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Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee area, Florida

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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Topography
 Geology
 Water resources
 Mineral resources
 Energy resources
 Land use
 References
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N ONMENTAL GEOLOGY TA

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DMSION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROWGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 1972

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CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, J. W. Yon, Jr. INTRODUCTION, R. 0. Vernon Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr .......... Tnmsportation, H.S. Puri TOPOGRAPHY Topography and man, J.P. May .... Topography of Tallahassee area,J.P.May Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. GEOLOGY General geology,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Geologi<; structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Soil associations,]. W. Yon, Jr .... Soil permeability,]. W. Yon,Jr. Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham ii 1 2 3 6 7 11 14 16 17 18 19 WATER RESOURC!=S ................................ 22 W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau, R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources MINERAL RESOURCES Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons 40 Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons 41 Oil and gas, C. V. Babcock . . 44 ENERGY RESOURCES Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission, W.R. Oglesby . . . . . . . . 48 LAND USE Present land use, A.P. Wright Future land use,J. W. Yon, Jr. ............... Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. Recreation, H.S. Puri . . . . 54 55 56 58 60 REFERENCES .................................... 61

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making this publication possible. The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in compiling and producing this publication. Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made toward making this report a reality. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of this publication. Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director, Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area. The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr. John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines. Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project. Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this publication. ii

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Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Published by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale PRODUCTION: SupervisorsJ. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr. Editors-W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr. Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker Drafting-D. E. Beatty, D.P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle Art -D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead Text Composition J. D. Woodard Printing S. L. Murphy iii

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ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA INTRODUCTION Florida has the purest water, the freshest of breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources, largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the same time, it h as the highest growth rate in the continental United States. The demand to clean our environment meets head-on with the need for raw mineral resources. Some citizens have forgotten, or have never known, that man is part of the evolutiona l sequence and competition between species is fierce and will continue the rapid expansion of the human spec i es drains the energies from many other species, uses up their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to reproduce, to feed and exist Species will continue to be endangered and will disappear, as man continues to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste and failure to purge our environments of unneeded and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes Man, our most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted his need for, and use of, raw mineral products virtually to exhaust his requirements for the aesthetics of environmental quality Earth scientists must provide the means and the forum necessary to express the greater need for mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries for utilizing these and provide the knowledge necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of disturbed lands. 0 u r forests, through wise and efficient management, are renewable within time limitations. Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short sightedness.. Not so our mineral resources; the supply is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life until technology bridges. the ultimate gaps by providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and make economic wastes recoverable. A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to have been nyrtured by Mother Nature herself as she readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Tim e, demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a supply of raw resources with an opposing demand for a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap. The basic framework for obtaining this balance must be: ( 1) complete and systemati c recov ery of the known mineral resources; (2) multiple simultaneous and/or sequential land use where possible; (3) adequate planning with considerat ion for all resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive and extensive exploratory work to uncover new reserves; (5) design of plants, mines, etc., with a smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended production life; and finally, an honest awareness of the total effect of our endeavors on our environment. These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are simple challenges wh i ch spur us to new heights of achievement.

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POPULATION INCREASE AND URBAN Tallahassee has been in the process of changing from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since 1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has kept pace with that of Florida as a whole From 1950 to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from 27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth r ate of the area i s influenced by the growth of the principal employers; state government and the two state universit i es A lt hough the industrial base of Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the growth rate as has that of the principal empl oyers, it is neve r theless important. S0me of the majo r firms include Vindale Co rpor ation the E l berta Crate Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The growth in population is reflected by the expansion of the incorporated a r ea of Tallahassee. In 1952 the exis t ing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has expanded t o 26.14 square m i les Although predicting future population i s risky because of u nknown variables the planners of the T allahassee-Leon County Plann ing Department predict that Tallahassee will continue to grow. T hey estimate that by assuming a 3 74% annual increase the projected population of Tallahassee in 1990 will be 160,600 persons The rapid increase in population, urban spread, coupled with the expected i ncrease in industry c r eates t he need for environmental geologic and hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use p l anning. 1860 1 87 0 .1890 2 Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department 197 0 SPREAD (I) z 2 .J .J :g-4 :lE z C( C( (I) e g-3 a:: :I: 0 I-.J "-IAJ (I) (I) C( .J .J 20 0 1990 01960 01970 1980 1990

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..... AIRPORTS ---SliABOARD COAST LINE R.R. ----AFFILIATED LINES ot::1 les Approx.Scale =::;> Augusta 200 Miles TRANSPORTATION The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern United States in the northwestern portion of Florida which is commonly referred to as the "big bend" area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail, land and air transportation which places it in the position of being able to serve not only other areas of Florida, but many parts of the South. The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over the past two decades has increased the need for better facilities to transport people and the commercial traffic needed to support the populace. Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the transportation facilities of the area are continually studied and improved to meet this need. AIRLINES The Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee, provides the necessary modern facilities for handling air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and a 4,1 00-foot runway capable of hand I ing most types of aircraft. Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern, National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg, Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting flights to 1 07 cities in six countries. The National Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily flights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City, Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for air transportation. HIGHWAYS Highways are significant in the development of an area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with a network of excellent highways. U.S Highways 90 and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county from north to south. All of these highways place Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important routes for commercial traffic entering the area. Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20 serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide excellent transportation facilities within the county. RAILROADS Railroads have always been vital to development of an area and the completion of the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in 1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and development of the Tallahassee area. Presently the City of Tallahassee i s served by the Seaboard Coastline Railroad. The railroad forms an important connecting link in fre ight service northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight from T allahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea port, and Pensacola, another port with shipping facilities, in two days. Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight are given in the following table: TYPE OF CARRIER Air Freight Rail Freight (rock products) Motor Freight AVERAGE COST $130.00 2.15 10.25 3

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TOPOGRAPHY AND MAN Topography can be defined as "the shape of the land surface". The effect of topography on the life and development of man, as well as that of lower forms of life, has been great. T he existence and position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans have formed natural boundaries within which man has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for agriculture, and defensability of the settlement against intruders .. all intimately affected by topography. Even today we must consider topography in planning for cultural development. The choice of a farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a recreation area . the topography must be considered in the planning of such projects. The ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led to disasterous results due to flooding, erosion and deposition, subsidence and slides TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a distance on the actual ground surface (for example 1 :24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles. The actual distance between two points on the map can be determined by comparison of the map distance to the graphic scale. A topographic map differs from the common geographic map in that its purpose is to show the shape of the land surface: the topography. This type of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys, and other topographic features. Furthermore, the elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of surface slope can be determined at any point on the map. The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A 6 contour line is an imaginary line that connects points of equal elevation. The accompanying f i gure illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features they describe These lines are formed by the intersection of the land surface by imaginary, horizontal planes at given elevat i ons Imagine a set of transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level (zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the right in the figure, and that these planes are capable of slicing right through the hill at their respective elevations The marks left on the land surface by these intersections would coincide with the contour lines shown on the topographic map just below the Sketch of the hill. The contour interval is the vertical difference between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the horizontal planes they represent) In the example above, the contour interval was 20 feet. A few of the characteristics of contour l i nes are worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map never cross each other and coincide only when vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when a contour line crosses a stream valley always points upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one could walk along a given contour line, he would eventually end up at the point from which he started. The elevation at any point on the map is determined by noting the values of the two adjacent contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the point based on the relative distances from it to the adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60 foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be 50 f eet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100 foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point Cis on top of the hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation of the point can only be estimated .... 290 feet would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X". Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to horizontal distance and can be expressed as a percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one foot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. I f we climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we have a slope of 20:100 (or 1 :5) or 20 percent. The slope can be determined from the topographic map by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal distance between two contour lines. For example, the slope through point B is determined as follows: *Modified from U .S. Geological Survey, 1969. ( 1) the contour interval is 20 feet, (2) the minimum distance from the 100 foot line to the 120 foot line through point B is about 1,000 feet (from the graphic scale), 20 (3) the slope is 1 ,OOO 2:100 or 2 percent. Note that gentle slopes are indicated by widely-spaced contour lines and steep slopes by closely-spaced contour lines. 0 1 2 3 4 5000 APPROX SCALE 3/16 INCH 1000 FII!T

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TOPOGRAPHY OF TAllAHASSEE AREA The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is shown on the accom panying index map and includes four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon County, north-central Florida: 1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle ( 1963) 2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963) 3. Tallahassee Quadrangle ( 1972) 4. Lafayette Quadrangle ( 1954) This includes an area of approximately 240 square miles The elevations (above sea level) range from about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the south Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles southward from the Georgia westward to the Apalachicola River, and eastward to the Withlacoochee River. This topographic province generally consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevat i ons of 200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet. The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of fine with coarse grained material commonly results in a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes surface drainage of rainwater Because of the permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the region. The only permanent surface stream in the Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest portion. The southern one-third of the Tallahassee Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terra i n and lower elevations than that to the north described abov.e. This area belongs to the topographic province called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee Quadrangle. R5W .J + R4W + R3W + R2W + AREA LOCATION 0 HAVANA SOUTH 4 MILES ---------------------------------------w A K U L L A RtW + RIE + R2E + R3E
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Contuwr..re lnoro\lyoisibloonoorialol'><>lollcophs.Th is inlo.-,.tionisund>oc:kod 8 Uf>OGOIOANDIOOI .. A;Otf>(.lf(lotH oC!USC&GS PhOIOI'IP"token\952. Fttldchockdl963 POircond l ield lonn where en ooriol fhil onformoucn io !T, "-, THOS COI-OPU(S WITH HUIOHAl 5TAH0AROS FOR SALE BY U. $ GEOLO GICAL SURVEY, W A$1-IINGTO N 0. C A OOlOU D(SCAI81,.C TOI'OO).RAI'O'IIC MAPS liND SYM80l5 IS IIWdlABa OH BRADFOROVILLE QUADRANGLE FLORlDA-LEON CO. QuSRout
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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE TALLAHASSEE AREA Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic quadrangles are given below. More detailed i nfo r mation regarding topography, geology, and additional references can be found in Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 ( 1966). The accompanying maps are photographic re du ctions of the original 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps prepared by the U .S. Geological Survey, Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State of Flo rida. LAKE JACKSON QUAD RANGLE (1963) As implied by the name, this quadrangle is dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly extensions Carr L ake and Pond. T his broad, shallow lake r esponds active l y to rain f all variat i on. It was essentially dry as recently as 1957 fo l low ing thr ee successive yea r s of be low normal r ainfall and reached an all-time in 1966 following three years of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this area is into L ake Jackson or its tributaries. Because of the low permeability t;>f the clayey soils occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff. The valley bott?ms generally connect with subsurface drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate and local rei ief is 100 to 150 feet The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent surface stream in the area BRADFORDV ILL E QUADRANGLE (1963) The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hill top elevations range fror:n 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major surface drainage lines are to the north intoL ake lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the south) The divide between these two drainage systems runs east-west across the central part of the map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly promotes local surface r unoff of rainwater. H owever, subsurface dra i nage through the underlying permeable limestones dominates most of the time. TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970) The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into two pa r ts based on the character of the topography. T he northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls within the T allahassee Hills topographic province and the southern one-third lies in the Coastal L owlands topographic province. The northern portion consists of rolling hills with gentle to-moderate slopes Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations are about 50 feet The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet thick, and overlie permeable limestone The clayey soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes which generally becomes subsurface through the permeable valley bottoms. The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about 30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area, known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee Hills region to the north. The soils are generally sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These conditions cause the area to be well-drained. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY lokenMorch\S67 foe ldche cked 1970 prOJttl o on 1927 Nort h A m ericu d Uum 10.000-lootandbosedonflortd ocOOtdono teu>tom n or! h>on" 1000-metorun .. >onel6,shownonbluo fon ee droa d Qlnle r stateRoule Qu.S.Roule Qstote Rout e TALLAHASSEE, FLA. THI S MAP COMP LIES WITH MATIOMAL MAP STA NO AROS FOR SALE 9Y U.S.GEOLOGICA.L SURVEY,WASHINGTON,O.C. 202 4 2 NEITAUAH..SSEIO'QVAORAMCU: N3022.5 -WS4J517.5 A FOlO(R OESCRIB lNG TOI'OClRAPHIC M AI'SANOSVM80LS IS A VAll.ABLE ON R[QVEST l,O,LLAHASSNE,FL,O,. AMS 4144 IV NE-SERI ESY8<7 T,O,llAHASSF NOIITH PROJECT

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10 Mapped, edited. and published by the Geological Survey drail\&llll n """compiled photogroploo llken1951. :U,OOG-.a!:' P Nsedon flotido cootd l nall SCALE1241Xl0 THI$ ...... COIOI>UESWITH,..,.TIIJI'STI.HO.OROS FOR SAU: BY U.S. OEOt.OGICAl.. SURVEY, WASiliNGTON 2!, 0 C. "I'OI.OUit>tscii!IINO tOOOQ(IItAI'KIC ..... 1"5 NOO IYMIOlS IS OfO LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE FLORIOA-l.EON CO. (TOPOGRAPHICl ROADCl.ASS!fK:ATION He""fduly .---Li&hl-du!J ___ MediulfHiulr---lJtWnprooocldio1 Q u S .Routc QStaieRaW LAFAYETTE, FLA. 1<13022.5-WS607 .5/7. 5 LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954) The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the Tallahassee H ills topographic province, except for the extreme southern part, which includes the escarpment leading down to the surface of the Coastal Lowlands province to the south The upland area is divided into a north and south portion by the east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater tributary of the St. Marks River, that i s more swamp than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils are clayey with drainage characteristics like those described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at about 40 to 50 feet Local hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal Lowlands.

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SLOPES TALLAHASSEE AREA Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several ways but all of them depend on the comparison of the vertical distance (difference in elevation between two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal distance between two points) The slopes of the area covered in this report are expressed in per cent. Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Bulletin No. 243. D D Slopes of less than one percent cover approximately 19.50 percent of the land surface. These areas are generally associated with streams and their flood plains Land use in this area is somewhat restricted because of the possibility of periodic flooding. About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes of one to tour percent and represent the tops of hills or areas separating stream valleys from areas with steeper slopes. Generally these slopes impose no severe restraints to land use. Slopes greater than tour percent cover approximately 55.50 percent of the land surface. In this area gently rolling topography predominates and except for some areas along drainage ways where the slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent restraints for land use imposed by slope should be at a minimum.

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GEOLOGY 13

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GENERAL GEOLOGY This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found in Florida, up to 120 feet. I t is part of a larger area known as the Tallahassee Hills. The surface is formed on an ancient Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected by streams and further modified by dissolution of sub-surface limestones The highest hills are comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about 260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the hills give the overall appearance of mature topography, resulting from a long period of weathering. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. ....J LIJ > LIJ ....J 0 CD
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D D The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These deposits cap the.higher hills. The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand, phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The sand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material. The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water producing unit. The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous, granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied. Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations shown on larger map are depicted in yellow. 15

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GEOLOGIC 16 STRUCTURE Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An understanding of the geologic structure of an area is essential to the interpretation of surface geolog i c features, as well as the subsurface. Such understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds known to contain mineral deposits. Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less than one degree. The accompanying structure map drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the slight regional slope of the earth material but the irregular surface caused by dissolution of the subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land use planning 100 _, Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet, referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet 30"30' 25' + ll RIW 17"30' + RIE MILE 12"30' + 30"30' (/) ...

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SOil ASSOCIATIONS Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from which they develop. Their characteristics depend upon climate, parent material, organisms, t()J)09:aphy and time. Soils are important in man's erwironment and should be carefully evaluated prior to construction of homes, highways, airports and dams. According to the Soil Conservation Service soil series consist of two or more soil types that resemble each other in most of their physical Characteristics, thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of soils into soil associations which are shown on the General Soil Maps of leon and Gadsden counties. However, only the soil associations which fall within the limits of the area of investigation are shown on the accompanying soils map. D The Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of leyel to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat excessively drained soils with more than 42 inches sandy surface soil. Leaf-lzagora soils are well to drained and occur on nearly level stream terraces. The surface layers are pr-edominantly fine sand to very fine sandy loam. I '\ ,, : J The Lakel,and shallow-Eustis shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or r----"1!'1 gently sloping. They consist of strongly acid, somewhat escessively drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with areas of well drained soils with less -than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoil D The Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are nearly level or gently sloping, well drained sandy soils with less than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They are clissected by well formed stream pattern with short steeper slopes adjacent to stream. D The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are well drained, nearly level, sloping, acid soils with loamy sand or sandy loam surfac. e soils less than 30 inches thick and well aerated sandy clay loam or sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with lighter textured, well drained soils and narrow wet stream bottoms. ------n The Blanton-Kiej soils are nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained, strongly acid soils with more ._ _____ :u than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with swampy areas. BlantonKiej-Piummer soils are nearly level moderately well and poorly drained. They contain sandy surface layers, more than 30 inches thick and are gently sloping. The Barth soils are nearly level to gently sloping. moderately well to poorly drained river terrace soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with small well and poorly drained deep sands and small swampy areas. The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly level. They consist of strongly acid, poorly to very poorly drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with occasional small moderately well and poorly drained areas and swamps.

