University Press of Florida

Wort Hunter's ID Guide: Through a Photographer's Eye with Interesting Facts

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Title:
Wort Hunter's ID Guide: Through a Photographer's Eye with Interesting Facts
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Bogan, Margaret B.
Bogan, Michael D.
Swindal, Audrey R.
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
Designed for the student and adult new to Florida tree identification. Its uniqueness lies in its arrangement by habitat and features detailed photographs of leaves, seeds, bark and the full tree.
General Note:
PDF updated on 6/16/2014 (from PDF initially loaded 1/24/2013).

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Source Institution:
University Press of Florida
Holding Location:
University Press of Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work even for commercial reasons, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
isbn - 978-1-61610-152-7
System ID:
AA00013512:00001


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Page Introduction i Table of Contents iii Acer negundo 1 Acer rubrum 8 Aesculus pavia 15 Albizia julibrissin 22 Albizia lebbeck 29 Annona glabra 36 Aralia spinosa 43 Ardisia escallonioides 50 Asimina obovata 57 Avicennia germinans 64 Befaria racemosa 71 Burse ra sim a ru ba 78 Caesalpinia bonduc 85 Calicarpa americana 92 Carpinus caroliniana 99 Carya glabra 106 Carya illinoensis 113 Celtis laevigata 120 Cephalanthus occidentalis 127 iii

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Page Cercis canadensis 134 Chionanthus virginicus 141 Chrysobalanus icaco 148 Cinnamomum camphora 155 Coccoloba uvifera 162 Concarpus erectus 169 Cornus florida 176 Cornus foemina 183 Delonix regia 190 Diospyros virginiana 197 Ficus aurea 204 Fraxinus caroliniana 211 Gordonia lasianthus 218 Hamelia patens 225 Hy drangea querciafolia 232 Ilex cassine 239 Ilex glabra 246 Ilex opaca 253 Ilex opaca arenicola 260 Ilex vomitoria 267 Itea virginica 274 Licania michauxaii 281 iv

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Liquidamber styraciflua 288 Lyonia ferruginea 295 Ly onia lucida 302 Magnolia ashei 309 Magnolia grandiflora 316 Magnolia virginiana 323 Melaleuca quinquenervia 330 Myrica cerifera 337 Myrsine floridana 344 Ostrya virginiana 351 Persea borbonia borbonia 358 Persea borbonia humulis 365 Persea palustris 372 Pinus clausa 379 Pinus elliotii 386 Pinus palustris 393 Platanus occidentalis 400 Prunus angustifolia 407 Prunus caroliniana 414 Prunus serotina 421 Quercus chapmanii 428 Quercus geminata 435 Quercus hemisphaerica 442 v

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Quercus laevis 449 Quercus laurifolia 456 Quercus michauxii 463 Quercus myrtifolia 470 Quercus nigra 477 Quercus virginiana 484 Rhizophora mangle 491 Rhus copallinum 498 Sabal palmetto 505 Salix caroliniana 512 Sambucus canadensis 519 Sassafras albidum 526 Schinus terebinthifolius 533 Serenoa repens 540 Sesbania punicea 547 Sideroxylon lanuginosa 554 Swietenia mahogoni 561 Taxodium ascendens 568 Taxodium distichum 575 Ulmus alata 582 Ulmus americana 589 Vaccinium arboretum 596 Vaccinium myrsinites 603 vi

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Vaccinium stamineum 610 Zanthoxylum clava-herculis 617 Vocabulary 625 List of References 645 Bibliography 653 Internet Resources 655 Scientific Name Index 657 Common Name Index 663 Community Key 667 Leaf Key vii

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fr-FR SHINY LYONIA is a lovely evergreen shrub that grows in damp soils all over the peninsula of Florida. It is a valuable landscape plant. Though not usually so large, it can grow to 4m or 12 tall. SHINY LYONIA is distinguished by its deep pink urn shaped flowers and shiny, dark green leaves with inter-marginal veins. The vein runs parallel to the margin or leaf edge. Since several members of the or Heath Family also have the common name of Fetterbush, we prefer not to use it because of the confusion. Fetterbush refers to bushes growing in thickets that could fetter or tangle the feet. This interesting family also includes blueberries, azaleas and mountain laurels.

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SHINY LYONIA has clusters of cylindrical or bell shaped flowers with persistent sepals which are born at the leaf axils. This means the clusters of flowers grow out of the base of the leaf. The color ranges from light to deep pink to nearly red.

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The fruit is an urn shaped, dry capsu le or achene that serves as food for some seed eating wildlife.

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The leaves are alternate simple and broad to narrowly elliptical in shape. They range to 2 to 8 cm or 1 to 3 long. This shiny, dark green and leathery foliage is evergreen. The vein that parallels the margin is a distinguishing feature of this species. The stems can grow woody with age.

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SHINY LYONIA are found in wet flatwoods, bogs and swamp edges throughout the entire peninsula of Florida and along the Coastal Plain from Louisiana up to southern Virginia.

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The CAJEPUT is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 m or 50 is easily recognized by its unique bark. The common name, tan sheets of soft, pulpy bark that peels off in layers. Respiratory irritations from pollen and dermatitis from bark contact are not uncommon. The oils are used medicinally. It is against the law to plant this tree because it is listed as by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and a by the Florida Department of Agriculture and U.S.D.A. Seeds easily sprout where they fall. Originally imported from Australia to help dry up wetlands, CAJEPUT trees have become pests in south Florida, destroying vast areas of natural habitats. Efforts are being made to eliminate these trees from natural landscapes by treating them with herbicides. This requires great persistence and much money.

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terminal clusters of white flowers form along and around the stem giving it the appearance of a bottlebrush. Hard seed capsules form around the stem, just as the flowers.

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The seeds are carried by birds. They are dropped with their own supply of fertilizer.

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CAJEPUT leaves are alternate simple, entire and lanceolate They are long and narrow, being wider near base.

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Leaves have 5 to 7 parallel veins running their length. Stems or branches are weak and soft. The tree trunk is covered with gray colored, corky, peeling bark. CAJEPUT trees grow throughout south Florida and through the central Florida wetland areas. They can be found in the Everglades and marshes, and along roadside canals.

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and useful plants. This evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree, 8m or 25' tall. It has multiple trunks. WAX MYRTLE is identified by aromatic leaves, which are toothed toward the apex. The silvery gray bark is nearly smooth. Its shiny, dark green leaves, cold hardiness and insect resistance, make it an excellent choice as a native landscape plant. WAX MYRTLE repels insects with the fragrant wax contained in its leaves and berries. The wax is used to scent candles, thus the common name of Florida Bayberry. The species name, A tea made from tender leaves and twigs has been used to treat colds, stomach aches and ulcers. The leaves are used to flavor stews and soups.

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WAX MYRTLE plants are dioecious They have male and female flowers on separate plants. The tiny male flowers are in catkins, 2 cm or 1" long at the leaf axi ls

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Tiny, white female flowers are borne along the stems. The clusters of gray berries are covered with wax that contains a pleasant fragrance.

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The glossy leaves are alternate, simp le and 3 to 15 cm or 2 to 6" long. L eaves are oblanceolate with teeth toward the pointed tip. Though thin, they have a leathery texture. Tiny glands on both surfaces appear as amber colored dots upon magnification. They are fragrant when crushed. Rubbed on the skin, they repel insects.

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WAX MYRTLE is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout Florida. It thrives in wet woods to dry pinelands. WAX MYRTLE ranges from Florida north to New Jersey and west to Arkansas and Texas. It also grows in the West Indies.

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MYRSINE is an attractive shrub or small tree which grows The berries are available all year long and provide food for many species of fruit eating birds, including mockingbirds and cat birds. The heavy foliage provides nest sites and shelter. It is occasionally confused with Marlberry, but can be distinguished by the flowers and fruit appearing in a spiral along the stem.

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MYRSINE is essentially dioecious with a f ew perfect flowers. In winter, small white flowers bloom along the stems. They are followed by clusters of round berries which appear on the bare stems below the foliage.

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The berries turn blue-black when ripe.

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The leaves appear close together at the ends of branches They are alternate simple and occasionally have notched tips. They are leathery textured and have revolute or rolled under margins. The mature stems are whitish and show off the flowers and berries.

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MYRSINE is found in coastal hammocks from Manatee and Volusia Counties south to the Keys. x-none x-none

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RED BAY is an attractive evergreen tree that grows to about 12m or It is usually much smaller. RED BAY can be easily identified because of the numerous leaf galls. They are lighter in color than the leaves and often form along the leaf margins, deforming the leaf. There are two varieties common to Florida. They are Var. RED BAY SILK BAY The common name comes from the red heart-wood. Because it is close-grained, heavy and strong, it is used for cabinet work and furniture. Its aromatic, flavorful le aves are used for seasoning food.

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Tiny greenish flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils The fruit is a dark blue, oval drupe with one seed. Peduncles are 2.5

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Leaves are simple and a lternate. They are entire elliptic to lanceolate and grow to 15 cm or 6 long. Bright green and lustrous above, the lower surface is glaucous or has fine white hairs Var. shows a prominent yellow midrib The underside of var. has rusty pubescence When crushed, the leaves are pleasantly aromatic.

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The leaf galls, caused by insects, are a common feature and can be used to help identify this tree.

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The twigs are slightly hairy. The bark is reddish brown, with flat, scaly ridges divided by deep vertical fissures when mature. RED BAY grows in wide variety of habitats from bluffs to hammocks and scrubs in every county in Florida, including the Keys. It grows west to Texas and north to Virginia. Var. is endemic to the ancient scrubs of central Florida.

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The stately LONGLEAF PINE grows to 40 LONGLEAF PINES have long symmetrical tree trunks called boles. Evergreen, needle-like leaves are protected by a waxy coating. They are extremely fire resistant. LONGLEAF grass phase of growth, a thick bundle of needles protects the bud while the taproot grows deeper. During years 5 to 7 the top begins to grow. It shoots up about 3 feet in one year holding the crown above most ground fires. When older, LONGLEAF PINES are protected from fire by the thickness of many layers of bark. LONGLEAF PINE is best known for lumber, naval stores and medicines. Pine needle tea is tasty and helps treat the common cold. In the past, mixtures with turpentine were used to treat sore throats and many other ailments. Also known as the Southern Pine, it once covered much of the state of Florida.

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Male flowers appear in long, rose-purple clusters; the female flowers are purple, in clusters of 2 to 4. The cones are usually longer than 15cm or are slightly curved. LONGLEAF PINE pinecones are the larges t in Florida. LONGLEAF PINE lives up to its name with the longest needles, 25 to 35cm or 10 to fascicles or bundles of 3. Large round clusters of needles emerge

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from the ends of the branches. Silvery -white terminal buds, called candles, appear in the spring.

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The trunk is covered with orange-brown papery scales arranged in thick, protective layers.

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LONGLEAF PINE is most often found in dry sandhills and acidic flatwoods. It is indigenous to most of the state except the extreme southern tip of the peninsula.

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fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR The CHAPMAN OAK is a small, shrubby evergreen tree well-drained sandhills and scrubs where it associates with and The CHAPMAN OAK is named for Alvan Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) a botanist who studied and wrote about plants of the South, especially scrubs. Because of its small stature, the hard wood of CHAPMAN OAK is best suited for tool handles and fence posts. The acorns provide food for wildlife, especially turkeys, jays and grackles. The tannins in the bark have traditionally been used to tan animal hides.

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The female flowers are single or in pairs, but are inconspicuous. The male flowers are in drooping catkins appearing in the spring. The acorns grow up to 2.5 covered to by a bowl-shaped cup which is attached without a stalk.

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One of the white oak group, its acorns mature in one season and have a sweet flavor. CHAPMAN OAK leaves are alternate and simple They are ovate to elliptic but are often spatulate or wider toward the apex Matu re leaves are 5 to 10 Mostly entire the margins sometimes have shallow lobes, but most often they are wavy.

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They are distinguished from the other scrub oaks by being sparingly pubescent or having short hairs on their lower leaf surface. The upper surface is lustrous, often with a quilted appearance.

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The thick, gray-brown bark is broken into irregular plates. CHAPMAN OAK is found in scrubs, ancient dunes and sandy hammocks along the coastal plain from south central Florida north to South Carolina.

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LAUREL OAK is a medium-sized oak tree that grows to 30m or 90 stout, straight trunk. Older trees sometimes develop buttressed trunks with relatively smooth bark. LAUREL OAK is a fast growing shade tree with a full, rounded crown that makes it popular in landscapes. It drops many twigs and has a short life span. Botanists are not in agreement on the Laurel Oaks. Some consider to be a subspecies of The main distinction between the two is habitat. is an upland species, while is found in wetter areas.

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The male flowers occur in short, hanging catkins

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The female flowers are found on short stalks on new growth. Both occur on the same tree.

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The acorn is dome-shaped 1 to 2cm or to 1 long with a shallow cup covering of the nut. LAUREL OAK leaves are alternate simple and deciduous They remain on the tree most of the winter d ropping their leaves all at once T rees only stay bare for a few weeks in the early spring. The shiny, bright green leaves are 5 to 10cm or 2 to 4 long and 2 to 4 cm or 1 to 1 Leaves may have 3 or more lobes at the tips, but the majority of the mature leaves will be laurel shaped. Neither surface displays any pubescence but some may have a tiny bristle tip.

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LAUREL OAK grows in dry woods and mesic or moderately moist oak -pine woods throughout Florida It does not grow in the Keys. It is a tree of the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia.

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TURKEY OAK grows to about 10m or 20 to a scrubby, deciduous tree that grows besides the Longleaf Pine in the Longleaf Pine-TURKEY OAK community. It grows on sand ridges throughout most of Florida. TURKEY OAK is characterized by deeply lobed, bristle tipped leaves. The species name, means smooth. Sometimes referred to as a scrub oak, it is also called Bitter tasting acorns provide food for wildlife and turkeys. Because of its small size, TURKEY OAK was mostly used for firewood.

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Pollen containing catkins form on the branch tips.

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The acorns have a wide base and taper to a point. They are 2 to 3 year after blooming. The acorn cap is covered with large scales. Its rolled edges cover about one-third of the nut.

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Leaves are alternate and simple with three to seven deeply cut lobes. Three -lobed leaves resemble a wild turkey track. The main rib of each leaf extends into a bristle tip. The upper surface is lustrous but there are small hairs at the vein axils underneath. Petioles are rather short ranging to 1.5cm or 3 / 8 long. They twist to allow the leaves to turn at about a 45 degree angle to the ground in order to slow moisture loss.

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The red autumn leaves turn brown and remain on the tree through much of the winter. The thick bark is dark gray, furrowed and blocky. The TURKEY OAK grows in dry pinelands from Lake Okeechobee northward to Virginia and west to Louisiana.

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FAIRCHILD OAK

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LIVE OAK is a spreading evergreen tree that grows to 20 and the crown may reach to more in diameter. They have a massive main trunk which divides into several horizontal branches. These branches form a widespread crown an can extend fairly low to the ground. LIVE OAK longer than any other oak in Florida. The strong, dense wood was ideal for shipbuilding, furniture and tools. In 1799 the U.S. Congress appropriated money to purchase live oak land in the Carolinas so the country would have enough of these mighty trees for ship timbers and masts. Their heavy branches provide food, shelter and nest sights for many birds and other animals. The rough, furrowed orchids, bromeliads and ferns.

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The staminate or male flower s are born e on catkins 5 to 7.5 cm or 2 or

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The pistillate or female flowers are arranged on a spike. The acorn is a shiny dark brown to black oval nut about 2.5 -like stem. The top-shaped cap covers about one third of the nut. LIVE OAK leaves are oblong stiff and leathery. They are cupped and shiny, dark green above and tomentose or covered with short, soft hairs below.

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They grow in an alt ernate pattern and range from 2 to 15cm or 1 to Margins of mature leaves are smooth and slightly rolled under, but leaves on new shoots are often toothed or lobed.

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LIVE OAK bark is gray to brown in color and deeply furrowed. It breaks into small plates that are about 2.5cm LIVE OAK is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout the state. It is the only oak that grows throughout the state including the Keys. Their range is from Texas to Virginia in the coastal plains.

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An attractive tree with a straight trunk, the CABBAGE PALM grows to about 18 smooth or cross-hatched with boots of old leaf bases. The large leaves are distinguished by a graceful curve and long, wavy fibers. The strength and durability of the fibrous trunks made them desirable in construction and pilings during early times. Th e official state tree of Florida and South Carolina, the CABBAGE PALM appears on the Florida State Flag. It is a native tree. CABBAGE PALM comes from its use as a vegetable. It is necessary to kill the palm in order to cut out the apical meristem or bud, which is the edible portion. It may be eaten raw, as in Heart of Palm Salad, or cooked as Swamp Cabbage. CABBAGE PALM fruit provide food for wildlife.

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The stalk of fragrant white flowers is many branched and arching.

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It is often as long as the leaves. Drooping clusters of edible, round, blue-black fruit follo w.

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The triangular shaped leaves are held in a V with a graceful, downward curve. Up to 2 the fronds are divided into long, tapering segments with thread-like filaments.

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The segments are shiny green above and gray-green below. The petioles or leaf stems grow to 2m or 6 CABBAGE PALM is found throughout Florida as well as up the coast to the Carolinas, then west along the Gulf Coast to Texas.

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The CAROLINA WILLOW is the most common willow of Florida. CAROLINA WILLOW is a deciduous, shrubby tree which grows to 10 long, narrow leaves arranged on long, willowy branches. The CAROLINA WILLOW grows at the edges of lakes, streams and rivers. The genus name, is derived When you chew a leaf, you may recognize the familiar taste of aspirin! CAROLINA WILLOW contains the same major ingredient of that headache and fever reduction medication salicin, which is an aspirin precursor An inner bark decoction has been used for severe colds, fever, diarrhea and dysentery. The long, flexible branches are used for making willow chairs and tables. Split wood is also used to make baskets.

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The flowers are born in attractive catkins or spike like flower stalks bearing small unisex flowers that emerge at the same time as the new leaves.

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The silk-tipped seeds are released from small pods that split open in the spring.

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CAROLINA WILLOW leaves are simple alternate and lanceolate or lance shaped. They grow to 8 to 20cm or 2.5cm or 3 / 8 The margins are finely serrated or toothed. The upper surfaces are smooth and dark green, while the lower surfaces of the leaves are glaucous and whitish.

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The stems are strong, long and limber, giving meaning to x-none x-none x-none CAROLINA WILLOW is found in freshwater wetlands throughout the Florida peninsula, but rarely seen in the Keys. A southern species, it is found from Florida to Texas, north to Maryland, inland to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. They grow along the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys to Missouri. CAROLINA WILLOW is also found in Cuba.

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SASSAFRAS is a deciduous tree that grows to 15 m or 45 I n Florida it can appear more shr ublike. Its s hort, horizontal branches give it a layered appearance. Sixteenth century French and Spanish settlers called this tree by its American Indian name, SASSAFRAS the leaves. Aromatic oils derived from the roots, bark and twigs of this tree are used in flavoring extracts, perfumes, soaps and in some pharmaceuticals. It is reported that Columbus used the airborne fragrance of the SASSAFRAS as an indicator of land nearby. The Creek People today use the roots in ceremonies.

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The flowers appear with the unfolding leaves in terminal racemes. SASSAFRAS is dioecious, male and female flowers grow on separate plants trees. Flowers are 5 to 8 mm across and are yellowish green. The small oval fruits are dark blue. They grow as fleshy drupes borne in clusters on red stems.

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Leaves are simple, alternate, and palmately veined. The margins have one to three lobes often looking like mittens or three fingered gloves. A majority of the leaves on younger plants are two and three-lobed obovate. The apex is usually acute with a wedge-shaped base.

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The leaf is yellow-green above with a whitish underside Leaves turn br onze to red in the fall.

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Thick, reddish brown bark is divided into flat ridges by deep fissures. The inner bark is aromatic. SASSAFRAS prefers dry, sandy soils. It is common along fencerows in the northern counties of Florida south to Hillsborough county. It ranges throughout the eastern and southern states from Maine to Florida and Texas.

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SAW PALMETTO is a creeping palm with a trunk that lies on or just below the ground. It occasionally grows upright in heavily shaded areas. Researchers speculate that th ese plants may live more than 700 years. The name that stretch out along the ground or each other. The ripe fruit is used as food by many animals, including the Florida Black Bear. Flowers are an important food source to bees. SAW PALMETTO makes a superior honey. Harvested palmetto buds are delicious eaten raw or cooked like swamp cabbage. Additionally, SAW PALMETTO fronds are used to make thatch roofs. Seminole and Creek Indians use the SAW PALMETTO as food and as medicine. Its medicinal qualities have long been known by many civilizations. The berries are used as an aphrodisiac and to treat prostate problems.

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Fragrant greenish-white flowers are arranged in spike-like structures on a large stalk. The fruit is an oblong drupe or ol ive -shaped stone fruit, about 2

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The juicy, black berry has an unpleasant, soapy taste. The fan shaped fronds divide into many segments.

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Fronds are yellow-green to green. There is a silvery variation caused by a waxy coating on the surface.

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The petiole or leaf stem has sharp, curved spines hence the name, SAW PALMETTO. Palmettos grow on sandy dunes, flatwoods hammoc ks and ridges throughout Florida, Louisiana and the Carolinas.

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oxygen to the tree and supporting the trees growing in the loose wet soil. Their buttressed trunks also support the heavy trees.

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PAGE 1

THROUGH A PHOTOGRAPHERS EYE INTERESTING FACTS MARGARET B. BOGAN, Ph.D MICHAEL D. BOGAN, M.S. AUDREY R. SWINDAL, B.S.

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INTRODUCTION This book is designed for the student learner and adult new to Florida tree identification. It is unique in several ways. It is designed as a photographically intense representation of the flowering cycle of the tree s allow ing the user to see details that are not commonly found in identification books. These pictures make it easy to compare plant species and display details which are hard to describe in common, nontechnical, language Each picture is large and detailed. Furth er d istinguishing details necessary for identification is facilitated by large photos of leaves stems and seeds. The text is additionally enhanced by not only having a Table of Contents, a Scientific Index and a Common Name Index, it has a Photo graphic I ndex arranged by the a pond. Important technical terms are highlighted and can be found in the vocabulary section at the end of the text T erms are defined in non technical and technical language. Students can learn tree identification, botanical terms, connect the terms for tree parts with detailed photographs which stimulate visual memory learning, l ocate species within plan t community types and see tree morphology not always visible without magnification Habitats are described as you perceive them when you are standing in the middle of a habitat. Plants that cross habitats are indexed multiple times. In addition, a photo tagged page with interesting, little known facts about a species, precedes the botanical information. Concomitant rationale for book development was the request of our many friends. We had become members of a state recognized Muskogee C reek Indian villag e and became aware of the integral nature of plant identification and usage in the beliefs and everyday life of the village. Plants eaten used to treat ailments and underlie the inner workings of the Muskogee C reek cosmology and cultural practices. Bec ause of the interdependence of all these parts of everyday life, it is necessary for plants to be preserved. Utilization of plants for food and medicine can only be practiced if the specific species continue to exist in populations sufficiently large for collection. and connect important plants in relation to nearby landmarks and species. The habitat index reinforces plants with their physical locations. The a nimal species which are pa rt of the life of the Muskogee C reek depend on the continued presence of these plant species habitats, to maintain cultural practices of the Muskogee people define and separate them from other groups. Plants which facili tate communication with the supernatural and reinforce ideas and beliefs within the group are mandatory for the continued self identity of the group. i

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Many members of the village came to the group as adults searching for their cultural background withou t formal schooling and had limited contact with traditional knowledge or interest in schooling Consequently members of the village possess very rudimentary knowledge of plant identification and less knowledge of the utility of plants. However, as they are knowledgeable It was their request to have an easily used source for some of the cultural information. Other groups also approached us for a t ext to supply information about common trees of Florida. This compilation is the result of these requests and our own need for a re source of easily used plant identification information. The book is computer ready, pictures are easily projected. The vol ume is usable with ADOBE reader Once transferred to a thumb drive, it is usable on a tablet or laptop computer in the field. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction i Table of Contents iii Acer negundo 1 Acer rubrum 8 Aesculus pavia 15 Albizia julibrissin 22 Albizia lebbeck 29 Annona glabra 36 Aralia spinosa 43 Ardi sia escallonioides 50 Asimina obovata 57 Avicennia germinans 64 Befaria racemosa 71 Burs e ra s im a ru b a 78 Caesalpinia bonduc 85 C alicarpa americana 92 Carpinus caroliniana 99 Carya glabra 106 Carya illinoensis 113 Celtis laevigata 120 Cephalanthus occidentalis 127 iii

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Page Cercis canadensis 134 Chionanthus virginicus 141 Chrysobalanus icaco 148 Cinnamomum camphora 155 Coccoloba uvifera 162 Concarpus erectus 169 Cornus florida 176 Cornus foemina 183 Delonix regia 190 Diospyros virginiana 197 Ficus aurea 204 Fraxinus caroliniana 211 Gordonia lasianthus 218 Hamelia patens 225 Hy drangea querciafolia 232 Ilex cassine 239 Ilex glabra 246 Ilex opaca 253 I lex opaca arenicola 260 Ilex vomitoria 267 Itea virginica 274 Licania michauxaii 281 iv

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Liquidamber styraciflua 288 Lyonia ferruginea 295 Ly onia lucida 302 Magnolia ashei 309 Magnolia grandiflora 316 Magnolia virginiana 323 Melaleuca quinquenervia 330 Myrica cerifera 337 Myrsine floridana 344 Ostrya virginiana 351 Persea borbonia borbonia 358 Per sea borbonia humulis 365 Persea palustris 372 Pinus clausa 379 Pinus elliotii 386 Pinus palustris 393 Platanus occidentalis 400 Prunus angustifolia 407 Prunus caroliniana 414 Prunus serotina 421 Quercus chapmanii 428 Quercus geminata 435 Quercus hemisphaerica 442 v

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Quercus laevis 449 Quercus laurifolia 456 Quercus michauxii 463 Quercus myrtifolia 470 Quercus nigra 477 Quercus virginiana 484 Rhizophora mangle 491 Rhus copallinum 498 Sabal palmetto 505 Salix caroliniana 512 Sambucus canadensis 519 Sassafras albidum 526 Schinus t erebinthifolius 533 Serenoa repens 540 Sesbania punicea 547 Sideroxylon lanuginosa 554 Swietenia mahogoni 561 Taxodium ascendens 568 Taxodium distichum 575 Ulmus alata 582 Ulmus americana 589 Vaccinium arboretum 596 Vaccinium myrsinites 603 vi

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Vaccinium stamineum 610 Zanth oxylum clava herculis 617 Vocabulary 625 List of References 645 Bibliography 653 Internet Resources 655 Scientific Name Index 657 Common Name Index 663 Community Key 667 Leaf Key vii

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viii

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder Acer negundo (L.) or BOX ELDER or can be tapped for a sugary syrup. When boiled, the inner bark yields crystallized sugar. Dried and powered, the inner bark is used as a soup thickener. Bark tea has been used traditionally as an emetic. BOX ELDER has edible seeds. Leaves serve as a preservative for packing fruit and or root crops. BOX ELDER burls have been used to make drums. (1,2)

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder BOXELDER or ASH LEAFED MAPLE (AY-ser neh-GUHN-doe) GENERAL

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder FLOWERS AND FRUIT x-none

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder LEAVES AND STEMS

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder DISTRIBUTION

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple The RED MAPLE or Acer rubrum L. is referred to as October Glory, Red Sunset and Autumn Fantasy (3)! In the fall season leaves turn from green to yellow to a fiery red (4)! Boiled inner bark produces a purple color which an be turned into ink or dye with the addition of lead sulfate (5) Boiled sap yields a good flavored maple syrup of small quantity (6). Fire suppression in the SE permits the RE D MAPLE bark to grow thick fire tolerant bark (7).

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple RED MAPLE Acer rubrum L. (AY-ser ROO-brum) GENERAL Acer rubrum Acer

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple LEAVES AND STEMS

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple DISTRIBUTION

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye RED BUCKEYE or Aesculus pavia L. is called the firecracker plant! The large clusters of red tubular flowers appear in early spring It is an important food source to hummingbirds and the season's first butterflies (8)! Leaves are velvety purple-green at first unfolding. They have considerable fall color and drop leaves early. Seeds look like chestnuts but are POISONOUS when eaten. All parts of the tree are TOXIC (9).

