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Page Introduction i Table of Contents iii Acer negundo 1 Acer rubrum 8 Aesculus pavia 15 Albizia julibrissin 22 Albizia lebbeck 29 Annona glabra 36 Aralia spinosa 43 Ardisia escallonioides 50 Asimina obovata 57 Avicennia germinans 64 Befaria racemosa 71 Burse ra sim a ru ba 78 Caesalpinia bonduc 85 Calicarpa americana 92 Carpinus caroliniana 99 Carya glabra 106 Carya illinoensis 113 Celtis laevigata 120 Cephalanthus occidentalis 127 iii
Page Cercis canadensis 134 Chionanthus virginicus 141 Chrysobalanus icaco 148 Cinnamomum camphora 155 Coccoloba uvifera 162 Concarpus erectus 169 Cornus florida 176 Cornus foemina 183 Delonix regia 190 Diospyros virginiana 197 Ficus aurea 204 Fraxinus caroliniana 211 Gordonia lasianthus 218 Hamelia patens 225 Hy drangea querciafolia 232 Ilex cassine 239 Ilex glabra 246 Ilex opaca 253 Ilex opaca arenicola 260 Ilex vomitoria 267 Itea virginica 274 Licania michauxaii 281 iv
Liquidamber styraciflua 288 Lyonia ferruginea 295 Ly onia lucida 302 Magnolia ashei 309 Magnolia grandiflora 316 Magnolia virginiana 323 Melaleuca quinquenervia 330 Myrica cerifera 337 Myrsine floridana 344 Ostrya virginiana 351 Persea borbonia borbonia 358 Persea borbonia humulis 365 Persea palustris 372 Pinus clausa 379 Pinus elliotii 386 Pinus palustris 393 Platanus occidentalis 400 Prunus angustifolia 407 Prunus caroliniana 414 Prunus serotina 421 Quercus chapmanii 428 Quercus geminata 435 Quercus hemisphaerica 442 v
Quercus laevis 449 Quercus laurifolia 456 Quercus michauxii 463 Quercus myrtifolia 470 Quercus nigra 477 Quercus virginiana 484 Rhizophora mangle 491 Rhus copallinum 498 Sabal palmetto 505 Salix caroliniana 512 Sambucus canadensis 519 Sassafras albidum 526 Schinus terebinthifolius 533 Serenoa repens 540 Sesbania punicea 547 Sideroxylon lanuginosa 554 Swietenia mahogoni 561 Taxodium ascendens 568 Taxodium distichum 575 Ulmus alata 582 Ulmus americana 589 Vaccinium arboretum 596 Vaccinium myrsinites 603 vi
Vaccinium stamineum 610 Zanthoxylum clava-herculis 617 Vocabulary 625 List of References 645 Bibliography 653 Internet Resources 655 Scientific Name Index 657 Common Name Index 663 Community Key 667 Leaf Key vii
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fr-FR SHINY LYONIA is a lovely evergreen shrub that grows in damp soils all over the peninsula of Florida. It is a valuable landscape plant. Though not usually so large, it can grow to 4m or 12 tall. SHINY LYONIA is distinguished by its deep pink urn shaped flowers and shiny, dark green leaves with inter-marginal veins. The vein runs parallel to the margin or leaf edge. Since several members of the or Heath Family also have the common name of Fetterbush, we prefer not to use it because of the confusion. Fetterbush refers to bushes growing in thickets that could fetter or tangle the feet. This interesting family also includes blueberries, azaleas and mountain laurels.
SHINY LYONIA has clusters of cylindrical or bell shaped flowers with persistent sepals which are born at the leaf axils. This means the clusters of flowers grow out of the base of the leaf. The color ranges from light to deep pink to nearly red.
The fruit is an urn shaped, dry capsu le or achene that serves as food for some seed eating wildlife.
The leaves are alternate simple and broad to narrowly elliptical in shape. They range to 2 to 8 cm or 1 to 3 long. This shiny, dark green and leathery foliage is evergreen. The vein that parallels the margin is a distinguishing feature of this species. The stems can grow woody with age.
SHINY LYONIA are found in wet flatwoods, bogs and swamp edges throughout the entire peninsula of Florida and along the Coastal Plain from Louisiana up to southern Virginia.
