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Personal tempo as a consideration in the rhythmic training of first-grade students

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Personal tempo as a consideration in the rhythmic training of first-grade students
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Childrens songs ( jstor )
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Music appreciation ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical meter ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Musical time ( jstor )
Tempo ( jstor )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Music -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
Musical meter and rhythm ( lcsh )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 97-100)
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Diane Dampier Nelson.

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PERSONAL TEMPO AS A CONSIDERATION IN THE RHYTHMIC
TRAINING OF FIRST-GRADE STUDENTS











By


DIANE DAMPIER NELSON

























A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1990

































Copyright 1990

by

Diane Dampier Nelson














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Research in the schools requires the cooperation of

many people. Without the support of parents, teachers,

administrators, university faculty, and friends this project

could not have been completed. First, I would like to

express my gratitude to music specialists Mary Keating,

Angela Terrell, and Pat Denson for sharing with me some time

with their students. Many thanks go to my good friends

Julie Tow and Penny Thomas for the many hours spent

evaluating tapes. I will always be grateful to Dr. Charles

Hoffer, who guided me through this study from start to

finish. With a willing spirit, Dr. Hoffer made his

expertise available to me on more occasions than could ever

be counted. The other members of my committee, Dr. Phyllis

Dorman, Dr. Camille Smith, Dr. Linda Lamme, and Dr. Margaret

Early, also provided their expertise and support. Some of

the most important lessons in life are not learned in the

classroom. My parents taught me the value of hard work and

persistence. Most of all, I would like to thank my husband,

Bob. Without his support and expertise, particularly during

my illness, this project could not have been completed.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

LIST OF TABLES .

ABSTRACT .

CHAPTERS


1 INTRODUCTION .

Significance of the Study .
Statement of the Problem .
Hypotheses .
Limitations and Delimitations .
Assumptions .
Definition of Terms .

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .

The Role of Kinesthesis in
Music Teaching and Learning .
Personal Tempo .

3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES .

The Pilot Study .
Description of the Sample .
Research Design .
Data-Gathering Instruments .

4 ANALYSIS OF DATA .

Analysis of Personal Tempo
Measurements .
The Effect of Personal Tempo on
Synchronizaton Ability .
Results of the Treatment as Measured by
the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic
Response .
Interscorer Reliability on the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response .
Results of the Bias Report Form .


. iii

vi
. vi

. vii


6


9
. 1

. 2

. 6

. 7
. 7
. 9
. 9

. 47


. 12

. 23


. 31

. 31
. 33
. 35
. 41

. 47


. 47

. 49


. 52

. 56
. 57









5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS .


Summary . .
Conclusions .
Discussion of Research Procedures .
Implications for Teaching .
Suggestions for Further Research .

APPENDICES

A STUDENT CONSENT .

B PARENTAL CONSENT .

C PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCHEDULE .

D ROTATION SCHEDULE .

E BIAS REPORT FORM .

F UNITS OF INSTRUCTION .

G TEMPOS FOR UNITS OF INSTRUCTION .

H PERSONAL TEMPOS FOR EACH SUBJECT .

I MEAN SCORES OF PERSONAL TEMPO
GROUPS ACCORDING TO M.M. .

J PRETEST AND POSTTEST INTERSCORER
RELIABILITIES ACCORDING TO
CRONBACH'S ALPHA .

REFERENCES .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .. .. .


. .


. 59

. 59
. 63
. 65
. 65
. 66



. 69

. 70

. 72

. 74

. 75

. 76

. 88

. 90


. 94



. 96

* 97

101














LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Tempo of Items in the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response ... .44

4-1 Distribution of the Total Sample According
to the Coefficient of Variation .. .48

4-2 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Personal Tempo Measurements 1-4 .. .48

4-3 Personal Tempo Groups ... 49

4-4 ANOVA for Personal Tempo Groups for
Slow, Fast, and Moderate Test Items .. 51

4-5 Scores on the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response ... 52

4-6 Distribution of Mean Scores on the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response ... .54

4-7 Repeated Measures Anova of the Mean
Synchonization Scores ... 56

4-8 Results of the Bias Report Form .. .58














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


PERSONAL TEMPO AS A CONSIDERATION IN THE RHYTHMIC
TRAINING OF FIRST-GRADE STUDENTS


By


DIANE DAMPIER NELSON


MAY 1990

Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Deparment: Instruction and Curriculum

The foundation of rhythm in most Western music is the

steady beat. In order for first-grade children to

understand the more complex elements of rhythm such as

meter and rhythm patterns, they must develop a sense of

steady beat. Not all children, however, are equally capable

of maintaining a steady beat. A possible explanation for

this inequity is the phenomenon of personal tempo.

To determine if each subject has a personal tempo (PT)

that is consistent, a test of PT was administered to each

subject four times during a two-week period. Correlation

coefficients indicated within-subjects consistency.

The second portion of this study was designed to

determine if students are most successful when synchonizing

movement with music that is near their PT. Synchonization








ability was measured using Froseth's Primary Measures of

Kinesthetic Response (PMKR), which contains fourteen items

with tempos ranging from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. For analysis,

the test items were divided into three categories (slow,

moderate, and fast) and the subjects were divided into three

PT groups (slow, moderate, and fast). ANOVA for each

category of test items indicated that the PT group's scores

were not significantly different beyond the .05 level on the

slow, moderate, or fast items. This suggests that PT

does not affect the ability to synchonize movement with

different tempos.

The purpose of the third portion of this study was to

determine if students can be taught more effectively to keep

a steady beat when their PTs are considered during

instruction. The subjects in two experimental classes were

divided into groups according to their PT: slow, moderate,

and fast. Using the mean PT of each group as a starting

point, these students were taught to keep a steady beat at a

variety of tempos. Students in two control classes were

randomly divided into small groups and taught to keep a

steady beat with a consistent tempo. The PMKR was

administered as the posttest. Repeated measures ANOVA

indicated that, although the experimental group did not

improve significantly more than the control group, both

groups demonstrated an increase in scores on the posttest

that was significant beyond the .01 level. This suggests

that students are able to synchronize movement with music at








a variety of tempos through musical maturation and practice

at a single tempo.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The temporal nature of rhythm distinguishes it from

other aspects of music. Rhythm serves both organizational

and expressive functions that determine the manner in which

music moves through time. An understanding of rhythm and

its components--beat, tempo, meter, accent, and rhythm

patterns--can help people experience the movement of music

more fully.

The steady recurring pulse usually experienced in music

is called the "beat." The speed of the beat is referred to

by the word "tempo." Most music, however, is not performed

at a uniform tempo throughout; accelerandos (gradual

increases in tempo), ritardandos (gradual decreases in

tempo), and other musical effects provide variety in a

composition. These graduated changes in tempo may last only

a short time or they may last for many measures. They may

also be very subtle or quite obvious. The use of rubato, or

a slight flexibility of the tempo, evokes a reaction in the

listeners by creating a feeling of rushing forward or

holding back that is relieved by a return to the original

tempo.

"Meter," or the grouping of beats, is most frequently

found in twos or threes--duple or triple meter. The

regularity of these groupings was challenged in the late








19th century with rhythmic effects such as changing meters,

asymmetrical meters, and the superimposing of one meter over

another. Accents may occur regularly or irregularly, and

their strength may vary. They may coincide with the beat or

occur between beats, which causes syncopation.

Rhythm patterns are formed by combining short and long

sounds; the resulting patterns may be simple or quite

complex. They can be varied, developed, and combined in

ways that provide unity and contrast in a composition

(Reimer & Evans, 1972).

Significance of the Study

The ability to perceive the relationships of beat,

tempo, meter, accent, and rhythm patterns is a vital part of

the aesthetic experience involving music. In Western music,

steady beat provides the basis for the other components of

rhythm. Gordon (1980) states that a sense of consistent

tempo is necessary for the study of meter and rhythm

patterns. In addition, kindergarten and primary grade basal

series texts such as Music and You (Staton & Staton, 1988),

Music (Meske, Pautz, Andress, & Willman, 1988), and World of

Music (Palmer, Reilly, & Scott, 1988) devote a great deal of

space to the study of steady beat. The foundation for the

development of rhythmic understandings and skills, then, is

the concept of steady beat.

The ability to perceive and perform a steady beat is a

skill that must be learned; it is not inherent in each

individual. Music educators must include teaching methods

and techniques that can assist students in developing this








skill. Research findings help teachers identify those

techniques that can be incorporated into their classrooms

that will enhance students' musical skills and

understandings.

Rhythmic Perception and Movement

Rhythmic perception is often encouraged through the use

of movement and classroom instruments. The physical nature

of rhythm forms the basis of the methods of Carl Orff and

Emile Jaques-Dalcroze (Landis & Carder, 1972). Orff thought

that rhythm was a natural outgrowth of speech. In his

Schulwerk (1967), rhythms are introduced through the use of

chants, rhymes, and jingles. The rhythms are then

transferred to body rhythms such as clapping, patschen

(patting knees), finger snapping, and stamping. As the body

rhythms are mastered, they are transferred to instruments.

Large body movements are stressed in the eurythmics of

Jaques-Dalcroze, who found rhythmic implications in

children's everyday activities. Singing games and dramatic

play become tools for teaching rhythmic concepts. For

example, pretending to run and catch the bus becomes an

accelerando; activities such as walking, skipping, and

running are eventually associated with notated rhythms.

Walking, for example, is associated with a quarter note.

Running may be associated with eighth notes, triplets, or

sixteenth notes. Skipping may be associated with long-short

patterns such as a dotted eighth followed by a sixteenth

note (Findlay, 1971). Classroom instruments offer

additional means to interact with music with a minimum








amount of instruction. Because most of these instruments

are non-pitched, students can experience steady beat,

metrical groupings, and rhythm patterns without the

confounding effects of melody. Precise responses are

required to produce the correct attack, duration, and accent

(Mursell, 1956). Movement and classroom instruments have

become integral parts of the music classroom as vehicles for

teaching music concepts. The ability to synchronize

movement with music is often a prerequisite for performing

such tasks.

The Synchronization of Movement with Music

Teachers who include the use of movement and

instruments in their classrooms quickly observe that not all

students are able to synchronize their movements with the

music. When asked to keep a steady beat, some students rush

ahead while others fall behind. Others confuse the beat

with the rhythm patterns of the notes, or beat the off-

beats. Some begin without listening to the music first, and

still others keep the same speed with seeming disregard for

the tempo of the music.

A potential variable affecting a student's ability to

synchronize music and movement is personal tempo. Jaques-

Dalcroze (1921) alluded to this possibility in his writings:

"This education aims at restoring to the child his complete

corporal mechanism and freeing his 'natural rhythm' .

from the inhibitions which too frequently impede its

expansion" (p. 326). Driver (1936) also proposed that each

child has an "individual rhythm" with its own "movement,








speed, and character" (p. 5) and that the teacher's first

goal is to try to find each child's rhythm. The consequence

of ignoring this individual trait, according to Driver, may

have a detrimental impact on learning.

To each his own rhythm is a natural law. It will be
clearly seen that there must be no 'forcing of the
pace,' for this will disturb the child's natural
rhythm. It is equally disturbing for an ardent
temperament to be made to conform to the pace of a
teacher's possibly slower rhythm. The disturbance
of rhythm produces nervous illness if persisted
in, the first symptoms of which are seen in the
jerky and spasmodic movements of some children. (p. 6)

The relationship between personal tempo and

synchronization ability was first investigated by Walters

(1983). He found that as the tempo of the music deviated

from students' personal tempo, their syncronization ability

decreased. His comments provide the basis for this study:

Personal tempo is not a defect. It is rather a
natural trait carrying important, basic information
about the uniqueness of the individual. Personal tempo
offers a starting point for rhythm education, a hub
around which an orientation to other tempos can be
built. With the comfort of personal tempo smoothing
the way, a child might easily accomplish the first step
in rhythm learning, which is to feel and
kinesthetically respond to a consistent musical
tempo. (p. 128)

Walters has introduced a potentially important variable

in the teaching of rhythm. His research findings indicate

that each child (K-3) has a personal tempo that differs from

other children. Furthermore, it is possible that a child's

personal tempo can limit the ability to synchronize movement

with a variety of tempos. Walters suggested that the

teacher who asks children to perform rhythmic tasks








requiring synchronization without regard for this

characteristic may indeed be hindering student progress.

Purpose of the study. This study sought to determine

if rhythmic learning can be facilitated by adjusting

instruction to accommodate students' personal tempos. Until

now, personal tempo has remained unexplored with regard to

its direct impact on music learning. If music educators are

to "begin where the child is" then the personal tempo of a

child may be an important consideration when asking children

to perform tasks that require the synchronization of

movement with music. A statement by Walters (1983) aptly

describes music teachers' responsibility regarding the needs

of individual students.

The responsible educator dare not ask the individual to
simply fit a system. He must rather offer a system
which can serve individuals. Given the importance of
this tenant [jsi], and given the predisposition of
today's music educator to incorporate physical movement
of children into the teaching/learning process, personal
tempo is a dimension whose investigation is warranted.
(p. 11)

Statement of the Problem

The purposes of this study were to investigate

1. whether the speed of an individual's spontaneous

movement is characterized by a consistent tempo

over time,

2. the effect of personal tempo on the ability to

synchronize movement with a variety of tempos, and

3. if children can be taught more effectively to keep a

steady beat by using personal tempo as a starting point.








Hypotheses

The null hypotheses for this study are

1. there will be no relationship among four personal

tempo measurements for individuals over

time,

2. there will be no significant difference between mean

scores on a measure of synchronization ability for

those students with fast, slow, and moderate personal

tempos, and

3. there will be no significant difference between the

mean scores on a measure of synchronization ability

for those students who received instruction adjusted

for their personal tempo and those students whose

instruction was not adjusted according to their

personal tempo.

Limitations and Delimitations

Limitations

The random assignment of subjects is, of course,

desirable for achieving equivalence between the control and

experimental groups. It is often not possible, however, to

assign subjects to experimental and control groups randomly,

particularly in school settings. In this study, the time

requirements for pretest, posttest, and treatment, as well

as the commitment required on the part of the teachers, made

it necessary to recruit teachers to assist in this study

rather than choose them by a random selection process.

While the classes that participated in the study were not








randomly chosen, they were randomly assigned to the

experimental or control group.

In order to limit disruption of the teachers'

classrooms, the duration of the treatment was limited to

twelve class sessions. Identical pre- and posttests are

usually cited as a source of internal invalidity. However,

accurate synchronization is a somewhat complex skill that

cannot be learned during one short pretest. Therefore, the

use of identical pre- and posttests, while not ideal, does

not detract from the validity of the results presented in

this study.

Delimitations

Because small-group instruction is a feasible means of

meeting diverse needs in a classroom and because it enables

teachers to make specific feedback on student performances,

small-group instruction was selected for the experimental

treatment.

Subjects in this study were in the first grade.

Therefore the generalizability of the results is limited to

students of that grade level. The results are also limited

to those students with similar socio-economic status and the

two types of schools represented, one of which is rural with

a predominately black population and the other suburban with

a predominately white population. No attempt is made to

relate personal tempo with other aspects of the children's

development.

Synchronization ability, as measured in the Primary

Measures of Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987), is limited








to the subject's ability to keep a steady beat using

patschen and to the range of tempos represented in the test

(M.M.=57 through M.M.=130).

The content covered during instruction was limited to

only the ability to keep a steady beat. No other aspect of

rhythm or music was explored. In addition, the novelty of

small-group instruction, as well as the additional feedback

that-was available for students, may have led to some

learning gains regardless of whether the students were in a

control or experimental group--the Hawthorne effect.

Assumptions

The first assumption is that the students made an

honest effort to accomplish the proposed learning

objectives. The second is that this effort was equal

between the control and experimental groups. The third is

that the 12 units of study allotted for the treatment

represented a reasonable test of the idea of teaching

rhythmic synchronization through adjusted tempos.

Definition of Terms

Between-subiect variability is the variability of

personal tempos among a number of subjects.

Generality of personal tempo refers to the usual tempo

as "a generalized psychomotor trait permeating the rate at

which we execute any and all spontaneous movements"

(Harrison, 1941, p. 343).

Personal tempo, a psychological trait, is "the inborn

rate of speed at which an individual tends to move and which






10


tends to differ from the same measure in other individuals"

(Walters, 1983, p. 37).

Specificity of personal tempo refers to personal tempo

as determined by the rate of a specific movement rather than

all spontaneous movements.

Within-subiect variability is the variability in a

subject's personal tempo from one measurement to the next.

Synchronization ability is used in this study as a

reference to the ability to keep a steady beat "in time"

with music.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The review of the literature pertaining to rhythm and

tempo perception is divided into two major sections: "The

Role of Kinesthesis in Music Teaching and Learning" and

"Personal Tempo." In the first section, the philosophical

basis for movement and its application in the methods of

Carl Orff, Zoltan Kodaly, and Emile Jaques-Dalcroze are

discussed. Although the theories of Orff, Kodaly, Jaques-

Dalcroze are not based on systematic research, their

importance lies in their impact on music education through

their techniques, which have become integrated into many

American classrooms. The review of empirical research

supports the use of movement in music teaching and learning.

Children's ability to synchronize movement with music

is also addressed in this review of the literature.

Research data have shown that tempo may be an important

variable that can directly influence children's

synchronization ability. Finally, this section explores

what music education textbooks say about adjusting tempo

during instruction.

The phenomenon of personal tempo has received much less

attention than kinesthesis, although the results of several

studies point to its existence. Furthermore, a recent study

by Walters (1983) indicates that an individual's personal








tempo may have an impact on his/her ability to synchronize

music and movement.

The Role of Kinesthesis in Music Teaching and Learning

Philosophical Theory

The importance of kinesthetic activity in music

teaching is supported by writers in the area of aesthetics

such as John Dewey, Leonard Meyer, and Bennett Reimer. They

believe that movement is an integral aspect of music

education that can help children achieve the level of

understanding necessary to experience music aesthetically.

Dewey (1934), for example, stated that motor preparation is

a large part of aesthetic education. He wrote that a lack

of training in the area of motor skills may result in a

confused response to an aesthetic object. However, the

previous experiences afforded by movement in aesthetic

education prior to an encounter with art can enhance

perception.

Meyer (1967) emphasized the importance of learning

about music at an early age and the role of kinesthestic

activity in facilitating knowledge in young children.

It should be noted that early learning is not merely
mental. Our ability to learn to perceive visual and
auditory patterns is not solely a function of what the
senses feed into our nervous system but depends in
important ways upon the presence of concurrent motor
behavior which is, so to speak, fed back into and
thereafter guides the discoveries of the senses.
(p. 275)

Riemer (1970) stated that singing, performing, and

creating are effective means of conveying musical elements

such as harmony, melody, and rhythm. These techniques allow








children to interact with and manipulate the various

elements of music directly and, as a result, increase

aesthetic perception. Other music educators have addressed

the role of movement in music education. Driver (1936)

expressed her thoughts in these words:

Perhaps in all of us there is a greater sense of
movement than of music, so, for the first steps
of the child's education movement is the more
active partner, but true balance is slowly reached as
the child learns to listen while he moves, applying his
mind to what he hears and then expressing it in action.
(p. 5)

Gordon (1980) emphasized the importance of body

movement at the aural/oral level, which he maintained is the

most fundamental stage of discrimination learning.

According to Gordon, listening to music is the aural

process. While listening to adults sing and hearing

recorded music, children develop a sense of consistency of

tempo that is necessary to develop a sense of meter and

rhythmic patterns. Performance is the oral process and,

according to Gordon, it may take the form of singing, large

and small body movements, and the use of rhythm instruments.

Applied Theory

The teaching methods developed by Orff and Jaques-

Dalcroze are based on their theories regarding rhythm and

movement. The contributions of Jaques-Dalcroze are based on

his observations of students and the years he spent

developing techniques designed to help students overcome.

problems of rhythm, pitch, tonality, intonation, and musical

expression. These techniques are based on his theory of

kinesthesis. According to Jaques-Dalcroze (1917), conscious








kinesthetic experiences are converted into feelings, which

are then sent through the nervous system to the brain. The

brain analyzes the information and sends it back to the

body. Eurythmics, the term Jaques-Dalcroze coined for his

method, is based on this theory, and it utilizes listening

and movement to teach children to express such elements of

music as beat, tempo, duration, rests, syncopation,

asymmetrical meters, polyrhythms, rubato, dynamics,

phrasing, and form.

The influence of Jaques-Dalcroze can be seen in the

techniques developed by Orff (Landis & Carder, 1972). Orff

believed that rhythm is the strongest element of music.

This is evident in the fact that the primary techniques of

his method--speech, singing, and movement--all have the

element of rhythm in common. In the sequence of activities

developed by Orff, the rhythmic qualities of speech lead to

the use of body rhythms, which are then transferred to

instruments. Singing is viewed as an outgrowth of speech,

and the untrained movements of children such as running,

walking, and skipping are related to musical concepts.

While singing is the primary mode of instruction in the

Kodaly method, which was developed by Zoltan Kodaly in the

1940s and 1950s, movement is an important part of this

method as well (Landis & Carder, 1972). Like Orff, Kodaly

believed that singing and movement are natural in young

children. Singing games combining movement and music are

used in preschool and kindergarten classes. The second

volume of his Pentatonic Music is called "100 Little








Marches," to which children step, clap, and tap the beat,

meter, and rhythm of songs. The ability to perform these

elements of rhythm is necessary before the teacher can

introduce rhythmic patterns (Landis & Carder, 1972).

Research on the Role of Kinesthesis in Music Learning

Research data also support the importance of

kinesthesis in music learning. Ruckmich (1913) studied the

reactions of adults to rhythmic stimuli. He concluded that

kinesthesiss was most prominently connected with the

initial clear perception of the type and form of the

rhythm" (p. 359) and that once perception is established

kinesthesis becomes unnecessary.

Ruckmich's findings were corroborated in a study by

Boyle (1970), who incorporated 14 weeks of rhythm training

into junior high school bands. The activities included

listening to recordings to recognize the beat, marking time

to the beat, clapping patterns while tapping the beat with

the foot, and playing rhythmic patterns on a single note

while marking the beat with the foot. The results indicated

that these body movements contributed significantly to the

students' ability to perform rhythms correctly.

A study by Joseph (1983) also indicates that the use of

movement can enhance rhythmic learning. Joseph developed a

curriculum of 44 lessons using Dalcroze eurythmics for

kindergarten students that included movement exploration,

rhythmic movement, ear training, listening, and

improvisation. The experimental groups participated in the

eurythmics program and the control groups received their








regular music instruction consisting of singing, listening,

playing rhythm instruments with recordings, singing games,

and some movement. At the conclusion of the study the

children in the experimental group were found to be more

able to recognize and respond to familiar patterns in

unfamiliar music through movement and playing instruments

than the students in the control groups.

Moore (1984) found that rhythmic aptitude was enhanced

by incorporating movement into music instruction. Moore

administered Gordon's Primary Measures of Musical Audiation

(PMMA) to three groups of 100 second- and third-grade

students. During next 10 weeks an experimental group

received 20 music lessons emphasizing rhythm through the use

of movement activities such as body rhythms, walking,

running, and skipping to various rhythms. One control group

was taught using vocally oriented lessons that included

singing and listening. Another control group received no

musical instruction. At the conclusion of the 10-week

period the PMMA was readministered.

The rhythm aptitude scores were significantly higher

for the group that received music instruction incorporating

movement. Moore also observed that the movement lessons had

more impact on the second-grade students, that repetition

enabled the children to establish a rhythm more consciously,

that sustaining patterns over a long period of time was more

difficult for younger students, and that the younger

students had more difficulty controlling body movements.








Tempo and Synchronization Ability

To develop methods for measuring children's musical

development, a series of studies were conducted by Williams,

Sievers, and Hattwick (1932). Williams tested the ability

of 197 children to keep a steady beat with a ticking clock;

the ages of the children ranged from three to eight years.

Synchronization scores improved with age. Seventy percent

of the three-year-old children failed, but none of the

seven- and eight-year-old children failed. During the course

of the study it was noted that some of the children tapped

along regularly while others tapped irregularly, lagged

behind, or rushed ahead.

As a follow-up to this study, Williams tested 68

children to determine their ability to keep a steady beat at

different tempos. The subjects in this study ranged from

3 1/2 to 6 1/2 years of age. Williams observed the same

difficulties that appeared in his previous study and

commented on "a real and persistent tendency for individual

differences to appear" (p. 45). Only 32 subjects were

successful at keeping a steady beat at all with different

tempos; others anticipated the beat or fell behind.

Sievers studied the ability of 84 children (grades one

through six) to keep a steady beat at various tempos. He

found that the younger children were more accurate at faster

speeds and less accurate at slower speeds. In addition, the

younger children had more difficulty with varying tempos.

Jersild and Bienstock (1935) conducted a three-year

longitudinal study of children's synchronization ability and








found a significant increase in ability with each successive

year between the ages of two and five. Moreover, a further

analysis of the same three-year-old children indicated that

young children may be able to synchronize movement more

easily at faster tempos. No significant difference was

found in their ability to keep time with their hands and

feet. The difference between children's ability to

synchronize with various meters (2/4, 3/4, 4/4) was also

insignificant.

The relationship between age/grade level and children's

(grades 1-3) ability to synchronize body movement with

rhythmic stimuli was further confirmed in a study by Groves

(1966). He noted that responses were more accurate if the

tempos were faster; at slower tempos the tendency was to

anticipate the beat. Motor ability was also found to be a

significant variable while home musical background, social

adjustment, and sex appear to be unrelated.

To understand the nature of rhythmic ability more

fully, Thackray (1969) administered tests of rhythmic

perception, rhythmic performance, and rhythmic movement to

students at a women's college of physical education. The

results of the rhythmic perception test, which was

administered to 100 subjects, suggest that perception is

measured more accurately by performance than by tests of

perception.

The results of the two other subtests provide

information on the ability to synchronize movement with

music. During a test of rhythmic performance, 66 subjects








maintained a steady beat by tapping. Ten test items were

presented at various tempos ranging from M.M.=31 to M.M.=204

Thackray observed that there was a tendency to be too slow

in the faster test items and too fast in the slower items.

During the test of rhythmic movement, which was administered

to 30 subjects, selections of music were played that

contained changes of tempo. The subjects were asked to keep

time with the steady beat using any type of dance step that

seemed appropriate. Thackray remarked that most of the

subjects were confused by the subdivisions of the beat and

attempted to show the rhythm rather than a steady beat;

others began moving before they had an opportunity to feel

the pulse of the music.