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. (ESS-kew-lus PAYvee-uh) GENERAL

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye THESE SEEDS ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS. LEAVES AND STEMS

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa The MIMOSA or Albizia julibrissin Durazz. botanicals. The flower and bark are both used for anxiety and depression relief. It rivals the western herbal St. Johns Wort (10,11)! CORPUS OF DISCUSSION ON HERB S: "Sweet in taste, mild in smell, it promotes mental relaxation and a peaceful attitude of mind and spirit (12) ." Researchers in the Journal of Ethnopharmocology identified the chemicals therein! When flowers drop off trees and land on the rose bushes, they kill the roses! Not from lack of sun do the roses die but because the flowers drop off the tree and die on the rose foliage, killing the foliage (13).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa MIMOSA or SILK TREE Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (alBEE -zee-uh ju -lih-BRISS-in) GENERAL Albizia julibrissin CATEGORY 1 PEST PLANT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) WOMAN S TONGUE or Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. yields a light-colored honey which is highly regarded by beekeepers (14). Its bark contains saponin used to make soap (15). Tannins are used for tanning leather. WOMA gum made from sap is used as a substitute for gum arabic. The bark is an anti-inflammatory; seeds are used as an aphrodisiac and for leprosy. The wood is used in cabinet making as a veneer. It is sometimes called Indian walnut (16).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (alBEE -zee-uh LEB-bek) GENERAL CATEGORY 1 PEST PLANT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family)

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family)

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 47

Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple Annona is a Haitian or Taino Indian dialect name for the plant. Alligators sometimes eat the fruit hence the name Alligator apple. Though edible, the species is not commonly eaten in the western hemisphere. It tastes astringent but it does provide food for wildlife. It is used to make wine and jelly. The bark is an excellent home for orchids and other air plants. The light and soft wood is used to substitute cork in fishing nets. It is a 'freshwater or brackish water mangrove' as its roots tolerate both high tide and freshwater flooding. Islanders make the fruit into a juice that some say has a noble taste. Called Kalhuhuthu Meyvaa, on the Island Republic of the Maldives, Annona glabra is considered a pest plant to the islands in the Indian ocean (17,18,19,20).

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple POND APPLE Annona glabra (anNO -na GLA-bra) GENERAL glabra Annona glabra Annona squamosa, A. squamosa

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple LEAVES AND STEMS Ficus

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple DISTRIBUTION

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) Devil's walking stick or Aralia spinosa L. is often used for its tropical looking landscape effects. The tea from the bark was given as a purgative while the berries were used in pain killing preparations. Flowers must be FULL of nectar in the afternoon as they are then absolutely covered with honeybees! Raw berries are toxic; ripe berries are a food for wildlife (22).

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) STICK Aralia spinosa L. (uh-RAY-lee-uh spinOH -suh) GENERAL Aralia spinosa Zanthoxylum clava herculis A. spinosa Aralia edulis

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family)

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) x-none

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) LEAVES AND STEMS

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) x-none x-none x-none DISTRIBUTION

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. or MARLBERRY is a prodigious native shrub of the central Florida interior, north to the Kissimmee area. It grows under the canopy of cabbage palmetto and live oak along with Callicarpa americana Psychotria nervosa and other understory vegetation. Several species of Ardisia sp. Are medicinal in nature but are so highly toxic, medicine should only be administered by a medicine maker or trained herb doctor.

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry MARLBERRY GENERAL Ardisia escallonioides Ardisia elliptica Thunb. A. elliptica

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry en

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry DISTRIBUTION Ardisia escallonioides

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash or SCRUB PAWPAW is a preferred larval food of the Zebra Swallowtail butterfly. The Zebra Swallowtail butterfly has adapted a toxin from Asimina leaves to use for its own protection. The common name pawpaw probably derives from the Spanish papaya due to a casual similarity of pawpaw fruit to papaya fruit. Mark Catesby wrote the first description of an Asimina sp Anona fructu lutescente levi scrotum Arietis referente. This translates to (23,24,25)

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW SCRUB PAWPAW or FLAG PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash (a -SIMin -uh ob-oVAY-ta) GENERAL Asimina obovata

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW LEAVES AND STEMS

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW DI STRIBUTION

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove Avicennia germinans L. or BLACK MANGROVE wood is dark hard and dense These properties make it useful for posts, construction and charcoal. Coastal fishing families like the charcoal for smoking fish. The charcoal gives the fish an agreeable flavor. The bark contains tannins used to cure leather. True natives of Florida, these valuable trees are an important resource that must be protected from development. According to Hartwell (1967 1971), peoples of the West Indies use the resin as a folk reme dy for tumors (26,27,28).

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove BLACK MANGROVE Avicennia germinans L ( avih SEN eeuh JER-min-ans) GENERAL

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove LEAVES AND STEMS

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 82

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower Befaria racemosa or TAR FLOWER is also called Fly Catcher. Its flowers and fruit are sticky to the touch and often trap insects. The resin on TAR FLOWER has the same adhesive strength as commercially available glues for trapping insects. Bartram wa Tar flower. A review of his journal identified the plant as Befaria racemosa (29,30,31).

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower TAR FLOWER or FLY CATCHER Befaria racemosa Vent. (be-FAR-i-a rayse MO-sa) Syn. Bej aria racemosa Vent. GENERAL racemosa

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower LEAVES AND STEMS

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 89

BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. or GUMBO LIMBO, resin has many uses : making incense, turpentine and varnish. GUMBO LIMBO resin is also used to treat gastritis, ulcers and to heal skin wounds. The red fruit of the GUMBO LIMBO attracts birds who, it is thought, use it as grinding stones in their crops (32,33,34).

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. (ber-SERuh simuh -ROO-buh) GENERAL

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO LEAVES AND STEMS

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 96

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker Kids who live near the coast frequently use Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) or NICKER BEANS as ammunition for war games! When a seed is rubbed vigorously on clothing it becomes fairly hot. Frictional heat is highlighted by concentric fracture lines on the seed coat. Touching a hot seed to the skin of an unsuspecting person is another favorite activity! Caesalpinia bonduc often acts like a liana or climbing plant using other trees for support. Its shiny gray seeds are very hard and are used as beads for used for jewelry. Bonducin, a white, bitter glycoside has been used as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of intermittent malarial fever. To evict land crabs from their burrows in urbanized areas, simply place a nicker bean in a crab hole. Due to its symmetry and smoothness, the crab cannot grab the smooth seed with its claws. The crab moves (35,36,37)!

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker NICKER BEANS Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. GENERAL

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 103

VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry Callicarpa americana L. or BEAUTY BERRY is a bush with white and pink spring flowers. The light purple fall fruit can turn to a deepest purple with time. These attributes make BEAUTY BERRY an attractive landscape plant. Though parts of the plant are poisonous, when berries are grown in rich soil or leaf litter, the berries are sweet and make an enjoyable Beauty Berry Pancake (38,39)!

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry BEAUTY BERRY FRENCH MULBERRY Callicarpa americana L. (kal-I-KAR-pa ame riKA-na) GENERAL Callicar pa americana

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry LEAVES AND STEMS

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 110

BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Walter or IRONWOOD is also called the American hornbeam. It makes an equally good selection for bonsai as its Asian relative. IRONWOOD zigzag branches make an interesting silhouette in winter. IRONWOOD has no serious insect or disease problems (40,41,42).

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood IRONWOOD, MUSCLE TREE or HORNBEAM Carpinus caroliniana Walter (car-PYE-nus caro lin ee AN a) GENERAL

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 117

JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory PIGNUT HICKORY or Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet has been used for tool handles and skis and wagon wheels and even early automobile parts! It is used to make shuttle blocks, mallets, and mauls. The tree can be tapped and sap collected to make pancake syrup PIGNUT HICKORY bark, flowers, leaves, and nuts are eaten by bear, chipmunks, deer, foxes, rabbits, raccoons, songbirds, squirrels, and turkey (43,44 ,45) 106

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory PIGNUT HICKORY Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet (KAIR ee uh GLAH brah) GENERAL PIGNUT HICKORY, a deciduous tree with large, com pound leaves, can grow up to 40 Hickories begin to grow in an area that has not burned for a while. If the land were never to burn again, it would develop into a xeric or dry climax community called an Oak/Hickory Hammock. This process is called succession Showy red to gold buds burst forth in the spring. When first seen, many people mistake this for a flower! The wood is very strong and is valued as ax and shovel handles and baseball bats. The wood is also used to add flavor when smoking meat. Nuts provide food for wildlife. A bark extract can be used as a smoky tasting, bitter syrup that is sweete ned with cane crystals Hickory bark is the highest plant source of magnesium. A decoction is used by the Iroquois as an arthritis treatment. The botanical name is derived from Greek "karya or kaura" which is, walnut. 10 7

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory 108

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory FLOWERS AND FRUIT The male flo wers are called catkins Hickory nuts have thin, smooth husks that cover thick shells 109

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory LEAVES AND STEMS PIGNUT HICKORY leaves are alternate compound odd pinnate with 5 to 7 lanceolate leaflets They have serrated or toothed margins. Th e leaflets grow larger toward the apex. Unlike other Florida hickorie s, the pignut leaf is glabrous or smooth, without hairs with occasional hair tufts at the vein axils A vein axil is where veins join on the underside of the leaflet The apical or tip leaflet is lifted upward. 110

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory 111

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory Leaves turn bright yellow leaves in autumn and are quite showy. PIGNUT HICKORY grayish bark is deeply furrowed with narrow ridges. DISTRIBUTION PIGNUT HICKORY grows in dry woods from Minnesota and Maine in the no rth to Louisiana, to north and central Florida and south to about Highlands and Manatee counties. 112

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch or PECAN en flowersen are en wind-pollinateden The word pecan is an Algonquin word meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack. PECAN trees are recorded to have lived to 350 years old. The heartwood is reddish brown with stre aks of a darker hue; the sapwood is white to pale brown. The grain is straight to wavy. The wood texture is co arse. PECAN wood dries easily and rapidly but requires care due to high shrinkage. It is difficult to saw but it planes and bores well and turns easily. PECAN wood is easy to screw. PECAN requires careful machining; a reduced cutting angle of 20 o is recommended in working stock with irregular grain PECAN responds well to polishing (46,47).

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan PECAN or SWEET PECAN Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch (KAIRee -uh illlin noEN-sis) GENERAL

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan LEAVES AND STEMS

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan DISTRIBUTION

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Willd. or SUGARBERRY is highly adaptable to a wide range of soil types including calcareous soils. This is one reason it is found throughout the central Florida peninsula. The bark of sugarberry is thin and easily damaged by fire. When top killed, sugarberry will sprout from the root collar The fruits of sugarberry are eaten by many birds, including the ring-necked pheasant, ruffed grouse, quail and waterfowl. Turkeys eat SUGARBERRY as a preferred food in fall and winter. Squirrels eat the fruit, buds and bark on occasion. The following data are percentages of dry weight for all fleshy fruits tested, except for crude fat which is the average for drupes only: Crude protein 8.4 Crude fat 14.2 Crude fiber 24.1 Estimated true dry matter digestibility 64.4 (48,49).

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry SUGARBERRY or HACKBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd (SEL-tis lev-i-GA -ta) GENERAL laevigata

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 138

RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis L. or BUTTONBUSH is often referred to as Honey bells! It is an excellent source for nectar for many species of butterflies including Hairstreaks, Skippers and Swallowtails. Seeds are eaten by many species of songbirds. It is the nesting home of many of these birds and is a favorite of the P rothonotary Warbler The Seminole and Choctaw used a decoction of the bark to treat diarrhea and other stomach ailments (50,51,52).

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush BUTTONBUSH Cephalanthus occidentalis L. GENERAL (Baccharis) Cephalanthus

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush LEAVES AND STEMS

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud Cercis canadensis L. or REDBUD is also called the Forest Pansy. Flowers are pickled for use in salads or may be fried. It is a common Mexican food source. Cardinals have been observed feeding on the seeds. Redbuds are subject to damage by insect pests such as caterpillars, leafhoppers, scale and tree hoppers (53,54,55).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud REDBUD or JUDAS TREE Cercis canadensis L. (SUR-sis can-a-DEN -sis) GENERAL canadensis

PAGE 147

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud DISTRIBUTION

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree The literal translation for Chionanthus in Chionanthus virginicus L. or FRINGE TREE Though creamy to greenish white, the flower of the FRINGE TREE is beautiful showy, cottony and snowy in appearance. This tree blooms near the time that the Dogwood blooms in the spring. FRINGE TREE has great potential uses and is pollution tolerant A tincture made from the bark and grain alcohol is used for jaundice; a tea for topical treatment for cuts infections and other skin irritatio ns A poultice can also be made for bruises and ulcers (56,57,58).

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree FRINGE TREE GRANDSIEGRAYBEARD or OLD Chionanthus virginicus L. (kye-o-NAN-thus ver-JIN-i-kus) GENERAL virginicus

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree LEAVES AND STEMS

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree x-none

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 159

CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum Chrysobalanus icaco L. or COCO-PLUM fruit has a cotton-candy pulp surrounding the seed. This is edible raw or roasted and tastes similar to an almond. Chrysobalanus icaco L. is known as "Abajeru" in Brazil. It is a traditional medicine for diabetes and rheumatism. In modern herbal medicine, it has been shown to hinder the growth of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation or by 44%, thus demonstrating potentially important use in cancer and diabetic treatments. Extracts of COCO-PLUM were active in the National Cancer I AIDS-antiviral screen (59,60,61).

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. (kris-oba-LAY-nus iKAco) GENERAL

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum LEAVES AND STEMS

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum DISTRIBUTION

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl or the CAMPHOR TREE is grown commercially for its medicinal oil in Japan and China. Camphor has been used to treat ailments ranging from parasitic infections to toothaches. It feels cool on the skin like menthol, though it also has irritating qualities as well as a numbing effect. Camphor wood is prized for its attractive red and yellow striping and amenability to woodworking. Camphor is h arvested for sassafras oil formerly used in scent applications such as polish es and waxes and detergents and soaps It blends easily and well with other oils Its principal use now is as a raw material for the isolation of safrole This is converted by the chemical industry into two important derivatives: heliotropin which is wi dely used as a fragrance and flavouring agent, and piperonal butoxide (PBO), a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Camphor Laurel production and shipment of camphor, in a solid, waxy form, was a major industry in Taiwan prior to and during the Japanese colonial era (1895-1945). It was used medicinally and was also an important ingredient in the production of smokeless gunpowder and celluloid Wood chips were steamed in a retort C amphor crystallized on the inside of a crystallization box, after the vapor had passed through a cooling chamber. It was then scraped off for sale (62,63,64). en

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree CAMPHOR TREE Cinnamomum camphora GENERAL CATEGORY I PEST PLANT

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree LEAVES AND STEMS

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree DISTRIBUTION

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape Cocoloba uvifera L. or SEA GRAPE leaves grow to platter size! In the Islands, leaves are used to serve food! Cool winter weather will turn leaves red; a freeze can damage the shrub which recovers in the warmth. A salt tolerant plant, seeds are often dispersed by the tides. SEA GRAPE is very drought resistant. The wood can be boiled to yield a red dye. Wood from larger trees is prized for cabinet work. A gum from the bark is used for throat ailments. The roots are used to treat dysentery (65,66).

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape SEA GRAPE Coccoloba uvifera (L.) Linneaus (koko LO -ba oo-VIFer a) GENERAL

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape LEAVES AND STEMS

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape DISTRIBUTION

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus Nutt or GREEN BUTTONWOOD is a marvelous folk medicinal shrub It is used to treat anemia, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, prickly heat, and syphilis! A decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat fever! GREEN BUTTONWOOD is susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites yet has a high calorific value as fuel. Its bark contains 16 % to 18% tannin (67,68)

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood GREEN BUTTONWOOD Conocarpus erectus Nutt (kawnoh -KAR-pus ee-RECK-tus variety suh-RISSeeus) GENERAL

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood DISTRIBUTION

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida L. or DOGWOOD is commonly called the Flowering Dogwood or Boxwood. Roots were used to make a red dye by some American Indian people. Teas and quinine substitutes were made from the bark. Plants contain cornine which is used medicin ally in parts of Mexico The juice of the twigs preserve and harden the gums. The DOGWOOD is part of a select group of hardwoods that has opposite branching. Each leaf, twig and branch is paired across from another leaf, twig or branch! We use the acr onym "MADBUCK" to recall the first letter of the names Maple, Ash, DOGWOOD, and Buckeye as these are the trees with this "opposite" arrangement! Dogwoods make up 10% of total number of trees sold by retail nurseries ( 69, 70,71)!

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood FLOWERING DOGWOOD Cornus florida GENERAL POISONOUS

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood DISTRIBUTION

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood Cornus foemina Mill. or SWAMP DOGWOOD is also called Stiff Dogwood. When planted in groups and left alone it will spread by suckers. It grows best in welldrained, moist limestone soils but is easily adaptable to wet or drier soils. SWAMP DOGWOOD is tolerant to city pollution. It is rejuvenated by pruning! It has had several medicinal uses over the past several 100 years. The Cherokee People use an infusion for laryngitis Others use a decoction of bark and root scrapings to treat the symptoms of m alaria The Micmac People mix dried bark with tobacco for smoking. It provides cover and nesting sites for numerous bird species. It serves as a larval food source for the Summer Azure, Celas trina neglecta The dark blue berries are eaten by a variety of birds and migratory songbirds (72,73,74,75,76).

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood SWAMP DOGWOOD or STIFF DOGWOOD Cornus foemina GENERAL foemina

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood FLOWERS OR FRUIT

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood LEAVES OR STEMS x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood x-none

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. or the ROYAL POINCIANA was named after M. de Poinci an 18th century governor of the French West Indies. In the Caribbean Islands the pods are used for fuel. It is called "woman's tongue" based on the rattling sound made in the wind. In the Madagascar wild it is endangered, but Delonix is widely cultivated elsewhere. Flowers manufacture copious amounts of nectar and pollen. This guarantees that it will be visited by pollinators. The flowers have insecticidal pr operties so it is able to manage populations of beetles, caterpillars and weevils. To germinate manually, start with fresh seeds and file them to remove the shine. Soak them for 24 hours. Dip them in boiling water for 3 to 5 minutes. Let them soak overnight in warm water. The seeds should germinate within one week (77,78,79,80).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana ROYAL POINCIANA or FLAMBOYANT TREE Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. (dee-LON-iks REE-jee-uh) GENERAL Delonix regia Delonix regia

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana Delonix

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon Diospyros virginiana L. or PERSIMMON shares the same genus as the wood, ebony. It is a prized black, hardwood. The word persimmon is derived from an Algonquian language pasiminan meaning a dry fruit. Native Americans use its seeds in breads. Its fr uit is used to stop bleeding and to treat constipation and hemorrhoids. When mixed with cornmeal, t he American persimmon can be brewed into "simmon beer". In 1607 Capt. John Smith of the Jamestown colony wrote: The fruit is like a medlar ; it is first g reen then yellow and red when it is ripe: if it is not ripe it will drive a man's mouth awrie with much torment, but when it is ripe it is as delicious as the apricock

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. (dyOS-per -us vir-ginee ANa) GENERAL

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon LEAVES AND STEMS

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 215

MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig Ficus aurea Nutt. or the STRANGLER FIG is also called the Golden Fig. The genus Ficus is a member of the diverse Mulberry family, one of the largest genera of woody flowering plants. The Moraceae have approximately 1,000 different species The Ficus have the most bizarre growth forms and ingenious method of pollination. Figs are only pollinated by fig wasps, and fig wasps can only reproduce in fig flowers. The wasps are housed throughout the year inside the fig's hollow fruits. Each species has its own, host-specific pollinator They grow with numerous snakelike, aerial roots downward from the limbs These air roots take in nutrients and water from the air and host trees. A massive, buttressed trunk with vast surface roots spreads in all directions; and an aggressive root growing habit that strangles its host tree. In the case of the STRANGLER FIG, the preferred host tree is the CABBAGE PALM (83,84,85,86,87,88).

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. (FY-cus ARE-ea) GENERAL

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig LEAVES AND STEMS

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig DISTRIBUTION

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. or POP ASH is distinguished from other ash trees in that it is a true swamp species. It also has as interesting 3-winged fruit. It serves as host to endangered epiphytic bromeliads and orchids. Florida is home to one of the top two largest, POP ASH, National Register of Big Trees. This tree c Its descriptive information include: Location: O'leno State Park, FL Circumference: 56 inches Height: 58 feet Spread: 24 feet Points: 120 The wood of the POP ASH is elastic, hard and strong. It is used for baseball bats, bows and guitars. It makes excellent firewood (89,90,91,92).

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash POP ASH or CAROLINA ASH Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. GENERAL

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash LEAVES AND STEMS

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash DISTRIBUTION x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. Ellis or LOBLOLLY BAY belongs to the tea family, Theaceae Although it is not used for tea, a related species, Camellia sinensis is the source of our iced tea. The five waxy petals of the flower have a cup shape. Each petal is covered with silky hairs on its bottom surface. Each flower has multiple yellow stamens. LOBLOLLY BAY has a shallow root system. It will die if not watered during periods of drought. In the wild, it lives most frequently in the shade of maples, cypress and pines. It is well-suited for planting in boggy and other poorly drained soils (93,94,95).

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. Ellis (gor-DOE-nee -uh lay-zee-ANTHus) GENERAL Magnolia virginiana, Persea borbonia Gordonia Gordonia alatamaha

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY LEAVES AND STEMS

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 236

RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush Hamelia patens Jacq. or FIRE BUSH goes by many names. These include HUMMINGBIRD BUSH, IX-CANAN, POLLY RED HEAD, and the TEXAS FIRECRACKER. It's Mayan name, Ix -canan means "guardian of the forest." Indigenous people throughout Central and South Ameri ca use the plant to prepare remedies to treat skin problems, relieve pain, heal wounds, reduce spasms, kill parasites and bacteria. The root is used as a diuretic. FIRE BUSH is rich in pteropodine and isopteropodine patented as effective immune stimulan ts. They also have shown a modulating e ffect on brain neurotransmitter receptor target drugs used for depression and other disorders. FIRE BUSH also contains 00.05% ephedrine The plant has tremendous heat tolerance coupled with good pest resistance. FIRE BUSH does not have a dormant period. It grows and flowers almost continually. These flowers attract many butterflies and humming birds (96,97,98,99).

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush FIRE BUSH, RED BUSH or SCARLET BUSH Hamelia patens Jacq. (hah-ME-lee-ah PAY-tenz) GENERAL patens

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush LEAVES AND STEMS

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush DISTRIBUTION

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea Hydrangea quercifolia W. Bartram or OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA has large, white outer flower clusters which are sterile; inner flowers are fertile. It is a deciduous shrub with leaves that turn red and purple in the fall en Its bark exfoliates cinnamon, oran ge and tan which provide s winter beauty (100, 101, 102)

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA SEVEN BARK, GRAYBEARD Hydrangea quercifolia GENERAL Querci folia

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea LEAVES AND STEMS

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly Ilex cassine L. landscape tree. It grows by forest and wetlands by streams, lakes or ponds. This tree is becoming ever more popular on the native plant market in its natural growing area. DAHOON HOLLY is an understory tree that tolerates brackish water and low-light conditions Plants are transplanted or suckers dug and transplanted Berries are an excellent food source for wildlife, and are a favorite with birds. All Holly berries are POISONOUS to humans (103,104).

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. (EYE-leks ca-SEEN) GENERAL

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry Ilex glabra (L.) or GALLBERRY is a member of the holly family. The origin of the word holly is the en 11 th centuryen en Old High Germanen hulis and en Old English holegn The word hulis originates from an even older proto-Germanic word khuli a shortened derivation of the ancient en Gaelic cuilieann In modern Gaelic, holly is still called cuileann The botanic name ilex was the original Latin name for the en Holm oak which has similar foliage to common holly. The two plants are occasionally mixed-up. Bluebirds b obwhite, brown thrashers, hermit thrushes and turkeys frequently eat GALLBERRY fruits Bears, w hite tailed deer and marsh rabbits brows e on GALLBERRY leaves GALLBERRY propagates and sprouts from root cuttings stem cuttings or suckers and root crowns and rhizomes. en en GALLBERRY may be used for ecological restoration habitat enrichment plantings and naturalistic landscapes. GALLBERRY is an important en nectar sourceen for en bee s. It yields a mild flavored, light amber colored en honey in the coastal southeastern states of America (105,106,107). en en

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry GALLBERRY or INKBERRY Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray (EYE-leks GLAY-bra) GENERAL glabra Gnaphalium

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. or AMERICAN HOLLY adds the red berries of the northern hemisphere winter landscape and the Christmas holiday season. It is mainly a tree of the humid Southeast. It grows in a wide variety of soils from the sandy beaches of the Atlantic Ocean to fertile mountain soils. It grows best in the rich, slightly acidic, upland pines. It grows in the bottomlands and swamps and the sandy Coastal Plain (109,110).

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. (EYE-leks o-PAYka) GENERAL Opaca

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) or SCRUB HOLLY was first reported by Small in 1924 as Ilex arenicola It was re named by Ashe in 1925. It was later reported by McFarlinan in 1932 as Ilex pygmaea. This discrepancy was subsequently resolved (110).

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY SC RUB HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) (EYE-leks o-PAYka ai rin -aCO -la ) GENERAL Opaca arenicola Arenicola

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 276

AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY DISTRIBUTION Ilex opaca arenicola

PAGE 278

AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly An old use of Ilex vomitoria Ait. or Yaupon Holly is enumerated his Plant is the Indian Tea, us'd and approv'd by all the Savages on the Coast of Carolina and from them sent to the Westward Indians and sold at a considerable Price. All which they cure after the same way, as they do for themselves; which is thus: They take this Plant (not only the Leaves, but the smaller Twigs along with them) and bruise it in a Mortar, till it becomes blackish, the Leaf being wholly defaced: Then they take it out, put it into one of their earthen Pots which is over the Fire, till it smoaks; stirring it all the time, till it is cur'd. Others take it, after it is bruis'd, and put it into a Bowl, to which they put live Coals, and cover them with the Yaupon till they have done smoaking, often turning them over. After all, they spread it upon their Mats, and dry it in the Sun to keep it for Use. Spaniards in New-Spain have this Plant very plentifully on the Coast of Florida and hold it in great Esteem. Sometimes they cure it as the Indians do; or else beat it to a Powder, so mix it, as Coffee; yet before they drink it, they filter the safely and speedily thro' the Passages, for which it is admirable, as I myself have experimented (111)

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly YAUPON HOLLY Ilex vomitoria Ait. (EYE-lex vomih -TORee uh) GENERAL vomitoria

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly FLOWERS AND FRUIT Ilex

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 285

GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire Itea virginica L. or VIRGINIA WILLOW has spectacularly colored autumn foliage. Colors are long lasting and are a mix of maroon, orange, yellow and crimson. Butterflies are attracted by its numerous flowers. The seeds are eaten by birds. Itea is the Greek name for willow. (112,113).

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire VIRGINIA WILLOW or SWEETSPIRE Itea virginica L. (eye-TEE-uh vir-JINih -kuh) GENERAL Itea Itea

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire

PAGE 288

GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 289

GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire

PAGE 290

GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire LEAVES AND STEMS

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire DISTRIBUTION

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple Licania michauxii Prance or GOPHER APPLE was named for the French botanist Andr Michaux. He described the plant in a journal he wrote as he traveled t The GOPHER APPLE is suggested as a native plant for home landscapes and ground cover. Its native habitat is pinelands and sand dunes over entire state. It is well adapted for the Northern, Central and Southern areas of the state. GOPHER APPLE grows in full sun and in dry soil. Research on Licania michauxii has resulted in the revelation of its therapeutic agents Cytotoxic action against human hepatoma and the colon carcinomas are treatable with said drugs (114,115,116).

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance (lie CAN ee-a miCHO-zee-eye) GENERAL

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple LEAVES AND STEMS

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 299

HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua L or SWEETGUM has dark-purple to reddish brown heartwood T his wood has been marketed in the trade as Italian mahogany or satin walnut. Its bark becomes deeply ringed at approximately 25-years old. The cultivar Rotundiloba displays leaves with rounded, fig like lobes; This cultivar does not produce the spiky fruit. Molecular studies have shown that Liquidambar would be better placed in the Altingiaceae instead of the Hamamelidaceae (117,118,119,120,121)

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum SWEETGUM Liquidambar styraciflua L. (lik -widAM -ber styra se-FLEWa) GENERAL Liquidambar

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum LEAVES AND STEMS

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 306

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. or RUSTY LYONIA is colloquially called the rusty lion! This is due to the rusty color of the new leaf growth. Lyonia grows in the pine Flatwoods or dry scrub (122)

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia RUSTY LYONIA or CROOKED WOOD Lyonia ferruginea (W alter) Nutt. (lye-O-nee-a fer-roo-JIN-ea) GENERAL ferruginea

PAGE 308

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 310

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia LEAVES AND STEMS

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 313

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch or SHINY LYONIA has showy, fragrant flowers. Flower fragrance often lasts for weeks. SHINY LYONIA is related to other toxic plants in the Ericaceae family, and it is suspected that it may be toxic to livestock as well; c attle seem to find fetterbush unpalatable SHINY LYONIA is adaptable to both wet and dry soils. It is a good choice for planting at water edges that experience wide changes in water levels (123,124,125).