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SINKHOLES In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant process in landform development resulting in a unique type of topography to which the name Karst has been applied Most of the notable Karst areas are in regions where limestones underlie the surface although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in their distribution; hence it might be expected that Karst topography would also be widespread. In actuality, significant development of Karst features is restricted to a relatively small number of localities Some of the important areas are in western Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece, northern Yucat?n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico, western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. I n any of the above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but in none are all the possible individual forms to be seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst development and different types of geologic structures. The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary for the optimum development of Karst can be summarized as follows: 1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the surface. 2) The limestone should be highly jointed, and thin bedded. 3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a position such that ground water can emerge into surface streams. 4) The region should have moderate to abundant rainfall. Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions only in part and consequently has only moderately well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical differential permeability to concentrate water movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and move through the whole of the rock resulting in no differentiai solution. Florida also does not have major entrenched valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain G U L IF off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a sim i lar result. In this case water entering the system moves down gradient discharging through springs or eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. The rate of movement in this system is very slow and this decreases the amount of solution taking place. Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the conditions for optimum Karst development and reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst topography characterized by one Karst feature, sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and widespread topographic form in a Karst te rr ain I t is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of the many variations that they exhibit and the varying local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally, however, they are of two major types, those that are produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an underground void and those that are devel,gped slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle with physical disturbance of the rock in which they are developing, These two types have been referred to as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines Collapse sinks are normally steep sided, rocky and abruptly descending forms while dolines range from funnel-shaped depressions b r oad l y open upward to pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both of the above categories, however, more commonly they constitute a third type. Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an environment with the following physical characteristics : 1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated sediments less than 100 feet thick. 2. Cavity systems present in the Lim estone. 3. Water table higher than the potentiometric surface. 4. Breaching of the Limestone into the cavernous zone creating a point of high recharge of the artesian aquifer Under these circumstances water moving down into the Limestone may take large amounts of sediments into the cavernous system creating a v o i d i n the overlying sediments. These sediments are generally incompetent and will ref lect at the surface as e ith er a structural sag or as Gatastrophic collapse lE. 0 R of MIEXJ1CO This large portion of the State represents the area where the piezometric surface is at or above land surface and/or the clastic overbu rd en is in excess o f 100 feet thick. I t appears to be the least probable area for sinkhole development This area is the portion of the State characterized by stable prehistor i c sinkholes, usually flat bottomed, steep s i ded, both dry and containing wate r. Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate process again T his portion of the State is character i zed by limestones at or very near the surface. The density of sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of overburden Exploration by drilling and geophysica l methods for near-surface cavit i es can be realistically accomplished This portion of the State has moderate overbu r den overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, w i der sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A thick overburden or high wate r table present wi!hin these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring. G A ATLANTJ1C BEACH BROWAAO COLLIER r-""-J i 0 A 0 E 19

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----------=:::===-= -----::::::::_ ---......... ----.....----------WAlrE IF WlE[L[L 21

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THE WATER CYCLE Management of Leon County's water resources requires knowledge of the interchange of water between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the cyclic processes involved Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in vapor form is transported by convective air currents through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of the vapor condenses and precipitates In Leon County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain. Rain that reaches the land returns either to tt:e ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces. Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much interchange of water may take place between lakes, swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a water particle to complete the cycle may vary from an instant to many years depending on the path it takes. Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends on the terrain. Two important characteristicr are the slope of the land surface and the permeability of the surficial and underlying materials. Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams leading to the ocean. 22 Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the water that infiltrates is. stored in the soil zone, serving to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at some lower level, usually in areas that contain or adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps In Leon County water may also move downward into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan aquifer Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or the ocean. Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges water depends on the potential energy of the water involved; water moves always from a higher to a lower level of potential energy. This potential energy relates directly to the level at which water stands when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is represented by an imaginary surface, called the potentiometric surface, which is determined by the level at which water freely stands in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary openings in the confining bed, water can move into the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric surface \ SOLAR RADIATION EVAPORATION t t t t GULF

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RAINFALL Much of Leon County's water resource is derived from rainfall within the county; however, most of the water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and some of the water that moves underground through the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia. U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable, however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in 1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40 percent of the time. --r-:::::-::-=-+.;..-;;:-'"o;;;;[ \ I SUTIROSA \ l ) I > G About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs between June and September, as a result of thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions; but intense storms may occur at any time of the year Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually occurs within a 6 -hour period. This is beneficial in that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers is replenished, but these storms also cause flood damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the magnitude and frequency of floods that result from such storms are required for intelligent zoning and land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage systems. G E 0 R G A LIBERTY '\ MADISON y -L..r-{ TAYLOR I M e c 0 0 Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. en LU I u z _} ...J
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PHYSIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Leon County's physical features are separated into four major divisions -the high, sandy, clay-hill northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers. The accompanying text and illustrations portray the major physiographic divisions and their pertinent features. TALLAHASSEE HILLS TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a maximum elevation of 279 feet. SOl LS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand. BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream pattern. Streams generally short, many terminating at sinks or lakes. LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes. Sl NKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to the underground water supply. Those in or near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains. WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer. 24 The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water supply is susceptible to contamination by wastes dumped on the surface or directly into the sinks. WOODV I LLE KARST PLAIN TOPOGRAPHY : A gently sloping plain from 20 to 60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered sand dunes are as much as 20feet high. SOl LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock. BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. It is near the surface and crops out at many places. DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally well drained owing to the great numbers of sinks and the ease of per c olation of water through the overlying sand and into the limestone. LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and deep (sink-type). SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic of the division. Generally direct connectors to the underground water supply. WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is available in adequate quantities. It is susceptible to contamination by wastes. Blue Sink. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy, tree-covered plain near elevation 1 00 feet, with an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to and south of State Road 20. SO l LS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay sediments. Permeability is poor. BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and greater. Apparently less permeable than the limestone underlying the eastern part of the county. DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few streams. LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north and east perimeter of the division. .....

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SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the north and east perimeter of the division. The poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are major surficial characteristics of the area. WATER SUPPLY : From shallow sources or from wells penetrating the Floridan limestone aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is generally adequate for a home supply. Because most of the area lies within the boundaries of the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not been a need for large public or industrial supply wells. OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS These lowlands form the flood plain of the Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the southern end of the valley and the Lake Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico. ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly permeable limestone. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS w A K u L L A 0 I G E KARST PLAIN 4 M ILES I 0 R G TALLAHASSEE A HILLS -NAir view of a sink that has been isolated from Lake Miccosukee by a dike. z 0 (/) w Natural Bridge Sink.

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LAKES Leon County includes part o r all of several large lakes tha t provide a base for water-oriented recreation within convenient reach of most of the people of the county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes ultimately entails the solution of problems related to pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels. Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a i drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high enough to flood prime residentia l areas. Other l akes f l uctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall. Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion that eventually may l ead to pollution of the lake unless precautionary measures are as part of the development. Other lakes also could be polluted if shoreline properties were developed. L ake Munson already has been polluted by sewage from Tallahassee. L ake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are relatiVely shallow lakes that are l argely filled with aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of natural processes of eutrophication. Extensive research is needed to determine the extent of eutrophication and to develop ways to retard o r temporarily reverse this natu r a l aging process. Lake Bradford -a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels --tends to go dry during droughts. 26 100 -1 w > w -1 <1: w en z <1: w ::2: w > 0 lXI <1: 1w w u. 10 Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71. 1950 1910 Prolonged per i ods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson. G E 0 R G A 4: 0 lv Ul a:: "' L&J <:> LL. LL. (!) L&J -, -N-J 0 '-l MILES Munson w A K u L L A

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STREAMFLOW ST. MARKS RIVER St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times of extreme floods the entire flow of the river disappea r s into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is largely inundated during periods of high flow. Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural Bridge where ground water from the Floridan aquifer enters the stream. Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water flowing at the gage site is well within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a municipal water supply. >0 a: LLI a.. Ill z 0 ...J ...J (!) z 0 ...J ...J ....... f1 NATUfltAL llfltiDGE SINK RHODES SPRINGS COUNTY WAKULLA COUNTY G E r _j At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as springflow at downstream points 0 R G A -l z 0 (/) a: LLI L&.. I L&.. j LLI -, / -Nj 0 4 MILES LJ_ !---1--l A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. Marks River Flow averages about 435 million gallons per day. 27

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OCHLOCKONEE RIVER The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river becomes a major stream by the time it reaches Florida. The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968, and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969. Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown hue that the water takes on from the fine clay sediment that it carries at times of medium to high flow. The concentrations of major chemical constituents in the river fall within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. 28 The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 1,120 million gallons per day. ><( IOO.OO'Ur-0 a:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. 27 (f) near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641 z Q million gallons per day. __J __J Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954. 0 Average flow 641 mgd. Maximum flood peak 36,100 mgd, 1948. G E 0 R G A g IUU.WUr-0:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) u.. 0 (f) z Q __J __J Minimum flow 0.6 mgd, 1957. 0 Average flow 1,120 mgd. Maximum flood peak 57,800 mgd, 1969. v w A K -N0 I u L L A z 0 (f) 0:: w LL LL w J 4 MILES I

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IMPOUNDMENTS Lake Talquin was created by construction of Jackson Bluff Dam ori the Ochlockonee River in the late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was terminated at that time. The lake is being developed as a recreational area. Lake Talquin derives its name from the neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the o ., 0 ., tl) flooding of valley bottom lands of several small tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are ideally suited for recreational development. In a setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake provides one of the most attractive areas in the state for water-based recreation. Considering the vast recreational potential of Lake Talquin, systematic monitoring of chemical and biological changes could be undertaken as part of a broad program to maintain the quality of the lake water. Concentrations of major chemical constituents are within the acceptable limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. \ tl) 1-UJ Ul..J LLUJ z' G; O..J i=en UlUJ ..J> wo LAKE AREA, ACRES 7000 8000 11,000 62-AN ACRE-FOOT IS THE QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED TO COVER I ACRE TO A DEPTH OF I FOOT. <{ ..J VOLUME OF USABLE STORAGE, ACRE-FEET Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam on N 0 ., tl) 100,000 29

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AQUIFERS 30 Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. The number and size of spaces between the rock particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect, determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers generally .are not productive, whereas those that contai n coarse-grained particles are usually highly productive. Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and clay and is generally underlain by beds of day and silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution chambers. Because of the confining layer, water in the Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure greater than atmospheric. Thus, water generally rises to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer. Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that infiltrates through the surficial materia l s down to the water table Where the water table is above the potentiometric surface, water can move through openings in the confining layer to the Floridan aquifer Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface (that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall recharges the aquifer directly. Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped from the Floridan aquifer Well depths range from 150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000 gpm (gallons per minute) Productivity is greatest in northern and central parts of the county and decreases southwestward. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER Sand and clay with moderate permeability. Constitutes a minor source of water supply in Leon County. CONFINING LAYER Clay and silt, with low permeability, which yield very little water. FLORIDAN AQUIFER Limestone and dolomite, which yield mode rate to large quant1t1es of good-quality water: Most water-supply wells in Leon County penetrate this aquifer. Water is stored in large quantities; but because of very small spaces between parti cles it moves very slowly. Water is stored in the confining layer; but because of extremely small spaces between particles; movement either vertically or horizontally is extremely slow. Water is stored in large amounts. Solution chambers and fissures act as conduits in which ground water can be moved and stored.

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GROUND Ground water is the p r incipa l source of water in L eon County for municipal, industrial and domestic suppl ies. Most of the water is pumped from well s that penetrate the highly produc t ive F loridan aqui fer, which underlies all of L eon County and consists mostly of limestone and dolomite. The accompanying map shows the altitude and shape of the potentiometric surface of the Flori dan aqu i fer following a 3-year period of about -average rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates that the ground water body is recharged i n t h e northern and the western par ts of the county. Most wells yield water of good chemical qual ity, rang ing from 100 to 275 m i ll i grams per liter d i ssolved solids The concentrat ion of dissolved solids reflects the degree of mineraliza t ion that results from the solution of the limes t one and dolomite rock in the F loridan aquifer. Oldfash i o n ed l ift pump. ...J WATER EXP LANATI ON _,.--30_,.. Potentiometric contour Shows elevation to which water w ill rise in wells penetra t ing Floridan aquifer. Contour interval 10 feet Datum is mean sea level. Dissolved solids, in m i ll i grams per liter. 0 Less than 150 0 150to 200 More than 200 General direction of ground-water flow WAKULLA G E 0 R G A O._l -.l....._.....L..---li....._...J1 M I L ES c 0. 31

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TOTAL WATER USE RIE 12'3v' R2E + The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all water used is derived from this source (Hendry, 1966). The temperature of water returned to the aquifer usually exceeds 32C (90F), and, as a result, water temperatures in the aquifer are at least 3C (5F) above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells are generally drilled outside those areas containing air-conditioning supply and return wells. z ,_ MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep Their total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per day) The greatest demand for water usually occurs during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. INDUSTRIAL AND I NSTITUT I ONAL WATER, SELF SUPPLIED Because the temperature of ground water is nearly constant at 21 C (70 F). water from the Floridan aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State office buildings, the two State universities, and a growing number of commercial establishments. Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 million gallons, more than twice the municipal water use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer through wel l s and thus does not represent a net withdrawal of water from the aquifer. 32 Institutional and industrial use of ground water for 32,30 uses other than air condition i ng was only 0.4 mgd in 1970. PRIVATE SUPPLIES Most domestic water-supply systems outside the area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to 30'3o 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a total of about 2 to 3 mgd IRRIGATION Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon County. About 20 million gallons of water was used during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres. 25' ,_ + RIW 17'30' + ...J .. ,_ Q. .. u Areas of self-supplied air-conditioning supply and return wells. [ ----+-------+1 ._ Areas of self-supplied institutional and industnal wells. I I City of Tallahassee wells 32'30' 30'30' 27'30' (/) RIE MILE 12'30 + R 2E

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w w Cll Cll <( J:J: <(1-..JZ ..JQ <(:::!: 1-a: u.w Oa.. )-til 1-Z -o (.)..J )-..J Cll<( w(.!) (.!)z <(o 0..:::i:..J :::l..J ..J <( 1-0 "1J F M A M J J A 01970 .1960 s 0 Seasonal trends in municipal water use N 0 Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer. Air-conditioning supply well in the Tallahassee area. Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of Tallahassee's water system. ui>a: a: <(til S:z CllO >-j 1-<( oz uo z::i Q..J Air-conditioning return well in the Tallahassee area. 0 L--------1! I Municipal Other Industrial and Institutional Setf supplied Water use increased from 1965 to 1970. 33

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WATER QUALITY 34 Chemical Constituent Iron (Fe) Chloride (CI) Dissolved Solids Recommended upper limit of concentration (milligrams per liter)1 0.3 45 250 250 500 Significance Causes red and brown staining of clothing and porcelain High concentrations affect the color and taste of beverages Hazardous to infants A large amount, in association with sodium, imparts a salty taste; also causes corrosion of plumbing fixtures. Begins to produce a laxative effect at concentrations above 600 to 1 ,000 mg/1. Includes all of the materials in water that are in solution. Amounts up to 1 ,000 mg/1 are generally considered acceptable for drinking purposes if no other water is available. 1 U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962. MUNICIPAL BOILER FEED {150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH) GENERAL FOOD CANNING CARBONATED BEVERAGES 0HARONESS DISSOLVED SOLIDS SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES FOR SPECIFIED USES Constituent Iron (Fe) Nitrate (N03 ) Chloride (CI) Sulfate (S04 ) Hardness Dissolved Solids The chemical quality of water on and beneath the land surface is primarily determined by the type and solubility of rock formations with which water comes in contact and by the length of time that water remains in contact with each formation. In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams. Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water that reaches the water-table aquifer because water remains more completely in contact with the sand and clay materials for a long period OT time; however, the low solubility of these materials limits the concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble. Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60 mg/1) and low in chloride and dissolved solids. Recreation activities constitute its primary use. Most wells in the county yield hard water ( 121 .to 180 mg/1) of good chemic,al quality. Iron is the only constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks. Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for use without treatment. Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County. Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee River Jackson River 0.01 0.03 0.06 .6 .00 1.2 5.0 3.8 8.5 8.2 0.4 3.5 136 7 19 159 18 42 Well penetrating the Floridan aquifer 0.00 0.0 6.0 3.2 146 171

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w m C( a: C( .... ;...1 C( .... IL () >-.... 0 j; 0 0: ILl (/) z :0 .... ;:, Q. f AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER 80,000 160,00 POPULATION SERVED The only mumcipal water system in Leon County is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970 supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment is limited to chlorination. The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water system have expanded since 1930. Average daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg (million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capita water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day) in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues, per capita water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980. w w (/) (/) C( ::t: C(>-..JC( ...10 C(o:: t-ILl ILQ. 0(/) >-Z t-0 .... u_. >-C CD0 ILIZ 00 c-Q....l 4 .... .... c -.J .... 0 .... 0 1950 1960 1970 w A u L s G E 0 R G A 0 0 I --' 4 MILES I CITY OF TAU ... AHASSEE-1970 (TOTAL AREA. 26 SQUARE MILES) CITY OF TALLAHASSEE-1940 (TOTAL AREA. 4 SQUARE MILES) D ARFA OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS SERVED BY CITY OF TAU .. AHASSEE-m9701 35

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DRAINAGE and STORM RUNOFF LL. LL. 0 z :::J a: Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is handled through storm sewers and improved drainage channels About 50 percent of the area inside the city is served by storm sewers. Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A small part of the city area drains north into Lake Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes temporary flood i ng in some low lying places. Data are not available on the flood volumes or the quality of water dra i ning into these lake systems. As urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads, parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some stream channels in urban areas may have to be deepened, widened, and straightened to accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff. Completely sewered basin having a highly impervious surface. Urban areas with a high density of streets, par_king areas, roofs, and other impervious surfaces. Partly sewered basin having a natural surface. Suburban areas with medium-density housing. / '\ On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of drainage ,-,h,.nnAI ,.. I :>ke Bradford Road. Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10 feet lower than flood oeak. I \ Natural channels and natural basin surface, agricultural and wooded land. I \ \ \ '"-. 7 36 TIME S IN C E BEGINNING O F STORM Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost total runoff of rainfall.

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FLOODS Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone areas have or cornmerical value, buildings are constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can contaminate water-supply systems within these flood-prone areas Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and provide refuge for wildlife. Flood plains can also be used for parks and other recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of recreation areas results in negligible damage if the facilities are designed to accommodate flooding. Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are occupied by residential housing and commercial buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced by the use of special types of flood-proofing construction and remodeling. A flooded mobile-home park west of Tallahdssee, Sept. 1969. Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969. Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969. ... + RIW RIE .. ..... s* ..... ...E==:==:==JJMILE + The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and that may be inundated every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. R2E Tl

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MINERAL RESOURCES ---,.-;--::. .,.....,...... .;;.---::._. -=---:_ ----=---------

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GEOLOGIC PROVINCES 40 RELATED MINERALS TALLAHASSEE AREA PLEISTOCENE c=J MIOCENE c=J OLIGOCENE c=J EOCENE EXPLANATION SAND @ SAND and GRAVEL FULLER1S EARTH STRUCTURAL ALUMINA, BAUXITE and REFRAvTORY CLAYS e PEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS 0 LIMESTONE IRON ORE ., KAOLIN PHOSPHATE ROCK @ MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME AND I R T H---......, r------f IRWIN ._'--\ I \. .. ( T I F T :----l A. : .-l I _,-r -------, __,....._l_ ___ ,--1 .. ? ) R ( 'l COLQUITT/ (__ (COOKi J ( \ 1 I I' ... __ --__ ,'r-___ ___1_ __ ( i \ .A. \ > I ) I GRADY. THOMAS I i { : *G! E !0 RiG ------------L ----I i \0 R ,... .. ) I j ( M A D I S 0 N (iEFFERSON 0 f )----------, :_ T i I D I TAYLOR 'LA I

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MINERAL FACTS AND COMMODITIES ... Society should be reminded that nearly all the amenities of modern life which it takes for granted are products of the minerals industry and the engineers and others who serve it." This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the Imperial College of Science and Technology at London,' England during October, 1963, should serve to remind people everywhere of our dependence upon the mining or minerals industry. Our standard of" living is directly correlative with the development of our mineral resources. Our affluence is contingent upon the continued availability of mineral resources or reliable substitutes. Mineral reserves are finite, they are not inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral shortages come not only from the physical exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their unavailability at reasonable cost. Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and development may be considerably more costly than the development of an open pit or quarry operation, but aesthetic or environmental are an inherent part of the strip mining operation. The exploration and extractive costs so comparatively cheap in the construction or industrial minerals industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water and noise), control equipment. Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low unit value construction materials must be transported by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and expensive handling operations. Further, termination of production from wells drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are involved in restoration and reclamation and these in 197 1 and in the future must now become part of the cost of the min i ng operation. Mineral resource problems, that is the surface minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved through more extensive exploration programs, but through the broadening of technology to utilize those mineral resources known to exist. Continued and expansive exploration programs are paramount to the continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's surface has allowed them to be m6re readily tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for the fuels or metallics. Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36 counties in three states produce six distinctly different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties produce sand while thirteen also have gravel production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron ore, bauxite and various clays account for the remainder of the mineral production, while twenty counties have no recorded mineral production. Most of the mineral production in the tri-state Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have direct application in the building trade after cleaning, crushing and screening. Since these are high volume, low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials, the economic haul perimeters are considerably more restnct1ve than for decorative or manufactured products. Transportation economics change with the supply and demand parameters of mineral resources, but a radius of 100 miles is commonly used. CLAY No commercial clay operations occur within the Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially. Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud, fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers, pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement. However, this processing is not done in the Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the area as a finished product. Six counties in the tri-state area of influence commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used for highway fill, may be found throughout the area. Much of the upland topography is a result of these sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt to be found near an existing or previous need locale. Lumping of individual company and county statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton values for recorded production during 1969 were: $2.30 in Alabama, $15 02 in Florida and $17.37 in Georgia This discrepancy in unit values between the Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton. T he national demand outlook for all clays shows an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging f rom 2.8 to 4. 1 percent year' Uses in hydraulic 41

