the necessity, in her situation, of

marriage, but we are not yet sure how far the wench is quenched, how far the










Amazon is tamed. Susan Crane (1990:49) states that "adventure's validity

inheres in that strangeness or alienness which provides occasions for expanding

and transforming the heroic self." Can Emelye look forward to this?

Before Emelye's prayer, Palamon prays to Venus, detailing his sufferings

and asking Venus for mercy ("'Mercy, lady bright, that knowest weele / My

thought and seest what harmes that I feelel'") and for possession of his lady. He

does not ask for victory, renown, or praise, only to have Emelye in his arms. If

his prayer is granted, he will worship forever at Venus's temple, offer sacrifice

and bum fires ("'Thy temple wol I worship everemo, I And on thyn auter... I

wold oon sacrifice and fires beete [kindle]'"). Note the connection between these

fires and those of Emelye; his fires will never be quenched. He addresses Venus

as he would Emelye ("'my lady sweete'"). The emphasis is on his undying love

for Emelye, devotion to Venus, and eternal gratitude for her help; the fires,

besides showing his love and devotion to goddess and lady, also refer to the

end of the story, which he does not yet know. If Venus does not wish his love to

be fulfilled, he continues, he hopes to be killed by Arcite, and he hopes that

Arcite will be happy in his love. We see a devoted lover, a devout worshiper, and

a grateful heart. Palamon subjects himself to the goddess's will, not demanding

what he wants but asking meekly. The statue shakes, confirming that his prayer

has been granted (lines 2221-65).

Arcite, on the other hand, prays to Mars for victory. He asks to be "oon of

thyne" and recalls to the god the occasion when he "[used] the beautee / Of








79

faire, yonge, fresshe Venus free," betraying her husband, Vulcan. Victory is the

theme of Arcite's prayer; he refers only briefly to his love for Emelye, and

concludes, "Yif me victories] ; I aske thee namoore" (lines 2373-2420). His only

descriptive phrase concerning Emelye is of her indifference to him ("'For she that

dooth me at this wo endure / Me reccheth never where I synke or fleete'"; he is

interested only in recognition. His prayer, which occupies lines 2373 to 2420,

has no sooner concluded than strife among the gods begins, and the outcome is

decided, even before the battle, by Saturn.

We note not only that Palamon is more interested in love and Arcite in

war, but also that Arcite is not really interested in Emelye as a person; she is

simply a trophy to him. He employs the word "used" for Mars's conquest of

Venus; Emelye is to be used, not to be truly known. John P. McCall has

remarked that Palamon and Arcite "fall in love in different ways" (73), and that

Palamon sees Emelye as a Venus character (lines 1101-7), while Arcite

describes her in "the deadly, impetuous language of Mars." "For Arcite the love

of Emelye is, and will prove to be, less a matter of affection than a contest," as

McCall (74) says. It is interesting that the two suitors reflect the two sides of

Emelye's character: warlikeness and committed love.

The tenderhearted reader naturally favors Palamon's suit, as does the

divine arbiter Saturn-and we learn that Palamon will marry Emelye, although

none of the mortal characters knows this yet. Emelye's prayer will thus be

answered: She will marry the man that mostt desireth" her. Saturn takes










Venus's side, not Mars's, and resolves the strife, saying to the gods, "Bitwixe

yow their moot be som tyme pees, / Al be ye noght of o compleccioun [one

temperament], / That causeth al day swich division" (2474-6). Saturn is

interested in bringing about peace and denies Arcite's and Mars's warlike hopes.

The reader may be comforted, but there is still one question: How will this come

about?





















Fig. 4-2. Judicial trial. Bibliothoque Nationale de France.
duels.html>.

The day of the tournament, Theseus forbids any weapons but the

longsword and mace; "[h]e wilneth no destruction of blood!" (2364). As we saw

in the episode of his kindness to the Theban widows who sought permission to

bury their husbands at the beginning of the Tale, Theseus is capable of human








81

pity. His heart has now been moved by concern for human life. And we are now

ready for the encounter of the heroes (fig. 4-2).

Emelye and her sister ride after Theseus and the two Thebans to the lists.

Arcite wounds Palamon and is declared the winner, and Theseus announces

that Arcite will marry Emelye. As Arcite rides victorious "endelong the large

place" (2678) Emelye casts "a freendlich ye" upon him, finding him not

unattractive. Chaucer may seem to degrade her here: "(For women, as to

speken in commune, / Thei folwen alle the favour of Fortune)" (2680-2).

However, Emelye's excitement here reminds us of many a teenage girl's reaction

to the sight of a hero. Palamon is a loser, Arcite a winner; Emelye may not as yet

see beyond this.1

But Saturn has promised Venus satisfaction. With Pluto, he now sends a

"furie infernal" (2685) causing Arcite's horse to leap and stumble. Arcite is

gravely wounded ("he pighte hym [struck himself] on the pomel of his heed, I

That in the place he lay as he were deed" [2689-90]) and is brought to

Theseus's palace. People declare that "soothly their was no disconfiture. / For

fallyng nys nat but an venture ... ." (2721-2). We find in Norman Davis's and

colleagues' A Chaucer Glossary that venturer" may mean "chance," "fortune,

lot," "risk, peril," "misfortune, accident," or "event" (Davis et al., 10). Susan Crane




'Susan Crane reminds us that "[t]he couplet does not appear in several manuscripts,
including Hengwrt, Ellesmere, and Cambridge Gg 4.27; if it is Chaucer's, it seems to come to us
sous rature, or it might represent an early copyist's attempt to make sense of Emelye" (1990:53).










(1990:48) adds that adventuretur' evokes both the Boethian hierarchy of

apparent causes, as a near synonym for 'sort' and 'fortune,' and the generic field

of romance, as the term of choice for encounters with the unknown." "Aventure"

in the second sense is used for the adventures of knights in the French

romances of Chr6tien de Troyes. However, a range of possibilities emerge from

this one word; the various definitions of Davis all seem valid.

"Aventure" in the earlier passage where Diana answers Emelye's prayer

may mean either "fortune, lot" or "event." It may mean that Emelye will certainly

have her venturee of love" (event, quest) or that it is her "fortune, lot" to have it.

Are the young people to be seen as the puppets of Fate? Chaucer is using the

epic convention that the gods bring events about, but there is also the feeling

that the young men (and Emelye too) get what they have prayed for. Arcite prays

for victory and asks for "namoore" (2420); Palamon asks for Emelye's hand

(2242-3); Emelye prays to marry the man that mostt desireth" her. We

remember the saying, "Be careful what you pray for; you may get it." The three

have chosen to pray as they have; hence they are not mere puppets of Fate.

Crane, again, states that "[a]t the culmination as throughout, adventure's validity

inheres in that strangeness or alienness which provides occasions for expanding

and transforming the heroic self (1990:49). This is the possibility that awaits the

young people.

Arcite dies of his wound, and as he dies he forgets his ardent desire for

victory, takes tender farewell of Emelye, and forgives Palamon. Emelye shrieks










and weeps, as does everyone else. At Arcite's lavish funeral, she faints, but

Chaucer does not or will not tell what she speaks or feels (2944). Her behavior

here is conventionally feminine, hardly that of a Wild Woman who attempts to

determine her own destiny, but it allows Chaucer to get her off the stage while

male discussion can take place. It is left for Theseus, with his "bisy cure" or care

(2853), to decide what shall be done next.

In spite of Theseus's busyness, it takes "certeyn yeres" for everyone's

grief to be "stynted" (2968).2 Theseus now calls a "parlement" at which, among

other matters, he plans to discuss-for the last time-the subject of what is to be

done with Emelye.3 It is at this point that he delivers his famous "cheyne of love"

speech, a solemn and overlong oration reminding this reader, at least, of

Shakespeare's Polonius:

The Firste Moevere of the cause above,
When he first made the faire cheyne of love,
Greet was th'effect, and high was his entente.
Wel wiste he why, and what thereof he mente,
For with that faire cheyne of love he bond
The fyr, the eyr, the water, and the lond
In certeyn boundes, that they may nat flee. (2987-92)





2The question of Emelye's age is puzzling. If she is about 12 when Arcite and Palamon
see her in the garden (the limit below which both secular custom and canon law forbade girls to
be married" [Duby 141]), the two knights suffer for her love for seven years, and "certeyn yeres"
have passed after that, Emelye would be over 20 when she marries-which seems an
unrealistically late age of first marriage for a medieval woman. Perhaps Chaucer nodded here, or
perhaps Emelye's age was simply not important to him.
3Here we see Emelye the Amazon forced into the role of puppet by Theseus, as male
power triumphs.










And so on; this exposition lasts until line 3066. Paul Beekman Taylor's

comments on this speech are interesting:

It is curious that Theseus should argue an order of the universe as
a bond of love after having destroyed its natural order.... [H]e
seizes upon the occasion to strengthen his political power by
giving Emily to Palamon.... A new beginning out of the chaos of
sorrow is a fine prospect, but the transformation of social and
natural cycles of order and disorder into a perfect and eternal joy is
well beyond Theseus's ordaining powers. (86, 87)

The young people are moved like pieces on a chessboard. Neither the

woman or, as often in reality, the man has much say in the matter. Here I begin

to suspect that Chaucer is struggling with and questioning the restrictions of his

own society. When Theseus counsels that he himself, Palamon, Emelye, and

everyone else "make of sorwes two / O parfit joye, lastynge everemo" (3071-2),

he is simply directing Emelye to accept Palamon in marriage:

"'Suster,'" quod he, "this is my fulle assent,
With al th'avys heere of my parlement,
That gentil Palamon, you're owene knyght,
That serveth yow with will, herte, and myght,
And ever hath doon syn ye first hm knewe,
That ye shul of you're grace upon hym rewe,
And taken hm for housbonde and for lord .. .'" (3075-81)

Palamon and Emelye are not married, however, until lines 3094-8.

Theseus justifies himself in deciding everyone's fate by citing the "cheyne

of love," the order of the universe. As Taylor notes (20), Chaucer got this

concept from Plato's Timaeus in Latin translation. God's (whether Jupiter's or the

Christian God's, or both) authority and divine will can be seen also as Chaucer's

justification in marrying Palamon and Emelye. It does seem to me, though, that








85

Chaucer may again be poking fun at Theseus's obsession with order, as well as

placating the Knight-like reader.

So the tale ends. The ending is conventional, in spite of Chaucer's

questioning of conventions. We too may question what is happening: is Emelye

a happily tamed Wild Woman, or is she merely a tamed woman? Is the order

imposed by Chaucer, Jupiter, God, and Theseus a stifling and irksome one? Are

we to be disappointed in Chaucer?

It may be argued that Chaucer could do nothing else; a woman of his time

had only two choices, marriage or the service of God. It might also be argued

that if Emelye still wanted to be a priestess (nun in Chaucer's society) she would

have done so by the time "certeyn yeres" had passed.

It could, of course, be argued that Chaucer is simply following Boccaccio.

But Chaucer, as we know, was not a mere follower, though he changed plots

elsewhere, as in the Legend(s) of Good Women. The point I am making is that

the conventionality of the ending does not succeed in removing the questions

and the ambiguity-nor, I believe, is it meant to. It may seem to some that in the

final ending, where we are told that Emelye and Palamon live "happily ever after"

(3101-6), the characters pass into the realm of fairy tale, where natural human

problems are abolished. Perhaps so, but we are still left wondering if the

conventions really make everybody happy, and if Chaucer thinks they do. Taylor

(15) explains that "Chaucer's poetry exposes the visible disorder of man's

experience out of which he would find order." Find it, not impose it. Venus has








86

apparently conquered Mars, but what is the everyday outcome in the years

ahead? Will Emelye, like Zenobia of "The Monk's Tale," become a mighty

warrior queen in her own right (Chaucer 246)? We may hope so, but we cannot

assume that it is likely. The story of Emelye ends with what, reading from the

perspective established here, can be considered a triumph of masculine power,

consolidated by reference to the controlling force of classical tradition.













CHAPTER 5
THE WIFE OF BATH

The Wife of Bath is almost too easy to write about. As a woman who

enjoys sex and is uninhibited about saying so, she seems the epitome of the

Wild Woman as envisaged by the Middle Ages-that is, a hypersexual woman.

Not only is she hypersexual (by the standards of her age, at least), she also

defies the conventions laid down for women by being aggressive, assertive, and

bold in her search for the life she wants. I argue in this chapter that she has

characteristics of all the types of Wild Woman, and also that she is not a

caricature or a stereotype, but a fully rounded female character.

First, however, it seems appropriate to provide a context; an overview of

the conventional wisdom about woman in the Middle Ages may be of use here.

This view of woman was inherited from Greco-Roman society, where women

were seen as "cold" (since they did not produce the heat and masculine virtues

depending on semen)1 and yet "profoundly sexual, insatiable in their capacity to

experience intercourse and to enjoy it," as Joyce E. Salisbury (84) states; see

also Vem L. Bullough (226). Inheriting the Greco-Roman view, medieval

Christian thinkers held that women's and men's sexual expression was




'It is interesting that we now see actively sexual women as "hot and less responsive
women as "cold" (frigid").








88

"profoundly different" (Salisbury 85). Men were strong and active; their "power"

was moral and spiritual, not just physical; and, since semen was believed to

come from the brain, masculinity was linked to reason and men were the rational

half of humanity. Isidore of Seville explained all this by means of etymology: A

man is called vir because he has greater force, vis, than woman, while woman,

mulier, derived her name from molites, softness (Bullough 226). Women, on the

other hand, "embodied sexuality"; their sexuality was "open and receptive."

Indeed, women were open in every way--open-mouthed and talkative, as well

as lustful (Salisbury 85-7). Augustine did feel that men and women "shared a

common sexual experience," but the prevailing view was still Greco-Roman (88).

It need hardly be added that a belief in the profound difference of men's and

women's experience must lead to psychological alienation of the sexes from

each other and to the feeling on the part of male writers that woman was alien

and to be feared. In this connection, the reader may look again at the work of

Wolfgang Lederer.

In early Christianity, as we see in Peter Brown's The Body and Society,

sexual discipline was the way of giving the Christian Church a distinctive code,

"the equivalent of the Jewish Law" (60), to separate Christians from pagans and

Jews; the ban on divorce and disapproval of the remarriage of widowed persons

strengthened this. Sexual abstinence came to be seen as one "mark of

exceptional closeness to the spirit of God"; indeed, a dazzling reputation for

sexual abstinence could make a woman or an uneducated man the equal of








89

anyone! Christians, as well as Jews and pagans, believed that abstinence and

especially virginity "made the human body a more appropriate vehicle to receive

divine inspiration." Possession, the "flooding of the body with an alien, divine

spirit," excluded "the warm rush of vital spirits" associated with sex. Indeed,

sexual desire was seen as the first manifestation of Adam and Eve's loss of

immortality and fall from grace (60-61, 66, 67, 86).

In the Middle Ages, stripping a woman of sexuality made her-not equal

to man, for she could not be a priest, but almost like a man. Katharina Wilson

and Elizabeth Makowski express this as follows in Wykked Wives and the Woes

of Marriage:

[T]he chaste ideal denied the necessity of the traditional sex
roles and thus continued the revolutionary New Testament
emphasis on the baptismal equality of all.... Although woman was
less perfect and more libidinous than man and her reason for
existence more closely tied to procreation, the patristic view was
that she could rise above her subordination by becoming like a
man, that is, by denying her sexuality. (59)

Indeed, a chaste maiden might be so far ennobled as to pass for a man.

Consider the story of St. Marina (discussed by Eric G. Stanley, 59). This saint

dressed as a boy in order to enter her father's monastery, was accepted as such

(to the extent of being accused of paternity), and was only found to be a woman

when she died. St. Eugenia, in /Elfric's homily, dressed as a man and at her

death claimed to be ending the course of her life werlice (like a man) (60-61). As

Stanley remarks, "[t]he virgin martyrs are the heroines of medieval England";

they are "seen as the exception which proves the rule that women, being










weaker, have a greater proclivity to sinfulness than men" (66, 67). We may

pause briefly to note the contradiction in Greco-Roman and medieval Christian

thinking: women are feared, aggressive, and rampantly sexual, but at the same

time they are weak, "cold," and cannot help being sinful.

From the chaste virgin we pass to the married woman or widow. A woman

was often married very young; seven, most canonists agreed, was an

appropriate age for a girl to become engaged, twelve for marriage. The Church

accepted the idea that parents should determine when and whom children

married. As Paulette L'Hermite-Leclercq asks, "Did a girl affianced at seven and

slated to marry at twelve know what she was doing? Did she have any options?"

Saint Ode refused to give her consent on her wedding day; she returned home

and, to prevent any further attempt to force her into marriage, cut off her nose.

"How many women were willing to pay such a price for freedom?" (217).

Once married, the young woman had to accept the doctrine that she was

naturally inferior and hence received less "friendship" from her husband than he

did from her. As Silvana Vecchio states, "[T]he obligation to love her husband,

essential to her wifely function, turned out to be inexhaustible, the very mark of

her inferiority" (111). Vecchio adds:

Since a woman was dominated by senses and incapable of
attaining the self-control expected of the male sex, she was
condemned to an all-consuming but mistaken love in the attempt to
achieve the unachievable: the limited but perfect love her husband
gave in return. ... [S]he had to find external criteria to give
meaning to her all-consuming love for her husband. The criteria










and meaning were to be found in the husband's whims, to which
the wife... [must] bow to voluntary submission. (111, 112)

This is assuming, of course, that the wife loved her husband. Even if she

did not, obedience, submission, and fidelity were expected. Is it any wonder that

sometimes women rebelled and became adulterous? But a woman who did this

became an unchaste, badly behaved, indeed wicked, woman. A good woman

obeyed. A bad, uncontrolled, or "wild" woman refused to submit.

For a man, marriage had a different meaning. Marriage was seen as a bar

to men's professional advancement and "adultery against the first bride,

philosophy." Love, marriage, and reproduction were thought by some to trap

more souls in the "prison of matter," though this was a Gnostic, heretical view

(Wilson and Makowski 43, 93). Also, as we have seen, it was felt that abstinence

and virginity made it easier for both men and women to draw closer to God. If

marriage was to be discouraged, then, it made sense for men to denigrate and

even demonize women. An antimarriage literature arose, featuring such authors

as Tertullian and St. Jerome. To Tertullian, wicked women were loquacious,

slothful, gossipy, lustful, gluttonous, and fornicating. St. Jerome stated that

women were either odious or excessively passionate (which was probably

odious to him also). Wilson and Makowski point out that Jerome had no first-

hand knowledge of wicked wives; his examples are "biblical, historical,

mythological, or admittedly based on secondhand information" (39-40, 49, 57).










There was a hiatus in antimarriage literature for several centuries after

Jerome, as Germanic customs prevailed over classical models in society. In

these customs the bride was given gifts, rather than expected to give a dowry, so

possibly the notion of woman as commodity lessened. However, as population

increased and resources became scarcer, the goal seems to have been to limit

the acquisition of resources and power by women-which then, of course,

provided additional reason to denigrate them. The reemergence of dualist

religious sects-"antisocial, antimarriage, and antiprocreation," as Wilson and

Makowski put it (65)-led to renewed antimarriage and antiwoman writings. The

authors quote Walter Map (English, 12th century), who wrote of woman in his

Valerius: "The three-formed monster is adorned with the face of a noble lion,

polluted with the body of a stinking goat, armed with the tail of a rank viper" (65,

89). And Shulamith Shahar, quoting from a declaration of a double monastery

that decided to abolish its female section, shows the extremity of the view that

led to their action: "Since nothing is the less harmful to men than their proximity,

we hereby declare that for the good of our souls, our bodies and our worldly

goods we will no longer accept sisters into our order and we will avoid them as

we do mad dogs" (36).

The monks who wrote such things also gave woman, by implication, great

power; for any being more dangerous than a tiger, a viper, or a mad dog is

powerful indeed. This reflects fear of women (Lederer 1968), and, as seems

obvious, a defense on the part of clerics-who, from the 11th century on, as










Jacques Dalarun (16) points out, were expected to remain celibate-against

their own sexual nature.

Patriarchal defense against the fear of women and attempts to preserve

male supremacy and authority were maintained in Chaucer's day by actions as

well as literature (and modern scholarship finds that much misogynistic matter

has been added to Chaucerian texts by others). The concept of a wife as a

subordinate who had to accept authority led to the belief that a husband was

justified in wife beating, as Margaret Hallissy, Cynthia Ho, and Shulamith Shahar

show. If a superior beat a subordinate, this was "not only permissible but

necessary; God Himself is punishing the world for its sinfulness" (Hallissy 86).

Gratian's Decretum, a law book of the beginning of the fourteenth century, sets

down the rule that a man might chastise and beat his wife, "for she is of his

household, therefore the lord may chastise his own." He added, "... so likewise

the husband is bound to chastise his wife in moderation ... unless he be a clerk,

in which case he may chastise her more severely" (Hallissy 86, Ho 19). We

know that the Wife of Bath's fifth husband, Jankyn the clerk, took this to heart.

Husbands could, however, be tried and fined if they went too far. In some

places, also, men were punished for being beaten by their wives: "The husband

was seated facing backwards on a donkey, his hands clutching its tail, a

humiliating punishment also inflicted on prostitutes and fomicators" (Shahar

89-90).








94

Jankyn takes pleasure in reading to the Wife a book called "Valerie and

Theofraste" (Valerius, i.e., Walter Map, Dissuasio Valerii Rufino ne ducat uxorem

[Dissuasion of Valerius to Rufinus that he not take a wife], 1180-90). In this

work, which takes the form of a letter, Valerius tries to dissuade Rufinus from

marrying, citing both biblical and mythological examples of the bad effects of

loving women. The "Theofraste" of Jankyn's book is Theophrastus, author of the

Golden Book on Marriage, another book attacking marriage. Theophrastus's

book included that of St. Jerome (340?-420), Against Jovinianus, Jovinianus

being "an unorthodox monk who denied that virginity was necessarily superior to

marriage." This text had much to say about the defects of wives, some of it

entertaining: "[S]he complains that one lady goes out better dressed than she;

that another is looked up to by all; 'I am a poor despised nobody at the ladies[']

assemblies.' 'Why did you ogle that creature next door?' 'Why were you talking

to the maid?'... 'I am not allowed to have a single friend, or companion'"

(Jerome 1893).