Thackray later conducted a similar study (1972) of

children to see if the same relationship exists between

perception and performance. A series of tests were given to

40 boys and girls who were 11 years of age. These tests

measured perception, the ability to imitate rhythm patterns,

and the ability to keep time with the music showing strong

beats and weak beats. Again, Thackray found a significant

correlation between perception and performance. He also

noted that, like the adults, the children were more

successful at imitating patterns than maintaining a steady

beat. Thackray suggested that the ability to maintain a

steady pulse might be a specific aspect of rhythmic ability.

Subjects who were not able to keep a steady beat varied in

the types of errors. Some children began too soon; some

could only keep a steady beat at the end. Others would wait








for the next beat to occur rather than anticipate, and a few

children beat the off-beats. Thackray also noted cases in

which children produced a steady beat that did not match the

music. In these instances, the students gave the beat at

the same tempo each time regardless of the tempo of the

music. Thackray suggested that tempo preferences needed to

be investigated further.

Adjusting Tempo During Rhythm Instruction

Studies by Williams, Sievers, and Hattwick (1932),

Jersild and Bienstock (1935), Groves (1966), and Thackray

(1972) indicate that varying the tempo of tasks requiring

synchronization may improve synchronization ability. While

textbooks used in the training of music education students

address the issue of varying tempo, they vary in the amount

of emphasis that is placed on the topic.

Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century (Choksy,

Abramson, Gillespie, & Woods, 1986) addresses this matter a

number of times during the discussion of the Dalcroze and

Orff methods. While describing beginning Dalcroze

eurythmics exercises, it suggests that children be allowed

to perform locomotor activities at a tempo that is

comfortable to them. After observing the class, the teacher

is to determine the average tempo of the class; this becomes

the starting tempo for the class. During the first exercise

that uses music, the teacher is to accompany the children

using speech, singing, the drum, or the piano. The

accompaniment is to match the "tempo, dynamics, and flow

characteristics" of the students (p. 160). With regard to








the Orff and Dalcroze methods, the book suggests that the

teacher have the class practice skills using a variety of

tempos. Abramson emphasizes the importance of this in his

discussion of Dalcroze teaching techniques:

It is important to learn how to erase one tempo and
prepare for the change to another. In general, the
ability to perform in one tempo does not automatically
give the ability to deal with many tempi. Speaking,
singing, moving, or playing an instrument all involve
restrictions on tempo experience and experiment, but
this can be counteracted by the teacher's awareness and
skill in presenting a large variety of tempo
experiences. Staying too long in one tempo can give
rise to tension, boredom, or even inability to use the
body and mind in a new tempo when called upon to do so.
(p. 202)

Nye and Nye note the difficulty often posed by

individual differences in Music in the Elementary School

(1985). Early experiences in the areas of tempo and rhythm

should be done at a speed that is comfortable to the

children.

To assist children who find rhythm difficult, teachers
seek to guide them to success either in the same rhythm
at a slower tempo, or with a different and more simple
action to which they can respond at their own natural
tempos. (p. 247)

An innate preference for a particular tempo is

suggested by Hoffer and Hoffer in Music in the Elementary

Classroom (1987). They suggest that the most comfortable

tempo approximates the heartbeat or a moderate walking pace.

In Teaching Children Music: Fundamentals of Music and Method

(1984) Newman describes activities that may be used to teach

tempo in which the child moves at a comfortable speed and

the other students or the teacher accompany the movement.








Conclusion

While the role of kinesthetic activity in the teaching

and learning of rhythmic concepts is almost taken for

granted by music teachers, researchers have provided some

empirical research that supports this assumption. The

results indicate that kinesthetic activity can raise music

aptitude scores, facilitate rhythmic perception, and

increase music students' ability to read rhythms. The

performance of rhythmic tasks is also a more accurate

measure of rhythmic ability than.tests of perception. More

important, kinesthetic activity is a tool that will increase

children's ability to experience music aesthetically.

The findings of research studies also imply the need

for music educators to consider the synchronization

abilities of children when asking them to perform tasks that

require synchronization. While some studies indicate that

the ability to synchronize movement with music seems to be

related to maturation, there is some evidence that points to

tempo as a possible variable.

An unexpected outcome of these studies was the

observation of individual differences with regard to the

ability to keep a steady beat. In addition, it has been

noted that some subjects performed a steady beat at the same

tempo regardless of the tempo of the music. The potential

variables of tempo and tempo preferences lead to a third

theory, personal tempo, which is presented in the next

section.








Personal Tempo

Frischeisen-Kohler (1933) conducted a series of

experiments on personal tempo. In one experiment, a series

of tapping tests were administered to subjects on four

different days. The intervals of time between measurements

ranged from one or two days to two months. To allow for

diverse moods and physical conditions, the subjects were

retested at different times of the day and under different

weather conditions. Despite the varying conditions and the

amount of time between measurements, the subjects were

consistent from one measurement to the next. To assess

variability between individuals, Frischeisen-Kohler tested

1000 subjects from various social backgrounds and from ages

eight to more than eighty. Subjects of all ages and social

strata demonstrated a diversity of tempos.

Frischeisen-Kohler's study was also designed to /

identify the extent to which personal tempo is inherited.

The personal tempo of 118 pairs of twins were studied: 53

were monozygotic (identical) twins and 65 were dizygotic

(fraternal) twins. These results were compared with the

personal tempos of brothers and sisters of different ages

and unrelated individuals. The variation was much greater

between dizygotic twins than between monozygotic twins.

This result indicates that heredity may play a part in

determining personal tempo. In addition, the variabilities

of brothers and sisters of different ages and dizygotic twins

appear to be nearly equal. The highest variability was








found among unrelated individuals, which supports the theory

of variability among individuals.

Frischeisen-Kohler (1933) theorized that personal tempo

may be a unitary trait that governs all psychobiological

functions.

When we actively intervene in any happening, when we
speak, or walk, or perform any deliberately willed
action, we choose, quite spontaneously, a congenial
tempo for the transaction in question--a tempo which is
quite natural to us. There is an individual tempo
of the personality, the personal tempo, which is
expressed more or less markedly in all our doings, in
our acts of perception and our volitional processes.
(p. 302)

Over a period of three months, Allport and Vernon

(1933) administered over 30 tests to 25 male subjects

between 18 and 50 years of age. Approximately four weeks

lapsed between the first measurement and a repeat

measurement. The speed of the individual's performance on a

specific task was found to be consistent from one test

session to another. Contrary to Frischeisen-Kohler's

theory, Allport and Vernon did not find an overall personal

tempo. Instead, they found that certain tasks tended to

correlate more strongly than others, forming clusters. The

first two clusters consisted of tests measuring verbal

speed, such as reading and counting and drawing tests. The

third cluster consisted of rhythmic activities like finger

and hand tapping.

The results of other studies support the theory that

an individual's personal tempo, as defined by a single task,

cannot be generalized to other tasks. Harrison and Dorcus

(1938) had male undergraduates perform several tasks at a








tempo they chose. These tasks included turning a crank,

tapping, tracing, drawing a straight line, raising the right

arm, turning the head, walking, and bending. No unitary

speed trait was indicated. Tapping was found to be the most

consistent measure. In addition, the data support the

results of the previously cited studies, which indicate that

individuals perform motor tasks at consistent speeds.

The specificity of personal tempo was supported in a

further study by Harrison (1941) in which male undergraduate

students performed 12 tasks involving simple motor and

locomotor tasks and cognitive activities. All everyday

functions such as walking did not correlate with other

everyday functions such as head turning, arm raising, and

body building, which disputes the theory that habituation

may effect personal tempo. In addition, tapping and patting

were found to be the most reliable measures.

An extensive study of personal tempo was conducted by

Rimoldi (1951). Adult male subjects between the ages of 17

and 25 were administered 59 tests involving large and small

motor movements, speed of perception (reaction time), and

.speed of cognition. A repetition of these tests four weeks

later revealed a high degree of consistency of tempo between

the first and second measurements. The best predictors of

motor speed were found to be large movements of the limbs

and trunk, small movements such as tapping, and, to a lesser

extent, simple drawings of lines, circles, and squares with

the feet. Speed of cognition and perception were not found

to be related. Like Allport and Vernon, Rimoldi identified








clusters of related movements. He hypothesized that the

speed of performance was best predicted by other tasks

within the same cluster.

In later studies by Smoll (1975a, 1975b), subjects 18-

31 years of age were asked to swing their arms upward and

forward at the tempo which was "most convenient and natural"

(1975a, p. 441). Like Rimoldi (1951), Smoll (1975a) found

that the between-subjects variance was greater than the

within-subjects variance, thereby "indicating that

individuals have a personal or 'natural' preferences of

voluntary movement tempo which differs from those of other

individuals" (p. 442).

Using the same technique, Smoll and Schutz (1978)

tested the preferred tempo of 200 subjects 18-31 years of

age. The results of this study support the findings of

previous studies, which suggest that there is a consistent

speed at which individuals perform motor tasks most

comfortably. Smoll and Schutz concluded with the following

comment:

Little evidence is available regarding the presumed
influence of preferred tempo on rhythmic accuracy.
In considering factors which affect optimum
performance, a fundamental issue thus involves the
degree of accuracy when the task requires keeping in
cadence with a tempo that differs from one's preferred
tempo. Specifically, is a performer's spatial and/or
temporal accuracy detrimentally affected while
performing a motor rhythm task at a tempo that is
faster or slower than his/her preferred tempo? This
question deserves empirical attention. (p. 893)

Personal Tempo and Synchronization Ability

The relationship between personal tempo and the ability

of young children to synchronize music and movement was








studied by Walters (1983). To determine the personal tempo

of his subjects, Walters administered his Test of Personal

Tempo to 96 children. The subjects were 24 children (12

male and 12 female) in each grade level from kindergarten to

third grade. In this test the subjects were instructed to

pat their hands on their knees for 15 seconds in a "steady

beat that feels good to you" (p. 48). The number of beats

per minute was then calculated from the middle 10 seconds of

each performance. The personal tempo of each subject was

calculated four times over a period of three weeks.

His results indicated that the intra-individual

consistency and inter-individual consistency found by some

researchers in adults is also present in young children.

Only 18.75 percent of the subjects were judged by Walters to

be too inconsistent to be measured for personal tempo. He

did not suggest that these students do not have a personal

tempo, but rather that his method of measuring personal

tempo might have been inadequate for these students. In

addition, the mean personal tempo decreased with age:

Kindergarten mean personal tempo M.M.=114.6
Grade one mean personal tempo M.M.=108.5
Grade two mean personal tempo M.M.=104.4
Grade three mean personal tempo M.M.= 99.5
(1983, p. 121)

To study children's synchronization ability, Walters

administered the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.

This test was developed was developed by James Froseth

(1987) of the University of Michigan for the purposes of

Walters' study. The test consists of 14 musical selections

ranging in tempo from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. At the beginning








of each selection, a woodblock dictates the tempo; when the

woodblock ceases, the student pats the hands on the knees

during the remainder of the selection. Walters videotaped

the performances for later evaluation.

The results of the study indicated that students are

most successful at synchronizing with the test items at or

nearest to their own personal tempo. Walters found that

"without deviation" students were most successful at

synchronization if the tempo of the music fell within their

personal tempo category: (a) slow, less than 80 beats per

minute, (b) moderate, between 80 and a 110 beats per minute,

and (c) fast, more than 110 beats per minute. As the tempo

of the music differed from a child's personal tempo, it

became increasingly difficult to synchronize movement with

music. The relationship between synchronization ability and

personal tempo appears to be strongest for students in the

first grade. Walters also observed that on test items that

were faster than the subject's personal tempo, they seemed

to fall behind; on test items that were slower than the

subject's personal tempo, the subject's movement was too

fast.

Subjects with slow personal tempos scored the highest

on test items from M.M.=57 through M.M.=81; second for items

M.M.=85 through M.M.=100; and third for items M.M.=103

through M.M.=130. Subjects in the moderate personal tempo

category scored first for test items M.M.=85 through

M.M.=120; second for items M.M.=57 through M.M.=81; and

second again, for M.M.=130. Subjects with fast personal








tempos scored first on one item, M.M.=130; second for items

M.M.=85 through M.M.=120; and third for items M.M.=57

through M.M.=100.

The synchronization scores for the subjects in each

category were averaged together. The subjects with moderate

personal tempos scored the highest for eight of the test

items. Subjects with slow personal tempos scored highest on

five of the items and subjects with fast personal tempos

scored highest on one item.

In addition, Walters found that it was easier for

subjects to syncronize movement with music that is faster

than their personal tempos than with slower music. Younger

children tended to score lower on the synchronization test,

which suggests that age level has an effect on the ability

to synchronize music and movement. This tendency leveled-

off between grades two and three.

Walters found a correlation between second- and third-

grade students' scores and the rhythm section of the Primary

Measures of Music Audiation, but this same relationship was

not significant for kindergarten and first-grade students.

Children with more prior music experience were more

successful at synchronizing movement and music.

Conclusions

The limited amount of research in the area of personal

tempo can, at best, lead only to tentative conclusions.

Studies involving both young children and adults have

identified an intra-individual consistency of speed related

to motor tasks that varies from person to person. The








generalizability of speed from one task to another remains

unclear. An understanding of this aspect of personal tempo

is clouded by conflicting theories. Is personal tempo a

unitary trait, is it task specific, or are there clusters of

related movements? This answer is unclear.

Walters' research expanded the understanding of the

effect of tempo by including personal tempo as a potential

variable. He found that children (K-3) were able to

synchronize their movement with music if the music was at or

near their personal tempo. As the music deviated from a

child's personal tempo, synchronization became more and more

difficult. Both Walters (1983) and Driver (1936) point to

the difficulties that may ensue if children are required to

perform rhythmic tasks at a speed which deviates from their

"individual rhythm" (Driver, p. 4). As Smoll concluded,

individuals have personal or "natural" preferences of
voluntary movement tempo which differ from those of
other individuals. This suggests that in situations
involving repetitive motor responses to externally
imposed rhythmic stimuli, whether in the laboratory or
gymnasium or on the playing field, consideration should
be given to the tempo at which individual performers
prefer to move. (1975a, p. 442)














CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES

This chapter describes the pilot study, the research

design and procedures, and the test instruments used during

the course of the research.

The Pilot Study

The original objectives of this study were to teach

third-grade students to keep a steady beat in duple and

triple meters and to imitate rhythm patterns. A pilot study

was conducted to (a) determine the appropriateness of the

tests and (b) begin a series of lesson plans to be used

during the treatment phase of the research. The tests in

the pilot study were the Response to Meter Test and the

Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test (Palmer, 1974). The

student's task in the Response to Meter Test is to keep a

steady beat to music in duple and triple meter. The

student's task in the Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test is

to imitate a one- to two-measure rhythmic pattern. Because

these tests were originally designed for fourth-grade

students, they were adapted for third-grade students. The

Response to Meter test items were changed by using songs

from the third-grade level of the Silver-Burdett: Centennial

Edition (Crook, Reimer, & Walker, 1985). The rhythm

patterns for the Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test were








based on lesson objectives in the third-grade Silver-

Burdett: Centennial Edition.

The students were quite successful at imitating the

rhythm patterns, so the next logical step was to increase

the difficulty of the rhythmic patterns by including more

complex rhythms and making the patterns longer. These

rhythm patterns were based on the Music Aptitude Profile

(Gordon, 1965). This version of the Imitation of Rhythmic

Patterns was administered to another group of third-grade

students. While these more complex items posed a challenge,

they were almost impossible to perform at a variety of

tempos. The most complex items were too difficult to

reproduce at quick tempos, and at slow tempos the relative

durations of the note values lost meaning.

Low scores on the Response to Meter Test indicated that

the ability to maintain a steady beat is an area in which

skill development is lacking. Because the third-grade

students had difficulty keeping a steady beat, it was

determined that the ability to keep a steady beat would be

the objective of the treatment. The Primary Measures of

Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987) is a more appropriate

measure of the ability to keep a steady beat because it has

been demonstrated to be a reliable measure of this skill for

students in kindergarten through third grade.

Because Walters found that the effect of personal tempo

on synchronization ability is most significant with children

in the first grade, Froseth's test was administered to

first-grade students during the pilot study. Pilot test








results indicated that the ability to synchronize movement

with music at varying tempos was an area in which skill

development is lacking at the first- grade level. The

lesson objective during the treatment phase of the research

became the ability to keep a steady beat, and the Primary

Measures of Kinesthetic Response was chosen to measure this

skill. With this portion of the pilot completed, the

initial lesson plans used in the research study were

developed.

Description of the Sample

The subjects who participated in the study were first-

grade students drawn from two elementary schools in the

north-central Florida area. Fourteen elementary schools

within commuting distance were considered potential

participants in this study. However, only two schools were

able to participate due to limited amounts of space

necessary for testing and small group-instruction,

inadequate amounts of time scheduled for music class, and

recent changes in teaching personnel. Fictitious names are

used to designate the two schools.

Two first-grade classes from Derrick Elementary School

were able to participate in the experiment. Due to

scheduling conflicts with Derrick Elementary, only two

first-grade classes were able to participate at Forest

Elementary. At each school, the two classes were randomly

assigned to either the treatment group or the control group.

Therefore, each school contained both an experimental and

control group.








The principal of Derrick Elementary gave the final

approval to conduct research. Derrick Elementary School is

a rural school, where 48 students participated in the study.

The control class contained 23 students: 52% were male and

48% were female; 74% percent were black and the remaining

26% were white. The experimental class contained 25

students: 40% were male and 60% were female; 76% were black

and 24% were white. Due to transfers, 19 of the control

subjects and 21 of the experimental subjects completed the

study.

Informed consent was necessary at Forest Elementary.

Permission was secured from the university Institutional

Review Board, the school district office, and the principal

of that school. The students at Forest Elementary School

were given a brief explanation of the procedures (see

Appendix A). A letter was also sent home to the

parent/guardian of each child explaining the testing and

treatment procedures. A returned statement of approval

signed by the parent/guardian was necessary to participate in

the study (see Appendix B).

In the control class 19 of the 23 students returned

their permission slips, and 19 of the 22 students in the

experimental class returned permission slips. Forest

Elementary School was a suburban school. The control and

experimental classes consisted of 19 students each. The

control class was 53% male and 47% female; 79% of the

students in this class were white, 16% black, and 5% other.

The students in the experimental class were 47% male and 53%








female; white students made up 84% of the subjects from this

class, and the remaining 16% were black. All of the

subjects in the control group completed the study (N=19),

but only 16 of the experimental subjects completed the study

due to transfers.

At the conclusion of the experimental portion of the

study, there were 38 subjects in the control group and 37

subjects in the experimental group. Borg and Gall recommend

that there be a minimum of 15 subjects in each group to be

analyzed (1983, p. 257).

Research Design

Pretest Procedure

Because personal tempo is believed to be a trait that

is consistent, more representative measures were obtained by

taking four measurements over a period of two weeks. Pre-

tests were administered to individual students over a period

of two weeks. During the first week, the children were

tested individually on two separate occasions. During the

first session personal tempo was measured twice. Two days

later a third measure of personal tempo was taken.

During the second week, four to five days later, a

fourth measure of personal tempo was taken and Froseth's

Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response was also

administered. Because video equipment was not available,

the tests were recorded on audiotape. The pretest schedule

is outlined fully in Appendix C.








Arranging Small-Group Instruction

Because individual instruction is not usually feasible

in music classes, each class was divided into three small

groups. After the average personal tempo [PT] of each

subject had been calculated, subjects in the two

experimental classes were assigned to three small

instructional groups, based on their personal tempo: (a)

slow personal tempo, M.M.<80, (b) moderate personal tempo,

M.M.=80 M.M.=110, and (c) fast personal tempo, M.M.>110.

At Derrick Elementary the subjects in the experimental class

were distributed into these groups as follows:


Number of Subiects

Small Group Pretest Posttest

PT<80 10 8
PT 80 110 5 5
PT>110 10 8

25 21


At Forest Elementary the subjects in the experimental class

were distributed into these groups:


Number of Subiects

Small Group Pretest Posttest

PT<80 7 7
PT 80 110 6 4
PT>110 6 5

19 16


The subjects in the control classes were randomly

assigned to one of three instructional groups without regard

for personal tempo. At Derrick Elementary the subjects were








randomly assigned to one of three instructional groups as

follows:


Number of Subjects

Small Group Pretest Posttest

Group 1 8 7
Group 2 7 5
Group 3 8 7

23 19


At Forest Elementary School the subjects in the control

class were randomly distributed into these groups:


Number of Subjects

Small Group Pretest Posttest

Group 1 8 8
Group 2 6 6
Group 3 5 5

19 19


Treatment Schedule

The students at Derrick Elementary and Forest

Elementary received music instruction on different

schedules. As a result, the treatment period for each

school was somewhat different. At Derrick Elementary the

students met for music two times a week for 30 minutes;

therefore, the students completed the 12 units of

instruction in six weeks. The students at Forest met one

time a week for 45 minutes; therefore, the students

completed the 12 units in 12 weeks.

The different class lengths required scheduling the

small groups in Derrick Elementary in a different








arrangement from the schedule in Forest Elementary. At

Derrick Elementary the researcher taught two small groups

during music class, and the music specialist taught one.

The third group spent the first part of the music period in

the school library. The small groups were rotated so that

the researcher and specialist met with each group an equal

number of times. This rotation system was also designed to

reduce the effects of any experimenter bias. Appendix D

outlines the rotation system that was followed at Derrick

Elementary.

Because the music period was longer at Forest

Elementary School, the researcher was able to teach each

small group. To determine if the procedures were followed

correctly, three music educators listened to taped lessons

and evaluated the teaching of the researcher. A copy of the

Bias Report Form is contained in Appendix E.

Treatment Procedures

Each small group met for 12 sessions or units, with

each session lasting 10 to 12 minutes. The lessons for the

12 units are presented in Appendix F. The first four

lessons were designed to help the subjects understand the

term "steady beat," as well as develop their ability to keep

a steady beat. A brief emphasis on form as well as steady

beat provided variety in these lessons. Lessons 5 through

12 included concepts of meter in addition to steady beat.

The following musical concepts were taught:

1. Musical beat can be heard and duplicated.
2. Voices and instruments can produce steady beats.
3. Most music is composed of more than one part.








4. The first beat of a set usually has the biggest
sound.
5. Beats can be heard in sets of twos and threes.
(Music K-6, 1974, p. 5)

The lessons included a variety of tasks designed to

help students synchronize moments with music. The

techniques utilized in these lessons included body rhythms,

playing rhythm instruments, chanting, singing, and

listening. The ability to keep a steady beat using body

rhythms was a prerequisite to using rhythm instruments.

Various chants and songs were the vehicles for teaching the

concepts and developing skills. Listening was included to

enhance the subject's ability to discriminate between steady

beat and rhythm, between loud and soft beats, and between

duple and triple meter.

Music teachers are not likely to vary the tempo of an

activity involving movement. To enhance the

generalizability of the results, the subjects in the control

groups received instruction at a consistent tempo

(approximately ) = 100) throughout the treatment. The

students in the experimental groups were taught to keep a

steady beat at a variety of tempos ranging from 57 beats per

minute to 130 beats per minute, which are found in the

Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987).

Each experimental group began at a tempo at or near the

average personal tempo of the group. As the subjects were

able to synchronize their movement successfully with music

at each tempo, the tempo was increased or decreased.

An example of the experimental procedure can be drawn from








an activity in Unit 1 as it was taught at Forest Elementary.

The subjects in each of the three experimental groups

practiced keeping a steady beat with the rhyme, "Fudge,

Fudge." The subjects with slow personal tempos began

practicing at 58 beats per minute, which is a tempo within

the range of the slow personal tempo group. With practice,

the subjects were able to maintain a steady beat at this

tempo, so the tempo was increased slightly. As the subjects

were able to synchronize at the faster tempo, the speed of

the repetitions was increased. During the subsequent

repetitions, the tempo was gradually increased to 66 beats

per minute.

The subjects with moderate personal tempos began

practice at 100 beat per minute. When the subjects were

able to successfully maintain a steady beat at this tempo,

the tempo was increased. During the remainder of the

lesson, the tempo was gradually increased to 116 beats per

minute. The subjects with fast personal tempos began to

practice keeping a steady beat at 126 beats per minute and

gradually decreased speed throughout the repititions until

they reached 112 beats per minute. Metronomes with flashing

lights were used to ensure that the correct tempo was used

for each group.

During the initial lessons, each group participated in

movement activities at speeds spanning the range of the

test. The remainder of the lessons were devoted to keeping

a steady beat when items with diverse tempos were presented

one after the other. Appendix G shows the progress of the








students in the experimental groups through the various

tempos.

Posttest Procedures

At the end of the treatment period the subjects in the

experimental and control groups were tested individually

using Froseth's Primary Measure of Kinesthetic Response.

Data-Gathering Instruments

Test of Personal Tempo

A procedure for measuring the personal tempo of young

children (grades K-3) was developed by Walters (1983) for

his study of children's ability to synchronize music and

movement. In order to discover a method that would result

in "measurable natural responses" (.p 47), Walters explored

several techniques including selecting a tempo on the

metronome, choosing from two tempos heard on a metronome,

and having the students perform a tempo using classroom

instruments. All of these methods proved unsatisfactory.

Walters then concluded that a method was needed that

involved "the child's body in a state of relaxation" (p. 48)

and the fewest possible distractions. The following

procedure was developed that required a cassette recorder,

microphone, and stopwatch:

1. Begin the occasion of the measurement with pleasant
conversation to relax the subject.
2. Seat the subject in a chair. Explain the presence
of the equipment in view and describe generally what
is to be done.
3. Have the subject assume a relaxed position with
palms down on the thighs. Give the following
instructions: "When I ask you to begin, pat your
hands on your legs in a steady beat that feels good
to you, and keep the beat going until I ask you to
stop."








4. Turn on the tape recorder, give the code number for
the subject, and signal the subject to begin.
5. Use a stopwatch to time the number of pats occurring
in 15 seconds, and multiply by four to obtain a rough
measure of personal tempo. A more precise
measurement will be taken from the tape for analysis.
(pp. 48-49)

Like Rimoldi (1951), Walters cautioned against using

the word "speed" during the test. Students who tended to

accelerate or decelerate were asked to "make all of your

beats alike."

An approximation of the subject's personal tempo can be

calculated by counting the number of pats during the 15-

second interval and multiplying by four. By taking four

measurements over a period of three weeks, Walters obtained

a more representative sample of a student's personal tempo.

Walters' procedures were used in administering the test in

this study. The subject and researcher sat in two chairs

approximately four feet apart facing each other. A tape

recorder with built-in microphone was placed on a third

chair next to the subject.