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42 cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest expected growth rates for this period Therefore, the Tallahassee area should similarly experience the highest clay consumption rate based on its construction minerals E!conomy. Although attendant environmental problems are encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and in the mined out areas, tl1ese problems are not insurmountable. Advances in pollution control technology plus tax i ncentives for land reclamation and ever increasing land values will allow the clay industry to remain compatible with our necessary and increasing environmental concern. SAND AND GRAVEL The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two materi als, as well as their utilization, favors their combining when discussing production, value r eserves, and use Quantitatively, the demand (in the U.S ) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which the nation is se lf sufficient The annual growth rate for sand and grave l to the year 2000 i s expected to be between 3 9 and 4.7 percent. Rema i ning interstate h i ghway construction and the need for residentia l building is likely to keep the sand and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the projected national growth rate for some years t o come. The withholding of individual company confiden tial data prevents an accurate disclosure of sand and gravel production in the Tallahassee area of influence However, during 1969 both tonnage and value records were established in Alabama and Florida Problems associated with sand and gravel production are normally two-fold and somewhat dia metri ca lly opposed. First, the accretionary flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the most common type deposits, are similarly some of the more desirable building sites Waterfront, lake, o r river property is a goal shared by many. Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their transportation to areas of need economically unfeasible. Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are much less objectionable than some of their mineral. production counterparts. An exception would be the dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved. Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are minimal. Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and efficient mine planning can result in more valuable real estate afterward than before the mining venture. STONE Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any number of structural materials which may be chemically, physically, or mineralogically different and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the nation and is second only to sand and gravel in volume produced. Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee, means crushed limestone and therefore excludes the finished dimension o r decorative stones mined in other areas of the three states. Eight counties in the tri-state area of economi c consideration produce crushed limestone Individual statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are not avai l able, but 1969 statewide totals show Alabama producing 4 3 million tons with an average value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million tons valued at $1. 52 per ton while Florida produced 40 7 million tons with an average value of $1. 32 per ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in the production of crushed l imestone, reflecting the near 20 percent increase in construction activity from the previous year

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A limestone quarry operation was begun early in 1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing knowledge and previous investigations indicate that the stone in this area i.s rather soft. Should this stone prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors should realize a substantial transportation saving as the nearest present operations are some 50 miles distant. Nationally the demand for crushed stone is expected to have a growth rate range to the year 2000 from 3 5 to 5.1 percent since this included the initial years of expanded interstate highway construction. However the importance of Florida as a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued demand for new construction and its basic materials. Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to twenty years. However, recent research by Yon indicates potentially much longer life in the area but with added exploration, development and operational costs. MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS Of the remaining minerals produced within 100 miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only peat and oyster shell have direct application locally, and these in small quantities. Peat, contrary to much of the world, is not used as a fuel in the United States but for agricultural and horticultural purposes only. Peat occurs throughout Florida in highly localized "pockets" but the only current production comes from Lowndes and Miller counties, Georgia. Production figures are not available but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year. Oyst e r shell is produced just outside the env i ronmental area i n Walton County Flor i da a n d i s used locally for dense road base material. No production figures are available. Estuarine considerations are likely to prevent any significant future expansion of this particular industry. Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits have no direct application locally, but return to the area as finished products. Also, these operations are so remote and products so varied as to have little effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the local environment. THE MINERALS FUTURE Of the three proposals for solving future mineral shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national mineral policies for producing countries with the necessity for international cooperation A similar policy, enacted at the state level with interstate cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls, particularly in the field of land reclamation, would effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically similar regions regardless of political boundaries. Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is also a solution to mineral shortages. Land must be evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts, then these must be recovered as efficiently and completely as possible; the land restored and then dedicated to a permanent useful purpose. 43

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HISTORY Florida had no oil production until December 2, 1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field This was the culmination of an exploration effort by many companies dating from 1900 and involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later, Florida has six producing oil fields. THE JAY OIL FIELD Most important by far in the history of the oil industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11, 1970 of the Jay field which produces from the Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about 15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of 1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million cubic feet of gas The recoverable reserves of the Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of oil. OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has focused its attention on other parts of the Florida panhandle in the hope of finding anot-her ancient marine embayment in which Smackover rocks might have been deposited The Apalachicola National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla County is included in such an embayment as contoured on shallow subsurface structural markers. This shallow feature may reflect a deeper embayment, and may have contributed to the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest by a major oil company interest during the fiscal year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis, magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted over the area of these leases. The oil and gas rights to a considerable but undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies. 44 OIL THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS With in 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production from presently-known reserves will have declined to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil, our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only be met by imports. Offshore production is important in supplying the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T. Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the Interior, predicted recently that within ten years oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under water more than one mile deep, and that at least a third of the nation's oil production will come from offshore. Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work over the past nine years is reported to have revealed a number of structures on both Federal and State acreage offshore from Florida which may trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east coast i s less desirable, geophysical exploration continues because the need for new petroleum reserves is great. THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry. With the advent of the Jay field, and recent discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that petroleum is destined to increase the value of the State's mineral industry. By 1975 the conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons produced from fields already discovered will be $83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will make a significant contribution to the state's mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this time on the oil and gas produced in Florida. AND GAS JAY Fl ELD A L A 8 A M A -r-,----r----1., ( / HOlMEs / ..... (_sANTA ROSA joKAlOOsA! WAlTON j {' j--,l JACKSON (._ G E 0 R G I A .. .._ .. I r--.. r --. .. \ __r--f1-GADSDEN / \ -l-.. ('--, .. --, 1: NASSAU ../ I ( ;,-r HAMilTO \ 1 r" :;::_.,...--'CALHOUN<' 'y'-' lEON I MADISON\.. N 't / e::> I I -' ---.... ) "' [ G BAY J,$' I / ""--il .. J DUVAl J ..... /----._ I ., BAKER ( 1---UBERTY \. -n SUWANNEE' c...O-..; 1::' ( \ WAKUllA I I --' .'-TAYLOR \__" G UlF 1llAFAYffiE. I UNION / ClAY -FRANKliN \ \_ ./ < ;JP I ( 1 ,--\_ .. L ___ / ._.( -----.._ _./'" ( I ,$' \1...---' 6 1 ALACHUA I,_J' __ J PUTNAM ) ---,-.J-I ./ y 1_1 M A II: I 0 N ____ __j '<. '\ VOlUSIA OIRUS \ I I .. J "" ,. '-./'.\,-, __ 1 : t HERNANDO ---=]' I \ ORANGE --I r PAS CO r1 ,off\ \ I .(_ .... T ___ \ I 7 I \ I ?0 rti HlllS801!:0UGH I p 0 l K \ OSCEOlA I 0 I I ., 'I >------j_ T_ + RIVER .... ./ I I --,---\ MANATEE HARDEE 1 \,oKEEGIOREE 1l :-, l __J HIGHLANDS \ ST LUOE I ___ I 0 DE soro I _c-I _,_ _t r:---I OtrCH08 01AII:LOTIE GLADES FLORIDA Scole In Miles OQ :tloO 0 00 oOO <=> -

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HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR FLORIDA Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a very rough basis of comparison) are: Onshore and Offshore Florida RESERVES Oil Gas (billion bbls) (trillion ft.3 ) Sources Peninsula 7.8 13 150 NPC, July, 1970 NPC, July, 1970 Alaska 30 The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska estimates were not so qualified. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY THE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Because of the reiatively late start of the oil industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental problems which resulted from the exploratory and development activities in some of the early oil states. The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a slow but continuous pace of development from the time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field was discovered. NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS For the past two years, the Department of Natural Resources has been involved in the compilation of a very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules and Regulations. Both industry and various conservation groups have made valuable contributions to this code, which should become effective in the first quarter of 1972. These new Rules and Regulations will help to protect Florida's environment and also contribute to a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will also facilitate the systematic accumulation of information to be used by the Executive Board of Government given decision-making responsibilities for the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the propo. sed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida. LEGEND 4R9E R 10 E Permit No. 370 Well Designation ""' LLandE,No.IMillerMill I r z 1-417 434 443 444 450 451 452 453 473 476 Horc-LLond E,No.IStRegis Horc-LLand E, No.I Jones-McDa1Jid I / \" I 1 Horc-LL and E,No.7-l McDavid Lds. A M f>f 'r--1 __ _J L Horc-LLand E,No.9-3 St. Regis t---l /\sAN A R/o p A co. FL03R1 I D At-,z, LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 36-1 I ... LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 37-4 Hare, No.I0-4 Bray Unit 44'[ Horc,No.34-4 McDavid Lands ... lit5jm.1 \-Horc,No. 10-2 Moncrief Unit "'_, c}'_;2 \ \ SE,No.ISt. Regis /di}) ---...... \ 6 15,000 Datum, top of Smackover Formation \ I\ 51D1scoyery Weill \ 0444 ;J 1 \ p 0 -?-Oil well Gas well Shut in well (not producing) Drilling well(incomplete) Plugged and abandoned well Contour interval 200 feet J 15,33 L:.:" 109 _J f-if N l \ 1 \ ) \\ z 10 1-'2":'._-\---1\ __(___j 33 R30W R 29W Jay Area, Flonda. 38 31 R 28W -N-.70 15';185 TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS Discovery Date Southern Florida: 1943 1964 1966 1968 1970 NW Florida (Santa Rosa County): 1970 Oil Field Sunniland Sunoco-Felda West Sunoco-Felda Lake Trafford Lehigh Acres Jay Operator Humble Oil Co. Sun Oil Co. Sun and Humble Mobil Oil Corp. Humble Oil Co. Humble, LL and E, Amerada Hess, Sun et al No. Of Wells 17 20 23 1 2 1970 Production (barrels) 722,534 688,635 1,473,016 25,806 81,542 2,998,352 Cumulative Production as of Aug. 31 1971 (barrels) 13,071,065 5,451,723 3,787,202 63,397 187,574 379,183 8 22,940,144 Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD 12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972. capacity separator plant. An additional A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well 8 Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, was test yield from 4 wells 28 Iii FORECAST Ql! ..... 0 TOTAL DEMA w Ql! Ql! aD 12 IL 0 en 8 z 0 ..... ..... i 4 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 45

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NERGY RESOURCES -----Jim Woodruff Dam --------------------

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ENERGY RESOURCES 1 PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS (WH AT WE HAVE) Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and distributing system. The excess generating capacity of the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak demand. This highly favorable ratio of reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell 40,000 kilowatts. per hour to the F l orida Power Corporation during peak demand hours in the summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility companies operating in southern Florida have less than 1 0 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe level of reserve capacity is 20 percent. The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000 kilowatt hours per hour at load. T his dam and its power gene rating facilities were constructed with federal funds under an R.E .A. program to make power available to rural areas of Leon as well as Gadsden and Wakulla Counties Talquin Electric Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor i n the tri-county area. Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking uni t of this same capac ity to its system next summer. T he munic i pal electric system is connected to the national powe r network, from which it CO)Jid draw reserve energy i n an emergency About a half century ago, the hydro-e l ectric generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this facility went into operation using water from Lake T alquin as outfall energy The rated peak capacity of this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which was intended to furnish enough power to supply the needs of Tallahassee and Quin.;:y until 1970. Much of the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, l ake bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee a lone needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the Jackson Bluff generating system The cessation of the water powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestica lly available energy in L eon County A century ago, all of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by wood o r charcoal, available within the county. Today this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a commercial energy source 48 During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1'971 the City of T allahassee purchased about 20 billion cubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation The municipally owned electric generating plants at St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of Tallahassee requi red about 8 billion cubic feet; the remaining 12 bill i on cubic feet of gas was sold through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000 gallons) of residual fue l oil were used to supplement the fuel requirements of the municipal electric generating system during the year 1971 I n te r ms of energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 1 011 BTU compared to abou t 9.5 x 1 01 1 BTU available from the fue l oil. I f gas were unavai labl e, approx i mately 1.25 million barrels of residual fuel oil wou l d be required to produce t he 765,000,000 k i lowatt hours of elect r icity which were generated by the City of Tallahassee during the past fiscal year SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY I ntrastate Sources: The oil fields of Florida are located in the Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by its gas-oil ratio which r anges f rom 800:1 to 3000:1. This rneans 800 to 3000 cubi c feet of gas are produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. I n terms of energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly 6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry) provides abou t 1 ,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic feet The crude oil at J ay is worth abou t $3.35 per ba r re l and the na t ural gas about 30 cents per thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the 1 :6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing B T U values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas at 56 cents, o r nearly double the actual well head price The fie l d allowables will probab l y be fixed at 1000 bar rels per well per day at Jay plus 1 ,000,000 cubic feet of associated gas. T he gas furnishes reservoir energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent possible. I t seems probable that Jay Field will produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000 HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HVDROCARBONS1 AND NUCLEAR FISSION I. G E 0 WOODRU F F DA M JACKSON 30 \ ) > I ( L_c, <" G ADS DEN .::::> / I 0 ), L_l_ ) -....../ <:::[ I {__ r u L B E R T y --lr ...... W A K U ..,lQ.... line and Substat i ons. Superscript ind i cates line capacity in 3 0 Elect ric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in kilowatt hours/hour. R G --T / / I L L A A L E 0 N r---I I 0 (f) a:: I w STJ lL lL w ...., "1

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MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22 billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but considerably less than the growing demand for gas in this one medium-sized city (71 ,763 persons at last census). There is no other gas produced in commercial quantities in the State of Florida at present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1, which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a sustained basis. The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons). Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6 million barrels per year. This would suffice to power the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at present generating rates. The average yield in the United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field production would provide about 71 million gallons of kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and had a static population. During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The United States requires nearly 5 times this amount every day (about 3 gallons per capita daily). At this rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County farm center which is located near the hub of oil production in the Sunniland trend. FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS The most important factors affecting future energy requirements are growth rates in population and in the gross national product. Environmental considerations, comparative costs of fuel and convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on the order of 3:1, due to thermal ineffir.iencv of power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage would require rationing the consumption of petroleum and natural gas among higher quality 1,1ses. Electricity must be generated by coal, water power and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of June 4. 1971. President Nixon directed new standards of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes. This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as cooling, by as much as one-third. The growth rate for Tallahassee during the decade of the sixties was 49 percent, nearly 4 times the national average of 13.3 percent. If, during the next two decades Tallahassee's population continues to grow as forecast, it will attain 160,000 by 1990, more than double the present population. Even if there were no increase in the per capita rate of energy consumption, which is not the case, our requirements for energy would double in less than 20 years. Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the rest of the nation. In fact our population increase due to the net gain in births-over-deaths in the sixties was a modest 1 0.0 percent, as compared to the national average of 11.7 percent. On the other hand, Florida had a net in migration of 1.3 million during the past decade, wheras the total national immigration was only 3 million, or slightly more than double that of our state alone The per capita consumption of electricity doubles every 9 years in Florida as compared to the national doubling rate of 10 years. The projected peak demand for electricity in Tallahassee by 1990 will, therefore, be 8.5 times the peak consumption rate of 1 971, which was 175,000 kilowatt hours per hour. We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5 million kilowatt hours per hour (equal to 1500 million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990, the Tallahassee municipal generating system will require the energy equivalent of 10. 5 million barrels of residual fuel oil. During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969, gasoline consumption in the United States increased from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The consumption of gasoline in Florida during this interval rose from 782 million to more than 3 billion gallons, nearly 384 percent Florida's population increase was 4.3 times the national average during this period, while our gasoline consumption only increased 2.8 times the national average. This may indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively immobile, once they get here. The reduced rate of increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians, compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in otherwise gloomy statistics 49

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SOURCES OF FUEL REQU I REMENTS OF THE FUTURE Intrastate Petroleum Supply: At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in 1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although production from this field will have declined by 1990, it is probabl e that other large oil fields will be discovered in the same producing trend of northwest Florida. There is however, little likelihood that Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum in that half of the Florida platform which is submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of Mexico are rather good DomesHc And Imported Petroleum Supply The United States demand for petroleum products is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per day. This demand will double by 1990 The U.S. is now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its petroleum needs More than half of these imports, which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in industry including electric power generating plants. Canada and Venezuela together provided more than 60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all of the imported residual fuel oil originated in Venezuela and the Caribbean region Unfortunately, Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish another hundred million barrels a year to us if required, while our own reserve capacity totals 365,000,000 barrels annually The two together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion barrels of petroleum we consume In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply declines and our imports rise we must rely increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83 percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies are located. Western Europe now obtains more than 60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the supply lines are cut by wa r or insurrection we shall have to furn ish oil to our NATO allies. We could send them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed. Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should be developed now. Our pipe line and refinery patterns and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of months or years-it would require decades to redesign and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion gallons plus per day we need at present. Intrastate Sources of Uranium: The phosphate deposits of Florida contain associated uranium which should be recovered during phosphate processing In a 1969 report prepared for I and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern United States," the following paragraph is quoted from page 65: "An amazing quantity of uranium is being wasted each year during current mining operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the phosphate pebble and other phosphate minerals mined are included, the uranium wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3 08 per year of which approximately 2000 tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate that economic pressures should destroy such a precious resource." Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs. population increase (doubling time 18 years) 1970 1980 30.0 105.0 1990 2000 2010

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The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annua-lly in Florida is recoverable rests on variation in method of processing phosphate ore Of the 30 million tons processed in Florida annually, about 1/3 is converted to phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet process method is employed. The uranium oxide reserves of t,he free world are estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a price of $8 to $1 0 per pound, with an additional 1.4 million tons recoverable at a price between $10-$15 per pound. It is further estimated the free world requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons by the end of the century. In view of the fact that uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per poynd and considering that the free world supply available at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30 years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The argument that this is in response to economic necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in the early part of the present century is unfounded. The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates the uranium should be extracted concurrently with phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments, if needed. The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in Florida represents one fifth the entire free world supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium oxide is worth 15 billion dollars. Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants in operation by the end of 1972. The combined output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3 million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated nuclear powered generating plants in the United States will have a combined capacity of about 160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3 kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000 Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil. Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil would be required to generate the same amount of power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235. As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5 million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990 In lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of uranium oxide could be processed to yield the necessary 3600 lbs of U235. That is one-eighth the amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder reactors are commercially available and U238 can be converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy available from uranium oxide will be increased 140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is more than a thousand times the electricity requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990. At full load, 440 gal./ minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system shown in foreground. Arvah B. 51

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LAND U S E URBAN OPEN SPACE -=---MINERAL RESOURCES AGR ICUL lURE RECREATION

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PRESENT LAND USE Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the geology and physiography of the area. Rapid suburban development is spreading northward into the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is less desirable physically and consequently less expensive Certain attributes of the land have been important in the selection of institutional sites Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the physical characteristics of the land such as soil type and topography. The designation of recreational areas is also dependent on the physical setting Water bodies, forests and rolling h i lls are the natural assets of the Tallahassee area recreational lands A clear understanding of the geology and physiography of the area is essential to optimum land development. When environmental factors are not considered as an integral phase of planning, problems arise. Construction problems related to physical conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a basis for land development. The des i rability of a land area for a particular use may be evident to the casual observer, but the suitability of the land for that use must be determined by environmental study. 54 URBAN Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large portion of the land within the study area and centers around major highway intersections. The Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles of residential, industrial and commercial properties. The limited industrial areas are located in the south and west sections of town in proximity to transportation facilities. SUBURBAN Large suburban areas are found north and east of the City. Three recent residential developments include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further suburban growth in that area INSTITUTIONAL One of the notable features of Tallahassee is the preponderance of institutional land use. Two state universities, a community college and various state buildings give a distinct character to the city. A correctional institute is found east of urban Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification generally accompany institutional use. WOODLANDS Much of the total surface area is taken up by natural and planted woodlands. These include pine flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines. RECREATIONAL Recreational lands within the area include part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat landings. AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES Agricultural land uses include horse farms, dairy farms, pasture land, etc The remainder of the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp. D D D D

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FUTURE LAND USE TALLAHASSEE AREA INTERIM LAND USE PLAN. 1971-199 5 As the population of Tallahassee grows and urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural areas competition for space will require efficient land use planning. The populace will need more land for work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the wastes they generate. Compatible coexistence between urban spread and the physical environment will require that those responsible for future land use planning will need basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is directed toward presenting basic facts about the physical environment of the area which will aid in p l anning for future urban spread. Th i s work is not to be considered as the ultimate or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings together at this moment in time the most accurate data available As additional data becomes available through research t he picture will become more definitive and for this reason, environmental geo l ogical studies of this nature should be continuously used for the improvement of our envi ronment. EXPLANATION D CITY LIMITS URBAN AREA D RESIDENTIAL RECREATIONAL D TRANSPORTATION COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL D INSTITUTIONAL D UNDEVELOPED Orchard &}Pond 55