Chaucer develops the Wife of Bath's character by taking off from this kind

of antimarriage literature; in the "book of wykked wives" read aloud by Jankyn,

this kind of admonition of the husband, as well as many other tales of women's

defects and misbehavior, provided a well-rounded stereotype. He adds such

details as the Wife's horoscope, her clothing, and, finally, her behavior in the

altercation with her fifth husband, which left her partially deaf. With respect to

her horoscope, the Wife declares:










For certes, I am al Venerien
In feelynge, and myn herte is Marcien.
Venus me yaf my lust, my likerousnesse,
And Mars me yaf my sturdy hardynesse;
Myn ascendent was Taur, and Mars therinne.
Allas! Alias! that evere love was synnel
I folwed ay myn inclinacioun
By vertu of my constellacioun....
(Wife's Prologue, 609-16; Chaucer 113)

The Wife seems to be saying that she is naturally wild, lecherous, and

"hardy" (bold); she cannot help it; she uses astrology not only to explain but to

excuse herself. Another interpretive perspective, however, is possible. Chauncy

Wood, in his book on Chaucer's use of astrology, points out that if she follows

Nicole Oresme's Livre de divinacions ("Book of Divinations"; Oresme was a

contemporary of Chaucer), the Wife, while she might be inclined to lechery by

her stars, has free will to control her behavior. Chaucer's beliefs may have been

similar. He states in his Astrolabe that horoscopes "ben observaunces of judicial

matere and rytes of payens, in which my spirit hath no feith," and describes the

practices of astrologers as follows: "[T]hey wol caste that their [the customers]

have a fortunate planet in hir ascendent, and yit in his felicite; and than say thei

that it is wel" (Wood 11, 15; Chaucer 670-1). Astrologers tell their customers

what they want to hear, but it is possible to take a critical stance with regard to

what the astrologers say. The Wife, therefore, cannot blame her stars for what




Full Text
108
both an aggressive role and a romantic-lover role. The Mars-Venus opposition, it
seems, may not hold.
There is more. In the choice posed to the Knight in her Tale, the Wife
redefines both herself and an imagined husband (possibly Jankyn). The Knight
is offered a choice between an old, ugly, and faithful, or a young and beautiful
wife; and as Jill Mann (91) says, this is a choice that forces the man to take
responsibility for the results, rather than shifting the blame on to women. Mann
continues: The transformation [from hag to beauty] also implies that the
condition for the fulfillment of male desires is their relinquishment: it is the
Knights renunciation of his own demands that magically releases his brides
transformation into a form that satisfies her desires (92). The one cannot
transform without the other. Circe, in contrast, transforms men not from worse to
better but from better to worse, while she reveals herself to be, not only the fine
lady she presents to Ulysses's men, but also a raging witch (Ovid 333-4) and
later is revealed by her acolyte to be a woman wronged in love who harms men
in revenge (336-7). She rescues a pathetic Ulysses, as the Loathly Lady rescues
the young rapist. Circe, however, plans to transform Ulysses into a beast and is
only prevented by his foreknowledge of her spells (333-4). The Wife in her
Prologue tells how she transforms men into tame animals, and Jankyn from an
insensitive husband, as we would say now, to a more sensitive one.
Some have argued that the Wife (and her self-projection, the Loathly
Lady) gives in after reconciliation with her man, accepting the traditional wifely


80
Venuss side, not Marss, and resolves the strife, saying to the gods, Bitwixe
yow ther moot be som tyme pees, / Al be ye noght of o compleccioun [one
temperament], / That causeth al day swich divisioun (2474-6). Saturn is
interested in bringing about peace and denies Arcite's and Marss warlike hopes.
The reader may be comforted, but there is still one question: How will this come
about?
Fig. 4-2. Judicial trial. Bibliothque Nationale de France.
duels.html>.
The day of the tournament, Theseus forbids any weapons but the
longsword and mace; [h]e wilneth no destruccin of blood! (2364). As we saw
in the episode of his kindness to the Theban widows who sought permission to
bury their husbands at the beginning of the Tale, Theseus is capable of human


11
Fig. 1-1. The Monster of Noves. From Jones (frontispiece).
On the monster side, Gwyn Jones uses as the frontispiece of his book
Kings Beasts and Heroes the figure of the Monster of Noves (Bouches-du-
Rhne, France), a not unengaging creature with a likable grin and a human arm
protruding from its mouth (fig. 1-1). Jones says: The Monster of Noves is not
Grendel or Grendels Mother... but he is monsterly enough even so, with a


40
Fig. 2-3. Harpy as Gorgon.
On a vase-painting from the Berlin Museum (fig. 2-2, Harrisons Fig. 18),
the winged demons are clearly represented as Harpies (harpeuia) although they
form part of the scene of the slaying of Medusa, which, according to Harrison,
shows that they are Gorgons. On another vase-painting from Berlin (fig. 2-3,
Harrisons Fig. 19), a Gorgon with the typical Gorgons head and protruding
tongue [performs] the function of a Harpy, i.e., of a Snatcher (177).
What is the nature of harpies? The Encyclopaedia Britannica describes
the harpy as
a fabulous creature, probably a wind spirit. The presence of
harpies as tomb figures, however, makes it possible that they were
also conceived of as ghosts [note this link with the Keres], In
Homers Odyssey they were winds that carried people away.
Elsewhere, they were sometimes connected with the powers of the
underworld. . (Micropaedia, 15th ed., 1992, 717)
These early Harpies were in no way disgusting. Later, however,
especially in the legend of Jason and the Argonauts, they were represented as
birds with the faces of women, horribly foul and loathsome. Accompanying this


29
the authorities who sit in judgment and that of the child who was inwardly
playing both parts: that of the authorities who sit in judgment and that of the child
who is punished (61,63). This may be the kind of mental process that Beowulf
goes through after his killing of Grendels mother: I killed the monster; Im
good/I killed my mother; Im bad. Beowulf, as we have seen, does not achieve
the complete triumph required of the hero. He only achieves complete reparation
at the end of his life, when he kills the dragon and acquires its hoardwhich is
at once buried in his tomb! But ail we see after the battle with Grendels mother
is the triumphant return.
Elsewhere Klein writes, in a 1928 article called Early Stages of the
Oedipus Conflict:
Not only by means of the anal frustrations which she [the mother]
inflicts [in toilet training] does she pave the way for the castration
complex: in terms of psychic reality she is also already the
castrator.. .. This dread of the mother is so overwhelming
because there is combined with it an intense dread of castration by
the father.... [The boy feels] dread of his mother whom he
intended to rob of the fathers penis, her children and her female
sexual organs. (74-5)
Beowulf has robbed Grendels mother of her child. In undertaking the task of
killing her, he may fear a symbolic castration by her and possibly also by
Hrothgar, who will, to say the least, be very upset if Grendel's mother is not
killed. After the killing, as I have suggested earlier, Beowulf feels both relief at
the removal of the dreaded Terrible Mother and guilt at the symbolic killing of his
mother.


5
Monks Tale, a warrior and hunter who goes into battle both with and without
her husband. Zenobia fledde/Office of women and many a wilde hertes blood
... shedde but also marries and bears children (Chaucer 245-6). Perhaps
Zenobia should be considered a partially tamed Wild Womanalthough, of
course, all Wild Women cannot be tamed.
The second type of Untamable Wild Woman is one who lives in society
but can be found anywhere and who breaks social conventions for women by
her assertive and even aggressive (including sexually aggressive) behavior.
Examples of this kind of Wild Woman are such fictional characters as Godelief,
briefly introduced as Harry Bailly the innkeepers wife in Chaucers Canterbury
Tales, and Chaucers Wife of Bath, a female figure to be discussed at length in
Chapter 5.1 call this subtype the Worldly Wild Woman. The Wife may be
adulterous; on the other hand, she may merely be a battle-ax, to use the
colloquial phrase for this type.
Another figure enters into the development of the Wife of Bath character:
the Loathly Lady of folklore (Thompson 259, motif D732). She appears not only
in the Wifes Tale but also in such works as John Gowers Tale of Florent" in
Confessio Amantis and The Weddynge of Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell and
Child's The Wedding of Sir Gawain. Changing from repulsive hag to lovely
woman as soon as she is promised her will, she is a shapechanger and the
bearer of an important truth: Women are human and deserve a voice in
marriage. In her hag shape she overlaps with the Jungian Terrible Mother.


110
Let us return for a moment to the phallic woman motif discussed earlier.
The Wife at this period of her life, as H. Marshall Leicester Jr. (242-3) says, is
trying to cast off her old self, which has had to see marriage as an exchange of
commodities, and to make herself a virgin again, one who can hope for love. In
the Wifes Tale, the sweetness comes after marriage.
If the Wife sees her body as a penis, she may be rebelling against her
supposedly castrated state (according to Freudian theory) in her desire to
acquire power over menand this castrated state is not due just to the lack of a
penis but to the lack of power given her by her society. Only by acquiring power
over men can she win the freedom to do as she likes, since she must have some
sort of permission" to do so. Her society does not allow her simply to go out and
choose a career (fashion retailing)? She is a very successful weaver. She has to
be devious.
The above is a Freudian approach. Carl Jung, on the other hand, could
have classed the Wife under the category of the Overdeveloped Eros, a type
he develops in Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype (1973:28-31;
this paper was originally written in 1938). Jung describes the type as developing
in reaction to a mother who is wholly a thrall of nature, purely instinctive and
therefore all-devouring." Note that the Wifes mother taught her manipulation or
soutiltee. She learned from her mother how to stir up conflict in men by using
the burning ray of her Eros. In doing so she aroused both moral conflict and


90
weaker, have a greater proclivity to sinfulness than men (66, 67), We may
pause briefly to note the contradiction in Greco-Roman and medieval Christian
thinking: women are feared, aggressive, and rampantly sexual, but at the same
time they are weak, cold," and cannot help being sinful.
From the chaste virgin we pass to the married woman or widow, A woman
was often married very young; seven, most canonists agreed, was an
appropriate age for a girl to become engaged, twelve for marriage. The Church
accepted the idea that parents should determine when and whom children
married. As Paulette LHermite-Leclercq asks, Did a girl affianced at seven and
slated to marry at twelve know what she was doing? Did she have any options?"
Saint Ode refused to give her consent on her wedding day; she returned home
and, to prevent any further attempt to force her into marriage, cut off her nose.
How many women were willing to pay such a price for freedom? (217).
Once married, the young woman had to accept the doctrine that she was
naturally inferior and hence received less friendship from her husband than he
did from her. As Silvana Vecchio states, [T]he obligation to love her husband,
essential to her wifely function, turned out to be inexhaustible, the very mark of
her inferiority (111). Vecchio adds:
Since a woman was dominated by senses and incapable of
attaining the self-control expected of the male sex, she was
condemned to an all-consuming but mistaken love in the attempt to
achieve the unachievable: the limited but perfect love her husband
gave in return.... [S]he had to find external criteria to give
meaning to her all-consuming love for her husband. The criteria


CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
We have now gone from Circe, the Wild Woman who tames animals, to a
woman who tames husbands. We have gone from the Harpy, a bringer of death,
and Grendels mother as avenger of a death to the Wild Women (Iseut, Wife of
Bath) who celebrate life. We have seen how Emelye deals with her limited
options, and how Iseut circumvents the conventions of her existence. We have
seen the courage and strength the Wife of Bath achieves.
Judith Yarnall (5) prefers to think of Circe simply as an archetypal woman
of power.. [rather] than as an anima figure. Since the anima has been defined
as the unconscious male image in women (Rycroft 8), it seems to me that
Yarnalls limitation makes sense in that it opens a possibility to see what women
would like to be in a way that does not depend on definition of freedom in terms
of masculinity. I would rather be a man, women sometimes say; its a mans
world. Why should a woman not have the freedom to define herself as a
woman, so that she can be free and prefer her life as a woman?
A patient of Jungs had a fantasy of a divine woman ... wearing a blood-
red garment that covers the lower half of her body who hands [a young girl] as
a present to the many men who are standing by (1959:192). The red garments
remind us of the Wife of Baths red stockings, and the role of initiating" girls
seems a not impossible one for her, or rather perhaps for a partial source figure,
113


78
Amazon is tamed. Susan Crane (1990:49) states that adventures validity
inheres in that strangeness or alienness which provides occasions for expanding
and transforming the heroic self. Can Emelye look forward to this?
Before Emelyes prayer, Palamon prays to Venus, detailing his sufferings
and asking Venus for mercy ('Mercy, lady bright, that knowest weele / My
thought and seest what harmes that I feele!) and for possession of his lady. He
does not ask for victory, renown, or praise, only to have Emelye in his arms. If
his prayer is granted, he will worship forever at Venuss temple, offer sacrifice
and burn fires (Thy temple wol I worshipe everemo, / And on thyn auter... I
wold oon sacrifice and fires beete [kindle]). Note the connection between these
fires and those of Emelye; his fires will never be quenched. He addresses Venus
as he would Emelye (my lady sweete). The emphasis is on his undying love
for Emelye, devotion to Venus, and eternal gratitude for her help; the fires,
besides showing his love and devotion to goddess and lady, also refer to the
end of the story, which he does not yet know. If Venus does not wish his love to
be fulfilled, he continues, he hopes to be killed by Arcite, and he hopes that
Arcite will be happy in his love. We see a devoted lover, a devout worshiper, and
a grateful heart. Palamon subjects himself to the goddesss will, not demanding
what he wants but asking meekly. The statue shakes, confirming that his prayer
has been granted (lines 2221-65).
Arcite, on the other hand, prays to Mars for victory. He asks to be oon of
thyne and recalls to the god the occasion when he [used] the beautee / Of


Annotated List of Works Cited
Beidler, Peter G., ed. Geoffrey Chaucer: The Wife of Bath. Case Studies in
Contemporary Criticism. Boston and New York: St. Martins Press, 1996.
Individual articles. A valuable book containing views of the Wife from
authors of different schools.
Broul. The Romance of Tristan. Alan S. Fedrick, trans. London: Penguin Books,
1970. A prose translation with introduction.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Riverside Chaucer. Larry G. Benson, General Editor. 3d
ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1988. Complete works.
Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess. New York and London:
Routledge, 1988. Discussion of the hunting-goddess and the possible
goddesshood of Grendels mother.
Davis, Norman, Douglas Gray, and Patricia Ingham. A Chaucer Glossary.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979. Nuances of Chaucers ME words. Very useful in
search for Chaucer's meanings.
Hallissy, Margaret. Clean Maids, True Wives, Steadfast Widows: Chaucers
Women and Medieval Codes of Conduct. Westport and London:
Greenwood Press, 1993. Discusses differences between Chaucers ideas
of what women should be and commonly accepted norms of his time.
Chaucer develops an ethical theory [in the Franklin's Tale] that
120


121
perceives men and women as equally capable of all virtues, with no virtue
seen as sex-specific (35). The Wife of Bath has numerous deviations
from the norm of virtue for women (100-01, 145, 163-5,168).
Hodges, Laura F. The Wife of Baths Costumes: Reading the Subtexts. The
Chaucer Review 27 (1993): 359-76. Discusses the relationship between
the Wifes clothes and her character. The Wifes travel costume offers
further commentary on her wayward nature, that is, her propensity for
rebellion against medieval moralists ideas of a woman's place, as well as
on her tendency to wander by the wayside, both sexually and
geographically (367). That is, she escapes from the boundaries placed
on women by men who want to tame them. Enlightening and entertaining.
Howes, Laura L. Chaucers Gardens and the Language of Convention. Insights
on Emelye as the first instance of female dissatisfaction and discontent
(87) in The Canterbury Tales. Highly recommended.
Jung, C.G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious: The Collected
Works of C.G. Jung. Vol. 9, part 1. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1959.
Bollingen Series. Archetypes of woman; the anima; aspects of the mother
figure.
---. Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype." Four Archetypes: Mother,
Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster. Trans. R.F.C. Hull. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP,
1973. Mytho-religious Great Mother in both womans and mans
psychology.


65
Iseut sees the good parts of herself in Tristan and projects them into him
and the bad parts into everyone else. She also uses men to do the things she
cannot as a woman do (kill barons, for example).
Fig. 3-2. Kali, goddess of destruction. Copper, southern India, xix century.
Neumann 67.
Seen from a Jungian perspective, Iseut is a dangerous goddess of
destruction like the Hindu Kali, an aspect of the Terrible Mother whom we have


Wood, Chauncey. Chaucer and the Country of the Stars: Poetic Uses of
Astrological Imagery. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1970.
135


36
The bestiary genre goes back to Aristotle, whose approach is scientific. In
the Middle English Physiologus, however, Nature has become a metaphor, a
book to be studied by all good Christians (Ixix). As usual in bestiaries, the
animal or half-human creature is used as a religious example: The nature of the
creature is an allegory for the danger to religion that must be warned against. In
this case the poet warns us against the deceitful nature, not only of mer-people,
but also of human wolves in sheeps clothing who may try to deceive the reader
and lead her/him into unchristian ways. Appearances are misleading. Many men
have the meaning (tokning) means that they betoken or show forth the
meaning of the mermaid, the allegorical (forbisnede) thing.
Our second description comes from a thirteenth-century Latin account
attributed to Bartholomew Anglicus and quoted by Gwen Benwell and Arthur
Waugh in their book Sea Enchantress (1961). The mermaid is described in
terms of her appearance and characteristic behavior (translated by Stephen
Batman, Batman upon Bartholome [1582]), as follows:
The mermaid is a sea beast wonderly shapen, and draweth
shipmen to peril by sweetness of song. The Gloss on Is. [Isaiah] xii
sayth that sirens are Serpents with crests. And some men say, that
they are fishes of the sea in likeness of women. Some men feign
that there are three Sirens some-deal maidens and some-deal
fowls with claws and wings, and one of them singeth with voice,
and another with a pipe, and the third with a harp, and they please
so shipmen, with likeness of song, that they draw them to peril and
to ship-breach, but the truth is, that they were strong whores, that
drew men that passed by them to poverty and to mischief. And
Physiologus saith it is a beast of the sea wonderfully shapen as a
maid from the navel upward and a fish from the navel downward,
and this wonderfull beast is glad and merry in tempest, and sad


42
Here one may surmise an equation of these bird-women with real birds
vulturesassociated with death. This would have aided the Keres' evolution
from souls of the dead, to soul-snatchers, to more realistic and carnal food-
snatchers. The Harpies were seen as disgusting creatures because they were
associated with death and decay. Beryl Rowland remarks that
the wings and avian body symbolize feminine, nurturing
characteristics; the talons represent an infantile projection of
destructive impulses which converts the maternal figure into a cruel
predator.... For this reason nearly all the great mother-goddesses
had birdlike features. Horapollo described the Egyptian mother-
goddess as a vulture.... She possessed traits sometimes
ascribed to the Harpiesshe was made pregnant by the wind, and
she had the gift of prophecy. She was also death-bringing and
corpse-devouring... Yet references to the Harpies flowing hair
and virginal faces as well as subsequent illustrations of firm,
seductive breasts or soft avian curves suggestive of fecundity point
to their dual role. (1987:159-60)
In another publication (1978:76) Rowland cites a Greek monument on
which a harpy holds a child in her arms in a suckling position and at the same
time clings to the child's legs with her talons. This is the nursing mother who
arouses the childs anger by weaning, and the child projects onto the mother
the source of anger and deprivationits own anger.4
To the Greeks the siren came to be represented as a bird-woman similar
to the harpy, with the head and bust of a woman and the body and claws of a
bird. Homer did not describe the sirens, which are only voices in the Odyssey,
4Here again, as in the Grendels mother chapter, we see the good/bad mother split and
the evolution of the Terrible Mother.


15
in the poem may indicate memories of hunting-goddesses in Anglo-Saxon
England (21). Although Grendels mother lives under a lake, she ranges over
boundaries with her son, a mearcstapa, moor-stepper or strider over the
marches as Davidson translates the compound word. She is described as
associated with both the wilderness and the depths of the water:
She is called brimwylf, wolf of the lake (1566), grundwyrgen,
accursed monster of the deep (1518), and merewif mihtig, mighty
woman of the mere (1519)... Moreover, she is specifically called
the ruler or guardian of the depths, grundhyrde (2136), which
would be appropriate for a being remembered as a Mistress of the
Wild. Such a power might rule the creatures of water as well as the
forest and the mountain. ... The mother of Grendel was clearly a
powerful and dangerous adversary, and she appears in the poem
to be a kind of hag, a monster-woman (agloec-wif, 1259), of dark
intent (galgmod, 1276). (22)
Beowulf s killing of a water-creature on the way to Grendels mothers lake
could be the basis for the mothers ferocious attack on Beowulf, Davidson
suggests, if water-creatures are under her protection. Stags, too, may be under
her protection; the building of Heorot adorned by antlers could have angered
both Grendel and his mother even before the wounding of Grendel. Also, as
Davidson argues, Grendels father is not known; this is traditional for sons of
hunting-goddesses (23).
Pursuing this idea further, we may wonder why the term ides lady is
applied to the mother. Again, Davidson has a suggestion: In view of the well-
established ability of the hunting-goddess to alternate between the form of a
beautiful, seductive woman and that of a fearful hag, this deliberate use of ides


45
loathsome (Dantes Siren in the Purgatorio comes to mind), seductive and
deceiving, apparently life-giving but in reality dealing death.5
How did the siren evolve into the mermaid, similar in character but fish
tailed rather than bird-winged? Probably two legends crossed here, as the siren
coalesced into the Babylonian fish-gods and goddesses. The first merman is Ea,
or Oannes, a Babylonian god, who is sometimes shown as fish-tailed. He is
known to have been worshiped from about 1900 BC to about 200 BC, according
to Michael Jordan's Encyclopedia of Gods (72). Ea was the god of the sea and
its spirits and demons, so it is natural that he became associated with a being of
the sea or at least of the seashore. His wife was Damkina, Queen of the Waters.
They had six sons, all fish-tailed, and a daughter, Nina, whose sign was the
House of the Fish. There was another fish-tailed god of legend, Dagon of the
Philistines; some identified the biblical Noah, as well as Dagon, with Oannes
and made him, too, fish-tailed. Damkina and Nina, Oannes wife and daughter,
were probably fish-tailed, as was Atargatis or Derceto, a Semitic moon-goddess
(Benwell and Waugh 23-9). In most of Atargatiss cult centers there was a
sacred lake filled with fish. Her cult reached Egypt by the third century BC, and
she is mentioned by Hellenistic Greek writers (30). The bird-siren gave way only
slowly to the fish-tailed mermaid; according to Edmond Faral, the fish tail starts
5ls it possible that the harpy and the angel have the same origin but diverge, one
becoming loathsome and one semidivine?


18
Sna past onfunde s Se flda begong
heorogfre behold hund missra,
grim ond gisdig, paet paer gmena
sum
aslwihta eard ufan cunnode.
Grp p toganes, gurinc gefng
afolan clommum; no pyar ¡n gescd
halan lice; hring tan ymbbearh,
past ho pone fyrdhom urhfn ne
mihte,
locene leoosyrcan lpan fingrum.
Baer p seo brimwyl[f], p ho t
botme cm,
hringa pengel t hofe slnum....
Ongeat p se goda grundwyrgenne,
merewf mihtig; maegemas forgeaf
hildebille, hond sweng ne oftah,
past hire on hafelan hringml gl
graedig glo. ) se gist onfand,
past se beadoloma bTtan nolde,
aid re scepan, ac so ecg geswc
dodne aet pearfe; dolodear fel
hondgemta, helm oft gescaer,
ges fyrdhraegl; fl waes forma sifl
dorum mdme, paet his dm lasg.
(Klaeber 56-7)
Gefng p be eaxle nalas for fashe
mearn
At once he found the place of the
floods,
where she lived, fiercely hungry, a
hundred half-years,
grim and greedy; there a man could
explore from above the aliens
dwellings.
She grasped at him, in her terrible grip
caught the warrior; not yet was his
body injured, [but] protected by
ring mail outside, so that she could not
break through the war-dress, the linked
coat of mail
with her hostile fingers. The female
sea-wolf
bore when she came to the bottom the
ring-clad prince to her dwelling... .
The good man saw the cursed bottom-
dweller,
the mighty mere-wife; he gave a great
blow
with his battle-sword, nor held back his
stroke,
so that on her head the ring-patterned
sword
sang a greedy war-song. Then the
guest found
that his gleaming sword would not bite
her,
[would not] harm her life, but the blade
failed
the prince in his need; before, he'd
endured
many hand-battles, his helmet cleaved
and his war-coat of death; this was the
first time
that the precious treasure failed his
glory. . .
The Geatish man grabbed by the hair


114
the Old Woman of the Romance of the Rose; we remember also the Wifes
mother, who taught her to manipulate men. The divine woman in this dream is an
aspect of the Terrible Mother.
This sensual woman is the one we warn our sons about, who is to be
found in hidden, obscure, and unwholesome places; yet as a literary character
she is often the one who is seen as freer than other women, free from the
shackles of conventional feminine behavior. Yarnall may prefer not to see this
woman as the anima, but male writers over the centuries have tended to see her
as not-male, other, and hence terrifying. What has this fear led men to? As
Freud, Jung, and Klein would have it in their different ways, it has led to two
visions of the motherthe good and giving, the terrible and withholding.
[T]he mother-image in a mans psychology [says Jung] is entirely
different in character from a womans. For a woman, the mother
typifies her own conscious life as conditioned by her sex. But for a
man the mother typifies something alien, which he has yet to
experience and which is filled with the imagery latent in the
unconscious. [Woman does not idealize the mother, but man
idealizes her]; one idealizes whenever there is a secret fear to be
exorcized. What is feared is the unconscious and magical
influence. (1970:39-40)
And he adds elsewhere:
Perhaps the historical example of the dual nature of the mother
most familiar to us is the Virgin Mary, who is not only the Lords
mother, but also, according to the medieval allegories, his
cross.... There are three essential aspects of the mother: her
cherishing and nourishing goodness, her orgiastic emotionality,
and her Stygian depths. (1959:16)


54
Malorys last mention of Isoud. It can be seen that Malorys Isoud is a court lady
who never really lives in the wild.
We return now to Brouls poem, considered by its editor, Alan Fedrick,
the oldest of the Tristan romances" (12n.). First we must answer the question:
Why use a French work in a study of English medieval characters? My reason is
that Brouls presentation of the internationally renowned character Iseut fits
well into the Wild Woman concept and is far more interesting than the Malory
presentation discussed above. Further, as Jacques Chocheyras (171) states, the
manuscript is from England; one of its owners was Antoine de Chalfont and
Chalfont was the name of a Buckinghamshire family. Hence, Brouls work must
have been known in England; J.A. Burrow (4), in fact, feels that it was probably
composed for audiences in England. Also, although Broul seems to have been
from southern Normandy, his knowledge of Cornwall shows that he may really
have visited the Tristan-lseut area (Chocheyras 171, 187-8).
Like most of our Wild Women, Iseut defies convention; not only does she
do that, but she slyly assumes the appearance of convention. In contrast with
Malorys Isoud, she is not just a gracious lady who happens to be overcome by a
love potion, but a crafty and deceptive character. She is an excellent example of
the Untamed, and indeed the Untamable, Wild Woman. While she never repents
her adultery with Tristan, at King Marks court she plays the virtuous wife,
feigning submissiveness. Although she spends a brief time in the forest, this time
sequence does play a part in the definition of her character, and perhaps we