Using a digital stopwatch with .01 second intervals,

more exact measurements of the recordings can be verified

using a procedure outlined by Walters (1983):

1. Listen to the first few pats to make possible a
synchronization of the stopwatch operation with
the pats.
2. Start the watch precisely on a pat and stop it
precisely on a pat after 10 to 14 seconds.
3. Divide the number of pats minus one by the time,
and multiply by 60 to compute M.M. (p.55)

To test the reliability of this technique, Walters

randomly selected one performance from each of three

categories: (a) slow, M.M.<80, (b) moderate, M.M.=80 to








M.M.=110, (c) and fast, M.M.>110. Each performance was

clocked three times using a Latin square format to avoid

bias. The standard deviations of the results were

"infinitesimal," (p. 55) and so Walters concluded that the

stopwatch technique was capable of being reproduced.

Walters was also concerned that measurements of

personal tempo might be unstable due to start-up problems,

the subject's loss of attention, or distractions. To

investigate this possibility, one of the four tests of

personal tempo was randomly selected from sixteen subjects

(two male and two female from each grade) who were also

randomly chosen. Each performance was divided into

approximate thirds of seven to nine seconds in length. The

M.M. of each third of the performance and the total

performance was calculated. The results indicate that

"variability within performance is not a serious problem"

(p. 59), but because most of the variability tended to occur

in the first and last thirds, it was concluded that the

middle 10 seconds would yield the most accurate measurement.

Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response

This test was developed by Professor James 0. Froseth

of the University of Michigan. It is a tape-recorded test

consisting of 14 short musical selections with tempos

ranging from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. The range of tempos was

determined during preliminary studies and by considering

tempos likely to be included during musical experiences. The

tempo of each item is presented in Table 3-1.








Table 3-1
Tempo of Items in the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response


Item Number

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.


Tempo (M.M.)

104

113

60

90

70

57


Each item is introduced with three pitches. A

woodblock plays the steady beat at the beginning of the

selection. Thus, the test measures the student's ability to

maintain a steady beat rather than the ability to discern

the steady beat. When the woodblock stops, the student is

to continue the steady beat by patting his hands on his

knees. An example is given at the beginning of the tape and

two practice items follow. The test is 8.5 minutes long.

Because videotaping equipment was not available at both








schools, two cassette recorders were used to administer the

test, one to play the test and the other to record the

students' performance. As in the Test of Personal Tempo, a

chair for the researcher and a chair for the subjects was

placed approximately four feet apart facing each other. One

tape-recorder was placed on a third chair next to the

subject to record his performance. A second tape-recorder

containing the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response was

placed on a fourth chair next to the researcher. To help

the subjects understand the directions, the researcher

performed the practice items with each student.

Test results were evaluated by three music educators

according to the following criteria:

1 erratic; as if not hearing the music
2 unsynchronous, but exhibiting some sense of the
task
3 nearly synchronous, but not "locked in"
4 synchronous; locked into the tempo throughout
5 synchronous; in addition, acknowledging such
musical considerations as emphases and phrase
endings (Froseth, 1987)

The scores assigned by the three evaluators were averaged

together for a final score.

In order to determine the reliability of the test,

Walters readministered the test to 16 randomly selected

subjects, two male and two female from each grade. The re-

tests were conducted in the same manner and then evaluated

by the same judges 24 to 72 hours later. To minimize

recall, the original performances of these 16 students were

randomly mixed into three rating sessions that were spread

over three consecutive days.





46


Test/re-test reliability coefficients were computed for

each test item. The correlation between scores on item 8

was significant at the .05 level and the correlations for

the remainder of the items were significant at the .01

level. The composite reliability coefficient was .89.














CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF DATA

There were several purposes of the data analysis: (a)

to determine if individuals have a consistent personal

tempo, (b) to find out if personal tempo influences

synchonization ability, and (c) to determine if students are

more able to keep a steady beat at a variety of tempos when

using their personal tempo as a starting point.

Analysis of Personal Tempo Measurements

The hypothesis for this portion of the study was

concerned with the consistency of personal tempo

measurements for individuals over time. The personal tempo

for each of the 86 subjects in this study was determined by

averaging the four measurements of personal tempo taken over

a period of two weeks. The average personal tempos of the

86 subjects ranged from 48.59 to 168.17, with a mean average

personal tempo of 103.90.

The within-subject variability for each individual

subject's personal tempo is indicated by the coefficient of

variation [C.V.], which is the percentage of variation among

the four measurements of personal tempo. The percentages

for each subject's four measurements ranged from 1.89 to

62.3; the mean C.V. for the entire sample was 14.58 %.

Table 4-1 shows the distribution of C.V. values

for the various groups. The standard deviation between-








subjects was 30.75, and the mean standard deviation within-

subjects was 14.23.


Table 4-1
Distribution of the Total Sample in Percentages
According to the Coefficient of Variation


C.V.

Less than .07 22
.07 to .17 33
.17 to .27 23
.27 to .37 6
.37 to .47 1
Greater than .47 1



Correlation coefficients were computed to determine if

the four measures of personal tempo were reliable throughout

the four test administrations. These are presented in Table

4-2. The P-values for the coefficients in the table are

significant at the .0001 level.


Table 4-2
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Personal Tempo Measurements 1-4


PT 1 1.00


PT 2 .89 1.00


PT 3 .70 .68 1.00


PT 4 .76 .82 .71 1.00


PT 1 PT 2 PT 3 PT 4








Because the correlation coefficients are quite

positive, and because the between-subject variability is

much greater than the within-subject variability, the null

hypothesis regarding consistency of personal tempo can be

rejected. The data indicate that individuals do possess a

consistent personal tempo. The personal tempos,

coefficients of variation, and the standard deviations for

each subject are presented in Appendix H.

The Effect of Personal Tempo on Synchronization Ability

The hypothesis for this portion of the study involved

the amount of difference among mean scores on a measure of

synchronization ability for those students who were

considered as having a fast, slow, and moderate personal

tempos as shown in Table 4-3.


Table 4-3
Personal Tempo Groups


Group Personal Tempo

Slow M.M.<80
Moderate M.M.=80 M.M.=110
Fast M.M.>110



As just mentioned, the analysis of the data for

personal tempo indicates the existence of a between-subjects

variability. If personal tempo influences the ability to

synchronize movement with music, then it is possible that

subjects will be more successful at synchronizing movement

with music that is at or near their personal tempo.

Furthermore, as the tempo of the music deviates from








personal tempo, it can be hypothesized that synchonization

will become more difficult. As a result, synchonization

scores could be expected to be highest on test items at or

near personal tempo and lower as the tempo of the music

deviates from personal tempo.

For example, on the slow test items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70)

subjects with slow personal tempos could be expected to

score highest and subjects with fast personal tempos would

logically score the lowest. For the fast test items

(M.M.=113 M.M.=130) the opposite could be hypothesized;

subjects with fast personal tempos would score the highest

and subjects with slow personal tempos would score the

lowest.

Analysis of variance was applied to test this

hypothesis. To reject the null hypothesis of no significant

difference, the synchronization scores for the personal

tempo groups on the pretest of the Primary Measures of

Kinesthetic Response would need to be significantly

different at slow tempos (M.M.=57 M.M.=70), moderate

tempos (M.M.=81 M.M.=104), and fast tempos (M.M.=113 -

M.M.=130). The F-values, levels of significance, and mean

scores for the personal tempo groups are presented in Table

4-4.

Although there was a wide range of personal tempos

among the subjects in this study (48.59 168.17), the data

indicate no significant difference among the scores of the

personal tempo groups on the slow, fast, or moderate items








on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response. Therefore,

the null hypothesis is accepted.


Table 4-4
ANOVA for Personal Tempo Groups for Slow, Fast,
and Moderate Test Items


Test
Items DF F-Value P-Value PT Group Mean Score N

Slow 2 2.62 0.0788 Slow 2.8641 25
Moderate 2.5530 23
Fast 2.4099 38

Mod. 2 0.28 0.7589 Moderate 3.3484 25
Slow 3.2839 23
Fast 3.2059 38

Fast 2 2.13 0.1257 Fast 3.1411 25
Slow 2.9753 23
Moderate 2.6969 38


Closer examination of the mean scores, however, reveals

tendencies that appear to lend some support to the theory.

For the four slowest items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70), the subjects

with slow personal tempos scored the highest, subjects with

moderate personal tempos scored second, while subjects with

fast personal tempos earned the lowest score. On the items

with tempos that range from M.M.=81 to M.M.=104, the

subjects with moderate personal tempos scored the highest,

followed by subjects with slow personal tempos, and the

subjects with the fast personal tempos were third. Students

in the fast personal tempo category have the highest mean

score beginning on the test items that range in tempo from

M.M.=113 to M.M.=130.








For further examination of the scores of the personal

tempo groups, a mean score was calculated for the subjects

in each personal tempo group for each item of the test. The

mean scores for each group can be found in Appendix I.

Results of the Treatment as Measured by the
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response

The hypothesis for this portion of the study concerned

the differences among the scores on a measure of

synchonization ability for those students who received

instruction adjusted for their personal tempo and those

whose instruction was not modified for personal tempo.

Mean Scores and Measures of Dispersion

Each student's overall synchronization ability was

determined by averaging his/her score on the 14 items of the

Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response. The means and

standard deviations of the subjects' average synchronization

scores are presented in Table 4-5.


Table 4-5
Scores on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response


Pretest Posttest


N Mean SD N Mean SD

Experimental 44 2.96 .57 37 3.34 .54
Group

Control 42 3.00 .73 38 3.29 .60
Group

Combined 86 2.98 .63 75 3.31 .57
Groups








The distribution of pre- and posttest scores for all of the

subjects arranged in stem-and-leaf diagrams are presented in

Table 4-6. An examination of the stem-and-leaf diagrams

representing all of the subjects in the sample reveals some

increase in scores on the posttest for all subjects who

participated in the study. Fifty-one percent of the

subjects scored between 3.0 and 3.9 on the pretest and 72 %

of the subjects scored within that range on the posttest.

The percentage of students scoring in the 3.5 to 3.9 range

increased from 23.2 to 48. The percentage of students

scoring less than a 3.00 on the pretest decreased by 22

percent on the posttest. The stem-and-leaf diagrams of the

control and experimental groups reveal a similar change in

scores from the pretest to the posttest.

These descriptive data indicate that at the time of the

pretest the majority of the students were able to

synchronize their movement with music at various tempos, but

they lacked consistency in doing so. Only a few students

were unable to perform the synchronizaton task at all, and

only a very few were considered consistently synchronous.

These data also indicate that there was some increase in the

ability to synchronize movement with music over the period

of the study.

Evaluation by Judges

Three music educators evaluated each subject's

performance on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.

Their ratings served as the dependent variable for this

portion of the study. The effect of the treatment was then








Table 4-6
Distribution of Mean Scores on the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response


Pretest Scores for All Subjects (N=86)



4 00001 5
3 55555555667777778999 20
3 001111112222333333334444 24
2 56677777888999999 17
2 000000123334444 15
1 68899 5


Mean Posttest Scores for All Subjects (N=75)



4 11223 5
3 555555555555556666666667777888889999 36
3 001111122333444444 18
2 6667779999 10
2 04 2
1 7788 4


Mean Pretest Scores for the Control Subjects (N=42)



4 01 2
3 566777 6
3 00111112233334 14
2 677889999 9
2 0013344 7
1 6889 4


Mean Posttest Scores for the Control Subjects (N=38)



4 11 2
3 555555566666778899 18
3 112234444 9
2 667799 6
2 4 1
1 77 2








Table 4-6--Continued

Mean Pretest Scores for the Experimental Subjects (N=44)

N

4 000 3
3 55555557778999 14
3 1223333444 10
2 56777899 8
2 00002344 8
1 9 1


Mean Posttest Scores for the Experimental Subjects (N=37)

N

4 223 3
3 555555566667788899 18
3 001113344 9
2 6799 4
2 0 1
1 88 2



assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance

[ANOVA]. For each subject, the scores of the three judges

were pooled together to obtain measures of synchronization

ability at the time of the pretest and at the time of the

posttest. Mean pretest and posttest scores were then

calculated for both the control and experimental groups.

Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine (1) if

there were a significant difference between the experimental

group and the control group (referred to as "Group" in Table

4-7), (2) if there were a significant difference from pretest

to posttest (referred to as "Time" in Table 4-7); and (3) if

one group improved significantly over the other as a result

of the treatment (referred to as "Time X Group" in Table 4-








7). The results of the Repeated Measures ANOVA are shown in

Table 4-7.


Table 4-7
Repeated Measures Anova of the Mean
Synchronization Scores


DF F-Value P-Value


Time X Group 1 0.01 0.9047
Group 1 0.12 0.7261
Time 1 29.58 0.0001



Although the mean scores found in Table 4-5 indicate

that both the experimental and the control groups improved

from pretest to posttest, the results of the repeated

measures ANOVA indicate that one group did not improve

significantly more than the other. Therefore, the null

hypothesis is accepted. In addition, no difference was found

between the control and experimental groups. However, the

difference between pretest and posttest scores for the

groups was found to be be significant at the .0001 level,

indicating an improvement, probably due to musical

maturation and practice.

Interscorer Reliability of the Primary Measures
of Kinesthetic ResPonse

The judges of the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic

Response were instructed on scoring procedures and scoring

criteria. The average inter-item correlation among the

three judges over the subjects was calculated using

Cronbachs's coefficient alpha, a test used when items are

not scored dichotomously. The reliabilities for each item








of the pretest and posttest are presented in Appendix J.

The reliabilites of the pretest items range from .7689

to .9332, while the reliabilities of the posttest range

from .7915 to .9086. The mean pretest reliability is .8600,

and the mean posttest reliability is .8800

Results of the Bias Report Form

Three units of instruction were randomly selected to be

tape-recorded for evaluation by three music educators using

the Bias Report Form. (See Appendix E) Each of the judges

evaluated the three units. Pior to their evaluation of the

tapes, the judges were given copies of the lesson plans and

instructed on the use of the form. They were also reminded

that they were evaluating the tempos of the activities

involving movement and the accuracy of the instructor with

regard to following the lesson plans, not the students'

performance. To analyze the results of the three judges,

each of the circled statements was converted to a numerical

value as follows: Strongly Agree was assigned a value of 5;

Agree was assigned a value of 4; Neither Agree or Disagree a

value of 3; Disagree a value of 2; and Strongly Disagree was

assigned a value of 1. The scores assigned by the three

judges are presented in Table 4-8.

The mean scores for each of the statements ranged from

4 to 5, with a the mean value of 4.68. These results

indicate that the researcher followed the lesson plans and

used proper procedure with regard to tempo. Further

discussion of the results and the implications of these





58


findings for the teaching of music are presented in Chapter

5.


Table 4-8
Results of the Bias Report Form


Unit 5








Unit 8








Unit 9


Judge 1

5

4

4

4


5

4

5

4


5

4

5

4


Judge 2

5

4

5

4


5

5

5

4


5

5

5

5


Judge 3

5

4

5

5


5

5

5

5


5

5

5

5


AVG

5

4

4.66

4.33


5

4.66

5

4.33


5

4.66

5

4.66

AVG 4.48














CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The foundation of rhythm in most Western music is the

steady beat. In order for first grade children to

understand the more complex elements of rhythm such as meter

and rhythm patterns, they must develop a sense of steady

beat. Not all children, however, are equally capable of

maintaining a steady beat. A possible explanation for this

inequity is the phenomenon of personal tempo.

Summary

Personal Tempo

The first objective of this study was to determine if

each of the first-grade students in this sample (N=86) had a

consistent personal tempo. A null hypothesis was posited

that no consistency of personal tempo exists for children

over a period of time. To test this hypothesis, four

measurements of personal tempo were taken over a period of

two weeks.

The mean personal tempos of the 86 subjects ranged from

48.59 to 168.17. The standard deviation was 30.75, and the

mean standard deviation within-subjects was 14.23.

Correlation coefficients for the personal tempo measurements

ranged from .68 to .89 and were high enough to suggest

consistency over time. Because the evidence suggests the








existence of personal tempo, the null hypothesis was

rejected.

The Influence of Personal Tempo on Synchronization Ability

Previous research (Walters, 1983) has also indicated

that subjects are more successful at synchronizing their

movement with music if the tempo of the music is at or near

their own personal tempo. Therefore, the second objective

of this study was to determine if personal tempo affects

first-grade students' abilities to synchronize movement with

the beat at a variety of tempos., The null hypothesis was

posited that no significant difference exists among mean

scores on a measure of synchronization ability for those

students with fast, slow, and moderate personal tempos.

The subjects' synchronization abilities were measured

using their pretest scores on the Primary Measures of

Kinesthetic Response. This test contains 14 test items

ranging in tempos from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. Each of the 86

subjects was assigned to one of three personal tempo groups:

slow, M.M.<80; moderate, M.M.=80 to M.M.=110;,and fast,

M.M.>110.

ANOVA was used to determine if the mean synchronization

scores of the personal tempo groups differed significantly

on the slow items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70), moderate items

(M.M.=81 M.M.=104), and the fast items (M.M.=113 -

M.M.=130) of the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.

The results indicated that the scores of the three personal

tempo groups were not significantly different. Therefore,

the null hypothesis could not be rejected.








Further analysis of the personal tempo groups' mean

scores revealed that on the slow items the subjects in the

slow personal tempo group scored the highest, subjects with

moderate tempos ranked second, and subjects with fast

personal tempos ranked third. Subjects with moderate

personal tempos scored the highest on the test items with

more moderate tempos. Subjects with fast personal tempos

ranked first on the test items with the fastest tempos.

While these rankings are interesting to note, none of them

were significant at the .05 level.

Results of the Treatment as Measured by the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response

The null hypothesis for this portion of the study was

that no significant difference exists between the scores on

a measure of synchronization ability for those students who

received instruction adjusted for their personal tempo and

students whose instruction was not adjusted according to

their personal tempo.

Classes from each of two schools were randomly assigned

to the control group (N=38) or the experimental group

(N=37). Because it is not practical to teach each child

individually in school music classes, the subjects were

divided into small groups. The subjects in each control

class were randomly assigned to one of three small groups

for instruction, and the subjects in each

experimental class were assigned to one of three small

groups based on personal tempo.








All of the small groups received 12 units of

instruction designed to teach students about steady beat.

Each lesson lasted 10-12 minutes and involved movement,

playing instruments, chanting, singing, and listening.

Subjects in the control groups received instruction at a

consistent tempo (M.M.=100). Subjects in the experimental

groups received the same instruction, but the first

activities using movement were done at a tempo within the

personal tempo category of the subjects. The tempos were

then gradually expanded to include the entire range of

tempos included in the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic

Response.

The results of the repeated measures ANOVA indicate

that the experimental and control groups improved

significantly from the pretest to the posttest. The

analysis also indicates that the experimental group did not

improve significantly over the control group. Therefore,

the null hypothesis was accepted.

Results of the Interscorer Reliabilities and the Bias
Report Form

Interscorer Reliability

Three music educators evaluated each subject's

performance on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.

The inter-item correlation between the three judges over all

the subjects was calculated for each item of the test using

Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The mean pretest reliability

was .8600 and the mean posttest reliability was .8800.








Bias Report Form

This form was constructed to examine the procedures

used by the researcher during the treatment phase of the

research. Three units of instruction were randomly selected

to be tape-recorded for evaluation by three music educators.

Each of the three judges was given a copy of the lesson

plans and instructed on the use of the form. The judges

evaluated the researcher with regard to following the lesson

plans and the use of tempo during instruction. The results

indicated that the researcher followed the stated procedures

during the treatment.

Conclusions

Consistency of Personal Tempo

Previous research in the area of personal tempo has

been conducted primarily with adult subjects. All of these

studies (Frischeisen-Kohler, 1933; Allport and Vernon, 1933;

Harrison and Dorcus, 1938; Harrison, 1941; Rimoldi, 1951;

Smoll, 1975a and 1975b; and Smoll and Schultz, 1978) have

concluded that adult subjects have a personal tempo that is

consistent. The results of Walters' (1983) study of

personal tempo indicated that children in kindergarten

through third grade have a personal tempo. Based on the

results of this study, it may be concluded that first-grade

students have a personal tempo that is consistent. These

results concur with Walters (1983) and provide a useful

replication for an age group where little research has been

conducted.








Personal Tempo and Svnchonization Ability

The wide range of personal tempos in the sample and the

lack of significant difference between the personal tempo

groups on the slow, moderate, and fast items of the Primary

Measures of Kinesthetic Response indicate that personal

tempo does not effect the ability to synchonize movement

with music at the first grade level. While the rank order

of the mean scores obtained in this study is similar to

those obtained in Walters' (1983) study, Walters based his

conclusion that personal tempo effects synchonization

ability on the results of mean scores. He does not indicate

whether or not the mean scores are significantly different.

Due to the lack of significant differences in the

scores, it is questionable whether or not the rank order of

personal tempo categories is truly indicative of a

relationship between personal tempo and synchronization

ability.

Results of the Treatment

The results suggest that beginning instruction around

students' personal tempos and gradually expanding the range

of tempos does not facilitate synchronization skills.

Therefore, if children are experienced at synchronizing

their movement with music at a consistent tempo, they will

be able to synchonize their movement with music at other

tempos. This finding does not support Abramson (1986) who

stated that "the ability to perform in one tempo does not

automatically give the ability to deal with many tempi. .

Staying too long in one tempo can give rise to the








inability to use the body and mind in a new tempo when

called upon to do so" (p. 202). The increase in scores from

the pretest to the posttest was probably due to musical

maturation and practice. Earlier studies (Williams,

Sievers, and Hattwick, 1932; Jersild and Bienstock, 1935;

and Walters, 1983) all cited maturation as one reason for

increased synchronization ability.

Discussion of Research Procedures

The unavailability of video equipment made it necessary

to record the subjects pre- and posttests on audio tape.

Had video equipment been available, the tests could have

been evaluated in a more sensitive manner. This is most

significant in determining if a student should be given a

"4" for being synchronous throughout or a "5" for

acknowledging emphases and phrase endings as well as being

synchronous.

Implications for Teaching

An understanding of how children learn is vital for

teachers to determine what teaching techniques are most

effective. Research in the area of rhythmic instruction can

provide teachers with information that can assist them in

deciding on activities. Sometimes research results are

inconsistent with practice and beliefs, although the

findings of one study can neither fully support nor reject a

teaching practice. Each study has its own limitations with

respect to design and method.

The significant increase in posttest scores for the

control group in this study suggest that if children are








taught at a consistent tempo, they will, with practice, be

able to synchonize their movement with a variety of tempos.

Maturation can be facilitated through instruction that

provides children with opportunities to develop both their

perceptual and performance skills. This is especially

important for young children whose musical aptitude has not

yet stabilized. Joseph (1983) and Moore (1984) also found

that rhythm skills, concepts, and aptitude can be enhanced

by including a variety of listening and performing

experiences within each music class.

It was observed during the course of this study, as

well as in studies by Thackray (1969, 1972), that children

often confuse steady beat with the rhythmic pattern of the

notes. Many repetitions were needed for some children to be

able to discriminate aurally between steady beat and the

rhythm pattern of the notes. To add variety to lessons, the

concept of steady beat can be practiced in combination with

other concepts such as timbre and form. As Moore (1984)

commented in her study, teachers need to provide students

with many opportunities to hear others perform steady beats

and to experience the steady beat of chants and songs

through body rhythms and classroom instruments.

Suggestions for Further Research

Because of the limited amount of research in the area

of synchonization ability, personal tempo, and how personal

tempo affects students' abilities to learn about rhythm,

several possibilities exist for further research. The

following suggestions are offered:








a) Similar studies can be conducted at different age

levels. Increased synchronization scores of older subjects

on a posttest may be a more valid assessment of the

treatment than of maturation, and these studies may also

provide information on how synchronization ability changes

with maturation.

b) The results of this study are limited to

nonlocomotor movements. A design similar to this study

could be employed using locomotor movements like walking to

the music.

c) In this study the students in the control groups

were taught to keep a steady beat at a single tempo, which

is what is normally taught in music classes at the

elementary school level. In a similar study, the students

in the control groups could be taught to synchronize

movement at a variety of tempos, with the order of tempos

randomly selected.

d) Ethnographic research techniques could be used to

determine the different ways in which children are taught to

maintain a steady beat and to identify those techniques that

appear to be effective in teaching synchronization ability.

e) One of the purposes of this study was to determine

if students are more able to keep a steady beat at a variety

of tempos when using their personal tempo as a starting

point. Studies could be conducted to determine if

instruction that is centered around personal tempo would be

beneficial for specific subgroups, such as subjects with

poor synchronization skills; slow, moderate, or fast





68


personal tempos; and consistent or inconsistent personal

tempos.

f) Correlational studies could determine the best

predictor of synchronization ability: personal tempo,

intelligence, prior musical experience, maturation, or motor

skills.














APPENDIX A
STUDENT CONSENT

The following explanation was given to each class:

"My name is Mrs. Nelson. I go to school at the

University of Florida. I am doing an experiment to learn

how first grade boys and girls learn about rhythm in music

and I need your help.

First, I will play some music and you will keep time

with the music by patting your hands on your knees. You

will do this all by yourself. I will record what you do on

a tape recorder so that I can listen to it later. Then I

will be visiting you in Ms. Terrell's music class for a few

weeks. We will be singing, moving to the music, and playing

instruments. After we do this for a few weeks, I will play

some music and you will keep time with the music just like

the first time.

Your teacher will give you a letter like this (show a

copy to the class). The letter explains our experiment to

your parents. Be sure that your parents see the letter so

that they can sign it at the bottom (show class) and you can

bring it back tomorrow. We will begin our experiment when

the slips are returned to your teacher. Do you have any

questions?" As each child enters the room for protesting

he/she will be asked if he wants to participate.














APPENDIX B
PARENTAL CONSENT

Dear Parents,

I am a Ph.D. candidate in music education at the
University of Florida. Your child's principal and teachers
have graciously agreed to assist me with my graduate
research project. I am going to be studying how children
learn about rhythm. During the first two weeks of the
study, a series of three brief tests, totaling 30 minutes in
length, will be given to each child individually. The
testing sessions will be arranged as follows:

Week 1. Day 1. This will consist of two measures of
personal tempo in which each child pats his/her hands on the
lap for 15 seconds at a tempo which feels comfortable.
Week 1. Day 2. This will consist of a third measure of
personal tempo.
Week 2. This will consist of the fourth measure of
personal tempo and a test of synchronization ability in
which each child pats his/her hands on the lap while
listening to music of different tempos. These two tests
will take 15 minutes.

Your child's performance on these tests will be audio-
recorded. Two music educators will assist me in the
evaluation of these tapes. At the conclusion of the study
the recordings will be completely erased.
During the next twelve weeks I will be working with the
first grade children during music class. We will be doing a
variety of activities in which your child will be singing,
moving to music, and playing instruments in small groups.
At the end of the twelve weeks, each child will repeat the
synchronization test. Test results will be confidential; a
code will be used to report results in the study.
Furthermore, test results will not affect school grades.
All of the children involved will have opportunity to
enhance their skills. I sincerely believe it will be a
positive experience for all involved.
Feel free to call me at home if your have any questions
or reservations; my number is 336-1307. If at any time your
child does not wish to participate in the study he or she is
free to withdraw. Should this happen, send me a brief note
advising me that your child no longer wishes to participate.