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GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Solid-Waste Disposal should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be placed in areas where earth material underlying the site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These relatively i mpervious earth materials retard the downward movement of leachate and ideally wou l d remove the contaminants by filtr ation and adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30 feet of relatively impervious earth material should be present below the base of the landfill. A. Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions. CJ No physical obstructions nor preempted regions. Rapid -Moderate Moderately Slow B. Soil permeab i lities. The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming more acu t e as the population increases In a sur v ey of solid-waste practices i n Florida i t is shown that presently Floridians are generating over five million tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary landfill s will be needed to accomodate this incr ease and the selection of proper sites is an important factor in the disposal problem. The Ameri can Society of Civil Enginee r s defines the Sanitary Landfill as : "A method of disposing of r efuse on l and without creating nuisances o r hazards to public health or safety by utilizing the p rin ciples of engineering to confine the refuse t o the smalles t practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practica l volume, and to cover it w ith a l ayer of earth at the conclusion of each day's ope r ation, or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary." The following are areas that should be avoided for sanitary landfill sites: ( 1) Areas that are underlain by sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3) Sinkholes because of the possibility of the contaminants moving throug h solution cav1t1es directly into groundwater systems; (4)Siopes that are too steep for stabi l ization or that are subject to surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by l imestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the direction and rate of groundwater movement in such material may not be readily determined. The following set of crheria issuggestedasaguide As rainwater passes through the refuse in the l andfill, chemica l s derived from the decomposing material are taken into so l ution thus creating 'leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater and surrounding surface water. Also, in l andfills where refusE; is placed below the water table or is subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the solid waste will produce l eachate. Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium) and hardness." To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors 56 The greater the depth to the water table below the base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It is also suggested that sites should be several miles down gradient from areas where there are large withdrawals of groundwater. To redu ce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the sanitary l andfill, a fine-grained earth material should be compacted and used as a. cover. However, if the fine-grained material i s predominantly clay it may be difficult to work when wet. A l so it may crack excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to enter the landfill. in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary l andfill site in the Tallahassee area. 1 The bottom of the landfill site should be underlain by at least 30' of clay or other low permeable material. 2 The site area should not be prone to flooding. 3. The water table should be 30 feet below land surface. 4. The site area should not display s i nkholes or other karst features that may indicate the underlying limestone is highly permeable. 5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains should be avoided. 6. Site areas should be at least several miles down gradient from large withdrawals of ground water. + + + + Shows e le vation to which water will rise i n wells Floridan aquifer. Contour in terval 10 fHt. Datum is mean ..,a level. + LEON COUNTY FLORIDA + G 0 + + C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer G I A +

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D. Geologic map. The land-use map showing potential sanitary landfill sites in this publication was compiled using these criteria However, it is presented only as a preliminary guide for planning sites; the map does not show the exact character of the geologic (earth) materials overlying the bedrock, nor the precise groundwater condition s Each potential sanitary landf ill s ite should be investigated and evaluated before be i ng put into operation. It should be pointed out the position of the water table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated. However, in the northern half of Leon County, discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In the southern part of Leon County the water table is essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer. Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Suwannee Limestone iiif.lli!ifjjj!j Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations on larger map. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth mate ng bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and not currently used for residential, commercial, industrial or recreational purposes Provided no high water table is encountered the pollution potential of water supplies in these areas is probably low. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth material overlymg bedrock; gentle slopes and other favorable criteria. However, because of the flow pattern of the groundwater toward areas of large withdrawals from the aquifer and the chance of a high water table the pollution potential of water supplies should be considered lllfl Area may have 30 feet or more of permeable to very ....., .... ..._..., __ I i g h t I y impermeable earth material overlying bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes, and not currently used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. However, because of the possible permeable nature of the earth material the pollution potential of the water supplies should be considered. D Pollution potential of water supplies in area is high because of steep slopes, swamps, sink holes and places that have less than 30 feet of earth material overlying the bedrock. It also has portions that are prone to flood. Also, some of the area is currently being used or will be used for residential, commercial, industrial and recreational purposes. + ..... 0.J=I ='=='=='===f : M 1 L E Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. = 57

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L ess than 1% 58 GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Construction In preparing a land-use plan for general construction, factors such as slope, subsurface geology, and so i l conditions should be considered. Stream flood plains and topographically low areas should be avoided, as they may have a high fluctuating water table and may be subject to periodic flooding. The earth materials occurring in the topographically high areas are composed of heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands (Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable as construction sites. However, perched water tables occur l ocally; so subsurface investigations should be conducted for larger buildings. The Hawthor n Formation contains bedded clays t ha t are plastic and will swell upon wetting T he cycl i c swelling and sh r inking of these clays during dry [ill] 1 to 4% A. Slopes Greater than 4% and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable foundation conditions When saturated with water the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are recommended before building in these areas. In the southern portion of the area, porous sands overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole act1v1ty. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor frequently formed, those planning to use this area should be aware that such conditions may exist I n much of the area, the slopes a r e mode rate to gentle and offer no particular problem to constructi on. H owever, a l ong some valley walls the slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn Form ation are present slu mping as well as s l iding may occur Flood Prone Areas B Flood Prone Map C Geol o gic M a p D. Soil Associations tC:O Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Pleistocene sands an d cla y s covering formations o n l arge r map L akeland-Eustis soils N o rfolk-Ruston Orangeburg s oils Plummer-Rutledge soils L eaf-1 zagor a s oils B arth s oils m Magno liaF a ceville -Carn eg i e so ils

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I a PLEISTOCENE Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less than one to four percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and some flooding occurs in low flat.areas. Sinkholes are numerous and may occur i11 the area. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays. Generally earth materials in this area present very few foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are present in the area Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that are almost level. HAWTHORN FORMATION Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent. Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may be detrimental to foundations. Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However, flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains. Construction suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D.

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Natural forces have been continually changing and modifying the face of the earth for billions of years. Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's surface and we see the manifestation of these changes in the natural beauties all about us. The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these wonders of nature that have been focal points for recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills) and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of an ancient highland that has been partitioned by erosion occurring over thousahds of years. This beautiful hill and valley topography provides excellent sites for the golf courses found in the Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of the underlying limestone over a period of thousands of years and provide people of the area, as well as many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports. McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of the lake South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two areas. A portion of the plain I ies almost entirely within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest. It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing many densely wooded swamps. The nature of the region and the occupational restrictions imposed by the U.S Forest Service has 60 RECREATION left the area essentially in its natural state. Several camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S. Forest Service for recreational use. Joining the above area on the east is the other portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are popular with swimmers and scuba divers. Several recreational areas are developed around the many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake Bradford provides water-oriented recreational facilities for the residents who live around the lake, for Florida State University students (at a University camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National Forest where recreational facilities for camping, swimming, and fishing are made available to the public by the U.S. Forest Service The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a valley along the western side of Leon County. Many boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee R i ver and many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing in the river Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies a portion of the broad valley carved out by the Ochlockonee River Lake Talquin plays a major role in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private boat landings found along its shore provide citizens access to some excellent fishing are:is ,.,... = = =..: z + z + z + + !I R5W + + R3W + R2W + Rl W + "" + R2E + "" G E 0 R G I A z + z + z 't;l:ll!!!!l:.:WJ"'-=-=-=-=-:::--j--------.. + I I : 0 I I I I I I 1 I I _, _________ :-----------1 I I 0 I I I I I 1 : __ j ____________ j ____________ .L __________ WAKU L L A R5W + R4W + R3W + The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the southern portion of Leon County, is an area of natural beauty. The river is much wi
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REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Hendry, C.W Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Kiplinger 1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by localities : Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, Florida City of 1971 Capital City of Florida, University City County Seat of Leon County, Regional Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept TOPOGRAPHY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R ) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida : Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Hughes, G.H. 1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida: Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of lnv. 48, 25 p. U.S Department of Agriculture 1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. lnf. Bull. 243, p. 5. U S Geological Survey 1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p. GEOLOGY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. U.S .. Department of. Agriculture 1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No.5. Soil survey, Leon County: -Unpublished report. WATER RESOURCES Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol Survey Bull. 47,178 p. MINERAL RESOURCES Babcock, Clarence 1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. I nf. Circ. 65, 40 p. Chen, Chih Shan 1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida: Fla. Bur of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p. Downs, Matthews 1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p. Flawn, P.T. 1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co ., 406 p. 1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning and Resource management : Harper and Row, 313 p. Foss, R.E 1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications) : Our Sun, summer, 1969, 2 p. Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.l Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105. National Petroleum Council 1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p. Oil and Gas Journal 1971 U.S. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32 Oil and Gas Journal 1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years : Oil and Gas Jour., October 4, 1971, p 77. Park, C F., Jr. 1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy: Freeman, Cooper and Co ., 368 p. Puri, H .S. 1964 (and Vernon, R O ) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p. Sweeney, J. W. 1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral Yearbook, 1969, 14 p. The Council of State Governments 1964 Surface mining -ex tent and economic importance, impact on natural resources, and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on Surface Mining, p. 3 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. Ill: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67, 207-231. ENERGY RESOURCES American Gas Association, Inc. et. al. 1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gas-liquids, and natural gas in the United States and Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25, May, 1971, 256 p. American Petroleum Institute 1971 Petroleum facts and figures : 604 p National Academy of Sciences National Research Council 1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p. Scientific American 1971 Energy and power: Sci. Am. vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971, 246 p U.S Atomic Energy Commission 1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate Nuclear Board, 230 p. U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Offi ce, 3084 p. LAND USE American Society of Civil Engineers 1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. Cartwright, Keres 1969 (and Sherman, F.B ) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geology Note 27. 15 p. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan Div. of Health Hendry, C. W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p Hughes, G .M. 1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geo l ogy note 17, 26 p. Landon, R.A. 1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p 9-13. McHarg, I.L. 1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p. Moser, P H. 1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1, p. 68-70. Stewart, J W 1970 (and Hanan, R. V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur. of Geol., Map Series no. 32. Sorg, T J. 1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts : U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Serv ice no. 1792, 30 p. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 6 1



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N ONMENTAL GEOLOGY TA

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DMSION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROWGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 1972

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CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, J. W. Yon, Jr. INTRODUCTION, R. 0. Vernon Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr .......... Tnmsportation, H.S. Puri TOPOGRAPHY Topography and man, J.P. May .... Topography of Tallahassee area,J.P.May Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. GEOLOGY General geology,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Geologi<; structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Soil associations,]. W. Yon, Jr .... Soil permeability,]. W. Yon,Jr. Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham ii 1 2 3 6 7 11 14 16 17 18 19 WATER RESOURC!=S ................................ 22 W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau, R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources MINERAL RESOURCES Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons 40 Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons 41 Oil and gas, C. V. Babcock . . 44 ENERGY RESOURCES Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission, W.R. Oglesby . . . . . . . . 48 LAND USE Present land use, A.P. Wright Future land use,J. W. Yon, Jr. ............... Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. Recreation, H.S. Puri . . . . 54 55 56 58 60 REFERENCES .................................... 61

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making this publication possible. The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in compiling and producing this publication. Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made toward making this report a reality. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of this publication. Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director, Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area. The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr. John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines. Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project. Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this publication. ii

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Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Published by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale PRODUCTION: SupervisorsJ. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr. Editors-W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr. Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker Drafting-D. E. Beatty, D.P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle Art -D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead Text Composition J. D. Woodard Printing S. L. Murphy iii

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ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA INTRODUCTION Florida has the purest water, the freshest of breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources, largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the same time, it h as the highest growth rate in the continental United States. The demand to clean our environment meets head-on with the need for raw mineral resources. Some citizens have forgotten, or have never known, that man is part of the evolutiona l sequence and competition between species is fierce and will continue the rapid expansion of the human spec i es drains the energies from many other species, uses up their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to reproduce, to feed and exist Species will continue to be endangered and will disappear, as man continues to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste and failure to purge our environments of unneeded and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes Man, our most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted his need for, and use of, raw mineral products virtually to exhaust his requirements for the aesthetics of environmental quality Earth scientists must provide the means and the forum necessary to express the greater need for mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries for utilizing these and provide the knowledge necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of disturbed lands. 0 u r forests, through wise and efficient management, are renewable within time limitations. Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short sightedness.. Not so our mineral resources; the supply is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life until technology bridges. the ultimate gaps by providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and make economic wastes recoverable. A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to have been nyrtured by Mother Nature herself as she readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Tim e, demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a supply of raw resources with an opposing demand for a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap. The basic framework for obtaining this balance must be: ( 1) complete and systemati c recov ery of the known mineral resources; (2) multiple simultaneous and/or sequential land use where possible; (3) adequate planning with considerat ion for all resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive and extensive exploratory work to uncover new reserves; (5) design of plants, mines, etc., with a smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended production life; and finally, an honest awareness of the total effect of our endeavors on our environment. These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are simple challenges wh i ch spur us to new heights of achievement.

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POPULATION INCREASE AND URBAN Tallahassee has been in the process of changing from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since 1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has kept pace with that of Florida as a whole From 1950 to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from 27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth r ate of the area i s influenced by the growth of the principal employers; state government and the two state universit i es A lt hough the industrial base of Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the growth rate as has that of the principal empl oyers, it is neve r theless important. S0me of the majo r firms include Vindale Co rpor ation the E l berta Crate Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The growth in population is reflected by the expansion of the incorporated a r ea of Tallahassee. In 1952 the exis t ing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has expanded t o 26.14 square m i les Although predicting future population i s risky because of u nknown variables the planners of the T allahassee-Leon County Plann ing Department predict that Tallahassee will continue to grow. T hey estimate that by assuming a 3 74% annual increase the projected population of Tallahassee in 1990 will be 160,600 persons The rapid increase in population, urban spread, coupled with the expected i ncrease in industry c r eates t he need for environmental geologic and hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use p l anning. 1860 1 87 0 .1890 2 Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department 197 0 SPREAD (I) z 2 .J .J :g-4 :lE z C( C( (I) e g-3 a:: :I: 0 I-.J "-IAJ (I) (I) C( .J .J 20 0 1990 01960 01970 1980 1990

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..... AIRPORTS ---SliABOARD COAST LINE R.R. ----AFFILIATED LINES ot::1 les Approx.Scale =::;> Augusta 200 Miles TRANSPORTATION The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern United States in the northwestern portion of Florida which is commonly referred to as the "big bend" area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail, land and air transportation which places it in the position of being able to serve not only other areas of Florida, but many parts of the South. The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over the past two decades has increased the need for better facilities to transport people and the commercial traffic needed to support the populace. Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the transportation facilities of the area are continually studied and improved to meet this need. AIRLINES The Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee, provides the necessary modern facilities for handling air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and a 4,1 00-foot runway capable of hand I ing most types of aircraft. Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern, National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg, Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting flights to 1 07 cities in six countries. The National Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily flights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City, Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for air transportation. HIGHWAYS Highways are significant in the development of an area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with a network of excellent highways. U.S Highways 90 and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county from north to south. All of these highways place Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important routes for commercial traffic entering the area. Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20 serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide excellent transportation facilities within the county. RAILROADS Railroads have always been vital to development of an area and the completion of the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in 1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and development of the Tallahassee area. Presently the City of Tallahassee i s served by the Seaboard Coastline Railroad. The railroad forms an important connecting link in fre ight service northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight from T allahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea port, and Pensacola, another port with shipping facilities, in two days. Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight are given in the following table: TYPE OF CARRIER Air Freight Rail Freight (rock products) Motor Freight AVERAGE COST $130.00 2.15 10.25 3

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I 5

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TOPOGRAPHY AND MAN Topography can be defined as "the shape of the land surface". The effect of topography on the life and development of man, as well as that of lower forms of life, has been great. T he existence and position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans have formed natural boundaries within which man has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for agriculture, and defensability of the settlement against intruders .. all intimately affected by topography. Even today we must consider topography in planning for cultural development. The choice of a farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a recreation area . the topography must be considered in the planning of such projects. The ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led to disasterous results due to flooding, erosion and deposition, subsidence and slides TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a distance on the actual ground surface (for example 1 :24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles. The actual distance between two points on the map can be determined by comparison of the map distance to the graphic scale. A topographic map differs from the common geographic map in that its purpose is to show the shape of the land surface: the topography. This type of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys, and other topographic features. Furthermore, the elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of surface slope can be determined at any point on the map. The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A 6 contour line is an imaginary line that connects points of equal elevation. The accompanying f i gure illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features they describe These lines are formed by the intersection of the land surface by imaginary, horizontal planes at given elevat i ons Imagine a set of transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level (zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the right in the figure, and that these planes are capable of slicing right through the hill at their respective elevations The marks left on the land surface by these intersections would coincide with the contour lines shown on the topographic map just below the Sketch of the hill. The contour interval is the vertical difference between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the horizontal planes they represent) In the example above, the contour interval was 20 feet. A few of the characteristics of contour l i nes are worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map never cross each other and coincide only when vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when a contour line crosses a stream valley always points upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one could walk along a given contour line, he would eventually end up at the point from which he started. The elevation at any point on the map is determined by noting the values of the two adjacent contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the point based on the relative distances from it to the adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60 foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be 50 f eet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100 foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point Cis on top of the hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation of the point can only be estimated .... 290 feet would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X". Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to horizontal distance and can be expressed as a percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one foot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. I f we climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we have a slope of 20:100 (or 1 :5) or 20 percent. The slope can be determined from the topographic map by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal distance between two contour lines. For example, the slope through point B is determined as follows: *Modified from U .S. Geological Survey, 1969. ( 1) the contour interval is 20 feet, (2) the minimum distance from the 100 foot line to the 120 foot line through point B is about 1,000 feet (from the graphic scale), 20 (3) the slope is 1 ,OOO 2:100 or 2 percent. Note that gentle slopes are indicated by widely-spaced contour lines and steep slopes by closely-spaced contour lines. 0 1 2 3 4 5000 APPROX SCALE 3/16 INCH 1000 FII!T