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The CAJEPUT is an evergreen tree that grows to 15 m or 50 is easily recognized by its unique bark. The common name, tan sheets of soft, pulpy bark that peels off in layers. Respiratory irritations from pollen and dermatitis from bark contact are not uncommon. The oils are used medicinally. It is against the law to plant this tree because it is listed as by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and a by the Florida Department of Agriculture and U.S.D.A. Seeds easily sprout where they fall. Originally imported from Australia to help dry up wetlands, CAJEPUT trees have become pests in south Florida, destroying vast areas of natural habitats. Efforts are being made to eliminate these trees from natural landscapes by treating them with herbicides. This requires great persistence and much money.
terminal clusters of white flowers form along and around the stem giving it the appearance of a bottlebrush. Hard seed capsules form around the stem, just as the flowers.
The seeds are carried by birds. They are dropped with their own supply of fertilizer.
CAJEPUT leaves are alternate simple, entire and lanceolate They are long and narrow, being wider near base.
Leaves have 5 to 7 parallel veins running their length. Stems or branches are weak and soft. The tree trunk is covered with gray colored, corky, peeling bark. CAJEPUT trees grow throughout south Florida and through the central Florida wetland areas. They can be found in the Everglades and marshes, and along roadside canals.
and useful plants. This evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree, 8m or 25' tall. It has multiple trunks. WAX MYRTLE is identified by aromatic leaves, which are toothed toward the apex. The silvery gray bark is nearly smooth. Its shiny, dark green leaves, cold hardiness and insect resistance, make it an excellent choice as a native landscape plant. WAX MYRTLE repels insects with the fragrant wax contained in its leaves and berries. The wax is used to scent candles, thus the common name of Florida Bayberry. The species name, A tea made from tender leaves and twigs has been used to treat colds, stomach aches and ulcers. The leaves are used to flavor stews and soups.
WAX MYRTLE plants are dioecious They have male and female flowers on separate plants. The tiny male flowers are in catkins, 2 cm or 1" long at the leaf axi ls
Tiny, white female flowers are borne along the stems. The clusters of gray berries are covered with wax that contains a pleasant fragrance.
The glossy leaves are alternate, simp le and 3 to 15 cm or 2 to 6" long. L eaves are oblanceolate with teeth toward the pointed tip. Though thin, they have a leathery texture. Tiny glands on both surfaces appear as amber colored dots upon magnification. They are fragrant when crushed. Rubbed on the skin, they repel insects.
WAX MYRTLE is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout Florida. It thrives in wet woods to dry pinelands. WAX MYRTLE ranges from Florida north to New Jersey and west to Arkansas and Texas. It also grows in the West Indies.
MYRSINE is an attractive shrub or small tree which grows The berries are available all year long and provide food for many species of fruit eating birds, including mockingbirds and cat birds. The heavy foliage provides nest sites and shelter. It is occasionally confused with Marlberry, but can be distinguished by the flowers and fruit appearing in a spiral along the stem.
MYRSINE is essentially dioecious with a f ew perfect flowers. In winter, small white flowers bloom along the stems. They are followed by clusters of round berries which appear on the bare stems below the foliage.
The berries turn blue-black when ripe.
The leaves appear close together at the ends of branches They are alternate simple and occasionally have notched tips. They are leathery textured and have revolute or rolled under margins. The mature stems are whitish and show off the flowers and berries.
MYRSINE is found in coastal hammocks from Manatee and Volusia Counties south to the Keys. x-none x-none
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RED BAY is an attractive evergreen tree that grows to about 12m or It is usually much smaller. RED BAY can be easily identified because of the numerous leaf galls. They are lighter in color than the leaves and often form along the leaf margins, deforming the leaf. There are two varieties common to Florida. They are Var. RED BAY SILK BAY The common name comes from the red heart-wood. Because it is close-grained, heavy and strong, it is used for cabinet work and furniture. Its aromatic, flavorful le aves are used for seasoning food.
Tiny greenish flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils The fruit is a dark blue, oval drupe with one seed. Peduncles are 2.5
Leaves are simple and a lternate. They are entire elliptic to lanceolate and grow to 15 cm or 6 long. Bright green and lustrous above, the lower surface is glaucous or has fine white hairs Var. shows a prominent yellow midrib The underside of var. has rusty pubescence When crushed, the leaves are pleasantly aromatic.