71


Furthermore, any such decision will not affect school
grades. There will be no monetary compensation for
participation in the study.
If you do not object to your child's participation,
please sign the permission slip below and return it to your
child's first grade teacher.
Your cooperation is greatly appreciated. I am looking
forward to working with your child.

Sincerely,


Diane Nelson

(Detach Here)


I have read and I understand the procedure described above.

I agree that may participate
(Students' Name)

in Diane Nelson's study of personal tempo.














APPENDIX C
PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCHEDULE

Pretest Schedule:


Week 1.


Week 2.


Tuesday. Class A. Two measures of personal
tempo. 10 minutes for each
child.
Wednesday. Class B. Two measures of personal
tempo. 10 minutes for each
child.
Thursday. Class A. One measure of personal
tempo. 5 minutes for each
child.
Friday. Class B. One measure of personal
tempo. 5 minutes for each
child.
Monday. Class A. One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for half of the class.
15 minutes for each child.
Tuesday. Class A. One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for the remainder of
the class. 15 minutes for
each child.
Wednesday. Class B. One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for half of the class.
15 minute for each child.
Thursday. Class B. One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for the remainder of
the class. 15 minutes for
each child.
Friday. A and B. Make-up day.


Total amount of time per child: 30 minutes.





73


Posttest Schedule

Monday. Class A. Test of synchronization for
half of the class. 15
minutes for each child.
Tuesday. Class A. Test of synchronization for
the remainder of the class.
15 minutes for each child.
Wednesday. Class B. Test of synchronization for
half of the class. 15
minutes for each child.
Thursday. Class B. Test of synchronization for
the remainder of the class.
15 minutes for each child.














APPENDIX D
ROTATION SCHEDULE

Researcher Music Teacher


1 3
2

3 1
2

1 2
3

2 1
3

2 3
1

3 2
1

1 3
2

3 1
2

1 2
3

2 1
3

2 3
1

3 2
1


Media Center


2


2


3


3


1


1


2


2


3


3


1


1


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


Session


I


II


III


IV



V


VI


VII
VIII


IX

X


XI


XII















APPENDIX E
BIAS REPORT FORM


Circle the appropriate response following each statement.

Experimental Groups

1. The researcher followed the lesson plan.

SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree

2. The tempos of the activities were varied.

SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree

Control Groups

3. The researcher followed to lesson plan.

SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree


4. The tempo of the various activities was consistent
throughout the lessons.

SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree














APPENDIX F
UNITS OF INSTRUCTION

Unit 1

I. Activities: speech, body rhythms, singing

II. Sources: "Fudge, Fudge" Music for Children: Orff-
Schulwerk American Edition. Vol. 2. (1977). page 7.

"Old Dan Tucker" Silver Burdett: Centennial Edition.
(1985). Grade 3; Teacher's Edition. page 15.

III. Concept:
A. Concept Area: rhythm
B. Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated.

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. The teacher speaks the names of body
parts in rhythm and students echo at the end of each
phrase. For example:

knees, knees, knees, knees (echo)

shoulders, shoulders, shoulders, shoulders (echo)
J J J 1
head, head, head, head (echo)

nose, nose, nose, nose (echo)

2. Vary names of body parts for more practice.
3. Teacher chants names of body parts in rhythm and
accompanies by patting a steady beat on the part of
the body being named. Students echo and copy motions.
4. Vary names and order of body parts for more
practice. Continue to keep a steady beat by tapping
the part of the body being named.
5. Introduce "Fudge, Fudge." Recite completely and then
recite each line and having the students echo.
6. The teacher chants a line and accompanies by patting
a different part of the body. Students echo each
line and copy the teacher's motions.
7. Vary parts of the body for more practice.
8. Introduce "Old Dan Tucker" by singing the complete
song and then having students echo each phrase after
it is sung by the teacher.








Unit II

I. Activities: speech, playing instruments, singing, body
rhythms

II. Sources: "Fudge, Fudge" and "Old Dan Tucker"

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Voices and instruments can produce
steady beats.

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only. Rhythm
sticks.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review words to "Fudge, Fudge"
2. Recite "Fudge, Fudge" by phrases and accompany each
phrase with a steady beat using different body
rhythms. The group will echo each phrase and imitate
the body rhythm used by the teacher.
3. Using rhythm sticks, have the goup keep a steady beat
as they echo each phrase.
4. Recite the rhyme without echoing each phrase and keep
a steady beat with the instruments.
5. Review "Old Dan Tucker."
6. Sing "Old Dan Tucker" in phrases and accompany with
body rhythms. The students will echo each phrase
and copy the body rhythms used by the teacher.










I. Activities: body rhythms, singing, speech

II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and "Two, Four, Six,
Eight" Music for Children: Orff-Schulwerk
American Edition. Vol. 2. (1977). p. 104.

III. concept:
A: Concept Areas: rhythm and form.
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Most music is composed of more than
one part.

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Old Dan Tucker." If necessary,
sing in phrases first and then the complete song.
2. Sing the song and use body rhythms to keep a steady
beat.
3. Note to the class that there are two parts to the
song. Ask the class if someone can identify the two
parts.
4. Have the group sing the entire song and accompany
with different body rhythms for each half.
5. Divide the group in half. The first half sings and
accompanies themselves using a body rhythm. The
other half sings the chorus and companies
themselves using a different body rhythm.
6. Introduce "Two, Four, Six, Eight" by reciting the
rhyme completely and then having the group echo each
line.








Unit IV

I. Activities: speech, listening, body rhythms

II. Sources: "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and "Old Dan Tucker"

III. Concept:
A. Concept Areas: rhythm
B. Concept Sentence: Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated.
C. Verbal Symbol: steady beat

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only. One
pair of rhythm sticks for the teacher.

V. Teaching Procedures:
1. Warm-u. Recite "Two, Four, Six, Eight" by echoing
phrases first and then reciting the complete poem.
2. Tell the students to listen to the sticks.
3. The teacher recites "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and
accompanies with rhythm sticks, keeping a steady
beat.
4. Ask the students if the sticks got slower, faster,
or stayed the same. Repeat the rhyme and steady
beat as necessary.
5. Point out that this is a steady beat.
6. Have the group recite the poem and keep the steady
beat.
7. Again, tell the students to listen while you play.
Have them listen to seee if what you are going to
do is the same or different from the steady beat.
8. Recite the poem again and this time play the rhythm
of the words.
9. Call for an individual who can identify what is
different.
10. Have the group recite the rhyme and clap the rhythm
of the words. Note to the students that this is not
the steady beat.
11. Remind the students that music has a steady beat.
Have the group sing "Old Dan Tucker" and keep a
steady beat using body rhythms.








Unit V

I. Activities: listening, speech, body rhythms,
singing.

II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and "Fudge, Fudge" and
"Michael Finnegan" Integrating Music into the
Classroom by W. M. Anderson and J. E. Lawrence.
Published by Wadsworth (1985); Belmont, CA. page 25.

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard
and duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of
twos and threes. (3) The first beat of a set
usually has the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the students listen to the beats to
see if they are all the same.
2. Using patschen, the teacher recites "Fudge, Fudge"
and keeps a steady beat and emphasizes strong and
weak beats.
3. Ask probing questions, for instance Were the beats
steady? Were all of the beats were same? How were
they different? Were some louder than others? Was
there a pattern?
4. Have the class perform the "LOUD soft" pattern
using the same motions. Practice until they are
comfortable with the motions. Saying "Loud" in a
strong speaking voice and "soft" in a quiet speaking
voice may help them.
5. Have the group recite "Fudge, Fudge" and indicate the
strong and weak beats.
6. Music also has strong and weak beats. sing "Old Dan
Tucker" and indicate strong and weak beats.
7. Introduce the song "Michael Finnegan."








Unit VI

I. Activities: listening, body rhythms, singing.

II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan" and "Did You Ever See a
Lassie." Integrating Music into the Classroom by W. M.
Anderson and J. E. Lawrence. Published by Wadsworth
(1985); Belmont, CA. pages 25 and 210.

III. _Cncept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only, one (1)
rhythm instrument for the teacher, cassette recorder,
and recordings.
The recordings are to be at specific tempos. For the
control groups there should be one recording of "Michael
Finnegan" at j = 100. For the experimental groups there
should be three recordings at the following tempos:
S= 76; 1 = 88, and = 100.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Michaal Finnegan."
2. Ask the students to listen to the following the
teacher sings "Michael Finnegan" and plays the
rhyth on the rhythm instrument.
3. Ask the class if the teacher played a steady beat.
4. Have the class listen again. The teacher sings the
same song but this time plays a steady beat and
emphasizes the strong and weak beats. Ask the
students questions about what they heard, such as:
Was the beat steady? Were some beats louder than
others?
5. Play the recording of "Michael Finnegan." On the
recording a woodblock will keep a steady beat and
emphasize the strong and weak beats. The students
should do the same by patting their hands on their
knees.
6. Continue to use body rhythms during the subsequent
recordings) of "Michael Finnegan" that follow. For
the experimental groups, each recording is at a
different tempo.
7. Introduce or review "Did You Ever See a Lassie."








Unit VII

I. Activities: listening, body rhythms, singing, speech

II. Sources: "Did You Ever See a Lassie."

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-u. Have the group sing "Did You Ever See a
Lassie"
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Did You Ever See a Lassie" and keeps a steady
beat and emphasizes strong and weak beats by patting
the knees.
3. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of
the beats the same? Were some beats louder than
others? Was there a patterns? How is it different
from "LOUD soft."
4. Have the group perform the "LOUD-soft-soft" pattern
as before. Practice until they are comfortable with
the motions. As before speaking "LOUD-soft-soft" may
help.
5. Practice keeping the "LOUD-soft-soft" pattern while
singing "Did You Ever See a Lassie."








Unit VIII

I. Activities: listening, body rhythms, singing.

II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan" and "Did You Ever See a
Lassie."

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only. one (1)
rhythm instrument for the teacher, cassette recorder,
and recordings.
The recordings are to be done at specific tempos. For
the control group there will be one recording of "Did
You Ever See a Lassie" at ) = 100. For the
experimental group, there will be three recordings
of the song at the following tempos: 1 = 100;
j =88; and ) =112.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Did You Ever See a Lassie."
2. Ask the students to listen to the following the
teacher sings "Did You Ever See a Lassie" and plays
the rhyth on the rhythm instrument.
3. Ask the class if the teacher played a steady beat.
4. Have the class listen again. The teacher sings the
same song but this time plays a steady beat and
emphasizes the strong and weak beats. Ask the
students questions about what they heard, such as:
Was the beat steady? Were some beats louder than
others? How was it different from the "LOUD soft"
in "Michael Finnegan"? (Review if necessary.)
5. Play the recording of "Did You Ever See a Lassie." On
the recording a woodblock will keep a steady beat and
emphasize the strong and weak beats. The students
should do the same by patting their hands on their
knees or clapping.
6. Continue to use body rhythms during the
recordings of "Did You Ever See a Lassie" that
follow. For the experimental group, each
recording is at a different tempo.








Unit IX

I. Activities: listening, body rhythms, speech

II. Sources "Fudge Fudge" and the following songs from
Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom (1982) by
Hoffer and Hoffer: "Jump Down, Turn Around," p. 13;
"The Bus," p. 93; "Are You Sleeping," p. 96; "Eency,
Weency, Spider," p. 100.

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, recordings of
songs from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
at specific tempos. For the control groups each song
will be recorded a ) =100. Tempos for the experimental
groups will be as follows: "Jump Down, Turn Around,"
S= 120; "The Bus," ) = 132; "Are You Sleeping,"
= 76; and "Eency, Weency, Spider," J. = 69.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group recite "Fudge Fudge."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
recites "Fudge Fudge" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher recites "Fudge Fudge" and keeps a steady
beat and emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using patschen or hand
clapping. Allow the students to do this with as
little help as possible from the teacher. Have
students emphasize strong and weak beats if possible.








UNIT X

I. Activities listening, playing instruments, speech

II. Sources "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and the following
songs from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "Los Pollitos," p. 126;
"Sandy Land," p. 166; "Git Along Little Doggies,"
p. 203; "When the Saints Go Marching In," p. 254.

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom, at specific tempos.
For the control group "Git Along Little Doggies" will be
recorded at = =100. The remainder of the songs will be
recorded at J =100. Tempos for the experimental group
will be as follows: "Los Pollitos, J = 100; "Sandy
Land,"J = 63; "Git Along Little Doggies, J. = 58; and
"When the Saints Go Marching In, i = 108.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group recite "Two, Four, Six,
Eight."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
recites "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and claps the
rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher recit s "Two, Four, Six, Eight and
keeps a steady be. t, emphasizing strong and weak
beats.
5. The teacher asks he students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of
the beats the same? Were some beats louder than
others? Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students
should keep a steady beat using classroom
instruments. Allow the students to do this with as
little help as possible from the teacher. Have
students emphasize strong and weak beats if
possible.








UNIT XI

I. Activities: listening, playing instruments, speech

II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and the following songs
from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "All Night, All Day"
p. 57; "If You're Happy," p. 98; "A Tisket, A Tasket"
p. 134; "Wonderful Copenhagen," p. 164.

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom at specific tempos.
For the control all of the songs should be recorded at
) = 100. The songs for the experimental groups should
be recorded at the following tempos: "All Night, All
Day," J = 116; "If You're Happy," ) = 126; "A Tisket,
A Tasket," J. = 84; and "Wonderful Copenhagen," 4. = 60.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group sing "Old Dan Tucker."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Old Dan Tucker" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher sings "Old Dan Tucker" and keeps a
steady beat, emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using classroom instruments.
Allow the students to do this with as little help as
possible from the teacher. Have students emphasize
strong and weak beats if possible.










I. Activities: listening, playing instruments, speech

II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan" and the following songs
from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "Good Night" p. 129; "Down
by the Riverside," p. 208; "Down in the Valley" p. 260;
"Go Tell it on the Mountain," p. 269.

III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat

IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom at specific tempos.
For the control groups the tempos should be as follows:
"Go d Night," ) =100; "Down by the Riverside,"
= 100; "Down in the Valley," = 100; and "Go
Tell it on the Mountain," ) = 100. For the experimental
group the tempos should be as follows: "Good Night,"
S= 108; "Down by the Riverside," J = 63; "Down in the
Valley," ). = 58; and "Go Tell it on the Mountain,"
S= 126.

V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group sing "Michael Finnegan."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher sings "Michael Finnegan" and keeps a
steady beat, emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using classroom instruments.
Allow the students to do this with as little help as
possible from the teacher. Have students emphasize
strong and weak beats if possible.














APPENDIX G
TEMPOS FOR UNITS OF INSTRUCTION

Derrick Elementary School

PT Group Temos
(M.M.)


Unit I Slow 63 72
Moderate 100
Fast 132 112

Unit II Slow 72
Moderate 100
Fast 112

Unit III Slow 72 112
Moderate 100 84
Fast 112- 92

Unit IV Slow 112 126
Moderate 84 63
Fast 92 76

Unit V Slow 126
Moderate 63 58
Fast 76

Unit VI All 76, 88, 100

Unit VII Slow 126 132
Moderate 100 126
Fast 76 58

Unit VIII All 100, 88, 112

Unit IX All 120, 132, 76, 69

Unit X All 100, 63, 58, 108

Unit XI All 116, 126, 84, 60

Unit XII All 108, 63, 58, 126









Forest Elementary School

PT Group Teos
(M.M.)


Unit I Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit II Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit III Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit IV Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit V Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit VI All

Unit VII Slow
Moderate
Fast

Unit VIII All

Unit IX All

Unit X All

Unit XI All

Unit XII All


58 66
100 116
126 112

66 84
116 132
112 92

84 96
116 108
92 72

96 120
108 63
72 58

120 132
63 58
80 58

76, 88, 100

126 130
100 120
76 58

100, 88, 112

120, 132, 76, 69

100, 63, 58, 108

116, 126, 84, 60

108, 63, 58, 126














APPENDIX H
PERSONAL TEMPOS FOR EACH SUBJECT

Derrick Elementary School-Control Group

Code PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 AVG PT C.V. S.D.

1 122.71 115.29 113.12 141.65 123.19 10.52 12.97

2 84.65 75.29 99.82 88.69 87.11 11.66 10.16

3 70.64 94.57 108.99 106.28 95.12 18.37 17.47

4 100.41 99.56 117.02 110.18 106.79 7.81 8.34

5 121.77 119.37 147.44 133.79 130.59 9.86 12.88

6 55.79 54.18 61.27 66.72 59.49 9.57 5.69

7 137.68 137.32 133.67 122.76 132.86 5.24 6.97

8 148.54 143.22 159.85 99.75 137.84 19.09 26.32

9 118.70 116.09 116.50 125.98 119.32 3.84 4.58

10 166.05 156.93 171.73 166.52 165.30 3.72 6.14

11 138.76 129.64 128.53 134.20 132.78 3.52 4.67

12 65.31 58.77 67.41 57.64 62.28 7.71 4.80

13 113.61 124.89 130.90 91.21 115.15 15.19 17.49

14 138.05 136.72 121.87 137.54 133.54 5.84 7.80

15 55.60 88.03 110.52 110.52 91.17 28.4 85.97

16 125.00 110.51 139.28 123.18 124.49 9.46 11.77

17 159.54 154.12 147.49 115.08 144.06 13.83 19.93

18 117.96 126.76 72.94 103.82 105.37 22.39 23.59

19 63.38 56.51 92.04 69.39 70.33 21.89 15.40

20 153.45 186.64 138.22 146.20 156.13 13.66 21.27








21 120.21 116.71 130.90 124.03 122.96 4.94 6.07

22 124.45 119.33 137.86 136.49 129.53 7.01 9.08

23 50.80 50.26 67.53 34.28 56.19 17.47 9.81

Derrick Elementary School-Experimental GrouP

Code PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 AVG PT C.V. S.D.

24 137.61 157.34 147.66 142.13 146.18 5.81 8.49

25 63.32 65.45 60.40 98.70 71.96 24.93 17.94

26 138.29 136.24 127.13 120.50 130.54 6.33 8.26

27 126.09 150.91 64.51 129.03 117.63 31.54 37.10

28 111.67 116.81 92.95 105.63 106.76 9.62 10.28

29 138.42 141.43 137.20 135.29 138.08 1.86 2.57

30 43.93 45.87 54.89 58.71 50.85 13.94 7.08

31 108.89 113.96 125.91 131.74 120.12 8.76 10.52

32 103.69 113.40 126.20 137.32 120.15 12.23 14.69

33 59.90 71.85 70.65 59.29 65.42 10.31 6.75

34 61.90 64.80 61.32 60.91 62.23 2.82 1.75

35 165.89 166.82 165.24 145.96 160.97 6.23 10.03

36 99.75 90.09 93.38 98.09 95.32 4.62 4.41

37 117.54 119.78 115.89 127.77 120.24 4.37 5.26

38 57.41 58.45 105.00 76.55 74.35 29.91 22.24

39 60.05 59.40 62.60 55.69 59.43 4.80 2.85

40 119.56 137.14 120.50 157.59 133.69 13.35 17.85

41 155.53 128.11 117.74 101.35 127.68 18.09 22.74

42 44.55 60.45 73.49 89.94 67.10 28.73 19.28

43 88.88 98.45 103.73 78.06 92.28 12.24 11.29

44 40.47 47.50 67.35 63.97 54.82 23.55 12.91

45 68.06 76.57 68.23 92.98 76.46 15.31 11.70

46 118.06 131.02 116.22 116.29 120.39 5.92 7.13




Full Text
25
''J
c
tempo they chose. These tasks included turning a crank,
tapping, tracing, drawing a straight line, raising the right
arm, turning the head, walking, and bending. No unitary
speed trait was indicated. Tapping was found to be the most
consistent measure. In addition, the data support the
results of the previously cited studies, which indicate that
individuals perform motor tasks at consistent speeds.
The specificity of personal tempo was supported in a
further study by Harrison (1941) in which male undergraduate
students performed 12 tasks involving simple motor and
locomotor tasks and cognitive activities. All everyday
functions such as walking did not correlate with other
everyday functions such as head turning, arm raising, and
body building, which disputes the theory that habituation
may effect personal tempo. In addition, tapping and patting
were found to be the most reliable measures.
An extensive study of personal tempo was conducted by
Rimoldi (1951). Adult male subjects between the ages of 17
and 25 were administered 59 tests involving large and small
motor movements, speed of perception (reaction time), and
speed of cognition. A repetition of these tests four weeks
later revealed a high degree of consistency of tempo between
the first and second measurements. The best predictors of
motor speed were found to be large movements of the limbs
and trunk, small movements such as tapping, and, to a lesser
extent, simple drawings of lines, circles, and squares with
the feet. Speed of cognition and perception were not found
to be related. Like Allport and Vernon, Rimoldi identified


43
M.M.=110, (c) and fast M.M.>110. Each performance was
clocked three times using a Latin square format to avoid
bias. The standard deviations of the results were
"infinitesimal," (p. 55) and so Walters concluded that the
stopwatch technique was capable of being reproduced.
Walters was also concerned that measurements of
personal tempo might be unstable due to start-up problems,
the subject's loss of attention, or distractions. To
investigate this possibility, one of the four tests of
personal tempo was randomly selected from sixteen subjects
(two male and two female from each grade) who were also
randomly chosen. Each performance was divided into
approximate thirds of seven to nine seconds in length. The
M.M. of each third of the performance and the total
performance was calculated. The results indicate that
"variability within performance is not a serious problem"
(p. 59), but because most of the variability tended to occur
in the first and last thirds, it was concluded that the
middle 10 seconds would yield the most accurate measurement.
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response
This test was developed by Professor James 0. Froseth
of the University of Michigan. It is a tape-recorded test
consisting of 14 short musical selections with tempos
ranging from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. The range of tempos was
determined during preliminary studies and by considering
tempos likely to be included during musical experiences. The
tempo of each item is presented in Table 3-1.


82
Unit VII
I.Activities: listening, body rhythms, singing, speech
II. Sources: "Did You Ever See a Lassie."
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group sing "Did You Ever See a
Lassie"
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Did You Ever See a Lassie" and keeps a steady
beat and emphasizes strong and weak beats by patting
the knees.
3. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Viere all of
the beats the same? Were some beats louder than
others? Was there a patterns? How is it different
from "LOUD soft."
4. Have the group perform the "LOUD-soft-soft" pattern
as before. Practice until they are comfortable with
the motions. As before speaking "LOUD-soft-soft" may
help.
5. Practice keeping the "LOUD-soft-soft" pattern while
singing "Did You Ever See a Lassie."


CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES
This chapter describes the pilot study, the research
design and procedures, and the test instruments used during
the course of the research.
The Pilot Study
The original objectives of this study were to teach
third-grade students to keep a steady beat in duple and
triple meters and to imitate rhythm patterns. A pilot study
was conducted to (a) determine the appropriateness of the
tests and (b) begin a series of lesson plans to be used
during the treatment phase of the research. The tests in
the pilot study were the Response to Meter Test and the
Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test (Palmer, 1974). The
student's task in the Response to Meter Test is to keep a
steady beat to music in duple and triple meter. The
student's task in the Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test is
to imitate a one- to two-measure rhythmic pattern. Because
these tests were originally designed for fourth-grade
students, they were adapted for third-grade students. The
Response to Meter test items were changed by using songs
from the third-grade level of the Silver-Burdett: Centennial
Edition (Crook, Reimer, & Walker, 1985). The rhythm
patterns for the Imitation of Rhythmic Patterns Test were
PiLcJ
31


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ease
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Significance of the Study 2
Statement of the Problem 6
Hypotheses 7
Limitations and Delimitations 7
Assumptions 9
Definition of Terms 9
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11
The Role of Kinesthesis in
Music Teaching and Learning 12
Personal Tempo 23
3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 31
The Pilot Study 31
Description of the Sample 33
Research Design 35
Data-Gathering Instruments 41
4 ANALYSIS OF DATA 47
Analysis of Personal Tempo
Measurements 47
The Effect of Personal Tempo on
Synchronizaton Ability 49
Results of the Treatment as Measured by
the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic
Response 52
Interscorer Reliability on the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response 56
Results of the Bias Report Form 57
IV


83
Unit VIII
I.Activities: listening, body rhythms, singing.
II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan" and "Did You Ever See a
Lassie."
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only, one (1)
rhythm instrument for the teacher, cassette recorder,
and recordings.
The recordings are to be done at specific tempos. For
the control group there will be one recording of "Did
You Ever See a Lassie" at J = 100. For the
experimental group, there will be three recordings
of the song at the following tempos: J = 100;
J =88; and J =112.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Did You Ever See a Lassie."
2. Ask the students to listen to the following the
teacher sings "Did You Ever See a Lassie" and plays
the rhythm on the rhythm instrument.
3. Ask the class if the teacher played a steady beat.
4. Have the class listen again. The teacher sings the
same song but this time plays a steady beat and
emphasizes the strong and weak beats. Ask the
students questions about what they heard, such as:
Was the beat steady? Were some beats louder than
others? How was it different from the "LOUD soft"
in "Michael Finnegan"? (Review if necessary.)
5. Play the recording of "Did You Ever See a Lassie." On
the recording a woodblock will keep a steady beat and
emphasize the strong and weak beats. The students
should do the same by patting their hands on their
knees or clapping.
6. Continue to use body rhythms during the
recordings of "Did You Ever See a Lassie" that
follow. For the experimental group, each
recording is at a different tempo.