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TOPOGRAPHY OF TAllAHASSEE AREA The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is shown on the accom panying index map and includes four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon County, north-central Florida: 1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle ( 1963) 2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963) 3. Tallahassee Quadrangle ( 1972) 4. Lafayette Quadrangle ( 1954) This includes an area of approximately 240 square miles The elevations (above sea level) range from about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the south Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles southward from the Georgia westward to the Apalachicola River, and eastward to the Withlacoochee River. This topographic province generally consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevat i ons of 200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet. The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of fine with coarse grained material commonly results in a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes surface drainage of rainwater Because of the permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the region. The only permanent surface stream in the Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest portion. The southern one-third of the Tallahassee Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terra i n and lower elevations than that to the north described abov.e. This area belongs to the topographic province called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee Quadrangle. R5W .J + R4W + R3W + R2W + AREA LOCATION 0 HAVANA SOUTH 4 MILES ---------------------------------------w A K U L L A RtW + RIE + R2E + R3E
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Contuwr..re lnoro\lyoisibloonoorialol'><>lollcophs.Th is inlo.-,.tionisund>oc:kod 8 Uf>OGOIOANDIOOI .. A;Otf>(.lf(lotH oC!USC&GS PhOIOI'IP"token\952. Fttldchockdl963 POircond l ield lonn where en ooriol fhil onformoucn io !T, "-, THOS COI-OPU(S WITH HUIOHAl 5TAH0AROS FOR SALE BY U. $ GEOLO GICAL SURVEY, W A$1-IINGTO N 0. C A OOlOU D(SCAI81,.C TOI'OO).RAI'O'IIC MAPS liND SYM80l5 IS IIWdlABa OH BRADFOROVILLE QUADRANGLE FLORlDA-LEON CO. QuSRout
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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE TALLAHASSEE AREA Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic quadrangles are given below. More detailed i nfo r mation regarding topography, geology, and additional references can be found in Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 ( 1966). The accompanying maps are photographic re du ctions of the original 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps prepared by the U .S. Geological Survey, Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State of Flo rida. LAKE JACKSON QUAD RANGLE (1963) As implied by the name, this quadrangle is dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly extensions Carr L ake and Pond. T his broad, shallow lake r esponds active l y to rain f all variat i on. It was essentially dry as recently as 1957 fo l low ing thr ee successive yea r s of be low normal r ainfall and reached an all-time in 1966 following three years of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this area is into L ake Jackson or its tributaries. Because of the low permeability t;>f the clayey soils occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff. The valley bott?ms generally connect with subsurface drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate and local rei ief is 100 to 150 feet The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent surface stream in the area BRADFORDV ILL E QUADRANGLE (1963) The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hill top elevations range fror:n 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major surface drainage lines are to the north intoL ake lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the south) The divide between these two drainage systems runs east-west across the central part of the map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly promotes local surface r unoff of rainwater. H owever, subsurface dra i nage through the underlying permeable limestones dominates most of the time. TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970) The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into two pa r ts based on the character of the topography. T he northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls within the T allahassee Hills topographic province and the southern one-third lies in the Coastal L owlands topographic province. The northern portion consists of rolling hills with gentle to-moderate slopes Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations are about 50 feet The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet thick, and overlie permeable limestone The clayey soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes which generally becomes subsurface through the permeable valley bottoms. The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about 30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area, known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee Hills region to the north. The soils are generally sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These conditions cause the area to be well-drained. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY lokenMorch\S67 foe ldche cked 1970 prOJttl o on 1927 Nort h A m ericu d Uum 10.000-lootandbosedonflortd ocOOtdono teu>tom n or! h>on" 1000-metorun .. >onel6,shownonbluo fon ee droa d Qlnle r stateRoule Qu.S.Roule Qstote Rout e TALLAHASSEE, FLA. THI S MAP COMP LIES WITH MATIOMAL MAP STA NO AROS FOR SALE 9Y U.S.GEOLOGICA.L SURVEY,WASHINGTON,O.C. 202 4 2 NEITAUAH..SSEIO'QVAORAMCU: N3022.5 -WS4J517.5 A FOlO(R OESCRIB lNG TOI'OClRAPHIC M AI'SANOSVM80LS IS A VAll.ABLE ON R[QVEST l,O,LLAHASSNE,FL,O,. AMS 4144 IV NE-SERI ESY8<7 T,O,llAHASSF NOIITH PROJECT

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10 Mapped, edited. and published by the Geological Survey drail\&llll n """compiled photogroploo llken1951. :U,OOG-.a!:' P Nsedon flotido cootd l nall SCALE1241Xl0 THI$ ...... COIOI>UESWITH,..,.TIIJI'STI.HO.OROS FOR SAU: BY U.S. OEOt.OGICAl.. SURVEY, WASiliNGTON 2!, 0 C. "I'OI.OUit>tscii!IINO tOOOQ(IItAI'KIC ..... 1"5 NOO IYMIOlS IS OfO LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE FLORIOA-l.EON CO. (TOPOGRAPHICl ROADCl.ASS!fK:ATION He""fduly .---Li&hl-du!J ___ MediulfHiulr---lJtWnprooocldio1 Q u S .Routc QStaieRaW LAFAYETTE, FLA. 1<13022.5-WS607 .5/7. 5 LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954) The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the Tallahassee H ills topographic province, except for the extreme southern part, which includes the escarpment leading down to the surface of the Coastal Lowlands province to the south The upland area is divided into a north and south portion by the east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater tributary of the St. Marks River, that i s more swamp than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils are clayey with drainage characteristics like those described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at about 40 to 50 feet Local hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal Lowlands.

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SLOPES TALLAHASSEE AREA Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several ways but all of them depend on the comparison of the vertical distance (difference in elevation between two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal distance between two points) The slopes of the area covered in this report are expressed in per cent. Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Bulletin No. 243. D D Slopes of less than one percent cover approximately 19.50 percent of the land surface. These areas are generally associated with streams and their flood plains Land use in this area is somewhat restricted because of the possibility of periodic flooding. About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes of one to tour percent and represent the tops of hills or areas separating stream valleys from areas with steeper slopes. Generally these slopes impose no severe restraints to land use. Slopes greater than tour percent cover approximately 55.50 percent of the land surface. In this area gently rolling topography predominates and except for some areas along drainage ways where the slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent restraints for land use imposed by slope should be at a minimum.

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GEOLOGY 13

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GENERAL GEOLOGY This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found in Florida, up to 120 feet. I t is part of a larger area known as the Tallahassee Hills. The surface is formed on an ancient Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected by streams and further modified by dissolution of sub-surface limestones The highest hills are comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about 260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the hills give the overall appearance of mature topography, resulting from a long period of weathering. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. ....J LIJ > LIJ ....J 0 CD
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D D The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These deposits cap the.higher hills. The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand, phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The sand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material. The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water producing unit. The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous, granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied. Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations shown on larger map are depicted in yellow. 15

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GEOLOGIC 16 STRUCTURE Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An understanding of the geologic structure of an area is essential to the interpretation of surface geolog i c features, as well as the subsurface. Such understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds known to contain mineral deposits. Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less than one degree. The accompanying structure map drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the slight regional slope of the earth material but the irregular surface caused by dissolution of the subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land use planning 100 _, Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet, referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet 30"30' 25' + ll RIW 17"30' + RIE MILE 12"30' + 30"30' (/) ...

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SOil ASSOCIATIONS Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from which they develop. Their characteristics depend upon climate, parent material, organisms, t()J)09:aphy and time. Soils are important in man's erwironment and should be carefully evaluated prior to construction of homes, highways, airports and dams. According to the Soil Conservation Service soil series consist of two or more soil types that resemble each other in most of their physical Characteristics, thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of soils into soil associations which are shown on the General Soil Maps of leon and Gadsden counties. However, only the soil associations which fall within the limits of the area of investigation are shown on the accompanying soils map. D The Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of leyel to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat excessively drained soils with more than 42 inches sandy surface soil. Leaf-lzagora soils are well to drained and occur on nearly level stream terraces. The surface layers are pr-edominantly fine sand to very fine sandy loam. I '\ ,, : J The Lakel,and shallow-Eustis shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or r----"1!'1 gently sloping. They consist of strongly acid, somewhat escessively drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with areas of well drained soils with less -than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoil D The Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are nearly level or gently sloping, well drained sandy soils with less than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They are clissected by well formed stream pattern with short steeper slopes adjacent to stream. D The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are well drained, nearly level, sloping, acid soils with loamy sand or sandy loam surfac. e soils less than 30 inches thick and well aerated sandy clay loam or sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with lighter textured, well drained soils and narrow wet stream bottoms. ------n The Blanton-Kiej soils are nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained, strongly acid soils with more ._ _____ :u than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with swampy areas. BlantonKiej-Piummer soils are nearly level moderately well and poorly drained. They contain sandy surface layers, more than 30 inches thick and are gently sloping. The Barth soils are nearly level to gently sloping. moderately well to poorly drained river terrace soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with small well and poorly drained deep sands and small swampy areas. The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly level. They consist of strongly acid, poorly to very poorly drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with occasional small moderately well and poorly drained areas and swamps.

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SINKHOLES In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant process in landform development resulting in a unique type of topography to which the name Karst has been applied Most of the notable Karst areas are in regions where limestones underlie the surface although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in their distribution; hence it might be expected that Karst topography would also be widespread. In actuality, significant development of Karst features is restricted to a relatively small number of localities Some of the important areas are in western Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece, northern Yucat?n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico, western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. I n any of the above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but in none are all the possible individual forms to be seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst development and different types of geologic structures. The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary for the optimum development of Karst can be summarized as follows: 1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the surface. 2) The limestone should be highly jointed, and thin bedded. 3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a position such that ground water can emerge into surface streams. 4) The region should have moderate to abundant rainfall. Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions only in part and consequently has only moderately well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical differential permeability to concentrate water movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and move through the whole of the rock resulting in no differentiai solution. Florida also does not have major entrenched valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain G U L IF off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a sim i lar result. In this case water entering the system moves down gradient discharging through springs or eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. The rate of movement in this system is very slow and this decreases the amount of solution taking place. Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the conditions for optimum Karst development and reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst topography characterized by one Karst feature, sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and widespread topographic form in a Karst te rr ain I t is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of the many variations that they exhibit and the varying local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally, however, they are of two major types, those that are produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an underground void and those that are devel,gped slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle with physical disturbance of the rock in which they are developing, These two types have been referred to as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines Collapse sinks are normally steep sided, rocky and abruptly descending forms while dolines range from funnel-shaped depressions b r oad l y open upward to pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both of the above categories, however, more commonly they constitute a third type. Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an environment with the following physical characteristics : 1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated sediments less than 100 feet thick. 2. Cavity systems present in the Lim estone. 3. Water table higher than the potentiometric surface. 4. Breaching of the Limestone into the cavernous zone creating a point of high recharge of the artesian aquifer Under these circumstances water moving down into the Limestone may take large amounts of sediments into the cavernous system creating a v o i d i n the overlying sediments. These sediments are generally incompetent and will ref lect at the surface as e ith er a structural sag or as Gatastrophic collapse lE. 0 R of MIEXJ1CO This large portion of the State represents the area where the piezometric surface is at or above land surface and/or the clastic overbu rd en is in excess o f 100 feet thick. I t appears to be the least probable area for sinkhole development This area is the portion of the State characterized by stable prehistor i c sinkholes, usually flat bottomed, steep s i ded, both dry and containing wate r. Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate process again T his portion of the State is character i zed by limestones at or very near the surface. The density of sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of overburden Exploration by drilling and geophysica l methods for near-surface cavit i es can be realistically accomplished This portion of the State has moderate overbu r den overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, w i der sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A thick overburden or high wate r table present wi!hin these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring. G A ATLANTJ1C BEACH BROWAAO COLLIER r-""-J i 0 A 0 E 19

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----------=:::===-= -----::::::::_ ---......... ----.....----------WAlrE IF WlE[L[L 21

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THE WATER CYCLE Management of Leon County's water resources requires knowledge of the interchange of water between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the cyclic processes involved Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in vapor form is transported by convective air currents through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of the vapor condenses and precipitates In Leon County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain. Rain that reaches the land returns either to tt:e ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces. Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much interchange of water may take place between lakes, swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a water particle to complete the cycle may vary from an instant to many years depending on the path it takes. Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends on the terrain. Two important characteristicr are the slope of the land surface and the permeability of the surficial and underlying materials. Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams leading to the ocean. 22 Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the water that infiltrates is. stored in the soil zone, serving to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at some lower level, usually in areas that contain or adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps In Leon County water may also move downward into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan aquifer Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or the ocean. Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges water depends on the potential energy of the water involved; water moves always from a higher to a lower level of potential energy. This potential energy relates directly to the level at which water stands when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is represented by an imaginary surface, called the potentiometric surface, which is determined by the level at which water freely stands in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary openings in the confining bed, water can move into the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric surface \ SOLAR RADIATION EVAPORATION t t t t GULF

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RAINFALL Much of Leon County's water resource is derived from rainfall within the county; however, most of the water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and some of the water that moves underground through the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia. U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable, however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in 1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40 percent of the time. --r-:::::-::-=-+.;..-;;:-'"o;;;;[ \ I SUTIROSA \ l ) I > G About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs between June and September, as a result of thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions; but intense storms may occur at any time of the year Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually occurs within a 6 -hour period. This is beneficial in that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers is replenished, but these storms also cause flood damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the magnitude and frequency of floods that result from such storms are required for intelligent zoning and land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage systems. G E 0 R G A LIBERTY '\ MADISON y -L..r-{ TAYLOR I M e c 0 0 Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. en LU I u z _} ...J
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PHYSIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Leon County's physical features are separated into four major divisions -the high, sandy, clay-hill northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers. The accompanying text and illustrations portray the major physiographic divisions and their pertinent features. TALLAHASSEE HILLS TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a maximum elevation of 279 feet. SOl LS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand. BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream pattern. Streams generally short, many terminating at sinks or lakes. LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes. Sl NKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to the underground water supply. Those in or near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains. WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer. 24 The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water supply is susceptible to contamination by wastes dumped on the surface or directly into the sinks. WOODV I LLE KARST PLAIN TOPOGRAPHY : A gently sloping plain from 20 to 60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered sand dunes are as much as 20feet high. SOl LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock. BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. It is near the surface and crops out at many places. DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally well drained owing to the great numbers of sinks and the ease of per c olation of water through the overlying sand and into the limestone. LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and deep (sink-type). SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic of the division. Generally direct connectors to the underground water supply. WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is available in adequate quantities. It is susceptible to contamination by wastes. Blue Sink. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy, tree-covered plain near elevation 1 00 feet, with an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to and south of State Road 20. SO l LS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay sediments. Permeability is poor. BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and greater. Apparently less permeable than the limestone underlying the eastern part of the county. DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few streams. LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north and east perimeter of the division. .....

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SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the north and east perimeter of the division. The poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are major surficial characteristics of the area. WATER SUPPLY : From shallow sources or from wells penetrating the Floridan limestone aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is generally adequate for a home supply. Because most of the area lies within the boundaries of the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not been a need for large public or industrial supply wells. OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS These lowlands form the flood plain of the Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the southern end of the valley and the Lake Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico. ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly permeable limestone. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS w A K u L L A 0 I G E KARST PLAIN 4 M ILES I 0 R G TALLAHASSEE A HILLS -NAir view of a sink that has been isolated from Lake Miccosukee by a dike. z 0 (/) w Natural Bridge Sink.

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LAKES Leon County includes part o r all of several large lakes tha t provide a base for water-oriented recreation within convenient reach of most of the people of the county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes ultimately entails the solution of problems related to pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels. Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a i drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high enough to flood prime residentia l areas. Other l akes f l uctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall. Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion that eventually may l ead to pollution of the lake unless precautionary measures are as part of the development. Other lakes also could be polluted if shoreline properties were developed. L ake Munson already has been polluted by sewage from Tallahassee. L ake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are relatiVely shallow lakes that are l argely filled with aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of natural processes of eutrophication. Extensive research is needed to determine the extent of eutrophication and to develop ways to retard o r temporarily reverse this natu r a l aging process. Lake Bradford -a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels --tends to go dry during droughts. 26 100 -1 w > w -1 <1: w en z <1: w ::2: w > 0 lXI <1: 1w w u. 10 Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71. 1950 1910 Prolonged per i ods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson. G E 0 R G A 4: 0 lv Ul a:: "' L&J <:> LL. LL. (!) L&J -, -N-J 0 '-l MILES Munson w A K u L L A

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STREAMFLOW ST. MARKS RIVER St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times of extreme floods the entire flow of the river disappea r s into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is largely inundated during periods of high flow. Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural Bridge where ground water from the Floridan aquifer enters the stream. Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water flowing at the gage site is well within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a municipal water supply. >0 a: LLI a.. Ill z 0 ...J ...J (!) z 0 ...J ...J ....... f1 NATUfltAL llfltiDGE SINK RHODES SPRINGS COUNTY WAKULLA COUNTY G E r _j At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as springflow at downstream points 0 R G A -l z 0 (/) a: LLI L&.. I L&.. j LLI -, / -Nj 0 4 MILES LJ_ !---1--l A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. Marks River Flow averages about 435 million gallons per day. 27

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OCHLOCKONEE RIVER The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river becomes a major stream by the time it reaches Florida. The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968, and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969. Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown hue that the water takes on from the fine clay sediment that it carries at times of medium to high flow. The concentrations of major chemical constituents in the river fall within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. 28 The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 1,120 million gallons per day. ><( IOO.OO'Ur-0 a:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. 27 (f) near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641 z Q million gallons per day. __J __J Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954. 0 Average flow 641 mgd. Maximum flood peak 36,100 mgd, 1948. G E 0 R G A g IUU.WUr-0:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) u.. 0 (f) z Q __J __J Minimum flow 0.6 mgd, 1957. 0 Average flow 1,120 mgd. Maximum flood peak 57,800 mgd, 1969. v w A K -N0 I u L L A z 0 (f) 0:: w LL LL w J 4 MILES I

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IMPOUNDMENTS Lake Talquin was created by construction of Jackson Bluff Dam ori the Ochlockonee River in the late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was terminated at that time. The lake is being developed as a recreational area. Lake Talquin derives its name from the neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the o ., 0 ., tl) flooding of valley bottom lands of several small tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are ideally suited for recreational development. In a setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake provides one of the most attractive areas in the state for water-based recreation. Considering the vast recreational potential of Lake Talquin, systematic monitoring of chemical and biological changes could be undertaken as part of a broad program to maintain the quality of the lake water. Concentrations of major chemical constituents are within the acceptable limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. \ tl) 1-UJ Ul..J LLUJ z' G; O..J i=en UlUJ ..J> wo LAKE AREA, ACRES 7000 8000 11,000 62-AN ACRE-FOOT IS THE QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED TO COVER I ACRE TO A DEPTH OF I FOOT. <{ ..J VOLUME OF USABLE STORAGE, ACRE-FEET Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam on N 0 ., tl) 100,000 29

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AQUIFERS 30 Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. The number and size of spaces between the rock particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect, determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers generally .are not productive, whereas those that contai n coarse-grained particles are usually highly productive. Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and clay and is generally underlain by beds of day and silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution chambers. Because of the confining layer, water in the Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure greater than atmospheric. Thus, water generally rises to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer. Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that infiltrates through the surficial materia l s down to the water table Where the water table is above the potentiometric surface, water can move through openings in the confining layer to the Floridan aquifer Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface (that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall recharges the aquifer directly. Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped from the Floridan aquifer Well depths range from 150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000 gpm (gallons per minute) Productivity is greatest in northern and central parts of the county and decreases southwestward. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER Sand and clay with moderate permeability. Constitutes a minor source of water supply in Leon County. CONFINING LAYER Clay and silt, with low permeability, which yield very little water. FLORIDAN AQUIFER Limestone and dolomite, which yield mode rate to large quant1t1es of good-quality water: Most water-supply wells in Leon County penetrate this aquifer. Water is stored in large quantities; but because of very small spaces between parti cles it moves very slowly. Water is stored in the confining layer; but because of extremely small spaces between particles; movement either vertically or horizontally is extremely slow. Water is stored in large amounts. Solution chambers and fissures act as conduits in which ground water can be moved and stored.