111
consciousness of personality in the men to whom she directed her efforts. Jung
continues:
The stirring up of conflict is a Luciferian virtue in the true sense of
the word. Conflict engenders fire, the fire of affects and emotions,
and like every other fire it has two aspects, that of combustion and
that of creating light.... The woman whose fate it is to be a
disturbing element is not solely destructive, except in pathological
cases. Normally, the disturber is herself caught in the disturbance;
the worker of change is herself changed, and the glare of the fire
she ignites both illumines and enlightens all the victims of the
entanglement. What seemed a senseless upheaval becomes a
process of purification. (30)
The Wife of Bath both literally throws the book into the fire and engenders
emotional fire in her relationship with Jankyn. The Loathly Lady ignites a conflict
of life-or-death seriousness in the young Knight. Circe turns men into swine, thus
bringing them to shame. But the Wife of Bath, her Loathly Lady, and even Circe
are themselves changed. The Jungian approach leads to a recognition that the
Wife is not solely destructive but is herself changed and both illuminates and
enlightens herself and Jankyn, as well as those of her audience who have
stayed the course. Note, however, that a Freudian woman-as-phallus must of
necessity seem, to a frightened male, a Jungian Terrible Mother. The Knight
matures when he realizes that the hag is not just a bogeywoman but is bringing
the structure he lacked to his life, teaching him something. In this way we can
see truth in both approaches.
To return to the fourteenth-century perspective with which this chapter
began, we may consider the question of woman as teacher. Must a woman who


62
physical problems (his impotence with his wife, Iseut aux Blanches Mains). It is
interesting that Iseut, in contrast, seems to have no problem having intercourse
with both Tristan and Mark. Iseut is only a partially successful Circe.
It is possible to take a broader, historical approachor approachesto
the story of Iseut than I have presented here. Leslie W. Rabine reminds us that
the restructuring of the feudal order in the late twelfth century assigned a
subordinate place to women and established an exclusively patrilineal system;
this excluded women from active roles. To ensure the legitimacy of heirs, the
legal system stringently enforced the chastity of women. Romantic love, in this
fragmented and transitional society, came to be seen as a means of attaining
freedom. However, in Ireland, both in folklore and in history, women had more
freedom than in the rest of Europe. A woman was free to divorce under certain
conditions and to keep her property, while receiving compensation and a fine.
Her clan, which was in Ireland more important than the family, protected her.
Further, in Celtic society, boundaries between this world and the Other World
were as fluid as the boundaries between matriliny and patriliny; relationships
were multiple and ambiguous, preventing the formation of a rigid hierarchy and
dominance (Rabine 39-43, 50-57, 73-4). Considered with this context, Iseut may
be seen simply as a wild Irish girl," which she is; she may also be seen as a
woman coming from a place of relative social freedom to a place of repression.
Looking at another aspect of history, we find that Roger Pensom, in
discussing the historical problem of the beliefs and social institutions


130
Harpy. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropaedia. 15th ed. 1992.
Harrison, Jane Ellen. Prologomena to the Study of Greek Religion. New York:
Arno Press, 1975.
Hill, Thomas D. Haliurunnas, Helrunan, and the History of Grendels Mother."
Paper presented at the MLA Convention, New Orleans, December 27,
2001.
Ho, Cynthia. Spare the Rod, Spoil the Bride. Medieval Feminist Newsletter,
Spring 1996: 19.
Howard, Edwin J. Geoffrey Chaucer. Twaynes English Authors Series. New
York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1964.
Husband, Timothy. The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism. New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980.
Irving, Edward B., Jr. Rereading Beowulf. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P,
1989.
Jerome, St. Against Jovinianus. Book I. A Select Library of Nicene and Post-
Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Second Series, Vol. VI. Trans.
W.H. Fremantle. Harvard Chaucer Page, ~chaucer>.
Jones, Gwyn. Kings Beasts and Heroes. London: Oxford UP, 1972.
Jonin, Pierre. Les personages fminins dans les romans frangais de Tristan au
Xllle sicle. Publications des Annales de la Facult des lettres. Aix-en-
Provence: nouv. sr., no. 22. Gap: Editions Ophrys, 1958.


67
[w]ith this powerful personality as a donne, a starting point, [the poet] allows
the presence to emerge. The poet must present the character in a manner
consistent with an established identity.... [A] self-effacing or evasive Isolt is not
Isolt (126). Like all the women we discuss here, Iseut transcends her existence
as a flat being on a page; she is a powerful figure of fantasy, fear, and
fulfillment, as well as a romantic figure lost in the forest of her audiences
dreams.


116
necessity of operating within a restrictive society and by her anger at those
restrictions. Iseut deftly escapes the conventions by lying; but, of course, this
should not be necessary.
I feel that the Wild Women whose fictional lives I have presented here
were acting in response to a need to define themselves. Grendels mother is a
familiar figure: With no interest in Grendel's father, whoever he might be, she
makes her son her sole emotional focus. When Grendel is mortally injured by
Beowulf, his mother lives only for revengeand almost achieves it. The Circe-
Mermaid type copes by seducing and destroying men; the Harpy simply
destroys, impelled by her fierce unsatisfied hunger. Iseut defines herself as an
individual at the cost of integrity and truth, though she gains at least a partial
freedom. Emelye struggles with self-definitionis she Amazon or not? How can
she best find happiness, and must she sacrifice freedom? The Wife seduces
and tames her old husbands while dreaming of romance and consoling herself
by frequent traveling; only in her relationship with Jankyn, when she has by
previous marriages accumulated enough money to live independently and do as
she pleases, can she be fully herself.
Strong enough to be unwilling to submit to the female stereotype, these
women attempt to create new molds for themselves. But this is all they do. They
do not break fully out. Their wildness, whatever form it takes, is their role. These
women are defined, above all, by their embodiment and transcendence of the
stereotypes on which their characters are based: the dangerous woman


6
Since my main approach in this study is a psychoanalytic one, it may be
helpful to prepare the way by considering the thoughts of two great
psychoanalytic mastersSigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jungand their
followers on these types of woman.
Importantly, a follower of Freud, Wolfgang Lederer, published The Fear of
Women in 1968. As the title promises, his subject is the fear of women that men
may have and the reasons for this fear. Woman is as much dreaded as adored,
a deep, dangerous and alluring space ... the vessel that cannot be adequately
filled by man. Grendel's mother is the Jungian Terrible Mother, goddess of
death and the underworld; she is a denizen of water, that feminine element
"connected with danger and with death (Lederer 25, 235, 126-7). The Jungian
approach, however, because of Jungs emphasis on myth, has proved more
helpful to me than Freuds.
Erich Neumann, a Jungian analyst, connects the Terrible Mother with
earth rather than with water: [T]his woman who generates life and all living
things on earth is the same who takes them back into herself, who pursues her
victims and captures them with snare and net (149). One does not have to be a
Jungian to see that this concept is always present in the figure of the mother.
Earth is thought of as a mother, and dead bodies go into the earth or may even
be eaten.
In Jungian thinking, various types of woman correspond to archetypes. In
his Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, Jung defines archetypes, a


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85
Chaucer may again be poking fun at Theseuss obsession with order, as well as
placating the Knight-like reader.
So the tale ends. The ending is conventional, in spite of Chaucers
questioning of conventions. We too may question what is happening: is Emelye
a happily tamed Wild Woman, or is she merely a tamed woman? Is the order
imposed by Chaucer, Jupiter, God, and Theseus a stifling and irksome one? Are
we to be disappointed in Chaucer?
It may be argued that Chaucer could do nothing else; a woman of his time
had only two choices, marriage or the service of God. It might also be argued
that if Emelye still wanted to be a priestess (nun in Chaucers society) she would
have done so by the time certeyn yeres had passed.
It could, of course, be argued that Chaucer is simply following Boccaccio.
But Chaucer, as we know, was not a mere follower, though he changed plots
elsewhere, as in the Legend(s) of Good Women. The point I am making is that
the conventionality of the ending does not succeed in removing the questions
and the ambiguitynor, I believe, is it meant to. It may seem to some that in the
final ending, where we are told that Emelye and Palamon live happily ever after
(3101-6), the characters pass into the realm of fairy tale, where natural human
problems are abolished. Perhaps so, but we are still left wondering if the
conventions really make everybody happy, and if Chaucer thinks they do. Taylor
(15) explains that Chaucers poetry exposes the visible disorder of mans
experience out of which he would find order. Find it, not impose it. Venus has


3
Woman or the Seductive Wild Woman, and find it worthwhile to call attention
to the evolution of the mermaid over the centuries, from the loathsome and
hideous harpy through the dangerous siren to the lovely and innocuous creature
of modern folklore (beginning probably with the literary tale by Hans Christian
Andersen, The Little Mermaid, and recently evoked by the film Splash).
Type three, the Untamable Wild Woman, falls into two separate, or
separable, subtypes. One is illustrated by Brouls Iseut, who pretends to follow
the conventions of life expected of a queen and court lady but who is, and is
determined to continue to be, wild and unrepentant. Not only does she live in the
forest for a short while, but she is adulterous and scheming, telling clever lies
that are only half lies to keep her reputation pure. She is, of course, also
seductive. She is presented here in Chapter 3. The other type, exemplified here
by the Wife of Bath, who has dominated four older husbands and won the right
to do as she pleases with the fifth, serves as the subject of Chapter 5.
The Gentle and Sweet Wild Woman, whom I call the Innocent Wild
Woman, I do not discuss at any length here. The Innocent Wild Woman in
figure 1, a character of folklore, seems to do little but enjoy the company of her
wild family and suckle her children. Ability to live in the forest is one of her
attributes, which she shares with Iseut. However, unlike Iseut, she is not wild in
the sense in which I use the word for the other types. The Emelye of Chapter 4,
a character in Chaucer's Knights Tale, also has some attributes of the
Innocent Wild Woman in her love of the forest and its pleasures.


93
Jacques Dalarun (16) points out, were expected to remain celibateagainst
their own sexual nature.
Patriarchal defense against the fear of women and attempts to preserve
male supremacy and authority were maintained in Chaucers day by actions as
well as literature (and modern scholarship finds that much misogynistic matter
has been added to Chaucerian texts by others). The concept of a wife as a
subordinate who had to accept authority led to the belief that a husband was
justified in wife beating, as Margaret Hallissy, Cynthia Ho, and Shulamith Shahar
show. If a superior beat a subordinate, this was not only permissible but
necessary; God Himself is punishing the world for its sinfulness (Hallissy 86).
Gratians Decretum, a law book of the beginning of the fourteenth century, sets
down the rule that a man might chastise and beat his wife, for she is of his
household, therefore the lord may chastise his own. He added,"... so likewise
the husband is bound to chastise his wife in moderation ... unless he be a clerk,
in which case he may chastise her more severely (Hallissy 86, Ho 19). We
know that the Wife of Baths fifth husband, Jankyn the clerk, took this to heart.
Husbands could, however, be tried and fined if they went too far. In some
places, also, men were punished for being beaten by their wives: The husband
was seated facing backwards on a donkey, his hands clutching its tail, a
humiliating punishment also inflicted on prostitutes and fornicators" (Shahar
89-90).


75
strength and consciously make her choices (57-8). Is this what Emelye must
learn to do? How much opportunity for conscious choice will she have?
In my own view, Emelye is a confused young girl in a state of transition
from one society to another and from girlhood to womanhood. (She is, of course,
considered a woman by her society, since she is old enough to be married.) She
must give up the Amazonian self of her earlier life, submit to Theseus's authority,
and become a soft, yielding woman and wife, the ideal of the courtly world. What
can she do? How can she free herself?
The strength of the Amazonic woman, according to Leonard, needs to
come out naturally from the center of her personality rather than be forced out
from an ego adaptation. What is needed is to bring that strength to the area of
which she is afraid (81). Emelye is not quite ready to do this yet; she wishes to
avoid the conflict without and within her. As she prepares to pray to Diana, she
decides that the best way to escape from her dilemma would be to remain
chaste forever, and to become a priestess.
In praying to Diana, Emelye is at the brink of a dangerous realm: Diana is
not only chaste goddesse of the wodes grene / To whom bothe hevene and
erthe and see is sene (lines 2297-8) but also Queene of the regne of Pluto
derk and lowe whose vengeaunce and ire are to be feared (2299, 2302).
Emelye feels her existence as an autonomous being is at stake; the only way to
preserve her self is to be chaste all her life, to hunt (both an Amazonian and a
courtly pursuit) and walk in the woods (Amazonian; a protected young girl would


94
Jankyn takes pleasure in reading to the Wife a book called Valerie and
Theofraste (Valerius, i.e., Walter Map, Dissuasio Valerii Rufino ne ducat uxorem
[Dissuasion of Valerius to Rufinus that he not take a wife], 1180-90). In this
work, which takes the form of a letter, Valerius tries to dissuade Rufinus from
marrying, citing both biblical and mythological examples of the bad effects of
loving women. The Theofraste of Jankyns book is Theophrastus, author of the
Golden Book on Marriage, another book attacking marriage. Theophrastuss
book included that of St. Jerome (3407-420), Against Jovinianus, Jovinianus
being an unorthodox monk who denied that virginity was necessarily superior to
marriage. This text had much to say about the defects of wives, some of it
entertaining: [S]he complains that one lady goes out better dressed than she;
that another is looked up to by all; I am a poor despised nobody at the ladies[]
assemblies. Why did you ogle that creature next door? 'Why were you talking
to the maid?... I am not allowed to have a single friend, or companion
(Jerome 1893).
Chaucer develops the Wife of Baths character by taking off from this kind
of antimarriage literature; in the book of wykked wives read aloud by Jankyn,
this kind of admonition of the husband, as well as many other tales of womens
defects and misbehavior, provided a well-rounded stereotype. He adds such
details as the Wifes horoscope, her clothing, and, finally, her behavior in the
altercation with her fifth husband, which left her partially deaf. With respect to
her horoscope, the Wife declares:


128
Carlson, Signe M. The Monsters of Beowulf-. The Problem of Grendels Mother.
Journal of American Folklore 80:318 (1967): 357-64.
Chadwick, H. Munro, and N. Kershaw Chadwick. The Growth of Literature. Vol. I.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986. (1932.)
Chance, Jane. The Structural Unity of Beowulf. The Problem of Grendels
Mother. New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Ed. Helen
Damico and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen. Bloomington and Indianapolis:
Indiana UP, 1990.248-61.
Charbonneau-Lassy, Louis. The Bestiary of Christ. Trans, and abridged by D M.
Dooling. New York: Penguin (Arkana), 1991.
Cherry, John. Mythical Beasts. Ed. John Cherry. London: British Museum Press,
1995.
Chocheyras, Jacques. Tristan et Iseut: gense d'un mythe littraire. Paris:
Champion, 1996. Nouvelle Bibliothque du Moyen Age.
Clark Hall, J.R. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 4th ed. Toronto: U of Toronto
P, 1960.
Crane, Susan. Gender and Romance in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton UP, 1994.
. Medieval Romance and Feminine Difference in The Knights Tale. Studies
in the Age of Chaucer, 12 (1990). 47-63.


8
primarily male), while the Terrible Mother frightens men, bringing about a strong
impact on their attitudes toward women, womens bodies, and womens
personalities.
I shall be presenting, then, the stories of five Wild Women, each of whom
must be considered as an individual representation of the group. Chapter 1 goes
to the beginning of English literature with Grendels mother and her conflict with
Beowulf, portrayed in terms made available by Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, and
Dorothy Bloch. Chapter 2 treats the harpy, siren, and seductive mermaid.
Chapter 3 presents Iseut as Broul dramatizes her; she is seen as Wild Woman
and as Celt (Leslie Rabino). Chapter 4 discusses Chaucers Emelye in the light
of Jungian theory, while Chapter 5 takes up in detail Chaucers Wife of Bath,
including the figure of the Loathly Lady, and the Wifes struggle with the
conventions of her society.


23
need to attempt, presumptuous as it may seem, to psychoanalyze Beowulf, for
his progress toward heroism is bound up with the battle against the monster.
One psychoanalytic interpretation, following Erich Neumanns (1963) line
of reasoning, of Grendels mother and Beowulfs relationship with her is that she
is the Jungian Terrible Mother[t]he negative side of the elementary character
of the feminine, the positive elementary character being the [b]ody-vessel and
mother-child situation (147). Neumann goes on to say, The symbolism of the
Terrible Mother draws its images predominantly from the inside.... The reason
for this is that the Terrible Female is a symbol for the unconscious. And the dark
side of the Terrible Mother takes the form of monsters. ..(148) He compares
this figure to the Valkyrie; Medusa; and the Egyptian goddess Nut, who in her
avatar as Nuit, the black night sky ... is identified with the devouring darkness
of the earth and of water (164-5). Here again we have the coalescence of
monster and goddess.
In a Freudian way, I at first saw the killing of Grendels mother by Beowulf
as a rite of passage in which Beowulf is involved in a struggle with parent
figures; however, I gradually moved toward Jung and Klein in my attempt to
explain what is going on in the poem. The good and the bad mother are split, as
the analyst Melanie Klein points out: [Ojbject relations exist from the beginning
of life, the first object being the mothers breast which to the child becomes split
into a good (gratifying) and bad (frustrating) breast; this splitting results in a
severance of love and hate (175-6). Of Beowulfs real mother nothing is known,


2
distortions or sublimations of one kind or another (169). We exclude here most
of the female characters portrayed by the otherworld-looking, celibate male
clergy (or even those who did not fall into this category, such as Gower or
Chaucer). Such characters tend to be either passive, compliant dolls (like
Chaucers patient Griselda) or hypersexual, rampant women. Not all the figures
we shall be discussing fall into these two categories: Grendel's mother, for
example, or Iseut.
We need to begin by asking two questions: Who and what is the Wild
Woman? What does the term mean? I divide the concept into several parts,
chronologically presented as follows:
The most frightening Wild Woman of all, Grendels mother of the Old
English heroic poem Beowulf (Chapter 1), is well described by Erich Neumanns
Jungian concept of the Terrible Mother (149-70). The Terrible Mother is a figure
evolved from the small childs split good/bad mother image. (See Melanie Klein.)
Possessing both masculine and feminine aspects, Grendels mother fiercely
takes up her sword to avenge the mutilation and death of her son. She is both
subhuman and superhuman, a creature of dark and cold waters, evoking for the
modern reader a reluctant admiration accompanied by revulsion and fear.
The Wild Woman as Seductress is represented here by the mermaid
(Chapter 2). She is in part a subset of the Innocent type (see below), but in
reality she only looks, and pretends to be, innocent; in medieval times she was
also thought of as a dangerous seductress. I call her the Half Human Wild


CHAPTER 5
THE WIFE OF BATH
The Wife of Bath is almost too easy to write about. As a woman who
enjoys sex and is uninhibited about saying so, she seems the epitome of the
Wild Woman as envisaged by the Middle Agesthat is, a hypersexual woman.
Not only is she hypersexual (by the standards of her age, at least), she also
defies the conventions laid down for women by being aggressive, assertive, and
bold in her search for the life she wants. I argue in this chapter that she has
characteristics of all the types of Wild Woman, and also that she is not a
caricature or a stereotype, but a fully rounded female character.
First, however, it seems appropriate to provide a context; an overview of
the conventional wisdom about woman in the Middle Ages may be of use here.
This view of woman was inherited from Greco-Roman society, where women
were seen as cold (since they did not produce the heat and masculine virtues
depending on semen)1 and yet profoundly sexual, insatiable in their capacity to
experience intercourse and to enjoy it, as Joyce E. Salisbury (84) states; see
also Vern L. Bullough (226). Inheriting the Greco-Roman view, medieval
Christian thinkers held that women's and mens sexual expression was
11t is interesting that we now see actively sexual women as "hot and less responsive
women as cold (frigid").
87


104
The beating Jankyn administers to her on this occasion may not have
been the first of their marriage (remember that wife-beating was a sanctioned
way of keeping women under control at this time, as we have seen). The Wife
states:
And yet was he to me the mooste shrewe [of all her husbands],
That feele I on my ribbes al by rewe [one after another],
And evere shal unto myn endying day,
But in oure bed he was so fresh and gay ...
That thogh he hadde me bete on every bon,
He koude wynne again my love anon. (505-8, 511-2)
After the fight over the book, however, the Wifewho has hit him twice
must have declared her desire to have governance, which Jankyn agrees to
give her:
He yaf me al the bridel In myn hond,
To han the governance of hous and lond,
And of his tonge, and of his hond also;
And made hym brenne his book anon right tho [then], (813-6)
The burning of the book signifies Jankyns readiness to turn a new leaf;
he adds: Do as thee lust the terme of al thy lyf; / keep thyn honour, and keep
eek myn estaat (821-2). Honour may have any one (or more) of several
meanings here; if it means fame, reputation, good name" (Davis et al., 76),
Jankyn is implying that the Wife must keep her chastity; yet he has just told her
that she may do as she wishes, whatever that may be! It is more likely to mean
respect, that is, his respect and that of the world. Chaucer may, of course, be
playing on the various meanings of the word.


101
mayde? (236-8, 241) and so on, by going on strike sexually (408-10), and, after
she has tormented them sufficiently, by taming them in the manner of Circe.
Fig. 5-3. Husband-dominator in engraving by Martin Treu, ca. 1540-43.
From Yarnall.
The only source the Middle Ages had for the story of Circe was Ovids
Metamorphoses, in which the animals (even the lions, bears, and wolves)
enchanted by Circe are gentle and they wagged their tails / And fawned on us
and followed us along (332-3). Here we see, taking Judith Yarnalls discussion
of Circe as the woman on top as a starting point, a triumph for Venus: [T]he


53
They slept that night in the forest of Morrois on a hillside ...
[Tristan] cut branches to make a leafy bower and Yseut covered
the ground thickly with leaves.... Governal [the squire] knew how
to cook and made a good fire from some dry wood.... They had
no milk or salt in this lodging. .. They were a long time in the
wood. Each morning they had to leave the place where they had
spent the night.... They were leading a rough and hard life, but
they loved each other with such true love that neither felt any
hardship because of the other. (76-8)
While romantic enough, this hardly describes life in a forest with a fair manor.
Malory omits the dramatic scene at the ford (see below) that in Broul
precedes the lovers escape into the forest. In Malory, Isoud is removed from the
forest manor by Mark, eventually escapes again, and lives with Tristan at
Lancelot's castle, Joyous Gard. Although she is an adulteress, her life and
behavior are those of a courtly lady. To speak of her beauty, bounty, and mirth,
and of her goodness, we saw never her match as far as we have ridden and
gone, two knights report to Queen Guenever. Guenever replies, [S]o saith all
the people that have seen her and spoken with her" (2:171). When Tristan
prepares to go to court for Pentecost, Isoud refuses to accompany him, for then
shall I be spoken of shame among all queens and ladies of estate (2:231). If
Tristan does not go to the feast, she says, other knights will make fun of him for
cowering in a castle with a lady and not coming to the kings feast. It is pity I
have my life, she says, "that I will hold so noble a knight as ye are from his
worship (2:231).
Isoud is kept at Joyous Gard three years, being finally brought to Mark by
Tristan by means of treaties, at which time Mark slays Tristan (2:467-8). This is


70
Hansen goes on to remind us that Theseus is throughout the Tale associated
with foreign women (Amazons, Theban widows) and that the haunting subject of
Theseuss relation to the female Other is fundamental to the ... story. As for
Emelye, it is clear that her sexuality must be contained by marriage if she is to
be part of the world of order (218, 220). The gentlemanly Knight dares not tell
how Emelye washed herself at the Temple of Diana.
Hansen feels that there are hints that Emily is not quite as resolutely
devoted to chastity as she appears to be. She is drawn out into the garden in
May, traditionally a time of disorder and of female sexual excess, while the
garden itself has a sexual connotation, as we shall see. She hedges her prayer
to remain chaste by adding, Sende me hym that moost desireth me (line 2325).
She agayn ... caste a freendlich ye (2679) on Arcite at the tournament
(Hansen 221-2). Such observations can easily be overlooked, but drawn to our
attention they suggest that Emelye is not a saintlike and ornamental figure of
virginity, but a very human young girl.
Margaret Hallissy takes a more sociological or sociohistorical view of
Emelye. She calls to our attention the fact that Chaucer questions what
obedience to rules might mean to women (23; italics mine). A father, in both
Theseuss and the Knights day, was responsible for protecting his daughter and
presenting her intact to her husband. As Hallissy explains,
Of crucial importance ... is the smooth transition of a virgin from
father to husband. The young girl in the space between father and
husband is in that most threatening of situations, a borderline


22
referred to by Orosius as the ancestors of the Huns, as Jordanes says (Mierow,
trans. 1915). Haliurunnas are women, called by Orosius magas mulieres mage-
women or, more prosaically, magnas mulieres big women," giant women, who
were expelled from the Getae by Filimer, son of Gadaric the Great. Wandering
through the swamps, they mingled with unclean spirits and became the
ancestresses of the Huns. We note the affinity here with water and marshlands,
and the magic quality of the women (if magas is not a scribal error for
magnas), but the Huns were a horse-riding race. Clark Hall (176,177) gives for
hellerune the translations pythoness, sorceress, /E[Ifric]: demon, B[eowulf]
163 and for helruna hellish monster, B 163. The /Elfric source is not further
given.
We have so far seen a tangle of concepts: Grendel and his mother are
human; they are giants or monsters; Grendel's mother is a hag (a kind of
monster, but recalling the Loathly Lady [Chapter 5] in her hag avatar); Grendels
mother is a sorceress; Grendels mother is a goddess. It appears that several
motifs coalesce here: a folk motif of the hag or ogress; a kind of sympathy with
the two figures, which makes them seem human or quasi-human; the motif of a
witch or sorceress; finally, memory (and demonlzation) of a goddess figure.
We have presented above various answers to the question of who or
what Grendels mother is. We shall now examine the role of Grendels mother in
the poem and see what light this throws on her as a character. In doing this, we