41
students in the experimental groups through the various
tempos.
Posttest Procedures
At the end of the treatment period the subjects in the
experimental and control groups were tested individually
using Froseth's Primary Measure of Kinesthetic Response.
Data-Gathering Instruments
Test of Personal Tempo
A procedure for measuring the personal tempo of young
children (grades K-3) was developed by Walters (1983) for
his study of children's ability to synchronize music and
movement. In order to discover a method that would result
in "measurable natural responses (.p 47), Walters explored
several techniques including selecting a tempo on the
metronome, choosing from two tempos heard on a metronome,
and having the students perform a tempo using classroom
instruments. All of these methods proved unsatisfactory.
Walters then concluded that a method was needed that
involved "the child's body in a state of relaxation" (p. 48)
and the fewest possible distractions. The following
procedure was developed that required a cassette recorder,
microphone, and stopwatch:
1. Begin the occasion of the measurement with pleasant
conversation to relax the subject.
2. Seat the subject in a chair. Explain the presence
of the equipment in view and describe generally what
is to be done.
3. Have the subject assume a relaxed position with
palms down on the thighs. Give the following
instructions: "When I ask you to begin, pat your
hands on your legs in a steady beat that feels good
to you, and keep the beat going until I ask you to
stop."
Ur


2
19th century with rhythmic effects such as changing metersr
asymmetrical meters, and the superimposing of one meter over
another. Accents may occur regularly or irregularly, and
their strength may vary. They may coincide with the beat or
occur between beats, which causes syncopation.
Rhythm patterns are formed by combining short and long
sounds; the resulting patterns may be simple or quite
complex. They can be varied, developed, and combined in
ways that provide unity and contrast in a composition
(Reimer & Evans, 1972) .
Significance of the Study
The ability to perceive the relationships of beat,
tempo, meter, accent, and rhythm patterns is a vital part of
the aesthetic experience involving music. In Western music,
steady beat provides the basis for the other components of
rhythm. Gordon (1980) states that a sense of consistent
tempo is necessary for the study of meter and rhythm
patterns. In addition, kindergarten and primary grade basal
series texts such as Music and You (Staton & Staton, 1988),
Music (Meske, Pautz, Andress, & Willman, 1988), and World of
Music (Palmer, Reilly, & Scott, 1988) devote a great deal of
space to the study of steady beat. The foundation for the
development of rhythmic understandings and skills, then, is
the concept of steady beat.
The ability to perceive and perform a steady beat is a
skill that must be learned; it is not inherent in each
individual. Music educators must include teaching methods
and techniques that can assist students in developing this


3
skill. Research findings help teachers identify those
techniques that can be incorporated into their classrooms
that will enhance students' musical skills and
understandings.
Rhythmic Perception and Movement
Rhythmic perception is often encouraged through the use
of movement and classroom instruments. The physical nature
of rhythm forms the basis of the methods of Carl Orff and
Emile Jaques-Dalcroze (Landis & Carder, 1972). Orff thought
that rhythm was a natural outgrowth of speech. In his
Schulwerk (1967), rhythms are introduced through the use of
chants, rhymes, and jingles. The rhythms are then
transferred to body rhythms such as clapping, patschen
(patting knees), finger snapping, and stamping. As the body
rhythms are mastered, they are transferred to instruments.
Large body movements are stressed in the eurythmics of
Jaques-Dalcroze, who found rhythmic implications in
children's everyday activities. Singing games and dramatic
play become tools for teaching rhythmic concepts. For
example, pretending to run and catch the bus becomes an
accelerando; activities such as walking, skipping, and
running are eventually associated with notated rhythms.
Walking, for example, is associated with a quarter note.
Running may be associated with eighth notes, triplets, or
sixteenth notes. Skipping may be associated with long-short
patterns such as a dotted eighth followed by a sixteenth
note (Findlay, 1971) Classroom instruments offer
additional means to interact with music with a minimum


56
7). The results of the Repeated Measures ANOVA are shown in
Table 4-7.
Table 4-7
Repeated Measures Anova of the Mean
Synchronization Scores
DF F-Value P-Value
Time X Group 1 0.01 0.9047
Group 1 0.12 0.7261
Time 1 29.58 0.0001
Although the mean scores found in Table 4-5 indicate
that both the experimental and the control groups improved
from pretest to posttest, the results of the repeated
measures ANOVA indicate that one group did not improve
significantly more than the other. Therefore, the null
hypothesis is accepted. In addition, no difference was found
between the control and experimental groups. However, the
difference between pretest and posttest scores for the
groups was found to be be significant at the .0001 level,
indicating an improvement, probably due to musical
maturation and practice.
Interscorer Reliability of the Primary Measures
of Kinesthetic Response
The judges of the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic
Response were instructed on scoring procedures and scoring
criteria. The average inter-item correlation among the
three judges over the subjects was calculated using
Cronbachs's coefficient alpha, a test used when items are
not scored dichotomously. The reliabilities for each item


Hypotheses
The null hypotheses for this study are
1. there will be no relationship among four personal
tempo measurements for individuals over
timef
2. there will be no significant difference between mean
scores on a measure of synchronization ability for
those students with fast/ slow, and moderate personal
tempos, and
3. there will be no significant difference between the
mean scores on a measure of synchronization ability
for those students who received instruction adjusted
for their personal tempo and those students whose
instruction was not adjusted according to their
personal tempo.
Limitations and Delimitations
Limitations
The random assignment of subjects is, of course,
desirable for achieving equivalence between the control and
experimental groups. It is often not possible, however, to
assign subjects to experimental and control groups randomly,
particularly in school settings. In this study, the time-~i-
requirements for pretest, posttest, and treatment, as well
as the commitment required on the part of the teachers, made
it necessary to recruit teachers to assist in this study
rather than choose them by a random selection process.
While the classes that participated in the study were not


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The temporal nature of rhythm distinguishes it from
other aspects of music. Rhythm serves both organizational
and expressive functions that determine the manner in which
music moves through time. An understanding of rhythm and
its componentsbeat, tempo, meter, accent, and rhythm
patternscan help people experience the movement of music
more fully.
The steady recurring pulse usually experienced in music
is called the "beat." The speed of the beat is referred to
by the word "tempo." Most music, however, is not performed
at a uniform tempo throughout; accelerandos (gradual
increases in tempo), ritardandos (gradual decreases in
tempo), and other musical effects provide variety in a
composition. These graduated changes in tempo may last only
a short time or they may last for many measures. They may
also be very subtle or quite obvious. The use of rubato. or
a slight flexibility of the tempo, evokes a reaction in the
listeners by creating a feeling of rushing forward or
holding back that is relieved by a return to the original
tempo.
"Meter," or the grouping of beats, is most frequently
found in twos or threesduple or triple meter. The
regularity of these groupings was challenged in the late
1


79
Unit IV
I.Activities: speech, listening, body rhythms
II. Sources: "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and "Old Dan Tucker"
III. Concept:
A. Concept Areas: rhythm
B. Concept Sentence: Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated.
C. Verbal Symbol: steady beat
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only. One
pair of rhythm sticks for the teacher.
V. Teaching Procedures:
1. Warm-up. Recite "Two, Four, Six, Eight" by echoing
phrases first and then reciting the complete poem.
2. Tell the students to listen to the sticks.
3. The teacher recites "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and
accompanies with rhythm sticks, keeping a steady
beat.
4. Ask the students if the sticks got slower, faster,
or stayed the same. Repeat the rhyme and steady
beat as necessary.
5. Point out that this is a steady beat.
6. Have the group recite the poem and keep the steady
beat.
7. Again, tell the students to listen while you play.
Have them listen to seee if what you are going to
do is the same or different from the steady beat.
8. Recite the poem again and this time play the rhythm
of the words.
9. Call for an individual who can identify what is
different.
10. Have the group recite the rhyme and clap the rhythm
of the words. Note to the students that this is not
the steady beat.
11. Remind the students that music has a steady beat.
Have the group sing "Old Dan Tucker" and keep a
steady beat using body rhythms.


16
regular music instruction consisting of singing, listening,
playing rhythm instruments with recordings, singing games,
and some movement. At the conclusion of the study the
children in the experimental group were found to be more
able to recognize and respond to familiar patterns in
unfamiliar music through movement and playing instruments
than the students in the control groups.
Moore (1984) found that rhythmic aptitude was enhanced
by incorporating movement into music instruction. Moore
administered Gordon's Primary Measures of Musical Audiation
(PMMA) to three groups of 100 second- and third-grade
students. During next 10 weeks an experimental group
received 20 music lessons emphasizing rhythm through the use
of movement activities such as body rhythms, walking,
running, and skipping to various rhythms. One control group
was taught using vocally oriented lessons that included
singing and listening. Another control group received no
musical instruction. At the conclusion of the 10-week
period the PMMA was readministered.
The rhythm aptitude scores were significantly higher
for the group that received music instruction incorporating
movement. Moore also observed that the movement lessons had
more impact on the second-grade students, that repetition
enabled the children to establish a rhythm more consciously,
that sustaining patterns over a long period of time was more
difficult for younger students, and that the younger
students had more difficulty controlling body movements.
i? [ \ / C. ir\ C S


15
Marches," to which children step, clap, and tap the beat,
meter, and rhythm of songs. The ability to perforin these
elements of rhythm is necessary before the teacher can
introduce rhythmic patterns (Landis & Carder, 1972) .
Research on the Role of Kinesthesis in Music Learning
Research data also support the importance of
kinesthesis in music learning. Ruckmich (1913) studied the
reactions of adults to rhythmic stimuli. He concluded that
"kinesthesis was most prominently connected with the
intitial clear perception of the type and form of the
rhythm" (p. 359) and that once perception is established
kinesthesis becomes unnecessary.
Ruckmich's findings were corroborated in a study by
Boyle (1970) who incorporated 14 weeks of rhythm training
into junior high school bands. The activities included
listening to recordings to recognize the beat, marking time
to the beat, clapping patterns while tapping the beat with
the foot, and playing rhythmic patterns on a single note
while marking the beat with the foot. The results indicated
that these body movements contributed significantly to the
students' ability to perform rhythms correctly.
A study by Joseph (1983) also indicates that the use of
movement can enhance rhythmic learning. Joseph developed a
curriculum of 44 lessons using Dalcroze eurythmics for
kindergarten students that included movement exploration,
rhythmic movement, ear training, listening, and
improvisation. The experimental groups participated in the
eurythmics program and the control groups received their


14
Ms
D
yoM
kinesthetic experiences are converted into feelings, which
are then sent through the nervous system to the brain. The
brain analyzes the information and sends it back to the
body. Eurythmics, the term Jaques-Dalcroze coined for his
method, is based on this theory, and it utilizes listening
and movement to teach children to express such elements of
music as beat, tempo, duration, rests, syncopation,
asymmetrical meters, polyrhythms, rubato, dynamics,
phrasing, and form.
The influence of Jaques-Dalcroze can be seen in the
techniques developed by Orff (Landis & Carder, 1972). Orff
believed that rhythm is the strongest element of music.
This is evident in the fact that the primary techniques of
his methodspeech, singing, and movementall have the
element of rhythm in common. In the sequence of activities
developed by Orff, the rhythmic qualities of speech lead to
the use of body rhythms, which are then transferred to
instruments. Singing is viewed as an outgrowth of speech,
and the untrained movements of children such as running,
walking, and skipping are related to musical concepts.
While singing is the primary mode of instruction in the
Kodaly method, which was developed by Zoltn Kodaly in the
1940s and 1950s, movement is an important part of this
method as well (Landis & Carder, 1972). Like Orff, Kodaly
believed that singing and movement are natural in young
children. Singing games combining movement and music are
used in preschool and kindergarten classes. The second
volume of his Pentatonic Music is called "100 Little


45
schools, two cassette recorders were used to administer the
test, one to play the test and the other to record the
students' performance. As in the Test of Personal Tempo, a
chair for the researcher and a chair for the subjects was
placed approximately four feet apart facing each other. One
tape-recorder was placed on a third chair next to the
subject to record his performance. A second tape-recorder
containing the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response was
placed on a fourth chair next to the researcher. To help
the subjects understand the directions, the researcher
performed the practice items with each student.
Test results were evaluated by three music educators
according to the following criteria:
1 erratic; as if not hearing the music
2 unsynchronous, but exhibiting some sense of the
task
3 nearly synchronous, but not "locked in"
4 synchronous; locked into the tempo throughout
5 synchronous; in addition, acknowledging such
musical considerations as emphases and phrase
endings (Froseth, 1987)
The scores assigned by the three evaluators were averaged
together for a final score.
In order to determine the reliability of the test,
Walters readministered the test to 16 randomly selected
subjects, two male and two female from each grade. The re
tests were conducted in the same manner and then evaluated
by the same judges 24 to 72 hours later. To minimize
recall, the original performances of these 16 students were
randomly mixed into three rating sessions that were spread
over three consecutive days.


58
findings for the teaching of music are presented in Chapter
5.
Table 4-8
Results of the Bias Report Form
Judae 1
Judae 2
Judae 3
AVG
Unit
5
1.
5
5
5
5
2.
4
4
4
4
3.
4
5
5
4.66
4.
4
4
5
4.33
Unit
8
1.
5
5
5
5
2.
4
5
5
4.66
3.
5
5
5
5
4.
4
4
5
4.33
Unit
9
1.
5
5
5
5
2.
4
5
5
4.66
3.
5
5
5
5
4.
4
5
5
4.66
AVG 4.48


48
subjects was 30.75, and the mean standard deviation within-
subjects was 14.23.
Table 4-1
Distribution of the Total Sample in Percentages
According to the Coefficient of Variation
c.v.
N
Less than .
07
22
.07 to .
17
33
.17 to .
27
23
.27 to .
37
6
.37 to
47
1
Greater than
.47
1
Correlation coefficients were computed to determine if
the four measures of personal tempo were reliable throughout
the four test administrations. These are presented in Table
4-2. The P-values for the coefficients in the table are
significant at the .0001 level.
Table 4-2
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Personal Tempo Measurements 1-4
PT 1
1.00
PT 2
.89
1.00
PT 3
.70
.68
1.00
PT 4
.76
.82
.71
1.00
PT 1
PT 2
PT 3
PT 4


44
Table 3-1
Tempo of Items in the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response
Item Number
TemDO (M.M.)
1.
104
2.
113
3.
60
4.
90
5.
70
6.
57
7.
85
8.
120
9.
81
o
11
96
11.
130
12.
64
13.
103
14.
100
Each item is introduced with three pitches. A
woodblock plays the steady beat at the beginning of the
selection. Thus, the test measures the student's ability to
maintain a steady beat rather than the ability to discern
the steady beat. When the woodblock stops, the student is
to continue the steady beat by patting his hands on his
knees. An example is given at the beginning of the tape and
two practice items follow. The test is 8.5 minutes long.
Because videotaping equipment was not available at both


37
randomly assigned to one of three instructional groups as
follows:
Small Group
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Number of Subjects
Pretest
8
7
8
Posttest
7
5
7
23
19
At Forest Elementary School the subjects in the control
class were randomly distributed into these groups:
Small Group
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Number of Subjects
Pretest
8
6
5
Posttest
8
6
5
19
19
Treatment Schedule
The students at Derrick Elementary and Forest
Elementary received music instruction on different
schedules. As a result, the treatment period for each
school was somewhat different. At Derrick Elementary the
students met for music two times a week for 30 minutes;
therefore, the students completed the 12 units of
instruction in six weeks. The students at Forest met one
time a week for 45 minutes; therefore, the students
completed the 12 units in 12 weeks.
The different class lengths required scheduling the
small groups in Derrick Elementary in a different


18
found a significant increase in ability with each successive
year between the ages of two and five. Moreover, a further
analysis of the same three-year-old children indicated that
young children may be able to synchronize movement more
easily at faster tempos. No significant difference was
found in their ability to keep time with their hands and
feet. The difference between children's ability to
synchronize with various meters (2/4, 3/4, 4/4) was also
insignificant.
The relationship between age/grade level and children's
(grades 1-3) ability to synchronize body movement with
rhythmic stimuli was further confirmed in a study by Groves
(1966) He noted that responses were more accurate if the
tempos were faster; at slower tempos the tendency was to
anticipate the beat. Motor ability was also found to be a
significant variable while home musical background, social
adjustment, and sex appear to be unrelated.
To understand the nature of rhythmic ability more
fully, Thackray (1969) administered tests of rhythmic
perception, rhythmic performance, and rhythmic movement to
students at a women's college of physical education. The
results of the rhythmic perception test, which was
administered to 100 subjects, suggest that perception is
measured more accurately by performance than by tests of
perception.
The results of the two other subtests provide
information on the ability to synchronize movement with
music. During a test of rhythmic performance, 66 subjects


36
Arranging Small-Group Instruction
Because individual instruction is not usually feasible
in music classes, each class was divided into three small
groups. After the average personal tempo [PT] of each
subject had been calculated, subjects in the two
experimental classes were assigned to three small
instructional groups, based on their personal tempo: (a)
slow personal tempo, M.M.<80, (b) moderate personal tempo,
M.M.=80 M.M.=110, and (c) fast personal tempo, M.M.>110.
At Derrick Elementary the subjects in the experimental class
were distributed into these groups as follows:
Number of Subjects
Small Group Pretest Posttest
PT<80
10
8
PT 80 110
5
5
PT>110
10
8
25
21
At Forest Elementary the subjects in the experimental class
were distributed into these groups:
Small Group
PT<80
PT 80 110
PT>110
Number of Subjects
Pretest
7
6
6
Posttest
7
4
5
19
16
The subjects in the control classes were randomly
assigned to one of three instructional groups without regard
for personal tempo. At Derrick Elementary the subjects were


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
PERSONAL TEMPO AS A CONSIDERATION IN THE RHYTHMIC
TRAINING OF FIRST-GRADE STUDENTS
By
DIANE DAMPIER NELSON
MAY 1990
Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Deparment: Instruction and Curriculum
The foundation of rhythm in most Western music is the
steady beat. In order for first-grade children to
understand the more complex elements of rhythm such as
meter and rhythm patterns, they must develop a sense of
steady beat. Not all children, however, are equally capable
of maintaining a steady beat. A possible explanation for
this inequity is the phenomenon of personal tempo.
To determine if each subject has a personal tempo (PT)
that is consistent, a test of PT was administered to each
subject four times during a two-week period. Correlation
coefficients indicated within-subjects consistency.
The second portion of this study was designed to
determine if students are most successful when synchonizing
movement with music that is near their PT. Synchonization
Vll


61
Further analysis of the personal tempo groups' mean
scores revealed that on the slow items the subjects in the
slow personal tempo group scored the highest, subjects with
moderate tempos ranked second, and subjects with fast
personal tempos ranked third. Subjects with moderate
personal tempos scored the highest on the test items with
more moderate tempos. Subjects with fast personal tempos
ranked first on the test items with the fastest tempos.
While these rankings are interesting to note, none of them
were significant at the .05 level.
Results of the Treatment as Measured by the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response
The null hypothesis for this portion of the study was
that no significant difference exists between the scores on
a measure of synchronization ability for those students who
received instruction adjusted for their personal tempo and
students whose instruction was not adjusted according to
their personal tempo.
Classes from each of two schools were randomly assigned
to the control group (N=38) or the experimental group
(N=37). Because it is not practical to teach each child
individually in school music classes, the subjects were
divided into small groups. The subjects in each control
class were randomly assigned to one of three small groups
for instruction, and the subjects in each
experimental class were assigned to one of three small
groups based on personal tempo.


81
Unit VI
I.Activities: listening body rhythms, singing.
II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan and "Did You Ever See a
Lassie." Integrating Music into the Classroom by W. M.
Anderson and J. E. Lawrence. Published by Wadsworth
(1985); Belmont, CA. pages 25 and 210.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only, one (1)
rhythm instrument for the teacher, cassette recorder,
and recordings.
The recordings are to be at specific tempos. For the
control groups there should be one recording of "Michael
Finnegan" at J = 100. For the experimental groups there
should be three recordings at the following tempos:
) = 76; j = 88, and J = 100.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Michaal Finnegan."
2. Ask the students to listen to the following the
teacher sings "Michael Finnegan" and plays the
rhythm on the rhythm instrument.
3. Ask the class if the teacher played a steady beat.
4. Have the class listen again. The teacher sings the
same song but this time plays a steady beat and
emphasizes the strong and weak beats. Ask the
students questions about what they heard, such as:
Was the beat steady? Were some beats louder than
others?
5. Play the recording of "Michael Finnegan." On the
recording a woodblock will keep a steady beat and
emphasize the strong and weak beats. The students
should do the same by patting their hands on their
knees.
6. Continue to use body rhythms during the subsequent
recording(s) of "Michael Finnegan" that follow. For
the experimental groups, each recording is at a
different tempo.
7. Introduce or review "Did You Ever See a Lassie."


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1990
Dean, College of Education
Dean, Graduate School


100
Smoll, F. L., & Schtz, R. W. (1978). Relationships
among measures of preferred tempo and motor rhythm.
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46. 883-894.
Staton, B., & Staton, M. (1988). Music and you
(1st grade ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Thackray, R. (1969). Music education research papers:
An investigation into rhythmic abilities (No. 4). London:
Novello.
Thackray, R. (1972). Music education research papers:
Rhythmic abilities in children (No. 5). London: Novello
357 songs we love to sing. (1938). Melville, NY: Schmitt,
Hall & McCreary.
Walters, D. L. (1983). The relationship between personal
tempo in primary-aged children and their ability to
synchronize movement with music (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Michigan, 1983) Dissertation Abstracts
International. 44. 423A.
Williams, H. M., Sievers, C. H., & Hattwick, M. S.
(1932). The measurement of musical development. (Studies
in Child Welfare; Vol. 7, No. 1. Iowa City: University of
Iowa.


UNIT XI
I.Activities: listening, playing instruments, speech
II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and the following songs
from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "All Night, All Day"
p. 57; "If You're Happy," p. 98; "A Tisket, A Tasket"
p. 134; "Wonderful Copenhagen," p. 164.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom at specifc tempos.
For the control all of the songs should be recorded at
J = 100. The songs for the experimental groups should
be recorded at the following tempos: "All Night, All
Day," J = 116; "If You're Happy," J = 126; "A Tisket,
A Tasket," J. = 84; and "Wonderful Copenhagen," J. = 60.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group sing "Old Dan Tucker."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Old Dan Tucker" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher sings "Old Dan Tucker and keeps a
steady beat, emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using classroom instruments.
Allow the students to do this with as little help as
possible from the teacher. Have students emphasize
strong and weak beats if possible.


35
female; white students made up 84% of the subjects from this
class, and the remaining 16% were black. All of the
subjects in the control group completed the study (N=19),
but only 16 of the experimental subjects completed the study
due to transfers.
At the conclusion of the experimental portion of the
study, there were 38 subjects in the control group and 37
subjects in the experimental group. Eorg and Gall recommend
that there be a minimum of 15 subjects in each group to be
analyzed (1983, p. 257) .
Research Design
Pretest Procedure
Because personal tempo is believed to be a trait that
is consistent, more representative measures were obtained by
taking four measurements over a period of two weeks. Pre
tests were administered to individual students over a period
l
of two weeks. During the first week, the children were
tested individually on two separate occasions. During the
first session personal tempo was measured twice. Two days
/U.
later a third measure of personal tempo was taken.
During the second week, four to five days later, a
fourth measure of personal tempo was taken and Froseth's
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response was also
administered. Because video equipment was not available,
the tests were recorded on audiotape. The pretest schedule
is outlined fully in Appendix C.


APPENDIX E
BIAS REPORT FORM
Circle the appropriate response following each statement.
Experimental Groups
1. The researcher followed the lesson plan.
SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree
2. The tempos of the activities were varied.
SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree
control Groups
3. The researcher followed to lesson plan.
SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree
4.The tempo of the various activities was consistent
throughout the lessons.
SA Strongly Agree
A Agree
N Neither agree or disagree
D Disagree
SD Strongly Disagree
75


62
All of the small groups received 12 units of
instruction designed to teach students about steady beat.
Each lesson lasted 10-12 minutes and involved movement,
playing instruments, chanting, singing, and listening.
Subjects in the control groups received instruction at a
consistent tempo (M.M.=100). Subjects in the experimental
groups received the same instruction, but the first
activities using movement were done at a tempo within the
personal tempo category of the subjects. The tempos were
then gradually expanded to include the entire range of
tempos included in the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic
Response.
The results of the repeated measures ANOVA indicate
that the experimental and control groups improved
significantly from the pretest to the posttest. The
analysis also indicates that the experimental group did not
improve significantly over the control group. Therefore,
the null hypothesis was accepted.
Results of the Interscorer Reliabilities and the Bias
Report Form
Interscorer Reliability
Three music educators evaluated each subject's
performance on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.
The inter-item correlation between the three judges over all
the subjects was calculated for each item of the test using
Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The mean pretest reliability
was .8600 and the mean posttest reliability was .8800.


22
Conclusion
While the role of kinesthetic activity in the teaching
and learning of rhythmic concepts is almost taken for
granted by music teachers, researchers have provided some
empirical research that supports this assumption. The
results indicate that kinesthetic activity can raise music
aptitude scores, facilitate rhythmic perception, and
increase music students' ability to read rhythms. The
performance of rhythmic tasks is also a more accurate
measure of rhythmic ability than.tests of perception. More
important, kinesthetic activity is a tool that will increase
children's ability to experience music aesthetically.
The findings of research studies also imply the need
for music educators to consider the synchronization
abilities of children when asking them to perform tasks that
require synchronization. While some studies indicate that
the ability to synchronize movement with music seems to be
related to maturation, there is some evidence that points to
tempo as a possible variable.
An unexpected outcome of these studies was the
observation of individual differences with regard to the
ability to keep a steady beat. In addition, it has been
noted that some subjects performed a steady beat at the same
tempo regardless of the tempo of the music. The potential
1 ¡j >i Vi*. a v ~'ff i'o^lA
variables of tempo and tempo preferences lead to a third
theory, personal tempo, which is presented in the next
section.


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21
the Orff and Dalcroze methods, the book suggests that the
teacher have the class practice skills using a variety of
tempos. Abramson emphasizes the importance of this in his
discussion of Dalcroze teaching techniques:
It is important to learn how to erase one tempo and
prepare for the change to another. In general, the
ability to perform in one tempo does not automatically
give the ability to deal with many tempi. Speaking,
singing, moving, or playing an instrument all involve
restrictions on tempo experience and experiment, but
this can be counteracted by the teacher's awareness and
skill in presenting a large variety of tempo
experiences. Staying too long in one tempo can give
rise to tension, boredom, or even inability to use the
body and mind in a new tempo when called upon to do so.
(p. 202)
Nye and Nye note the difficulty often posed by
individual differences in Music in the Elementary School
(1985). Early experiences in the areas of tempo and rhythm
should be done at a speed that is comfortable to the
children.
To assist children who find rhythm difficult, teachers
seek to guide them to success either in the same rhythm
at a slower tempo, or with a different and more simple
action to which they can respond at their own natural
tempos, (p. 247)
An innate preference for a particular tempo is
suggested by Hoffer and Hoffer in Music in the Elementary
Classroom (1987) They suggest that the most comfortable
tempo approximates the heartbeat or a moderate walking pace.
In Teaching Children Music: Fundamentals of Music and Method
(1984) Newman describes activites that may be used to teach
tempo in which the child moves at a comfortable speed and
the other students or the teacher accompany the movement.