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia SHINY LYONIA or FETTERBUSH Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch fr-FR (lie OH -neea LUsi -duh) GENERAL SHINY LYONIA is a lovely evergreen shrub that grows in damp soils all over the peninsula of Florida. It is a valuable landscape plant. Though not usually so large, it can grow to 4m or 12 tall. SHINY LYONIA is distinguished by its deep pink urn shaped flowers and shiny, dark green leaves with inter-marginal veins. The vein runs parallel to the margin or leaf edge. Since several members of the Ericaceae or Heath Family also have the common name of Fetterbush, we prefer not to use it because of the confusion. Fetterbush refers to bushes growing in thickets that could fetter or tangle the feet. This interesting family also includes blueberries, azaleas and mountain laurels.

PAGE 315

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia

PAGE 316

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia FLOWERS AND FRUIT SHINY LYONIA has clusters of cylindrical or bell shaped flowers with persistent sepals which are born at the leaf axils. This means the clusters of flowers grow out of the base of the leaf. The color ranges from light to deep pink to nearly red.

PAGE 317

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia The fruit is an urn shaped, dry capsu le or achene that serves as food for some seed eating wildlife.

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia LEAVES AND STEMS The leaves are alternate simple and broad to narrowly elliptical in shape. They range to 2 to 8 cm or 1 to 3 long. This shiny, dark green and leathery foliage is evergreen. The vein that parallels the margin is a distinguishing feature of this species. The stems can grow woody with age.

PAGE 319

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia DISTRIBUTION SHINY LYONIA are found in wet flatwoods, bogs and swamp edges throughout the entire peninsula of Florida and along the Coastal Plain from Louisiana up to southern Virginia.

PAGE 320

MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia Magnolia ashei (Weatherby) or ASHE MAGNOLIA transplants poorly and seems to be short-lived in many landscape sites unless its cultural requirements are closely met. Partial shade and well-drained soil are required. It will not tolerate wet soil or drought. Sheltered sites are best since strong winds can shred the papery leaves and break the brittle branches. The large leaves decompose slowly after falling and may be considered a litter problem. Magnolias are an ancient flower family with a fossil reco rd dating between 36 and 58 million years ago. The distribution of existing Magnolias today resulted when Ice Age glaciers destroyed ancient European forests but not those in Asia or America. Surviving species represent some primitive flowering plants. These flowers do not produce true nectar. They attract pollinating beetles of the Nitidulidae family using a fragrant, sugary secretion. This is because Magnolias evolved long before bees and other flying pollinators. An infusion of the bark of Magnol ias has been used in the treatment of stomach aches or cramps ; a hot infusion is sni ffed for sinus problems and swished in the mouth to treat toothaches (126,127,128,129).

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia ASHE MAGNOLIA Magnolia macrophylla ashei (Weatherby) (magNO-lee-uh ASHee -eye) GENERAL ENDANGERED Magnolia macrophylla Magnolia ashei M. macrophylla. en

PAGE 322

MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 327

MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L or SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA is used to make furniture because of its heavy, hard wood. The wood is straight grained and polishes to a lustrous finish. Purple streaks in the wood from mineral deposits make it a valued wood for veneers Magnolia wood is also used for shiny wood flooring. en-GB en-GB When the stems are crushed or bruised they have a lemon scent. en-GB en-GB Extracts of the seed have useful neurological properties en-GB such as, as a sedative or calmative (130,131,132,133,134). en-GB en-GB en-GB

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA or BULLBAY Magnolia grandiflora L. (magNO -leeuh grandi -FLOOR-uh) GENERAL grandiflora

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 331

MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia DISTRIBUTION

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana L. is called the SWEET BAY MAGNOLIA. Linneaus named the genus Magnolia in honor of Pierre Magnol, the physician of King Louis XIV of France who was concomitantly the director and Professor of a botanical garden at Montpellier! Magnolia wood is used to make furniture, boxes, flats and baskets popsicle sticks, tongue depressors, broom handles, veneer, and Venetian blinds SWEETBAY wood is medium soft, straight grained and uniform. It is resistant to heavy shrinkage, very high ly shock absorbent SWEETBAY has a low bending and compression strength. It takes glue s nails, stains and varnishes easily. SWEETBAY is important forage for deer; they browse the leaves and twigs The seeds are eaten by gray mice, wild turkey, quail, and song birds. Virginia tribes used decoctions of leaves, twigs, and bark of Magnolia virginiana to treat colds and chills, to warm the blood, and as a hallucinogen The Colonists c alled the SWEET Beavertree Colonists trapped beavers using t fleshy roots as bait (135,136,137,138)

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay SWEETBAY, SILVER BAY, MAGNOLIA BAY (magNO -lee-uh vur-gineeAN -uh) GENERAL

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay DISTRIBUTION

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake or CAJEPUT was trees were planted as soil stabilizers on canal levees bordering the southern end of Lake Okeechobee and also in Big Cypress National Preserve. Seeds were scattered from airplanes over the Everglades to dry up the wetland biosphere Pr ivate individuals cannot plant Melaleuca yet very little is done to force them to remove it from their property. Therefore, while CAJEPUT infestations have declined on public lands, they are flourishing on private lands. These stands on private property unfortunately lead to new re-infestation in areas already treated, thus undermining public control! Better comprehensive planning is necessary for the eradication of CAJEPUT (139).

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput CAJEPUT, PAPER BARK or PUNK TREE Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake (mel-aLU -ka kwin-kwenNER vi a) GENERAL The CAJEPUT is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 m or 50 is easily recognized by its unique bark. The common name, tan sheets of soft, pulpy bark that peels off in layers. Respiratory irritations from pollen and dermatitis from bark contact are not uncommon. The oils are used medicinally. It is against the law to plant this tree because it is listed as PROHIBITED by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and a NOXIOUS WEED by the Florida Department of Agriculture and U.S.D.A. Seeds easily sprout where they fall. Originally imported from Australia to help dry up wetlands, CAJEPUT trees have become pests in south Florida, destroying vast areas of natural habitats. Efforts are being made to eliminate these trees from natural landscapes by treating them with herbicides. This requires great persistence and much money.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput FLOWERS AND FRUIT terminal clusters of white flowers form along and around the stem giving it the appearance of a bottlebrush. Hard seed capsules form around the stem, just as the flowers.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput The seeds are carried by birds. They are dropped with their own supply of fertilizer.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput LEAVES AND STEMS CAJEPUT leaves are alternate simple, entire and lanceolate They are long and narrow, being wider near base.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput Leaves have 5 to 7 parallel veins running their length. Stems or branches are weak and soft. The tree trunk is covered with gray colored, corky, peeling bark. DISTRIBUTION CAJEPUT trees grow throughout south Florida and through the central Florida wetland areas. They can be found in the Everglades and marshes, and along roadside canals.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle Myrica cerifera L. or WAX MYRTLE was traditionally planted around southern homes to help keep living spaces pest free. This foliage seems especially to repel insects, particularly fleas. Volatile oils are found in tiny glands on the leaves. They cause the WAX MYRTLE to ignite in a flash in a fire, making it a very flammable plant! It takes approximately 3 to 15 pounds of bayberries to make 1 lb of wax. Bayberry candles burn longer, cleaner and with a brighter light than did the traditional candles of the time. The saying went "Bayberry candles burned to the socket, bring health to the home and wealth to the pocket!" The Choctaw Indians boiled the leaves and drank the decoction as a treatment for fever (140,141,142,143,144)

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle WAX MYRTLE or FL ORIDA BAYBERRY Myrica cerifera L. (my-REE -ka serIF er a) GENERAL and useful plants. This evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree, 8m or 25' tall. It has multiple trunks. WAX MYRTLE is identified by aromatic leaves, which are toothed toward the apex. The silvery gray bark is nearly smooth. Its shiny, dark green leaves, cold hardiness and insect resistance, make it an excellent choice as a native landscape plant. WAX MYRTLE repels insects with the fragrant wax contained in its leaves and berries. The wax is used to scent candles, thus the common name of Florida Bayberry. The species name, cerifera A tea made from tender leaves and twigs has been used to treat colds, stomach aches and ulcers. The leaves are used to flavor stews and soups.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle FLOWERS AND FRUIT WAX MYRTLE plants are dioecious They have male and female flowers on separate plants. The tiny male flowers are in catkins, 2 cm or 1" long at the leaf axi ls

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle Tiny, white female flowers are borne along the stems. The clusters of gray berries are covered with wax that contains a pleasant fragrance.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle LEAVES AND STEMS The glossy leaves are alternate, simp le and 3 to 15 cm or 2 to 6" long. L eaves are oblanceolate with teeth toward the pointed tip. Though thin, they have a leathery texture. Tiny glands on both surfaces appear as amber colored dots upon magnification. They are fragrant when crushed. Rubbed on the skin, they repel insects.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle DISTRIBUTION WAX MYRTLE is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout Florida. It thrives in wet woods to dry pinelands. WAX MYRTLE ranges from Florida north to New Jersey and west to Arkansas and Texas. It also grows in the West Indies.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine Myrsine floridana A. DC. or MYRSINE is also called Colicwood. MYRSINE provides good food and nesting sites for many species of bird s. The thick foliage also provides excellent cover. Myrsine grows from wet to dry ridges in hammocks, pinelands, and along the shoreline. It is also a good hedge plant for barrier islands. The Miccosukee Indians used the dried leaves to mix with tobacco. They call it the white tobacco-seasoning tree (145,146,147).

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine MYRSINE or RAPANEA Myrsine floridana A. DC. (mer-SEEN flo ri-DAY-na) or Rapanea punctata GENERAL MYRSINE is an attractive shrub or small tree which grows The berries are available all year long and provide food for many species of fruit eating birds, including mockingbirds and cat birds. The heavy foliage provides nest sites and shelter. It is occasionally confused with Marlberry, but can be distinguished by the flowers and fruit appearing in a spiral along the stem.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine FLOWERS AND FRUIT MYRSINE is essentially dioecious with a f ew perfect flowers. In winter, small white flowers bloom along the stems. They are followed by clusters of round berries which appear on the bare stems below the foliage.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine The berries turn blue-black when ripe.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine LEAVES AND STEMS The leaves appear close together at the ends of branches They are alternate simple and occasionally have notched tips. They are leathery textured and have revolute or rolled under margins. The mature stems are whitish and show off the flowers and berries.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine DI STRIBUTION MYRSINE is found in coastal hammocks from Manatee and Volusia Counties south to the Keys. x-none x-none

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch or EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM has unusual eye-catching fruiting clusters. Eastern North American gardeners find it a natural for the native plant landscape. European farmers used relatives of the hop hornbeam to make yokes for oxen thus the names "hornbeam" or "yoke-elms (148,149)."

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam EASTERN HOP HORNBEAM Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (OSS-tree-uh vir-gineeANuh) GENERAL en en Ostrya en en

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam LEAVES AND STEMS

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam DISTRIBUTION

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng. or RED BAY as with all bays have oils including cineol camphor eucalyptol and p-cymene. They are all medicinal. When plant parts are ingested by humans they are somewhat protected against Giardia infections. RE D BAY aromatic leaves are substitutable for the common spice, bay leaf, Laurus nobilis a European relative from the same family. Seminoles use the leaves to make a tea and in cooking. Red bay pollen was found in a pre-Columbian site near Lake Okeechob ee. RED BAY coevolved with the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly and the P alamedes S wallowtail Butterfly. The larvae forms sequester the aforementioned oils for protection against predators. RED BAY wood is used fo r wooden spoons, inside finishing as well as in boat construction. This wood takes a high polish for furniture (150,151,152,153).

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay RED BAY Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng. (PER-see-a bor-BONE-iuh) GENERAL RED BAY is an attractive evergreen tree that grows to about 12m or It is usually much smaller. RED BAY can be easily identified because of the numerous leaf galls. They are lighter in color than the leaves and often form along the leaf margins, deforming the leaf. There are two varieties common to Florida. They are P. borbonia Var. borbonia RED BAY humilis SILK BAY The common name comes from the red heart-wood. Because it is close-grained, heavy and strong, it is used for cabinet work and furniture. Its aromatic, flavorful le aves are used for seasoning food.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT Tiny greenish flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils The fruit is a dark blue, oval drupe with one seed. Peduncles are 2.5

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are simple and a lternate. They are entire elliptic to lanceolate and grow to 15 cm or 6 long. Bright green and lustrous above, the lower surface is glaucous or has fine white hairs Var. borbonia shows a prominent yellow midrib The underside of var. hum ilis has rusty pubescence When crushed, the leaves are pleasantly aromatic.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay The leaf galls, caused by insects, are a common feature and can be used to help identify this tree.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay The twigs are slightly hairy. The bark is reddish brown, with flat, scaly ridges divided by deep vertical fissures when mature. DISTRIBUTION RED BAY grows in wide variety of habitats from bluffs to hammocks and scrubs in every county in Florida, including the Keys. It grows west to Texas and north to Virginia. Var. humilis is endemic to the ancient scrubs of central Florida.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay Persea borbonia humilis Nash or SILK BAY has a National Register tree listed in the Ocala National Forest. It sports 105 points. Its most recent measurement was taken in 1991 (154).

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay Persea borbonia humi lis Nash (PER-see-a bor-BONE-iuh) GENERAL

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay LEAVES AND STEMS Persea borbonia humilis

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay DISTRIBUTION

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. or SWAMP BAY is a wetland plant. It can be then by the back of its leaves. The Creeks use the P. palustris root as a hydragogue They know this because the plant lives in the swamp. en SWAMP BAY is noted for its show of fall colors (155,156) en en en en en en en en en en en en en

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay SWAMP BAY Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. (PER-see-a pal -LUS-trus) GENERAL en

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT Persea palustris Persea borbonia P. palustris

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay LEAVES AND STEMS

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay DISTRIBUTION

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) or SAND PINE is a shallow rooted tree. Though drought tolerant and good for Florida landscaping, from that perspective, it should be planted away from buildings due the ease with which it is up rooted. The SAND PINE native range is limited almost entirely to Florida. The largest concentration can be found in Ocala in the "Big Scrub." This variety of SAND PINE also grows in a narrow strip along the east coast of Florida from St. Augustine southward to Fort Lauderdale A small tract of Ocala SAND PINE can be found scattered north of Tampa southward to Naples. SAND PINE and other members of the Florida Scrub Community prevent fire through fuel reduction. Fire frequency is reduced by keeping leaf litter build-up to a minimum (157,157,159,160).

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex. Sarg. (PYE-nus KLAW-zuh) GENERAL clausa

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine LEAVES AND STEMS

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine DISTRIBUTION

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine Pinus elliottii Engelm. or the SLASH PINE common name originated from the method of extracting the resin from the trees by scoring or slashing the trees to start resin flow. Synonyms for Pinus elliottii include Pinus densa, Pinus caribaea a nd Pinus heterophylla. SLASH PINES have been in service to Floridians for centuries. This is the most common tree of pine plantations throughout Florida. It was the primary naval stores species, producing rosins and turpentine used for many purposes. Millions of acres of slash pine have been planted, grown and harvested. It takes about 30 years for slash pine trees to reach saw timber size (161,162,163).

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine SLASH PINE (PIE-nus elee-OTTee-eye) GENERAL Pinus elliottii elliottii Pinus elliottii densa.

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine LEAVES AND STEMS

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine DISTRIBUTION

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Mill. history. In 1782, Francis Philip Fatio recognized the economic value of Florida's pine forests in a report to the Government of the Province of East Florida. It provided an early history of forestry in Florida and its ability He continued that the navigable St. John's River ran parallel to the Atlantic Ocean with forests that would produce substantial quantities of pitch, tar and turpentine. Fatio suggested regulations to prohibit the extirpati on of the young saplings, and to fix the number of trees that should remain on every acre. He also indicated that the pines were excellent for deck planks and masts (164).

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine LONGLEAF PINE Pinus palustris Mill. (PIE-nus puh-LUS-tris) GENERAL The stately LONGLEAF PINE grows to 40 LONGLEAF PINES have long symmetrical tree trunks called boles. Evergreen, needle-like leaves are protected by a waxy coating. They are extremely fire resistant. LONGLEAF grass phase of growth, a thick bundle of needles protects the bud while the taproot grows deeper. During years 5 to 7 the top begins to grow. It shoots up about 3 feet in one year holding the crown above most ground fires. When older, LONGLEAF PINES are protected from fire by the thickness of many layers of bark. LONGLEAF PINE is best known for lumber, naval stores and medicines. Pine needle tea is tasty and helps treat the common cold. In the past, mixtures with turpentine were used to treat sore throats and many other ailments. Also known as the Southern Pine, it once covered much of the state of Florida.

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT Male flowers appear in long, rose-purple clusters; the female flowers are purple, in clusters of 2 to 4. The cones are usually longer than 15cm or are slightly curved. LONGLEAF PINE pinecones are the larges t in Florida. LEAVES AND STEMS LONGLEAF PINE lives up to its name with the longest needles, 25 to 35cm or 10 to fascicles or bundles of 3. Large round clusters of needles emerge

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine from the ends of the branches. Silvery -white terminal buds, called candles, appear in the spring.

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine The trunk is covered with orange-brown papery scales arranged in thick, protective layers.

PAGE 410

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine DISTRIBUTION LONGLEAF PINE is most often found in dry sandhills and acidic flatwoods. It is indigenous to most of the state except the extreme southern tip of the peninsula.

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. or SYCAMORE is a heavy, hard and course grained wood. It is used for baskets, boxes, crates and fiber board. Many butcher block tables are SYCAMORE. SYCAMORE is sometimes called Buttonwood. This wood is often called Lacewood due its markings when it is quarter sawn. SYCAMORE made up a large part of the forests of Greenland and Arctic America during the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. SYCAMORE is North America's largest native broadleaf tree. Today, there are SYCAMORE trees that are as old as five to six hundred years. It is a m ember of one of the planet's oldest clan of trees which family has been dated to be over 100 million years old. The terms under which the New York Stock Exchange was formed is called the Buttonwood Agreement. This is because the terms were signed under a Buttonwood tree. Sycamore sheds tiny hairs during pruning that may cause an allergic reaction. Some Indian tribes made syrup from sap (165,166,167,168,169).

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore SYCAMORE or PLANE TREE Platanus occidentalis L. (PLATan -us oksi -den-TAY-lis) GENERAL

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore FLOWERS AND FRUIT LEAVES AND STEMS

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore x-none

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 418

RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum Prunus angustifolia Marshall, the CHICKASAW PLUM is also called the Sand Hill Plum. It is a major tree which grows all over western Kansas. A recipe for plum salsa includes green chilies, garlic, onion, cilantro, ripe native plums, pits removed, sugar, cumin, salt, and pepper. Native Americans routinely consumed the fruit fresh or dried it for winter. CHICKASAW PLUM is a butterfly plant and serves as bee food. It has a honey flavor. This tree is an effective means for erosion control along stream banks (170,171,172,173,174).

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall (PROO-nus angus -ti-FOLEee-a) GENERAL Prunus angustifolia

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum LEAVES AND STEMS

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 425

ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl or CHERRY LAUREL is an American native tree found growing on rich, moist sites, from North Carolina to Florida. The flowers are hermaphroditic They have both male and female organs. They are pollinated by insects. CHERRY LAUREL grows prominently under power lines B irds sit to digest their cherry treats and deliver quantities of s eed forming linear populations along the utility lines! The leaves, twigs, stems and seeds are poisonous and ingestion can lead to respiratory failure and death. This is due to the presence of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin However, in small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion. It is also claimed as a traditional cancer treatment (175,176,177,178).

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel CAROLINA LAUREL CHERRY or CHERRY LAUREL GENERAL caroliniana

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel LEAVES AND STEMS

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 432

ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. or BLACK CHERRY is one the more sought after woods for furniture. The wood is hard, tight-grained yet easy to work. The heartwood ages to a deep red color; the sapwood is whiti sh -yellow. BLACK CHERRY leaves have a pungent odor when crushed. This is caused by the glycoside prunasin and or amygdalin. When ingested amygdalin causes gasping, weakness, excitement, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma, respiratory failure and death. It converts to hydrocyanic acid. Pitted fruits can be eaten raw or made into jelly with combined with apples; sauces, pies, and flavorings Native Americans used the inner bark in a tea for colds, coughs, diarrhea, fever, pneumonia, and to purify the blood. Viable seeds have been produced on open-grown seedlings or sprouts as young as 10 years of age and on trees as old as 180 years. However, the period of maximum seed production in natural stands is generally between 30 and 100 years of age. The bulk of the seed crop falls to the ground in the vicinity of the parent tree. Songbirds an d omnivorous mammals distribute seeds in their droppings or by regurgitation. This method of distribution accounts for the seedlings in stands lacking BLACK CHERRY trees. BLACK CHERRY is a great landscape tree along highways. It is sun and drought tolerant. It provides an eye-pleasing weeping effec t. It is prone to tent-caterpillars and webworms (179,180,181,182).

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry BLACK CHERRY Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. (PROO-nus sair-OTT-i-nuh) syn. (P. virginiana) L. GENERAL serotina

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry LEAVES AND STEMS

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 439

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR Quercus chapmanii Sarg. or CHAPMAN OAK is host to the Dusky Wing Skipper and White-M Hairstreak. fr-FR A recent study of the Scrub has shown that elevated atmospheric CO 2 stimulates growth of the fire-regenerated ecosystem, including the CHAPMAN OAK (183,1 84)

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR CHAPMAN OAK Quercus chapmanii Sarg. (KWER-kus chap-MAN-eei) GENERAL The CHAPMAN OAK is a small, shrubby evergreen tree well-drained sandhills and scrubs where it associates with Quercus myrtifolia, Quercus inopina and Quercus geminata. The CHAPMAN OAK is named for Alvan Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) a botanist who studied and wrote about plants of the South, especially scrubs. Because of its small stature, the hard wood of CHAPMAN OAK is best suited for tool handles and fence posts. The acorns provide food for wildlife, especially turkeys, jays and grackles. The tannins in the bark have traditionally been used to tan animal hides.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The female flowers are single or in pairs, but are inconspicuous. The male flowers are in drooping catkins appearing in the spring. The acorns grow up to 2.5 covered to by a bowl-shaped cup which is attached without a stalk.

PAGE 443

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak One of the white oak group, its acorns mature in one season and have a sweet flavor. LEAVES AND STEMS CHAPMAN OAK leaves are alternate and simple They are ovate to elliptic but are often spatulate or wider toward the apex Matu re leaves are 5 to 10 Mostly entire the margins sometimes have shallow lobes, but most often they are wavy.

PAGE 444

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak They are distinguished from the other scrub oaks by being sparingly pubescent or having short hairs on their lower leaf surface. The upper surface is lustrous, often with a quilted appearance.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak The thick, gray-brown bark is broken into irregular plates. DISTRIBUTION CHAPMAN OAK is found in scrubs, ancient dunes and sandy hammocks along the coastal plain from south central Florida north to South Carolina.

PAGE 446

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak A 100 year old Quercus geminata Small or SAND LIVE OAK was photographed by Robb Vandaveer It has a dbh of 38 inches. A big tree is located in Gainesville, Florida. It removes almost 20 pounds of nitrogen, ozone particulates and sulfur each year from the air Quercus geminata is a tree or shrub of variable shape and size depending on its habitat. There is ongoing discussion that the SAND LIVE OAK represents only an environmentally induced variant of live oak. SAND LIVE OAK only grows in North Carolina from Bogue Banks southward to Florida. It grows in coastal hammocks flatwoods sandhill scrub, and scrubby flatwoods alike. Under winter burn management, SAND LIVE OAK increases in the Flatwoods (185,186,187,188).

PAGE 447

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak SAND LIVE OAK or TWIN LIVE OAK GENERAL Quercus geminata Quercus virginiana. Quercus virginiana. Q. virginiana Quercus geminata geminata

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 453

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd., LAUREL OAK or the Darlington Oak is so named perhaps due to the shape of its curved, open crown. It is considered a geographical or climatic sub-species of Quercus laurifolia The lower leaf surface of the LAUREL OAK is often smooth. A majority of leaves on a mature will have bristle tips. Trees produce regular, abundant crops of acorns. These fruits are important for wildlife. Acorns are eaten by birds, deer, ducks, quai l, raccoons, and squirrels (189,190).

PAGE 454

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak LAUREL OAK Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd. (KWER-cus hem-iss-FEER-ica) GENERAL LAUREL OAK is a medium-sized oak tree that grows to 30m or 90 stout, straight trunk. Older trees sometimes develop buttressed trunks with relatively smooth bark. LAUREL OAK is a fast growing shade tree with a full, rounded crown that makes it popular in landscapes. It drops many twigs and has a short life span. Botanists are not in agreement on the Laurel Oaks. Some consider Quercus hemisphaerica to be a subspecies of Quercus laurifolia. The main distinction between the two is habitat. Quercus hemisphaerica is an upland species, while Quercus laurifolia is found in wetter areas.

PAGE 455

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak

PAGE 456

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The male flowers occur in short, hanging catkins

PAGE 457

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak The female flowers are found on short stalks on new growth. Both occur on the same tree.

PAGE 458

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak The acorn is dome-shaped 1 to 2cm or to 1 long with a shallow cup covering of the nut. LEAVES AND STEMS LAUREL OAK leaves are alternate simple and deciduous They remain on the tree most of the winter d ropping their leaves all at once T rees only stay bare for a few weeks in the early spring. The shiny, bright green leaves are 5 to 10cm or 2 to 4 long and 2 to 4 cm or 1 to 1 Leaves may have 3 or more lobes at the tips, but the majority of the mature leaves will be laurel shaped. Neither surface displays any pubescence but some may have a tiny bristle tip.

PAGE 459

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak DISTRIBUTION LAUREL OAK grows in dry woods and mesic or moderately moist oak -pine woods throughout Florida It does not grow in the Keys. It is a tree of the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia.

PAGE 460

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak Quercus laevis Walter or TURKEY OAK is named for its 3-lobed leaves which resemble a foot. It increases in the sandhill when long leaf pines are removed and or where burns are restricted to winter. The acorns are a food source for animals in the sandhill community. The wood is used for fuel wood and barbecuing though the bark and twigs contain valuable materials for tanning leather. The oak tree was dedicated to Thor, the mythological God of thunder. It was therefore believed that an oak tree could never be struck by lightning. A carry over from this folk history are the acorn-shaped wooden pulls thought to protect a house (191,192,193)!

PAGE 461

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak TURKEY OAK Quercus laevis Walter (KWER-kus LEE-vis) GENERAL TURKEY OAK grows to about 10m or 20 to a scrubby, deciduous tree that grows besides the Longleaf Pine in the Longleaf Pine-TURKEY OAK community. It grows on sand ridges throughout most of Florida. TURKEY OAK is characterized by deeply lobed, bristle tipped leaves. The species name, laevis means smooth. Sometimes referred to as a scrub oak, it is also called Bitter tasting acorns provide food for wildlife and turkeys. Because of its small size, TURKEY OAK was mostly used for firewood.

PAGE 462

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak

PAGE 463

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT Pollen containing catkins form on the branch tips.

PAGE 464

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak The acorns have a wide base and taper to a point. They are 2 to 3 year after blooming. The acorn cap is covered with large scales. Its rolled edges cover about one-third of the nut.

PAGE 465

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are alternate and simple with three to seven deeply cut lobes. Three -lobed leaves resemble a wild turkey track. The main rib of each leaf extends into a bristle tip. The upper surface is lustrous but there are small hairs at the vein axils underneath. Petioles are rather short ranging to 1.5cm or 3 / 8 long. They twist to allow the leaves to turn at about a 45 degree angle to the ground in order to slow moisture loss.

PAGE 466

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak The red autumn leaves turn brown and remain on the tree through much of the winter. The thick bark is dark gray, furrowed and blocky. DISTRIBUTION The TURKEY OAK grows in dry pinelands from Lake Okeechobee northward to Virginia and west to Louisiana.

PAGE 467

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak Quercus laurifolia W. Bartram ex Wild. or SWAMP LAUREL OAK has colorful spring growth. It is much more tolerant of heavy soils with slow drainage than most other oaks. LAUREL OAK pollen listed as a severe allergen (194,195).

PAGE 468

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak SWAMP LAUREL OAK or DIAMOND LEAF OAK Quercus laurifolia W.Bartrm ex Wild. (KWER-cus law-riFO lia) GENERAL Quercus hemisphaerica Quercus laurifolia

PAGE 469

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak

PAGE 470

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 471

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak

PAGE 472

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 473

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 474

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. or the SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK is a good shade tree that does well in damp locations. It is referred to as the cow oak because cows eat the acorns; the basket oak, for the baskets are made from its wood! The wood splits easily and fibers are used for weaving. It ma de strong containers that were constructed and used by slaves in the "old south" to carry cotton from the fields. SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK produces the sweetest of the white acorn. It is edible raw. The sweet acorn is preferred by many animals. OAK: Spread: 115

PAGE 475

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK or BASKET OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. (KWER-kus mi -SHOW-zee-eye) GENERAL Quercus michauxii

PAGE 476

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK

PAGE 477

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 478

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 479

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus muehlenbergii

PAGE 480

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 481

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak Quercus myrtifolia Willd. or MYRTLE OAK is growth dependent on the amount of moisture available It is usually found close to salt water. It sprouts from rhizomous roots and frequently grows into dense often almost impenetrable thickets. This regenerative ability makes it quick to recover after a fire. The thickets provide excellent nesting for birds, including the endangered Florida scrub jay. Acorns are an important high carbohydrate food source for black bear, deer, quail, raccoons, squirrels and wild turkey. Folk legends attribute magical powers which believe the plant to bestow love, passion, and fertility to its users (201,202).