133
Ross, Anne. Pagan Celtic Britain: Studies in Iconography and Tradition. Chicago:
Academy Chicago Publishers, 1996. (1967.)
Rowland, Beryl. Animals with Human Faces: A Guide to Animal Symbolism.
Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1973.
. Birds with Human Souls: A Guide to Bird Symbolism. Knoxville: U of
Tennessee P, 1978.
. Blind Beasts: Chaucers Animal World, n.p.: Kent State UP, 1971.
. Harpies. South 1987. 133-45.
Rycroft, Charles. Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. 2nd ed. London:
Penguin Books, 1995.
Salisbury, Joyce E. Gendered Sexuality. Bullough and Brundage, eds., 1996.
81-102.
Schibanoff, Susan. The Crooked Rib: Women in Medieval Literature.
Approaches to Teaching The Canterbury Tales. Ed. Joseph Gibaldi. New
York: Modern Language Association of America, 1980. 121-8.
Shahar, Shulamith. The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages.
London: Routledge, 1983.
Siren. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropaedia. 15th ed. 1992.
South, Malcolm, ed. Mythical and Fabulous Creatures: A Source Book and
Research Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
Stanley, Eric G. Heroic Women in Old English Literature. Heroes and Heroines
in Medieval English Literature: A Festschrift presented to Andr Crpin on


47
Fig. 2-6. The temptation of Eve. Speculum Humanae Salvationis, London,
British Library, M.S. Harley 4996. fol. 4v (detail). (Reprinted with
permission of the British Library). From Flores 178.
would be responsible for the Fall! This representation begins with Peter
Comestors Historia Scholastica in the last half of the twelfth century. Comester
felt that this was reasonable since similar things attract one another, that is,
Eve and the virgin-like serpent (Flores 167-8,173, 179) (See fig. 2-6, Flores
Figure 2, from the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, written around 1324 [176].)
Nana C. Flores adds: On some representations [of sirens], the scaly fishtail
looks suspiciously like a scaly serpent's tail except for the fin at the end, and
even Romanesque bird sirens (generally identified as harpies) often bore a


131
Jordan, Michael, Encyclopedia of Gods: Over 2,500 Deities of the World. New
York: Facts on File, 1993.
King, hielen. Half-Human Creatures. Cherry 1995.138-67.
Klapisch-Zuber, Chrlstiane, ed. A History of Women in the West. Vol. 2, Silences
of the Middle Ages. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1992.
Klaeber, Fr. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. 3rd ed. Lexington, MA: D.C.
Heath, 1950.
Leicester, H. Marshall, Jr. My Bed Was Full of Verray Blood: Subject, Dream,
and Rape in the Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale. Beidler 1996. 234-62.
Lvi-Strauss, Claude. The Origin of Table Manners. Chicago: U of Chicago P,
1990.
LHermite-Leclercq, Paulette. The Feudal Order." Trans, and adapted by Arthur
Goldhammer. Klapisch-Zuber, ed., 1992. 202-49.
Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Mode dArthurin two volumes. Ed. Janet Cowan.
London: Penguin Books, 1986-88.
Mann, Jill. Geoffrey Chaucer. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press
International, Inc., 1991.
The Marriage of Sir Gawaine. Bryan and Dempster 1941. 235-41.
Martin, Priscilla. Chaucers Women: Nuns, Wives and Amazons. Houndmills and
London: Macmillan, 1990.
McCall, John P. Chaucer among the Gods: The Poetics of Classical Myth.
University Park and London: Pennsylvania State UP, 1979.


77
aventure reminds us of a knights quest and may suggest to Emelye that
perhaps love and marriage might not be so bad. At any rate, Emelye accepts the
answer, though in bewilderment: What amounteth this, alias? /1 putte me in thy
proteccioun, / Dyane, and in thy disposicioun (2362-4). Note that word
disposicioun: it may mean disposal" (a sense cited by Davis et al., [39],
although they do not cite this passage). If we accept this meaning, we realize
that Diana, a female deity and role model, rather than Theseus, now has the
authority to dispose of Emelyes futureat least in Emelyes mind. Diana, of
course, is not the ultimate decider: as we have seen, Emelye must marry by
reason of eterne word writen and confirmed. Her fate will be determined by the
gods, as in myth and classical epic. (We thus have three authorities: Chaucer
[who writes the tale told by his character, the Knight], the gods, and Theseus). At
any rate, Emelye goes home, apparently both resigned and comfortedperhaps
even a little excited.
Let us stop for a moment and look at what is going on. What is Chaucer
doing here? It seems even a little possible that he is both dramatizing the
quasihistorical transition from matriarchy to patriarchy and the inner conflict in
women between singleness and commitment, individualism and bondedness, as
some may see the opposing ways of life traditionally called feminine and
masculine. Women must reconcile these attitudes within themselves and in
their daily lives. Emelye has accepted the necessity, in her situation, of
marriage, but we are not yet sure how far the wench is quenched, how far the


31
adorned with severed heads or arms ... her lips smeared with blood (178), who
is nevertheless adored by many.
If Grendels mother is a goddess, she has supreme right to avenge the
killing of animals under her protection (stags, water creatures) and of her son.
Killing a goddess would be an act of sacrilege, yet the killing of one who has
destroyed allies and endangered your whole group is a noble act. If you have
killed the goddess of death, you may have stepped outside the human realm
altogether. Beowulf will never be the same again.
The role of Grendels mother in the poem, then, is that of the Terrible
Mother located firmly in the psyche, that of a dangerous monster who must be
destroyed, and that of a goddess whose killing is sacrilege. Folklore, myth, and
religion coalesce here.
Why does Grendels mother appear overtly as a monster and a
subhuman, cannibalistic haga goddess in trolls clothing? The conflict of
Christianity and paganism coalesces here: It is sacrilege to kill a goddess of
paganism, but a pagan goddess becomes to Christians only a monster, whom it
is acceptable and even necessary to kill. This is added to the psychological split
of Good/Terrible Mother and the struggle to rid oneself of the Terrible Mother.
The act of killing this threefold being could induce a lasting psychic conflict, as it
seems to do in Beowulf. Killing her is threatening, as she is a dominant female
figure in a male-bonded society.


64
Rather, we may perhaps see her as a case of borderline personality, as
evinced by her manipulation and deception of others and her splitting of herself
(the good wife, the reckless lover) and of other people (Tristan, Governal,
Husdant, and Ogrin on one side, the three barons on the other). She seems
further to have the characteristic of thinking that she is always right. As Pensom
says, she avoids accepting any responsibility for their [the lovers] situation and
is at best ambiguously penitent." She prostrates herself to the hermit, but this is
not an attitude of religious submission but a supplication to the hermit for his
good offices (66, 67). Melanie Klein (181-9) and Susan Nolen-Hoekema (422-3)
describe this splitting of other people into all bad and all good as
characteristic of the borderline personality. Iseut sees herself and Tristan as all
good and everyone else as all bad. She also controls and manipulates Tristan
and Mark (see the episode of The Vindication of Yseut, Broul 115-27, in
which Iseut controls Mark and then Tristan). The lovers escapades are directed
by Iseut. Klein says:
[T]he relation to another person on the basis of projecting bad
parts of the self into [the other] is of a narcissistic nature, because
... the object strongly represents one part of the self.... The
impulse to control other people is ... an essential element in
obsessional neurosis. The need to control others can to some
extent be explained by a deflected drive to control parts of the self.
When these parts have been projected excessively into another
person, they can only be controlled by controlling the other person.
(187)


19
G-Gata lod Grendles mdor;
braegd t> beadwe heard, p h
gebolgen wass,
feorhgenilan, paet ho on flet gebah.
Ho him eft hrape andlan forgeald
grimman grpum ond him tganes
fng;
oferwearp p wrigmd wigena
strengest,
fpecempa, past h on fylle wear.
Ofsaet p pone selegyst, ond hyre seax
getah
brd [ond] brnecg; wolde hire beam
wrecan,
ngan eaferan. Him on eaxle laeg
brostnet brden; paet gebearh fore,
wifl ord ond wifl ecge ingang forstd.
Haefde forsiSod sunu Ecgpowes
under gynne grund, Gata cempa,
nemne him heaobyrne helpe
gefremede,
herenet hearde, ond hlig God
gewold wigsigor; witig Drihten,
rodera FSedend hit on ryht gescd
ydelce, sypan h eft std.
Geseah on searwum sigeadig bil,
ealdsweord eotenisc ecgum pyhtig,
wigena weorflmynd; paet [waes] waepna
cyst,-
bton hit waes mre flonne aenig mon
er
t beadulce aetberan meahte,
gd ond geatolic, giganta geweorc.
H gefng p fetelhilt, freca Scyldinga
without regretGrendels mother;
flung in the fights hardnesshe was
enraged
at the deadly foe; she fell on the floor.
Quickly she in turn paid his reward,
with her grim grip she grabbed at him;
weary he stumbled, the strongest
warrior,
the foot-warrior, so that he fell.
Upon that hall-guest she drew her short
sword
broad and bright-edged; she would
avenge her son,
her only offspring. On his shoulder lay
his woven mail-coat; that protected his
life,
against point and edge it forbade
entrance.
He would have perished, Ecgtheows
son,
under the wide ground, the Geatish
warrior,
if his war-corslet had not helped him,
his hard mail-coat; and holy God
wielded his victory; the wise Lord,
the heavens Ruler, rightly decided
easily, when [Beowulf] stood up.
He saw among arms the battle-blessed
sword,
ancient and giant-worked, strong in its
edge,
warriors glory, most choice of weapons,
but it was more than any other
might bear away to battle-sport,
good and well-adorned, by giants
worked.
He seized the chained hilt, the bold
Scylding,


107
back, crushing him under her weight and not allowing him to eat any food (57).
In a Wichita tale, the old woman refused to get off [the heros back], and she
explained to the hero that she had made up her mind to marry him in order to
punish him for having always refused to take a wife (58). Sometimes the
Clinging-Woman is a frog woman (71), hardly attractive as a bride. In these
tales, however, she is not transformed into a beautiful maiden but is pulled away
and killed. The hero is one of a race of deceiving birds (58) or a human woman-
chaser (73-4). He deserves his punishment, as does the hero of the Loathly
Lady tales, but the punishment is not reversed. This shows that the Clinging-
Woman, Loathly-Lady character, the character of the deceiving man, and the
story itself have universality in far-distant parts of the world.
Crane goes on to say that the Ladys shapeshifting (and not her folk motif)
implies that feminine identity is not inherent in bodily appearance and that the
Ladys aged body and her aggressive sexuality instantiate a repulsive,
aggressive womanhoodher unsolicited lustfulness contributes to her
association with wildness and bestiality and to her intimate threat to men." The
shapeshifter, in both the beautiful and the ugly bodies, shows exaggerated
versions of womanhood (1994:85, 88). Cranes concluding question (52) is, Are
Dame Ragnell and the Wife of Baths old hag truly ugly and aggressive or truly
beautiful and obedient? Such bivalence is irreducible in romance and it is
gendered feminine. She seems to be saying that it is natural for women to want


THE WILD WOMAN AND HER SISTERS
IN MEDIEVAL ENGLISH LITERATURE
BY
ANNE H. LAMBERT
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2003


66
seen discussed by Erich Neumann (150-3; see fig. 3-2); she brings peril and
death to herself and Tristan. Iseut is not a mother and does nothing constructive;
her only act of kindness in Broul is her fondness for the dog Husdant (in
contrast to the episode in Malory where she saves Sir Palomides from dying
unchristened). As Carl Jung reminds us, any helpful instinct or impulse belongs
to the positive side of the mother archetype, while the negative side may
connote anything ... that devours, seduces, and poisons, that is terrifying and
inescapable like fate (Jung 1959:16). And Neumann adds: [D]eath and
destruction, danger and distress, hunger and nakedness, appear as
helplessness in the presence of the Dark and Terrible Mother (149). The
danger and distress, hunger and nakedness remind us of the lovers sojourn in
the forest; the helplessness is Tristans, and death eventually takes both of the
lovers, Tristan from battle wounds and despair and Iseut from grief at Tristans
deatha tender emotion or rage at the loss of her obsessional object?
But we cannot be content with only one interpretation of Iseut, her
personality, and her story. This may be one reason for the proliferation of
versions of the legend. As Edith Whitehurst Williams (125) says, Iseut is one of
the figures who reappear in literature throughout the centuries: A composite
Isolt, gleaned from all the surviving fragments, essays duplicity, murder, escape,
repentance, endurance, and despair. But in the end she steps boldly forward to
embrace her destiny of life and death. Her character, in collaboration with the
various authors who have written about her, take[s] on a kind of autonomy;


95
For cedes, I am al Venenen
In feelynge, and myn herte is Marcien.
Venus me yaf my lust, my llkerousnesse,
And Mars me yaf my sturdy hardynesse;
Myn ascendent was Taur, and Mars therinne.
Allas! Allas! that evere love was synne!
I folwed ay myn Inclinacioun
By vertu of my constellacioun.. ..
(Wifes Prologue, 609-16; Chaucer 113)
The Wife seems to be saying that she is naturally wild, lecherous, and
"hardy (bold); she cannot help it; she uses astrology not only to explain but to
excuse herself. Another interpretive perspective, however, is possible. Chauncy
Wood, in his book on Chaucers use of astrology, points out that if she follows
Nicole Oresmes Livre de divinacions (Book of Divinations; Oresme was a
contemporary of Chaucer), the Wife, while she might be inclined to lechery by
her stars, has free will to control her behavior. Chaucers beliefs may have been
similar. He states in his Astrolabe that horoscopes ben observaunces of judicial
matere and rytes of payens, in which my spirit hath no feith, and describes the
practices of astrologers as follows: [Tjhey wol caste that thei [the customers]
have a fortunat planete in hir ascendent, and yit in his felicite; and than say thei
that it iswel(Wood 11,15; Chaucer 670-1). Astrologers tell their customers
what they want to hear, but it is possible to take a critical stance with regard to
what the astrologers say. The Wife, therefore, cannot blame her stars for what


55
might say that the wilderness of the forest is an exteriorization of her wild
character (see fig. 3-1). But what is most important to Iseuts self-realization is
the ability she acquires to define herself in opposition to established norms. As
Peter S. Noble says, she has skill with words, acting ability, and an "ability to
think on her feet (20).
Fig. 3-1. Louis Rhead (1857-1926). La Belle Isault, Tristan and Isolde,
3 Nov. 2001 rhead1.2.jpg>.
In medieval Christianity, the ideal woman was asexual, or rather stripped
of her sexuality (the virgin martyr) or (next best) chaste, having sexual relations
only with her husband. Iseut fulfills neither of these requirements. She is a bold,


72
semipublic (though walled) space, often containing a smaller (also walled)
garden called the hortus conclusus, which provided more privacy (fig. 4-1).
The walled garden provides further possibilities for interpretation of
Chaucers Emelye, as Hallissy demonstrates:
[Architectural metaphors in medieval literature often refer to the
biological structure of the female body. Women not only exist in
architectural space, they are architectural space; their bodies
enclose inner space, and women are themselves enclosed for
protection of that inner space. (94-5)
It is probably the hortus conclusus, the more private and sexual space, in which
Emelye walks in lines 1846-55 of The Knights Tale." At this point she has just
risen from bed and dressed herself. We see as she walks in the place laid out
for her that just as she is transformed from a classical wild Amazon to a
fourteenth-century English maiden, so her space is transformed from a
wilderness to a medieval garden. The only forest that remains to her is that
which courtly society uses for hunting, and she is part of that society, subject to
the authority of her male protector, Theseus.
Three views of Emelye have just been presented. To me, only the latter
twoHansens of Emelye as Amazon, and Hallissys of Emelye as lady of the
garden and of both her garden and inner spacehave merit.
Chaucers view is not that of Thurston, of Theseus or the Knight. He sees
women as people, not as puppets; he is, as Hallissy suggests, questioning what


16
would strengthen the case for taking Grendel's mother for a being of this kind
(22). Is Grendel's mother, then, a Loathly Lady who alternates between hag and
beautiful woman, a seductress perhaps in either role? Is she a tamer of both
animals and men? Do we have another Circe here?
Others give support to the Grendels-mother-as-goddess concept. Anne
Ross, in her Pagan Celtic Britain, points out that Celtic goddesses are often
connected with healing waters (275, 279, 455); hag goddesses (cailleachs) are
connected with sacred wells (281, 293, 421). This unites the hag figure with the
goddess. The Morrigan, a Celtic war goddess, or rather one of a trio of war
goddesses, can appear as a terror-inspiring hag, a beautiful young woman, or
a crow or raven; this seems to unite the hag with the Valkyrie (48, 313). Thomas
D. Hill too quotes Orosius as saying that the Gothic witch race with its unclean
spirit companions dwelt at first in the swamps (Hill 2001; see below).
Mostly, however, Grendels mother is seen as a monster, a hag, usually
fearful but sometimes speechless and stupid, as John Gardner describes her in
his novel Grendel and as the illustration by Flki seems to present her (fig. 1-2).
The monster interpretation has been supported by many translators, as Alfano
points out (see above). John D. Niles also describes Grendel and his mother as
being like people, with a kind of rudimentary culture, who at the same time
have the size and appetites of giants or trolls. On one hand they recall the
night-striders of Germanic folk-belief.... On the other, they are the devils of


79
faire, yonge, fresshe Venus free, betraying her husband, Vulcan. Victory is the
theme of Arcites prayer; he refers only briefly to his love for Emelye, and
concludes, Yif me [victorie]; I aske thee namoore (lines 2373-2420). His only
descriptive phrase concerning Emelye is of her indifference to him ('For she that
dooth me at this wo endure / Me reccheth nevere wher I synke or fleete; he is
interested only in recognition. His prayer, which occupies lines 2373 to 2420,
has no sooner concluded than strife among the gods begins, and the outcome is
decided, even before the battle, by Saturn.
We note not only that Palamon is more interested in love and Arcite in
war, but also that Arcite is not really interested in Emelye as a person; she is
simply a trophy to him. He employs the word used for Mars's conquest of
Venus; Emelye is to be used, not to be truly known. John P. McCall has
remarked that Palamon and Arcite fall in love in different ways (73), and that
Palamon sees Emelye as a Venus character (lines 1101-7), while Arcite
describes her in the deadly, impetuous language of Mars. For Arcite the love
of Emelye is, and will prove to be, less a matter of affection than a contest, as
McCall (74) says. It is interesting that the two suitors reflect the two sides of
Emelyes character: warlikeness and committed love.
The tenderhearted reader naturally favors Palamons suit, as does the
divine arbiter Saturnand we learn that Palamon will marry Emelye, although
none of the mortal characters knows this yet. Emelyes prayer will thus be
answered: She will marry the man that moost desireth her. Saturn takes


124
present-day mankind springs in large part from the one-sidedly patriarchal
development of the male intellectual consciousness, which is no longer
kept in balance by the matriarchal world of the psyche (xlii). Great
Mother, Good Mother, and Terrible Mother form a cohesive archetypal
group (21). There are four poles of the Feminine archetype: the Mother
and the Virgin (positive) and the young witch and old witch (negative)
(77). The Terrible Mother is the old witch, while stupor, enchantment,
helplessness and dissolution and intoxicants and poisons "belong to
the sphere of seduction by the young witch (74). On pages 141-6
Neumann discusses animal symbolism in half-human representations of
the feminine: fish, snakes, birds, harpies, and sirens. On pages 147-61 he
discusses the power of the Terrible Mother in her various manifestations.
We can trace both the young witch and the Terrible Mother in our study of
the Wild Woman.
Puhvel, Martin. Beowulf and Celtic Tradition. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier UP,
1979. Monstrous broods descended from Cain and hags from Celtic lore
are discussed. There is a prolific tradition of water monsters in Irish lore
(62). The element of the melting of the sword on contact with the mere-
wifes blood is also found in Irish literature, as is the heros descent into
the underwater world and free movement there (40-44, 74-81). Puhvel
thinks the whole story may arise from a Celtic and a Scandinavian tale
(130-8).


132
Niles, John D. Pagan Survivals and Popular Belief." The Cambridge Companion
to Old English Literature. Ed. Malcolm Godden and Michael Lappidge.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. 126-41.
Noble, Peter S. Brouls Tristan and the Folie de Berne. London: Grant & Cutler
Limited, 1982. Critical Guides to French Texts 15.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan. Abnormal Psychology. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill,
2001.
OClery, Helen. Melusine. The Mermaid Reader. Ed. Helen OClery. New York:
Franklin Watts, 1964. 117-25.
Orchard, Andy. Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the Beowulf-
Manuscript. Cambridge [Eng.]: Brewer, 1995.
---. Ed. and trans. Liber monstrorum. Orchard 1995: 255-317.
Osborn, Marijane. Translations, Versions, Illustrations. Bjork and Niles 1997:
341-72.
Ovid. Metamorphoses. Trans. A.D. Melville. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP,
1990.
Pensom, Roger. Reading BrouTs Tristan: A Poetic Narrative and the
Anthropology of its Reception. Bern: Peter Lang, 1995.
Pollard, John. Seers, Shrines and Sirens: The Greek Religious Revolution in the
Sixth Century B.C. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1965. Unwin
University Books 21.
Rabine, Leslie V. Love and the New Patriarchy. Grimbert, ed., 1995. 37-74.


98
Fig. 5-2. The Wife of Bath. From the Ellesmere manuscript.
.
If the chronology of actual time could be collapsed, one might almost
believe that Chaucer had read Bertram D. Lewins 1933 paper The Body as
Phallus (26-9, 34-5). Lewin, a Freudian psychoanalyst, describes a patient who
fantasized that her whole body was a penis and who compared her outpour of
words to an orgasm. He states: [T]he fantasy of ones whole body being a
penis is symbolically a passive feminine fantasy, the equivalent of the phallic
level fantasy of castration. However, it can be observed that, while the Wifes
costume may seem masculine, it is also feminine. Laura F. Hodges (366) notes


86
apparently conquered Mars, but what is the everyday outcome in the years
ahead? Will Emelye, like Zenobia of The Monks Tale, become a mighty
warrior queen in her own right (Chaucer 246)? We may hope so, but we cannot
assume that it is likely. The story of Emelye ends with what, reading from the
perspective established here, can be considered a triumph of masculine power,
consolidated by reference to the controlling force of classical tradition.