95
Item
(M.M.)
Group
Mean Score
N
1
104
fast
3.860
38
moderate
3.739
23
slow
3.480
25
2
113
fast
3.447
38
slow
3.387
25
moderate
3.188
23
8
120
fast
2.851
38
slow
2.533
25
moderate
2.333
23
11
130
fast
3.070
38
slow
2.920
25
moderate
2.739
23


Copyright 1990
by
Diane Dampier Nelson


28
of each selection, a woodblock dictates the tempo; when the
woodblock ceases, the student pats the hands on the knees
during the remainder of the selection. Walters videotaped
the performances for later evaluation.
The results of the study indicated that students are
most successful at synchronizing with the test items at or
nearest to their own personal tempo. Walters found that
"without deviation" students were most successful at
synchronization if the tempo of the music fell within their
personal tempo category: (a) slow, less than 80 beats per
minute, (b) moderate, between 80 and a 110 beats per minute,
and (c) fast, more than 110 beats per minute. As the tempo
of the music differed from a child's personal tempo, it
became increasingly difficult to synchronize movement with
music. The relationship between synchronization ability and
personal tempo appears to be strongest for students in the
f
first grade. Walters also observed that on test items that
were faster than the subject's personal tempo, they seemed
to fall behind; on test items that were slower than the
subject's personal tempo, the subject's movement was too
fast.
Subjects with slow personal tempos scored the highest
on test items from M.M.=57 through M.M.=81; second for items
M.M.=85 through M.M.=100; and third for items M.M.=103
through M.M.=130. Subjects in the moderate personal tempo
category scored first for test items M.M.=85 through
M.M.=120; second for items M.M.=57 through M.M.=81; and
second again, for M.M.=130. Subjects with fast personal


49
Because the correlation coefficients are quite
positive, and because the between-subject variability is
much greater than the within-subject variability, the null
hypothesis regarding consistency of personal tempo can be
rejected. The data indicate that individuals do possess a
consistent personal tempo. The personal tempos,
coefficients of variation, and the standard deviations for
each subject are presented in Appendix H.
The Effect of Personal Tempo on Synchronization Ability
The hypothesis for this portion of the study involved
the amount of difference among mean scores on a measure of
synchronization ability for those students who were
considered as having a fast, slow, and moderate personal
tempos as shown in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3
Personal Tempo Groups
Group
Personal Tempo
Slow
Moderate
Fast
M.M.<80
M.M.=80 M.M.=110
M.M.>110
As just mentioned, the analysis of the data for
personal tempo indicates the existence of a between-subjects
variability. If personal tempo influences the ability to
synchronize movement with music, then it is possible that
subjects will be more successful at synchronizing movement
with music that is at or near their personal tempo.
Furthermore, as the tempo of the music deviates from


20
for the next beat to occur rather than anticipate, and a few
children beat the off-beats. Thackray also noted cases in
which children produced a steady beat that did not match the
music. In these instances, the students gave the beat at
the same tempo each time regardless of the tempo of the
music. Thackray suggested that tempo preferences needed to
be investigated further.
Adjusting Tempo During Rhythm Instruction
Studies by Williams, Sievers, and Hattwick (1932),
Jersild and Bienstock (1935) Groves (1966), and Thackray
(1972) indicate that varying the tempo of tasks requiring
synchronization may improve synchronization ability. While
textbooks used in the training of music education students
address the issue of varying tempo, they vary in the amount
of emphasis that is placed on the topic.
Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century (Choksy,
Abramson, Gillespie, & Woods, 1986) addresses this matter a
number of times during the discussion of the Dalcroze and
Orff methods. While describing beginning Dalcroze
eurythmics exercises, it suggests that children be allowed
to perform locomotor activities at a tempo that is
comfortable to them. After observing the class, the teacher
is to determine the average tempo of the class; this becomes
the starting tempo for the class. During the first exercise
that uses music, the teacher is to accompany the children
using speech, singing, the drum, or the piano. The
accompaniment is to match the "tempo, dynamics, and flow
characteristics" of the students (p. 160) With regard to


68
personal tempos; and consistent or inconsistent personal
tempos.
f) Correlational studies could determine the best
predictor of synchronization ability: personal tempo,
intelligence, prior musical experience, maturation, or motor
skills.


10
tends to differ from the same measure in other individuals"
(Walters, 1983, p. 37).
Specificity of personal tempo refers to personal tempo
as determined by the rate of a specific movement rather than
all spontaneous movements.
Within-subiect variability is the variability in a
subject's personal tempo from one measurement to the next.
Synchronization ability is used in this study as a
reference to the ability to keep a steady beat "in time"
with music.


APPENDIX F
UNITS OF INSTRUCTION
Unit 1
I.Activities: speech, body rhythms, singing
II. Sputces: "Fudge, Fudge" Music for Children: Orff-
Schulwerk American Edition. Vol. 2. (1977). page 7.
"Old Dan Tucker" Silver Burdett: Centennial Edition.
(1985). Grade 3; Teacher's Edition, page 15.
III. Concept:
A. Concept Area: rhythm
B. Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated.
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.
v. leashing Procedure:
1. Warm-up. The teacher speaks the names of body
parts in rhythm and students echo at the end of each
phrase. For example:
J J J J
knees, knees, knees, knees (echo)
J J J 3 J 3 J 3
shoulders, shoulders, shoulders, shoulders (echo)
j j j j
head, head, head, head (echo)
J J J J
nose, nose, nose, nose (echo)
2. Vary names of body parts for more practice.
3. Teacher chants names of body parts in rhythm and
accompanies by patting a steady beat on the part of
the body being named. Students echo and copy motions.
4. Vary names and order of body parts for more
practice. Continue to keep a steady beat by tapping
the part of the body being named.
5. Introduce "Fudge, Fudge." Recite completely and then
recite each line and having the students echo.
6. The teacher chants a line and accompanies by patting
a different part of the body. Students echo each
line and copy the teacher's motions.
7. Vary parts of the body for more practice.
8. Introduce "Old Dan Tucker" by singing the complete
song and then having students echo each phrase after
it is sung by the teacher.
76


33
results indicated that the ability to synchronize movement
with music at varying tempos was an area in which skill
development is lacking at the first- grade level. The
lesson objective during the treatment phase of the research
became the ability to keep a steady beat, and the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response was chosen to measure this
skill. With this portion of the pilot completed, the
initial lesson plans used in the research study were
developed.
Description of the Sample
The subjects who participated in the study were first-
grade students drawn from two elementary schools in the
north-central Florida area. Fourteen elementary schools
within commuting distance were considered potential
participants in this study. However, only two schools were
able to participate due to limited amounts of space
necessary for testing and small group-instruction,
inadequate amounts of time scheduled for music class, and
recent changes in teaching personnel. Fictitious names are
used to designate the two schools.
Two first-grade classes from Derrick Elementary School
were able to participate in the experiment. Due to
scheduling conflicts with Derrick Elementary, only two
first-grade classes were able to participate at Forest
Elementary. At each school, the two classes were randomly
assigned to either the treatment group or the control group.
Therefore, each school contained both an experimental and
control group.


39
4. The first beat of a set usually has the biggest
sound.
5. Beats can be heard in sets of twos and threes.
(Music K-6, 1974, p. 5)
The lessons included a variety of tasks designed to
help students synchronize movments with music. The
techniques utilized in these lessons included body rhythms,
playing rhythm instruments, chanting, singing, and
listening. The ability to keep a steady beat using body
rhythms was a prerequisite to using rhythm instruments.
Various chants and songs were the vehicles for teaching the
concepts and developing skills. Listening was included to
enhance the subject's ability to discriminate between steady
beat and rhythm, between loud and soft beats, and between
duple and triple meter.
Music teachers are not likely to vary the tempo of an
activity involving movement. To enhance the
generalizability of the results, the subjects in the control
groups received instuction at a consistent tempo
(approximately J = 100) throughout the treatment. The
students in the experimental groups were taught to keep a
steady beat at a variety of tempos ranging from 57 beats per
minute to 130 beats per minute, which are found in the
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987).
Each experimental group began at a tempo at or near the
average personal tempo of the group. As the subjects were
able to synchronize their movement successfully with music
at each tempo, the tempo was increased or decreased.
An example of the experimental procedure can be drawn from


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Diane Dampier Nelson was born at Fort Lee, Virginia,
and attended public schools in Jacksonville, Florida. She
earned her Bachelor of Music Education degree from
Jacksonville University in Jacksonville, Florida. After
being a school music teacher for two years, she attended the
the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville,
Kentucky, and.graduated in 1981. While a student at the
seminary, she studied piano with Maurice Hinson, and her
area of emphasis was conducting.
Diane Nelson completed her Ph.D. in the College of
Education with a specialization in music education from the
University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida, in 1990.
Her articles have been published in Update and The American
Music Teacher. She has also taught preschool for two years,
including one year as the preschool music teacher at
Gainesville Country Day School, and has maintained a private
piano studio for six years. In the area of church work she
has served as pianist, organist, children's music director,
and music director in churches in Florida, Georgia, and
Kentucky, and has published numerous arrangements for piano
and organ. She resides with her husband, Robert Brian
Nelson, maintains an active piano studio, and is the
organist and children's choir coordinator at First Baptist
Church in Gainesville, Florida.
101


84
Unit IX
I.Activities: listening, body rhythms, speech
II. Sources "Fudge Fudge" and the following songs from
Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom (1982) by
Hoffer and Hoffer: "Jump Down, Turn Around," p. 13;
"The Bus," p. 93; "Are You Sleeping," p. 96; "Eency,
Keeney, Spider," p. 100.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, recordings of
songs from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
at specific tempos. For the control groups each song
will be recorded a J =100. Tempos for the experimental
groups will be as follows: "Jump Down, Turn Around,"
J = 120; "The Bus," J = 132; "Are You Sleeping,"
J = 76; and "Eency, Weency, Spider," = 69.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group recite "Fudge Fudge."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
recites "Fudge Fudge" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher recites "Fudge Fudge" and keeps a steady
beat and emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using patschen or hand
clapping. Allow the students to do this with as
little help as possible from the teacher. Have
students emphasize strong and weak beats if possible.


67
a) Similar studies can be conducted at different age
levels. Increased synchronization scores of older subjects
on a posttest may be a more valid assessment of the
treatment than of maturation, and these studies may also
provide information on how synchronization ability changes
with maturation.
b) The results of this study are limited to
nonlocomotor movements. A design similar to this study
could be employed using locomotor movements like walking to
the music.
c) In this study the students in the control groups
were taught to keep a steady beat at a single tempo, which
is what is normally taught in music classes at the
elementary school level. In a similar study, the students
in the control groups could be taught to synchronize
movement at a variety of tempos, with the order of tempos
randomly selected.
d) Ethnographic research techniques could be used to
determine the different ways in which children are taught to
maintain a steady beat and to identify those techniques that
appear to be effective in teaching synchronization ability.
e) One of the purposes of this study was to determine
if students are more able to keep a steady beat at a variety
of tempos when using their personal tempo as a starting
point. Studies could be conducted to determine if
instruction that is centered around personal tempo would be
beneficial for specific subgroups, such as subjects with
poor synchronization skills; slow, moderate, or fast


87
Unit XII
I.Activities: listening, playing instruments, speech
II. Sources: "Michael Finnegan" and the following songs
from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "Good Night" p. 129; "Down
by the Riverside," p. 208; "Down in the Valley" p. 260;
"Go Tell it on the Mountain," p. 269.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom at specific tempos.
For the control groups the tempos should be as follows:
"Good Night," J =100; "Down by the Riverside,"
/ = 100; "Down in the Valley," J = 100; and "Go
Tell it on the Mountain," J = 100. For the experimental
group the tempos should be as follows: "Good Night,"
J = 108; "Down by the Riverside," = 63; "Down in the
Valley," J* =58; and "Go Tell it on the Mountain,"
J = 126.
v. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group sing "Michael Finnegan."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
sings "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and claps the rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher sings "Michael Finnegan" and keeps a
steady beat, emphasizing strong and weak beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: Were the beats steady? Were all of the
beats the same? Were some beats louder than others?
Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students should
keep a steady beat using classroom instruments.
Allow the students to do this with as little help as
possible from the teacher. Have students emphasize
strong and weak beats if possible.


Personal Tempo
Frischeisen-Kohler (1933) conducted a series of
experiments on personal tempo. In one experiment, a series
of tapping tests were administered to subjects on four
different days. The intervals of time between measurements
ranged from one or two days to two months. To allow for
diverse moods and physical conditions, the subjects were
retested at different times of the day and under different
weather conditions. Despite the varying conditions and the
amount of time between measurements, the subjects were
consistent from one measurement to the next. To assess
variability between individuals, Frischeisen-Kohler tested
1000 subjects from various social backgrounds and from ages
eight to more than eighty. Subjects of all ages and social
strata demonstrated a diversity of tempos.
Frischeisen-Kohler's study was also designed to /
identify the extent to which personal tempo is inherited.
The personal tempo of 118 pairs of twins were studied: 53
were monozygotic (identical) twins and 65 were dizygotic
(fraternal) twins. These results were compared with the
personal tempos of brothers and sisters of different ages
and unrelated individuals. The variation was much greater
between dizygotic twins than between monozygotic twins.
This result indicates that heredity may play a part in
determining personal tempo. In addition, the variabilities
of brothers and sisters of different ages and dizygotic twins
appear to be nearly equal. The highest variability was


ability was measured using Froseth's Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response (PMKR), which contains fourteen items
with tempos ranging from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. For analysis/
the test items were divided into three categories (slow/
moderate/ and fast) and the subjects were divided into three
PT groups (slow/ moderate/ and fast). ANOVA for each
category of test items indicated that the PT group's scores
were not significantly different beyond the .05 level on the
slow, moderate, or fast items. This suggests that PT
does not affect the ability to synchonize movement with
different tempos.
The purpose of the third portion of this study was to
determine if students can be taught more effectively to keep
a steady beat when their PTs are considered during
instruction. The subjects in-two experimental classes were
divided into groups according to their PT: slow, moderate,
and fast. Using the mean PT of each group as a starting
point, these students were taught to keep a steady beat at a
variety of tempos. Students in two control classes were
randomly divided into small groups and taught to keep a
steady beat with a consistent tempo. The PMKR was
administered as the posttest. Repeated measures ANOVA
indicated that, although the experimental group did not
improve significantly more than the control group, both
groups demonstrated an increase in scores on the posttest
that was significant beyond the .01 level. This suggests
that students are able to synchronize movement with music at
viii


12
tempo may have an impact on his/her ability to synchronize
music and movement.
The Role of Kinesthesis in Music Teaching and Learning
Philosophical Theory
The importance of kinesthetic activity in music
teaching is supported by writers in the area of aesthetics
such as John Dewey, Leonard Meyer, and Bennett Reimer. They
believe that movement is an integral aspect of music
education that can help children achieve the level of
understanding necessary to experience music aesthetically.
Dewey (1934) for example, stated that motor preparation is
a large part of aesthetic education. He wrote that a lack
of training in the area of motor skills may result in a
confused response to an aesthetic object. However, the
previous experiences afforded by movement in aesthetic
education prior to an encounter with art can enhance
perception.
Meyer (1967) emphasized the importance of learning
about music at an early age and the role of kinesthestic
activity in facilitating knowledge in young children.
It should be noted that early learning is not merely
mental. Our ability to learn to perceive visual and
auditory patterns is not solely a function of what the
senses feed into our nervous system but depends in
important ways upon the presence of concurrent motor
behavior which is, so to speak, fed back into and
thereafter guides the discoveries of the senses.
(p. 275)
Riemer (1970) stated that singing, performing, and
creating are effective means of conveying musical elements
such as harmony, melody, and rhythm. These techniques allow
J , r> ~ iitefiaf" t/
{e

8
randomly chosen, they were randomly assigned to the
experimental or control group.
In order to limit disruption of the teachers'
classrooms, the duration of the treatment was limited to
twelve class sessions. Identical pre- and posttests are
usually cited as a source of internal invalidity. However,
accurate synchronization is a somewhat complex skill that
cannot be learned during one short pretest. Therefore, the
. r-
use of identical pre- and posttests, while not ideal, does
not detract from the validity of the results presented in
this study.
Delimitations
Because small-group instruction is a feasible means of
meeting diverse needs in a classroom and because it enables
teachers to make specific feedback on student performances,
small-group instruction was selected for the experimental
treatment.
Subjects in this study were in the first grade.
Therefore the generalizability of the results is limited to
students of that grade level. The results are also limited
to those students with similar socio-economic status and the
two types of schools represented, one of which is rural with
a predominately black population and the other suburban with
a predominately white population. No attempt is made to
relate personal tempo with other aspects of the children's
development.
Synchronization ability, as measured in the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987), is limited


71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
93
122.79
121.32
121.99
138.19
126.07
6.42
8.10
79.15
110.29
141.68
112.04
110.79
23.05
25.54
39.96
53.83
51.28
41.37
46.61
14.94
6.96
86.09
90.73
106.04
126.55
102.35
17.82
18.24
102.91
123.82
78.74
100.08
101.38
9.86
12.88
58.66
64.13
74.73
74.33
67.96
11.63
7.90
151.21
153.14
114.98
120.37
134.92
14.86
20.05
65.45
71.29
80.38
95.50
78.15
16.75
13.09
55.29
55.68
80.38
94.00
71.33
26.81
19.13
65.63
70.17
66.48
65.27
66.88
3.35
2.24
102.36
106.66
99.66
123.82
108.12
10.03
10.85
52.35
53.90
49.92
57.46
53.40
5.91
3.15
63.38
69.44
94.24
77.85
76.22
17.57
13.39
64.80
75.88
107.81
83.06
82.88
21.99
18.23
126.07
145.79
114.78
115.38
125.50
11.54
14.48
75.06
86.29
113.74
89.87
91.24
17.83
16.27


29
tempos scored first on one item, M.M.=130; second for items
M.M.=85 through M.M.=120; and third for items M.M.=57
through M.M.=100.
The synchronization scores for the subjects in each
category were averaged together. The subjects with moderate
personal tempos scored the highest for eight of the test
items. Subjects with slow personal tempos scored highest on
five of the items and subjects with fast personal tempos
scored highest on one item.
In addition, Walters found that it was easier for
subjects to syncronize movement with music that is faster
than their personal tempos than with slower music. Younger
children tended to score lower on the synchronization test,
which suggests that age level has an effect on the ability
to synchronize music and movement. This tendency leveled-
off between grades two and three.
Walters found a correlation between second- and third-
grade students' scores and the rhythm section of the Primary
Measures of Music Audiation, but this same relationship was
not significant for kindergarten and first-grade students.
Children with more prior music experience were more
successful at synchronizing movement and music.
Conclusions
The limited amount of research in the area of personal
tempo can, at best, lead only to tentative conclusions.
Studies involving both young children and adults have
identified an intra-individual consistency of speed related
to motor tasks that varies from person to person. The


APPENDIX I
KEAN SCORES
OF PERSONAL
TEMPO GROUPS
ACCORDING TO M.
M.
Item Temco
Item
(M.M.)
G£OUp
Mean Score
N
6
57
slow
3.000
25
moderate
2.870
23
fast
2.505
38
3
60
slow
2.387
25
moderate
2.000
23
fast
1.991
38
12
64
moderate
2.884
23
slow
2.800
25
fast
2.441
38
5
70
slow
3.093
25
moderate
2.870
23
fast
2.775
38
9
81
moderate
3.522
23
slow
3.480
25
fast
3.108
38
7
85
moderate
3.188
23
slow
3.147
25
fast
3.044
38
4
90
moderate
3.406
23
slow
3.267
25
fast
3.175
38
10
96
moderate
3.275
23
slow
3.093
25
fast
2.974
38
14
100
moderate
3.159
23
slow
2.973
25
fast
2.833
38
13
103
moderate
3.609
23
fast
3.386
38
slow
3.307
25
94


13
children to interact with and manipulate the various
elements of music directly and, as a result, increase
aesthetic perception. Other music educators have addressed
the role of movement in music education. Driver (1936)
expressed her thoughts in these words:
Perhaps in all of us there is a greater sense of
movement than of music, so, for the first steps
of the child's education . movement is the more
active partner, but true balance is slowly reached as
the child learns to listen while he moves, applying his
mind to what he hears and then expressing it in action,
(p. 5)
Gordon (1980) emphasized the importance of body
movement at the aural/oral level, which he maintained is the
most fundamental stage of discrimination learning.
According to Gordon, listening to music is the aural
process. While listening to adults sing and hearing
recorded music, children develop a sense of consistency of
tempo that is necessary to develop a sense of meter and
rhythmic patterns. Performance is the oral process and,
according to Gordon, it may take the form of singing, large
and small body movements, and the use of rhythm instruments.
The teaching methods developed by Orff and Jaques-
Dalcroze are based on their theories regarding rhythm and
movement. The contributions of Jaques-Dalcroze are based on
his observations of students and the years he spent
developing techniques designed to help students overcome
problems of rhythm, pitch, tonality, intonation, and musical
expression. These techniques are based on his theory of
kinesthesis. According to Jaques-Dalcroze (1917), conscious


80
Unit V
I.Act i vi tips: listening, speech, body rhythms,
singing.
II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and "Fudge, Fudge" and
"Michael Finnegan" Integrating Music into the
Classroom by W. M. Anderson and J. E. Lawrence.
Published by Wadsworth (1985); Belmont, CA. page 25.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard
and duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of
twos and threes. (3) The first beat of a set
usually has the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the students listen to the beats to
see if they are all the same.
2. Using patschen, the teacher recites "Fudge, Fudge"
and keeps a steady beat and emphasizes strong and
weak beats.
3. Ask probing questions, for instance Were the beats
steady? Were all of the beats were same? How were
they different? Were some louder than others? Was
there a pattern?
4. Have the class perform the "LOUD soft" pattern
using the same motions. Practice until they are
comfortable with the motions. Saying "Loud" in a
strong speaking voice and "soft" in a quiet speaking
voice may help them.
5. Have the group recite "Fudge, Fudge" and indicate the
strong and weak beats.
6. Music also has strong and weak beats, sing "Old Dan
Tucker" and indicate strong and weak beats.
7. Introduce the song "Michael Finnegan."


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
APPENDIX H
PERSONAL TEMPOS FOR EACH SUBJECT
Derrick Elementary School-Control Group
PTl
PT'2
PT3
PT4
AVG PT
C.V.
S.D.
122.71
115.29
113.12
141.65
123.19
10.52
12.97
84.65
75.29
99.82
88.69
87.11
11.66
10.16
70.64
94.57
108.99
106.28
95.12
18.37
17.47
100.41
99.56
117.02
110.18
106.79
7.81
8.34
121.77
119.37
147.44
133.79
130.59
9.86
12.88
55.79
54.18
61.27
66.72
59.49
9.57
5.69
137.68
137.32
133.67
122.76
132.86
5.24
6.97
148.54
143.22
159.85
99.75
137.84
19.09
26.32
118.70
116.09
116.50
125.98
119.32
3.84
4.58
166.05
156.93
171.73
166.52
165.30
3.72
6.14
138.76
129.64
128.53
134.20
132.78
3.52
4.67
65.31
58.77
67.41
57.64
62.28
7.71
4.80
113.61
124.89
130.90
91.21
115.15
15.19
17.49
138.05
136.72
121.87
137.54
133.54
5.84
7.80
55.60
88.03
110.52
110.52
91.17
28.4
85.97
125.00
110.51
139.28
123.18
124.49
9.46
11.77
159.54
154.12
147.49
115.08
144.06
13.83
19.93
117.96
126.76
72.94
103.82
105.37
22.39
23.59
63.38
56.51
92.04
69.39
70.33
21.89
15.40
153.45
186.64
138.22
146.20
156.13
13.66
21.27
90


92
47
70.46
99.21
89.83
118.38
94.47
21.10
19.93
48
90.70
99.75
108.49
137.40
99.64
8.92
8.89
Forest Elementarv School-Control GrouD
Code
PT1
PT2
PT3
PT4
AVG PT
C.V.
S.D.
49
73.61
64.02
62.87
66.24
66.68
7.23
4.82
50
161.14
151.38
147.45
143.44
150.85
5.02
7.58
51
185.68
177.77
121.97
139.65
156.26
19.47
30.44
52
113.96
123.82
126.31
146.34
127.60
10.64
13.57
53
96.60
108.69
112.67
111.62
107.39
6.88
7.39
54
164.98
184.08
164.23
159.43
168.18
6.47
10.88
55
95.15
137.79
66.04
120.50
104.87
29.80
31.25
56
76.40
77.98
103.94
105.65
90.99
17.54
15.96
57
54.44
56.49
175.50
80.21
91.66
62.29
57.10
58
133.08
141.94
140.28
119.70
133.75
7.57
10.12
59
111.28
46.87
70.27
57.73
71.53
39.37
28.16
60
88.77
121.54
80.76
97.51
97.14
18.16
17.64
61
90.10
112.67
125.00
116.81
111.14
13.43
14.93
62
133.20
144.95
146.34
112.85
134.33
11.52
15.48
63
139.41
91.27
124.89
108.26
115.95
17.94
20.80
64
54.20
66.17
77.56
77.84
68.94
16.29
11.23
65
76.43
78.43
139.28
97.79
97.98
29.76
29.16
66
81.30
120.10
116.81
95.51
103.43
17.73
18.34
67
59.83
57.49
65.87
94.18
69.34
24.41
16.93
Forest Elementarv School-Experimental Group
Code
PT1
PT2
PT3
PT4
AVG PT
C.V.
S.D.
68
71.82
107.75
117.54
133.67
107.69
24.32
26.19
69
171.59
133.63
148.14
151.51
151.22
10.34
15.64
70
41.92
54.05
66.91
70.90
58.44
22.50
13.15


55
Table 4-6Continued
Mean Pretest Scores for the Experimental Subjects (N=44)
N
4 000 3
3 55555557778999 14
3 1223333444 10
2 56777899 8
2 00002344 8
19 1
Mean Posttest Scores for the Experimental Subjects (N=37)
N
4 223 3
3 555555566667788899 18
3 001113344 9
2 6799 4
2 0 1
1 88 2
assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance
[ANOVA]. For each subject, the scores of the three judges
were pooled together to obtain measures of synchronization
ability at the time of the pretest and at the time of the
posttest. Mean pretest and posttest scores were then
calculated for both the control and experimental groups.
Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine (1) if
there were a significant difference between the experimental
group and the control group (referred to as "Group" in Table
4-7), (2) if there were a significant difference from pretest
to posttest (referred to as "Time" in Table 4-7); and (3) if
one group improved significantly over the other as a result
of the treatment (referred to as "Time X Group" in Table 4-


32
based on lesson objectives in the third-grade Silver-
Burdett: Centennial Edition.
The students were quite successful at imitating the
rhythm patterns, so the next logical step was to increase
the difficulty of the rhythmic patterns by including more
complex rhythms and making the patterns longer. These
rhythm patterns were based on the Music Aptitude Profile
(Gordon, 1965). This version of the Imitation of Rhythmic
Patterns was administered to another group of third-grade
students. While these more complex items posed a challenge,
they were almost impossible to perform at a variety of
tempos. The most complex items were too difficult to
reproduce at quick tempos, and at slow tempos the relative
durations of the note values lost meaning.
Low scores on the Response to Meter Test indicated that
the ability to maintain a steady beat is an area in which
skill development is lacking. Eecause the third-grade
students had difficulty keeping a steady beat, it was
determined that the ability to keep a steady beat would be
the objective of the treatment. The Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response (Froseth, 1987) is a more appropriate
measure of the ability to keep a steady beat because it has
been demonstrated to be a reliable measure of this skill for
students in kindergarten through third grade.
Because Walters found that the effect of personal tempo
P/lA$Uit"0r-nC
on synchronization ability is most significant with children
in the first grade, Froseth's test was administered to
first-grade students during the pilot study. Pilot test


77
Unit II
I.Activities: speech, playing instruments, singing, body
rhythms
II. Sources: "Fudge, Fudge" and "Old Dan Tucker"
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Voices and instruments can produce
steady beats.
IV. Materials Heeded: Metronome with light only. Rhythm
sticks.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review words to "Fudge, Fudge"
2. Recite "Fudge, Fudge" by phrases and accompany each
phrase with a steady beat using different body
rhythms. The group will echo each phrase and imitate
the body rhythm used by the teacher.
3. Using rhythm sticks, have the goup keep a steady beat
as they echo each phrase.
4. Recite the rhyme without echoing each phrase and keep
a steady beat with the instruments.
5. Review "Old Dan Tucker."
6. Sing "Old Dan Tucker" in phrases and accompany with
body rhythms. The students will echo each phrase
and copy the body rhythms used by the teacher.