The leaf galls, caused by insects, are a common feature and can be used to help identify this tree.
The twigs are slightly hairy. The bark is reddish brown, with flat, scaly ridges divided by deep vertical fissures when mature. RED BAY grows in wide variety of habitats from bluffs to hammocks and scrubs in every county in Florida, including the Keys. It grows west to Texas and north to Virginia. Var. is endemic to the ancient scrubs of central Florida.
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The stately LONGLEAF PINE grows to 40 LONGLEAF PINES have long symmetrical tree trunks called boles. Evergreen, needle-like leaves are protected by a waxy coating. They are extremely fire resistant. LONGLEAF grass phase of growth, a thick bundle of needles protects the bud while the taproot grows deeper. During years 5 to 7 the top begins to grow. It shoots up about 3 feet in one year holding the crown above most ground fires. When older, LONGLEAF PINES are protected from fire by the thickness of many layers of bark. LONGLEAF PINE is best known for lumber, naval stores and medicines. Pine needle tea is tasty and helps treat the common cold. In the past, mixtures with turpentine were used to treat sore throats and many other ailments. Also known as the Southern Pine, it once covered much of the state of Florida.
Male flowers appear in long, rose-purple clusters; the female flowers are purple, in clusters of 2 to 4. The cones are usually longer than 15cm or are slightly curved. LONGLEAF PINE pinecones are the larges t in Florida. LONGLEAF PINE lives up to its name with the longest needles, 25 to 35cm or 10 to fascicles or bundles of 3. Large round clusters of needles emerge
from the ends of the branches. Silvery -white terminal buds, called candles, appear in the spring.
The trunk is covered with orange-brown papery scales arranged in thick, protective layers.
LONGLEAF PINE is most often found in dry sandhills and acidic flatwoods. It is indigenous to most of the state except the extreme southern tip of the peninsula.
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fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR fr-FR The CHAPMAN OAK is a small, shrubby evergreen tree well-drained sandhills and scrubs where it associates with and The CHAPMAN OAK is named for Alvan Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) a botanist who studied and wrote about plants of the South, especially scrubs. Because of its small stature, the hard wood of CHAPMAN OAK is best suited for tool handles and fence posts. The acorns provide food for wildlife, especially turkeys, jays and grackles. The tannins in the bark have traditionally been used to tan animal hides.
The female flowers are single or in pairs, but are inconspicuous. The male flowers are in drooping catkins appearing in the spring. The acorns grow up to 2.5 covered to by a bowl-shaped cup which is attached without a stalk.
One of the white oak group, its acorns mature in one season and have a sweet flavor. CHAPMAN OAK leaves are alternate and simple They are ovate to elliptic but are often spatulate or wider toward the apex Matu re leaves are 5 to 10 Mostly entire the margins sometimes have shallow lobes, but most often they are wavy.
They are distinguished from the other scrub oaks by being sparingly pubescent or having short hairs on their lower leaf surface. The upper surface is lustrous, often with a quilted appearance.
The thick, gray-brown bark is broken into irregular plates. CHAPMAN OAK is found in scrubs, ancient dunes and sandy hammocks along the coastal plain from south central Florida north to South Carolina.
LAUREL OAK is a medium-sized oak tree that grows to 30m or 90 stout, straight trunk. Older trees sometimes develop buttressed trunks with relatively smooth bark. LAUREL OAK is a fast growing shade tree with a full, rounded crown that makes it popular in landscapes. It drops many twigs and has a short life span. Botanists are not in agreement on the Laurel Oaks. Some consider to be a subspecies of The main distinction between the two is habitat. is an upland species, while is found in wetter areas.
The male flowers occur in short, hanging catkins
The female flowers are found on short stalks on new growth. Both occur on the same tree.
The acorn is dome-shaped 1 to 2cm or to 1 long with a shallow cup covering of the nut. LAUREL OAK leaves are alternate simple and deciduous They remain on the tree most of the winter d ropping their leaves all at once T rees only stay bare for a few weeks in the early spring. The shiny, bright green leaves are 5 to 10cm or 2 to 4 long and 2 to 4 cm or 1 to 1 Leaves may have 3 or more lobes at the tips, but the majority of the mature leaves will be laurel shaped. Neither surface displays any pubescence but some may have a tiny bristle tip.