61
audience, a figure of fear and fantasy, for some of the women who read and
heard her tale, it seems entirely possible that she was a wish-fulfillment figure,
portraying the freedom they might wish for. To view this unconventional woman
and her effect on listeners/readers in more depth, we may resort to historicolegal
or psychoanalytic methods. The question becomes: What has made her the way
she is? We shall take the historical aspect first.
Joan Tasker Grimbert points out that in Celtic analogues to the legend,
the heroine is a kind of goddess with magical powers who casts a spell over
her mate. This spell is replaced by the potion in the Tristan-lseut story we know,
a potion that renders both partners impotent in the face of an inexorable fate
that pits their individual desires against those of the community (xvi). I would
add that the Circean quality of the female character in the Celtic legend has, in
the continental legend, been lost by Iseut and transferred to her mother, who
prepares the potion. The inexorability of the potion's effects in Broul's poem is
partlybut only partlyreplaced by character development. Iseut in her Circean
quality brings about Tristans wildness as well as her own, transforming him
into a leper and a wild man of the forest and causing him to be as deceptive and
full of lies as she is.
It is important to remember, however, that the result of magic, provoked
by Iseut, is not really magical but comes about through her deliberate use of
deception. As E. Jane Burns has noted, the potion .. contains the seeds of the
texts metaphors of deviance.... As victims of fotamor.... Tristans psycho-


46
appearing in the late seventh or eighth century in medieval bestiaries (Wirtjes
Ixxxviii). The fish element doubtless comes from the image offish as
representing fecundity because of their enormous number of eggs and because
of the belief that life originated in the depths of the sea (as in fact, of course, it
did), as found in Charbonneau-Lassys Bestiary of Christ (295). Helen King
remarks that women are often associated with water and that Greek medical
writers thought women were thought to be wetter than men:
Because their spongy flesh retained more fluid from their diet,
menstruation was necessary to remove the excess. The sea is
then, in a sense, the female element, and the tradition that the
presence of women is unlucky on board ship can be seen as
expressing this belief; if the sea is female, the ship which masters it
should be crewed by men. (152)
Transitional forms (missing links?") between the bird-siren and fish-tailed
mermaid include beings with both wings and fish tails. T.H. White, attempting to
trace this evolutionary stage, states, The true Sirens were not mermaids (135);
yet his illustration, from a twelfth-century bestiary, shows a buxom lass with
wings, eagle-like feet, and a fishs tail. (Since the wings are around her waist, it
is not clear how she could have flown.)
Other variants include serpent or half-serpent forms. Whites translation
tells us, [T]here are in Arabia certain white snakes with wings which are known
as SYRENS (181); Melusine is a half-serpent (OClery 117-25), and some
sirens have a serpents tail, identifying them with Satan and his works. Indeed,
the serpent of Eden is sometimes seen as female, in which case two women


CHAPTER 3
BROULS ISEUT
One of the characterizing features of the Wild Woman and Man was the
ability to live in the natural world. We find that Tristan and Iseut, the two famed
lovers best known to us as Tristan and Isolde, were during a critical time of their
development as lovers able to do this. As Broul tells their story in his Romance
of Tristan, the two live happily in the forest after fleeing from the court of King
Mark, Iseut's husband. I am therefore, for this and other reasons, suggesting
that Iseut be considered an example of the type (though I have other reasons for
so considering her, as will be seen).
I have chosen to use the Iseut story of Broul, a French author, rather
than that of Sir Thomas Malory, for a number of reasons. First, Broul antedates
Malory by three centuries. Second, the Iseut of Malory (spelled Isoud) is far
from wild. She is a pleasant and gracious lady who performs a noble action in
preventing Tristan from killing the pagan Sir Palomides: [B]ecause he is not
christened I would be loth that he should die a Saracen (1:358-9). Most
importantly, after Iseut is punished for unchastity by being put into a lazar-cote
or hut for lepers, Tristan rescues her and brings her into a forest with a fair
manor, in which he lives with her (366)hardly the rough life described by
Broul. In the latters poem, after the lovers flee:
52


103
him in the fields and soon proposing to him, telling him the gory dream she
pretends to have had (discussed above). Jankyn is agreeable to the marriage,
but soon rebels: He nolde suffer nothing of my list [desires] (633). To anger her
and to assert himself as master of the house, he procures and reads to her
constantly the anthology of Valerie and Theofraste." The Wife has no intention
of taking this lying down; she gives her audience a detailed account of how she
was beten for a book, pardee! (712). One evening, when Jankyn treats her to a
reading of the book, she responds by tearing out three pages and physically
assaulting her husband. As she recounts this part of her marriage experience:
And whan I saugh he wolde nevere fyne [cease]
To reden on this cursed book at nyght,
Al sodeynly thre leves have I plight [plucked]
Out of his book, right as he radde, and eke
I with my test so took him on the cheke
That in oure fyr he fil bakward adoune,
And he up stirte as dooth a wood leoun,
And with his fest he smoot me on the heed
That in the floor I lay as I were deed. (788-96)
The Wifes reproaches when she comes toDid you murder me for my
land?and her desire to kiss him before she dies so affect Jankyn that he begs
her forgivenessonly to have her hit him again! It costs this Circe something
the hearing of one earbut the lion is tamed. (One wonders at this point if the
Wife is deaf in one ear because she only hears one side of the storyher own.
She does not come to see Jankyns side until later, when they have placed their
marriage on a new footing; yet the deafness remains as a souvenir of her earlier
error.)


81
pity. His heart has now been moved by concern for human life. And we are now
ready for the encounter of the heroes (fig. 4-2).
Emelye and her sister ride after Theseus and the two Thebans to the lists.
Arcite wounds Palamon and is declared the winner, and Theseus announces
that Arcite will marry Emelye. As Arcite rides victorious endelong the large
place (2678) Emelye casts a freendlich ye" upon him, finding him not
unattractive. Chaucer may seem to degrade her here: (For wommen, as to
speken in commune, / Thei folwen alie the favour of Fortune) (2680-2).
However, Emelyes excitement here reminds us of many a teenage girls reaction
to the sight of a hero. Palamon is a loser, Arcite a winner; Emelye may not as yet
see beyond this.'
But Saturn has promised Venus satisfaction. With Pluto, he now sends a
furie infernal (2685) causing Arcites horse to leap and stumble. Arcite is
gravely wounded (he pighte hym [struck himself] on the pomel of his heed, /
That in the place he lay as he were deed [2689-90]) and is brought to
Theseuss palace. People declare that soothly ther was no disconfiture. / For
fallyng nys nat but an aventure. ... (2721-2). We find in Norman Daviss and
colleagues A Chaucer Glossary that aventure may mean chance, "fortune,
lot, risk, peril, misfortune, accident, or event (Davis et al., 10). Susan Crane
'Susan Crane reminds us that [t]he couplet does not appear in several manuscripts,
including Hengwrt, Ellesmere, and Cambridge Gg 4.27; if it is Chaucers, it seems to come to us
sous rature, or it might represent an early copyists attempt to make sense of Emelye" (1990:53).


134
the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. Leo Carruthers. Cambridge
[Eng.]: D.S. Brewer, 1994. 59-69.
Taylor, Paul Beekman. Chaucer's Chain of Love. Madison and Teaneck:
Falrleigh Dickinson UP, 1996.
Thompson, Stith. The Folktale. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1946.
Thurston, Paul T. Artistic Ambivalence in Chaucers Knights Tale. Gainesville: U
of Florida P, 1968.
Vecchio, Silvana. The Good Wife. Trans. Clarissa Botsford. Klapisch-Zuber,
ed 1994. 105-35.
Virgil. The Aeneid. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Random House, 1984.
Von Franz, Marie-Louise. The Feminine in Fairy Tales. Boston and London:
Shambhala, 1993.
. Shadow and Evil in Fairy Tales. Boston and London: Shambhala, 1995.
White, T.H. The Bestiary: A Book of Beasts. Being a Translation from a Latin
Bestiary of the Twelfth Century, Made and Edited by T.H. White. New
York: Putnam, 1960.
"Wife of Bath. Harvard Chaucer page, .
Williams, David. Cain and Beowulf: A Study in Secular Allegory. Toronto: U of
Toronto P, 1982.
Williams, Edith Whitehurst. A Womans Struggle for Love and Independence in
the History of Western Romantic Love." Tristania XVI11996. 125-55.
Wirtjes, Hanneke. Introduction. The Middle English Physioiogus. 1991. Ix-xcii.


112
attempts to teach be perceived as unfeminine? The Wife, and her alter ego, the
Loathly Lady, have been perceived as unfeminine, but I do not see these two
figures as pathological or unwomanly, not even as simply representative of a
type of Wild Woman. They are true women, complete female human beings. As
Susan Schibanoff notes, [T]he Wife achieves her unique status among
medieval literary women not so much because of her outspokenness ... but
because of her refusal to limit her life story to one particular genre, her life to
one particular role ... it is the either/or (single-role) images of women in
traditional medieval genres that she challenges (126-7). It is this refusal to be
limited, this insistence on being a round character, that makes the Wife more
than a stereotype. She combines the traits of all our Wild Women; she is
seductive and (apparently) changeable and deceitful like the Mermaid (or Circe),
dangerous and demanding as the Harpy, strident and armed like Grendel's
mother, and a Fighting Woman as well. Chaucer demonsterizes and
dedemonizes the Wife by showing how she develops from Mermaid, Harpy, and
Terrible Mother to a woman in a mutual love relationship and to a fully rounded
female character, a whole person. Perhaps she is the first such woman in
medieval literature.


51
give up the sea. She was unable to do so, and swam away weeping. Her tears
were transformed into greenish-gray pebbles, still found on the shores of Iona
and called mermaids tears (63).
Leavy has well summed up the nature of the harpy/siren/mermaid as well
as the animal bride: The wild woman appears in many shapes, ranging from
loathly lady to beautiful temptress, and virtually all supernatural female folklore
characters are imbued with features of the wild woman, that is, the animal side of
the human being (221). The dangerous and even unpleasant nature of the
harpy/siren/mermaid in the Middle Ages may be related to fear of the once-
giving but later withholding mother, but it is also the product of a defense
mechanism: woman, who is so feared, and loved, and toward whom feelings are
so ambivalent, can best be dealt with by making her half-humanan easy way
of making her other, and therefore not to be considered an equal or indeed
someone who has to be really encountered at all. She can be explained away as
animal, supernatural, or even nonexistent; she can be Christianized by the myth
of her longing for a human soul; or, finally, she can be made less dangerous by
being made sweet and inoffensive. As an animal bride, she cannot fit into human
life or reconcile herself to it, and must return to the sea. The mermaid at last
comes to seem more pitiable than threatening, and yet we must remember that
even in the film Splash, the man who loves the beautiful mermaid goes down to
the sea with her: The half-animal woman is forever alienated and alienating, and
therefore forever a danger to normal life.


92
There was a hiatus in antimarriage literature for several centuries after
Jerome, as Germanic customs prevailed over classical models in society. In
these customs the bride was given gifts, rather than expected to give a dowry, so
possibly the notion of woman as commodity lessened. However, as population
increased and resources became scarcer, the goal seems to have been to limit
the acquisition of resources and power by womenwhich then, of course,
provided additional reason to denigrate them. The reemergence of dualist
religious sects"antisocial, antimarriage, and antiprocreation, as Wilson and
Makowski put it (65)led to renewed antimarriage and antiwoman writings. The
authors quote Walter Map (English, 12th century), who wrote of woman in his
Valerius: The three-formed monster is adorned with the face of a noble lion,
polluted with the body of a stinking goat, armed with the tail of a rank viper (65,
89). And Shulamith Shahar, quoting from a declaration of a double monastery
that decided to abolish its female section, shows the extremity of the view that
led to their action: Since nothing is the less harmful to men than their proximity,
we hereby declare that for the good of our souls, our bodies and our worldly
goods we will no longer accept sisters into our order and we will avoid them as
we do mad dogs (36).
The monks who wrote such things also gave woman, by implication, great
power; for any being more dangerous than a tiger, a viper, or a mad dog is
powerful indeed. This reflects fear of women (Lederer 1968), and, as seems
obvious, a defense on the part of clericswho, from the 11th century on, as


122
Klein, Melanie. The Selected Melanie Klein. Ed. Juliet Mitchell. New York: The
Free Press, 1987. Specific articles used are Early States of the Oedipus
Complex (69-83; symbolic castration), Notes on Some Schizoid
Mechanisms (175-200; good/bad mother split), "The Psycho-Analytic
Play Technique (135-54; wish to make reparation), and The
Psychological Principles of Infant Analysis (57-68; guilt in the Oedipus
complex).
Leavy, Barbara Fass. In Search of the Swan Maiden: A Narrative on Folklore
and Gender. New York and London: New York UP, 1994. The swan
maiden tale is the tale of an animal bride who is rescued from the wild
and is tamed and fitted for marriage with men (45). Leavy explores all
folkloristic and psychological implications of this. These stories are stories
of womans rebellion and her conflict between her desires for
independence from as well as attachment to her culture (134). The wild
woman appears in many shapes, ranging from loathly lady to beautiful
temptress, and virtually all supernatural female folklore characters are
imbued with features of the wild woman, that is, the animal side of the
human being (221).
Lederer, Wolfgang. The Fear of Women. New York and London: Grue &
Stratton, 1968. Incredibly rich source for fearsome mythological female
beings. By a Freudian psychoanalyst.


14
sorhfulne sifl, sunu deod wrecan.
Com fa to Heorote, <5aer Hring-Dene
geond fast saeld swaafun. R fiasr
sna wearfl
edhwyrft eorlum, sifan irme fealh
Grendles mdor. Wass se gryre laessa
efne sw miele, sw bid maegfa craeft,
wiggryre wifes be waepnedmen,
forme heoru bunden, hamere
gefren,
sweord swte fh swin ofer helme
eegum dyhtig andweard scired.
O waes on healle heardecg togen
sweord ofer setlum, sTdrand manig
hafen handa faest; helm ne gemunde,
byrnan side, p hie se brga angeat.
Ho wass on ofste, wolde t fann,
fore beorgan, f ho onfunden
wass;
hrafle ho aafelinga nne hasfde
fasste befangen, f ho t fenne gang.
a sorrowful path, to avenge her son's
death.
[She] came then to Heorot, where the
Ring-Dans
along the hall slept. At once there was
reverse for the warriors, as in [there]
came
Grendel's mother. The horror was less
just by so much as her strength was,
the wifes war-terror than the weapon-
mens,
when an adorned sword, hammer-
forged,
shining with blood, the boar-imaged
helmet
cut through, opposing, with a strong
edge.
Then was in the hall hard-edged sword
drawn
over the seats, many broad shields
raised firm by hands; when horror
seized him,
no one thought of helmet or of broad
mail.
She was in haste, wanted to escape,
preserved by fear, when she was
discovered;
quickly she caught fast one of the
nobles,
when she went [back] to the marsh.
What kind of picture of Grendels mother does this give us? The poem,
while it describes actions, does not provide an answer. Is she a human or
humanlike warrior-woman bent on revenge and then escape? Is she a
nonhuman monster? Or can we see her as a goddess figure? Significantly, Hilda
Ellis Davidson suggests that Grendels mother may be a hunting-goddess, a
Mistress of the Wild to whom hunters turned for assistance, that her presence


49
man must have intercourse with an animal or loathly lady, who then turns into a
beautiful woman (233); the kiss given by the Knight to the Loathly Lady (see
Chapter 5) or by a girl to the frog or beast prince may have the same effect.
Collections like Helen OClerys Mermaid Reader are rife with tales of
mermaids who marry mortal men but long for the sea and eventually return to It.
Some of them even have children (though how this can be done, since the
sexual organs are in the fish part of the body, remains obscure). We may recall
the English folk song The Eddystone Light:
My father was the keeper of the Eddystone Light,
He married a mer-my-aid one night,
Out of the match came children three,
Two were fish and the other was me.
The mermaid, then, has the double nature of a castrated woman (since
the human female sexual organs are gone) and a non-castrated one (the fish tail
stands for the penis). Thus she both stirs up and allays mens fears of castration.
And, as Wolfgang Lederer (232-5) points out, mans fear of woman derives from
the incest taboo and the yearning for a return to the mother, who is not really the
actual mother but the mother-archetype, the unconscious-in-fact, the Goddess.
Lederer cites legends about bottomless lakes in which a water spirit (an Ondine,
a naiad, etc.) lives. Such creatures (and mermaids can also live in inland waters)
are a threat to men: a man tempted by these spirits may be drawn down into the
water and never reemerge.


13
ellorgaestas. Oaera fler waes,
pass pe hie gewislicost gewitan
meahton,
idese onITcnes; fler earmsceapen
alien spirits. One of them was
most likely, as far as [the counselors]
knew,
in a womans likeness; the other, poor
wretch,
on weres waestmum wraeclstas traed, trod the paths of exile in a mans form,
naefne h waes mara ponne aenig
ofler....
except that he was larger than any
other man. ...
Eoten, however, is defined in Clark Halls Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary
as giant, monster, enemy (107). Monster has been discussed above. Enemy
is important and sums up the way in which we first perceive Grendel. Both J.R.
Clark Hall and Fr. Klaeber (325) refer the reader to etan, eten eat, glutton," thus
agreeing with Carlson. Indeed, much of what Grendel and his mother do is to
eat, though we would hardly approve of their diet.
H. Munro Chadwick and N. Kershaw Chadwick say, Grendel and his
mother seem to be partly anthropomorphic ... although they do not speak....
(209, 209n), and, in support of this, cite Grendels use of a bag and his mothers
use of a knife. The boar-imaged helmet makes her seem half-animal, while
some have argued that she may be superhuman, a goddess in fact. The human
warriors of Beowulf wear boar helmets.
What in fact does Grendels mother do, and what does that reveal about
her? First of all, we must go to the poem itself. In lines 1258-61 and 1277-95 we
see that she,
ides aglaecwif yrmpe gemunde, warrior-woman, mind full of misery,
s pe waeteregesan wunian who by dreadful water was wont to
scolde,... live,...
glfre ond galgmd gegn wolde greedy and gloomy, wanted to go


V
Iseut in Chapter 3 defies the conventions of court life; an adulteress, she
and her lover flee to the forest. Chaucer's Emelye in Chapter 4 also loves the
forest, but is faced with the necessity of marriage and submission.
The Wife of Bath (Chapter 5) struggles against convention through four
marriages. She and her fifth husband, the clerk Jankyn, learn that marriage must
be a compromise to be successful. The Wife is tamedbut still gets her way.
Chapter 6 is a summary bringing together all these figures, comparing
and contrasting them in the hope that this journey will prove meaningful for the
reader in understanding literature and woman.


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41
encyclopedia article is an illustration of a "Harpy from a tomb frieze from the
acropolis of Xanthus, Asia Minor, c. 500 BC in the British Museum (fig. 2-4); this
shows the harpy as a girl with braids or curls, birds wings and feet, not unlike a
modern angel! The bird identification may begin here.
Fig. 2-4. Harpy from a tomb frieze.
The harpies we moderns know, however, seem to have developed from
Virgil, who describes them as horribly foul and loathsome creatures who snatch
food. In Book III of the Aeneid, Aeneas and his men settle down for a feast upon
the beach:
But instantly, grotesquely whirring down,
The Harpies were upon us from the hills
With deafening beat of wings. They trounced our meat,
Defiling everything they touched with filth,
And gave an obscene squawk amid the stench. (309-13; 73)
They are described a few lines earlier as follows:
...flying things
With young girls faces, but foul ooze below,
Talons for hands, pale famished nightmare mouths. . (299-301)


118
The women we study are partial aspects of the Terrible Mother. They
struggle against the limitations of power placed on women. Their power is the
dream of the oppressed woman. In their frightening aspects, they show man
what they can do when roused, as the Wife of Bath shows Jankyn when she
throws his book into the fire.
Are we all Terrible Mothers? Are we all Wild Women? I hope so. For only
the Wild Woman is free to be herself, to express her own needs and struggle to
realize them. I hope that, in years to come, more and more of us will be free to
do this, free to use the powers we as part of the Great Mother possess.
We differ from the women of classical and medieval times in that we have
so many more choices; for a young medieval woman (perhaps as young as
twelve) the choice was between marriage or the convent, and the choice was
often not her own. Marriage was not a matter of love, but of alliance. The Wife of
Bath is a successful businesswoman, but she gained her capital by marriage.
We realize that there are still barriers (we call them glass ceilings now) to
complete self-definition, and each generation of women struggles with this. I
hope that I may have contributed in small part to this liberation.
A final word: In beginning this project I had planned to write about half
human beings, both male and female, but my plan soon shifted to include only
female beings, some of whom are half-human and some not. The Innocent Wild
Woman, at first one of my primary figures, was too closely linked with the Wild


39
However that may be, the Keres soon became figures of fear in the
popular mind. They were dreaded as sources of evil... like a sort of
personified bacilli, [they] engendered corruption and pollution ..according to
Harrison (165-6). Some of them were said to cause nightmares, blindness,
madness, and even blisters. Harrison cites a poem attributed to Stobaeus that
mentions them:
. . Drive far away the disastrous
Keres, they who destroy the herd of the vulgar and fetter
All things around with curses manifold. Many and dreadful
Shapes do they take to deceive.... (168)
From being souls of the dead or death-spirits, the Keres seem to have
developed into snatchers of souls (perhaps from the belief that souls of the dead
return for the living). They thus fuse with Harpies, whose name derives from
Greek harpazein, to snatch, and to which we now turn.
Fig. 2-2. Harpies in Greek vase-painting.


63
surrounding leprosy, stresses that [pjhysical and moral uncleanness expressed
themselves in terms of each other. Lepers were socially excluded. The bow
Tristan receives on entering the forest is a non-chivalric weapon; its acquisition
marks a transition away from the chivalric state. The lovers are desocialized
as they leave the forest without bread and with torn clothes. They are also
underfed; Broul tells us that [f]or three years they had suffered greatly, their
flesh had grown pale and limp" (95). Their moral uncleanness and separation
from the courtly society of Mark mimics the physical uncleanness and separation
from society experienced by lepers (Pensom 40-4, 50).
Further, Pensom reminds us that Mark, when he discovers the lovers
sleeping in the forest, takes his ring from Iseuts finger (which has by now
become very thin) and replaces it with the gloves that she brought from Ireland,
which fall onto her breast (Pensom 59; Broul 93-4). It seems that Mark is here
giving Iseut back to herself, especially if we remember that Irish women kept
their own property after marriage and at divorce (Pensom 60).
Finally, we may wish to look at Iseut from a psychoanalytic standpoint, as
with the other characters in this study. I do not see Iseut as a phallic woman, as I
do the Wife of Bath (Chapter 5), whom she otherwise strongly resembles,
especially in the Wifes cheerful defense of bigamy in her Prologue:
But of no nombre mencin made he [God],
Of bigamye, or of octogamye;
Why sholde men thane speke of it vileynye? (32-4)
Thogh maydenhede preferred bigamye. (96) (Chaucer 105, 106)


38
Anthesteria or spring festival, when souls departed. (There was a similar festival
at Rome, the Lemuria, when family ghosts were exhorted to depart from the
house.)
Fig. 2-1. Keres in Greek vase-painting.
Why are the Keres or souls winged? Harrison conjectures that the notion
of the soul as a human-faced bird is familiar in Egyptian, but rare in Greek,
art.... To conceive of the soul as a bird escaping from the mouth is a fancy so
natural and beautiful that it has arisen among many peoples (200-201).
However, according to John Pollard (141), there is no evidence that the Greeks
ever thought of the soul as a bird. It is possible that the Keres are winged not
because they themselves are souls but because they carry off souls to the realm
of the dead (see below). John Cherry (174) describes them as black winged
female creatures with huge white teeth and pointed talons, who tear corpses
apart and drink the blood of the wounded and the dead. He relies on the Iliad
for this. If the Keres descended to the battlefield like the Norse Valkyries, they
needed wings.


CHAPTER 4
CHAUCERS EMELYE
Chaucers Emelye or Emily, the main female character of The Knights
Tale, is often seen as a nonentity. Apparently, she does nothing but pray and
weep; she has no roles but those of love object or female dependent to be
disposed of. Because of this inactivity, as Laura L. Howes has commented,
[Mjany readers of the tale . dismiss her as a two-dimensional character, one
who serves the Knights plot as the object of male desire but who does not excite
sympathy or empathy from Chaucers readers (87). I will argue here that Emelye
is in fact an interesting character. She is a beautiful figure of romance as well as
an Amazon, a young woman about to take her place in the world. With her
Amazonian background and love of forest sports, she can be seen as a
descendant of the Innocent Wild Woman. She may growperhaps into a
conventional wife, perhaps into a Wild and Fighting Woman, like Zenobia
(Cenobie) in Chaucers "The Monks Tale (Chaucer 246). The question to be
considered here, however, has to do with the role played by Emelye in the Tale
told by Chaucers Knight.
To understand this character better, let us look at some of the
interpretations of Emelye found in the literature. We will first discuss Paul
Thurstons (18) view of the Tale as a serious romance for the conventional
reader, a satire for the more perceptive (and, it may be said, more sophisticated)
68


This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of
Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December 2003
Dean, Graduate School


25
the split of Good and Terrible Mother not sufficient to free him? We note that
Beowulf does not achieve the triumph and the loosing of food, energy and
grace into the world which the hero is supposed to achieve, according to
Joseph Campbell (37-8). He returns successful, yes, but apparently mentally
maimed.
We might try to untie this knot through historyFreawaru, Hrothgars
daughter, is already betrothed to someone else (lines 2024-5). Beowulf is
apparently a fictional person, since his name does not alliterate with anyone
elses and he has no descendants. He cannot therefore marry a real person
and have real heirs. This way of getting out of our difficulty seems feeble,
however. All we can say from what we read in the poem is that when Beowulf
lies dying he gives Wiglaf a gift that he would have given his son if he had had a
son.
We may now ask: Is the Jungian interpretation just sketched out valid?
Can it explain what we need to explain about the meeting with Grendels
mother? Niles feels that it is unsatisfactory; it might not have sufficed for the Old
English audience. He does say, however: Since archetypes are prelogical, they
cannot be explained rationally but surface only in symbolic form in myths,
dreams, fairy tales, and the like. There is no need to prove their existence; it is
enough to know that individuals have access to them through the work of
interpreters (222-4).