PAGE 482

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak MYRTLE OAK Quercus myrtifolia Willd. (KWER-kus merti-FOLeea) GENERAL

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 484

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 485

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 486

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 487

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 488

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak Quercus nigra L or WATER OAK is also called Possum oak, Spotted oak, Striped oak P in oak D uck oak and Punk oak! A mulch of dry leaves repels slugs and grubs; fresh leaves inhibit other plant growth. It is a traditional staple food of the Choctaw. The seed can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening or mixed with cereals for making bread. Any galls found on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of hemorrhages chronic diarrhea and dysentery The Kiowa use the leaves for paper in rolling cigarettes (201,204,205).

PAGE 489

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak WATER OAK Quercus nigra L. (KWER-kus NY -gra) GENERAL

PAGE 490

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak

PAGE 491

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 492

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 493

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak

PAGE 494

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 495

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak FAIRCHILD OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. or LIVE OAK has sweet edible acorns considered a culinary delicacy by chipmunks, deer, ground birds, songbirds, small mammals and squirrels. Its name is derived from the fact that its foliage is evergreen through the winter months. In the Creek tradition, it was given the gift of eternal life, being evergreen, because it stayed awake to watch the last night of the Creation. LIVE OAK is the heaviest native hardwoods, weighing 55 pounds per cubic foot when air dried. Dry southern LIVE OAK lumber has a specific gravity of 0.88, the heaviest of any North American hardwood. The LIVE OAK of USS Constitution repelled the shot of the HMS Guerriere so effectively that one of her sailors was heard to shout, "Huzzah! Her sides are made of iron!" The ship was given the nickname, Old Ironsides. Because the USS Constitution was built before shipbuilders learned to bend or steam wood into shape, the LIVE OAK 's long, arching branches were used as "knees" or braces to connect the ship's hull to its deck floors (206,207,208).

PAGE 496

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak LIVE OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. (KWER-kus vir-gin-eAN a) GENERAL LIVE OAK is a spreading evergreen tree that grows to 20 and the crown may reach to more in diameter. They have a massive main trunk which divides into several horizontal branches. These branches form a widespread crown an can extend fairly low to the ground. LIVE OAK longer than any other oak in Florida. The strong, dense wood was ideal for shipbuilding, furniture and tools. In 1799 the U.S. Congress appropriated money to purchase live oak land in the Carolinas so the country would have enough of these mighty trees for ship timbers and masts. Their heavy branches provide food, shelter and nest sights for many birds and other animals. The rough, furrowed orchids, bromeliads and ferns.

PAGE 497

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak

PAGE 498

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The staminate or male flower s are born e on catkins 5 to 7.5 cm or 2 or

PAGE 499

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak The pistillate or female flowers are arranged on a spike. The acorn is a shiny dark brown to black oval nut about 2.5 -like stem. The top-shaped cap covers about one third of the nut. LEAVES AND STEMS LIVE OAK leaves are oblong stiff and leathery. They are cupped and shiny, dark green above and tomentose or covered with short, soft hairs below.

PAGE 500

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak They grow in an alt ernate pattern and range from 2 to 15cm or 1 to Margins of mature leaves are smooth and slightly rolled under, but leaves on new shoots are often toothed or lobed.

PAGE 501

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak LIVE OAK bark is gray to brown in color and deeply furrowed. It breaks into small plates that are about 2.5cm DISTRIBUTION LIVE OAK is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout the state. It is the only oak that grows throughout the state including the Keys. Their range is from Texas to Virginia in the coastal plains.

PAGE 502

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle L. or RED MANGROVE timber is used for cabinetry, for shipbuilding, and to pulp. Bark extracts are used to stain floors and furniture. Branches are used to make fishing poles. Cattle eat RED MANGROVE leaves following treatment with CaCO 3 ; a wine is made from mangrove leaf and raisin! Gargling with the bark is used to cure throat cancer. an astringent, emmenagogue expectorant hemostat styptic, and tonic, red mangrove is a folk remedy for angina, asthma, backache, boils, ciguatera convulsions, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, enuresis, epistaxis, eye ailments, fever, filariasis, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, lesions, leucorrhea, malignancies, scrofula, short wind, sores, sore throat, syphilis, tuberculosis, uterorrhagia, and wounds (209)

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle RED MANGROVE Rhizophora mangle L. (rye-ZOFor uh MAN-gul) GENERAL

PAGE 504

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 506

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle

PAGE 507

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 508

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 509

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac Rhus copallina L. or WINGED SUMAC berries can be chewed to relieve thirst, or brewed to WINGED SUMAC is also called Shining Sumac. WINGED SUMAC is a good choice for low maintenance xeriscape landscaping. It is easy to transplant and care for. It grows well on sandy, infertile soils. Traditional American Indians use the bark of all sumacs as an astringent The tannins in the leaves and bark are used for tanning leather A root extract makes black dye. Sumac leaves are used for smoking (210,211,212,213).

PAGE 510

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac WINGED SUMAC or SHINING SUMAC Rhus copallina L. (RUS Copa-LYE-na) GENERAL copallina Toxicodendron vernix

PAGE 511

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac

PAGE 512

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 513

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 514

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac

PAGE 515

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 516

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. or CABBAGE PALM name They cooked and ate it like cabbage. The tree is often called Swamp Cabbage. Removing this tasty apical meristem from the plant, however, causes it to die. The CABBAGE PALM often lives long after oaks, cedar, and pine have died from tidal flooding. There is a champion tree in Lafayette County, FL, with a circumference and a The CABBAGE PALM is considered one of the most common species of native trees in North America. Cabbage palmetto leaves are used to make baskets, canes, scrub brushes and thatch. Bees use its pollen. One report indicated that 65 colonies gathered 3500 lbs. of extracted cabbage palmetto honey in two weeks from an apiary on the St. Lucie River. The last full weekend in February, LaBelle, Florida hosts the annual Swamp Cabbage Festival. This was started in 1964 by the Jaycees (214,215,216,217,218,219,220).

PAGE 517

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm CABBAGE PALM or SABAL PALM Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (SAY-bal pal -METo) GENERAL An attractive tree with a straight trunk, the CABBAGE PALM grows to about 18 smooth or cross-hatched with boots of old leaf bases. The large leaves are distinguished by a graceful curve and long, wavy fibers. The strength and durability of the fibrous trunks made them desirable in construction and pilings during early times. Th e official state tree of Florida and South Carolina, the CABBAGE PALM appears on the Florida State Flag. It is a native tree. CABBAGE PALM comes from its use as a vegetable. It is necessary to kill the palm in order to cut out the apical meristem or bud, which is the edible portion. It may be eaten raw, as in Heart of Palm Salad, or cooked as Swamp Cabbage. CABBAGE PALM fruit provide food for wildlife.

PAGE 518

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm

PAGE 519

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm FLOWERS AND FRUIT The stalk of fragrant white flowers is many branched and arching.

PAGE 520

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm It is often as long as the leaves. Drooping clusters of edible, round, blue-black fruit follo w.

PAGE 521

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm LEAVES AND STEMS The triangular shaped leaves are held in a V with a graceful, downward curve. Up to 2 the fronds are divided into long, tapering segments with thread-like filaments.

PAGE 522

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm The segments are shiny green above and gray-green below. The petioles or leaf stems grow to 2m or 6 DISTRIBUTION CABBAGE PALM is found throughout Florida as well as up the coast to the Carolinas, then west along the Gulf Coast to Texas.

PAGE 523

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow Salix caroliniana Michx. or CAROLINA WILLOW is host plant to the Viceroy and Red-Spotted Purple butterflies. The willow tree is associated with life and endurance, perhaps in part for the resilient ability of cut branches to take root in water. The charred wood makes an excellent drawing charcoal. In 1828, the French pharmacist, Henri Leroux isolated salicin to its crystalline form from the bark of WILLOW. The Italian chemist, Raffaele Piria separated the acid in its pure state. Native Americans across the American continent use CAROLINA WILLOW as a staple for their medical treatments. Native Americans powdered the bark, leaves, and buds to extract the salicin for medicinal purposes to include pain relief Today it remains a much cherished plant of the Florida Creek Indian People with many cultural uses. CAROLINA WILLOW wood can be used for basket weaving, cricket bats, fish traps, flutes, poles, sweat lodges, veneer and whistles. CAROLINA WILLOW has yellowish glands on the tips of the serrated leaf margin With magnification, one can see these glands either on the tip or in the notches between the teeth (221,222,223,224).

PAGE 524

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow CAROLINA or COASTAL WILLOW Salix caroliniana Michx. (SAY-liks caro lin eeAN a) GENERAL The CAROLINA WILLOW is the most common willow of Florida. CAROLINA WILLOW is a deciduous, shrubby tree which grows to 10 long, narrow leaves arranged on long, willowy branches. The CAROLINA WILLOW grows at the edges of lakes, streams and rivers. The genus name, Salix is derived When you chew a leaf, you may recognize the familiar taste of aspirin! CAROLINA WILLOW contains the same major ingredient of that headache and fever reduction medication salicin, which is an aspirin precursor An inner bark decoction has been used for severe colds, fever, diarrhea and dysentery. The long, flexible branches are used for making willow chairs and tables. Split wood is also used to make baskets.

PAGE 525

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow

PAGE 526

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow FLOWERS AND FRUIT The flowers are born in attractive catkins or spike like flower stalks bearing small unisex flowers that emerge at the same time as the new leaves.

PAGE 527

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow The silk-tipped seeds are released from small pods that split open in the spring.

PAGE 528

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow LEAVES AND STEMS CAROLINA WILLOW leaves are simple alternate and lanceolate or lance shaped. They grow to 8 to 20cm or 2.5cm or 3 / 8 The margins are finely serrated or toothed. The upper surfaces are smooth and dark green, while the lower surfaces of the leaves are glaucous and whitish.

PAGE 529

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow The stems are strong, long and limber, giving meaning to x-none x-none x-none DISTRIBUTION CAROLINA WILLOW is found in freshwater wetlands throughout the Florida peninsula, but rarely seen in the Keys. A southern species, it is found from Florida to Texas, north to Maryland, inland to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. They grow along the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys to Missouri. CAROLINA WILLOW is also found in Cuba.

PAGE 530

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry Sambucus canadensis L. or ELDERBERRY leaves, stems and roots are POISONOUS though they have been used in folk medicine for years. Children have become ill from sucking on stems to make whistles. The flowers and fruit are not toxic. The white blooms can be dipped in batter and fried as a protein rich pancake. The fruit may be eaten raw, used to make pies, jams and jellies and a delicious sweet wine. Elderberries have more vitamin C per unit weight than oranges or tomatoes. The Elder tree, Sambucus nigra is one of the sacred trees of Wicca and Witchcraft. It represents the thirteenth month on the Celtic Tree Calendar. It is the last two days of October and is the end of the old Celtic year, leading into the 1 st of Novemb er We celebrate this calling it Halloween (225,226,227,228).

PAGE 531

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry ELDERBERRY or AMERICA ELDER Sambucus canadensis L. (sam-BYOO-kus kana DEN -sis) GENERAL canadensis Sambucas

PAGE 532

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry

PAGE 533

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 534

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry

PAGE 535

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 536

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry DI STRIBUTION

PAGE 537

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees or SASSAFRAS leaves and bark both have a citrus scent. The root is used to make root beer. The roots were boiled with molasses and fermented until a distinctive soft drink is produced. Sassafras wood, bark and roots produce an extract, the oil of sassafras. It is useful in flavorings, perfumes and scenting soaps. The medicinal use of the oil has declined recently due to the potential for carcinogenetic effects. Sassafras wood is durable and is used for buckets, cabi nets, cooperage fence posts and rails, interior finish and furniture (229,230).

PAGE 538

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (SASSuh-fras AL -bih-dum) GENERAL SASSAFRAS is a deciduous tree that grows to 15 m or 45 I n Florida it can appear more shr ublike. Its s hort, horizontal branches give it a layered appearance. Sixteenth century French and Spanish settlers called this tree by its American Indian name, SASSAFRAS. Albidum the leaves. Aromatic oils derived from the roots, bark and twigs of this tree are used in flavoring extracts, perfumes, soaps and in some pharmaceuticals. It is reported that Columbus used the airborne fragrance of the SASSAFRAS as an indicator of land nearby. The Creek People today use the roots in ceremonies.

PAGE 539

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras

PAGE 540

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras FLOWERS AND FRUIT The flowers appear with the unfolding leaves in terminal racemes. SASSAFRAS is dioecious, male and female flowers grow on separate plants trees. Flowers are 5 to 8 mm across and are yellowish green. The small oval fruits are dark blue. They grow as fleshy drupes borne in clusters on red stems.

PAGE 541

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are simple, alternate, and palmately veined. The margins have one to three lobes often looking like mittens or three fingered gloves. A majority of the leaves on younger plants are two and three-lobed obovate. The apex is usually acute with a wedge-shaped base.

PAGE 542

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras The leaf is yellow-green above with a whitish underside Leaves turn bronze to red in the fall.

PAGE 543

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras Thick, reddish brown bark is divided into flat ridges by deep fissures. The inner bark is aromatic. DISTRIBUTION SASSAFRAS prefers dry, sandy soils. It is common along fencerows in the northern counties of Florida south to Hillsborough county. It ranges throughout the eastern and southern states from Maine to Florida and Texas.

PAGE 544

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi or BRAZILIAN PEPPER was brought to Florida in habitats. T They add a spice to meals when eaten in small quantity They are toxic if eaten in large amounts Ingestion of berries can cause vomiting (231,232) BRAZILIAN PEPPER is invasive to en Australiaen the en Bahamasen enBermudaen southern en Chinaen enCubaen enFijien enFrench Polynesiaen enGuamen enMaltaen the en Marshall Islandsen en Mauritiusen en New Caledoniaen enNew Zealanden en Norfolk Islanden, en Puerto Ricoen enRunionen, and the en United Statesen primarily in en Floridaen and en Hawaiien It is difficult to manage as it sends up root suckers and shoots if the trunk is cut; seeds are dispersed by birds. en Honey bees make honey from BRAZILIAN PEPPER flowers. The berries are an important food source for wintering songbirds. R obins wintering in Florida eat tons of "Florida H olly" berries, and their population has increased since BRAZILIAN PEPPER established in Florida as does the spread of the shrub (231,232) en en

PAGE 545

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (SKY-nus te re -bin-thi-FOL-ius) GENERAL NOXIOUS WEED

PAGE 546

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper

PAGE 547

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 548

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 549

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper

PAGE 550

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 551

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small or SAW PALMETTO blossom fragrance is terrific! Rattlesnakes love to hide in the plants because rats and mice like to hide in them too! The genus name, Serenoa is named after the American botanist, Sereno Watson (1826-1892). Two vegetative forms are recognized: the common yellow-green color; the less common blue-green color referred to as the silver form. The silver type occurs in occasionally inland in Polk and Highlands Counties. The Seminoles grind the berries into nutritious flour. An infusion from the berries is used for stomach aches, dysentery and soft drinks. The berries are also used for prostate health. Today, Florida landowners report cases of "SAW PALMETTO rustling" where gangs of pickers move in and strip and area of fruit within a few hours. Tannin from the stems was used to cure hides, while the leaves and branches made baskets, brooms, hats and ropes (223,234,235,23 6)

PAGE 552

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto SAW PALMETTO Serenoa repens (W.Bartram) Small (Sere NO -a RE-penz) GENERAL SAW PALMETTO is a creeping palm with a trunk that lies on or just below the ground. It occasionally grows upright in heavily shaded areas. Researchers speculate that th ese plants may live more than 700 years. The name repens that stretch out along the ground or each other. The ripe fruit is used as food by many animals, including the Florida Black Bear. Flowers are an important food source to bees. SAW PALMETTO makes a superior honey. Harvested palmetto buds are delicious eaten raw or cooked like swamp cabbage. Additionally, SAW PALMETTO fronds are used to make thatch roofs. Seminole and Creek Indians use the SAW PALMETTO as food and as medicine. Its medicinal qualities have long been known by many civilizations. The berries are used as an aphrodisiac and to treat prostate problems.

PAGE 553

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto

PAGE 554

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto FLOWERS AND FRUIT Fragrant greenish-white flowers are arranged in spike-like structures on a large stalk. The fruit is an oblong drupe or ol ive -shaped stone fruit, about 2

PAGE 555

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto The juicy, black berry has an unpleasant, soapy taste. LEAVES AND STEMS The fan shaped fronds divide into many segments.

PAGE 556

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto Fronds are yellow-green to green. There is a silvery variation caused by a waxy coating on the surface.

PAGE 557

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto The petiole or leaf stem has sharp, curved spines hence the name, SAW PALMETTO. DISTRIBUTION Palmettos grow on sandy dunes, flatwoods hammoc ks and ridges throughout Florida, Louisiana and the Carolinas.

PAGE 558

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox Sesbania punicea (Cav.) DC. or RATTLEBOX is native to Argentina, S.A. Its seeds have saponic glycosides which are lethal if ingested. The species name "punicea" comes from the Latin for crimson. This refers to the color of the flower. This plant is such an invasive species and most references only describe methods of eradication (237,238,239)

PAGE 559

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox RATTLEBOX (sez-BAY-nee-uh pew-NISSee-uh) syn. Daubentonia punicea GENERAL punicea Rank II Pest

PAGE 560

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox

PAGE 561

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox FLOWERS AND FRUIT x-none

PAGE 562

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox POISONOUS

PAGE 563

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 564

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox DISTRIBUTION Sesbania punicea

PAGE 565

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. or GUM BUMELIA is also called Chittamwood, False Buckthorn and or Woolly Bucket Bumelia. Its wood is soft, weak and yellowish-brown in color. The best time of year to collect seeds is in the autumn. Planting seeds is best done in the spring. Seeds should have been kept at 40 o F for two months prior to germination. Optimal germination temperature range is between 70 to 85 o F. Germination time ranges between 16 to 20 weeks. Seeds should be lightly covered with soil (240,241).

PAGE 566

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia GUM BUMELIA or GUM BULLY Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. fr-FR (sider OX -e-lon lu-noojiNO -suh) Syn. Bumelia lanuginose Pers. GENERAL lanuginosa

PAGE 567

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia

PAGE 568

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 569

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 570

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia

PAGE 571

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 572

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. or MAHOGANY came to Florida from the other America where it was first observed by Europeans in late 15 by a carpenter aboard ship with Sir Walter Raleigh When properly finished and polished to a rich sheen, mahogany has a deep rich red color. It has been used since the reign of George I of England for furniture; and is very sought after today Swietenia mahagoni is a Florida native that ironically is becoming rare in the wild due to development, but is increasingly found as a street and yard tree. MAHOGANY casts a light shadow, concomitantly permitting grass and other plants beneath it to grow It is known for its ability to withstand strong winds (242,243).

PAGE 573

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany MAHOGANY Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (swe-TEEN-ia ma -HOG-o-ni) GENERAL

PAGE 574

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany

PAGE 575

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 576

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany

PAGE 577

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 578

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 579

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress Taxodium ascendens (L.) Rich or POND CYPRESS live at higher densities than Bald C ypress. They live in slow moving to stagnant water with low nutrients and occasional fires. These c ypress trees are conifers or cone bearing plants that are related to the giant Sequoia trees of California (244,245).

PAGE 580

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress POND CYPRESS Taxodium ascendens (L.) Rich (taks-Odi -um as -SEN-denz) GENERAL oxygen to the tree and supporting the trees growing in the loose wet soil. Their buttressed trunks also support the heavy trees.

PAGE 581

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress

PAGE 582

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 583

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 584

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 585

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress

PAGE 586

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress Taxodium distichum Brongn. or BALD CYPRESS trees were heavily logged during the 19 th century. Trees were floated down the rivers to mills. Southeastern U.S. swamps boasted ancient BALD CYPRESS forests with trees more than 1200 years old. The largest remaining old-growth stand of BALD CYPRESS is at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, east of Naples, Florida. Cypress trees have been present in southwest Florida for more than 5,000 years; 6,500 years in the far northern region of the state. Trees as old as 500 years of age exceed 40 living near Longwood, Florida. It is 35 with a trunk diameter of 344 In 1740 Mark Catesby, one of the first great nature artist to paint American wildlife, rendered a portrait of a little parrot eating BALD CYPRESS seeds. This answered the question as to how the BALD CYPRESS trees became so widely disseminated. BALD CYPRESS got the name "eternal wood" from longterm use as hollow logs installed as water pipes in 1798 that were still working when removed in 1914 and reports of cypress shingles lasting 250 years (246,247,248).

PAGE 587

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress BALD CYPRESS Taxodium distichum Brongn. (taks-Odi -um DISti -kum) GENERAL

PAGE 588

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress

PAGE 589

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 590

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 591

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress

PAGE 592

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 593

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm Ulmus alata Michx. or WINGED ELM wood is very flexible, hard, resists splitting and it is springy. Its flexibility makes it useful for rocking chairs or curved pieces. Its resistance to splitting makes it good for hockey sticks. Its hardness makes it useful for flooring, boxes, crates, and furniture. The fibrous inner bark is used to make baling twine to bind cotton bales. A wrap of the inner bark was used to stabilize broken bones. The Creek Indians of Alabama, Georgia, and parts of Florida called this tree uhawhu which was anglicized to Wahoo. The Witch Elm is another name given to th is tree from which came the forked "divining rod" that dowsers, also known as "water witchers", used for divining water. Once the spot was located over a subterranean stream and double checked, a well was dug (249,250,251,252).

PAGE 594

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm WINGED ELM or ROCK ELM (ULM-us a-LAY-tuh) GENERAL alata

PAGE 595

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm

PAGE 596

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 597

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 598

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm

PAGE 599

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 600

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm Ulmus americana L. or the AMERICAN ELM was once a popular tree in the northeast United States. Its decline in many areas was due to the fungal, Dutch The disease was also transmitted from the roots of one tree to another. Disease resistant cultivars are now available. The Florida variety, Ulmus americana var. floridana (Chapm) Little, is smaller in stature (253,254)

PAGE 601

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm AMERICAN ELM or FLORIDA ELM (UL-mus uh-mair-ih -KAN-nuh) GENERAL

PAGE 602

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm

PAGE 603

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 604

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 605

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm

PAGE 606

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 607

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry Vaccinium arboreum Mars or SPARKLEBERRY is distinctive among the blueberries in that it thrives on neutral to calcareous soils. It is highly tolerant of droughts. It is a honey plant in sandy spots in the SE U S A. Seeds need light to germinate; they should be sown on the surface of the soil. SPARKLEBERRY is a beautiful landscape shrub. Once established it needs no special treatment. It grows quickly. In full sun, it produces profuse masses of showy white flowers, then masses of equally attractive shiny black berries. SPARKLEBERRY can be propagated from cuttings, but this is difficult. It feeds birds and other wildlife. Bark, leaves and root extracts have been used to treat diarrhea (255,256). en en en

PAGE 608

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry SPARKLEBERRY or TREE HUCKLEBERRY Vaccinium arboreum Mars (vak-SINee-um ar-BORee-um) GENERAL arboreum

PAGE 609

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry

PAGE 610

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 611

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 612

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry

PAGE 613

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 614

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry We can always find room for Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. or SHINY BLUEBERRY, the native blueberry, in the cultivated landscape. Once established, they require no care. Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers; songbirds eat the berries. Traditional Mikasukiinfusion of leaves is used for sun sickness to include eye disease, headache, high fever and diarrhea. SHINY BERRY is also used to treat colds and for chronically ill babies (257,258).

PAGE 615

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry SHINY BLUEBERRY Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. (vak-SINee-um mer-sin-NIE-teez) GENERAL V. darrowii

PAGE 616

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry

PAGE 617

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 618

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 619

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry

PAGE 620

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 621

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. or DEERBERRY is called DEERBERRY because it is eaten by deer! Its leaves turn red and orange before falling in late autumn. This is a highly variable species that has been divided into several sub-species and varieties. There are many synony ms found in the literature. Many songbirds eat the berries and white-tailed deer eat the leaves, twigs and berries. The berries are also savored by black bears, bobwhite quail, chipmunks, foxes, raccoons, ruffed grouse, squirrels and wild turkeys (259,260).

PAGE 622

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY DEER BERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. (vak-SINee-um sta-MIN-nee-um) Syn. Polycodium stamineum GENERAL stamineum

PAGE 623

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY

PAGE 624

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY FLOWERS OR FRUIT

PAGE 625

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY

PAGE 626

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY LEAVES OR STEMS

PAGE 627

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 628

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash fr-FR Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. or PRICKLY ASH is a traditional North American N ative medicinal plant. The Alabama, Cherokee, Chippewa, Comanche, Creek, Delaware, Iroquois, Oklahoma, Menominee, Ojibwa, Pawnee, and Potawatomi alike, use the common PRICKLY ASH for many medicinal purposes. These include alleviating toothaches and intestinal and bladder ailments. An extract of the bark was used to treat the cholera epidemic of 1849. It was used to treat the gaseous bowel compromised from peritonitis The fruit, which has a lemony smell, has been used by young men as a perfume. Giant swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on the plants leaves (261,262,263,264,265).

PAGE 629

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash PRICKLY ASH or TOOTHACHE TREE fr-FR Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. fr-FR (zan-THOKsi -lum CLA-va HERku -lis) fr-FR GENERAL clava -herculis Zanthoxylum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum coriaceum Zanthoxylum flavum

PAGE 630

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash

PAGE 631

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 632

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 633

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash

PAGE 634

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 636

Vocabulary A Achene Acute Acute A pex / Acute apices Aerial roots Air layers Algonquian Alternate leaves Alternately compound Altingiaceae en en en en en en en en en en en en Amygdalin Angina Angiogenesis

PAGE 637

Anther ( s ) Apex Apiary Apical Apical meristem Appressed trichomes Apricock Aromatic Ascending branches Astringent Auriculate Awrie Axillary clusters Axil ( s ) B Basal sheath Bayheads Bipinnate(ly) compound leaves

PAGE 638

Bole Boot ( s ) Bottomlands Bract Broadly lance shaped leaves Bromeliads Buttressed C Calcareous soils Calorific Calyx Camphor Cinnamonum camphora. Canopy Carcinoma Catkins Celluloid

PAGE 639

Cherokee Cholera Ciguatera Cineol Coastal hammocks. Sabal palmetto Juniperus silicicola Pinus elliottii Quercus virginiana Colloquially Compound leaves Coniferous Cooperage Copious Cordate leaves Corky (as in wings) Cornine Corolla Crenate Crown (of a tree) Crustose lichens Cultivars

PAGE 640

Cultural Cuttings Cyanogenic glycoside (s) Cylindrical Cymes Cytotoxic D DBH Deciduous Decoction(s) Deeply depressed veins Dioecious Discouraged Diuretic Dorsal groove Double serrated margins Doubly serrated leaves Doubly toothed or dentate margins Downy (leaf undersides )

PAGE 641

Droop Drupe(s) Dry scrub Dysentery E Ebony Elliptic(al) Emetic emetica, emetikos Cephaelis ipecacuanha Emmenagogue (s) Endemic Entire margins Ephedrine Epiphyte(ic) Eradication Espalier ( s )

PAGE 642

Estuaries Eucalyptol Even pinnate Evergreen Exfoliate ( s ) Exotic Expectorant(s Extirpation F fasciculus Fascicles Fetter Filariasis Flats Flatwood s Floodplains Fluted Foliage

PAGE 643

G Gallic acid Galls Glabrous Glaucous Globuse Glutinous Glycoside Gnaphalium H Hammock Hardwood Hammocks Hybrid Hallucinogen Hamamelidaceae Heartwood en Heliotrophin Hemolytic Hemoptysis Hemorrhages

PAGE 644

Hemostat Hepatoma Hermaphroditic Hollows Hydragogue I Inconspicuous Inconspicuous (clusters of flowers) Inflorescence Infusion Ingenious Insecticidal Inter marginal veins Isopteropodine K Keeled blossom has a L Lanceolate Laryngitis Lateral spurs

PAGE 645

Layering Leaf Leaf axils Leaf node Leaflets Lenticels Leucorrhea Leukemia Liana Lignin Linnaeus, Carl Nilsson Systemae Natu ralae Lobes Lustrous M Monoecious Madagascar Magenta Malaria Malic acid Margin

PAGE 646

Medlar Mesic Micmac Midrib Moist hammocks Monoecious N Naval stores Nitrogen Node Non lustrous leaf Notched Nutlet O Oblanceolate Oblong Obovate Obscure

PAGE 647

Oddpinnately Omnivorous Opaque Opposite branching Opposite leaves Ornamental Oval to oblong Ovate Ovoid Ozone P Palmate veins Palmately compound Panicles Partitioned seed pods Pasiminan P cymene Peduncles Pendant balls Perfect (flowers)

PAGE 648

Peritonitis Persistent Petiole(s) Pine Flatwoods Pinnae Pinnate veins Pinnately compound, Pioneer plant (s) Piria, Raffaele Pistil(s) Pistillate (flowers) Pistillate catkins Pneumatophores Profusion Propagate Propagule Prostate Prunasin is

PAGE 649

Prussic acid Pteropodine Ptperonal butoxide Pubescent(ence) Purgative Pyrethroid ( Q Quinine R Raceme(s) Rachis Recurved Reflexed leaves Regurgitation Resin(s) Reticulated Retort Revolute / Revolute margins Rheumatism Rhizomatous

PAGE 650

Rhizomous Ringworm Root Root stock Rosins Rugose S Safrole Salicin Samara Sand scrub Sandhill Saponic glucosides Sassafras Scro fula Scrub habitat

PAGE 651

Scrubby Flatwoods Scythe shaped Semi deciduous Semi persistent Sepals Sequester Serrated leaf margin Serrated margins Serrations Sessile Shallow lobes Simple leaves Simple Smooth margins Spatulate Stamen Staminate Stigmas Stipules

PAGE 652

Styptic Sub opposite Succession Sulfur T Tannin tanna Tepals Terminal Thatch Tomentose Tonic Toothed margin Topiaries Tripinnate compound leaves are Tubular Turns

PAGE 653

Turpentine Tworanked U Under story Unpalatable Uterorrhagia V Vein axils Veneers W Wavy margins Wedged base Wedge shaped base Wet hammocks Whorls(ed) Winged rachis Woodenware X Xeric

PAGE 656

en en

PAGE 659

en en en en en en en

PAGE 660

en en en en en en en en en en en

PAGE 663

en

PAGE 664

en en en Science.