LAUREL OAK grows in dry woods and mesic or moderately moist oak -pine woods throughout Florida It does not grow in the Keys. It is a tree of the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia.
TURKEY OAK grows to about 10m or 20 to a scrubby, deciduous tree that grows besides the Longleaf Pine in the Longleaf Pine-TURKEY OAK community. It grows on sand ridges throughout most of Florida. TURKEY OAK is characterized by deeply lobed, bristle tipped leaves. The species name, means smooth. Sometimes referred to as a scrub oak, it is also called Bitter tasting acorns provide food for wildlife and turkeys. Because of its small size, TURKEY OAK was mostly used for firewood.
Pollen containing catkins form on the branch tips.
The acorns have a wide base and taper to a point. They are 2 to 3 year after blooming. The acorn cap is covered with large scales. Its rolled edges cover about one-third of the nut.
Leaves are alternate and simple with three to seven deeply cut lobes. Three -lobed leaves resemble a wild turkey track. The main rib of each leaf extends into a bristle tip. The upper surface is lustrous but there are small hairs at the vein axils underneath. Petioles are rather short ranging to 1.5cm or 3 / 8 long. They twist to allow the leaves to turn at about a 45 degree angle to the ground in order to slow moisture loss.
The red autumn leaves turn brown and remain on the tree through much of the winter. The thick bark is dark gray, furrowed and blocky. The TURKEY OAK grows in dry pinelands from Lake Okeechobee northward to Virginia and west to Louisiana.
LIVE OAK is a spreading evergreen tree that grows to 20 and the crown may reach to more in diameter. They have a massive main trunk which divides into several horizontal branches. These branches form a widespread crown an can extend fairly low to the ground. LIVE OAK longer than any other oak in Florida. The strong, dense wood was ideal for shipbuilding, furniture and tools. In 1799 the U.S. Congress appropriated money to purchase live oak land in the Carolinas so the country would have enough of these mighty trees for ship timbers and masts. Their heavy branches provide food, shelter and nest sights for many birds and other animals. The rough, furrowed orchids, bromeliads and ferns.
The staminate or male flower s are born e on catkins 5 to 7.5 cm or 2 or
The pistillate or female flowers are arranged on a spike. The acorn is a shiny dark brown to black oval nut about 2.5 -like stem. The top-shaped cap covers about one third of the nut. LIVE OAK leaves are oblong stiff and leathery. They are cupped and shiny, dark green above and tomentose or covered with short, soft hairs below.
They grow in an alt ernate pattern and range from 2 to 15cm or 1 to Margins of mature leaves are smooth and slightly rolled under, but leaves on new shoots are often toothed or lobed.
LIVE OAK bark is gray to brown in color and deeply furrowed. It breaks into small plates that are about 2.5cm LIVE OAK is found in a wide variety of habitats throughout the state. It is the only oak that grows throughout the state including the Keys. Their range is from Texas to Virginia in the coastal plains.
An attractive tree with a straight trunk, the CABBAGE PALM grows to about 18 smooth or cross-hatched with boots of old leaf bases. The large leaves are distinguished by a graceful curve and long, wavy fibers. The strength and durability of the fibrous trunks made them desirable in construction and pilings during early times. Th e official state tree of Florida and South Carolina, the CABBAGE PALM appears on the Florida State Flag. It is a native tree. CABBAGE PALM comes from its use as a vegetable. It is necessary to kill the palm in order to cut out the apical meristem or bud, which is the edible portion. It may be eaten raw, as in Heart of Palm Salad, or cooked as Swamp Cabbage. CABBAGE PALM fruit provide food for wildlife.
The stalk of fragrant white flowers is many branched and arching.
It is often as long as the leaves. Drooping clusters of edible, round, blue-black fruit follo w.
The triangular shaped leaves are held in a V with a graceful, downward curve. Up to 2 the fronds are divided into long, tapering segments with thread-like filaments.
The segments are shiny green above and gray-green below. The petioles or leaf stems grow to 2m or 6 CABBAGE PALM is found throughout Florida as well as up the coast to the Carolinas, then west along the Gulf Coast to Texas.