21
frequency, refers the reader to wertho, which he glosses as damnation,
punishment in hell (423).
This leads us to the motif of Grendel and his mother as descendants of
Cain. Orchard (58) states that they are of the race of Cain, as were the giants,
but they themselves are not giants. Martin Puhvel speculates that the tradition
of monstrous broods descended from Cain may be derived from Irish
ecclesiastical writings and compares Grendels mother to the demonic hag in
Celtic lore (11,18-23).
Williams feels that Grendels role cannot be evaluated outside of [the
Cain] legend (48). Giants and other monsters were said to eat human flesh.
They lived either underground or underwater; the underwater tradition probably
arose from the scriptural account of the Flood. The evil giants surviving after that
event were descendants of Ham (not Cain), who reintroduced evil into the world.
However, there was an idea that Cain sired the monstrous race on his own
mother; [t]he dramatic purpose of Grendels mother in the poem is to present a
certain order within the monstrous, an inverted kin ... (48, 34-6, 53). I shall not
treat this theme further, as to me the idea of Grendel and his mother as
descendants of Cain sounds like an after-the-fact explanation: Grendel and his
mother are so terrible, they must be descendants of Cain. (If they are indeed
descendants of Cain, they must be at least half-human, of course.)
Another suggestion, proposed by Thomas D. Hill (2001), is that Grendel
and his mother, called helrunnan in line 163, belong to the race of Haliurunnas


88
"profoundly different (Salisbury 85). Men were strong and active; their power
was moral and spiritual, not just physical; and, since semen was believed to
come from the brain, masculinity was linked to reason and men were the rational
half of humanity. Isidore of Seville explained all this by means of etymology: A
man is called vir because he has greater force, vis, than woman, while woman,
mulier, derived her name from molites, softness (Bullough 226). Women, on the
other hand, embodied sexuality; their sexuality was open and receptive.
Indeed, women were open in every wayopen-mouthed and talkative, as well
as lustful (Salisbury 85-7). Augustine did feel that men and women shared a
common sexual experience, but the prevailing view was still Greco-Roman (88).
It need hardly be added that a belief in the profound difference of mens and
womens experience must lead to psychological alienation of the sexes from
each other and to the feeling on the part of male writers that woman was alien
and to be feared. In this connection, the reader may look again at the work of
Wolfgang Lederer.
In early Christianity, as we see in Peter Brown's The Body and Society,
sexual discipline was the way of giving the Christian Church a distinctive code,
the equivalent of the Jewish Law (60), to separate Christians from pagans and
Jews; the ban on divorce and disapproval of the remarriage of widowed persons
strengthened this. Sexual abstinence came to be seen as one mark of
exceptional closeness to the spirit of God; indeed, a dazzling reputation for
sexual abstinence could make a woman or an uneducated man the equal of


37
and heavy in fair weather. With sweetness of song this beast
maketh shipmen to sleep, and when she seeth that they are
asleep, she goeth into the ship, and ravisheth [seizes, captures]
which [whomever] she may take with her, and bringeth him into a
dry place, and maketh him first lie by her, and if he will not or may
not, then she slayeth him and eateth his flesh.
This is the typical mermaid, singing beautifully but deceitful and (in
Bartholomew Anglicuss account) aggressive, homicidal, and cannibalistic. What
is the historical background of this strange being?
The common notion that this legendary figure is based on sightings of
manatees and dugongs is unsatisfactory to Benwell and Waugh and also to me.
The mermaid is too firmly rooted in folklore (and too closely related to her
ancestors, the harpy and the siren) to be derived from sailors chance sightings
of water animals. To understand her we must find her origins, and we may take a
pseudo-Darwinian approach in this search backward in time. This approach can
lead us back to the harpy of classical times, her evolution into the siren, and that
of the siren into the mermaidthe Babylonian fish goddess coalesced with the
siren, and the mermaid crossed with the animal (often a seal or swan) wife. To
understand this better, we shall first look at some pictorial representations.
The earliest figures resembling sirens or winged women seem to be the
keres or death spirits found on Greek grave jars and described in a fascinating
way by Jane Ellen Harrison (35, 43, 165-86). Agrave jar (fig. 2-1, Harrisons Fig.
7) shows two winged Keres (or souls) fluttering upward from it, a third emerging
and a fourth diving back into it. This is, Harrison says, a comment on the


125
Roberts, Jeanne Addison. The Shakespearian Wild: Geography, Gender and
Genus. Lincoln and London: U of Nebraska P, 1991. Though Roberts
book deals with a period later than the Middle Ages, she is valuable in her
description of the forest setting and the wildness of women in
Shakespeare and generally. Shakespeares women .. may be
understood as projections of male fantasies of the Wild female other...
the early plays deal with the mating of young loversthe males foray into
the mysterious female forest (14, 18).
Wilson, Katharina M., and Elizabeth M. Makowski. Wykked Wyves and the
Woes of Marriage: Misogamous Literature from Juvenal to Chaucer.
SUNY Series in Medieval Studies. Albany: State U of New York, 1990.
Examines, informally and delightfully, misogynistic and antimarriage
literature of the Middle Ages.
Yarnall, Judith. Transformations of Circe: The History of an Enchantress. Urbana
and Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1994. The Circe figure from antiquity to
modern times. Little on Middle Ages as such, but highly valuable for the
study of women.


7
concept of major importance in his theory, as primordial types ... universal
images that have existed since the remotest times (6). In his description of the
anima, not the soul in the dogmatic sense ... but a natural archetype that
satisfactorily sums up all the statements of the primitive mind, of the history of
language and religion, Jung seems to subsume both the Innocent Wild Woman
and the mermaid type.2 The anima is the serpent in the paradise of the
harmless man with good resolutions and still better intentions, but she can also
appear as an angel of light, a psychopomp [guide or conductor of souls] who
points the way to the highest meaning (28, 29).
In the same way as the Innocent Wild Woman and the mermaid are
subsumed in the anima, the Wife of Bath and the Terrible Mother are subsumed
in aspects of the mother figure. A patient of Jungs had a fantasy of a divine
woman .. wearing a blood-red garment that covers the lower half of her body"
who hands [a young girl] as a present to the many men who are standing by"
(Archetypes," 192). The red garment reminds us of the Wife of Bath with her red
stockings, and the role of the woman in initiating girls seems a not impossible
one for her. The mother figure is further developed as the loving and terrible
mother. The loving mother is characterized by solicitude, sympathy, and
helpfulness recognized by medieval writers (who were, as stated above,
2lt goes without saying that Jung's use of primitive" here would not be acceptable to
modem readers; a suitable near-synonym might be "preliterate."


17
Christian belief. ... (138) Like the Chadwicks, Niles notes the resemblance of
the Beowulf story to folktale, specifically AT301 "The Bears Son (401-2).
Fig. 1-2. Grendels Mother. Drawing by Flki reprinted, with
permission, from Halldra B. Bjrnsson's Bjlfskvia
(Reykjavik: Fjlvi, 1983), 61. From Osborn.
Let us look now at Grendels mother in action, in the scene of the battle
with Beowulf (fig. 1-3) (lines 1497-1507, 1518-28, 1537-69):
Fig. 1-3. The fight with Grendels mother. From Bone, unpaged.


74
assayed, hoot and coold; / A man moot ben a fool, or young or oold .
(1811-12).
Leonard continues, setting forth the Jungian concept of the puella aeterna
or eternal girl. This is one of the patterns resulting from a wounded relation of a
girl to her father. Another is the armored Amazon. The eternal girl is forever a
dependent daughter. "[S]he gives over to others her own strength as well as the
responsibility for shaping her identity. The armored Amazon pattern, on the
other hand, develops as a reaction against inadequate fathering, occurring
either on the personal or cultural level (16, 17). The woman must do what her
father did not do. (For the Amazon of legend, of course, the task of self-
determination is facilitated by the fact that she had no father figure at all.) Such a
woman takes on a masculine identity, becoming alienated from her own
creativity and spontaneity.
These patterns are both possible, and surprising as it may seem, both
patterns can exist in the same woman (17,18). In the puellas darling doll
pattern, woman adapts to mens fantasies of the feminine. In contrast, the
Amazon warrior queen is in touch with her anger and assertion but forgets
her feminine feeling and softness. If the warrior queen can rest in her feminine
center and be assertive when appropriate, she can show the way to develop
feminine strength and power (39,143). As Leonard further states, Jung thought
one must see the value of both sides of the personalityfeminine and masculine
and try to integrate them (21). The puella must recognize and accept her inner


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89
anyone! Christians, as well as Jews and pagans, believed that abstinence and
especially virginity made the human body a more appropriate vehicle to receive
divine inspiration. Possession, the flooding of the body with an alien, divine
spirit, excluded the warm rush of vital spirits associated with sex. Indeed,
sexual desire was seen as the first manifestation of Adam and Eves loss of
immortality and fall from grace (60-61, 66, 67, 86).
In the Middle Ages, stripping a woman of sexuality made hernot equal
to man, for she could not be a priest, but almost like a man. Katharina Wilson
and Elizabeth Makowski express this as follows in Wykked Wives and the Woes
of Marriage:
[T]he chaste ideal denied the necessity of the traditional sex
roles and thus continued the revolutionary New Testament
emphasis on the baptismal equality of all.. .. Although woman was
less perfect and more libidinous than man and her reason for
existence more closely tied to procreation, the patristic view was
that she could rise above her subordination by becoming like a
man, that is, by denying her sexuality. (59)
Indeed, a chaste maiden might be so far ennobled as to pass for a man.
Consider the story of St. Marina (discussed by Eric G. Stanley, 59). This saint
dressed as a boy in order to enter her fathers monastery, was accepted as such
(to the extent of being accused of paternity), and was only found to be a woman
when she died. St. Eugenia, in /Elfrics homily, dressed as a man and at her
death claimed to be ending the course of her life werlice (like a man) (60-61). As
Stanley remarks, [t]he virgin martyrs are the heroines of medieval England;
they are seen as the exception which proves the rule that women, being



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    PAGE 144

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    119
    Man, a figure of pageantry and folklore, to be included as a main character.
    Grendels mother and the Wife of Bath, of course, were the most important
    figures I could identify. I found them both individually and structurally useful:
    One at the beginning, one at the end, they stand like sculptures framing a
    gateway, the door to a better understanding of ourselves as women.
    Beyond Grendels mother and the Wife of Bath, I needed other figures to
    represent other aspects of woman. The Mermaid is well known and was in
    earlier times thought of as deceitful and untrustworthy, as we see from the
    portrait of her in the Middle English Physiologus. Moreover, on further exploring
    this character, we see that she has ancestors who derive from the spiritual and
    nurturing Harpy to the hungry and menacing Harpy, and thence to the Siren who
    is not what she appears. The Siren may be either bird (like the Harpy) or fish;
    her descendant is the Mermaid we know, the half-fish who yet has the same
    character as the Siren.
    Seeking other female figures, I realized one day that Emelye, too, is not
    only what she appears to be, a sweet puppet; she is an Amazon and must
    struggle with her dual nature and her dual roleshe is not only the sister of the
    Amazon Queen but also the sister-in-law of the authoritarian Theseus. Iseut
    came last in my plans after I read, in a course on Arthurian literature, Broul's
    Romance of Tristan and realized Iseuts importance as a woman character who
    deals with the conventions by being deceitful and by role-playing; she enjoys the
    role of court lady, but is really a Wild Woman.


    71
    State.... Disruption of any element of the transitional process ...
    constitutes the plotthe only possible plotof a virgins story. (44)
    Fig. 4-1. Illustration from a manuscript of Giovanni Boccaccios II Filostrato,
    ca. 1455, French. Vienna, Natl. Lib. MS 2617, fol. 53. Reprinted by
    permission of Bildarchiv de Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek,
    Vienna. From Howes.
    And Hallissy adds, with reference to Emelyes love of the forest: Wilderness is
    always threatening in medieval literature, even to men; the unenclosed forest,
    then, represents a breach in the web of protection that should surround a
    woman (48). She points out that medieval gardens consisted of a larger,


    59
    to them either. God seems to have no importance except as he is called in to
    help them in their escapades (and I call them escapades, because the lovers
    enjoy them so mucheven if their adventures are death-defying). The possibility
    that God might actually punish them, or that they might suffer remorse later,
    does not seem to bother them. The Iseut of Broul would not understand the
    Isoud of Malory, who worries about the state of Sir Palomides soul; what would
    it matter to her? God is external.
    What seems to be really important to Tristan and Iseut is their passionate
    love and sexual desires. In a general sense this might be considered a cause of
    wildness. They live in a society in transition between externalized and
    internalized religion, as we have just seen. Perhaps they are becoming extinct.
    But I do not think their wildness lies solely in this; they are wild both because
    they find they can live outside of civilized society (in the forest) and because
    they choose to live in ways that satisfy their elemental sexual desires. What
    makes Iseuts wildness apparent is the visibility of its contrast with what is
    expected of her. As the wife of Mark, she could be expected to be chaste and
    submissive; as the lover of Tristan, she has to think and act boldly and
    assertively. What individualizes Iseut as a Wild Woman, I think, is the pleasure
    she takes in playing her game with the conventions.
    As we have seen, women could be considered to be wild just because
    they were women. As Jeanne Addison Roberts, writing of a later (but not too
    much later) period, points out in her book about the Shakespearean Wild:


    10
    what is she doing in the poem? If we need a monster, isn't Grendel enough?
    Why a female monster? Why a mother?
    Let us return to Irving's phrase many readers favorite monster. The
    American Heritage Dictionary gives among its definitions of monster... [a]
    creature having a bizarre or frightening shape or appearance ... [a] very large
    animal, plant, or object. . [o]ne who inspires horror or disgust (812). Is this
    true of Grendels mother? She and her son are like humans, but larger. They are
    not giants, however, Andy Orchard (58) assures us, as the term gigant is used
    only for those who were drowned in the Flood. Grendel is larger than any other
    man (line 1353), so presumably his mother is larger than any other woman, but
    they are still referred to, in the passage describing them (lines 1345-53), as
    humans of a sort. Are they really so fearsome-looking? Are they partly human
    and partly animal (as monsters tend to be)? Are they folk characters?
    Supernatural beings?
    Let us look at some of the views that have been advanced. Christine
    Alfano argues that Grendels mother is not a monster but human: Instead of
    being what Sherman Kuhn calls a female warrior, the modern Grendels mother
    [of contemporary translations] is a monster.... Grendels mother disrupts
    gender conventions; to the Anglo-Saxons, this made her atol, terrible (line
    1332), but to contemporary translators, it makes her monstrous (2). Alfano
    concludes that translators have divested Grendels mother of humanity.


    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    Without Marie Nelson, my efforts would have been as naught. She
    became my chairperson, inspired me, and kept me going through years of
    research and struggle. I also wish to acknowledge the help and inspiration of the
    other members of my committee: Patricia Craddock, M.J. Hardman, R.A. Shoaf,
    and Robert Thomson.
    Further, I appreciate the help of the research librarians at the University
    of Floridas Smathers Library, who helped me adapt to new ways of finding and
    doing things.
    Rob Martin, my computer assistant, was indispensable in guiding me in
    the use of a medium I did not grow up with and imperfectly understood. Jim
    Collis, typist extraordinaire, also deserves warm commendation.
    On the home front, Robert Lambert was my severest critic, and Clyde and
    Sara, the Computer Cats, my most indefatigable helpers.


    44
    see harpies and sirens as really so different, remarking that the siren as incuba
    [female demon] is the lewd demon of the nightmare (1978:155). Both are
    associated with water, as birds fly above water or swim on it (Baring and
    Cashford 58-9). Both are connected with death; finally, both are frustrating
    mothers and terrifying demons. (What may be a transitional figure is a gargoyle
    from Cahors in France, fig. 2-5).
    The Encyclopedia Britannica (Micropaedia, 15th ed., 1992) describes the
    siren as
    a creature half bird and half woman who lured sailors to destruction
    by the sweetness of her song.... In art they appeared first as
    birds with the heads of women, later as women, sometimes winged,
    with bird legs.
    The Sirens seem to have evolved from two elements: a
    primitive tale of the perils of early exploration combined with an
    Oriental image of a bird-woman. Anthropologists explain the
    Oriental image as a soul-birdi.e., a winged ghost that stole the
    living to share its fate. In that respect the Sirens had affinities with
    the Harpies. (843-4)
    It is not clear what a primitive tale of the perils of early exploration could
    have been: possibly simply a tale of welcoming maidens from some tribe rowing
    out to meet early explorers boats or at least singing from the shore.
    As for the personality of the siren, she has the same dual nature as the
    harpy, being lovely (as the harpy was in her earliest appearances) and


    Non-Annotated List of Works Cited
    Alfano, Christine. The Issue of Feminine Monstrosity: A Reevaluation of
    Grendels Mother." Comitatus 23 (1992):1-16.
    Baring, Anne, and Jules Cashford. The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an
    Image. London: Arkana, 1993.
    Beidler, Peter G. A Critical History of the Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale."
    Geoffrey Chaucer: The Wife of Bath. Ed. Peter G. Beidler.
    Benton, Janetta Rebold. Gargoyles: Animal Imagery and Artistic Individuality in
    Medieval Art. Flores 1996:147-65.
    Bergin, Thomas G. An Introduction to Boccaccio. Giovanni Boccaccio. The
    Decameron. Selected, trans., and ed. Mark Musa and Peter Bondanella.
    A Norton Critical Edition. New York and London: Norton, 1977.
    . The Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages. New York:
    Abbeville Press, 1992.
    Benwell, Gwen, and Arthur Waugh. Sea Enchantress: The Tale of the Mermaid
    and Her Kin. London: Hutchinson, 1961.
    Bjork, Robert E., and John D. Niles. A Beowulf Handbook. Lincoln: U of
    Nebraska P, 1997.
    Bloch, Dorothy. So the Witch Won't Eat Me: Fantasy and the Childs Fear of
    Infanticide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.
    126


    INTRODUCTION
    The subject of this work is the concept and figure of the Wild Woman. The
    primary focus will be on various forms this figure assumes in medieval English
    literature: Grendels motherthe second monster Beowulf facesand
    Chaucers Wife of Bath, along with other figures.
    The intended audience for this work is varied. First and foremost, it is
    intended for medievalists and students of medieval literature, but it should also
    be of interest to teachers and students of womens studies, and to general
    readers who are interested in the topic of the Wild Woman as well.
    I am not defining the Wild Woman as a not-man or a not-Wild Man. In at
    least part of the long extended period from which my examples are drawn,
    women were considered wild just because they were women. As Jeanne
    Addison Roberts points out: Forces outside [the] ethnic human male Cultural
    core were and have been continued to be thought of as parts of the Wild1
    simply because they were outside" (2). And Thomas G. Bergin comments, Only
    in a society prepared to appreciate and enjoy the things that the world of the
    living has to offer can normal women be observed and portrayed without the
    'Roberts is writing about Shakespeare's Wild Woman, but what she says is often
    applicable to the medieval period as well.
    1


    115
    The Mother, then, is not only the Good and Terrible Mother; she is the
    Great Mother. Her powers appear to have seemed magical not only to human
    beings of the present but men of the far past, who did not yet realize that
    womans ability to produce children was not magical, but that it was a natural
    process in which they themselves had a part. The dethroning of women may
    have begun with this realization.
    Men may, at times, seem to have succeeded in reducing woman to a
    pretty and obedient robot. Yet she keeps creeping back, as unconscious
    elements always do. She enters the imagination through the back door as a
    supernatural personGrendels mother, the dark and murderous goddess of the
    mere; the Harpy, a smiling Siren or Mermaid who draws young men down to the
    depths; and finally a sorceress who tames men and makes them into animals.
    (As we have seen, this is one role of Iseut and the Wife of Bath.) Through the
    front door she enters as a beautiful and beloved wife or as a bourgeois woman
    (again, the Wife of Bath) who, in spite of her husbands, manages to turn the
    conventions upside down.
    What then? Add them all together, and we get a psychologically complete
    woman? No. These figures emphasize one or two elements of woman; none is
    psychologically completenot even the Wife of Bath, though she transcends the
    fiction of the Canterbury Tales to become a character. Chaucer's pilgrims speak
    of her as if they know her, and he himself refers to her in a letter advising a
    friend not to marry. Even she, however, is deformed as a person by the


    82
    (1990:48) adds that '[a]dventure evokes both the Boethian hierarchy of
    apparent causes, as a near synonym for sort and fortune, and the generic field
    of romance, as the term of choice for encounters with the unknown." Aventure
    in the second sense is used for the adventures of knights in the French
    romances of Chrtien de Troyes. However, a range of possibilities emerge from
    this one word; the various definitions of Davis all seem valid.
    Aventure in the earlier passage where Diana answers Emelyes prayer
    may mean either fortune, lot or event. It may mean that Emelye will certainly
    have her aventure of love (event, quest) or that it is her fortune, lot to have it.
    Are the young people to be seen as the puppets of Fate? Chaucer is using the
    epic convention that the gods bring events about, but there is also the feeling
    that the young men (and Emelye too) get what they have prayed for. Arcite prays
    for victory and asks for namoore (2420); Palamon asks for Emelyes hand
    (2242-3); Emelye prays to marry the man that moost desireth her. We
    remember the saying, Be careful what you pray for; you may get it. The three
    have chosen to pray as they have; hence they are not mere puppets of Fate.
    Crane, again, states that [a]t the culmination as throughout, adventures validity
    inheres in that strangeness or alienness which provides occasions for expanding
    and transforming the heroic self (1990:49). This is the possibility that awaits the
    young people.
    Arcite dies of his wound, and as he dies he forgets his ardent desire for
    victory, takes tender farewell of Emelye, and forgives Palamon. Emelye shrieks


    30
    Another analyst, Dorothy Bloch, In her fascinating book So the Witch
    Wont Eat Me, explains further: The child feels guilty about everything bad that
    happens in the family. The igniting factor is the childs own feelings of rage.
    The childs aggressive feelings are forbidden both by the parents and by the
    child her/himself, who thinks that aggressive feelings have a devastating
    power. The child then fears retribution (5).
    The hope of eventually winning the parents love is the foundation of the
    psychic structure. The child hopes to be loved as soon as she/he becomes
    worthy of love (11). One way of becoming worthy of love, of course, is killing
    dangerous monsters. Bloch points out that the terror directed onto monsters
    preserves an idealized image of the parents (12). But what if the monsters you
    have killed are doubles of yourself and your parent?
    This has perhaps gone too far from what we can read in the lines of the
    poem, but this digressiona semipsychoanalysis of Beowulfmay have value
    in our struggle to understand who Grendels mother really is. I find myself
    returning to Davidsons suggestion that she is a goddess, a hunting-goddess, a
    goddess of the water, a Ruler of the Wild. We may see her also as a goddess of
    death, like the Nordic Hel, described by Davidson (178) as a loathsome female
    figure symbolizing physical death and ruler of the underworld. A goddess of
    death may be both loathsome and transcendent: Davidson reminds us of the
    Indian Kali, terrifying in appearance, black or dark in colour, usually naked,


    96
    she is; she has free will and, as she herself claims, she does as she wishes
    (fig. 5-1).2
    Fig. 5-1. Influence of the Zodiac on the Body (Pol de Limbourg). From
    Wood.
    Is she Martian, Venusian, or both? Some, like F.N. Robinson, have
    argued that she is none too feminine" (697), pointing to the strident or Martian
    part of her character. Edwin J. Floward (139-40), however, argues against this:
    It would be difficult to find a more completely feminine character in the pages of
    2ls free will actually what the Wifes Prologue and Tale are about? How is It related to
    soverelgnltee" or the right to assert ones will and have what one wants?