PAGE 668

SCIENTIFIC NAME INDEX

PAGE 674

COMMON NAME INDEX

PAGE 678

COMMUNITY KEY FOR WORT HUNTERS GUIDE LEAF KEY Look at your surroundings. Are you standing on, in or near: COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS AND AREAS DISTURBED AND URBAN AREAS: DRY SAND: FRESH WATER HAMMOCKS: LEAVES: STATEWIDE WET SOIL: EXOTIC PLANT

PAGE 679

COASTAL AREA AND SCRUB ENVIRONMENTS Simple BLACK MANGROVE Avicennia germinans L. PAGE 64 CHERRY LAUREL Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl PAGE 414 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148

PAGE 680

GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance PAGE 281 GREEN BUTTONWOOD Conocarpus erectus Nutt PAGE 169 GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. PAGE 78

PAGE 681

MYRSINE Myrsine floridana A. DC. PAGE 344 RED MANGROVE Rhizophora mangle L. PAGE 491 SEA GRAPE Cocoloba uvifera L. PAGE 162 SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) PAGE 379

PAGE 682

Compound NICKER BEANS Caesalpinia bonduc L. PAGE 85 DISTURBED AND URBAN AREAS Simple BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi PAGE 533 CAMPHOR TREE Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl PAGE 155 Compound MIMOSA Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. PAGE 22

PAGE 683

RATTLEBOX Sesbania punicea (Cav.) DC. PAGE 547 Allbizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. PAGE 29 DRY SAND Needles LONGLEAF PINE Pinus palustris Mill. PAGE 393 SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) PAGE 379

PAGE 684

SLASH PINE Pinus elliottii Engelm. PAGE 386 Simple CHAPMAN OAK Quercus chapmanii Sarg. PAGE 428 CHERRY LAUREL Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl PAGE 414 CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall PAGE 407

PAGE 685

DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. PAGE 239 DEERBERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. PAGE 610 GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance PAGE 281 GUM BUMELIA Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. PAGE 554

PAGE 686

LAUREL OAK Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd. PAGE 442 MAHOGANY Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. PAGE 561 MYRTLE OAK Quercus myrtifolia Willd. PAGE 470 RED BAY Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng PAGE 358

PAGE 687

RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SAND LIVE OAK Quercus geminata Small PAGE 435 SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees PAGE 526 SAW PALMETTO Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small PAGE 540

PAGE 688

SCRUB HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) PAGE 260 SCRUB PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash PAGE 57 SHINY BLUEBERRY Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. PAGE 603 SILK BAY Persea borbonia humilis Nash PAGE 365

PAGE 689

SPARKLEBERRY Vaccinium arboreum Mars PAGE 596 TAR FLOWER Befaria racemosa Vent. PAGE 71 TURKEY OAK Quercus laevis Walter PAGE 449 WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477

PAGE 690

WAX MYRTLE Myrica cerifera L. PAGE 337 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 FRESH WATER Simple BALD CYPRESS Taxodium distichum Brongn. PAGE 575 POND CYPRESS Taxodium ascendens L. PAGE 568

PAGE 691

SUGARBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd P P A A G G E E 1 1 2 2 0 0 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 HAMMOCKS Simple FIRE BUSH Hamelia patens Jacq. PAGE 225 MARLBERRY Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. PAGE 50

PAGE 692

RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA Magnolia grandiflora L. PAGE 316 STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. PAGE 204 SUGARBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd PAGE 120

PAGE 693

SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 Compound PRICKLY ASH Zanthoxylum clava herculis L. fr-FR PAGE 617 RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. PAGE 15 ROYAL POINCIANA Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. PAGE 190

PAGE 694

LEAVES (DRY WOODS, WOODLANDS) Simple ASHE MAGNOLIA Magnolia ashei (Weatherby) PAGE 309 BEAUTY BERRY Callicarpa americana L. PAGE 92 CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall PAGE 407

PAGE 695

DOGWOOD Cornus florida L. PAGE 176 FRINGE TREE Chionanthus virginicus L. PAGE 141 OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA Hydrangea quercifolia W. Bartram PAGE 232 PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. PAGE 197

PAGE 696

REDBUD Cercis canadensis L. PAGE 134 SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 WINGED ELM Ulmus alata Michx. PAGE 582 Compound DEVIL'S WALKING STICK Aralia spinosa L. PAGE 43

PAGE 697

PECAN Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch PAGE 113 PIGNUT HICKORY Carya glabra Mill. PAGE 106 WINGED SUMAC Rhus copallina L. PAGE 498

PAGE 698

STATEWIDE Simple AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. PAGE 253 BLACK CHERRY Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. PAGE 421 CABBAGE PALM Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. F. PAGE 505 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148

PAGE 699

GALLBERRY Ilex glabra (L.) PAGE 246 LIVE OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. PAGE 484 PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. PAGE 197 RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295

PAGE 700

WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477 Compound BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi PAGE 533 WINGED SUMAC Rhus copallina L. PAGE 498

PAGE 701

WET SOIL (BOTTOMLANDS, FLOODPLAIN, MARSH, SWAMPS, WETLANDS, WET FLATWOODS, WET HAMMOCKS) Needle SLASH PINE Pinus elliottii Engelm. PAGE 386 Simple AMERICAN ELM Ulmus americana L. PAGE 589 BUTTONBUSH Cephalanthus occidentalis L. PAGE 127

PAGE 702

CAROLINA WILLOW Salix caroliniana Michx. PAGE 512 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148 DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. PAGE 239 EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch PAGE 351

PAGE 703

ELDERBERRY Sambucus canadensis L. PAGE 519 IRONWOOD Carpinus caroliniana Walter PAGE 99 LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. PAGE 218 MELALUCA Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake PAGE 330

PAGE 704

POND APPLE Annona glabra PAGE 36 RED MAPLE Acer rubrum L. PAGE 8 RU STY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SHINY LYONIA Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch PAGE 302

PAGE 705

SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA Magnolia grandiflora L. PAGE 316 STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. PAGE 204 SWAMP BAY Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. PAGE 372 SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 SWAMP DOGWOOD Cornus foemina Mill. PAGE 183

PAGE 706

SWAMP LAUREL OAK Quercus laurifolia W. Bartram ex Wild. PAGE 456 SWEET BAY MAGNOLIA Magnolia virginiana L. PAGE 323 SWEETGUM Liquidambar styraciflua L PAGE 288 SYCAMORE Platanus occidentalis L. PAGE 400

PAGE 707

VIRGINIA WILLOW Itea virginica L. PAGE 274 WAX MYRTLE Myrica cerifera L. PAGE 337 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477

PAGE 708

Compound BOXELDER ASH LEAFED MAPLE Acer negundo L. PAGE 1 POP ASH Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. PAGE 211 RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. PAGE 15



PAGE 1

THROUGH A PHOTOGRAPHERS EYE INTERESTING FACTS MARGARET B. BOGAN, Ph.D MICHAEL D. BOGAN, M.S. AUDREY R. SWINDAL, B.S.

PAGE 2

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INTRODUCTION This book is designed for the student learner and adult new to Florida tree identification. It is unique in several ways. It is designed as a photographically intense representation of the flowering cycle of the tree s allow ing the user to see details that are not commonly found in identification books. These pictures make it easy to compare plant species and display details which are hard to describe in common, nontechnical, language Each picture is large and detailed. Furth er d istinguishing details necessary for identification is facilitated by large photos of leaves stems and seeds. The text is additionally enhanced by not only having a Table of Contents, a Scientific Index and a Common Name Index, it has a Photo graphic I ndex arranged by the a pond. Important technical terms are highlighted and can be found in the vocabulary section at the end of the text T erms are defined in non technical and technical language. Students can learn tree identification, botanical terms, connect the terms for tree parts with detailed photographs which stimulate visual memory learning, l ocate species within plan t community types and see tree morphology not always visible without magnification Habitats are described as you perceive them when you are standing in the middle of a habitat. Plants that cross habitats are indexed multiple times. In addition, a photo tagged page with interesting, little known facts about a species, precedes the botanical information. Concomitant rationale for book development was the request of our many friends. We had become members of a state recognized Muskogee C reek Indian villag e and became aware of the integral nature of plant identification and usage in the beliefs and everyday life of the village. Plants eaten used to treat ailments and underlie the inner workings of the Muskogee C reek cosmology and cultural practices. Bec ause of the interdependence of all these parts of everyday life, it is necessary for plants to be preserved. Utilization of plants for food and medicine can only be practiced if the specific species continue to exist in populations sufficiently large for collection. and connect important plants in relation to nearby landmarks and species. The habitat index reinforces plants with their physical locations. The a nimal species which are pa rt of the life of the Muskogee C reek depend on the continued presence of these plant species habitats, to maintain cultural practices of the Muskogee people define and separate them from other groups. Plants which facili tate communication with the supernatural and reinforce ideas and beliefs within the group are mandatory for the continued self identity of the group. i

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Many members of the village came to the group as adults searching for their cultural background withou t formal schooling and had limited contact with traditional knowledge or interest in schooling Consequently members of the village possess very rudimentary knowledge of plant identification and less knowledge of the utility of plants. However, as they are knowledgeable It was their request to have an easily used source for some of the cultural information. Other groups also approached us for a t ext to supply information about common trees of Florida. This compilation is the result of these requests and our own need for a re source of easily used plant identification information. The book is computer ready, pictures are easily projected. The vol ume is usable with ADOBE reader Once transferred to a thumb drive, it is usable on a tablet or laptop computer in the field. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction i Table of Contents iii Acer negundo 1 Acer rubrum 8 Aesculus pavia 15 Albizia julibrissin 22 Albizia lebbeck 29 Annona glabra 36 Aralia spinosa 43 Ardi sia escallonioides 50 Asimina obovata 57 Avicennia germinans 64 Befaria racemosa 71 Burs e ra s im a ru b a 78 Caesalpinia bonduc 85 C alicarpa americana 92 Carpinus caroliniana 99 Carya glabra 106 Carya illinoensis 113 Celtis laevigata 120 Cephalanthus occidentalis 127 iii

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Page Cercis canadensis 134 Chionanthus virginicus 141 Chrysobalanus icaco 148 Cinnamomum camphora 155 Coccoloba uvifera 162 Concarpus erectus 169 Cornus florida 176 Cornus foemina 183 Delonix regia 190 Diospyros virginiana 197 Ficus aurea 204 Fraxinus caroliniana 211 Gordonia lasianthus 218 Hamelia patens 225 Hy drangea querciafolia 232 Ilex cassine 239 Ilex glabra 246 Ilex opaca 253 I lex opaca arenicola 260 Ilex vomitoria 267 Itea virginica 274 Licania michauxaii 281 iv

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Liquidamber styraciflua 288 Lyonia ferruginea 295 Ly onia lucida 302 Magnolia ashei 309 Magnolia grandiflora 316 Magnolia virginiana 323 Melaleuca quinquenervia 330 Myrica cerifera 337 Myrsine floridana 344 Ostrya virginiana 351 Persea borbonia borbonia 358 Per sea borbonia humulis 365 Persea palustris 372 Pinus clausa 379 Pinus elliotii 386 Pinus palustris 393 Platanus occidentalis 400 Prunus angustifolia 407 Prunus caroliniana 414 Prunus serotina 421 Quercus chapmanii 428 Quercus geminata 435 Quercus hemisphaerica 442 v

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Quercus laevis 449 Quercus laurifolia 456 Quercus michauxii 463 Quercus myrtifolia 470 Quercus nigra 477 Quercus virginiana 484 Rhizophora mangle 491 Rhus copallinum 498 Sabal palmetto 505 Salix caroliniana 512 Sambucus canadensis 519 Sassafras albidum 526 Schinus t erebinthifolius 533 Serenoa repens 540 Sesbania punicea 547 Sideroxylon lanuginosa 554 Swietenia mahogoni 561 Taxodium ascendens 568 Taxodium distichum 575 Ulmus alata 582 Ulmus americana 589 Vaccinium arboretum 596 Vaccinium myrsinites 603 vi

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Vaccinium stamineum 610 Zanth oxylum clava herculis 617 Vocabulary 625 List of References 645 Bibliography 653 Internet Resources 655 Scientific Name Index 657 Common Name Index 663 Community Key 667 Leaf Key vii

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viii

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder Acer negundo (L.) or BOX ELDER or can be tapped for a sugary syrup. When boiled, the inner bark yields crystallized sugar. Dried and powered, the inner bark is used as a soup thickener. Bark tea has been used traditionally as an emetic. BOX ELDER has edible seeds. Leaves serve as a preservative for packing fruit and or root crops. BOX ELDER burls have been used to make drums. (1,2)

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder BOXELDER or ASH LEAFED MAPLE (AY-ser neh-GUHN-doe) GENERAL

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder FLOWERS AND FRUIT x-none

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder LEAVES AND STEMS

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Boxelder DISTRIBUTION

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple The RED MAPLE or Acer rubrum L. is referred to as October Glory, Red Sunset and Autumn Fantasy (3)! In the fall season leaves turn from green to yellow to a fiery red (4)! Boiled inner bark produces a purple color which an be turned into ink or dye with the addition of lead sulfate (5) Boiled sap yields a good flavored maple syrup of small quantity (6). Fire suppression in the SE permits the RE D MAPLE bark to grow thick fire tolerant bark (7).

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple RED MAPLE Acer rubrum L. (AY-ser ROO-brum) GENERAL Acer rubrum Acer

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple LEAVES AND STEMS

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ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Red Maple DISTRIBUTION

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye RED BUCKEYE or Aesculus pavia L. is called the firecracker plant! The large clusters of red tubular flowers appear in early spring It is an important food source to hummingbirds and the season's first butterflies (8)! Leaves are velvety purple-green at first unfolding. They have considerable fall color and drop leaves early. Seeds look like chestnuts but are POISONOUS when eaten. All parts of the tree are TOXIC (9).

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. (ESS-kew-lus PAYvee-uh) GENERAL

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye THESE SEEDS ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS. LEAVES AND STEMS

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye

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HIPPOCASTANACEAE (Buckeye Family) Red Buckeye DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa The MIMOSA or Albizia julibrissin Durazz. botanicals. The flower and bark are both used for anxiety and depression relief. It rivals the western herbal St. Johns Wort (10,11)! CORPUS OF DISCUSSION ON HERB S: "Sweet in taste, mild in smell, it promotes mental relaxation and a peaceful attitude of mind and spirit (12) ." Researchers in the Journal of Ethnopharmocology identified the chemicals therein! When flowers drop off trees and land on the rose bushes, they kill the roses! Not from lack of sun do the roses die but because the flowers drop off the tree and die on the rose foliage, killing the foliage (13).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa MIMOSA or SILK TREE Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (alBEE -zee-uh ju -lih-BRISS-in) GENERAL Albizia julibrissin CATEGORY 1 PEST PLANT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Mimosa DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) WOMAN S TONGUE or Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. yields a light-colored honey which is highly regarded by beekeepers (14). Its bark contains saponin used to make soap (15). Tannins are used for tanning leather. WOMA gum made from sap is used as a substitute for gum arabic. The bark is an anti-inflammatory; seeds are used as an aphrodisiac and for leprosy. The wood is used in cabinet making as a veneer. It is sometimes called Indian walnut (16).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (alBEE -zee-uh LEB-bek) GENERAL CATEGORY 1 PEST PLANT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family)

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family)

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) DISTRIBUTION

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple Annona is a Haitian or Taino Indian dialect name for the plant. Alligators sometimes eat the fruit hence the name Alligator apple. Though edible, the species is not commonly eaten in the western hemisphere. It tastes astringent but it does provide food for wildlife. It is used to make wine and jelly. The bark is an excellent home for orchids and other air plants. The light and soft wood is used to substitute cork in fishing nets. It is a 'freshwater or brackish water mangrove' as its roots tolerate both high tide and freshwater flooding. Islanders make the fruit into a juice that some say has a noble taste. Called Kalhuhuthu Meyvaa, on the Island Republic of the Maldives, Annona glabra is considered a pest plant to the islands in the Indian ocean (17,18,19,20).

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple POND APPLE Annona glabra (anNO -na GLA-bra) GENERAL glabra Annona glabra Annona squamosa, A. squamosa

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple LEAVES AND STEMS Ficus

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple

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Annonaceae (Custard Apple) Pond Apple DISTRIBUTION

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) Devil's walking stick or Aralia spinosa L. is often used for its tropical looking landscape effects. The tea from the bark was given as a purgative while the berries were used in pain killing preparations. Flowers must be FULL of nectar in the afternoon as they are then absolutely covered with honeybees! Raw berries are toxic; ripe berries are a food for wildlife (22).

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) STICK Aralia spinosa L. (uh-RAY-lee-uh spinOH -suh) GENERAL Aralia spinosa Zanthoxylum clava herculis A. spinosa Aralia edulis

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family)

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) x-none

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) LEAVES AND STEMS

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ARALIACEA E (Ginseng Family) x-none x-none x-none DISTRIBUTION

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. or MARLBERRY is a prodigious native shrub of the central Florida interior, north to the Kissimmee area. It grows under the canopy of cabbage palmetto and live oak along with Callicarpa americana Psychotria nervosa and other understory vegetation. Several species of Ardisia sp. Are medicinal in nature but are so highly toxic, medicine should only be administered by a medicine maker or trained herb doctor.

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry MARLBERRY GENERAL Ardisia escallonioides Ardisia elliptica Thunb. A. elliptica

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry en

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Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family) Marlberry DISTRIBUTION Ardisia escallonioides

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash or SCRUB PAWPAW is a preferred larval food of the Zebra Swallowtail butterfly. The Zebra Swallowtail butterfly has adapted a toxin from Asimina leaves to use for its own protection. The common name pawpaw probably derives from the Spanish papaya due to a casual similarity of pawpaw fruit to papaya fruit. Mark Catesby wrote the first description of an Asimina sp Anona fructu lutescente levi scrotum Arietis referente. This translates to (23,24,25)

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW SCRUB PAWPAW or FLAG PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash (a -SIMin -uh ob-oVAY-ta) GENERAL Asimina obovata

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW LEAVES AND STEMS

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ANNONACEAE (Custard Apple Family) SCRUB PAWPAW DI STRIBUTION

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove Avicennia germinans L. or BLACK MANGROVE wood is dark hard and dense These properties make it useful for posts, construction and charcoal. Coastal fishing families like the charcoal for smoking fish. The charcoal gives the fish an agreeable flavor. The bark contains tannins used to cure leather. True natives of Florida, these valuable trees are an important resource that must be protected from development. According to Hartwell (1967 1971), peoples of the West Indies use the resin as a folk reme dy for tumors (26,27,28).

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove BLACK MANGROVE Avicennia germinans L ( avih SEN eeuh JER-min-ans) GENERAL

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove LEAVES AND STEMS

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove

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AVICENNIACEAE (Black Mangrove Family) Black Mangrove DISTRIBUTION

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower Befaria racemosa or TAR FLOWER is also called Fly Catcher. Its flowers and fruit are sticky to the touch and often trap insects. The resin on TAR FLOWER has the same adhesive strength as commercially available glues for trapping insects. Bartram wa Tar flower. A review of his journal identified the plant as Befaria racemosa (29,30,31).

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower TAR FLOWER or FLY CATCHER Befaria racemosa Vent. (be-FAR-i-a rayse MO-sa) Syn. Bej aria racemosa Vent. GENERAL racemosa

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower LEAVES AND STEMS

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Tar Flower DISTRIBUTION

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. or GUMBO LIMBO, resin has many uses : making incense, turpentine and varnish. GUMBO LIMBO resin is also used to treat gastritis, ulcers and to heal skin wounds. The red fruit of the GUMBO LIMBO attracts birds who, it is thought, use it as grinding stones in their crops (32,33,34).

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. (ber-SERuh simuh -ROO-buh) GENERAL

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO LEAVES AND STEMS

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO

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BURSERACEAE (Gumbo Limbo Family) GUMBO LIMBO DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker Kids who live near the coast frequently use Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) or NICKER BEANS as ammunition for war games! When a seed is rubbed vigorously on clothing it becomes fairly hot. Frictional heat is highlighted by concentric fracture lines on the seed coat. Touching a hot seed to the skin of an unsuspecting person is another favorite activity! Caesalpinia bonduc often acts like a liana or climbing plant using other trees for support. Its shiny gray seeds are very hard and are used as beads for used for jewelry. Bonducin, a white, bitter glycoside has been used as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of intermittent malarial fever. To evict land crabs from their burrows in urbanized areas, simply place a nicker bean in a crab hole. Due to its symmetry and smoothness, the crab cannot grab the smooth seed with its claws. The crab moves (35,36,37)!

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker NICKER BEANS Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. GENERAL

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Grey Nicker DISTRIBUTION

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry Callicarpa americana L. or BEAUTY BERRY is a bush with white and pink spring flowers. The light purple fall fruit can turn to a deepest purple with time. These attributes make BEAUTY BERRY an attractive landscape plant. Though parts of the plant are poisonous, when berries are grown in rich soil or leaf litter, the berries are sweet and make an enjoyable Beauty Berry Pancake (38,39)!

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry BEAUTY BERRY FRENCH MULBERRY Callicarpa americana L. (kal-I-KAR-pa ame riKA-na) GENERAL Callicar pa americana

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry LEAVES AND STEMS

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VERBANACEAE (Verbena Family) Beauty Berry DISTRIBUTION

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Walter or IRONWOOD is also called the American hornbeam. It makes an equally good selection for bonsai as its Asian relative. IRONWOOD zigzag branches make an interesting silhouette in winter. IRONWOOD has no serious insect or disease problems (40,41,42).

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood IRONWOOD, MUSCLE TREE or HORNBEAM Carpinus caroliniana Walter (car-PYE-nus caro lin ee AN a) GENERAL

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Ironwood DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 117

JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory PIGNUT HICKORY or Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet has been used for tool handles and skis and wagon wheels and even early automobile parts! It is used to make shuttle blocks, mallets, and mauls. The tree can be tapped and sap collected to make pancake syrup PIGNUT HICKORY bark, flowers, leaves, and nuts are eaten by bear, chipmunks, deer, foxes, rabbits, raccoons, songbirds, squirrels, and turkey (43,44 ,45) 106

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory PIGNUT HICKORY Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet (KAIR ee uh GLAH brah) GENERAL PIGNUT HICKORY, a deciduous tree with large, com pound leaves, can grow up to 40 Hickories begin to grow in an area that has not burned for a while. If the land were never to burn again, it would develop into a xeric or dry climax community called an Oak/Hickory Hammock. This process is called succession Showy red to gold buds burst forth in the spring. When first seen, many people mistake this for a flower! The wood is very strong and is valued as ax and shovel handles and baseball bats. The wood is also used to add flavor when smoking meat. Nuts provide food for wildlife. A bark extract can be used as a smoky tasting, bitter syrup that is sweete ned with cane crystals Hickory bark is the highest plant source of magnesium. A decoction is used by the Iroquois as an arthritis treatment. The botanical name is derived from Greek "karya or kaura" which is, walnut. 10 7

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory 108

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory FLOWERS AND FRUIT The male flo wers are called catkins Hickory nuts have thin, smooth husks that cover thick shells 109

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory LEAVES AND STEMS PIGNUT HICKORY leaves are alternate compound odd pinnate with 5 to 7 lanceolate leaflets They have serrated or toothed margins. Th e leaflets grow larger toward the apex. Unlike other Florida hickorie s, the pignut leaf is glabrous or smooth, without hairs with occasional hair tufts at the vein axils A vein axil is where veins join on the underside of the leaflet The apical or tip leaflet is lifted upward. 110

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory 111

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pignut Hickory Leaves turn bright yellow leaves in autumn and are quite showy. PIGNUT HICKORY grayish bark is deeply furrowed with narrow ridges. DISTRIBUTION PIGNUT HICKORY grows in dry woods from Minnesota and Maine in the no rth to Louisiana, to north and central Florida and south to about Highlands and Manatee counties. 112

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch or PECAN en flowersen are en wind-pollinateden The word pecan is an Algonquin word meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack. PECAN trees are recorded to have lived to 350 years old. The heartwood is reddish brown with stre aks of a darker hue; the sapwood is white to pale brown. The grain is straight to wavy. The wood texture is co arse. PECAN wood dries easily and rapidly but requires care due to high shrinkage. It is difficult to saw but it planes and bores well and turns easily. PECAN wood is easy to screw. PECAN requires careful machining; a reduced cutting angle of 20 o is recommended in working stock with irregular grain PECAN responds well to polishing (46,47).

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan PECAN or SWEET PECAN Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch (KAIRee -uh illlin noEN-sis) GENERAL

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan LEAVES AND STEMS

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JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Pecan DISTRIBUTION

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Willd. or SUGARBERRY is highly adaptable to a wide range of soil types including calcareous soils. This is one reason it is found throughout the central Florida peninsula. The bark of sugarberry is thin and easily damaged by fire. When top killed, sugarberry will sprout from the root collar The fruits of sugarberry are eaten by many birds, including the ring-necked pheasant, ruffed grouse, quail and waterfowl. Turkeys eat SUGARBERRY as a preferred food in fall and winter. Squirrels eat the fruit, buds and bark on occasion. The following data are percentages of dry weight for all fleshy fruits tested, except for crude fat which is the average for drupes only: Crude protein 8.4 Crude fat 14.2 Crude fiber 24.1 Estimated true dry matter digestibility 64.4 (48,49).

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry SUGARBERRY or HACKBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd (SEL-tis lev-i-GA -ta) GENERAL laevigata

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry

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ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Sugarberry DISTRIBUTION

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis L. or BUTTONBUSH is often referred to as Honey bells! It is an excellent source for nectar for many species of butterflies including Hairstreaks, Skippers and Swallowtails. Seeds are eaten by many species of songbirds. It is the nesting home of many of these birds and is a favorite of the P rothonotary Warbler The Seminole and Choctaw used a decoction of the bark to treat diarrhea and other stomach ailments (50,51,52).

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush BUTTONBUSH Cephalanthus occidentalis L. GENERAL (Baccharis) Cephalanthus

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush LEAVES AND STEMS

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Buttonbush DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud Cercis canadensis L. or REDBUD is also called the Forest Pansy. Flowers are pickled for use in salads or may be fried. It is a common Mexican food source. Cardinals have been observed feeding on the seeds. Redbuds are subject to damage by insect pests such as caterpillars, leafhoppers, scale and tree hoppers (53,54,55).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud REDBUD or JUDAS TREE Cercis canadensis L. (SUR-sis can-a-DEN -sis) GENERAL canadensis

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud LEAVES AND STEMS

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Redbud DISTRIBUTION

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree The literal translation for Chionanthus in Chionanthus virginicus L. or FRINGE TREE Though creamy to greenish white, the flower of the FRINGE TREE is beautiful showy, cottony and snowy in appearance. This tree blooms near the time that the Dogwood blooms in the spring. FRINGE TREE has great potential uses and is pollution tolerant A tincture made from the bark and grain alcohol is used for jaundice; a tea for topical treatment for cuts infections and other skin irritatio ns A poultice can also be made for bruises and ulcers (56,57,58).