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GROUND Ground water is the p r incipa l source of water in L eon County for municipal, industrial and domestic suppl ies. Most of the water is pumped from well s that penetrate the highly produc t ive F loridan aqui fer, which underlies all of L eon County and consists mostly of limestone and dolomite. The accompanying map shows the altitude and shape of the potentiometric surface of the Flori dan aqu i fer following a 3-year period of about -average rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates that the ground water body is recharged i n t h e northern and the western par ts of the county. Most wells yield water of good chemical qual ity, rang ing from 100 to 275 m i ll i grams per liter d i ssolved solids The concentrat ion of dissolved solids reflects the degree of mineraliza t ion that results from the solution of the limes t one and dolomite rock in the F loridan aquifer. Oldfash i o n ed l ift pump. ...J WATER EXP LANATI ON _,.--30_,.. Potentiometric contour Shows elevation to which water w ill rise in wells penetra t ing Floridan aquifer. Contour interval 10 feet Datum is mean sea level. Dissolved solids, in m i ll i grams per liter. 0 Less than 150 0 150to 200 More than 200 General direction of ground-water flow WAKULLA G E 0 R G A O._l -.l....._.....L..---li....._...J1 M I L ES c 0. 31

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TOTAL WATER USE RIE 12'3v' R2E + The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all water used is derived from this source (Hendry, 1966). The temperature of water returned to the aquifer usually exceeds 32C (90F), and, as a result, water temperatures in the aquifer are at least 3C (5F) above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells are generally drilled outside those areas containing air-conditioning supply and return wells. z ,_ MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep Their total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per day) The greatest demand for water usually occurs during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. INDUSTRIAL AND I NSTITUT I ONAL WATER, SELF SUPPLIED Because the temperature of ground water is nearly constant at 21 C (70 F). water from the Floridan aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State office buildings, the two State universities, and a growing number of commercial establishments. Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 million gallons, more than twice the municipal water use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer through wel l s and thus does not represent a net withdrawal of water from the aquifer. 32 Institutional and industrial use of ground water for 32,30 uses other than air condition i ng was only 0.4 mgd in 1970. PRIVATE SUPPLIES Most domestic water-supply systems outside the area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to 30'3o 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a total of about 2 to 3 mgd IRRIGATION Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon County. About 20 million gallons of water was used during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres. 25' ,_ + RIW 17'30' + ...J .. ,_ Q. .. u Areas of self-supplied air-conditioning supply and return wells. [ ----+-------+1 ._ Areas of self-supplied institutional and industnal wells. I I City of Tallahassee wells 32'30' 30'30' 27'30' (/) RIE MILE 12'30 + R 2E

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w w Cll Cll <( J:J: <(1-..JZ ..JQ <(:::!: 1-a: u.w Oa.. )-til 1-Z -o (.)..J )-..J Cll<( w(.!) (.!)z <(o 0..:::i:..J :::l..J ..J <( 1-0 "1J F M A M J J A 01970 .1960 s 0 Seasonal trends in municipal water use N 0 Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer. Air-conditioning supply well in the Tallahassee area. Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of Tallahassee's water system. ui>a: a: <(til S:z CllO >-j 1-<( oz uo z::i Q..J Air-conditioning return well in the Tallahassee area. 0 L--------1! I Municipal Other Industrial and Institutional Setf supplied Water use increased from 1965 to 1970. 33

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WATER QUALITY 34 Chemical Constituent Iron (Fe) Chloride (CI) Dissolved Solids Recommended upper limit of concentration (milligrams per liter)1 0.3 45 250 250 500 Significance Causes red and brown staining of clothing and porcelain High concentrations affect the color and taste of beverages Hazardous to infants A large amount, in association with sodium, imparts a salty taste; also causes corrosion of plumbing fixtures. Begins to produce a laxative effect at concentrations above 600 to 1 ,000 mg/1. Includes all of the materials in water that are in solution. Amounts up to 1 ,000 mg/1 are generally considered acceptable for drinking purposes if no other water is available. 1 U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962. MUNICIPAL BOILER FEED {150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH) GENERAL FOOD CANNING CARBONATED BEVERAGES 0HARONESS DISSOLVED SOLIDS SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES FOR SPECIFIED USES Constituent Iron (Fe) Nitrate (N03 ) Chloride (CI) Sulfate (S04 ) Hardness Dissolved Solids The chemical quality of water on and beneath the land surface is primarily determined by the type and solubility of rock formations with which water comes in contact and by the length of time that water remains in contact with each formation. In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams. Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water that reaches the water-table aquifer because water remains more completely in contact with the sand and clay materials for a long period OT time; however, the low solubility of these materials limits the concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble. Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60 mg/1) and low in chloride and dissolved solids. Recreation activities constitute its primary use. Most wells in the county yield hard water ( 121 .to 180 mg/1) of good chemic,al quality. Iron is the only constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks. Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for use without treatment. Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County. Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee River Jackson River 0.01 0.03 0.06 .6 .00 1.2 5.0 3.8 8.5 8.2 0.4 3.5 136 7 19 159 18 42 Well penetrating the Floridan aquifer 0.00 0.0 6.0 3.2 146 171

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w m C( a: C( .... ;...1 C( .... IL () >-.... 0 j; 0 0: ILl (/) z :0 .... ;:, Q. f AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER 80,000 160,00 POPULATION SERVED The only mumcipal water system in Leon County is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970 supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment is limited to chlorination. The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water system have expanded since 1930. Average daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg (million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capita water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day) in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues, per capita water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980. w w (/) (/) C( ::t: C(>-..JC( ...10 C(o:: t-ILl ILQ. 0(/) >-Z t-0 .... u_. >-C CD0 ILIZ 00 c-Q....l 4 .... .... c -.J .... 0 .... 0 1950 1960 1970 w A u L s G E 0 R G A 0 0 I --' 4 MILES I CITY OF TAU ... AHASSEE-1970 (TOTAL AREA. 26 SQUARE MILES) CITY OF TALLAHASSEE-1940 (TOTAL AREA. 4 SQUARE MILES) D ARFA OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS SERVED BY CITY OF TAU .. AHASSEE-m9701 35

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DRAINAGE and STORM RUNOFF LL. LL. 0 z :::J a: Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is handled through storm sewers and improved drainage channels About 50 percent of the area inside the city is served by storm sewers. Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A small part of the city area drains north into Lake Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes temporary flood i ng in some low lying places. Data are not available on the flood volumes or the quality of water dra i ning into these lake systems. As urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads, parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some stream channels in urban areas may have to be deepened, widened, and straightened to accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff. Completely sewered basin having a highly impervious surface. Urban areas with a high density of streets, par_king areas, roofs, and other impervious surfaces. Partly sewered basin having a natural surface. Suburban areas with medium-density housing. / '\ On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of drainage ,-,h,.nnAI ,.. I :>ke Bradford Road. Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10 feet lower than flood oeak. I \ Natural channels and natural basin surface, agricultural and wooded land. I \ \ \ '"-. 7 36 TIME S IN C E BEGINNING O F STORM Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost total runoff of rainfall.

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FLOODS Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone areas have or cornmerical value, buildings are constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can contaminate water-supply systems within these flood-prone areas Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and provide refuge for wildlife. Flood plains can also be used for parks and other recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of recreation areas results in negligible damage if the facilities are designed to accommodate flooding. Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are occupied by residential housing and commercial buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced by the use of special types of flood-proofing construction and remodeling. A flooded mobile-home park west of Tallahdssee, Sept. 1969. Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969. Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969. ... + RIW RIE .. ..... s* ..... ...E==:==:==JJMILE + The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and that may be inundated every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. R2E Tl

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MINERAL RESOURCES ---,.-;--::. .,.....,...... .;;.---::._. -=---:_ ----=---------

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GEOLOGIC PROVINCES 40 RELATED MINERALS TALLAHASSEE AREA PLEISTOCENE c=J MIOCENE c=J OLIGOCENE c=J EOCENE EXPLANATION SAND @ SAND and GRAVEL FULLER1S EARTH STRUCTURAL ALUMINA, BAUXITE and REFRAvTORY CLAYS e PEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS 0 LIMESTONE IRON ORE ., KAOLIN PHOSPHATE ROCK @ MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME AND I R T H---......, r------f IRWIN ._'--\ I \. .. ( T I F T :----l A. : .-l I _,-r -------, __,....._l_ ___ ,--1 .. ? ) R ( 'l COLQUITT/ (__ (COOKi J ( \ 1 I I' ... __ --__ ,'r-___ ___1_ __ ( i \ .A. \ > I ) I GRADY. THOMAS I i { : *G! E !0 RiG ------------L ----I i \0 R ,... .. ) I j ( M A D I S 0 N (iEFFERSON 0 f )----------, :_ T i I D I TAYLOR 'LA I

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MINERAL FACTS AND COMMODITIES ... Society should be reminded that nearly all the amenities of modern life which it takes for granted are products of the minerals industry and the engineers and others who serve it." This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the Imperial College of Science and Technology at London,' England during October, 1963, should serve to remind people everywhere of our dependence upon the mining or minerals industry. Our standard of" living is directly correlative with the development of our mineral resources. Our affluence is contingent upon the continued availability of mineral resources or reliable substitutes. Mineral reserves are finite, they are not inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral shortages come not only from the physical exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their unavailability at reasonable cost. Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and development may be considerably more costly than the development of an open pit or quarry operation, but aesthetic or environmental are an inherent part of the strip mining operation. The exploration and extractive costs so comparatively cheap in the construction or industrial minerals industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water and noise), control equipment. Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low unit value construction materials must be transported by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and expensive handling operations. Further, termination of production from wells drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are involved in restoration and reclamation and these in 197 1 and in the future must now become part of the cost of the min i ng operation. Mineral resource problems, that is the surface minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved through more extensive exploration programs, but through the broadening of technology to utilize those mineral resources known to exist. Continued and expansive exploration programs are paramount to the continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's surface has allowed them to be m6re readily tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for the fuels or metallics. Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36 counties in three states produce six distinctly different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties produce sand while thirteen also have gravel production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron ore, bauxite and various clays account for the remainder of the mineral production, while twenty counties have no recorded mineral production. Most of the mineral production in the tri-state Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have direct application in the building trade after cleaning, crushing and screening. Since these are high volume, low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials, the economic haul perimeters are considerably more restnct1ve than for decorative or manufactured products. Transportation economics change with the supply and demand parameters of mineral resources, but a radius of 100 miles is commonly used. CLAY No commercial clay operations occur within the Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially. Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud, fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers, pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement. However, this processing is not done in the Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the area as a finished product. Six counties in the tri-state area of influence commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used for highway fill, may be found throughout the area. Much of the upland topography is a result of these sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt to be found near an existing or previous need locale. Lumping of individual company and county statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton values for recorded production during 1969 were: $2.30 in Alabama, $15 02 in Florida and $17.37 in Georgia This discrepancy in unit values between the Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton. T he national demand outlook for all clays shows an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging f rom 2.8 to 4. 1 percent year' Uses in hydraulic 41

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42 cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest expected growth rates for this period Therefore, the Tallahassee area should similarly experience the highest clay consumption rate based on its construction minerals E!conomy. Although attendant environmental problems are encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and in the mined out areas, tl1ese problems are not insurmountable. Advances in pollution control technology plus tax i ncentives for land reclamation and ever increasing land values will allow the clay industry to remain compatible with our necessary and increasing environmental concern. SAND AND GRAVEL The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two materi als, as well as their utilization, favors their combining when discussing production, value r eserves, and use Quantitatively, the demand (in the U.S ) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which the nation is se lf sufficient The annual growth rate for sand and grave l to the year 2000 i s expected to be between 3 9 and 4.7 percent. Rema i ning interstate h i ghway construction and the need for residentia l building is likely to keep the sand and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the projected national growth rate for some years t o come. The withholding of individual company confiden tial data prevents an accurate disclosure of sand and gravel production in the Tallahassee area of influence However, during 1969 both tonnage and value records were established in Alabama and Florida Problems associated with sand and gravel production are normally two-fold and somewhat dia metri ca lly opposed. First, the accretionary flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the most common type deposits, are similarly some of the more desirable building sites Waterfront, lake, o r river property is a goal shared by many. Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their transportation to areas of need economically unfeasible. Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are much less objectionable than some of their mineral. production counterparts. An exception would be the dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved. Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are minimal. Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and efficient mine planning can result in more valuable real estate afterward than before the mining venture. STONE Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any number of structural materials which may be chemically, physically, or mineralogically different and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the nation and is second only to sand and gravel in volume produced. Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee, means crushed limestone and therefore excludes the finished dimension o r decorative stones mined in other areas of the three states. Eight counties in the tri-state area of economi c consideration produce crushed limestone Individual statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are not avai l able, but 1969 statewide totals show Alabama producing 4 3 million tons with an average value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million tons valued at $1. 52 per ton while Florida produced 40 7 million tons with an average value of $1. 32 per ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in the production of crushed l imestone, reflecting the near 20 percent increase in construction activity from the previous year

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A limestone quarry operation was begun early in 1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing knowledge and previous investigations indicate that the stone in this area i.s rather soft. Should this stone prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors should realize a substantial transportation saving as the nearest present operations are some 50 miles distant. Nationally the demand for crushed stone is expected to have a growth rate range to the year 2000 from 3 5 to 5.1 percent since this included the initial years of expanded interstate highway construction. However the importance of Florida as a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued demand for new construction and its basic materials. Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to twenty years. However, recent research by Yon indicates potentially much longer life in the area but with added exploration, development and operational costs. MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS Of the remaining minerals produced within 100 miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only peat and oyster shell have direct application locally, and these in small quantities. Peat, contrary to much of the world, is not used as a fuel in the United States but for agricultural and horticultural purposes only. Peat occurs throughout Florida in highly localized "pockets" but the only current production comes from Lowndes and Miller counties, Georgia. Production figures are not available but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year. Oyst e r shell is produced just outside the env i ronmental area i n Walton County Flor i da a n d i s used locally for dense road base material. No production figures are available. Estuarine considerations are likely to prevent any significant future expansion of this particular industry. Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits have no direct application locally, but return to the area as finished products. Also, these operations are so remote and products so varied as to have little effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the local environment. THE MINERALS FUTURE Of the three proposals for solving future mineral shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national mineral policies for producing countries with the necessity for international cooperation A similar policy, enacted at the state level with interstate cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls, particularly in the field of land reclamation, would effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically similar regions regardless of political boundaries. Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is also a solution to mineral shortages. Land must be evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts, then these must be recovered as efficiently and completely as possible; the land restored and then dedicated to a permanent useful purpose. 43

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HISTORY Florida had no oil production until December 2, 1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field This was the culmination of an exploration effort by many companies dating from 1900 and involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later, Florida has six producing oil fields. THE JAY OIL FIELD Most important by far in the history of the oil industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11, 1970 of the Jay field which produces from the Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about 15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of 1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million cubic feet of gas The recoverable reserves of the Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of oil. OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has focused its attention on other parts of the Florida panhandle in the hope of finding anot-her ancient marine embayment in which Smackover rocks might have been deposited The Apalachicola National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla County is included in such an embayment as contoured on shallow subsurface structural markers. This shallow feature may reflect a deeper embayment, and may have contributed to the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest by a major oil company interest during the fiscal year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis, magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted over the area of these leases. The oil and gas rights to a considerable but undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies. 44 OIL THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS With in 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production from presently-known reserves will have declined to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil, our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only be met by imports. Offshore production is important in supplying the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T. Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the Interior, predicted recently that within ten years oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under water more than one mile deep, and that at least a third of the nation's oil production will come from offshore. Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work over the past nine years is reported to have revealed a number of structures on both Federal and State acreage offshore from Florida which may trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east coast i s less desirable, geophysical exploration continues because the need for new petroleum reserves is great. THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry. With the advent of the Jay field, and recent discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that petroleum is destined to increase the value of the State's mineral industry. By 1975 the conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons produced from fields already discovered will be $83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will make a significant contribution to the state's mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this time on the oil and gas produced in Florida. AND GAS JAY Fl ELD A L A 8 A M A -r-,----r----1., ( / HOlMEs / ..... (_sANTA ROSA joKAlOOsA! WAlTON j {' j--,l JACKSON (._ G E 0 R G I A .. .._ .. I r--.. r --. .. \ __r--f1-GADSDEN / \ -l-.. ('--, .. --, 1: NASSAU ../ I ( ;,-r HAMilTO \ 1 r" :;::_.,...--'CALHOUN<' 'y'-' lEON I MADISON\.. N 't / e::> I I -' ---.... ) "' [ G BAY J,$' I / ""--il .. J DUVAl J ..... /----._ I ., BAKER ( 1---UBERTY \. -n SUWANNEE' c...O-..; 1::' ( \ WAKUllA I I --' .'-TAYLOR \__" G UlF 1llAFAYffiE. I UNION / ClAY -FRANKliN \ \_ ./ < ;JP I ( 1 ,--\_ .. L ___ / ._.( -----.._ _./'" ( I ,$' \1...---' 6 1 ALACHUA I,_J' __ J PUTNAM ) ---,-.J-I ./ y 1_1 M A II: I 0 N ____ __j '<. '\ VOlUSIA OIRUS \ I I .. J "" ,. '-./'.\,-, __ 1 : t HERNANDO ---=]' I \ ORANGE --I r PAS CO r1 ,off\ \ I .(_ .... T ___ \ I 7 I \ I ?0 rti HlllS801!:0UGH I p 0 l K \ OSCEOlA I 0 I I ., 'I >------j_ T_ + RIVER .... ./ I I --,---\ MANATEE HARDEE 1 \,oKEEGIOREE 1l :-, l __J HIGHLANDS \ ST LUOE I ___ I 0 DE soro I _c-I _,_ _t r:---I OtrCH08 01AII:LOTIE GLADES FLORIDA Scole In Miles OQ :tloO 0 00 oOO <=> -

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HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR FLORIDA Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a very rough basis of comparison) are: Onshore and Offshore Florida RESERVES Oil Gas (billion bbls) (trillion ft.3 ) Sources Peninsula 7.8 13 150 NPC, July, 1970 NPC, July, 1970 Alaska 30 The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska estimates were not so qualified. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY THE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Because of the reiatively late start of the oil industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental problems which resulted from the exploratory and development activities in some of the early oil states. The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a slow but continuous pace of development from the time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field was discovered. NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS For the past two years, the Department of Natural Resources has been involved in the compilation of a very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules and Regulations. Both industry and various conservation groups have made valuable contributions to this code, which should become effective in the first quarter of 1972. These new Rules and Regulations will help to protect Florida's environment and also contribute to a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will also facilitate the systematic accumulation of information to be used by the Executive Board of Government given decision-making responsibilities for the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the propo. sed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida. LEGEND 4R9E R 10 E Permit No. 370 Well Designation ""' LLandE,No.IMillerMill I r z 1-417 434 443 444 450 451 452 453 473 476 Horc-LLond E,No.IStRegis Horc-LLand E, No.I Jones-McDa1Jid I / \" I 1 Horc-LL and E,No.7-l McDavid Lds. A M f>f 'r--1 __ _J L Horc-LLand E,No.9-3 St. Regis t---l /\sAN A R/o p A co. FL03R1 I D At-,z, LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 36-1 I ... LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 37-4 Hare, No.I0-4 Bray Unit 44'[ Horc,No.34-4 McDavid Lands ... lit5jm.1 \-Horc,No. 10-2 Moncrief Unit "'_, c}'_;2 \ \ SE,No.ISt. Regis /di}) ---...... \ 6 15,000 Datum, top of Smackover Formation \ I\ 51D1scoyery Weill \ 0444 ;J 1 \ p 0 -?-Oil well Gas well Shut in well (not producing) Drilling well(incomplete) Plugged and abandoned well Contour interval 200 feet J 15,33 L:.:" 109 _J f-if N l \ 1 \ ) \\ z 10 1-'2":'._-\---1\ __(___j 33 R30W R 29W Jay Area, Flonda. 38 31 R 28W -N-.70 15';185 TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS Discovery Date Southern Florida: 1943 1964 1966 1968 1970 NW Florida (Santa Rosa County): 1970 Oil Field Sunniland Sunoco-Felda West Sunoco-Felda Lake Trafford Lehigh Acres Jay Operator Humble Oil Co. Sun Oil Co. Sun and Humble Mobil Oil Corp. Humble Oil Co. Humble, LL and E, Amerada Hess, Sun et al No. Of Wells 17 20 23 1 2 1970 Production (barrels) 722,534 688,635 1,473,016 25,806 81,542 2,998,352 Cumulative Production as of Aug. 31 1971 (barrels) 13,071,065 5,451,723 3,787,202 63,397 187,574 379,183 8 22,940,144 Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD 12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972. capacity separator plant. An additional A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well 8 Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, was test yield from 4 wells 28 Iii FORECAST Ql! ..... 0 TOTAL DEMA w Ql! Ql! aD 12 IL 0 en 8 z 0 ..... ..... i 4 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 45

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NERGY RESOURCES -----Jim Woodruff Dam --------------------