65
inability to use the body and mind in a new tempo when
called upon to do so" (p. 202) The increase in scores from
the pretest to the posttest was probably due to musical
maturation and practice. Earlier studies (Williams,
Sievers, and Hattwick, 1932; Jersild and Bienstock, 1935;
and Walters, 1983) all cited maturation as one reason for
increased synchronization ability.
Discussion of Research Procedures
The unavailability of video equipment made it necessary
to record the subjects pre- and posttests on audio tape.
Had video equipment been available, the tests could have
been evaluated in a more sensitive manner. This is most
significant in determining if a student should be given a
"4" for being synchronous throughout or a "5" for
acknowledging emphases and phrase endings as well as being
synchronous.
Implications for Teaching
An understanding of how children learn is vital for
teachers to determine what teaching techniques are most
effective. Research in the area of rhythmic instruction can
provide teachers with information that can assist them in
deciding on activities. Sometimes research results are
inconsistent with practice and beliefs, although the
findings of one study can neither fully support nor reject a
teaching practice. Each study has its own limitations with
respect to design and method.
The significant increase in posttest scores for the
control group in this study suggest that if children are


63
Bias Report Form
This form was constructed to examine the procedures
used by the researcher during the treatment phase of the
research. Three units of instruction were randomly selected
to be tape-recorded for evaluation by three music educators.
Each of the three judges was given a copy of the lesson
plans and instructed on the use of the form. The judges
evaluated the researcher with regard to following the lesson
plans and the use of tempo during instruction. The results
indicated that the researcher followed the stated procedures
during the treatment.
Conclusions
Consistency of Personal Tempo
Previous research in the area of personal tempo has
been conducted primarily with adult subjects. All of these
studies (Frischeisen-Kohler, 1933; Allport and Vernon, 1933;
Harrison and Dorcus, 1938; Harrison, 1941; Rimoldi, 1951;
Smoll, 1975a and 1975b; and Smoll and Schultz, 1978) have
concluded that adult subjects have a personal tempo that is
consistent. The results of Walters' (1983) study of
personal tempo indicated that children in kindergarten
through third grade have a personal tempo. Based on the
results of this study, it may be concluded that first-grade
students have a personal tempo that is consistent. These
results concur with Walters (1983) and provide a useful
replication for an age group where little research has been
conducted.


52
For further examination of the scores of the personal
tempo groups, a mean score was calculated for the subjects
in each personal tempo group for each item of the test. The
mean scores for each group can be found in Appendix I.
Results of the Treatment as Measured by the
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response
The hypothesis for this portion of the study concerned
the differences among the scores on a measure of
synchonization ability for those students who received
instruction adjusted for their personal tempo and those
whose instruction was not modified for personal tempo.
Mean Scores and Measures of Dispersion
Each student's overall synchronization ability was
determined by averaging his/her score on the 14 items of the
Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response. The means and
standard deviations of the subjects' average synchronization
scores are presented in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5
Scores on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response
Pretest
Posttest
1
N
Kean
1
SD
1
N
Mean SD
Experimental
Group
44
2.96
.57
37
3.34 .54
Control
Group
42
3.00
.73
38
3.29 .60
Combined
Groups
86
2.98
.63
75
3.31 .57


46
Test/re-test reliability coefficients were computed for
each test item. The correlation between scores on item 8
was significant at the .05 level and the correlations for
the remainder of the items were significant at the .01
level. The composite reliability coefficient was .89.


85
UNIT X
I.Activities listening, playing instruments, speech
II. Sources "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and the following
songs from Teaching Music in the Elementary Classroom
(1982) by Hoffer and Hoffer: "Los Pollitos," p. 126;
"Sandy Land," p. 166; "Git Along Little Doggies,"
p. 203; "When the Saints Go Marching In," p. 254.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Area: rhythm
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Beats can be heard in sets of twos
and threes. (3) The first beat of a set usually has
the biggest sound.
C: Verbal Symbol: steady beat, strong beat, weak beat
IV. Materials Needed: Cassette recorder, classroom
instruments, and recordings of songs from Teaching
Music in the Elementary Classroom, at specific tempos.
For the control group "Git Along Little Doggies" will be
recorded at J' =100. The remainder of the songs will be
recorded at ) =100. Tempos for the experimental group
will be as follows: "Los Pollitos, J = 100; "Sandy
Land,"J = 63; "Git Along Little Doggies, J. = 58; and
"When the Saints Go Marching In, J = 108.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Have the group recite "Two, Four, Six,
Eight."
2. Have the group listen to the following. The teacher
recites "Two, Four, Six, Eight" and claps the
rhythm.
3. The teacher asks the group if they heard a steady
beat.
4. The teacher recit s "Two, Four, Six, Eight and
keeps a steady be.t, emphasizing strong and weak
beats.
5. The teacher asks the students about what they heard,
for example: W7ere the beats steady? Were all of
the beats the same? Were some beats louder than
others? Was there a pattern?
6. Play the recordings of the songs. The students
should keep a steady beat using classroom
instruments. Allow the students to do this with as
little help as possible from the teacher. Have
students emphasize strong and weak beats if
possible.


38
arrangement from the schedule in Forest Elementary. At
Derrick Elementary the researcher taught two small groups
during music class, and the music specialist taught one.
The third group spent the first part of the music period in
the school library. The small groups were rotated so that
the researcher and specialist met with each group an equal
number of times. This rotation system was also designed to
reduce the effects of any experimenter bias. Appendix D
outlines the rotation system that was followed at Derrick
Elementary.
Because the music period was longer at Forest
Elementary School, the researcher was able to teach each
small group. To determine if the procedures were followed
correctly, three music educators listened to taped lessons
and evaluated the teaching of the researcher. A copy of the
Bias Report Form is contained in Appendix E.
Treatment Procedures
Each small group met for 12 sessions or units, with
each session lasting 10 to 12 minutes. The lessons for the
12 units are presented in Appendix F. The first four
lessons were designed to help the subjects understand the
term "steady beat," as well as develop their ability to keep
a steady beat. A brief emphasis on form as well as steady
beat provided variety in these lessons. Lessons 5 through
12 included concepts of meter in addition to steady beat.
The following musical concepts were taught:
1. Musical beat can be heard and duplicated.
2. Voices and instruments can produce steady beats.
3. Most music is composed of more than one part.


PERSONAL TEMPO AS A CONSIDERATION IN THE RHYTHMIC
TRAINING OF FIRST-GRADE STUDENTS
By
DIANE DAMPIER NELSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1990


CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF DATA
There were several purposes of the data analysis: (a)
to determine if individuals have a consistent personal
tempo, (b) to find out if personal tempo influences
synchonization ability, and (c) to determine if students are
more able to keep a steady beat at a variety of tempos when
using their personal tempo as a starting point.
Analysis of Personal Tempo Measurements
The hypothesis for this portion of the study was
concerned with the consistency of personal tempo
measurements for individuals over time. The personal tempo
for each of the 86 subjects in this study was determined by
averaging the four measurements of personal tempo taken over
a period of two weeks. The average personal tempos of the
86 subjects ranged from 48.59 to 168.17, with a mean average
personal tempo of 103.90.
The within-subject variability for each individual
subject's personal tempo is indicated by the coefficient of
variation [C.V.], which is the percentage of variation among
the four measurements of personal tempo. The percentages
for each subject's four measurements ranged from 1.89 to
62.3; the mean C.V. for the entire sample was 14.58 %.
Table 4-1 shows the distribution of C.V. values
for the various groups. The standard deviation between-
47


5
speed, and character" (p. 5) and that the teacher's first
goal is to try to find each child's rhythm. The consequence
of ignoring this individual trait, according to Driver, may
have a detrimental impact on learning.
To each his own rhythm is a natural law. It will be
clearly seen that there must be no 'forcing of the
pace,' for this will disturb the child's natural
rhythm. It is equally disturbing for an ardent
temperament to be made to conform to the pace of a
teacher's possibly slower rhythm. The disturbance
of rhythm produces nervous illness if persisted
in, the first symptoms of which are seen in the
jerky and spasmodic movements of some chidren. (p. 6)
The relationship between personal tempo and
synchronization ability was first investigated by Walters
(1983). He found that as the tempo of the music deviated
from students' personal tempo, their syncronization ability
decreased. His comments provide the basis for this study:
Personal tempo is not a defect. ... It is rather a
natural trait carrying important, basic information
about the uniqueness of the individual. Personal tempo
offers a starting point for rhythm education, a hub
around which an orientation to other tempos can be
built. With the comfort of personal tempo smoothing
the way, a child might easily accomplish the first step
in rhythm learning, which is to feel and
kinesthetically respond to a consistent musical
tempo, (p. 128)
Walters has introduced a potentially important variable
in the teaching of rhythm. His research findings indicate
that each child (K3) has a personal tempo that differs from
other children. Furthermore, it is possible that a child's
personal tempo can limit the ability to synchronize movement
with a variety of tempos. Walters suggested that the
teacher who asks children to perform rhythmic tasks


5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 59
Summary 59
Conclusions 63
Discussion of Research Procedures 65
Implications for Teaching 65
Suggestions for Further Research 66
APPENDICES
A STUDENT CONSENT 69
E PARENTAL CONSENT 70
C PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCHEDULE .72
D ROTATION SCHEDULE 74
E BIAS REPORT FORM 75
F UNITS OF INSTRUCTION 76
G TEMPOS FOR UNITS OF INSTRUCTION 88
H PERSONAL TEMPOS FOR EACH SUBJECT 90
I MEAN SCORES OF PERSONAL TEMPO
GROUPS ACCORDING TO M.M 94
J PRETEST AND POSTTEST INTERSCORER
RELIABILITIES ACCORDING TO
CRONBACH'S ALPHA 96
REFERENCES 97
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH '. 101
v


73
Posttest Schedule
Monday.
Class
A.
Tuesday.
Class
A.
Wednesday.
Class
B.
Thursday.
Class
B.
Test of synchronization for
half of the class. 15
minutes for each child.
Test of synchronization for
the remainder of the class.
15 minutes for each child.
Test of synchronization for
half of the class. 15
minutes for each child.
Test of synchronization for
the remainder of the class.
15 minutes for each child.


19
maintained a steady beat by tapping. Ten test items were
presented at various tempos ranging from M.M.=31 to M.M.=204
Thackray observed that there was a tendency to be too slow
in the faster test items and too fast in the slower items.
During the test of rhythmic movement, which was administered
to 30 subjects, selections of music were played that
contained changes of tempo. The subjects were asked to keep
time with the steady beat using any type of dance step that
seemed appropriate. Thackray remarked that most of the
subjects were confused by the subdivisions of the beat and
attempted to show the rhythm rather than a steady beat;
others began moving before they had an opportunity to feel
the pulse of the music.
Thackray later conducted a similar study (1972) of
children to see if the same relationship exists between
perception and performance. A series of tests were given to
40 boys and girls who were 11 years of age. These tests
measured perception, the ability to imitate rhythm patterns,
and the ability to keep time with the music showing strong
beats and weak beats. Again, Thackray found a significant
correlation between perception and performance. He also
noted that, like the adults, the children were more
successful at imitating patterns than maintaining a steady
beat. Thackray suggested that the ability to maintain a
steady pulse might be a specific aspect of rhythmic ability.
Subjects who were not able to keep a steady beat varied in
the types of errors. Some children began too soon; some
could only keep a steady beat at the end. Others would wait


APPENDIX D
ROTATION SCHEDULE
Researcher
Music Teacher Media Center
Session I 1
2
Session II 3
2
Session III 1
3
Session IV 2
3
Session V 2
1
Session VI 3
1
Session VII 1
2
Session VIII 3
2
Session IX 1
3
Session X 2
3
Session XI 2
1
Session XII 3
1
3
1
2
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
74


APPENDIX B
PARENTAL CONSENT
Dear Parents,
I am a Ph.D. candidate in music education at the
University of Florida. Your child's principal and teachers
have graciously agreed to assist me with my graduate
research project. I am going to be studying how children
learn about rhythm. During the first two weeks of the
study, a series of three brief tests, totaling 30 minutes in
length, will be given to each child individually. The
testing sessions will be arranged as follows:
Week 1. Day 1. This will consist of two measures of
personal tempo in which each child pats his/her hands on the
lap for 15 seconds at a tempo which feels comfortable.
Week 1. Day 2. This will consist of a third measure of
personal tempo.
Week 2. This will consist of the fourth measure of
personal tempo and a test of synchronization ability in
which each child pats his/her hands on the lap while
listening to music of different tempos. These two tests
will take 15 minutes.
Your child's performance on these tests will be audio-
recorded. Two music educators will assist me in the
evaluation of these tapes. At the conclusion of the study
the recordings will be completely erased.
During the next twelve weeks I will be working with the
first grade children during music class. We will be doing a
variety of activities in which your child will be singing,
moving to music, and playing instruments in small groups.
At the end of the twelve weeks, each child will repeat the
synchronization test. Test results will be confidential; a
code will be used to report results in the study.
Furthermore, test results will not affect school grades.
All of the children involved will have opportunity to
enhance their skills. I sincerely believe it will be a
positive experience for all involved.
Feel free to call me at home if your have any questions
or reservations; my number is 336-1307. If at any time your
child does not wish to participate in the study he or she is
free to withdraw. Should this happen, send me a brief note
advising me that your child no longer wishes to particpate.
70




54
Table 4-6
Distribution of Mean Scores on the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response
Pretest Scores for fill Subjects (N=86)
N
4 00001 5
3 55555555667777778999 20
3 001111112222333333334444 24
2 56677777888999999 17
2 000000123334444 15
1 68899 5
Mean Posttest Scores for fill Subjects (N= 75)
4 11223 5
3 555555555555556666666667777888889999 36
3 001111122333444444 18
2 6667779999 10
2 04 2
1 7788 4
Mean Pretest Scores for the Control Subjects (N=42)
N
4 01 2
3 566777 6
3 00111112233334 14
2 677889999 9
2 0013344 7
1 6889 4
Mean Posttest Scores for the Control Subjects (N=38)
N
4 11 2
3 555555566666778899 18
3 112234444 9
2 667799 6
2 4 1
1 77 2


9
to the subject's ability to keep a steady beat using
patschen and to the range of tempos represented in the test
(M.M.=57 through M.M.=130).
The content covered during instruction was limited to
only the ability to keep a steady beat. No other aspect of
rhythm or music was explored. In addition, the novelty of
small-group instruction, as well as the additional feedback
that was available for students, may have led to some
learning gains regardless of whether the students were in a
control or experimental groupthe Hawthorne effect.
Assumptions
The first assumption is that the students made an
honest effort to accomplish the proposed learning
objectives. The second is that this effort was equal
between the control and experimental groups. The third is
that the 12 units of study allotted for the treatment
represented a reasonable test of the idea of teaching
rhythmic synchronization through adjusted tempos.
Definition of Terms
Between-subiect variability is the variability of
personal tempos among a number of subjects.
Generality of personal tempo refers to the usual tempo
as "a generalized psychomotor trait permeating the rate at
which we execute any and all spontaneous movements"
(Harrison, 1941, p. 343).
Personal tempo, a psychological trait, is "the inborn
rate of speed at which an individual tends to move and which



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APPENDIX J
PRETEST AND POSTTEST INTERSCORER RELIABILITIES
ACCORDING TO CRONBACH'S ALPHA
Test
Item
Pretest
Posttest
1.
.7689
.7915
2.
.8705
.8657
3.
.8867
.8989
4.
.9135
.9086
5.
.9134
.8705
6.
.9332
.8699
7.
.9132
.8740
8.
.8909
.8692
9.
.8859
.8424
10.
.9106
.8687
11.
.8850
.8592
12.
.8977
.8918
13.
.8561
.8786
14.
.8885
.8704
Mean
.8600
.8800
96


.)
a variety of tempos through musical maturation and practice
at a single tempo.
IX


40
an activity in Unit 1 as it was taught at Forest Elementary.
The subjects in each of the three experimental groups
practiced keeping a steady beat with the rhyme, "Fudge,
Fudge." The subjects with slow personal tempos began
practicing at 58 beats per minute, which is a tempo within
the range of the slow personal tempo group. With practice,
the subjects were able to maintain a steady beat at this
tempo, so the tempo was increased slightly. As the subjects
were able to synchronize at the faster tempo, the speed of
the repetitions was increased. During the subsequent
repetitions, the tempo was gradually increased to 66 beats
per minute.
The subjects with moderate personal tempos began
practice at 100 beat per minute. When the subjects were
able to successfully maintain a steady beat at this tempo,
the tempo was increased. During the remainder of the
lesson, the tempo was gradually increased to 116 beats per
minute. The subjects with fast personal tempos began to
practice keeping a steady beat at 126 beats per minute and
gradully decreased speed throughout the repititions until
they reached 112 beats per minute. Metronomes with flashing
lights were used to ensure that the correct tempo was used
for each group.
During the initial lessons, each group participated in
movement activities at speeds spanning the range of the
test. The remainder of the lessons were devoted to keeping
a steady beat when items with diverse tempos were presented
one after the other. Appendix G shows the progress of the
? fcX
AJ7V


64
Personal Tempo and Svnchonization Ability
The wide range of personal tempos in the sample and the
lack of significant difference between the personal tempo
groups on the slow, moderate, and fast items of the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response indicate that personal
tempo does not effect the ability to synchonize movement^"
with music at the first grade level. While the rank order
of the mean scores obtained in this study is similar to
those obtained in Walters' (1983) study, Walters based his
conclusion that personal tempo effects synchonization
ability on the results of mean scores. He does not indicate
whether or not the mean scores are significantly different.
Due to the lack of significant differences in the
scores, it is questionable whether or not the rank order of
personal tempo categories is truly indicative of a
relationship between personal tempo and synchronization
ability.
Results of the Treatment
The results suggest that beginning instruction around
students' personal tempos and gradually expanding the range
of tempos does not facilitate synchronization skills.
Therefore, if children are experienced at synchronizing
their movement with music at a consistent tempo, they will
be able to synchonize their movement with music at other
tempos. This finding does not support Abramson (1986) who
stated that "the ability to perform in one tempo does not
automatically give the abilty to deal with many tempi. . .
Staying too long in one tempo can give rise to . the


99
Moore, J. L. S. (1984). Rhythm and movement: An objective
analysis of their association with music aptitude
(Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at
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45, 1328-A.
Mursell, J. L. (1956). Music education, principles and
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Music K-6. (1974). Albany, NY: The State Education
Department, Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.
Newman, G. (1984) Teaching children music: Fundamentals
of music and method (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown
Nye, R. E., & Nye, V. T. (1985). Music in the elementary
school (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Palmer, M. H. (1974). The relative effectiveness of the
Richards and the Gordon approaches to rhythm reading for
fourth grade children (Doctoral dissertation, University
of Illinois). Dissertation Abstracts International,
35, 7702A-7703A.
Palmer, M., Reilly, M., L., & Scott, C. R. (1988).
World of music (1st grade ed.). Morristown, NJ:
Silver Burdett and Ginn.
Regner, H. (Co-ordinator). (1977). Music for children:
Orff-Schulwerk American edition (Vol. 2). London: Schott
Reimer, B. (1970). A philosophy of music education.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Riemer, B., & Evans, E. G., Jr. (1972). The experience of
music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Rimoldi, H. J. A. (1951). Personal tempo. Journal of
Abnormal Psychology. 46, 283-303.
Ruckmich, C. A. (1913). The role of kinaesthesis in
the perception of rhythm. The American Journal of
Psychology,24. 305-359.
Smoll, F. L. (1975a). Preferred tempo in performance of
repetitive movements. Perceptual Motor Skills. 40.
439-442.
Smoll, F. L. (1975b). Preferred tempo of motor
performance: Individual differences in within-individual
variability. Journal of Motor Behavior. 7, 259-263.


26
clusters of related movements. He hypothesized that the
speed of performance was best predicted by other tasks
within the same cluster.
In later studies by Smoll (1975a, 1975b), subjects 18-
31 years of age were asked to swing their arms upward and
forward at the tempo which was "most convenient and natural"
(1975a, p. 441) Like Rimoldi (1951) Smoll (1975a) found
that the between-subjects variance was greater than the
within-subjects variance, thereby "indicating that
individuals have a personal or 'natural' preferences of
voluntary movement tempo which differs from those of other
individuals" (p. 442) .
Using the same technique, Smoll and Schtz (1978)
tested the preferred tempo of 200 subjects 18-31 years of
age. The results of this study support the findings of
previous studies, which suggest that there is a consistent
speed at which individuals perform motor tasks most
comfortably. Smoll and Schtz concluded with the following
comment:
Little evidence is available regarding the presumed
influence of preferred tempo on rhythmic accuracy.
In considering factors which affect optimum
performance, a fundamental issue thus involves the
degree of accuracy when the task requires keeping in
cadence with a tempo that differs from one's preferred
tempo. Specifically, is a performer's spatial and/or\
temporal accuracy detrimentally affected while
performing a motor rhythm task at a tempo that is
faster or slower than his/her preferred tempo? This
question deserves empirical attention, (p. 893)
Personal Tempo and Synchronization Ability
The relationship between personal tempo and the ability
of young children to synchronize music and movement was


CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The foundation of rhythm in most Western music is the
steady beat. In order for first grade children to
understand the more complex elements of rhythm such as meter
and rhythm patterns, they must develop a sense of steady
beat. Not all children, however, are equally capable of
maintaining a steady beat. A possible explanation for this
inequity is the phenomenon of personal tempo.
summary
Personal Tempo
The first objective of this study was to determine if
each of the first-grade students in this sample (N= 86) had a
consistent personal tempo. A null hypothesis was posited
that no consistency of personal tempo exists for children
over a period of time. To test this hypothesis, four
measurements of personal tempo were taken over a period of
two weeks.
The mean personal tempos of the 86 subjects ranged from
48.59 to 168.17. The standard deviation was 30.75, and the
mean standard deviation within-subjects was 14.23.
Correlation coefficients for the personal tempo measurements
ranged from .68 to .89 and were high enough to suggest
consistency over time. Because the evidence suggests the
59


78
Unit III
I.Activities: body rhythms, singing, speech
II. Sources: "Old Dan Tucker" and "Two, Four, Six,
Eight Music for Children: Orff-Schulwerk
American Edition. Vol. 2. (1977). p. 104.
III. Concept:
A: Concept Areas: rhythm and form.
B: Concept Sentences: (1) Musical beat can be heard and
duplicated. (2) Most music is composed of more than
one part.
IV. Materials Needed: Metronome with light only.
V. Teaching Procedure:
1. Warm-up. Review "Old Dan Tucker." If necessary,
sing in phrases first and then the complete song.
2. Sing the song and use body rhythms to keep a steady
beat.
3. Note to the class that there are two parts to the
song. Ask the class if someone can identify the two
parts.
4. Have the group sing the entire song and accompany
with different body rhythms for each half.
5. Divide the group in half. The first half sings and
accompanies themselves using a body rhythm. The
other half sings the chorus and acompanies
themselves using a different body rhythm.
6. Introduce "Two, Four, Six, Eight" by reciting the
rhyme completely and then having the group echo each
line.


21
22
23
Coi
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
91
120.21
116.71
130.90
124.03
122.96
4.94
6.07
124.45
119.33
137.86
136.49
129.53
7.01
9.08
50.80
50.26
67.53
34.28
56.19
17.47
9.81
Derrick Elementary School-Experimental Group
PT1
PT2
PT3
PT4
AVG PT
C.V.
S.D.
137.61
157.34
147.66
142.13
146.18
5.81
8.49
63.32
65.45
60.40
98.70
71.96
24.93
17.94
138.29
136.24
127.13
120.50
130.54
6.33
8.26
126.09
150.91
64.51
129.03
117.63
31.54
37.10
111.67
116.81
92.95
105.63
106.76
9.62
10.28
138.42
141.43
137.20
135.29
138.08
1.86
2.57
43.93
45.87
54.89
58.71
50.85
13.94
7.08
108.89
113.96
125.91
131.74
120.12
8.76
10.52
103.69
113.40
126.20
137.32
120.15
12.23
14.69
59.90
71.85
70.65
59.29
65.42
10.31
6.75
61.90
64.80
61.32
60.91
62.23
2.82
1.75
165.89
166.82
165.24
145.96
160.97
6.23
10.03
99.75
90.09
93.38
98.09
95.32
4.62
4.41
117.54
119.78
115.89
127.77
120.24
4.37
5.26
57.41
58.45
105.00
76.55
74.35
29.91
22.24
60.05
59.40
62.60
55.69
59.43
4.80
2.85
119.56
137.14
120.50
157.59
133.69
13.35
17.85
155.53
128.11
117.74
101.35
127.68
18.09
22.74
44.55
60.45
73.49
89.94
67.10
28.73
19.28
88.88
98.45
103.73
78.06
92.28
12.24
11.29
40.47
47.50
67.35
63.97
54.82
23.55
12.91
68.06
76.57
68.23
92.98
76.46
15.31
11.70
118.06
131.02
116.22
116.29
120.39
5.92
7.13


6
requiring synchronization without regard for this
characteristic may indeed be hindering student progress.
Purpose of the study. This study sought to determine
if rhythmic learning can be facilitated by adjusting
instruction to accommodate students' personal tempos. Until
now, personal tempo has remained unexplored with regard to
its direct impact on music learning. If music educators are
to "begin where the child is" then the personal tempo of a
child may be an important consideration when asking children
to perform tasks that require the synchronization of
movement with music. A statement by Walters (1983) aptly
describes music teachers' responsibility regarding the needs
of individual students.
The responsible educator dare not ask the individual to
simply fit a system. He must rather offer a system
which can serve individuals. Given the importance of
this tenant [.sic] and given the predisposition of
today's music educator to incorporate physical movement
of children into the teaching/learning process, personal
tempo is a dimension whose investigation is warranted.
(P- ID
Statement of the Problem
The purposes of this study were to investigate
1. whether the speed of an individual's spontaneous
movement is characterized by a consistent tempo
over time,
2. the effect of personal tempo on the ability to
synchronize movement with a variety of tempos, and
3. if children can be taught more effectively to keep a
steady beat by using personal tempo as a starting point.