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree FRINGE TREE GRANDSIEGRAYBEARD or OLD Chionanthus virginicus L. (kye-o-NAN-thus ver-JIN-i-kus) GENERAL virginicus

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree LEAVES AND STEMS

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree x-none

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fringe Tree DISTRIBUTION

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum Chrysobalanus icaco L. or COCO-PLUM fruit has a cotton-candy pulp surrounding the seed. This is edible raw or roasted and tastes similar to an almond. Chrysobalanus icaco L. is known as "Abajeru" in Brazil. It is a traditional medicine for diabetes and rheumatism. In modern herbal medicine, it has been shown to hinder the growth of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation or by 44%, thus demonstrating potentially important use in cancer and diabetic treatments. Extracts of COCO-PLUM were active in the National Cancer I AIDS-antiviral screen (59,60,61).

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. (kris-oba-LAY-nus iKAco) GENERAL

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum LEAVES AND STEMS

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum Family) Coco-Plum DISTRIBUTION

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl or the CAMPHOR TREE is grown commercially for its medicinal oil in Japan and China. Camphor has been used to treat ailments ranging from parasitic infections to toothaches. It feels cool on the skin like menthol, though it also has irritating qualities as well as a numbing effect. Camphor wood is prized for its attractive red and yellow striping and amenability to woodworking. Camphor is h arvested for sassafras oil formerly used in scent applications such as polish es and waxes and detergents and soaps It blends easily and well with other oils Its principal use now is as a raw material for the isolation of safrole This is converted by the chemical industry into two important derivatives: heliotropin which is wi dely used as a fragrance and flavouring agent, and piperonal butoxide (PBO), a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Camphor Laurel production and shipment of camphor, in a solid, waxy form, was a major industry in Taiwan prior to and during the Japanese colonial era (1895-1945). It was used medicinally and was also an important ingredient in the production of smokeless gunpowder and celluloid Wood chips were steamed in a retort C amphor crystallized on the inside of a crystallization box, after the vapor had passed through a cooling chamber. It was then scraped off for sale (62,63,64). en

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree CAMPHOR TREE Cinnamomum camphora GENERAL CATEGORY I PEST PLANT

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree LEAVES AND STEMS

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree

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LAURCEAE (Laurel Famil y) Camphor Tree DISTRIBUTION

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape Cocoloba uvifera L. or SEA GRAPE leaves grow to platter size! In the Islands, leaves are used to serve food! Cool winter weather will turn leaves red; a freeze can damage the shrub which recovers in the warmth. A salt tolerant plant, seeds are often dispersed by the tides. SEA GRAPE is very drought resistant. The wood can be boiled to yield a red dye. Wood from larger trees is prized for cabinet work. A gum from the bark is used for throat ailments. The roots are used to treat dysentery (65,66).

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape SEA GRAPE Coccoloba uvifera (L.) Linneaus (koko LO -ba oo-VIFer a) GENERAL

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape LEAVES AND STEMS

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POLYGONACEAE (Sea Grape Family) Sea Grape DISTRIBUTION

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus Nutt or GREEN BUTTONWOOD is a marvelous folk medicinal shrub It is used to treat anemia, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, prickly heat, and syphilis! A decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat fever! GREEN BUTTONWOOD is susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites yet has a high calorific value as fuel. Its bark contains 16 % to 18% tannin (67,68)

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood GREEN BUTTONWOOD Conocarpus erectus Nutt (kawnoh -KAR-pus ee-RECK-tus variety suh-RISSeeus) GENERAL

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood

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COMBRETACEAE (Combretum Family) Green Buttonwood DISTRIBUTION

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida L. or DOGWOOD is commonly called the Flowering Dogwood or Boxwood. Roots were used to make a red dye by some American Indian people. Teas and quinine substitutes were made from the bark. Plants contain cornine which is used medicin ally in parts of Mexico The juice of the twigs preserve and harden the gums. The DOGWOOD is part of a select group of hardwoods that has opposite branching. Each leaf, twig and branch is paired across from another leaf, twig or branch! We use the acr onym "MADBUCK" to recall the first letter of the names Maple, Ash, DOGWOOD, and Buckeye as these are the trees with this "opposite" arrangement! Dogwoods make up 10% of total number of trees sold by retail nurseries ( 69, 70,71)!

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood FLOWERING DOGWOOD Cornus florida GENERAL POISONOUS

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood LEAVES AND STEMS

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Flowering Dogwood DISTRIBUTION

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood Cornus foemina Mill. or SWAMP DOGWOOD is also called Stiff Dogwood. When planted in groups and left alone it will spread by suckers. It grows best in welldrained, moist limestone soils but is easily adaptable to wet or drier soils. SWAMP DOGWOOD is tolerant to city pollution. It is rejuvenated by pruning! It has had several medicinal uses over the past several 100 years. The Cherokee People use an infusion for laryngitis Others use a decoction of bark and root scrapings to treat the symptoms of m alaria The Micmac People mix dried bark with tobacco for smoking. It provides cover and nesting sites for numerous bird species. It serves as a larval food source for the Summer Azure, Celas trina neglecta The dark blue berries are eaten by a variety of birds and migratory songbirds (72,73,74,75,76).

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood SWAMP DOGWOOD or STIFF DOGWOOD Cornus foemina GENERAL foemina

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood FLOWERS OR FRUIT

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood LEAVES OR STEMS x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood x-none

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CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Swamp Dogwood DISTRIBUTION

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. or the ROYAL POINCIANA was named after M. de Poinci an 18th century governor of the French West Indies. In the Caribbean Islands the pods are used for fuel. It is called "woman's tongue" based on the rattling sound made in the wind. In the Madagascar wild it is endangered, but Delonix is widely cultivated elsewhere. Flowers manufacture copious amounts of nectar and pollen. This guarantees that it will be visited by pollinators. The flowers have insecticidal pr operties so it is able to manage populations of beetles, caterpillars and weevils. To germinate manually, start with fresh seeds and file them to remove the shine. Soak them for 24 hours. Dip them in boiling water for 3 to 5 minutes. Let them soak overnight in warm water. The seeds should germinate within one week (77,78,79,80).

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana ROYAL POINCIANA or FLAMBOYANT TREE Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. (dee-LON-iks REE-jee-uh) GENERAL Delonix regia Delonix regia

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana

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FABACEAE (Pea Family) Royal Poinciana Delonix

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon Diospyros virginiana L. or PERSIMMON shares the same genus as the wood, ebony. It is a prized black, hardwood. The word persimmon is derived from an Algonquian language pasiminan meaning a dry fruit. Native Americans use its seeds in breads. Its fr uit is used to stop bleeding and to treat constipation and hemorrhoids. When mixed with cornmeal, t he American persimmon can be brewed into "simmon beer". In 1607 Capt. John Smith of the Jamestown colony wrote: The fruit is like a medlar ; it is first g reen then yellow and red when it is ripe: if it is not ripe it will drive a man's mouth awrie with much torment, but when it is ripe it is as delicious as the apricock

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. (dyOS-per -us vir-ginee ANa) GENERAL

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon LEAVES AND STEMS

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EBONACEAE (Ebony Family) Persimmon DISTRIBUTION

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig Ficus aurea Nutt. or the STRANGLER FIG is also called the Golden Fig. The genus Ficus is a member of the diverse Mulberry family, one of the largest genera of woody flowering plants. The Moraceae have approximately 1,000 different species The Ficus have the most bizarre growth forms and ingenious method of pollination. Figs are only pollinated by fig wasps, and fig wasps can only reproduce in fig flowers. The wasps are housed throughout the year inside the fig's hollow fruits. Each species has its own, host-specific pollinator They grow with numerous snakelike, aerial roots downward from the limbs These air roots take in nutrients and water from the air and host trees. A massive, buttressed trunk with vast surface roots spreads in all directions; and an aggressive root growing habit that strangles its host tree. In the case of the STRANGLER FIG, the preferred host tree is the CABBAGE PALM (83,84,85,86,87,88).

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. (FY-cus ARE-ea) GENERAL

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig LEAVES AND STEMS

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig DISTRIBUTION

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MORACEAE (Mulberry Family) Strangler Fig

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. or POP ASH is distinguished from other ash trees in that it is a true swamp species. It also has as interesting 3-winged fruit. It serves as host to endangered epiphytic bromeliads and orchids. Florida is home to one of the top two largest, POP ASH, National Register of Big Trees. This tree c Its descriptive information include: Location: O'leno State Park, FL Circumference: 56 inches Height: 58 feet Spread: 24 feet Points: 120 The wood of the POP ASH is elastic, hard and strong. It is used for baseball bats, bows and guitars. It makes excellent firewood (89,90,91,92).

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash POP ASH or CAROLINA ASH Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. GENERAL

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash LEAVES AND STEMS

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash

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OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Pop Ash DISTRIBUTION x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none x-none

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. Ellis or LOBLOLLY BAY belongs to the tea family, Theaceae Although it is not used for tea, a related species, Camellia sinensis is the source of our iced tea. The five waxy petals of the flower have a cup shape. Each petal is covered with silky hairs on its bottom surface. Each flower has multiple yellow stamens. LOBLOLLY BAY has a shallow root system. It will die if not watered during periods of drought. In the wild, it lives most frequently in the shade of maples, cypress and pines. It is well-suited for planting in boggy and other poorly drained soils (93,94,95).

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. Ellis (gor-DOE-nee -uh lay-zee-ANTHus) GENERAL Magnolia virginiana, Persea borbonia Gordonia Gordonia alatamaha

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY LEAVES AND STEMS

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY

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THEACEAE (Tea Family) LOBLOLLY BAY DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 236

RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush Hamelia patens Jacq. or FIRE BUSH goes by many names. These include HUMMINGBIRD BUSH, IX-CANAN, POLLY RED HEAD, and the TEXAS FIRECRACKER. It's Mayan name, Ix -canan means "guardian of the forest." Indigenous people throughout Central and South Ameri ca use the plant to prepare remedies to treat skin problems, relieve pain, heal wounds, reduce spasms, kill parasites and bacteria. The root is used as a diuretic. FIRE BUSH is rich in pteropodine and isopteropodine patented as effective immune stimulan ts. They also have shown a modulating e ffect on brain neurotransmitter receptor target drugs used for depression and other disorders. FIRE BUSH also contains 00.05% ephedrine The plant has tremendous heat tolerance coupled with good pest resistance. FIRE BUSH does not have a dormant period. It grows and flowers almost continually. These flowers attract many butterflies and humming birds (96,97,98,99).

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush FIRE BUSH, RED BUSH or SCARLET BUSH Hamelia patens Jacq. (hah-ME-lee-ah PAY-tenz) GENERAL patens

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush LEAVES AND STEMS

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RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Red Bush DISTRIBUTION

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea Hydrangea quercifolia W. Bartram or OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA has large, white outer flower clusters which are sterile; inner flowers are fertile. It is a deciduous shrub with leaves that turn red and purple in the fall en Its bark exfoliates cinnamon, oran ge and tan which provide s winter beauty (100, 101, 102)

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA SEVEN BARK, GRAYBEARD Hydrangea quercifolia GENERAL Querci folia

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea LEAVES AND STEMS

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HYDRANGEACEAE (Hydrangea Family) Oak Leaf Hydrangea DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly Ilex cassine L. landscape tree. It grows by forest and wetlands by streams, lakes or ponds. This tree is becoming ever more popular on the native plant market in its natural growing area. DAHOON HOLLY is an understory tree that tolerates brackish water and low-light conditions Plants are transplanted or suckers dug and transplanted Berries are an excellent food source for wildlife, and are a favorite with birds. All Holly berries are POISONOUS to humans (103,104).

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. (EYE-leks ca-SEEN) GENERAL

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly

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AQUIFOLIA (Holly Family) Dahoon Holly DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry Ilex glabra (L.) or GALLBERRY is a member of the holly family. The origin of the word holly is the en 11 th centuryen en Old High Germanen hulis and en Old English holegn The word hulis originates from an even older proto-Germanic word khuli a shortened derivation of the ancient en Gaelic cuilieann In modern Gaelic, holly is still called cuileann The botanic name ilex was the original Latin name for the en Holm oak which has similar foliage to common holly. The two plants are occasionally mixed-up. Bluebirds b obwhite, brown thrashers, hermit thrushes and turkeys frequently eat GALLBERRY fruits Bears, w hite tailed deer and marsh rabbits brows e on GALLBERRY leaves GALLBERRY propagates and sprouts from root cuttings stem cuttings or suckers and root crowns and rhizomes. en en GALLBERRY may be used for ecological restoration habitat enrichment plantings and naturalistic landscapes. GALLBERRY is an important en nectar sourceen for en bee s. It yields a mild flavored, light amber colored en honey in the coastal southeastern states of America (105,106,107). en en

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry GALLBERRY or INKBERRY Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray (EYE-leks GLAY-bra) GENERAL glabra Gnaphalium

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Gallberry DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. or AMERICAN HOLLY adds the red berries of the northern hemisphere winter landscape and the Christmas holiday season. It is mainly a tree of the humid Southeast. It grows in a wide variety of soils from the sandy beaches of the Atlantic Ocean to fertile mountain soils. It grows best in the rich, slightly acidic, upland pines. It grows in the bottomlands and swamps and the sandy Coastal Plain (109,110).

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. (EYE-leks o-PAYka) GENERAL Opaca

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY DISTRIBUTION

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) or SCRUB HOLLY was first reported by Small in 1924 as Ilex arenicola It was re named by Ashe in 1925. It was later reported by McFarlinan in 1932 as Ilex pygmaea. This discrepancy was subsequently resolved (110).

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY SC RUB HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) (EYE-leks o-PAYka ai rin -aCO -la ) GENERAL Opaca arenicola Arenicola

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) AMERICAN HOLLY DISTRIBUTION Ilex opaca arenicola

PAGE 278

AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly An old use of Ilex vomitoria Ait. or Yaupon Holly is enumerated his Plant is the Indian Tea, us'd and approv'd by all the Savages on the Coast of Carolina and from them sent to the Westward Indians and sold at a considerable Price. All which they cure after the same way, as they do for themselves; which is thus: They take this Plant (not only the Leaves, but the smaller Twigs along with them) and bruise it in a Mortar, till it becomes blackish, the Leaf being wholly defaced: Then they take it out, put it into one of their earthen Pots which is over the Fire, till it smoaks; stirring it all the time, till it is cur'd. Others take it, after it is bruis'd, and put it into a Bowl, to which they put live Coals, and cover them with the Yaupon till they have done smoaking, often turning them over. After all, they spread it upon their Mats, and dry it in the Sun to keep it for Use. Spaniards in New-Spain have this Plant very plentifully on the Coast of Florida and hold it in great Esteem. Sometimes they cure it as the Indians do; or else beat it to a Powder, so mix it, as Coffee; yet before they drink it, they filter the safely and speedily thro' the Passages, for which it is admirable, as I myself have experimented (111)

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly YAUPON HOLLY Ilex vomitoria Ait. (EYE-lex vomih -TORee uh) GENERAL vomitoria

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly FLOWERS AND FRUIT Ilex

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly LEAVES AND STEMS

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly

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AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Yaupon Holly DISTRIBUTION

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire Itea virginica L. or VIRGINIA WILLOW has spectacularly colored autumn foliage. Colors are long lasting and are a mix of maroon, orange, yellow and crimson. Butterflies are attracted by its numerous flowers. The seeds are eaten by birds. Itea is the Greek name for willow. (112,113).

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire VIRGINIA WILLOW or SWEETSPIRE Itea virginica L. (eye-TEE-uh vir-JINih -kuh) GENERAL Itea Itea

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire LEAVES AND STEMS

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GROSSULARIACEA (Currant Family) Virginia Willow or Sweetspire DISTRIBUTION

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple Licania michauxii Prance or GOPHER APPLE was named for the French botanist Andr Michaux. He described the plant in a journal he wrote as he traveled t The GOPHER APPLE is suggested as a native plant for home landscapes and ground cover. Its native habitat is pinelands and sand dunes over entire state. It is well adapted for the Northern, Central and Southern areas of the state. GOPHER APPLE grows in full sun and in dry soil. Research on Licania michauxii has resulted in the revelation of its therapeutic agents Cytotoxic action against human hepatoma and the colon carcinomas are treatable with said drugs (114,115,116).

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance (lie CAN ee-a miCHO-zee-eye) GENERAL

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple LEAVES AND STEMS

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CHRYSOBALANACEAE (Coco Plum) Gopher Apple DISTRIBUTION

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua L or SWEETGUM has dark-purple to reddish brown heartwood T his wood has been marketed in the trade as Italian mahogany or satin walnut. Its bark becomes deeply ringed at approximately 25-years old. The cultivar Rotundiloba displays leaves with rounded, fig like lobes; This cultivar does not produce the spiky fruit. Molecular studies have shown that Liquidambar would be better placed in the Altingiaceae instead of the Hamamelidaceae (117,118,119,120,121)

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum SWEETGUM Liquidambar styraciflua L. (lik -widAM -ber styra se-FLEWa) GENERAL Liquidambar

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum LEAVES AND STEMS

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum

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HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witchhazel Family) Sweetgum DISTRIBUTION

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. or RUSTY LYONIA is colloquially called the rusty lion! This is due to the rusty color of the new leaf growth. Lyonia grows in the pine Flatwoods or dry scrub (122)

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia RUSTY LYONIA or CROOKED WOOD Lyonia ferruginea (W alter) Nutt. (lye-O-nee-a fer-roo-JIN-ea) GENERAL ferruginea

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia LEAVES AND STEMS

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Rusty Lyonia DISTRIBUTION

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch or SHINY LYONIA has showy, fragrant flowers. Flower fragrance often lasts for weeks. SHINY LYONIA is related to other toxic plants in the Ericaceae family, and it is suspected that it may be toxic to livestock as well; c attle seem to find fetterbush unpalatable SHINY LYONIA is adaptable to both wet and dry soils. It is a good choice for planting at water edges that experience wide changes in water levels (123,124,125).

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia SHINY LYONIA or FETTERBUSH Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch fr-FR (lie OH -neea LUsi -duh) GENERAL SHINY LYONIA is a lovely evergreen shrub that grows in damp soils all over the peninsula of Florida. It is a valuable landscape plant. Though not usually so large, it can grow to 4m or 12 tall. SHINY LYONIA is distinguished by its deep pink urn shaped flowers and shiny, dark green leaves with inter-marginal veins. The vein runs parallel to the margin or leaf edge. Since several members of the Ericaceae or Heath Family also have the common name of Fetterbush, we prefer not to use it because of the confusion. Fetterbush refers to bushes growing in thickets that could fetter or tangle the feet. This interesting family also includes blueberries, azaleas and mountain laurels.

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia FLOWERS AND FRUIT SHINY LYONIA has clusters of cylindrical or bell shaped flowers with persistent sepals which are born at the leaf axils. This means the clusters of flowers grow out of the base of the leaf. The color ranges from light to deep pink to nearly red.

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia The fruit is an urn shaped, dry capsu le or achene that serves as food for some seed eating wildlife.

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia LEAVES AND STEMS The leaves are alternate simple and broad to narrowly elliptical in shape. They range to 2 to 8 cm or 1 to 3 long. This shiny, dark green and leathery foliage is evergreen. The vein that parallels the margin is a distinguishing feature of this species. The stems can grow woody with age.

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ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Lyonia DISTRIBUTION SHINY LYONIA are found in wet flatwoods, bogs and swamp edges throughout the entire peninsula of Florida and along the Coastal Plain from Louisiana up to southern Virginia.

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia Magnolia ashei (Weatherby) or ASHE MAGNOLIA transplants poorly and seems to be short-lived in many landscape sites unless its cultural requirements are closely met. Partial shade and well-drained soil are required. It will not tolerate wet soil or drought. Sheltered sites are best since strong winds can shred the papery leaves and break the brittle branches. The large leaves decompose slowly after falling and may be considered a litter problem. Magnolias are an ancient flower family with a fossil reco rd dating between 36 and 58 million years ago. The distribution of existing Magnolias today resulted when Ice Age glaciers destroyed ancient European forests but not those in Asia or America. Surviving species represent some primitive flowering plants. These flowers do not produce true nectar. They attract pollinating beetles of the Nitidulidae family using a fragrant, sugary secretion. This is because Magnolias evolved long before bees and other flying pollinators. An infusion of the bark of Magnol ias has been used in the treatment of stomach aches or cramps ; a hot infusion is sni ffed for sinus problems and swished in the mouth to treat toothaches (126,127,128,129).

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia ASHE MAGNOLIA Magnolia macrophylla ashei (Weatherby) (magNO-lee-uh ASHee -eye) GENERAL ENDANGERED Magnolia macrophylla Magnolia ashei M. macrophylla. en

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Ashe Magnolia DISTRIBUTION

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L or SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA is used to make furniture because of its heavy, hard wood. The wood is straight grained and polishes to a lustrous finish. Purple streaks in the wood from mineral deposits make it a valued wood for veneers Magnolia wood is also used for shiny wood flooring. en-GB en-GB When the stems are crushed or bruised they have a lemon scent. en-GB en-GB Extracts of the seed have useful neurological properties en-GB such as, as a sedative or calmative (130,131,132,133,134). en-GB en-GB en-GB

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA or BULLBAY Magnolia grandiflora L. (magNO -leeuh grandi -FLOOR-uh) GENERAL grandiflora

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Southern Magnolia DISTRIBUTION

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana L. is called the SWEET BAY MAGNOLIA. Linneaus named the genus Magnolia in honor of Pierre Magnol, the physician of King Louis XIV of France who was concomitantly the director and Professor of a botanical garden at Montpellier! Magnolia wood is used to make furniture, boxes, flats and baskets popsicle sticks, tongue depressors, broom handles, veneer, and Venetian blinds SWEETBAY wood is medium soft, straight grained and uniform. It is resistant to heavy shrinkage, very high ly shock absorbent SWEETBAY has a low bending and compression strength. It takes glue s nails, stains and varnishes easily. SWEETBAY is important forage for deer; they browse the leaves and twigs The seeds are eaten by gray mice, wild turkey, quail, and song birds. Virginia tribes used decoctions of leaves, twigs, and bark of Magnolia virginiana to treat colds and chills, to warm the blood, and as a hallucinogen The Colonists c alled the SWEET Beavertree Colonists trapped beavers using t fleshy roots as bait (135,136,137,138)

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay SWEETBAY, SILVER BAY, MAGNOLIA BAY (magNO -lee-uh vur-gineeAN -uh) GENERAL

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay LEAVES AND STEMS

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay

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MAGNOLIACEAE (Magnolia Family) Sweetbay DISTRIBUTION

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake or CAJEPUT was trees were planted as soil stabilizers on canal levees bordering the southern end of Lake Okeechobee and also in Big Cypress National Preserve. Seeds were scattered from airplanes over the Everglades to dry up the wetland biosphere Pr ivate individuals cannot plant Melaleuca yet very little is done to force them to remove it from their property. Therefore, while CAJEPUT infestations have declined on public lands, they are flourishing on private lands. These stands on private property unfortunately lead to new re-infestation in areas already treated, thus undermining public control! Better comprehensive planning is necessary for the eradication of CAJEPUT (139).

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput CAJEPUT, PAPER BARK or PUNK TREE Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake (mel-aLU -ka kwin-kwenNER vi a) GENERAL The CAJEPUT is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 m or 50 is easily recognized by its unique bark. The common name, tan sheets of soft, pulpy bark that peels off in layers. Respiratory irritations from pollen and dermatitis from bark contact are not uncommon. The oils are used medicinally. It is against the law to plant this tree because it is listed as PROHIBITED by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and a NOXIOUS WEED by the Florida Department of Agriculture and U.S.D.A. Seeds easily sprout where they fall. Originally imported from Australia to help dry up wetlands, CAJEPUT trees have become pests in south Florida, destroying vast areas of natural habitats. Efforts are being made to eliminate these trees from natural landscapes by treating them with herbicides. This requires great persistence and much money.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput FLOWERS AND FRUIT terminal clusters of white flowers form along and around the stem giving it the appearance of a bottlebrush. Hard seed capsules form around the stem, just as the flowers.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput The seeds are carried by birds. They are dropped with their own supply of fertilizer.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput LEAVES AND STEMS CAJEPUT leaves are alternate simple, entire and lanceolate They are long and narrow, being wider near base.

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MYRTACEAE (Myrtle Family) Cajeput Leaves have 5 to 7 parallel veins running their length. Stems or branches are weak and soft. The tree trunk is covered with gray colored, corky, peeling bark. DISTRIBUTION CAJEPUT trees grow throughout south Florida and through the central Florida wetland areas. They can be found in the Everglades and marshes, and along roadside canals.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle Myrica cerifera L. or WAX MYRTLE was traditionally planted around southern homes to help keep living spaces pest free. This foliage seems especially to repel insects, particularly fleas. Volatile oils are found in tiny glands on the leaves. They cause the WAX MYRTLE to ignite in a flash in a fire, making it a very flammable plant! It takes approximately 3 to 15 pounds of bayberries to make 1 lb of wax. Bayberry candles burn longer, cleaner and with a brighter light than did the traditional candles of the time. The saying went "Bayberry candles burned to the socket, bring health to the home and wealth to the pocket!" The Choctaw Indians boiled the leaves and drank the decoction as a treatment for fever (140,141,142,143,144)

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle WAX MYRTLE or FL ORIDA BAYBERRY Myrica cerifera L. (my-REE -ka serIF er a) GENERAL and useful plants. This evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree, 8m or 25' tall. It has multiple trunks. WAX MYRTLE is identified by aromatic leaves, which are toothed toward the apex. The silvery gray bark is nearly smooth. Its shiny, dark green leaves, cold hardiness and insect resistance, make it an excellent choice as a native landscape plant. WAX MYRTLE repels insects with the fragrant wax contained in its leaves and berries. The wax is used to scent candles, thus the common name of Florida Bayberry. The species name, cerifera A tea made from tender leaves and twigs has been used to treat colds, stomach aches and ulcers. The leaves are used to flavor stews and soups.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle FLOWERS AND FRUIT WAX MYRTLE plants are dioecious They have male and female flowers on separate plants. The tiny male flowers are in catkins, 2 cm or 1" long at the leaf axi ls

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle Tiny, white female flowers are borne along the stems. The clusters of gray berries are covered with wax that contains a pleasant fragrance.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle LEAVES AND STEMS The glossy leaves are alternate, simp le and 3 to 15 cm or 2 to 6" long. L eaves are oblanceolate with teeth toward the pointed tip. Though thin, they have a leathery texture. Tiny glands on both surfaces appear as amber colored dots upon magnification. They are fragrant when crushed. Rubbed on the skin, they repel insects.

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MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Wax Myrtle DISTRIBUTION WAX MYRTLE is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout Florida. It thrives in wet woods to dry pinelands. WAX MYRTLE ranges from Florida north to New Jersey and west to Arkansas and Texas. It also grows in the West Indies.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine Myrsine floridana A. DC. or MYRSINE is also called Colicwood. MYRSINE provides good food and nesting sites for many species of bird s. The thick foliage also provides excellent cover. Myrsine grows from wet to dry ridges in hammocks, pinelands, and along the shoreline. It is also a good hedge plant for barrier islands. The Miccosukee Indians used the dried leaves to mix with tobacco. They call it the white tobacco-seasoning tree (145,146,147).

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine MYRSINE or RAPANEA Myrsine floridana A. DC. (mer-SEEN flo ri-DAY-na) or Rapanea punctata GENERAL MYRSINE is an attractive shrub or small tree which grows The berries are available all year long and provide food for many species of fruit eating birds, including mockingbirds and cat birds. The heavy foliage provides nest sites and shelter. It is occasionally confused with Marlberry, but can be distinguished by the flowers and fruit appearing in a spiral along the stem.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine

PAGE 358

MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine FLOWERS AND FRUIT MYRSINE is essentially dioecious with a f ew perfect flowers. In winter, small white flowers bloom along the stems. They are followed by clusters of round berries which appear on the bare stems below the foliage.

PAGE 359

MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine The berries turn blue-black when ripe.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine LEAVES AND STEMS The leaves appear close together at the ends of branches They are alternate simple and occasionally have notched tips. They are leathery textured and have revolute or rolled under margins. The mature stems are whitish and show off the flowers and berries.

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MYRSINACEAE (Myrsine Family) Myrsine DI STRIBUTION MYRSINE is found in coastal hammocks from Manatee and Volusia Counties south to the Keys. x-none x-none

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch or EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM has unusual eye-catching fruiting clusters. Eastern North American gardeners find it a natural for the native plant landscape. European farmers used relatives of the hop hornbeam to make yokes for oxen thus the names "hornbeam" or "yoke-elms (148,149)."