The CAROLINA WILLOW is the most common willow of Florida. CAROLINA WILLOW is a deciduous, shrubby tree which grows to 10 long, narrow leaves arranged on long, willowy branches. The CAROLINA WILLOW grows at the edges of lakes, streams and rivers. The genus name, is derived When you chew a leaf, you may recognize the familiar taste of aspirin! CAROLINA WILLOW contains the same major ingredient of that headache and fever reduction medication salicin, which is an aspirin precursor An inner bark decoction has been used for severe colds, fever, diarrhea and dysentery. The long, flexible branches are used for making willow chairs and tables. Split wood is also used to make baskets.
The flowers are born in attractive catkins or spike like flower stalks bearing small unisex flowers that emerge at the same time as the new leaves.
The silk-tipped seeds are released from small pods that split open in the spring.
CAROLINA WILLOW leaves are simple alternate and lanceolate or lance shaped. They grow to 8 to 20cm or 2.5cm or 3 / 8 The margins are finely serrated or toothed. The upper surfaces are smooth and dark green, while the lower surfaces of the leaves are glaucous and whitish.
The stems are strong, long and limber, giving meaning to x-none x-none x-none CAROLINA WILLOW is found in freshwater wetlands throughout the Florida peninsula, but rarely seen in the Keys. A southern species, it is found from Florida to Texas, north to Maryland, inland to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. They grow along the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys to Missouri. CAROLINA WILLOW is also found in Cuba.
SASSAFRAS is a deciduous tree that grows to 15 m or 45 I n Florida it can appear more shr ublike. Its s hort, horizontal branches give it a layered appearance. Sixteenth century French and Spanish settlers called this tree by its American Indian name, SASSAFRAS the leaves. Aromatic oils derived from the roots, bark and twigs of this tree are used in flavoring extracts, perfumes, soaps and in some pharmaceuticals. It is reported that Columbus used the airborne fragrance of the SASSAFRAS as an indicator of land nearby. The Creek People today use the roots in ceremonies.
The flowers appear with the unfolding leaves in terminal racemes. SASSAFRAS is dioecious, male and female flowers grow on separate plants trees. Flowers are 5 to 8 mm across and are yellowish green. The small oval fruits are dark blue. They grow as fleshy drupes borne in clusters on red stems.
Leaves are simple, alternate, and palmately veined. The margins have one to three lobes often looking like mittens or three fingered gloves. A majority of the leaves on younger plants are two and three-lobed obovate. The apex is usually acute with a wedge-shaped base.
The leaf is yellow-green above with a whitish underside Leaves turn br onze to red in the fall.
Thick, reddish brown bark is divided into flat ridges by deep fissures. The inner bark is aromatic. SASSAFRAS prefers dry, sandy soils. It is common along fencerows in the northern counties of Florida south to Hillsborough county. It ranges throughout the eastern and southern states from Maine to Florida and Texas.
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SAW PALMETTO is a creeping palm with a trunk that lies on or just below the ground. It occasionally grows upright in heavily shaded areas. Researchers speculate that th ese plants may live more than 700 years. The name that stretch out along the ground or each other. The ripe fruit is used as food by many animals, including the Florida Black Bear. Flowers are an important food source to bees. SAW PALMETTO makes a superior honey. Harvested palmetto buds are delicious eaten raw or cooked like swamp cabbage. Additionally, SAW PALMETTO fronds are used to make thatch roofs. Seminole and Creek Indians use the SAW PALMETTO as food and as medicine. Its medicinal qualities have long been known by many civilizations. The berries are used as an aphrodisiac and to treat prostate problems.
Fragrant greenish-white flowers are arranged in spike-like structures on a large stalk. The fruit is an oblong drupe or ol ive -shaped stone fruit, about 2
The juicy, black berry has an unpleasant, soapy taste. The fan shaped fronds divide into many segments.
Fronds are yellow-green to green. There is a silvery variation caused by a waxy coating on the surface.
The petiole or leaf stem has sharp, curved spines hence the name, SAW PALMETTO. Palmettos grow on sandy dunes, flatwoods hammoc ks and ridges throughout Florida, Louisiana and the Carolinas.
oxygen to the tree and supporting the trees growing in the loose wet soil. Their buttressed trunks also support the heavy trees.
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