    I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
    and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
    MnntL (\)sM
    Marie Nelson, Cnair
    Professor of English
    I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
    and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
    . Allen Shoaf
    Professor of English
    I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
    and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
    Patricia B. Craddock
    Professor of English
    I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
    and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of doctor of Philosophy.
    Robert SJTflomson
    Professor of English
    I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fuNy adequate, in scope
    and quality, as a dissertation for the degreeof Doctor of philosophy.^


    50
    This has been, perhaps, a long preamble to a question: Can the mermaid
    be considered to fall within the class of Wild Women? Does her nature as
    inhabitant of the air or of the deep preclude her consideration here? My answer
    is that her half-animal, harpy-like nature (throwback to an earlier evolutionary
    stage) and her seductiveness and unchastity characterize her as wild.
    The mermaid of medieval and earlier times, then, was a danger to men.
    But she (or he?) could also, as at least two early sightings demonstrate, be a
    harmless creature. A merman (without a fish tail, of course) was caught in a net
    atOrford, Suffolk, in 1197. He looked like a man, but could not talk and lived on
    raw fish, and eventually fled back to the sea. Similarly, a mermaid" was found in
    a broken dike in Edam, Holland, after a storm. She learned to do domestic work
    but never to speak, and lived fifteen years after she was found (Benwell and
    Waugh 74, 81). Possibly these were autistic persons, whose social ignorance
    made them incapable of living as ordinary humans do.
    A greater virtue even than innocence was the mermaids longing for a
    human soul. Benwell and Waugh (61-2) tell us of the myth of Liban, the Irish
    mermaid, said to have been captured in Ireland in the year 558. She was
    originally a human girl who prayed to be changed into a salmon, but the prayer
    was only half effective. She swam the seas for three hundred years, and
    eventually was captured, baptized by St. Comgall, and died, presumably having
    reacquired humanity and a soul. Another mermaid was said to have visited a
    monk living on Iona, begging for a human soul. The monk said that first she must


    57
    In this episode, and elsewhere in the poem, both Tristan and Iseut are
    tricky opportunists with very little moral sense (Tristan is fully cognizant of Iseuts
    stratagems). They know that they can be considered guilty by the Christian
    church, but they are more worried about Marks honorand about their own
    places at his courtthan about God. They call on God freely, even while
    violating his laws, and feel that he is on their side. An example of this is the
    episode of Tristans leap. Tristan, condemned to be burnt to death, asks to be let
    into the chapel for a moments prayer:
    Tristan did not move slowly. He went to the window behind the
    altar, pulled it towards him with his right hand and leaped through
    the opening. He would rather jump than be burnt before that
    assembly. My lords, there was a big, wide stone in the middle of
    those rocks [of the ledge on which the chapel is built]; Tristan
    jumped on to it very easily. The wind caught his clothes and
    prevented him from crashing to the ground.... God had shown
    him great mercy. (68-9)
    Iseut, too, after the incident at the ford, invokes both God and St. Hilary
    (as well as all the relics in the world) when she swears that no man ever came
    between my thighs except the leper who carried me on his back over the ford
    and my husband, King Mark (142). The joke here, as Pierre Jonin tells us, is
    that St. Hilary condemned lying, though with exceptions (343, 345-6). This must
    have been intentional on the part of Broul, who is usually on the side of the
    lovers without hiding their faults from himself or the audience.
    Fedrick emphasizes (18-20) that the role played by God in Brouls story
    is both active and ambiguous. God in this story is remarkably flexible; he is


    100
    the society of her dayshe learned to manage. Not caring for the life of a chaste
    widow, she had only one choice when a husband diedto marry again in the
    hope that things would be better this time. Disappointed that her husbands were
    not the romantic lovers she craved (and we can see, from her later relationship
    with Jankyn, that she craved romantic love all along), she retaliated against
    them and the system. The property she inherited from one husband made her a
    better match for the next and gave her powerthe power to do what she wanted,
    since after all she brought something to the marriage. This kind of marriage is a
    game in which love is absent. The Wife of Bath feels she owes her husbands
    nothing once she has acquired their property:
    They had me yiven hir lond and hir tresor.
    Me neded not do longer diligence
    To winne hir love or doon hem reverence, (lines 204-6)
    But at the same time she does try to please them, as well as herself, socially
    (her phrase is for her profit and ease"), knowing that happy husbands will be
    more indulgent and she will be able to live more comfortably with them. She
    does use them to get what she wants:
    I governed hem so well, after my lawe,
    That ech of hem ful blissful was and fawe [eager]
    To bringe me gay thinges fro the faire. (219-21)
    She manipulates her old husbands by complaining in the manner of the
    bad wives in Against Jovinianus, discussed above: Why is my neighebores wyf
    so gay? I sitte at hoom; I have no thrifty clooth. . What rowne ye with oure


    69
    reader. We must remember that Chaucer assigned this Tale to the Knight,
    whose perceptions are conventional. To him, order must and can be brought
    about at all costs; nothing, including lovea primary cause for foolish behavior,
    according to Theseus (Who may been a fool but if he love?" [1799])can be
    allowed to escape from this order. Women exist for Theseus only to weep, be
    conquered, or function as pretty puppets, and Theseus can perhaps be seen
    throughout as a stand-in for the Knight, just as the Loathly Lady serves as a
    projection for the Wife of Bath (Chapter 5). The Knights and Theseuss opinions
    must not be confused with Chaucers; his treatment of these characters is indeed
    spiced with satire.
    Elaine Tuttle Hansen (1992) takes a different view from Thurstons. In her
    discussion of the Tale, Hippolyta, Emelyes older sister and Theseuss wife, and
    Emelye herself are described as Amazons, mythical, fighting, manlike women
    who have waged grete bataille with Theseus. As Hansen sees Hippolyta and
    Emelye, both women are erstwhile powerful separatists, rivals to the hero who
    first defeats them with martial violence and then domesticates them through
    marital union" (218). She continues,
    In any naturalistic account, the transformation of an Amazonian
    queen into a proper wife for the Athenian king would probably be
    difficult and protracted. . The Knight, however, both
    acknowledges and eclipses that presumably tempestuous taming
    of the wild woman. (218)
    One might say that Chaucers Knight both enjoys the wildness and feels the
    taming necessarybut Chaucer has other threads of narrative to develop.


    43
    nevertheless, early Greek artists always portrayed the sirens of Homer as
    woman-faced birds. In Ovids Metamorphoses, the sirens are daughters of
    Achelous, the river-god, who were turned into birds (Benwell and Waugh 41-3).
    Fig. 2-5. Harpy/siren, north side, church of Saint-Etiene,
    Cahors (from Benton 1996:154).
    As Janetta Benton (1992:36) delightfully remarks, the harpy lacks the
    sirens surface charm." In spite of the similarity in form, it is a little difficult to
    trace the evolution of the harpy into the siren. Nevertheless, I do believe that
    they are connected and that the physical loathsomeness of the harpy is
    transformed into the moral dangerousness of the siren, as the harpys snatching
    of souls and of food is transformed into the sirens snatching of men whom she
    captures or eats (see Bartholomew Anglicus above). Both are associated with
    water, Erich Neumanns primordial womb of life" (47), the sea or the seashore.
    Both, as long as the siren is a bird-woman, hover above men. Rowland does not


    60
    Shakespeares women are neither male nor female but may be understood as
    projections of male fantasies of the Wild female other... the males foray into
    the mysterious female forest (14, 18). She adds: [T]he female is not at the
    center of the heros world but in a strange, enticing, and threatening Wild
    territory overlapping but not identical with his own.. .. The male must venture
    into this territory; he may even find its terrors exciting; but he will soon return to
    his familiar world (28).
    Tristan makes an effort to return to his familiar world when the effects of
    the love potion (the duration of which in Broul is three years [Fedrick 21-2])
    come to an end; the lovers agree to return to Mark, and the hermit Ogrin writes
    to Mark for them. But Iseut, when she returns to court, does not give up her inner
    wildness: She sends a message to Tristan to come to her at court while Mark is
    away. Tristan, reinfected by Iseuts wildness, kills two of the three barons who
    are spying on the lovers and joins Iseut, who (according to Fedricks annotation)
    exchanges love tokens with him. They swear each to be always at the service of
    the other (Broul 145-8; Fedrick 148). The manuscript breaks off at this point,
    but we know from other versions, as summarized by Fedrick (149-50), that
    Tristan goes to Brittany and marries Iseut of the White Hands, though he is still
    in love with Queen Iseut.
    Iseut, the exciting lady of the forest, can be seen as a figure of male fears
    and erotic fantasies given form and/or a figure of female yearnings given form.
    Thus it is no wonder that the tale was so popular. While Iseut was, for the male


    CHAPTER 2
    HARPIES, SIRENS, AND MERMAIDS
    Modern readers know the mermaid as a beautiful, fish-tailed maiden who
    swims in the seas or sits on a rock or on the shore, singing and combing her
    long, flowing hair. Humans often fall in love with her, or she with them, or both.
    They seem less likely to remember that stories of mermaids often end with the
    mermaid bride, who cannot live on land, returning to the sea.
    The mermaid as she appears in medieval literature is a type of the Wild
    Woman as Seductress: she is willful, beautiful, lustful, and deceitful. The sweet
    mermaid we know from Hans Christian Andersen and from the films Splash and
    The Little Mermaid is a modern transformation that omits half the truth. Janus
    faced, the classical mermaid is the epitome of the clichd feminine: she is both
    sweet and deceitful, lovable and dangerous. She is at the core of a conception
    of the feminine that has endured through the ages.
    To understand the concepts of harpy, siren, and mermaid, which play a
    large part in folklore and interest us for the light they throw on concepts of
    woman as threatening or seducing, we need to understand medieval ideas on
    female sexuality. These ideas, inherited from Greco-Roman culture, included a
    perception of women as profoundly sexual. Women embodied sexuality; their
    sexuality was open and receptive, as Joyce Salisbury (84, 85-7) says. This
    idea of woman as always receptive may sound more like a projection of male
    33


    84
    And so on; this exposition lasts until line 3066. Paul Beekman Taylors
    comments on this speech are interesting:
    It is curious that Theseus should argue an order of the universe as
    a bond of love after having destroyed its natural order. ... [H]e
    seizes upon the occasion to strengthen his political power by
    giving Emily to Palamon.... A new beginning out of the chaos of
    sorrow is a fine prospect, but the transformation of social and
    natural cycles of order and disorder into a perfect and eternal joy is
    well beyond Theseuss ordaining powers. (86, 87)
    The young people are moved like pieces on a chessboard. Neither the
    woman or, as often in reality, the man has much say in the matter. Here I begin
    to suspect that Chaucer is struggling with and questioning the restrictions of his
    own society. When Theseus counsels that he himself, Palamon, Emelye, and
    everyone else make of sorwes two / O parfit joye, lastynge everemo (3071-2),
    he is simply directing Emelye to accept Palamon in marriage:
    Suster, quod he, this is my fulle assent,
    With al thavys heere of my parlement,
    That gentil Palamon, youre owene knyght,
    That serveth yow with wille, herte, and myght,
    And ever hath doon syn ye first hm knewe,
    That ye shul of youre grace upon hym rewe,
    And taken hm for housbonde and for lord...(3075-81)
    Palamon and Emelye are not married, however, until lines 3094-8.
    Theseus justifies himself in deciding everyones fate by citing the cheyne
    of love, the order of the universe. As Taylor notes (20), Chaucer got this
    concept from Plato's Timaeus in Latin translation. Gods (whether Jupiters or the
    Christian Gods, or both) authority and divine will can be seen also as Chaucers
    justification in marrying Palamon and Emelye. It does seem to me, though, that


    35
    Mirie singed, Ois mere,2 & haueO
    manie stefnes,
    Manie & sille, oc it (ben wel ille.
    Sipmen here) steringe frjeten for hire
    stefninge,
    Slumeren & slepen & to late waken:
    De sipes sinken mitte suk, ne cumen
    he nummor up.
    Oc wise men & warre a£en cunen
    chare,
    Ofte am atbrosten mid he[re]* best
    ouel.
    He hauen told of Ois mere, Oat Ous
    uniemete,
    Half man & half fis,3 sum Oing tokneO
    bi Ois.
    Significado
    Fele men hauen Oe tokning
    Of Ois forbisnede Oing:
    WiOuten weren [sepes] fel;
    WiOinnen arn he wulues al.
    He speken godcundhede
    & wikke is here dede.
    Here dede is al vncuO
    WiO Oat spekeO here muO.
    Twifold arn on mode:
    He sweren bi Oe rode,
    Bi Oe sunne & bi Oe mone
    & he de le^en sone.
    MiO here sa?e & miO here song
    He Oe swiken Oerimong:
    Din a(te wiO swiking,
    Bi soule wiO lesing.
    (Modem English Physiologus 15-16)
    Merrily she sings, this mermaid, and has
    many voices,
    Many and sonorous, but they are bad.
    Shipmen forget their steering because
    of her voices,
    Slumber and sleep and too late wake:
    The ships sink in the middle of a
    sucking action, nor do they ever come
    up again.
    But wise men and cautious turn back,
    Often are escaped with all the strength
    they have
    They have told of this mermaid, who
    thus, grotesque one,
    Half man and half fish, betokens
    something by this.
    Signification
    Many men have the meaning
    Of this allegorical thing:
    Without they wear sheeps skin;
    Within they are all wolves.
    They speak [in] pious talk
    And wicked is their deed.
    Their deed is all unacquainted
    With what their mouths speak.
    They are twofold in behavior:
    They swear by the cross,
    By the sun and by the moon
    And they [will] deceive thee soon.
    With their words and with their song
    They betray thee meanwhile:
    Thy possessions with betrayal,
    They soul with lying.
    (Translation AHL)
    2A short form for mereman.
    3The half man [person] and half fish nature of the mermaid described here leads to the
    warning of the "Significado" against the danger posed by half-human beings.


    117
    (seductive and/or threatening), the lascivious and outspoken woman given to
    wandering, the woman who longs for freedom in the wilderness, and, above all,
    the Terrible Mother.
    The Terrible Mother is best represented by Grendels mother, but
    elements of her character can be seen in all the figures given attention here. Yet
    the Terrible Mother is only a part of the Great Mother. Neumann (11, 12)
    includes among his wreath of symbolic images
    not only one figure but a great number of figures, of Great Mothers
    ... who, as goddesses and fairies, female demons and nymphs,
    friendly and unfriendly, manifest the one Great Unknown, the Great
    Mother as the central aspect of the Archetypal Feminine, in the
    rites and myths, the religions and legends, of mankind [sac].
    This Great Mother herself is only a partial aspect of the Archetypal Feminine,
    according to Neumann; the concept Great Mother refers to a complex psychic
    situation of the ego. The adjective Great expresses the superiority of this
    figure to everything human and to created nature.
    What does the Great Mother have to do with us? Do we have a
    perceivable relationship to this mythic figure? The answer is: We are all the
    Great Mother. We may even, at times, or some of us may, become the Terrible
    Motherthe other side, the dark side of the Great Mother that we have been
    discussing all through this study. She is the one who withholds, threatens,
    condemns, even kills (though we note that Grendels mother kills to avenge her
    son). She is also the one who is not afraid to do what she has to do, who fights
    the fights she needs to fight.


    32
    How, finally, can Grendels mother be seen as a Wild Woman? Chance
    points out that she is described in human and social terms: inversion of the
    Anglo-Saxon ideal of woman as both monstrous and masculineas sinnige
    secg sinful warrior, mihtig mariscada mighty evil-doer, gryrelicne grundhyrde
    terrible keeper of the abyss (249; the translations of the various terms,
    however, are mine). This Wild Woman is infinitely more than a particular being
    in conflict with established convention. She means to destroy. She is both less
    and more than human, transcending and descending from the human, the
    Terrible Mother in her most archetypal aspect.


    28
    This guilt and its association with the desire to make reparation, besides
    being part of the childs individual development, remind me of the demonization
    of the old gods and goddesses at the coming of Christianity. Indeed, Marie-
    Louise von Franz feels that Christianity has repressed out of existence the
    pagan goddess figure, leaving only the perfect Virgin Mary (84). The ancient
    mother goddess, however, remains as a half-forgotten, half-unconscious figure
    who is at once worshiped and feared. After the conversion to Christianity, guilt
    must have been felt by some for the renunciation and demonization of earlier
    deities. These deities' internal power is still great; civilization lost much in losing
    them. Reparation may have been made by means of secret sacrifice to them.
    Von Franz emphasizes that an aspect of the mother goddess ... has
    been very much forgotten in our civilization, but... exists in many primitive
    civilizations, and in antiquity ... a feminine principle which contains a strange
    kind of severity and revengefulness.... (138) If this goddessso different from
    Mary, who is held to be perfect (84)is revengeful, she could inspire great fear
    not only in children but in adults, and make even adults feel not only driven to
    revenge themselves on her but also to protect themselves from her rage by
    making reparation.
    Klein herself writes that when a child damages a toy, she/he feels guilt,
    depression, and the wish to make reparation (42). In an earlier article, she writes
    that one component of the Oedipal situation is a particularly strong sense of
    guilt. She describes a child patient who was inwardly playing both parts: that of


    58
    often invoked as a support for the lovers illicit and deceptive actions. Why is he
    helping them in this way? Is the action of the magic potion a satisfactory
    justification for their actions? And why do they continue their affair after the
    potions effect has expired?
    Broul states that the potion was made to be effective for three years of
    love (95). The affair does not end with the potions expiration, I feel, because by
    now the love between Tristan and Iseut has become part of their characters and
    their defiance of the court and its social rules. Iseut does enjoy court life as long
    as she can have things her own way, even if that means occasionally fleeing
    from court. The game of deceit is a delight to her. The potion in Broul is
    perhaps never more than a literary trick; it may be derived from a more seriously
    romantic plot device in some earlier version of the story. There is another
    explanation for the continuance of the affair, however (see below).
    With regard to the attitude to God here shown both by Broul and his
    characters, we may cite George Duby. Duby feels that there was a psychological
    shift at the beginning of the thirteenth century: [l]n the great shift that brought
    about the internalization of religion, they [knights] gradually learned that rites
    count for little when acts and intentions are not blameless (283). The world of
    the poem is a world existing prior to the internalization of religion: Tristan and
    Iseut seem to think that they can get away with anything as long as they at least
    pretend to stick to outward forms. The externalized concept of honor is more
    important to them than the state of their souls, and yet honor is not all-important


    105
    We turn now from the Prologue, in which the Wife lays out her marriage
    history in fascinating detail, to the Wife's Tale, which exhibits for our attention
    the stereotype and antistereotype of woman in this period. The antistereotype, or
    figure of the wished-for womansweet, submissive, and beautifulwas and is
    clung to by some males as a way of controlling, warding off, keeping within
    bounds the frightening figures of the Jungian Terrible Mother and of the
    seductressthe shadow side of the beloved Good Mother figure. The Loathly
    Lady figure in the Tale embodies both seductress and hag or Terrible Mother.
    The antistereotype provides the ideals for woman to which the Wild
    Woman does not conform. The Wife is of course a Wild Woman who turns the
    conventions upside down, a perfect example of what a woman should not be in
    the eyes of the medieval cleric. Note that, according to Hallissy (2, 29), the ideal
    qualities for women in Chaucer's day were purity, fidelity, and loyalty; [n]othing
    [was] more unfeminine than anger. The Wife certainly is not remarkable for
    purity, fidelity, or loyalty, and she is very angry at the restrictions under which
    sheeven she!must live, as she details them in the first part of her
    Prologue. The way in which she has managed to find some happiness within
    her restrictive society is simple; She turns everything upside down. She wins, by
    her sexual and personal wiles, the upper hand over her husbands, so that they
    will grant her freedom to do as she likeswhich is what she really wants, not just
    dresses and jewelry. But there is a sadder aspect to her methods; she has not


    123
    Leonard, Linda Schierse. The Wounded Woman: Healing the Father-Daughter
    Relationship. Boston and London: Shambala, 1985. View by a Jungian
    analyst, not only of the father-daughter relationship, but of the distorted
    ways in which a girl can develop in a patriarchal society. Highly
    recommended.
    Lewin, Bertram D. The Body as Phallus. Psychoanalytic Quarterly 2 (1933): 24-
    47. [T]here is an unconscious equation of body and phallus (24). [T]he
    fantasy of ones whole body being a penis is symbolically a passive
    feminine fantasy, the equivalent of the phallic level fantasy of castration
    (34-5). Appropriate to the Wife of Bath as phallic character, with her
    scarlet clothing and big hat, her bokeler and targe, and her desire to
    acquire power over men. By a Freudian analyst.
    The Middle English Physiologus. Ed. Hanneke Wirtjes. Published for the Early
    English Text Society. London: Oxford UP, 1991. Very thorough editing of
    a short, free translation and adaptation of Theobalds Latin Physiologus.
    The ME translator reproduces the different verse forms found in Theobald
    by using every formalliteration, rhyme, or bothknown to him.
    Confuses mermaids and sirens. Base of mermaid chapter.
    Neumann, Erich. The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype. Trans. Ralph
    Manheim. Bollingen Series XLVII. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP,
    1991. From a Jungian perspective, Neumann attempts the exposition of
    the archetypal-psychical world of the Feminine since he feels the peril of


    129
    Dalarun, Jacques. "The Clerical Gaze. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. A History of
    Women in the West. II. Silences of the Middle Ages. Ed. Christiane
    Klapisch-Zuber. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press, 1994.
    Damico, Helen. Wealhtheow and the Valkyrie Tradition. Madison: U of Wisconsin
    P, 1984.
    Duby, Georges. The Knight, the Lady and the Priest: The Making of Modern
    Marriage in Medieval France. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983.
    Fedrick, Alan S. Introduction. Broul 1970: 9-35.
    Flores, Nona C. Effigies Amicitiae.. Veritas Inimicitiae: Antifeminism in the
    Iconography of the Woman-Headed Serpent in Medieval and
    Renaissance Art and Literature. Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of
    Essays, ed. Nona C. Flores. New York and London: Garland, 1996. 167-
    95.
    Fox, Denton, and Hermann Palsson, trans. Grettir's Saga. Toronto: U of Toronto
    P, 1974.
    Gower, John. The Tale of Florent. Bryan and Dempster 1941. 224-35.
    Grimbert, Joan Tasker. Introduction. Tristan and Isolde: A Casebook. Ed. Joan
    Tasker Grimbert. New York: Routledge, 1995. xiii-ci.
    Hansen, Elaine Tuttle. Chaucer and the Fictions of Gender. Berkeley and Los
    Angeles: U of California P, 1992.
    . Of his love daungerous to me: Liberation, Subversion, and Domestic
    Violence in the Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale. Beidler 1996: 273-89.


    102
    female figure, holding some token of power, towers over her hapless victims,
    who kneel or cower before her (101; see fig. 5-3). Yarnall Is writing about a later
    period, but the image of Circe she describes sounds like one that might have
    existed in the Middle Ages (and Chaucers works show a deep indebtedness to
    Ovid). In any case, the Wife does make her "hapless victims look silly:
    Thanne wolde I seye, Goode lief, taak keep
    How meekly looketh Wilkyn, oure sheep!
    Com neer, my spouse, let me ba thy cheke!
    Ye sholde been al pacient and meeke.. .. (431-4)
    The Wife of Bath does not precisely follow Circe's example. She makes
    the old husband into a meek sheepnot a tame lion, bear, or wolf, but the male
    animal is tamed. He becomes Wilkyn or Willie, and she pats him on the cheek.
    She also reverses marriage roles as they were supposed to be; she is teaching
    him, she is exhorting him to be pacient and meeke. The Wife repeats the
    process with all three husbands. She can get away with this because she is
    younger than they, probably more intelligent, and certainly of stronger
    personality. She has no intention of being "pacient and meeke herself or of
    submitting any more than she has to; her attitude is, All right, I married you, you
    have my land; now its your turn to do something for me.
    This works well until the Wife falls in love with Jankyn, a twenty-year-old
    clerk (she is forty, but that doesnt matter; she is young for her age, rich, and
    well situated) (600-1, 605-6). In Jankyn, she finally has someone she loves and
    someone as intelligent as herself. She conducts her campaign by walking with


    26
    I do not know whom Niles means by interpreters. I do not think we need
    to prove the existence of the archetype; it is accepted as such in the Euro-
    Semitic world. The psyche is always the same, however modified by social
    conditions. As we have seen, however, the Jungian interpretation is insufficient
    in this case. Folktale and myth do not explain everything. What is the
    interpreter of this story to do?
    This question poses a dilemma. In my attempt to find a solution for it, I
    have had recourse to the work of Melanie Klein and Dorothy Bloch, two
    practitioners who through child analysis have uncovered explanations I have not
    found elsewhere. We shall take Kleinian theory first.
    Juliet Mitchell, in her introduction to The Selected Melanie Klein (1987),
    explaining Kleins work, says of the Oedipal situation: A primary relationship to
    the mother becomes culturally problematic at the stage or level when the child
    wants to occupy the place already filled by the father, when, in a phallic and
    hence competitive way, it wants to be everything for the mother, to have
    everything she needs to satisfy her and thus to have exclusive rights to her
    (13). This refers, of course, to a male child. Is Beowulf s situation Oedipal? Does
    he marry the mother as well as kill her? Is he psychologically maimed by the
    encounter? (See fig. 1-4, in which the bodies of Grendels mother and Beowulf
    blend sexually and seductively.)


    4
    Fig. 1. The Innocent Wild Woman (Husband 26).
    The Tamed Wild Woman is a title I apply to the woman who was originally
    wild but became tame (without, I hope, losing quite all of her wildness). Emelye
    is an example of this type; another is Zenobia or Cenobie of the same authors


    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    page
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
    ABSTRACT iv
    INTRODUCTION 1
    CHAPTER
    1 GRENDEL'S MOTHER 9
    2 HARPIES, SIRENS, AND MERMAIDS 33
    3 BROULS ISEUT 52
    4 CHAUCER'S EMELYE 68
    5 THE WIFE OF BATH 87
    6 CONCLUSION 113
    ANNOTATED LIST OF WORKS CITED 120
    NON-ANNOTATED LIST OF WORKS CITED 126
    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 135
    ii


    109
    role. I agree, however, with Mann, who says, [T]he magical happy ending is a
    visionary glimpse of mutuality in male-female relationships (91). As the Knight
    decides to change, the Lady also does: This marriage can be saved. The Lady
    not only serves as a teacher to the young man; she also teaches herself. As
    teacher she moves beyond her Circe role. No longer just an animal tamer, the
    Lady asserts her right to recognition as a woman who can think, and in
    recreating the traditional figure the Wife of Bath has asserted her own right to
    recognition. Chaucer, characteristically, has taken the lesson a step further than
    have others.
    We see the same mechanism in the Wifes reconciliation with Jankyn. It is
    not giving in but a deciding, the making of a choice. As Priscilla Martin says,
    Once the struggle for supremacy has ceased to be an issue, supremacy itself
    seems not to matter.... Both partners in a loving relationship are
    interdependent, no matter who might be the nominal leader (62). The Wife, in
    her supposed submissionboth to Jankyn in real life and to the Knight in
    fantasyis behaving in a loving way toward her husband because she chooses
    to, not because she is forced to or is conforming to an external ideal of
    womanhood (not she!). In her previous marriages she manipulated men without
    love, as Circe does; now she interacts with a man she does love. I am sure that,
    if she really wants to do something, she will do it whether her husband approves
    or not.