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam EASTERN HOP HORNBEAM Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (OSS-tree-uh vir-gineeANuh) GENERAL en en Ostrya en en

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 367

BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam

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BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Eastern Hop Hornbeam DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 369

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng. or RED BAY as with all bays have oils including cineol camphor eucalyptol and p-cymene. They are all medicinal. When plant parts are ingested by humans they are somewhat protected against Giardia infections. RE D BAY aromatic leaves are substitutable for the common spice, bay leaf, Laurus nobilis a European relative from the same family. Seminoles use the leaves to make a tea and in cooking. Red bay pollen was found in a pre-Columbian site near Lake Okeechob ee. RED BAY coevolved with the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly and the P alamedes S wallowtail Butterfly. The larvae forms sequester the aforementioned oils for protection against predators. RED BAY wood is used fo r wooden spoons, inside finishing as well as in boat construction. This wood takes a high polish for furniture (150,151,152,153).

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay RED BAY Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng. (PER-see-a bor-BONE-iuh) GENERAL RED BAY is an attractive evergreen tree that grows to about 12m or It is usually much smaller. RED BAY can be easily identified because of the numerous leaf galls. They are lighter in color than the leaves and often form along the leaf margins, deforming the leaf. There are two varieties common to Florida. They are P. borbonia Var. borbonia RED BAY humilis SILK BAY The common name comes from the red heart-wood. Because it is close-grained, heavy and strong, it is used for cabinet work and furniture. Its aromatic, flavorful le aves are used for seasoning food.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT Tiny greenish flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils The fruit is a dark blue, oval drupe with one seed. Peduncles are 2.5

PAGE 373

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are simple and a lternate. They are entire elliptic to lanceolate and grow to 15 cm or 6 long. Bright green and lustrous above, the lower surface is glaucous or has fine white hairs Var. borbonia shows a prominent yellow midrib The underside of var. hum ilis has rusty pubescence When crushed, the leaves are pleasantly aromatic.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay The leaf galls, caused by insects, are a common feature and can be used to help identify this tree.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Red Bay The twigs are slightly hairy. The bark is reddish brown, with flat, scaly ridges divided by deep vertical fissures when mature. DISTRIBUTION RED BAY grows in wide variety of habitats from bluffs to hammocks and scrubs in every county in Florida, including the Keys. It grows west to Texas and north to Virginia. Var. humilis is endemic to the ancient scrubs of central Florida.

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay Persea borbonia humilis Nash or SILK BAY has a National Register tree listed in the Ocala National Forest. It sports 105 points. Its most recent measurement was taken in 1991 (154).

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay Persea borbonia humi lis Nash (PER-see-a bor-BONE-iuh) GENERAL

PAGE 378

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay LEAVES AND STEMS Persea borbonia humilis

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Silk Bay DISTRIBUTION

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. or SWAMP BAY is a wetland plant. It can be then by the back of its leaves. The Creeks use the P. palustris root as a hydragogue They know this because the plant lives in the swamp. en SWAMP BAY is noted for its show of fall colors (155,156) en en en en en en en en en en en en en

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay SWAMP BAY Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. (PER-see-a pal -LUS-trus) GENERAL en

PAGE 385

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay

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LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay FLOWERS AND FRUIT Persea palustris Persea borbonia P. palustris

PAGE 387

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 388

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay

PAGE 389

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Swamp Bay DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 390

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) or SAND PINE is a shallow rooted tree. Though drought tolerant and good for Florida landscaping, from that perspective, it should be planted away from buildings due the ease with which it is up rooted. The SAND PINE native range is limited almost entirely to Florida. The largest concentration can be found in Ocala in the "Big Scrub." This variety of SAND PINE also grows in a narrow strip along the east coast of Florida from St. Augustine southward to Fort Lauderdale A small tract of Ocala SAND PINE can be found scattered north of Tampa southward to Naples. SAND PINE and other members of the Florida Scrub Community prevent fire through fuel reduction. Fire frequency is reduced by keeping leaf litter build-up to a minimum (157,157,159,160).

PAGE 391

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex. Sarg. (PYE-nus KLAW-zuh) GENERAL clausa

PAGE 392

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 394

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine

PAGE 395

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 396

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Sand Pine DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 397

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine Pinus elliottii Engelm. or the SLASH PINE common name originated from the method of extracting the resin from the trees by scoring or slashing the trees to start resin flow. Synonyms for Pinus elliottii include Pinus densa, Pinus caribaea a nd Pinus heterophylla. SLASH PINES have been in service to Floridians for centuries. This is the most common tree of pine plantations throughout Florida. It was the primary naval stores species, producing rosins and turpentine used for many purposes. Millions of acres of slash pine have been planted, grown and harvested. It takes about 30 years for slash pine trees to reach saw timber size (161,162,163).

PAGE 398

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine SLASH PINE (PIE-nus elee-OTTee-eye) GENERAL Pinus elliottii elliottii Pinus elliottii densa.

PAGE 399

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 401

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine LEAVES AND STEMS

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Slash Pine DISTRIBUTION

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Mill. history. In 1782, Francis Philip Fatio recognized the economic value of Florida's pine forests in a report to the Government of the Province of East Florida. It provided an early history of forestry in Florida and its ability He continued that the navigable St. John's River ran parallel to the Atlantic Ocean with forests that would produce substantial quantities of pitch, tar and turpentine. Fatio suggested regulations to prohibit the extirpati on of the young saplings, and to fix the number of trees that should remain on every acre. He also indicated that the pines were excellent for deck planks and masts (164).

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine LONGLEAF PINE Pinus palustris Mill. (PIE-nus puh-LUS-tris) GENERAL The stately LONGLEAF PINE grows to 40 LONGLEAF PINES have long symmetrical tree trunks called boles. Evergreen, needle-like leaves are protected by a waxy coating. They are extremely fire resistant. LONGLEAF grass phase of growth, a thick bundle of needles protects the bud while the taproot grows deeper. During years 5 to 7 the top begins to grow. It shoots up about 3 feet in one year holding the crown above most ground fires. When older, LONGLEAF PINES are protected from fire by the thickness of many layers of bark. LONGLEAF PINE is best known for lumber, naval stores and medicines. Pine needle tea is tasty and helps treat the common cold. In the past, mixtures with turpentine were used to treat sore throats and many other ailments. Also known as the Southern Pine, it once covered much of the state of Florida.

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine FLOWERS AND FRUIT Male flowers appear in long, rose-purple clusters; the female flowers are purple, in clusters of 2 to 4. The cones are usually longer than 15cm or are slightly curved. LONGLEAF PINE pinecones are the larges t in Florida. LEAVES AND STEMS LONGLEAF PINE lives up to its name with the longest needles, 25 to 35cm or 10 to fascicles or bundles of 3. Large round clusters of needles emerge

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine from the ends of the branches. Silvery -white terminal buds, called candles, appear in the spring.

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PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine The trunk is covered with orange-brown papery scales arranged in thick, protective layers.

PAGE 410

PINACEAE (Pine Family) Longleaf Pine DISTRIBUTION LONGLEAF PINE is most often found in dry sandhills and acidic flatwoods. It is indigenous to most of the state except the extreme southern tip of the peninsula.

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. or SYCAMORE is a heavy, hard and course grained wood. It is used for baskets, boxes, crates and fiber board. Many butcher block tables are SYCAMORE. SYCAMORE is sometimes called Buttonwood. This wood is often called Lacewood due its markings when it is quarter sawn. SYCAMORE made up a large part of the forests of Greenland and Arctic America during the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. SYCAMORE is North America's largest native broadleaf tree. Today, there are SYCAMORE trees that are as old as five to six hundred years. It is a m ember of one of the planet's oldest clan of trees which family has been dated to be over 100 million years old. The terms under which the New York Stock Exchange was formed is called the Buttonwood Agreement. This is because the terms were signed under a Buttonwood tree. Sycamore sheds tiny hairs during pruning that may cause an allergic reaction. Some Indian tribes made syrup from sap (165,166,167,168,169).

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore SYCAMORE or PLANE TREE Platanus occidentalis L. (PLATan -us oksi -den-TAY-lis) GENERAL

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore FLOWERS AND FRUIT LEAVES AND STEMS

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore x-none

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PLATANACEAE (Planetree Family) Sycamore DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 418

RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum Prunus angustifolia Marshall, the CHICKASAW PLUM is also called the Sand Hill Plum. It is a major tree which grows all over western Kansas. A recipe for plum salsa includes green chilies, garlic, onion, cilantro, ripe native plums, pits removed, sugar, cumin, salt, and pepper. Native Americans routinely consumed the fruit fresh or dried it for winter. CHICKASAW PLUM is a butterfly plant and serves as bee food. It has a honey flavor. This tree is an effective means for erosion control along stream banks (170,171,172,173,174).

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall (PROO-nus angus -ti-FOLEee-a) GENERAL Prunus angustifolia

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 422

RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum LEAVES AND STEMS

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RO SACEA E (Rose Family) Chickasaw Plum DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 425

ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl or CHERRY LAUREL is an American native tree found growing on rich, moist sites, from North Carolina to Florida. The flowers are hermaphroditic They have both male and female organs. They are pollinated by insects. CHERRY LAUREL grows prominently under power lines B irds sit to digest their cherry treats and deliver quantities of s eed forming linear populations along the utility lines! The leaves, twigs, stems and seeds are poisonous and ingestion can lead to respiratory failure and death. This is due to the presence of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin However, in small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion. It is also claimed as a traditional cancer treatment (175,176,177,178).

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel CAROLINA LAUREL CHERRY or CHERRY LAUREL GENERAL caroliniana

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel LEAVES AND STEMS

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Cherry Laurel DISTRIBUTION

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. or BLACK CHERRY is one the more sought after woods for furniture. The wood is hard, tight-grained yet easy to work. The heartwood ages to a deep red color; the sapwood is whiti sh -yellow. BLACK CHERRY leaves have a pungent odor when crushed. This is caused by the glycoside prunasin and or amygdalin. When ingested amygdalin causes gasping, weakness, excitement, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma, respiratory failure and death. It converts to hydrocyanic acid. Pitted fruits can be eaten raw or made into jelly with combined with apples; sauces, pies, and flavorings Native Americans used the inner bark in a tea for colds, coughs, diarrhea, fever, pneumonia, and to purify the blood. Viable seeds have been produced on open-grown seedlings or sprouts as young as 10 years of age and on trees as old as 180 years. However, the period of maximum seed production in natural stands is generally between 30 and 100 years of age. The bulk of the seed crop falls to the ground in the vicinity of the parent tree. Songbirds an d omnivorous mammals distribute seeds in their droppings or by regurgitation. This method of distribution accounts for the seedlings in stands lacking BLACK CHERRY trees. BLACK CHERRY is a great landscape tree along highways. It is sun and drought tolerant. It provides an eye-pleasing weeping effec t. It is prone to tent-caterpillars and webworms (179,180,181,182).

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry BLACK CHERRY Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. (PROO-nus sair-OTT-i-nuh) syn. (P. virginiana) L. GENERAL serotina

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry LEAVES AND STEMS

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry

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ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Black Cherry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 439

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR Quercus chapmanii Sarg. or CHAPMAN OAK is host to the Dusky Wing Skipper and White-M Hairstreak. fr-FR A recent study of the Scrub has shown that elevated atmospheric CO 2 stimulates growth of the fire-regenerated ecosystem, including the CHAPMAN OAK (183,1 84)

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR CHAPMAN OAK Quercus chapmanii Sarg. (KWER-kus chap-MAN-eei) GENERAL The CHAPMAN OAK is a small, shrubby evergreen tree well-drained sandhills and scrubs where it associates with Quercus myrtifolia, Quercus inopina and Quercus geminata. The CHAPMAN OAK is named for Alvan Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) a botanist who studied and wrote about plants of the South, especially scrubs. Because of its small stature, the hard wood of CHAPMAN OAK is best suited for tool handles and fence posts. The acorns provide food for wildlife, especially turkeys, jays and grackles. The tannins in the bark have traditionally been used to tan animal hides.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The female flowers are single or in pairs, but are inconspicuous. The male flowers are in drooping catkins appearing in the spring. The acorns grow up to 2.5 covered to by a bowl-shaped cup which is attached without a stalk.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak One of the white oak group, its acorns mature in one season and have a sweet flavor. LEAVES AND STEMS CHAPMAN OAK leaves are alternate and simple They are ovate to elliptic but are often spatulate or wider toward the apex Matu re leaves are 5 to 10 Mostly entire the margins sometimes have shallow lobes, but most often they are wavy.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak They are distinguished from the other scrub oaks by being sparingly pubescent or having short hairs on their lower leaf surface. The upper surface is lustrous, often with a quilted appearance.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Chapman Oak The thick, gray-brown bark is broken into irregular plates. DISTRIBUTION CHAPMAN OAK is found in scrubs, ancient dunes and sandy hammocks along the coastal plain from south central Florida north to South Carolina.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak A 100 year old Quercus geminata Small or SAND LIVE OAK was photographed by Robb Vandaveer It has a dbh of 38 inches. A big tree is located in Gainesville, Florida. It removes almost 20 pounds of nitrogen, ozone particulates and sulfur each year from the air Quercus geminata is a tree or shrub of variable shape and size depending on its habitat. There is ongoing discussion that the SAND LIVE OAK represents only an environmentally induced variant of live oak. SAND LIVE OAK only grows in North Carolina from Bogue Banks southward to Florida. It grows in coastal hammocks flatwoods sandhill scrub, and scrubby flatwoods alike. Under winter burn management, SAND LIVE OAK increases in the Flatwoods (185,186,187,188).

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak SAND LIVE OAK or TWIN LIVE OAK GENERAL Quercus geminata Quercus virginiana. Quercus virginiana. Q. virginiana Quercus geminata geminata

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak

PAGE 449

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Sand Live Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 453

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd., LAUREL OAK or the Darlington Oak is so named perhaps due to the shape of its curved, open crown. It is considered a geographical or climatic sub-species of Quercus laurifolia The lower leaf surface of the LAUREL OAK is often smooth. A majority of leaves on a mature will have bristle tips. Trees produce regular, abundant crops of acorns. These fruits are important for wildlife. Acorns are eaten by birds, deer, ducks, quai l, raccoons, and squirrels (189,190).

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak LAUREL OAK Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd. (KWER-cus hem-iss-FEER-ica) GENERAL LAUREL OAK is a medium-sized oak tree that grows to 30m or 90 stout, straight trunk. Older trees sometimes develop buttressed trunks with relatively smooth bark. LAUREL OAK is a fast growing shade tree with a full, rounded crown that makes it popular in landscapes. It drops many twigs and has a short life span. Botanists are not in agreement on the Laurel Oaks. Some consider Quercus hemisphaerica to be a subspecies of Quercus laurifolia. The main distinction between the two is habitat. Quercus hemisphaerica is an upland species, while Quercus laurifolia is found in wetter areas.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The male flowers occur in short, hanging catkins

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak The female flowers are found on short stalks on new growth. Both occur on the same tree.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak The acorn is dome-shaped 1 to 2cm or to 1 long with a shallow cup covering of the nut. LEAVES AND STEMS LAUREL OAK leaves are alternate simple and deciduous They remain on the tree most of the winter d ropping their leaves all at once T rees only stay bare for a few weeks in the early spring. The shiny, bright green leaves are 5 to 10cm or 2 to 4 long and 2 to 4 cm or 1 to 1 Leaves may have 3 or more lobes at the tips, but the majority of the mature leaves will be laurel shaped. Neither surface displays any pubescence but some may have a tiny bristle tip.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Laurel Oak DISTRIBUTION LAUREL OAK grows in dry woods and mesic or moderately moist oak -pine woods throughout Florida It does not grow in the Keys. It is a tree of the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak Quercus laevis Walter or TURKEY OAK is named for its 3-lobed leaves which resemble a foot. It increases in the sandhill when long leaf pines are removed and or where burns are restricted to winter. The acorns are a food source for animals in the sandhill community. The wood is used for fuel wood and barbecuing though the bark and twigs contain valuable materials for tanning leather. The oak tree was dedicated to Thor, the mythological God of thunder. It was therefore believed that an oak tree could never be struck by lightning. A carry over from this folk history are the acorn-shaped wooden pulls thought to protect a house (191,192,193)!

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak TURKEY OAK Quercus laevis Walter (KWER-kus LEE-vis) GENERAL TURKEY OAK grows to about 10m or 20 to a scrubby, deciduous tree that grows besides the Longleaf Pine in the Longleaf Pine-TURKEY OAK community. It grows on sand ridges throughout most of Florida. TURKEY OAK is characterized by deeply lobed, bristle tipped leaves. The species name, laevis means smooth. Sometimes referred to as a scrub oak, it is also called Bitter tasting acorns provide food for wildlife and turkeys. Because of its small size, TURKEY OAK was mostly used for firewood.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT Pollen containing catkins form on the branch tips.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak The acorns have a wide base and taper to a point. They are 2 to 3 year after blooming. The acorn cap is covered with large scales. Its rolled edges cover about one-third of the nut.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are alternate and simple with three to seven deeply cut lobes. Three -lobed leaves resemble a wild turkey track. The main rib of each leaf extends into a bristle tip. The upper surface is lustrous but there are small hairs at the vein axils underneath. Petioles are rather short ranging to 1.5cm or 3 / 8 long. They twist to allow the leaves to turn at about a 45 degree angle to the ground in order to slow moisture loss.

PAGE 466

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Turkey Oak The red autumn leaves turn brown and remain on the tree through much of the winter. The thick bark is dark gray, furrowed and blocky. DISTRIBUTION The TURKEY OAK grows in dry pinelands from Lake Okeechobee northward to Virginia and west to Louisiana.

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak Quercus laurifolia W. Bartram ex Wild. or SWAMP LAUREL OAK has colorful spring growth. It is much more tolerant of heavy soils with slow drainage than most other oaks. LAUREL OAK pollen listed as a severe allergen (194,195).

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak SWAMP LAUREL OAK or DIAMOND LEAF OAK Quercus laurifolia W.Bartrm ex Wild. (KWER-cus law-riFO lia) GENERAL Quercus hemisphaerica Quercus laurifolia

PAGE 469

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak

PAGE 470

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 471

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak

PAGE 472

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 473

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Swamp Laurel Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 474

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. or the SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK is a good shade tree that does well in damp locations. It is referred to as the cow oak because cows eat the acorns; the basket oak, for the baskets are made from its wood! The wood splits easily and fibers are used for weaving. It ma de strong containers that were constructed and used by slaves in the "old south" to carry cotton from the fields. SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK produces the sweetest of the white acorn. It is edible raw. The sweet acorn is preferred by many animals. OAK: Spread: 115

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Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK or BASKET OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. (KWER-kus mi -SHOW-zee-eye) GENERAL Quercus michauxii

PAGE 476

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK

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Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK FLOWERS AND FRUIT

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Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 479

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus muehlenbergii

PAGE 480

Fagaceae (Beech) SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 481

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak Quercus myrtifolia Willd. or MYRTLE OAK is growth dependent on the amount of moisture available It is usually found close to salt water. It sprouts from rhizomous roots and frequently grows into dense often almost impenetrable thickets. This regenerative ability makes it quick to recover after a fire. The thickets provide excellent nesting for birds, including the endangered Florida scrub jay. Acorns are an important high carbohydrate food source for black bear, deer, quail, raccoons, squirrels and wild turkey. Folk legends attribute magical powers which believe the plant to bestow love, passion, and fertility to its users (201,202).

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak MYRTLE OAK Quercus myrtifolia Willd. (KWER-kus merti-FOLeea) GENERAL

PAGE 483

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 484

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 485

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 486

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak

PAGE 487

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Myrtle Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 488

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak Quercus nigra L or WATER OAK is also called Possum oak, Spotted oak, Striped oak P in oak D uck oak and Punk oak! A mulch of dry leaves repels slugs and grubs; fresh leaves inhibit other plant growth. It is a traditional staple food of the Choctaw. The seed can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening or mixed with cereals for making bread. Any galls found on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of hemorrhages chronic diarrhea and dysentery The Kiowa use the leaves for paper in rolling cigarettes (201,204,205).

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak WATER OAK Quercus nigra L. (KWER-kus NY -gra) GENERAL

PAGE 490

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak

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FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 492

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 493

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak

PAGE 494

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Water Oak DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 495

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak FAIRCHILD OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. or LIVE OAK has sweet edible acorns considered a culinary delicacy by chipmunks, deer, ground birds, songbirds, small mammals and squirrels. Its name is derived from the fact that its foliage is evergreen through the winter months. In the Creek tradition, it was given the gift of eternal life, being evergreen, because it stayed awake to watch the last night of the Creation. LIVE OAK is the heaviest native hardwoods, weighing 55 pounds per cubic foot when air dried. Dry southern LIVE OAK lumber has a specific gravity of 0.88, the heaviest of any North American hardwood. The LIVE OAK of USS Constitution repelled the shot of the HMS Guerriere so effectively that one of her sailors was heard to shout, "Huzzah! Her sides are made of iron!" The ship was given the nickname, Old Ironsides. Because the USS Constitution was built before shipbuilders learned to bend or steam wood into shape, the LIVE OAK 's long, arching branches were used as "knees" or braces to connect the ship's hull to its deck floors (206,207,208).

PAGE 496

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak LIVE OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. (KWER-kus vir-gin-eAN a) GENERAL LIVE OAK is a spreading evergreen tree that grows to 20 and the crown may reach to more in diameter. They have a massive main trunk which divides into several horizontal branches. These branches form a widespread crown an can extend fairly low to the ground. LIVE OAK longer than any other oak in Florida. The strong, dense wood was ideal for shipbuilding, furniture and tools. In 1799 the U.S. Congress appropriated money to purchase live oak land in the Carolinas so the country would have enough of these mighty trees for ship timbers and masts. Their heavy branches provide food, shelter and nest sights for many birds and other animals. The rough, furrowed orchids, bromeliads and ferns.

PAGE 497

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak

PAGE 498

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak FLOWERS AND FRUIT The staminate or male flower s are born e on catkins 5 to 7.5 cm or 2 or

PAGE 499

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak The pistillate or female flowers are arranged on a spike. The acorn is a shiny dark brown to black oval nut about 2.5 -like stem. The top-shaped cap covers about one third of the nut. LEAVES AND STEMS LIVE OAK leaves are oblong stiff and leathery. They are cupped and shiny, dark green above and tomentose or covered with short, soft hairs below.

PAGE 500

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak They grow in an alt ernate pattern and range from 2 to 15cm or 1 to Margins of mature leaves are smooth and slightly rolled under, but leaves on new shoots are often toothed or lobed.

PAGE 501

FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Live Oak LIVE OAK bark is gray to brown in color and deeply furrowed. It breaks into small plates that are about 2.5cm DISTRIBUTION LIVE OAK is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout the state. It is the only oak that grows throughout the state including the Keys. Their range is from Texas to Virginia in the coastal plains.

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle L. or RED MANGROVE timber is used for cabinetry, for shipbuilding, and to pulp. Bark extracts are used to stain floors and furniture. Branches are used to make fishing poles. Cattle eat RED MANGROVE leaves following treatment with CaCO 3 ; a wine is made from mangrove leaf and raisin! Gargling with the bark is used to cure throat cancer. an astringent, emmenagogue expectorant hemostat styptic, and tonic, red mangrove is a folk remedy for angina, asthma, backache, boils, ciguatera convulsions, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, enuresis, epistaxis, eye ailments, fever, filariasis, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, lesions, leucorrhea, malignancies, scrofula, short wind, sores, sore throat, syphilis, tuberculosis, uterorrhagia, and wounds (209)

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle RED MANGROVE Rhizophora mangle L. (rye-ZOFor uh MAN-gul) GENERAL

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle

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RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 506

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle

PAGE 507

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 508

RHIZOPHORACEAE (Mangrove Family) Rhizophora mangle DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 509

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac Rhus copallina L. or WINGED SUMAC berries can be chewed to relieve thirst, or brewed to WINGED SUMAC is also called Shining Sumac. WINGED SUMAC is a good choice for low maintenance xeriscape landscaping. It is easy to transplant and care for. It grows well on sandy, infertile soils. Traditional American Indians use the bark of all sumacs as an astringent The tannins in the leaves and bark are used for tanning leather A root extract makes black dye. Sumac leaves are used for smoking (210,211,212,213).

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ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac WINGED SUMAC or SHINING SUMAC Rhus copallina L. (RUS Copa-LYE-na) GENERAL copallina Toxicodendron vernix

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ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac

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ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 513

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac LEAVES AND STEMS

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ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac

PAGE 515

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Winged Sumac DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 516

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. or CABBAGE PALM name They cooked and ate it like cabbage. The tree is often called Swamp Cabbage. Removing this tasty apical meristem from the plant, however, causes it to die. The CABBAGE PALM often lives long after oaks, cedar, and pine have died from tidal flooding. There is a champion tree in Lafayette County, FL, with a circumference and a The CABBAGE PALM is considered one of the most common species of native trees in North America. Cabbage palmetto leaves are used to make baskets, canes, scrub brushes and thatch. Bees use its pollen. One report indicated that 65 colonies gathered 3500 lbs. of extracted cabbage palmetto honey in two weeks from an apiary on the St. Lucie River. The last full weekend in February, LaBelle, Florida hosts the annual Swamp Cabbage Festival. This was started in 1964 by the Jaycees (214,215,216,217,218,219,220).

PAGE 517

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm CABBAGE PALM or SABAL PALM Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (SAY-bal pal -METo) GENERAL An attractive tree with a straight trunk, the CABBAGE PALM grows to about 18 smooth or cross-hatched with boots of old leaf bases. The large leaves are distinguished by a graceful curve and long, wavy fibers. The strength and durability of the fibrous trunks made them desirable in construction and pilings during early times. Th e official state tree of Florida and South Carolina, the CABBAGE PALM appears on the Florida State Flag. It is a native tree. CABBAGE PALM comes from its use as a vegetable. It is necessary to kill the palm in order to cut out the apical meristem or bud, which is the edible portion. It may be eaten raw, as in Heart of Palm Salad, or cooked as Swamp Cabbage. CABBAGE PALM fruit provide food for wildlife.

PAGE 518

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm

PAGE 519

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm FLOWERS AND FRUIT The stalk of fragrant white flowers is many branched and arching.

PAGE 520

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm It is often as long as the leaves. Drooping clusters of edible, round, blue-black fruit follo w.

PAGE 521

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm LEAVES AND STEMS The triangular shaped leaves are held in a V with a graceful, downward curve. Up to 2 the fronds are divided into long, tapering segments with thread-like filaments.

PAGE 522

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Cabbage Palm The segments are shiny green above and gray-green below. The petioles or leaf stems grow to 2m or 6 DISTRIBUTION CABBAGE PALM is found throughout Florida as well as up the coast to the Carolinas, then west along the Gulf Coast to Texas.

PAGE 523

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow Salix caroliniana Michx. or CAROLINA WILLOW is host plant to the Viceroy and Red-Spotted Purple butterflies. The willow tree is associated with life and endurance, perhaps in part for the resilient ability of cut branches to take root in water. The charred wood makes an excellent drawing charcoal. In 1828, the French pharmacist, Henri Leroux isolated salicin to its crystalline form from the bark of WILLOW. The Italian chemist, Raffaele Piria separated the acid in its pure state. Native Americans across the American continent use CAROLINA WILLOW as a staple for their medical treatments. Native Americans powdered the bark, leaves, and buds to extract the salicin for medicinal purposes to include pain relief Today it remains a much cherished plant of the Florida Creek Indian People with many cultural uses. CAROLINA WILLOW wood can be used for basket weaving, cricket bats, fish traps, flutes, poles, sweat lodges, veneer and whistles. CAROLINA WILLOW has yellowish glands on the tips of the serrated leaf margin With magnification, one can see these glands either on the tip or in the notches between the teeth (221,222,223,224).

PAGE 524

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow CAROLINA or COASTAL WILLOW Salix caroliniana Michx. (SAY-liks caro lin eeAN a) GENERAL The CAROLINA WILLOW is the most common willow of Florida. CAROLINA WILLOW is a deciduous, shrubby tree which grows to 10 long, narrow leaves arranged on long, willowy branches. The CAROLINA WILLOW grows at the edges of lakes, streams and rivers. The genus name, Salix is derived When you chew a leaf, you may recognize the familiar taste of aspirin! CAROLINA WILLOW contains the same major ingredient of that headache and fever reduction medication salicin, which is an aspirin precursor An inner bark decoction has been used for severe colds, fever, diarrhea and dysentery. The long, flexible branches are used for making willow chairs and tables. Split wood is also used to make baskets.

PAGE 525

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow

PAGE 526

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow FLOWERS AND FRUIT The flowers are born in attractive catkins or spike like flower stalks bearing small unisex flowers that emerge at the same time as the new leaves.

PAGE 527

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow The silk-tipped seeds are released from small pods that split open in the spring.

PAGE 528

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow LEAVES AND STEMS CAROLINA WILLOW leaves are simple alternate and lanceolate or lance shaped. They grow to 8 to 20cm or 2.5cm or 3 / 8 The margins are finely serrated or toothed. The upper surfaces are smooth and dark green, while the lower surfaces of the leaves are glaucous and whitish.