34
The principal of Derrick Elementary gave the final
approval to conduct research. Derrick Elementary School is
a rural school, where 48 students participated in the study.
The control class contained 23 students: 52% were male and
48% were female; 74% percent were black and the remaining
26% were white. The experimental class contained 25
students: 40% were male and 60% were female; 76% were black
and 24% were white. Due to transfers, 19 of the control
subjects and 21 of the experimental subjects completed the
study.
Informed consent was necessary at Forest Elementary.
Permission was secured from the university Institutional
Review Board, the school district office, and the principal
of that school. The students at Forest Elementary School
were given a brief explanation of the procedures (see
Appendix A). A letter was also sent home to the
parent/guardian of each child explaining the testing and
treatment procedures. A returned statement of approval
signed by the parent/guardian was necessary to particpate in
the study (see Appendix B).
In the control class 19 of the 23 students returned
their permission slips, and 19 of the 22 students in the
experimental class returned permission slips. Forest
Elementary School was a suburban school. The control and
experimental classes consisted of 19 students each. The
control class was 53% male and 47% female; 79% of the
students in this class were white, 16% black, and 5% other.
The students in the experimental class were 47% male and 53%


REFERENCES
Allport, G. W., S Vernon, P. E. (1933). Studies in
expressive movement. New York: Hafner.
Anderson, W. M., & Lawrence, J. E. (1985). Integrating
music into the classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Boardman, E., & Andress, B. (1981). The music book
(Teacher's Edition, grade 3). Mew York: Holt,
Rinehart, and Winston.
Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational
research: An introduction (4th ed). New York: Longman.
Boyle, J. D. (1970). The effects of prescribed rhythmical
movements on the ability to read music at sight. Journal
of Research in Music Education. 18, 307-318.
Choksy, L., Abramson, R. M., Gillespie, A. E., &
Woods, D. (1986). Teaching music in the twentieth
century. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Crook, E., Reimer, B., & Walker, D. S. (1985). Silver-
Burdett music: Centennial edition (Teacher's Edition,
grade 3). Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett.
Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York: Milton,
Balch and Co.
Driver, A. (1936). Music and movement. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Findlay, E. (1971). Rhythm and movement: Applications of
Dalcroze eurhythmies. Evanston, IL: Summy-Birchard.
Frischeisen-Kohler, I. (1933). The personal tempo and
its inheritance. Character and Personality. 1,
301-313.
Froseth, J. 0. (1987). MLR training series: Primary
measures of kinesthetic response. Chicago: G.I.A.
Gordon, E. E. (1965). Musical aptitude profile.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gordon, E. E. (1980). Learning sequences in music: Skill,
content, and patterns. Chicago: G.I.A. Publications.
97


89
Forest Elementary School
PT Group Tempos
(M.M.)
Unit
I
Slow
58 -
66
Moderate
100
- 116
Fast
126
- 112
Unit
II
Slow
66 -
84
Moderate
116
- 132
Fast
112
- 92
Unit
III
Slow
84 -
96
Moderate
116
- 108
Fast
92 -
72
Unit
IV
Slow
96 -
120
Moderate
108
- 63
Fast
72 -
58
Unit
V
Slow
120
- 132
Moderate
63 -
58
Fast
80 -
58
Unit
VI
All
76,
88, 100
Unit
VII
Slow
126
- 130
Moderate
100
- 120
Fast
76 -
58
Unit
VIII
All
100,
88, 112
Unit
IX
All
120,
132, 76, 69
Unit
X
All
100,
63, -58, 108
Unit
XI
All
116,
126, 84, 60
Unit
XII
All
108,
63, 58, 126


4
amount of instruction. Because most of these instruments
are non-pitched, students can experience steady beat,
metrical groupings, and rhythm patterns without the
confounding effects of melody. Precise responses are
required to produce the correct attack, duration, and accent
(Mursell, 1956). Movement and classroom instruments have
become integral parts of the music classroom as vehicles for
teaching music concepts. The ability to synchronize
movement with music is often a prerequisite for performing
such tasks.
The Synchronization of Movement with Music
Teachers who include the use of movement and
instruments in their classrooms quickly observe that not all
students are able to synchronize their movements with the
music. When asked to keep a steady beat, some students rush
ahead while others fall behind. Others confuse the beat
with the rhythm patterns of the notes, or beat the off
beats. Some begin without listening to the music first, and
still others keep the same speed with seeming disregard for
the tempo of the music.
A potential variable affecting a student's ability to
synchronize music and movement is personal tempo. Jaques-
Dalcroze (1921) alluded to this possiblity in his writings:
"This education aims at restoring to the child his complete
corporal mechanism and freeing his 'natural rhythm' . .
from the inhibitions which too frequently impede its
expansion (p. 326) Driver (1936) also proposed that each
child has an "individual rhythm" with its own "movement,


LIST OF TABLES
Table page
3-1 Tempo of Items in the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response 44
4-1 Distribution of the Total Sample According
to the Coefficient of Variation 48
4-2 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Personal Tempo Measurements 1-4 48
4-3 Personal Tempo Groups 49
4-4 ANOVA for Personal Tempo Groups for
Slow, Fast, and Moderate Test Items .... 51
4-5 Scores on the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response 52
4-6 Distribution of Kean Scores on the Primary
Measures of Kinesthetic Response 54
4-7 Repeated Measures Anova of the Mean
Synchonization Scores 56
4-8 Results of the Bias Report Form 58
vi


51
on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response. Therefore,
the null hypothesis is accepted.
Table 4-4
ANOVA for Personal Tempo Groups for Slow, Fast,
and Moderate Test Items
Test
Items
DF
F-vaiue
rvalue
Slow
2
2.62
0.0788
Mod.
2
0.28
0.7589
Fast
2
2.13
0.1257
PT Grout)
Mean Score N
Slow
2.8641
25
Moderate
2.5530
23
Fast
2.4099
38
Moderate
3.3484
25
Slow
3.2839
23
Fast
3.2059
38
Fast
3.1411
25
Slow
2.9753
23
Moderate
2.6969
38
Closer examination of the mean scores, however, reveals
tendencies that appear to lend some support to the theory.
For the four slowest items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70), the subjects
with slow personal tempos scored the highest, subjects with
moderate personal tempos scored second, while subjects with
fast personal tempos earned the lowest score. On the items
with tempos that range from M.M.=81 to M.M.=104, the
subjects with moderate personal tempos scored the highest,
followed by subjects with slow personal tempos, and the
subjects with the fast personal tempos were third. Students
in the fast personal tempo category have the highest mean
score beginning on the test items that range in tempo from
M.M.=113 to M.M.=130.


30
generalizability of speed from one task to another remains
unclear. An understanding of this aspect of personal tempo
is clouded by conflicting theories. Is personal tempo a
unitary trait, is it task specific, or are there clusters of
related movements? This answer is unclear.
Walters' research expanded the understanding of the
effect of tempo by including personal tempo as a potential
variable. He found that children (K3) were able to
synchronize their movement with music if the music was at or
near their personal tempo. As the music deviated from a
child's personal tempo, synchronization became more and more
difficult. Both Walters (1983) and Driver (1936) point to
the difficulties that may ensue if children are required to
perform rhythmic tasks at a speed which deviates from their
"individual rhythm" (Driver, p. 4). As Smoll concluded,
individuals have personal or "natural" preferences of
voluntary movement tempo which differ from those of
other individuals. This suggests that in situations
involving repetitive motor responses to externally
imposed rhythmic stimuli, whether in the laboratory or
gymnasium or on the playing field, consideration should
be given to the tempo at which individual performers
prefer to move. (1975a, p. 442)
; A


71
Furthermore, any such decision will not affect school
grades. There will be no monetary compensation for
participation in the study.
If you do not object to your child's participation,
please sign the permission slip below and return it to your
child's first grade teacher.
Your cooperation is greatly appreciated. I am looking
forvrard to working with your child.
Sincerely,
Diane Nelson
(Detach Here)
I have read and I understand the procedure described above.
I agree that may participate
(Students' Name)
in Diane Nelson's study of personal tempo.


17
Tempo and Synchronization Ability
To develop methods for measuring children's musical
development, a series of studies were conducted by Williams,
Sievers, and Hattwick (1932). Williams tested the ability
of 197 children to keep a steady beat with a ticking clock;
the ages of the children ranged from three to eight years.
Synchronization scores improved with age. Seventy percent
of the three-year-old children failed, but none of the
seven- and eight-year-old chilren failed. During the course
of the study it was noted that some of the children tapped
along regularly while others tapped irregularly, lagged
behind, or rushed ahead.
As a follow-up to this study, Williams tested 68
children to determine their ability to keep a steady beat at
different tempos. The subjects in this study ranged from
3 1/2 to 6 1/2 years of age. Williams observed the same
difficulties that appeared in his previous study and
commented on "a real and persistent tendency for individual
differences to appear" (p. 45). Only 32 subjects were
successful at keeping a steady beat at all with different
tempos; others anticipated the beat or fell behind.
Sievers studied the ablity of 84 children (grades one
through six) to keep a steady beat at various tempos. He
found that the younger children were more accurate at faster
speeds and less accurate at slower speeds. In addition, the
younger children had more difficulty with varying tempos.
Jersild and Eienstock (1935) conducted a three-year
longitudinal study of children's synchronization ability and


57
of the pretest and posttest are presented in Appendix J.
The reliabilites of the pretest items range from .7689
to .9332, while the reliabilities of the posttest range
from .7915 to .9086. The mean pretest reliability is .8600,
and the mean posttest reliability is .8800
Results of the Bias Report Form
Three units of instruction were randomly selected to be
tape-recorded for evaluation by three music educators using
the Bias Report Form. (See Appendix E) Each of the judges
evaluated the three units. Pior to their evaluation of the
tapes, the judges were given copies of the lesson plans and
instructed on the use of the form. They were also reminded
that they were evaluating the tempos of the activities
involving movement and the accuracy of the instructor with
regard to following the lesson plans, not the students'
performance. To analyze the results of the three judges,
each of the circled statements was converted to a numerical
value as follows: Strongly Agree was assigned a value of 5;
Agree was assigned a value of 4; Neither Agree or Disagree a
value of 3; Disagree a value of 2; and Strongly Disagree was
assigned a value of 1. The scores assigned by the three
judges are presented in Table 4-8.
The mean scores for each of the statements ranged from
4 to 5, with a the mean value of 4.68. These results
indicate that the researcher followed the lesson plans and
used proper procedure with regard to tempo. Further
discussion of the results and the implications of these


66
taught at a consistent tempo, they will, with practice, be
able to synchonize their movement with a variety of tempos.
Maturation can be facilitated through instruction that
provides children with opportunites to develop both their
perceptual and performance skills. This is especially
important for young children whose musical aptitude has not
yet stabilized. Joseph (1983) and Moore (1984) also found
that rhythm skills, concepts, and aptitude can be enhanced
by including a variety of listening and performing
experiences within each music class.
It was observed during the course of this study, as
well as in studies by Thackray (1969, 1972), that children
often confuse steady beat with the rhythmic pattern of the
notes. Many repetitions were needed for some children to be
able to discriminate aurally between steady beat and the
rhythm pattern of the notes. To add variety to lessons, the
concept of steady beat can be practiced in combination with
other concepts such as timbre and form. As Moore (1984)
commented in her study, teachers need to provide students
with many opportunities to hear others perform steady beats
and to experience the steady beat of chants and songs
through body rhythms and classroom instruments.
Suggestions for Further Research
Because of the limited amount of research in the area
of synchonization ability, personal tempo, and how personal
tempo affects students' abilities to learn about rhythm,
several possibilities exist for further research. The
following suggestions are offered:


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dr. Charles R. Hofferp Cftaffirman
Professor of Instruction^and Curriculum
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
S &
Dr. Phyllis E. Dorman
Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dr. Camille M. Smith
Associate Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dr. Linda L. Lamme
Professor of Instruction and Curriculum
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dr. Maiigaret Early /
Professor of Instruction and Curriculum


60
existence of personal tempo/ the null hypothesis was
rejected.
The Influence of Personal Tempo on Synchronization Ability
Previous research (Walters/ 1983) has also indicated
that subjects are more successful at synchronizing their
movement with music if the tempo of the music is at or near
their own personal tempo. Therefore/ the second objective
of this study was to determine if personal tempo affects
first-grade students' abilities to synchronize movement with
the beat at a variety of tempos.. The null hypothesis was
posited that no significant difference exists among mean
scores on a measure of synchronization ability for those
students with fast, slow, and moderate personal tempos.
The subjects' synchronization abilities were measured
using their pretest scores on the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response. This test contains 14 test items
ranging in tempos from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. Each of the 86
subjects was assigned to one of three personal tempo groups:
slow, M.M.<80; moderate, M.M.=80 to M.M.=110;,and fast,
M.M.>110.
ANOVA was used to determine if the mean synchronization
scores of the personal tempo groups differed significantly
on the slow items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70), moderate items
(M.M.=81 M.M.=104), and the fast items (M.M.=113 -
M.M.=130) of the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.
The results indicated that the scores of the three personal
tempo groups were not significantly different. Therefore,
the null hypothesis could not be rejected.
'' 'WC/Ti AJ6 1


98
Groves, W. C. (1966). Rhythmic training and its
relationship to the synchronization of motor-rhythmic
responses (Doctoral dissertation. University of Arkansas,
1966). Dissertation Abstracts, 27, 702A-703A.
Harrison, R. (1941) Personal tempo and the
interrelationships of voluntary and maximal rates
movement. The Journal of General Psychology. 24, 343-379.
Harrison, R., & Dorcus, R. M. (1938). Is rate of voluntary
bodily movement unitary. The Journal of General
Psychology. 18 31-39.
Hoffer, C. R., & Hoffer, M. L. (1982). Teaching
music in the elementary classroom. New York: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich.
Hoffer, C. R., & Hoffer, M. L. (1987). Teaching
music in the elementary classroom: Musicianship and
teaching. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Jaques-Dalcroze, E. (1917) The eurvthmics of Jaaues-
Dalcroze (2nd ed.). London: Constable.
Jaques-Dalcroze, E. (1921) Rhythm, music and education.
(H. F. Rubinstein, Trans.). Mew York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Jersild, A. T., & Bienstock, S. F. (1935). Development
of rhythm in young children. Child Development Monographs.
No. 22.
Joseph, A. S. (1983) A Dalcroze eurythmics approach
(Doctoral disseration, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1983),
Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 420-A.
Kodaly, Z. (1969). Pentatonic music: 100 little marches
(Vol. 2). London: Boosey Hawkes.
Landis, B., & Carder, P. (1972). The eclectic
curriculum in American music education: Contributions of
Dalcroze. Kodalv and Orff. Reston, VA. Music Educators
National Conference.
Meske, E. B., Pautz, M. P., Andress, B., & Willman, F.
(1988) Music (1st grade ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston.
Meyer, L. B. (1967). Music, the arts and ideas: Patterns
and predictions in twentieth-centurv culture. Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press.


50
personal tempo, it can be hypothesized that synchonization
will become more difficult. As a result, synchonization
scores could be expected to be highest on test items at or
near personal tempo and lower as the tempo of the music
deviates from personal tempo.
For example, on the slow test items (M.M.=57 M.M.=70)
subjects with slow personal tempos could be expected to
score highest and subjects with fast personal tempos would
logically score the lowest. For the fast test items
(M.M.=113 M.M.=130) the opposite could be hypothesized;
subjects with fast personal tempos would score the highest
and subjects with slow personal tempos would score the
lowest.
Analysis of variance was applied to test this
hypothesis. To reject the null hypothesis of no significant
difference, the synchronization scores for the personal
tempo groups on the pretest of the Primary Measures of
Kinesthetic Response would need to be significantly
different at slow tempos (M.M. = 57 M.M.=70), .moderate
tempos (M.M.=81 M.M.=104), and fast tempos (M.M.=113 -
M.M.=130). The F-values, levels of significance, and mean
scores for the personal tempo groups are presented in Table
4-4. ^
Although there was a wide range of personal tempos
among the subjects in this study (48.59 168.17), the data
indicate no significant difference among the scores of the
personal tempo groups on the slow, fast, or moderate items


APPENDIX C
PRETEST AND POSTTEST SCHEDULE
Pretest Schedule:
Week 1. Tuesday.
Class
A.
Wednesday.
Class
B.
Thursday.
Class
A.
Friday.
Class
B.
Week 2. Monday.
Class
A.
Tuesday. Class A.
Wednesday. Class B.
Thursday. Class B.
Friday. A and
Two measures of personal
tempo. 10 minutes for each
child.
Two measures of personal
tempo. 10 minutes for each
child.
One measure of personal
tempo. 5 minutes for each
child.
One measure of personal
tempo. 5 minutes for each
child.
One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for half of the class
15 minutes for each child.
One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for the remainder of
the class. 15 minutes for
each child.
One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for half of the class
15 minute for' each child.
One measure of personal
tempo and synchronization
test for the remainder of
the class. 15 minutes for
each child.
B. Make-up day.
Total amount of time per child: 30 minutes.
72


APPENDIX G
TEMPOS FOR UNITS OF INSTRUCTION
Derrick Elementary School
PT GrouD
TemDos
(M.M.)
Unit
I
Slow
63 72
Moderate
100
Fast
132 112
Unit
II
Slow
72
Moderate
100
Fast
112
Unit
III
Slow
72 112
Moderate
100 84
Fast
112 92
Unit
IV
Slow
112 126
Moderate
84 63
Fast
92 76
Unit
V
Slow
126
Moderate
63 58
Fast
76
Unit
VI
All
76, 88, 100
Unit
VII
Slow
126 132
Moderate
100 126
Fast
76 58
Unit
VIII
All
100, 88, 112
Unit
IX
All
120, 132, 76, 69
Unit
X
All
100, 63, 58, 108
Unit
XI
All
116, 126, 84, 60
Unit
XII
All
108, 63, 58, 126
88


27
studied by Walters (1983) To determine the personal tempo
of his subjects, Walters administered his Test of Personal
Tempo to 96 children. The subjects were 24 children (12
male and 12 female) in each grade level from kindergarten to
third grade. In this test the subjects were instructed to
pat their hands on their knees for 15 seconds in a "steady
beat that feels good to you" (p. 48). The number of beats
per minute was then calculated from the middle 10 seconds of
each performance. The personal tempo of each subject was
calculated four times over a period of three weeks.
His results indicated that the intra-individual
consistency and inter-individual consistency found by some
researchers in adults is also present in young children.
Only 18.75 percent of the subjects were judged by Walters to
be too inconsistent to be measured for personal tempo. He
did not suggest that these students do not have a personal
tempo, but rather that his method of measuring personal
tempo might have been inadequate for these students. In
addition, the mean personal tempo decreased with age:
Kindergarten mean personal tempo M.M.=114.6
Grade one mean personal tempo M.M.=108.5
Grade two mean personal tempo M.M.=104.4
Grade three mean personal tempo M.M.= 99.5
(1983, p. 121)
To study children's synchronization ability, Walters
administered the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.
This test was developed was developed by James Froseth
(1987) of the University of Michigan for the purposes of
Walters' study. The test consists of 14 musical selections
ranging in tempo from M.M.=57 to M.M.=130. At the beginning


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The review of the literature pertaining to rhythm and
tempo perception is divided into two major sections: "The
Role of Kinesthesis in Music Teaching and Learning and
"Personal Tempo." In the first section, the philosophical
basis for movement and its application in the methods of
Carl Orff, Zoltn Kodaly, and Emile Jaques-Dalcroze are
discussed. Although the theories of Orff, Kodaly, Jaques-
Dalcroze are not based on systematic research, their
importance lies in their impact on music education through
their techniques, which have become integrated into many
American classrooms. The review of empirical research
supports the use of movement in music teaching and learning.
Children's ability to synchronize movement with music
is also addressed in this review of the literature.
Research data have shown that tempo may be an important
variable that can directly influence children's
synchronization ability. Finally, this section explores
what music education textbooks say about adjusting tempo
during instruction.
The phenomenon of personal tempo has received much less
attention than kinesthesis, although the results of several
studies point to its existence. Furthermore, a recent study
by Walters (1983) indicates that an individual's personal
11


42
4. Turn on the tape recorder, give the code number for
the subject, and signal the subject to begin.
5. Use a stopwatch to time the number of pats occurring
in 15 seconds, and multiply by four to obtain a rough
measure of personal tempo. ... A more precise
measurement will be taken from the tape for analysis,
(pp. 48-49)
Like Rimoldi (1951), Walters cautioned against using
the word "speed" during the test. Students who tended to
accelerate or decelerate were asked to "make all of your
beats alike."
An approximation of the subject's personal tempo can be
calculated by counting the number of pats during the 15-
second interval and multiplying by four. By taking four
measurements over a period of three weeks, Walters obtained
a more representative sample of a student's personal tempo.
Walters' procedures were used in administering the test in
this study. The subject and researcher sat in two chairs
approximately four feet apart facing each other. A tape
recorder with built-in microphone was placed on a third
chair next to the subject.
Using a digital stopwatch with .01 second intervals,
more exact measurements of the recordings can be verified
using a procedure outlined by Walters (1983) :
1. Listen to the first few pats to make possible a
synchronization of the stopwatch operation with
the pats.
2. Start the watch precisely on a pat and stop it
precisely on a pat after 10 to 14 seconds.
3. Divide the number of pats minus one by the time,
and multiply by 60 to compute M.M. (p.55)
To test the reliability of this technique, Walters
randomly selected one performance from each of three
categories: (a) slow, M.M.<80, (b) moderate, M.M.=80 to


53
The distribution of pre- and posttest scores for all of the
subjects arranged in stem-and-leaf diagrams are presented in
Table 4-6. An examination of the stem-and-leaf diagrams
representing all of the subjects in the sample reveals some
increase in scores on the posttest for all subjects who
participated in the study. Fifty-one percent of the
subjects scored between 3.0 and 3.9 on the pretest and 72 %
of the subjects scored within that range on the posttest.
The percentage of students scoring in the 3.5 to 3.9 range
increased from 23.2 to 48. The percentage of students
scoring less than a 3.00 on the pretest decreased by 22
percent on the posttest. The stem-and-leaf diagrams of the
control and experimental groups reveal a similar change in
scores from the pretest to the posttest.
These descriptive data indicate that at the time of the
pretest the majority of the students were able to
synchronize their movement with music at various tempos, but
they lacked consistency in doing so. Only a few students
were unable to perform the synchronizaton task at all, and
only a very few were considered consistently synchronous.
These data also indicate that there was some increase in the
ability to synchronize movement with music over the period
of the study.
Evaluation by Judges
Three music educators evaluated each subject's
performance on the Primary Measures of Kinesthetic Response.
Their ratings served as the dependent variable for this
portion of the study. The effect of the treatment was then


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Research in the schools requires the cooperation of
many people. Without the support of parents, teachers,
administrators, university faculty, and friends this project
could not have been completed. First, I would like to
express my gratitude to music specialists Mary Keating,
Angela Terrell, and Pat Denson for sharing with me some time
with their students. Many thanks go to my good friends
Julie Tow and Penny Thomas for the many hours spent
evaluating tapes. I will always be grateful to Dr. Charles
Hoffer, who guided me through this study from start to
finish. With a willing spirit, Dr. Hoffer made his
expertise available to me on more occasions than could ever
be counted. The other members of my committee, Dr. Phyllis
Dorman, Dr. Camille Smith, Dr. Linda Lamme, and Dr. Margaret
Early, also provided their expertise and support. Some of
the most important lessons in life are not learned in the
classroom. My parents taught me the value of hard work and
persistance. Most of all, I would like to thank my husband,
Bob. Without his support and expertise, particularly during
my illness, this project could not have been completed.


APPENDIX A
STUDENT CONSENT
The following explanation was given to each class:
"My name is Mrs. Nelson. I go to school at the
University of Florida. I am doing an experiment to learn
how first grade boys and girls learn about rhythm in music
and I need your help.
First, I will play some music and you will keep time
with the music by patting your hands on your knees. You
will do this all by yourself. I will record what you do on
a tape recorder so that I can listen to it later. Then I
will be visiting you in Ms. Terrell's music class for a few
weeks. We will be singing, moving to the music, and playing
instruments. After we do this for a few weeks, I will play
some music and you will keep time with the music just like
the first time.
Your teacher will give you a letter like this (show a
copy to the class). The letter explains our experiment to
your parents. Be sure that your parents see the letter so
that they can sign it at the bottom (show class) and you can
bring it back tomorrow. We will begin our experiment when
the slips are returned to your teacher. Do you have any
questions?" As each child enters the room for pretesting
he/she will be asked if he wants to participate.
69


found among unrelated individuals, which supports the theory
of variability among individuals.
Frischeisen-Kohler (1933) theorized that personal tempo
may be a unitary trait that governs all psychobiological
functions.
When we actively intervene in any happening, when we
speak, or walk, or perform any deliberately willed
action, we choose, quite spontaneously, a congenial
tempo for the transaction in questiona tempo which is
quite natural to us. . There is an individual tempo
of the personality, the personal tempo, which is
expressed more or less markedly in all our doings, in
our acts of perception and our volitional processes.
(p. 302)
Over a period of three months, Allport and Vernon
(1933) administered over 30 tests to 25 male subjects
between 18 and 50 years of age. Approximately four weeks
lapsed between the first measurement and a repeat
measurement. The speed of the individual's performance on a
specific task was found to be consistent from one test
session to another. Contrary to Frischeisen-Kohler's
theory, Allport and Vernon did not find an overall personal
tempo. Instead, they found that certain tasks tended to
correlate more strongly than others, forming clusters. The
first two clusters consisted of tests measuring verbal
speed, such as reading and counting and drawing tests. The
third cluster consisted of rhythmic activities like finger
and hand tapping.
The results of other studies support the theory that
an individual's personal tempo, as defined by a single task,
cannot be generalized to other tasks. Harrison and Dorcus
(1938) had male undergraduates perform several tasks at a