    48
    serpents tail (173). This links all three of our characters. The beauty (and lovely
    French braid) of the female serpent is striking and resembles that of the
    mermaid (except that the latter has long flowing hair); the character of the female
    serpent is even more reprehensible than the mermaids.
    The mermaid, then, has a long history, a history not confined to classical
    tradition and continuations of that tradition represented by texts like the Middle
    English Physiologus and Bartholomew Anglicuss commentary. Beginning,
    perhaps, with a relationship to creatures of the air, in further developments she
    becomes a creature capable of entering into relationships with human beings.
    This development, as Barbara Leavy demonstrates, accompanies her
    association with a folklore figure known as the animal bride or swan maiden.
    Leavy states that mermaid tales frequently form subgroups among swan maiden
    narratives ..." as the woman (swan maiden, mermaid, etc.) is rescued from the
    wild and is tamed and fitted for marriage with men (44, 45). The swan maiden
    story, Leavy says, is found in virtually every comer of the world" because in
    most cultures woman was a symbolic outsider, was the other. .. and marriage
    demanded an intimate involvement in a world never quite her own (2). It seems
    that man deals with his fear of woman by making her in his mind at least partly
    animal; the female equivalent of this process, of course, is found in tales such as
    Beauty and the Beast or The Frog Prince in which the girl, fearing male
    roughness and sexuality, finds that at least some male beasts, when kissed,
    become princes. Leavy says that to undo the effects of sexual repression the


    76
    not do this) and also (she adds) to serve Diana, presumably as a priestess. But,
    it is noted, she stipulates that if her destiny is such that she must marry one of
    the two men who love her, she hopes Diana will sende ... hym that moost
    desireth me (2325). She keeps her options open and defines what is desirable
    to hernot to be received as a trophy.
    While she is praying, the fires on the altar begin to behave strangely. One
    goes out and rekindles, while the other burns out, and from the brondes
    [brands] ende bloody drops run out (lines 2339-40). This of course prefigures
    the end of the story, though the reader and Emelye do not know what that end is
    yet. Nevertheless, Emelye is soore agast (2341) and begins to weep.
    More can be said about these fires. As Howes has pointed out in her fine
    study Chaucers Gardens and the Language of Convention, the quenched
    torches of Emelyes fires, with their drops of blood, are a graphic image of lost
    maidenhead following several puns on the female genitalia with the word
    queynt(e). Queynt(e) can mean curious or strange or, as a verb, quench"
    besides its meaning of female genitals" (Howes 93; see Davis et al., 115 [two
    entries]).
    At this point, Diana, dressed as a huntress, appears and answers
    Emelyes prayer by telling her that she will marry one of the two men, although
    Diana may not tell her which one; Emelye will have her aventure of love (line
    2355). Her desire to remain chaste must be quenched, as Diana explains, by
    reason of eterne word writen and confirmed (2350; Howes 93). The word


    99
    that a small shield was used metaphorically to describe the mons veneris, while
    the targe had a bouche cut into it so that a lance could pass through. The
    costume, therefore, represents both the male and female genitals; the Wife is
    armored in her male and female clothing, just as Grendels mother is armored in
    her armor. Another reader, Priscilla Martin, comments that the Wife has
    evidently taken a lot of trouble and spent a lot of money on her outfit... but the
    general effect is more strident than seductive (38).
    Moving from the Mars-Venus, male-female portrait of the Wife in the
    General Prologue to a scene, or supposed scene, in the Wifes Personal
    Prologue, we see this startling picture of her invented dream, which she recounts
    to Jankyn before her marriage:
    And eek I seyde I mette [dreamed] of hym all nyght.
    He wolde han slayn me as I lay upright,
    And al my bed was ful of verray blood;
    But yet I hope that ye shall do me good,
    For blood bitokeneth gold, as me was taught.
    And al was fals; I dremed of it right naught. (576-82)
    The blood/gold motif, for Jankyns delectation and meant as an incitement for
    him to marry the Wife, suggests war and pillage. If these lines are authentic
    and Peter G. Beidler (64, notes to lines 575-84) says that [t]he dominant view is
    that the lines are Chaucers ownthey may show the Wife as both strident and
    seductive. Let us consider this in the context of her relationships with men.
    Married for the first time at the age of twelve (Wifes Prologue 4), the
    Wife of Bath had three old husbands whomsince she had no other option in


    20
    hroh ond heorogrim, hrmgmsl
    gebraegd
    aldres orwna, yrringa slh,
    t>aet hire wifl halse heard grpode,
    bnhringas braec; bil eal urhwd
    savage and sword-grim, he drew the
    ring-sword
    despairing of life; angrily he struck,
    grasped hard at her throat,
    broke her bone-rings;3 the sword went
    through
    the body with joy; she fell to the floor,
    faegne fbschoman; ho on flet
    gecrong,
    sweord waes swtig, secg weorce
    gefeh.
    the sword was bloody, in its work
    rejoiced.
    (Klaeber 58-9)
    Here the mother is variously described as fiercely hungry, grim and
    greedy, the cursed sea-woman, with a grim grip. This description recalls the
    harpy figure (Chapter 2) in her terrible hunger and greed; can there be a remote
    connection here through Latin literature? It seems more likely that in both the
    Latin and the Old English cases, this terrifying female figure is a visualization of
    human fear.
    There is also a likeness to the ogress figure of Grettir's Saga: a great
    she-troll who carries a trough in one hand and a big cleaver in the other, the
    most powerful monster Grettir has ever seen. She held him so tightly to herself
    that he could not use either of his hands ... certainly a grim grip (Fox and
    Palsson 137). Certainly her behavior seems like that of the ogress. Another
    description of her in this passage, however, is cursed bottom-dweller
    (grundwyrgenne [1518]). This is glossed by Klaeber (347) as accursed (female)
    monster of the deep. Klaeber, whose Christian interpretations occur with some
    vertebrae.


    34
    desires than a description of female being, but the mermaid in medieval times
    was seen as a supreme seductress, luring men to their doomthat is, to
    forbidden sexual experience in which they might "drown." She was certainly
    unchaste. Men feared the temptation represented by seductive women, and the
    mermaid came to be a symbol of that temptation, as well as of the deceitfulness
    associated with women. As Carl Jung says in his description of the mother
    archetype, she combines the magic authority of the female on the positive side
    with, on the negative side, anything that devours, seduces, and poisons, that is
    terrifying and inescapable like fate" (Archetypes, 16).
    Although the mermaid is not portrayed in any significant text, I shall begin
    with two medieval descriptions. The first of these is found in the Middle English
    Physiologus, a manuscript written in Norfolk about 1300 (the edition quoted is
    that of Hanneke Wirtjes, 1991). In this text we read:
    In de se senden selcudes manie.
    Be mereman1 is a meiden ¡like;
    On brest & on bodi oc (al dus £e is
    bunden):
    Fro de noule niderward ne is £e (no
    man like)
    Oc fis to ful iwis mid finnes waxen.
    Bis wunder wuned in wankel stede
    der de water sinked.
    Sipes £e sinked & scade dus werked.
    In the sea there are many marvels.
    The merman is like a maiden:
    In breast and in body but (thus she is
    bound):
    From the navel downward she is like no
    man
    But [from] fish grown to bird truly with
    fins.
    This wonder lives in an insecure place
    where the water sinks.
    She sinks ships and thus causes injury.
    1ln early English, man could refer to both male and female human beings; mereman
    Is thus a human being of the sea," although mer-people are really only half human.


    27
    Fig. 1-4. Grendels Ma & Beowulf. Drawing by Charles Keeping, reprinted
    from Kevin Crossley-Hollands Beowulf (Oxford: Oxford University
    Press, 1982). By permission of Oxford University Press. From
    Osborn.
    Mitchell continues: Its own destructive feelingsemanations of the death
    wishmake the baby very anxious. It fears that the object on which it vents its
    rage ... will retaliate.... As developmental^ the ego becomes able to take in
    the whole person ... it [the baby] continues to rage against the mother for the
    frustration she causes, but now, instead of fearing retaliation, it feels guilt and
    anxiety for the damage it itself has done in phantasy. This is what Klein calls the
    depressive position. In overcoming this, the baby wants to repair the destruction
    it has caused in phantasy, as Mitchell spells the word. It takes in the damaged
    and then restored mother, adding these new internalizations as part of the seifs
    inner world (20-1).


    127
    Bone, Gavin. Beowulf in Modem Verse with an Essay and Pictures. Oxford:
    Blackwell, 1945,
    Brooke, Iris. English Costume in the Later Middle Ages. London: A. & N. Clark,
    1935.
    Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in
    Early Christianity. New York: Columbia UP, 1988.
    Bryan, W.F., and Germaine Dempster. Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's
    Canterbury Tales. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1941.
    Bullough, Vern L. Cross Dressing and Gender Role Change In the Middle
    Ages." Bullough and Brundage, eds. 1996. 223-42.
    and James A. Brundage, eds. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. New York and
    London: Garland, 1996.
    Burns, E. Jane. How Lovers Lie Together: Infidelity and Fictive Discourses in
    the Roman de Tristan Grimbert, ed., 1995. 75-93.
    . Why Beauty Laughs: Iseuts Enormous Thighs. Body Talk: When Women
    Speak in Old French Literature. Ed. E. Jane Burns. Philadelphia: U of
    Pennsylvania P, 1993.
    Burrow, J.A. Medieval Writers and their Work. New York and Oxford: Oxford UP,
    1982.
    Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
    UP, 1968.


    73
    the obedience women owed to male authority might mean to them. The question
    now becomes: How can we understand Emelye as a person in her context?
    A valuable insight has been provided by Linda Schierse Leonard, who
    does not discuss Chaucer at all. Leonard is a Jungian analyst whose book, The
    Wounded Woman: Healing the Father-Daughter Relationship, centers on the
    ways in which women can be wounded by father figures and by a patriarchal
    society. She states:
    Whenever there is a patriarchal authoritarian attitude which
    devalues the feminine by reducing it to a number of roles or
    qualities which come, not from womans own experience, but from
    an abstract view of herthere one finds the collective father
    overpowering the daughter, not allowing her to grow creatively from
    her own essence. (10)
    This abstract view sounds like the view Theseus has of Emelye.
    According to Leonard, authoritarian men often deny their own feminine sides and
    tend to focus on what they consider masculine: obedience, duty and rationality."
    Because their emphasis is on control and doing things right, frequently they are
    not open to the unexpected, to the expression of creativity and feelings ... they
    tend to treat such things with sarcasm and derision (11-13). This is a good
    description of Theseus at his worst, as when he, declaring love to be nothing but
    foolishness, describes Emelye as a mere animal: She woot namore of all this
    hoote fare, / By God, than woot a cokkow or a hare!" (lines 1809-10; hares are
    notoriously sexual animals). She is not even an animal but an instrument,
    nothing but the cause of foolishness, in his following lines: But all moot ben


    106
    been able to findexcept, to some extent, with Jankynthe happiness and
    romance she seeks, and hence can only find compensation in rebelling and
    doing as she wishes: We love no man that taketh kepe or charge / Where that
    we goon. We wold be at oure large (231-2).
    Having had a taste of freedom, the Wife wants more. How do we know
    that she wants it? We see it not only from the story of Jankyn but also from her
    Tale, the story of the Loathly Lady. True, this story is not original to her or to
    Chaucer; it is a folktale Stith Thompson labels type D732 (259), and it is found in
    other medieval works. Nevertheless, the fact that the Wife chooses it says
    something about her. The Loathly Lady fantasy satisfies her in two ways: it
    embodies her lust for triumph over men, and it gives her youth, beauty, and true
    love.
    If we see the Loathly Lady as a projection of the Wife of Bath herself, we
    may be able to define her place in the company of Wild Women more clearly.
    Susan Crane (1994:84), recalling what have become stock associations, says,
    The loathly lady of the Wife of Baths Tale has close literary affiliations with
    those of the Marriage of Sir Gawaine and the Weddynge of Sir Gawen and
    Dame Ragnellwho transform themselves for Gawain when he marries them in
    exchange for their aid and surrenders sovereignty to them. The same motif is
    found in Gowers Confessio Amantis. It somewhat resembles the folk motif of the
    Clinging-Woman found in Native American mythology and described by Claude
    Lvi-Strauss as an old hag who, [fjurious at being spurned, clings to [the heros]


    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
    Anne H. Lambert was born Anne OHara in Chicago on June 24, 1932.
    She grew up in the Chicago suburbs. She received her Bachelor of Arts degree
    from Randolph-Macon Womens College in Lynchburg, Virginia in 1953, and a
    Master of Arts degree in Romance languages from the University of North
    Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1954. She worked as a copy editor, proofreader, and
    indexer in Chicago until 1981, when she moved to Boston, Massachusetts.
    There she worked as a freelancer while pursuing a second Master of Arts
    degree in linguistics from Harvard Extension. She moved to Gainesville, Florida,
    in 1990 and in 1994 began work for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in English.
    In private life, she is married to writer, cartoonist, and retired professor Robert
    Lambert. She has three stepchildren and a cat.
    136


    Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
    of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
    Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
    THE WILD WOMAN AND HER SISTERS
    IN MEDIEVAL ENGLISH LITERATURE
    By
    Anne H. Lambert
    May 2003
    Chair: Marie Nelson
    Major Department: English
    The Introduction discusses subcategories of Wild Woman: the Terrible
    Mother, as exemplified in Grendels mother of the Old English poem Beowulf, the
    Seductress, represented here by the mermaid; the Untamable Wild Woman,
    represented by Brouls Iseut and Chaucers Wife of Bath; and the Tamed Wild
    Woman, Chaucers Emelye and the Wife of Bath. Each individual chapter
    considers one of these figures.
    In Chapter 1, Grendels mother is a figure from the depths of the psyche,
    both subhuman and superhuman, a creature of dark and cold waters. Beowulf s
    psychological makeup in confrontation with this being is also examined.
    Chapter 2 traces the harpy through the siren and the mermaid of folklore.
    The Middle English Physiologus is used as a medieval example of a being who
    lures men and kills them.
    IV


    CHAPTER 1
    GRENDEL'S MOTHER
    In this first chapter of our study, we shall look at the nature of the oldest
    Wild Woman in English literature: Grendels mother of the Old English epic
    Beowulf. Is she a monster, a fearsome mere-wife, as she initially appears? Is
    she a brave figure, boldly avenging her son Grendel, who has been killed by
    Beowulf? It is certainly true that in recent years she has received a better press
    than formerly. Edward B. Irving, Jr., for example (70), says, She has the
    perfectly acceptable obligation to avenge [Grendels] death and calls her many
    readers' favorite monster (73). And David Williams says: Vengeance, a primary
    value in Germanic society, is immediately [after Beowulfs wounding of Grendel-
    AHL] undertaken by Grendels mother with the injury to her son, demonstrating
    that in her kin, too, it is a value... [This is] one of the skillful ways in which the
    fabulous world of Grendel interlocks with the historical world of the Danes and
    provides an implicit didactic comment on it (54). Grendel's mother is seen not
    just as a monster but also as a mother, doing what a mother might do after the
    violent death of a son.
    What, then, is our direction in this, one of the many reexaminations of this
    character? While we can certainly see Grendels mother as a Wild Woman, we
    need to ask two questions in our attempt to understand her: (1) What, exactly, is
    Grendels mother-monster, human being, or goddess? (2) More importantly,
    9


    12
    human arm protruding from his devouring mouth and two long-visaged Celtic
    heads poised with hideous precision betwixt his fore and hinder paws. He
    describes Grendel as in human form but devoid of humanity ... [I]ike the Norse
    draugr or animated corpse, and speculates that Beowulf himself might originally
    have been half-human and half bear. In some of the Bears Son stories the hero
    is the son of a bear who has stolen his mother (xxiv, 8-9, 12). Can this bear-
    father have developed into Grendel? A bear seen from a distance, standing up,
    could resemble a shaggy half-humanand probably the most dangerous wild
    animal is a mother bear defending her cub!
    Signe Carlson (362) speculates that Grendel, and hence his mother, may
    be just large men, i.e., humans (this is indeed how they are described in the
    poem), possibly cannibals (she notes that Grendel and his mother antedate
    Christianity and that eoten giant probably has the same root as eten to eat and
    may have been applied to real cannibals). Perhaps, she suggests, such people
    may have been real aboriginal inhabitants of England. Hrothgar states (lines
    1345-53) :1
    le t>ast londbend, lode mine, I heard hall-counselors tell the story
    seleraedende secgan hyrde, of the land-dwellers, O my people,
    b*t hie geswon swylce twgen that they saw such two [beings],
    miele mearcstapan moras healdan, great march2-wanderers living on the
    moors,
    1AII quotations from Beowulf are from Klaeber's edition as translated by the present
    author.
    border.


    24
    but Hrothgar and Wealhtheow function as his adopted father and mother
    (Hrethel took him in as a boy and treated him as one of his own sons, but
    Hrothgar protected Beowulfs father once). Grendels mother then corresponds
    to Wealhtheow in being a foreign slave (the meaning of Wealhtheows name),
    an exile. Helen Damico says: Grendels mother and Wealhtheow exist in an
    antipodal relationship. They are contrapuntal... in the status each assumes in
    the poem.... This pairing is the most extreme example of the poets style of
    characterization, the juxtaposition of opposite (21). She adds, later in her book,
    that this device of fragmentationespecially of mirroring is not foreign to the
    consciousness of the Anglo-Saxon artist... The method was apparently a
    common device of characterization in Germanic poetry (114).
    Grendel has his own role to play as a double or shadow of Beowulf: In
    Jungian terms he represents Beowulfs shadow, the dark side of the
    personality. So we have a set of pairs or triples: Beowulf and Grendel;
    Wealhtheow, Grendels mother, and Beowulfs mother; Hrethel, Hrothgar, and
    Ecgtheow, Beowulfs father. Grendels father is not known.
    Beowulf kills Grendel, his Jungian shadow, but apparently this is not
    enough: he has not yet reached full maturity. He must also defeat the Terrible
    Mother within himself (symbolized by Grendels mother). This killing will free him
    and establish his identity as an adult man. This should, according to the usual
    folktale pattern, lead to his marriage to the princess. But something is missing
    here: why does Beowulf, having vanquished the Terrible Mother, not marry? Is


    91
    and meaning were to be found in the husbands whims, to which
    the wife .. [must] bow to voluntary submission. (111, 112)
    This is assuming, of course, that the wife loved her husband. Even if she
    did not, obedience, submission, and fidelity were expected. Is it any wonder that
    sometimes women rebelled and became adulterous? But a woman who did this
    became an unchaste, badly behaved, indeed wicked, woman. A good woman
    obeyed. A bad, uncontrolled, or wild woman refused to submit.
    For a man, marriage had a different meaning. Marriage was seen as a bar
    to mens professional advancement and adultery against the first bride,
    philosophy. Love, marriage, and reproduction were thought by some to trap
    more souls in the prison of matter, though this was a Gnostic, heretical view
    (Wilson and Makowski 43, 93). Also, as we have seen, it was felt that abstinence
    and virginity made it easier for both men and women to draw closer to God. If
    marriage was to be discouraged, then, it made sense for men to denigrate and
    even demonize women. An antimarriage literature arose, featuring such authors
    as Tertullian and St. Jerome. To Tertullian, wicked women were loquacious,
    slothful, gossipy, lustful, gluttonous, and fornicating. St. Jerome stated that
    women were either odious or excessively passionate (which was probably
    odious to him also). Wilson and Makowski point out that Jerome had no first
    hand knowledge of wicked wives; his examples are biblical, historical,
    mythological, or admittedly based on secondhand information (39-40, 49, 57).


    83
    and weeps, as does everyone else. At Arcites lavish funeral, she faints, but
    Chaucer does not or will not tell what she speaks or feels (2944). Her behavior
    here is conventionally feminine, hardly that of a Wild Woman who attempts to
    determine her own destiny, but it allows Chaucer to get her off the stage while
    male discussion can take place. It is left for Theseus, with his bisy cure or care
    (2853), to decide what shall be done next.
    In spite of Theseuss busyness, it takes certeyn yeres for everyones
    grief to be "stynted (2968).2 Theseus now calls a parlement at which, among
    other matters, he plans to discussfor the last timethe subject of what is to be
    done with Emelye.3 It is at this point that he delivers his famous cheyne of love
    speech, a solemn and overlong oration reminding this reader, at least, of
    Shakespeares Polonius:
    The Firste Moevere of the cause above,
    When he first made the faire cheyne of love,
    Greet was theffect, and heigh was his entente.
    Wei wiste he why, and what thereof he mente,
    For with that faire cheyne of love he bond
    The fyr, the eyr, the water, and the lond
    In certeyn boundes, that they may nat flee. (2987-92)
    The question of Emelyes age is puzzling. If she is about 12 when Arcite and Palamon
    see her in the garden (the limit below which both secular custom and canon law forbade girls to
    be married [Duby 141]), the two knights suffer for her love for seven years, and certeyn yeres"
    have passed after that, Emelye would be over 20 when she marrieswhich seems an
    unrealistically late age of first marriage for a medieval woman. Perhaps Chaucer nodded here, or
    perhaps Emelye's age was simply not important to him.
    3Here we see Emelye the Amazon forced into the role of puppet by Theseus, as male
    power triumphs.


    56
    assertive, fighting, convention-breaking creature. She constantly manipulates
    people by her ingenious "lies, which are really truths expressed in such a way
    as to make lies the truth. This kind of strategy can be linked to the female
    mimesis described by E. Jane Burns (1993:207-8). Burns feels that Iseut, while
    she [defines] herself within the masculinized traditions of chivalry, courtliness,
    and feudal jurisprudence that construct [the medieval context]... [remains]
    significantly outside them (208). With this mimesis, she manages to get by
    socially at court. She is certainly highly intelligent, in fact more so than Tristan,
    as she is the one who hatches the plan to have Tristan disguise himself as a
    leper while she takes an oath that is nothing but one of her adroitly disguised
    truthful lies. She recognizes that she cannot take an oath whose wording is
    devised by someone else, but if she herself offers the oath, she can word it as
    she wishes. In an important incident, she, on trial for adultery, asks Tristan,
    disguised as a leper, to carry her over a muddy ford (Noble 20-21):
    Heavens, leper, you are fat! [she says], Turn your face
    this way and your back this way. I will get on like a boy.
    Then the leper smiled and bent his back. The queen
    mounted. Everyone was watching, kings and counts. Leaning on
    his crutch he raised one foot and kept the other firmly on the
    ground. Several times he pretended to fall, and looked as though
    he was in great pain. The fair Yseut rode on his back with her legs
    round him. . .
    [Accused of adultery, she says:] [M]y lords ... by the mercy
    of God I see holy relics here before me. Listen now to what I swear,
    and may it reassure the king: so help me God and St. Hilary, and
    by these relics, this holy place, the relics that are not here and all
    the relics there are in the world, I swear that no man ever came
    between my thighs except the leper who carried me on his back
    over the ford and my husband, King Mark. (136, 141-2)


    97
    literature.... [S]he confesses to a great desire to be lovedit runs through all
    her Prologue and is the point of her Tale." The two twentieth-century
    Chaucerians clearly have different views of what it means to be feminine. I
    incline to Howards position, but agree that the Wife has a strident, Martian
    quality (perhaps a defense mechanism against being hurt, or a way of barreling
    through all obstacles to get what she wants?). Martian-Venusian vacillation is
    shown in her clothing, to which we now turn.
    The Wife does not present herself as a sweet, submissive woman. She
    clearly presents herself as a woman who intends to be noticed. She is dressed,
    according to the General Prologue description, in a wimple, a big hat, a "foot-
    mantel (this foot-mantel was a baglike contraption into which a womans skirts
    were fitted; women did not ride sidesaddle until at least the 1380s, but rode
    astride with their skirts stuffed into the foot-mantel [Brooke 60]; this is shown in
    fig. 5-2), stockings of fyn scarlet reed, shoes ful moyste and newe and sharp
    spurs (Chaucer, General Prologue 435-7, 470-3). This illustration from the
    Ellesmere manuscript (which, of course, Chaucer may not have seen) shows her
    in a bright red jacket, a blue foot-mantel, and the sharp spurs, with a whip in her
    hand. The Wife is arrayed, not in armor, but in the trappings of the phallic
    woman in her red stockings and big hat. The hat is [a]s brood as is a bokeler or
    a targe (471; a bokeler was a buckler or small shield, a targe a shield [Davis
    et at., 17,150]). This presents the Wife in a warlike, Mars-like aspect, made
    even more fearsome by the sharp spurs.