PAGE 529

SALICACEAE (Willow Family) Carolina Willow The stems are strong, long and limber, giving meaning to x-none x-none x-none DISTRIBUTION CAROLINA WILLOW is found in freshwater wetlands throughout the Florida peninsula, but rarely seen in the Keys. A southern species, it is found from Florida to Texas, north to Maryland, inland to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. They grow along the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys to Missouri. CAROLINA WILLOW is also found in Cuba.

PAGE 530

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry Sambucus canadensis L. or ELDERBERRY leaves, stems and roots are POISONOUS though they have been used in folk medicine for years. Children have become ill from sucking on stems to make whistles. The flowers and fruit are not toxic. The white blooms can be dipped in batter and fried as a protein rich pancake. The fruit may be eaten raw, used to make pies, jams and jellies and a delicious sweet wine. Elderberries have more vitamin C per unit weight than oranges or tomatoes. The Elder tree, Sambucus nigra is one of the sacred trees of Wicca and Witchcraft. It represents the thirteenth month on the Celtic Tree Calendar. It is the last two days of October and is the end of the old Celtic year, leading into the 1 st of Novemb er We celebrate this calling it Halloween (225,226,227,228).

PAGE 531

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry ELDERBERRY or AMERICA ELDER Sambucus canadensis L. (sam-BYOO-kus kana DEN -sis) GENERAL canadensis Sambucas

PAGE 532

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry

PAGE 533

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 534

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry

PAGE 535

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 536

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Elderberry DI STRIBUTION

PAGE 537

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees or SASSAFRAS leaves and bark both have a citrus scent. The root is used to make root beer. The roots were boiled with molasses and fermented until a distinctive soft drink is produced. Sassafras wood, bark and roots produce an extract, the oil of sassafras. It is useful in flavorings, perfumes and scenting soaps. The medicinal use of the oil has declined recently due to the potential for carcinogenetic effects. Sassafras wood is durable and is used for buckets, cabi nets, cooperage fence posts and rails, interior finish and furniture (229,230).

PAGE 538

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (SASSuh-fras AL -bih-dum) GENERAL SASSAFRAS is a deciduous tree that grows to 15 m or 45 I n Florida it can appear more shr ublike. Its s hort, horizontal branches give it a layered appearance. Sixteenth century French and Spanish settlers called this tree by its American Indian name, SASSAFRAS. Albidum the leaves. Aromatic oils derived from the roots, bark and twigs of this tree are used in flavoring extracts, perfumes, soaps and in some pharmaceuticals. It is reported that Columbus used the airborne fragrance of the SASSAFRAS as an indicator of land nearby. The Creek People today use the roots in ceremonies.

PAGE 539

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras

PAGE 540

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras FLOWERS AND FRUIT The flowers appear with the unfolding leaves in terminal racemes. SASSAFRAS is dioecious, male and female flowers grow on separate plants trees. Flowers are 5 to 8 mm across and are yellowish green. The small oval fruits are dark blue. They grow as fleshy drupes borne in clusters on red stems.

PAGE 541

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras LEAVES AND STEMS Leaves are simple, alternate, and palmately veined. The margins have one to three lobes often looking like mittens or three fingered gloves. A majority of the leaves on younger plants are two and three-lobed obovate. The apex is usually acute with a wedge-shaped base.

PAGE 542

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras The leaf is yellow-green above with a whitish underside Leaves turn bronze to red in the fall.

PAGE 543

LAURACEAE (Laurel Family) Sassafras Thick, reddish brown bark is divided into flat ridges by deep fissures. The inner bark is aromatic. DISTRIBUTION SASSAFRAS prefers dry, sandy soils. It is common along fencerows in the northern counties of Florida south to Hillsborough county. It ranges throughout the eastern and southern states from Maine to Florida and Texas.

PAGE 544

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi or BRAZILIAN PEPPER was brought to Florida in habitats. T They add a spice to meals when eaten in small quantity They are toxic if eaten in large amounts Ingestion of berries can cause vomiting (231,232) BRAZILIAN PEPPER is invasive to en Australiaen the en Bahamasen enBermudaen southern en Chinaen enCubaen enFijien enFrench Polynesiaen enGuamen enMaltaen the en Marshall Islandsen en Mauritiusen en New Caledoniaen enNew Zealanden en Norfolk Islanden, en Puerto Ricoen enRunionen, and the en United Statesen primarily in en Floridaen and en Hawaiien It is difficult to manage as it sends up root suckers and shoots if the trunk is cut; seeds are dispersed by birds. en Honey bees make honey from BRAZILIAN PEPPER flowers. The berries are an important food source for wintering songbirds. R obins wintering in Florida eat tons of "Florida H olly" berries, and their population has increased since BRAZILIAN PEPPER established in Florida as does the spread of the shrub (231,232) en en

PAGE 545

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (SKY-nus te re -bin-thi-FOL-ius) GENERAL NOXIOUS WEED

PAGE 546

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper

PAGE 547

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 548

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 549

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper

PAGE 550

ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew Family) Brazilian Pepper DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 551

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small or SAW PALMETTO blossom fragrance is terrific! Rattlesnakes love to hide in the plants because rats and mice like to hide in them too! The genus name, Serenoa is named after the American botanist, Sereno Watson (1826-1892). Two vegetative forms are recognized: the common yellow-green color; the less common blue-green color referred to as the silver form. The silver type occurs in occasionally inland in Polk and Highlands Counties. The Seminoles grind the berries into nutritious flour. An infusion from the berries is used for stomach aches, dysentery and soft drinks. The berries are also used for prostate health. Today, Florida landowners report cases of "SAW PALMETTO rustling" where gangs of pickers move in and strip and area of fruit within a few hours. Tannin from the stems was used to cure hides, while the leaves and branches made baskets, brooms, hats and ropes (223,234,235,23 6)

PAGE 552

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto SAW PALMETTO Serenoa repens (W.Bartram) Small (Sere NO -a RE-penz) GENERAL SAW PALMETTO is a creeping palm with a trunk that lies on or just below the ground. It occasionally grows upright in heavily shaded areas. Researchers speculate that th ese plants may live more than 700 years. The name repens that stretch out along the ground or each other. The ripe fruit is used as food by many animals, including the Florida Black Bear. Flowers are an important food source to bees. SAW PALMETTO makes a superior honey. Harvested palmetto buds are delicious eaten raw or cooked like swamp cabbage. Additionally, SAW PALMETTO fronds are used to make thatch roofs. Seminole and Creek Indians use the SAW PALMETTO as food and as medicine. Its medicinal qualities have long been known by many civilizations. The berries are used as an aphrodisiac and to treat prostate problems.

PAGE 553

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto

PAGE 554

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto FLOWERS AND FRUIT Fragrant greenish-white flowers are arranged in spike-like structures on a large stalk. The fruit is an oblong drupe or ol ive -shaped stone fruit, about 2

PAGE 555

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto The juicy, black berry has an unpleasant, soapy taste. LEAVES AND STEMS The fan shaped fronds divide into many segments.

PAGE 556

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto Fronds are yellow-green to green. There is a silvery variation caused by a waxy coating on the surface.

PAGE 557

ARECACEAE (Palm Family) Saw Palmetto The petiole or leaf stem has sharp, curved spines hence the name, SAW PALMETTO. DISTRIBUTION Palmettos grow on sandy dunes, flatwoods hammoc ks and ridges throughout Florida, Louisiana and the Carolinas.

PAGE 558

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox Sesbania punicea (Cav.) DC. or RATTLEBOX is native to Argentina, S.A. Its seeds have saponic glycosides which are lethal if ingested. The species name "punicea" comes from the Latin for crimson. This refers to the color of the flower. This plant is such an invasive species and most references only describe methods of eradication (237,238,239)

PAGE 559

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox RATTLEBOX (sez-BAY-nee-uh pew-NISSee-uh) syn. Daubentonia punicea GENERAL punicea Rank II Pest

PAGE 560

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox

PAGE 561

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox FLOWERS AND FRUIT x-none

PAGE 562

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox POISONOUS

PAGE 563

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 564

FABACEAE (Pea Family) Rattlebox DISTRIBUTION Sesbania punicea

PAGE 565

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. or GUM BUMELIA is also called Chittamwood, False Buckthorn and or Woolly Bucket Bumelia. Its wood is soft, weak and yellowish-brown in color. The best time of year to collect seeds is in the autumn. Planting seeds is best done in the spring. Seeds should have been kept at 40 o F for two months prior to germination. Optimal germination temperature range is between 70 to 85 o F. Germination time ranges between 16 to 20 weeks. Seeds should be lightly covered with soil (240,241).

PAGE 566

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia GUM BUMELIA or GUM BULLY Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. fr-FR (sider OX -e-lon lu-noojiNO -suh) Syn. Bumelia lanuginose Pers. GENERAL lanuginosa

PAGE 567

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia

PAGE 568

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 569

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 570

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia

PAGE 571

SAPOTACEAE (Sapodilla Family) Gum Bumelia DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 572

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. or MAHOGANY came to Florida from the other America where it was first observed by Europeans in late 15 by a carpenter aboard ship with Sir Walter Raleigh When properly finished and polished to a rich sheen, mahogany has a deep rich red color. It has been used since the reign of George I of England for furniture; and is very sought after today Swietenia mahagoni is a Florida native that ironically is becoming rare in the wild due to development, but is increasingly found as a street and yard tree. MAHOGANY casts a light shadow, concomitantly permitting grass and other plants beneath it to grow It is known for its ability to withstand strong winds (242,243).

PAGE 573

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany MAHOGANY Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (swe-TEEN-ia ma -HOG-o-ni) GENERAL

PAGE 574

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany

PAGE 575

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 576

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany

PAGE 577

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 578

MELIACEAE (Mahogany Family) Mahogany DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 579

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress Taxodium ascendens (L.) Rich or POND CYPRESS live at higher densities than Bald C ypress. They live in slow moving to stagnant water with low nutrients and occasional fires. These c ypress trees are conifers or cone bearing plants that are related to the giant Sequoia trees of California (244,245).

PAGE 580

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress POND CYPRESS Taxodium ascendens (L.) Rich (taks-Odi -um as -SEN-denz) GENERAL oxygen to the tree and supporting the trees growing in the loose wet soil. Their buttressed trunks also support the heavy trees.

PAGE 581

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress

PAGE 582

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 583

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 584

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 585

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Pond Cypress

PAGE 586

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress Taxodium distichum Brongn. or BALD CYPRESS trees were heavily logged during the 19 th century. Trees were floated down the rivers to mills. Southeastern U.S. swamps boasted ancient BALD CYPRESS forests with trees more than 1200 years old. The largest remaining old-growth stand of BALD CYPRESS is at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, east of Naples, Florida. Cypress trees have been present in southwest Florida for more than 5,000 years; 6,500 years in the far northern region of the state. Trees as old as 500 years of age exceed 40 living near Longwood, Florida. It is 35 with a trunk diameter of 344 In 1740 Mark Catesby, one of the first great nature artist to paint American wildlife, rendered a portrait of a little parrot eating BALD CYPRESS seeds. This answered the question as to how the BALD CYPRESS trees became so widely disseminated. BALD CYPRESS got the name "eternal wood" from longterm use as hollow logs installed as water pipes in 1798 that were still working when removed in 1914 and reports of cypress shingles lasting 250 years (246,247,248).

PAGE 587

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress BALD CYPRESS Taxodium distichum Brongn. (taks-Odi -um DISti -kum) GENERAL

PAGE 588

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress

PAGE 589

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 590

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 591

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress

PAGE 592

CUPRESSACEAE (Cedar Family) Bald Cypress DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 593

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm Ulmus alata Michx. or WINGED ELM wood is very flexible, hard, resists splitting and it is springy. Its flexibility makes it useful for rocking chairs or curved pieces. Its resistance to splitting makes it good for hockey sticks. Its hardness makes it useful for flooring, boxes, crates, and furniture. The fibrous inner bark is used to make baling twine to bind cotton bales. A wrap of the inner bark was used to stabilize broken bones. The Creek Indians of Alabama, Georgia, and parts of Florida called this tree uhawhu which was anglicized to Wahoo. The Witch Elm is another name given to th is tree from which came the forked "divining rod" that dowsers, also known as "water witchers", used for divining water. Once the spot was located over a subterranean stream and double checked, a well was dug (249,250,251,252).

PAGE 594

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm WINGED ELM or ROCK ELM (ULM-us a-LAY-tuh) GENERAL alata

PAGE 595

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm

PAGE 596

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 597

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 598

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm

PAGE 599

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Winged Elm DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 600

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm Ulmus americana L. or the AMERICAN ELM was once a popular tree in the northeast United States. Its decline in many areas was due to the fungal, Dutch The disease was also transmitted from the roots of one tree to another. Disease resistant cultivars are now available. The Florida variety, Ulmus americana var. floridana (Chapm) Little, is smaller in stature (253,254)

PAGE 601

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm AMERICAN ELM or FLORIDA ELM (UL-mus uh-mair-ih -KAN-nuh) GENERAL

PAGE 602

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm

PAGE 603

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 604

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 605

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm

PAGE 606

ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Florida Elm DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 607

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry Vaccinium arboreum Mars or SPARKLEBERRY is distinctive among the blueberries in that it thrives on neutral to calcareous soils. It is highly tolerant of droughts. It is a honey plant in sandy spots in the SE U S A. Seeds need light to germinate; they should be sown on the surface of the soil. SPARKLEBERRY is a beautiful landscape shrub. Once established it needs no special treatment. It grows quickly. In full sun, it produces profuse masses of showy white flowers, then masses of equally attractive shiny black berries. SPARKLEBERRY can be propagated from cuttings, but this is difficult. It feeds birds and other wildlife. Bark, leaves and root extracts have been used to treat diarrhea (255,256). en en en

PAGE 608

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry SPARKLEBERRY or TREE HUCKLEBERRY Vaccinium arboreum Mars (vak-SINee-um ar-BORee-um) GENERAL arboreum

PAGE 609

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry

PAGE 610

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 611

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 612

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry

PAGE 613

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Sparkleberry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 614

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry We can always find room for Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. or SHINY BLUEBERRY, the native blueberry, in the cultivated landscape. Once established, they require no care. Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers; songbirds eat the berries. Traditional Mikasukiinfusion of leaves is used for sun sickness to include eye disease, headache, high fever and diarrhea. SHINY BERRY is also used to treat colds and for chronically ill babies (257,258).

PAGE 615

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry SHINY BLUEBERRY Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. (vak-SINee-um mer-sin-NIE-teez) GENERAL V. darrowii

PAGE 616

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry

PAGE 617

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 618

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 619

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry

PAGE 620

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) Shiny Blueberry DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 621

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. or DEERBERRY is called DEERBERRY because it is eaten by deer! Its leaves turn red and orange before falling in late autumn. This is a highly variable species that has been divided into several sub-species and varieties. There are many synony ms found in the literature. Many songbirds eat the berries and white-tailed deer eat the leaves, twigs and berries. The berries are also savored by black bears, bobwhite quail, chipmunks, foxes, raccoons, ruffed grouse, squirrels and wild turkeys (259,260).

PAGE 622

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY DEER BERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. (vak-SINee-um sta-MIN-nee-um) Syn. Polycodium stamineum GENERAL stamineum

PAGE 623

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY

PAGE 624

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY FLOWERS OR FRUIT

PAGE 625

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY

PAGE 626

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY LEAVES OR STEMS

PAGE 627

ERICACEAE (Heath Family) DEERBERRY DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 628

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash fr-FR Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. or PRICKLY ASH is a traditional North American N ative medicinal plant. The Alabama, Cherokee, Chippewa, Comanche, Creek, Delaware, Iroquois, Oklahoma, Menominee, Ojibwa, Pawnee, and Potawatomi alike, use the common PRICKLY ASH for many medicinal purposes. These include alleviating toothaches and intestinal and bladder ailments. An extract of the bark was used to treat the cholera epidemic of 1849. It was used to treat the gaseous bowel compromised from peritonitis The fruit, which has a lemony smell, has been used by young men as a perfume. Giant swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on the plants leaves (261,262,263,264,265).

PAGE 629

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash PRICKLY ASH or TOOTHACHE TREE fr-FR Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. fr-FR (zan-THOKsi -lum CLA-va HERku -lis) fr-FR GENERAL clava -herculis Zanthoxylum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum coriaceum Zanthoxylum flavum

PAGE 630

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash

PAGE 631

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash FLOWERS AND FRUIT

PAGE 632

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash LEAVES AND STEMS

PAGE 633

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash

PAGE 634

RUTACEAE (Citrus Family) Prickly Ash DISTRIBUTION

PAGE 636

Vocabulary A Achene Acute Acute A pex / Acute apices Aerial roots Air layers Algonquian Alternate leaves Alternately compound Altingiaceae en en en en en en en en en en en en Amygdalin Angina Angiogenesis

PAGE 637

Anther ( s ) Apex Apiary Apical Apical meristem Appressed trichomes Apricock Aromatic Ascending branches Astringent Auriculate Awrie Axillary clusters Axil ( s ) B Basal sheath Bayheads Bipinnate(ly) compound leaves

PAGE 638

Bole Boot ( s ) Bottomlands Bract Broadly lance shaped leaves Bromeliads Buttressed C Calcareous soils Calorific Calyx Camphor Cinnamonum camphora. Canopy Carcinoma Catkins Celluloid

PAGE 639

Cherokee Cholera Ciguatera Cineol Coastal hammocks. Sabal palmetto Juniperus silicicola Pinus elliottii Quercus virginiana Colloquially Compound leaves Coniferous Cooperage Copious Cordate leaves Corky (as in wings) Cornine Corolla Crenate Crown (of a tree) Crustose lichens Cultivars

PAGE 640

Cultural Cuttings Cyanogenic glycoside (s) Cylindrical Cymes Cytotoxic D DBH Deciduous Decoction(s) Deeply depressed veins Dioecious Discouraged Diuretic Dorsal groove Double serrated margins Doubly serrated leaves Doubly toothed or dentate margins Downy (leaf undersides )

PAGE 641

Droop Drupe(s) Dry scrub Dysentery E Ebony Elliptic(al) Emetic emetica, emetikos Cephaelis ipecacuanha Emmenagogue (s) Endemic Entire margins Ephedrine Epiphyte(ic) Eradication Espalier ( s )

PAGE 642

Estuaries Eucalyptol Even pinnate Evergreen Exfoliate ( s ) Exotic Expectorant(s Extirpation F fasciculus Fascicles Fetter Filariasis Flats Flatwood s Floodplains Fluted Foliage

PAGE 643

G Gallic acid Galls Glabrous Glaucous Globuse Glutinous Glycoside Gnaphalium H Hammock Hardwood Hammocks Hybrid Hallucinogen Hamamelidaceae Heartwood en Heliotrophin Hemolytic Hemoptysis Hemorrhages

PAGE 644

Hemostat Hepatoma Hermaphroditic Hollows Hydragogue I Inconspicuous Inconspicuous (clusters of flowers) Inflorescence Infusion Ingenious Insecticidal Inter marginal veins Isopteropodine K Keeled blossom has a L Lanceolate Laryngitis Lateral spurs

PAGE 645

Layering Leaf Leaf axils Leaf node Leaflets Lenticels Leucorrhea Leukemia Liana Lignin Linnaeus, Carl Nilsson Systemae Natu ralae Lobes Lustrous M Monoecious Madagascar Magenta Malaria Malic acid Margin

PAGE 646

Medlar Mesic Micmac Midrib Moist hammocks Monoecious N Naval stores Nitrogen Node Non lustrous leaf Notched Nutlet O Oblanceolate Oblong Obovate Obscure

PAGE 647

Oddpinnately Omnivorous Opaque Opposite branching Opposite leaves Ornamental Oval to oblong Ovate Ovoid Ozone P Palmate veins Palmately compound Panicles Partitioned seed pods Pasiminan P cymene Peduncles Pendant balls Perfect (flowers)

PAGE 648

Peritonitis Persistent Petiole(s) Pine Flatwoods Pinnae Pinnate veins Pinnately compound, Pioneer plant (s) Piria, Raffaele Pistil(s) Pistillate (flowers) Pistillate catkins Pneumatophores Profusion Propagate Propagule Prostate Prunasin is

PAGE 649

Prussic acid Pteropodine Ptperonal butoxide Pubescent(ence) Purgative Pyrethroid ( Q Quinine R Raceme(s) Rachis Recurved Reflexed leaves Regurgitation Resin(s) Reticulated Retort Revolute / Revolute margins Rheumatism Rhizomatous

PAGE 650

Rhizomous Ringworm Root Root stock Rosins Rugose S Safrole Salicin Samara Sand scrub Sandhill Saponic glucosides Sassafras Scro fula Scrub habitat

PAGE 651

Scrubby Flatwoods Scythe shaped Semi deciduous Semi persistent Sepals Sequester Serrated leaf margin Serrated margins Serrations Sessile Shallow lobes Simple leaves Simple Smooth margins Spatulate Stamen Staminate Stigmas Stipules

PAGE 652

Styptic Sub opposite Succession Sulfur T Tannin tanna Tepals Terminal Thatch Tomentose Tonic Toothed margin Topiaries Tripinnate compound leaves are Tubular Turns

PAGE 653

Turpentine Tworanked U Under story Unpalatable Uterorrhagia V Vein axils Veneers W Wavy margins Wedged base Wedge shaped base Wet hammocks Whorls(ed) Winged rachis Woodenware X Xeric

PAGE 656

en en

PAGE 659

en en en en en en en

PAGE 660

en en en en en en en en en en en

PAGE 663

en

PAGE 664

en en en Science.

PAGE 668

SCIENTIFIC NAME INDEX

PAGE 674

COMMON NAME INDEX

PAGE 678

COMMUNITY KEY FOR WORT HUNTERS GUIDE LEAF KEY Look at your surroundings. Are you standing on, in or near: COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS AND AREAS DISTURBED AND URBAN AREAS: DRY SAND: FRESH WATER HAMMOCKS: LEAVES: STATEWIDE WET SOIL: EXOTIC PLANT

PAGE 679

COASTAL AREA AND SCRUB ENVIRONMENTS Simple BLACK MANGROVE Avicennia germinans L. PAGE 64 CHERRY LAUREL Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl PAGE 414 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148

PAGE 680

GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance PAGE 281 GREEN BUTTONWOOD Conocarpus erectus Nutt PAGE 169 GUMBO LIMBO Bursera simaruba L. Sarg. PAGE 78

PAGE 681

MYRSINE Myrsine floridana A. DC. PAGE 344 RED MANGROVE Rhizophora mangle L. PAGE 491 SEA GRAPE Cocoloba uvifera L. PAGE 162 SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) PAGE 379

PAGE 682

Compound NICKER BEANS Caesalpinia bonduc L. PAGE 85 DISTURBED AND URBAN AREAS Simple BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi PAGE 533 CAMPHOR TREE Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl PAGE 155 Compound MIMOSA Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. PAGE 22

PAGE 683

RATTLEBOX Sesbania punicea (Cav.) DC. PAGE 547 Allbizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. PAGE 29 DRY SAND Needles LONGLEAF PINE Pinus palustris Mill. PAGE 393 SAND PINE Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) PAGE 379

PAGE 684

SLASH PINE Pinus elliottii Engelm. PAGE 386 Simple CHAPMAN OAK Quercus chapmanii Sarg. PAGE 428 CHERRY LAUREL Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Aitl PAGE 414 CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall PAGE 407

PAGE 685

DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. PAGE 239 DEERBERRY Vaccinium stamineum L. PAGE 610 GOPHER APPLE Licania michauxii Prance PAGE 281 GUM BUMELIA Sideroxylon lanuginosa Michx. PAGE 554

PAGE 686

LAUREL OAK Quercus hemisphaerica Bartr. ex Willd. PAGE 442 MAHOGANY Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. PAGE 561 MYRTLE OAK Quercus myrtifolia Willd. PAGE 470 RED BAY Persea borbonia borbonia (L.) Spreng PAGE 358

PAGE 687

RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SAND LIVE OAK Quercus geminata Small PAGE 435 SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees PAGE 526 SAW PALMETTO Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small PAGE 540

PAGE 688

SCRUB HOLLY Ilex opaca arenicola (Ashe) PAGE 260 SCRUB PAWPAW Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash PAGE 57 SHINY BLUEBERRY Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. PAGE 603 SILK BAY Persea borbonia humilis Nash PAGE 365

PAGE 689

SPARKLEBERRY Vaccinium arboreum Mars PAGE 596 TAR FLOWER Befaria racemosa Vent. PAGE 71 TURKEY OAK Quercus laevis Walter PAGE 449 WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477

PAGE 690

WAX MYRTLE Myrica cerifera L. PAGE 337 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 FRESH WATER Simple BALD CYPRESS Taxodium distichum Brongn. PAGE 575 POND CYPRESS Taxodium ascendens L. PAGE 568

PAGE 691

SUGARBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd P P A A G G E E 1 1 2 2 0 0 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 HAMMOCKS Simple FIRE BUSH Hamelia patens Jacq. PAGE 225 MARLBERRY Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. PAGE 50

PAGE 692

RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA Magnolia grandiflora L. PAGE 316 STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. PAGE 204 SUGARBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd PAGE 120

PAGE 693

SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 Compound PRICKLY ASH Zanthoxylum clava herculis L. fr-FR PAGE 617 RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. PAGE 15 ROYAL POINCIANA Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. PAGE 190

PAGE 694

LEAVES (DRY WOODS, WOODLANDS) Simple ASHE MAGNOLIA Magnolia ashei (Weatherby) PAGE 309 BEAUTY BERRY Callicarpa americana L. PAGE 92 CHICKASAW PLUM Prunus angustifolia Marshall PAGE 407

PAGE 695

DOGWOOD Cornus florida L. PAGE 176 FRINGE TREE Chionanthus virginicus L. PAGE 141 OAK LEAF HYDRANGEA Hydrangea quercifolia W. Bartram PAGE 232 PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. PAGE 197

PAGE 696

REDBUD Cercis canadensis L. PAGE 134 SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 WINGED ELM Ulmus alata Michx. PAGE 582 Compound DEVIL'S WALKING STICK Aralia spinosa L. PAGE 43

PAGE 697

PECAN Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch PAGE 113 PIGNUT HICKORY Carya glabra Mill. PAGE 106 WINGED SUMAC Rhus copallina L. PAGE 498

PAGE 698

STATEWIDE Simple AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca Ait. PAGE 253 BLACK CHERRY Prunus serotina serotina Ehrh. PAGE 421 CABBAGE PALM Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. F. PAGE 505 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148

PAGE 699

GALLBERRY Ilex glabra (L.) PAGE 246 LIVE OAK Quercus virginiana Mill. PAGE 484 PERSIMMON Diospyros virginiana L. PAGE 197 RUSTY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295

PAGE 700

WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477 Compound BRAZILIAN PEPPER Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi PAGE 533 WINGED SUMAC Rhus copallina L. PAGE 498

PAGE 701

WET SOIL (BOTTOMLANDS, FLOODPLAIN, MARSH, SWAMPS, WETLANDS, WET FLATWOODS, WET HAMMOCKS) Needle SLASH PINE Pinus elliottii Engelm. PAGE 386 Simple AMERICAN ELM Ulmus americana L. PAGE 589 BUTTONBUSH Cephalanthus occidentalis L. PAGE 127

PAGE 702

CAROLINA WILLOW Salix caroliniana Michx. PAGE 512 COCO-PLUM Chrysobalanus icaco L. PAGE 148 DAHOON HOLLY Ilex cassine L. PAGE 239 EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch PAGE 351

PAGE 703

ELDERBERRY Sambucus canadensis L. PAGE 519 IRONWOOD Carpinus caroliniana Walter PAGE 99 LOBLOLLY BAY Gordonia lasianthus L. PAGE 218 MELALUCA Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) S.T. Blake PAGE 330

PAGE 704

POND APPLE Annona glabra PAGE 36 RED MAPLE Acer rubrum L. PAGE 8 RU STY LYONIA Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. PAGE 295 SHINY LYONIA Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch PAGE 302

PAGE 705

SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA Magnolia grandiflora L. PAGE 316 STRANGLER FIG Ficus aurea Nutt. PAGE 204 SWAMP BAY Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. PAGE 372 SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK Quercus michauxii Nutt. PAGE 463 SWAMP DOGWOOD Cornus foemina Mill. PAGE 183

PAGE 706

SWAMP LAUREL OAK Quercus laurifolia W. Bartram ex Wild. PAGE 456 SWEET BAY MAGNOLIA Magnolia virginiana L. PAGE 323 SWEETGUM Liquidambar styraciflua L PAGE 288 SYCAMORE Platanus occidentalis L. PAGE 400

PAGE 707

VIRGINIA WILLOW Itea virginica L. PAGE 274 WAX MYRTLE Myrica cerifera L. PAGE 337 Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Ait. PAGE 267 WATER OAK Quercus nigra L PAGE 477

PAGE 708

Compound BOXELDER ASH LEAFED MAPLE Acer negundo L. PAGE 1 POP ASH Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. PAGE 211 RED BUCKEYE Aesculus pavia L. PAGE 15