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ENERGY RESOURCES 1 PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS (WH AT WE HAVE) Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and distributing system. The excess generating capacity of the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak demand. This highly favorable ratio of reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell 40,000 kilowatts. per hour to the F l orida Power Corporation during peak demand hours in the summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility companies operating in southern Florida have less than 1 0 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe level of reserve capacity is 20 percent. The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000 kilowatt hours per hour at load. T his dam and its power gene rating facilities were constructed with federal funds under an R.E .A. program to make power available to rural areas of Leon as well as Gadsden and Wakulla Counties Talquin Electric Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor i n the tri-county area. Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking uni t of this same capac ity to its system next summer. T he munic i pal electric system is connected to the national powe r network, from which it CO)Jid draw reserve energy i n an emergency About a half century ago, the hydro-e l ectric generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this facility went into operation using water from Lake T alquin as outfall energy The rated peak capacity of this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which was intended to furnish enough power to supply the needs of Tallahassee and Quin.;:y until 1970. Much of the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, l ake bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee a lone needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the Jackson Bluff generating system The cessation of the water powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestica lly available energy in L eon County A century ago, all of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by wood o r charcoal, available within the county. Today this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a commercial energy source 48 During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1'971 the City of T allahassee purchased about 20 billion cubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation The municipally owned electric generating plants at St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of Tallahassee requi red about 8 billion cubic feet; the remaining 12 bill i on cubic feet of gas was sold through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000 gallons) of residual fue l oil were used to supplement the fuel requirements of the municipal electric generating system during the year 1971 I n te r ms of energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 1 011 BTU compared to abou t 9.5 x 1 01 1 BTU available from the fue l oil. I f gas were unavai labl e, approx i mately 1.25 million barrels of residual fuel oil wou l d be required to produce t he 765,000,000 k i lowatt hours of elect r icity which were generated by the City of Tallahassee during the past fiscal year SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY I ntrastate Sources: The oil fields of Florida are located in the Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by its gas-oil ratio which r anges f rom 800:1 to 3000:1. This rneans 800 to 3000 cubi c feet of gas are produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. I n terms of energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly 6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry) provides abou t 1 ,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic feet The crude oil at J ay is worth abou t $3.35 per ba r re l and the na t ural gas about 30 cents per thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the 1 :6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing B T U values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas at 56 cents, o r nearly double the actual well head price The fie l d allowables will probab l y be fixed at 1000 bar rels per well per day at Jay plus 1 ,000,000 cubic feet of associated gas. T he gas furnishes reservoir energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent possible. I t seems probable that Jay Field will produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000 HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HVDROCARBONS1 AND NUCLEAR FISSION I. G E 0 WOODRU F F DA M JACKSON 30 \ ) > I ( L_c, <" G ADS DEN .::::> / I 0 ), L_l_ ) -....../ <:::[ I {__ r u L B E R T y --lr ...... W A K U ..,lQ.... line and Substat i ons. Superscript ind i cates line capacity in 3 0 Elect ric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in kilowatt hours/hour. R G --T / / I L L A A L E 0 N r---I I 0 (f) a:: I w STJ lL lL w ...., "1

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MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22 billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but considerably less than the growing demand for gas in this one medium-sized city (71 ,763 persons at last census). There is no other gas produced in commercial quantities in the State of Florida at present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1, which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a sustained basis. The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons). Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6 million barrels per year. This would suffice to power the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at present generating rates. The average yield in the United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field production would provide about 71 million gallons of kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and had a static population. During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The United States requires nearly 5 times this amount every day (about 3 gallons per capita daily). At this rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County farm center which is located near the hub of oil production in the Sunniland trend. FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS The most important factors affecting future energy requirements are growth rates in population and in the gross national product. Environmental considerations, comparative costs of fuel and convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on the order of 3:1, due to thermal ineffir.iencv of power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage would require rationing the consumption of petroleum and natural gas among higher quality 1,1ses. Electricity must be generated by coal, water power and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of June 4. 1971. President Nixon directed new standards of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes. This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as cooling, by as much as one-third. The growth rate for Tallahassee during the decade of the sixties was 49 percent, nearly 4 times the national average of 13.3 percent. If, during the next two decades Tallahassee's population continues to grow as forecast, it will attain 160,000 by 1990, more than double the present population. Even if there were no increase in the per capita rate of energy consumption, which is not the case, our requirements for energy would double in less than 20 years. Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the rest of the nation. In fact our population increase due to the net gain in births-over-deaths in the sixties was a modest 1 0.0 percent, as compared to the national average of 11.7 percent. On the other hand, Florida had a net in migration of 1.3 million during the past decade, wheras the total national immigration was only 3 million, or slightly more than double that of our state alone The per capita consumption of electricity doubles every 9 years in Florida as compared to the national doubling rate of 10 years. The projected peak demand for electricity in Tallahassee by 1990 will, therefore, be 8.5 times the peak consumption rate of 1 971, which was 175,000 kilowatt hours per hour. We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5 million kilowatt hours per hour (equal to 1500 million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990, the Tallahassee municipal generating system will require the energy equivalent of 10. 5 million barrels of residual fuel oil. During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969, gasoline consumption in the United States increased from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The consumption of gasoline in Florida during this interval rose from 782 million to more than 3 billion gallons, nearly 384 percent Florida's population increase was 4.3 times the national average during this period, while our gasoline consumption only increased 2.8 times the national average. This may indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively immobile, once they get here. The reduced rate of increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians, compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in otherwise gloomy statistics 49

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SOURCES OF FUEL REQU I REMENTS OF THE FUTURE Intrastate Petroleum Supply: At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in 1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although production from this field will have declined by 1990, it is probabl e that other large oil fields will be discovered in the same producing trend of northwest Florida. There is however, little likelihood that Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum in that half of the Florida platform which is submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of Mexico are rather good DomesHc And Imported Petroleum Supply The United States demand for petroleum products is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per day. This demand will double by 1990 The U.S. is now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its petroleum needs More than half of these imports, which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in industry including electric power generating plants. Canada and Venezuela together provided more than 60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all of the imported residual fuel oil originated in Venezuela and the Caribbean region Unfortunately, Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish another hundred million barrels a year to us if required, while our own reserve capacity totals 365,000,000 barrels annually The two together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion barrels of petroleum we consume In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply declines and our imports rise we must rely increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83 percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies are located. Western Europe now obtains more than 60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the supply lines are cut by wa r or insurrection we shall have to furn ish oil to our NATO allies. We could send them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed. Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should be developed now. Our pipe line and refinery patterns and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of months or years-it would require decades to redesign and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion gallons plus per day we need at present. Intrastate Sources of Uranium: The phosphate deposits of Florida contain associated uranium which should be recovered during phosphate processing In a 1969 report prepared for I and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern United States," the following paragraph is quoted from page 65: "An amazing quantity of uranium is being wasted each year during current mining operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the phosphate pebble and other phosphate minerals mined are included, the uranium wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3 08 per year of which approximately 2000 tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate that economic pressures should destroy such a precious resource." Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs. population increase (doubling time 18 years) 1970 1980 30.0 105.0 1990 2000 2010

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The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annua-lly in Florida is recoverable rests on variation in method of processing phosphate ore Of the 30 million tons processed in Florida annually, about 1/3 is converted to phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet process method is employed. The uranium oxide reserves of t,he free world are estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a price of $8 to $1 0 per pound, with an additional 1.4 million tons recoverable at a price between $10-$15 per pound. It is further estimated the free world requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons by the end of the century. In view of the fact that uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per poynd and considering that the free world supply available at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30 years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The argument that this is in response to economic necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in the early part of the present century is unfounded. The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates the uranium should be extracted concurrently with phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments, if needed. The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in Florida represents one fifth the entire free world supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium oxide is worth 15 billion dollars. Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants in operation by the end of 1972. The combined output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3 million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated nuclear powered generating plants in the United States will have a combined capacity of about 160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3 kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000 Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil. Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil would be required to generate the same amount of power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235. As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5 million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990 In lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of uranium oxide could be processed to yield the necessary 3600 lbs of U235. That is one-eighth the amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder reactors are commercially available and U238 can be converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy available from uranium oxide will be increased 140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is more than a thousand times the electricity requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990. At full load, 440 gal./ minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system shown in foreground. Arvah B. 51

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LAND U S E URBAN OPEN SPACE -=---MINERAL RESOURCES AGR ICUL lURE RECREATION

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PRESENT LAND USE Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the geology and physiography of the area. Rapid suburban development is spreading northward into the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is less desirable physically and consequently less expensive Certain attributes of the land have been important in the selection of institutional sites Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the physical characteristics of the land such as soil type and topography. The designation of recreational areas is also dependent on the physical setting Water bodies, forests and rolling h i lls are the natural assets of the Tallahassee area recreational lands A clear understanding of the geology and physiography of the area is essential to optimum land development. When environmental factors are not considered as an integral phase of planning, problems arise. Construction problems related to physical conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a basis for land development. The des i rability of a land area for a particular use may be evident to the casual observer, but the suitability of the land for that use must be determined by environmental study. 54 URBAN Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large portion of the land within the study area and centers around major highway intersections. The Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles of residential, industrial and commercial properties. The limited industrial areas are located in the south and west sections of town in proximity to transportation facilities. SUBURBAN Large suburban areas are found north and east of the City. Three recent residential developments include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further suburban growth in that area INSTITUTIONAL One of the notable features of Tallahassee is the preponderance of institutional land use. Two state universities, a community college and various state buildings give a distinct character to the city. A correctional institute is found east of urban Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification generally accompany institutional use. WOODLANDS Much of the total surface area is taken up by natural and planted woodlands. These include pine flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines. RECREATIONAL Recreational lands within the area include part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat landings. AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES Agricultural land uses include horse farms, dairy farms, pasture land, etc The remainder of the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp. D D D D

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FUTURE LAND USE TALLAHASSEE AREA INTERIM LAND USE PLAN. 1971-199 5 As the population of Tallahassee grows and urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural areas competition for space will require efficient land use planning. The populace will need more land for work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the wastes they generate. Compatible coexistence between urban spread and the physical environment will require that those responsible for future land use planning will need basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is directed toward presenting basic facts about the physical environment of the area which will aid in p l anning for future urban spread. Th i s work is not to be considered as the ultimate or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings together at this moment in time the most accurate data available As additional data becomes available through research t he picture will become more definitive and for this reason, environmental geo l ogical studies of this nature should be continuously used for the improvement of our envi ronment. EXPLANATION D CITY LIMITS URBAN AREA D RESIDENTIAL RECREATIONAL D TRANSPORTATION COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL D INSTITUTIONAL D UNDEVELOPED Orchard &}Pond 55

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GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Solid-Waste Disposal should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be placed in areas where earth material underlying the site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These relatively i mpervious earth materials retard the downward movement of leachate and ideally wou l d remove the contaminants by filtr ation and adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30 feet of relatively impervious earth material should be present below the base of the landfill. A. Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions. CJ No physical obstructions nor preempted regions. Rapid -Moderate Moderately Slow B. Soil permeab i lities. The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming more acu t e as the population increases In a sur v ey of solid-waste practices i n Florida i t is shown that presently Floridians are generating over five million tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary landfill s will be needed to accomodate this incr ease and the selection of proper sites is an important factor in the disposal problem. The Ameri can Society of Civil Enginee r s defines the Sanitary Landfill as : "A method of disposing of r efuse on l and without creating nuisances o r hazards to public health or safety by utilizing the p rin ciples of engineering to confine the refuse t o the smalles t practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practica l volume, and to cover it w ith a l ayer of earth at the conclusion of each day's ope r ation, or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary." The following are areas that should be avoided for sanitary landfill sites: ( 1) Areas that are underlain by sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3) Sinkholes because of the possibility of the contaminants moving throug h solution cav1t1es directly into groundwater systems; (4)Siopes that are too steep for stabi l ization or that are subject to surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by l imestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the direction and rate of groundwater movement in such material may not be readily determined. The following set of crheria issuggestedasaguide As rainwater passes through the refuse in the l andfill, chemica l s derived from the decomposing material are taken into so l ution thus creating 'leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater and surrounding surface water. Also, in l andfills where refusE; is placed below the water table or is subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the solid waste will produce l eachate. Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium) and hardness." To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors 56 The greater the depth to the water table below the base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It is also suggested that sites should be several miles down gradient from areas where there are large withdrawals of groundwater. To redu ce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the sanitary l andfill, a fine-grained earth material should be compacted and used as a. cover. However, if the fine-grained material i s predominantly clay it may be difficult to work when wet. A l so it may crack excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to enter the landfill. in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary l andfill site in the Tallahassee area. 1 The bottom of the landfill site should be underlain by at least 30' of clay or other low permeable material. 2 The site area should not be prone to flooding. 3. The water table should be 30 feet below land surface. 4. The site area should not display s i nkholes or other karst features that may indicate the underlying limestone is highly permeable. 5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains should be avoided. 6. Site areas should be at least several miles down gradient from large withdrawals of ground water. + + + + Shows e le vation to which water will rise i n wells Floridan aquifer. Contour in terval 10 fHt. Datum is mean ..,a level. + LEON COUNTY FLORIDA + G 0 + + C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer G I A +

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D. Geologic map. The land-use map showing potential sanitary landfill sites in this publication was compiled using these criteria However, it is presented only as a preliminary guide for planning sites; the map does not show the exact character of the geologic (earth) materials overlying the bedrock, nor the precise groundwater condition s Each potential sanitary landf ill s ite should be investigated and evaluated before be i ng put into operation. It should be pointed out the position of the water table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated. However, in the northern half of Leon County, discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In the southern part of Leon County the water table is essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer. Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Suwannee Limestone iiif.lli!ifjjj!j Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations on larger map. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth mate ng bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and not currently used for residential, commercial, industrial or recreational purposes Provided no high water table is encountered the pollution potential of water supplies in these areas is probably low. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth material overlymg bedrock; gentle slopes and other favorable criteria. However, because of the flow pattern of the groundwater toward areas of large withdrawals from the aquifer and the chance of a high water table the pollution potential of water supplies should be considered lllfl Area may have 30 feet or more of permeable to very ....., .... ..._..., __ I i g h t I y impermeable earth material overlying bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes, and not currently used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. However, because of the possible permeable nature of the earth material the pollution potential of the water supplies should be considered. D Pollution potential of water supplies in area is high because of steep slopes, swamps, sink holes and places that have less than 30 feet of earth material overlying the bedrock. It also has portions that are prone to flood. Also, some of the area is currently being used or will be used for residential, commercial, industrial and recreational purposes. + ..... 0.J=I ='=='=='===f : M 1 L E Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. = 57

PAGE 57

L ess than 1% 58 GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Construction In preparing a land-use plan for general construction, factors such as slope, subsurface geology, and so i l conditions should be considered. Stream flood plains and topographically low areas should be avoided, as they may have a high fluctuating water table and may be subject to periodic flooding. The earth materials occurring in the topographically high areas are composed of heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands (Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable as construction sites. However, perched water tables occur l ocally; so subsurface investigations should be conducted for larger buildings. The Hawthor n Formation contains bedded clays t ha t are plastic and will swell upon wetting T he cycl i c swelling and sh r inking of these clays during dry [ill] 1 to 4% A. Slopes Greater than 4% and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable foundation conditions When saturated with water the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are recommended before building in these areas. In the southern portion of the area, porous sands overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole act1v1ty. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor frequently formed, those planning to use this area should be aware that such conditions may exist I n much of the area, the slopes a r e mode rate to gentle and offer no particular problem to constructi on. H owever, a l ong some valley walls the slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn Form ation are present slu mping as well as s l iding may occur Flood Prone Areas B Flood Prone Map C Geol o gic M a p D. Soil Associations tC:O Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Pleistocene sands an d cla y s covering formations o n l arge r map L akeland-Eustis soils N o rfolk-Ruston Orangeburg s oils Plummer-Rutledge soils L eaf-1 zagor a s oils B arth s oils m Magno liaF a ceville -Carn eg i e so ils

PAGE 58

I a PLEISTOCENE Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less than one to four percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and some flooding occurs in low flat.areas. Sinkholes are numerous and may occur i11 the area. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays. Generally earth materials in this area present very few foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are present in the area Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that are almost level. HAWTHORN FORMATION Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent. Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may be detrimental to foundations. Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However, flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains. Construction suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D.

PAGE 59

Natural forces have been continually changing and modifying the face of the earth for billions of years. Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's surface and we see the manifestation of these changes in the natural beauties all about us. The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these wonders of nature that have been focal points for recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills) and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of an ancient highland that has been partitioned by erosion occurring over thousahds of years. This beautiful hill and valley topography provides excellent sites for the golf courses found in the Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of the underlying limestone over a period of thousands of years and provide people of the area, as well as many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports. McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of the lake South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two areas. A portion of the plain I ies almost entirely within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest. It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing many densely wooded swamps. The nature of the region and the occupational restrictions imposed by the U.S Forest Service has 60 RECREATION left the area essentially in its natural state. Several camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S. Forest Service for recreational use. Joining the above area on the east is the other portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are popular with swimmers and scuba divers. Several recreational areas are developed around the many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake Bradford provides water-oriented recreational facilities for the residents who live around the lake, for Florida State University students (at a University camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National Forest where recreational facilities for camping, swimming, and fishing are made available to the public by the U.S. Forest Service The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a valley along the western side of Leon County. Many boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee R i ver and many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing in the river Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies a portion of the broad valley carved out by the Ochlockonee River Lake Talquin plays a major role in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private boat landings found along its shore provide citizens access to some excellent fishing are:is ,.,... = = =..: z + z + z + + !I R5W + + R3W + R2W + Rl W + "" + R2E + "" G E 0 R G I A z + z + z 't;l:ll!!!!l:.:WJ"'-=-=-=-=-:::--j--------.. + I I : 0 I I I I I I 1 I I _, _________ :-----------1 I I 0 I I I I I 1 : __ j ____________ j ____________ .L __________ WAKU L L A R5W + R4W + R3W + The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the southern portion of Leon County, is an area of natural beauty. The river is much wi
PAGE 60

REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Hendry, C.W Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Kiplinger 1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by localities : Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, Florida City of 1971 Capital City of Florida, University City County Seat of Leon County, Regional Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept TOPOGRAPHY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R ) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida : Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Hughes, G.H. 1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida: Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of lnv. 48, 25 p. U.S Department of Agriculture 1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. lnf. Bull. 243, p. 5. U S Geological Survey 1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p. GEOLOGY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. U.S .. Department of. Agriculture 1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No.5. Soil survey, Leon County: -Unpublished report. WATER RESOURCES Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol Survey Bull. 47,178 p. MINERAL RESOURCES Babcock, Clarence 1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. I nf. Circ. 65, 40 p. Chen, Chih Shan 1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida: Fla. Bur of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p. Downs, Matthews 1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p. Flawn, P.T. 1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co ., 406 p. 1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning and Resource management : Harper and Row, 313 p. Foss, R.E 1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications) : Our Sun, summer, 1969, 2 p. Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.l Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105. National Petroleum Council 1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p. Oil and Gas Journal 1971 U.S. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32 Oil and Gas Journal 1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years : Oil and Gas Jour., October 4, 1971, p 77. Park, C F., Jr. 1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy: Freeman, Cooper and Co ., 368 p. Puri, H .S. 1964 (and Vernon, R O ) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p. Sweeney, J. W. 1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral Yearbook, 1969, 14 p. The Council of State Governments 1964 Surface mining -ex tent and economic importance, impact on natural resources, and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on Surface Mining, p. 3 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. Ill: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67, 207-231. ENERGY RESOURCES American Gas Association, Inc. et. al. 1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gas-liquids, and natural gas in the United States and Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25, May, 1971, 256 p. American Petroleum Institute 1971 Petroleum facts and figures : 604 p National Academy of Sciences National Research Council 1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p. Scientific American 1971 Energy and power: Sci. Am. vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971, 246 p U.S Atomic Energy Commission 1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate Nuclear Board, 230 p. U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Offi ce, 3084 p. LAND USE American Society of Civil Engineers 1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. Cartwright, Keres 1969 (and Sherman, F.B ) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geology Note 27. 15 p. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan Div. of Health Hendry, C. W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p Hughes, G .M. 1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geo l ogy note 17, 26 p. Landon, R.A. 1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p 9-13. McHarg, I.L. 1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p. Moser, P H. 1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1, p. 68-70. Stewart, J W 1970 (and Hanan, R. V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur. of Geol., Map Series no. 32. Sorg, T J. 1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts : U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Serv ice no. 1792, 30 p. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 6 1


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013469/00001
 Material Information
Title: Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee area, Florida
Physical Description: iii, 61 p. illus., col. maps 27 x 43 cm
Language: English
Creator: Florida Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Tallahassee, FL pub. for the Florida Geological Survey
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: geology
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:
 Notes
General Note: Series: Florida Geological Survey. Special publication; no. 16
General Note: Subjects: Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Geology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Hydrology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps.
General Note: Added Entries: Yon, J. W., Jr.; Vernon, R. O.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Puri, H. S.; Wright, A. P.
General Note: Series added entries: Special publication (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;--no. 16.
General Note: http://publicfiles.dep.state.fl.us/FGS/FGS%5FPublications/SP/SP16EnviroGlyHydrolTallahassee1972
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID: AA00013469:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013469/00001
 Material Information
Title: Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee area, Florida
Physical Description: iii, 61 p. illus., col. maps 27 x 43 cm
Language: English
Creator: Florida Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Tallahassee, FL pub. for the Florida Geological Survey
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: geology
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:
 Notes
General Note: Series: Florida Geological Survey. Special publication; no. 16
General Note: Subjects: Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Geology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Hydrology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps.
General Note: Added Entries: Yon, J. W., Jr.; Vernon, R. O.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Puri, H. S.; Wright, A. P.
General Note: Series added entries: Special publication (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;--no. 16.
General Note: http://publicfiles.dep.state.fl.us/FGS/FGS%5FPublications/SP/SP16EnviroGlyHydrolTallahassee1972
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID: AA00013469:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Topography
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Geology
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Water resources
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Mineral resources
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Energy resources
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Land use
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    References
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MENTAL


GEOLOGY


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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert 0. Vernon, Director





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16





ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY
TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA






Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1972










CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS,J.W. Yon,Jr. ....................... ii

INTRODUCTION,R.O. Vernon ........................... 1
Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr. . . . 2
Transportation, H.S. Puri . .. . .. . . 3

TOPOGRAPHY
Topography and man, J. P. May .... ................... 6
Topography of Tallahassee area, J.P.May . . . . . 7
Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. . . . . . 11

GEOLOGY
General geology,C.W. Hendry, Jr. ........................ 14
Geologic structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. . . . . . 16
Soil associations, J.W. Yon, Jr. .......................... 17
Soil permeability, J.W. Yon, Jr. ......................... 18
Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham . . . 19

WATER RESOURCES ................................ 22
W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau,
R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone

Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida
Department of Natural Resources

MINERAL RESOURCES
Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons . 40
Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons . . . . 41
Oil and gas,C. V. Babcock ............................ 44

ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission,
W.R. Oglesby ................................... 48

LAND USE
Present land use, A.P. Wright ........................... 54
Future land use, J.W. Yon, Jr. .......................... 55
Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. . ... 56
Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. . . . 58
Recreation, H.S. Puri ............................... 60

REFERENCES .. ...... .. ........ .. .... ... .. ... ... 61



















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior
Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making
this publication possible.

The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are
gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in
compiling and producing this publication.

Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring
efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made
toward making this report a reality.

Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey
and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of
this publication.

Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director,
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on
population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area.

The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is
expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar
Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of
Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr.
John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John
Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines.

Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project.

Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help
and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology
and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this
publication.















Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
in cooperation with the
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Published by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES






PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr.

BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr.
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale

PRODUCTION:
Supervisors J. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr.
Editors W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr.
Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker
Drafting D. E. Beatty, D. P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle
Art D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead
Text Composition J. D. Woodard
Printing S. L. Murphy







ENVIRONMENTAL


GEOLOGY


AND


HYDROLOGY






TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA



INTRODUCTION


Florida has the purest water, the freshest of
breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources,
largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the
same time, it has the highest growth rate in the
continental United States. The demand to clean our
environment meets head-on with the need for raw
mineral resources.

Some citizens have forgotten, or have never
known, that man is part of the evolutional sequence
and competition between species is fierce and will
continue the rapid expansion of the human species
drains the energies from many other species, uses up
their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to
reproduce, to feed and exist. Species will continue to
be endangered and will disappear, as man continues
to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own
passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste
and failure to purge our environments of unneeded
and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes. Man, our
most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted
his need for, and use of, raw mineral products
virtually to exhaust his requirements for the
aesthetics of environmental quality.
Earth scientists must provide the means and the
forum necessary to express the greater need for
mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries
for utilizing these and provide the knowledge
necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of
disturbed lands.
Our forests, through wise and efficient
management, are renewable within time limitations.
Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but
only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short
sightedness. Not so our mineral resources; the supply


is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life
until technology bridges, the ultimate gaps by
providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply
will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing
our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning
will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and
make economic wastes recoverable.

A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy
finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was
not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to
have been nurtured by Mother Nature herself as she
readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Time,
demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far
exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a
supply of raw resources'with an opposing demand for
a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now
becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap.

The basic framework for obtaining this balance
must be: (1) complete and systematic recovery of the
known mineral resources; (2) multiple simultaneous
and/or sequential land use where. possible; (3)
adequate planning with consideration for all
resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive
and extensive exploratory work to uncover new
reserves; (5) design of plants, mines, etc., with a
smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended
production life; and finally, (6) an honest awareness
of the total effect of our endeavors on our
environment.

These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they
violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are
simple challenges which spur us to new heights of
achievement.







POPULATION


INCREASE


AND


URBAN


Tallahassee has been in the process of changing
from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since
1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of
Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since
World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has
kept pace with that of Florida as a whole. From 1950
to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from
27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth rate of the
area is influenced by the growth of the principal
employers; state government and the two state
universities. Although the industrial base of
Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the
growth rate as has that of the principal employers, it
is nevertheless important. Some of the major firms
include Vindale Corporation, the Elberta Crate
Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose
Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The
growth in population is reflected by the expansion of
the incorporated area of Tallahassee. In 1952 the
existing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has
expanded to 26.14 square miles. Although predicting
future population is risky because of unknown
variables the planners of the Tallahassee-Leon County
Planning Department predict that Tallahassee will
continue to grow. They estimate that by assuming a
3.74% annual increase the projected population of
Tallahassee in 1990 will be 160,600 persons.
The rapid increase in population, urban spread,
coupled with the expected increase in industry
creates the need for environmental geologic and
hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use
planning.


SPREAD


--9


--1960
D-1970

E1980


Prepared by the
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department


m4










TRANSPORTATION


The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern
United States in the northwestern portion of Florida
which is commonly referred to as the "big bend"
area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail,
land and air transportation which places it in the
position of being able to serve not only other areas of
Florida, but many parts of the South.

The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over
the past two decades has increased the need for better
facilities to transport people and the commercial
traffic needed to support the populace.
Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the
transportation facilities of the area are continually
studied and improved to meet this need.

AIRLINES

The Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on
April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee,
provides the necessary modern facilities for handling
air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and
a 4,100-foot runway capable of handling most types
of aircraft.

Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern,
National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern
Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the
north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg,
Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West
Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting
flights to 107 cities in six countries. The National
Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily
flights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City,
Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee
and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout
much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and
out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for
air transportation.

HIGHWAYS

Highways are significant in the development of an
area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with
a network of excellent highways. U.S. Highways 90


and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to
southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county
from north to south. All of these highways place
Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring
many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important
routes for commercial traffic entering the area.
Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon
completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far
west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20
serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and
carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The
many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide
excellent transportation facilities within the county.

RAILROADS

Railroads have always been vital to development of
an area and the completion of the Pensacola and
Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in
1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and
development of the Tallahassee area.

Presently the City of Tallahassee is served by the
Seaboard Coastline Railroad. The railroad forms an
important connecting link in freight service
northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into
Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile,
Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight
from Tallahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea
port, and Pensacola, another port with shipping
facilities, in two days.

Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight
are given in the following table:


TYPE OF CARRIER

Air Freight
Rail Freight (rock products)
Motor Freight


AVERAGE COST

$130.00
2.15
10.25


Mobile

J#







TOPOGRAPHY











TOPOGRAPHY


AND




Topography can be defined as "the shape of the
land surface". The effect of topography on the life
and development of man, as well as that of lower
forms of life, has been great. The existence and
position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans
have formed natural boundaries within which man
has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on
the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for
agriculture, and defensability of the settlement
against intruders . all intimately affected by
topography.

Even today we must consider topography in
planning for cultural development. The choice of a
farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport
runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a
recreation area . the topography must be
considered in the planning of such projects. The
ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led
to disastrous results due to flooding, erosion and
deposition, subsidence and slides.

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to
scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made
features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an
expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a
distance on the actual ground surface (for example
1:24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic
form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles.
The actual distance between two points on the map
can be determined by comparison of the map
distance to the graphic scale.

A topographic map differs from the common
geographic map in that its purpose is to show the
shape of the land surface: the topography. This type
of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys,
and other topographic features. Furthermore, the
elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of
surface slope can be determined at any point on the
map.

The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional
feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet
of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A
6


MAN



contour line is an imaginary line that connects points
of equal elevation. The accompanying figure
illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features
they describe. These lines are formed by the
intersection of the land surface by imaginary,
horizontal planes at given elevations. Imagine a set of
transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level
(zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one
below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the
right in the figure, and that these planes are capable
of slicing right through the hill at their respective
elevations. The marks left on the land surface by
these intersections would coincide with the contour
lines shown on the topographic map just below the
sketch of the hill.

The contour interval is the vertical difference
between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the
horizontal planes they represent). In the example
above, the contour interval was 20 feet.

A few of the characteristics of contour lines are
worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map
never cross each other and coincide only when
vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when
a contour line crosses a stream valley always points
upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one
could walk along a given contour line, he would
eventually end up at the point from which he started.

The elevation at any point on the map is
determined by noting the values of the two adjacent
contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the
point based on the relative distances from it to the
adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the
sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60
foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be
50 feet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100
foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its
elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point C is on top of the
hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next
higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill
doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation
of the point can only be estimated . 290 feet
would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of
the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and
is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X".


Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to
horizontal distance and can be expressed as a
percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one
foot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we
have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. If we
climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we
have a slope of 20:100 (or 1:5) or 20 percent. The
slope can be determined from the topographic map
by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal
distance between two contour lines. For example, the
slope through point B is determined as follows:


(1) the contour interval is 20 feet,
(2) the minimum distance from the 100
foot line to the 120 foot line through
point B is about 1,000 feet (from the
graphic scale), 20
(3) the slope is 1,000 2:100 or 2 percent.


Note that gentle
widely-spaced contour
closely-spaced contour


slopes are indicated by
lines and steep slopes by
lines.


*Modified from U.S. Geological Survey, 1969.







TOPOGRAPHY


OF


TALLAHASSEE


AREA


The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is
shown on the accompanying index map and includes
four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon
County, north-central Florida:

1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle (1963)
2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963)
3. Tallahassee Quadrangle (1972)
4. Lafayette Quadrangle (1954)

This includes an area of approximately 240 square
miles. The elevations (above sea level) range from
about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the
south.

Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the
Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic
province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an
east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles
southward from the Georgia line, westward to the
Apalachicola River, and eastward to the
Withlacoochee River. This topographic province
generally consists of rolling hills with
gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevations of
200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills
above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet.

The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed
generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several
tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of
fine with coarse grained material commonly results in
a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes
surface drainage of rainwater. Because of the
permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this
surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in
the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the
region. The only permanent surface stream in the
Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest
portion.

The southern one-third of the Tallahassee
Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of
the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terrain and
lower elevations than that to the north described
above. This area belongs to the topographic province
called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in
greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee
Quadrangle.


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UNITED STATES
' DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STATE OF FLORIDA


TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE
FLORIDA-LEON CO
7.5 MINUTE SERIES (TOPORAPHIC)


TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE
TALLAHASSEE AREA

Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic
quadrangles are given below. More detailed
information regarding topography, geology, and
additional references can be found in Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 (1966).

The accompanying maps are photographic
reductions of the original 1:24,000-scale topographic
maps prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey,
Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State
of Florida.

LAKE JACKSON QUADRANGLE (1963)

As implied by the name, this quadrangle is
dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly
extensions Carr Lake and Mallard Pond. This broad,
shallow lake responds actively to rainfall variation. It
was essentially dry as recently as 1957 following
three successive years of below normal rainfall and
reached an all-time high in 1966 following three years
of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this
area is into Lake Jackson or its tributaries.

Because of the low permeability of the clayey soils
occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff.
The valley bottoms generally connect with subsurface
drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually
enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in
this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with a
subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are
gentle-to-moderate and local relief is 100 to 150 feet.
The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle
is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent
surface stream in the area.

BRADFORDVILLE QUADRANGLE (1963)

The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle
consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate
slopes. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet


and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major
surface drainage lines are to the north into" Lake
lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake
Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the
south). The divide between these two drainage
systems runs east-west across the central part of the
map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly
promotes local surface runoff of rainwater. However,
subsurface drainage through the underlying
permeable limestones dominates most of the time.

TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970)

The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into
two parts based on the character of the topography.
The northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls
within the Tallahassee Hills topographic province and
the southern one-third lies in the Coastal Lowlands
topographic province.

The northern portion consists of rolling hills with
gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hilltop elevations range
from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations
are about 50 feet.

The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet
thick, and overlie permeable limestone. The clayey
soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes
which generally becomes subsurface through the
permeable valley bottoms.

The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle
lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is
much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are
about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about
30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area,
known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee
Hills region to the north. The soils are generally
sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of
rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet
weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is
thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small
sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These
conditions cause the area to be well-drained.


- I-


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Mapped edted, and pubhshed by the Geological Su-vey
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H.E ROAD CLASSIFICATION *"%
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TALLAHASSEE, FLA.
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UNITED STATES LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FLORIDA-LEON CO.




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40' Mapped, edited, and published by the Geologcal Suey
U-ke 1951. TOsrp uY nana fluy 19531954
0 ofiicwi~a 97H~ manSli
PAS.000.lo 25 5525 5m on And 25251i We,


LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954)

The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the
Tallahassee Hills topographic province, except for the
extreme southern part, which includes the
escarpment leading down to the surface of the
Coastal Lowlands province to the south. The upland
area is divided into a north and south portion by the
east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater
tributary of the St. Marks River, that is more swamp
than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake
Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils
are clayey with drainage characteristics like those
described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations
range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at
about 40 to 50 feet. Local hillslopes are
gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to
the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal
Lowlands.


SCALE 1 2400
_ __ ^J


ROAD CLASSFIATION


LAFAYETTE, FLA.
1954







SLOPES



TALLAHASSEE AREA



Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of
the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several
ways but all of them depend on the comparison of
the vertical distance (difference in elevation between
two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal
distance between two points). The slopes of the area
covered in this report are expressed in per cent.


Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Bulletin No. 243.


Slopes of less than one percent cover
approximately 19.50 percent of the land
surface. These areas are generally associated
with streams and their flood plains. Land
use in this area is somewhat restricted
because of the possibility of periodic
flooding.


About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes
of one to four percent and represent the
tops of hills or areas separating stream
valleys from areas with steeper slopes.
Generally these slopes impose no severe
restraints to land use.



Slopes greater than four percent cover
approximately 55.50 percent of the land
surface. In this area gently rolling
topography predominates and except for
some areas along drainage ways where the
slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent
restraints for land use imposed by slope
should be at a minimum.


. .. 1MILE


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GEOLOG



















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GENERAL


GEOLOGY


This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found
in Florida, up to 120 feet. It is part of a larger area
known as the Tallahassee Hills.

The surface is formed on an ancient
Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected
by streams and further modified by dissolution of
sub-surface limestones. The highest hills are
comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about
260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the
hills give the overall appearance of mature
topography, resulting from a long period of
weathering.




W 30
W
.J
-ii

(1) 20
MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped aft
by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. 2 ff
w

HAWTHORN FORMATION. Cropping out in areas where the 10
Miccosukee has been removed through erosion are the sands and clays 0
of the Hawthorn, which serve as a confining sequence on top of the -J
main artesian aquifer. W


ST. MARKS FORMATION. Forms the main sequence of beds within
the principal artesian system which supplies large amounts of ground
water in this area.


SUWANNEE LIMESTONE. Forms the main sequence of beds within
the principal artesian system which supplies large amounts of ground
water in this area.



CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION. This and all underlying formations
are present only in the subsurface strata of this area. The Crystal River
is composed of a micro-fossiliferous, highly porous limestone, and very
dense, crystalline dolomite. (Micro-fossils are the petrified skeletal
remains of tiny organisms).


0
m


ma. 100-



z
0 200
a-f



300-


The hills are composed of a heterogeneous mixture
ot yellowish orange clays, silts and sands that are
weakly cemented. In roadcuts and excavations, these
earth materials resist erosion for years and may be
seen standing in nearly vertical cuts.

Within the report area, there is one large lake basin
(Lake Jackson Basin) and portions of two others
(Lake lamonia and Lake Lafayette); besides these,
there are numerous smaller lake basins.

The most striking comparative feature of the lakes
is that the larger ones are shallow, whereas the smaller
ones are deep. An explanation of this is found in'the
geologic literature of Florida. In each case, the
A


underlying limestone has been dissolved away with
subsequent lowering of the land surface to form a
basin.

Underlying the surface sands and clays is a thick
sequence of essentially flat strata composed of
limestones and dolomites.

The upper sands and silts are suitable for
construction with little foundation preparation.
However, where large structures are planned the
subsurface must be investigated for the presence of
clays and special foundation provisions made if clays
are present. The underlying limestone section serves
as an excellent aquifer, providing large quantities of
pure water for municipal and industrial use.


A A'


PLEISTOCENE


+100


--300


I


-100








































I I


The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and
cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These
deposits cap the higher hills.




The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand,
phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and
clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this
unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The
sand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material.


The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay
impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the
upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water
producing unit.



The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous,
granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In
this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is
the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied.


Pleistocene sands and clays covering
formations shown on larger map are
depicted in yellow.


MILE






















Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock
layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An
understanding of the geologic structure of an area is
essential to the interpretation of surface geologic
features, as well as the subsurface. Such
understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds
known to contain mineral deposits.
Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are
uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less
than one degree. The accompanying structure map
drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the
slight regional slope of the earth material but the
irregular surface caused by dissolution of the
subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating
groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the
solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land
use planning.


32- 30


27'30


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Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet,
referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet.


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GEOLOGIC


STRUCTURE


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SOIL




ASSOCIATIONS

Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from
which they develop. Their characteristics depend
upon climate, parent material, organisms, topography
and time. Soils are important in man's environment
and should be carefully evaluated prior to
construction of homes, highways, airports and dams.

According to the Soil Conservation Service soil
series consist of two or more soil types that resemble
each other in most of their physical characteristics,
thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S.
Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of
soils into soil associations which are shown on the
General Soil Maps of Leon and Gadsden counties.
However, only the soil associations which fall within
the limits of the area of investigation are shown on
the accompanying soils map.


The Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of level
to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat
excessively drained soils with more than
42 inches sandy surface soil.
The Lakeland shallow-Eustis
shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or
gently sloping. They consist of strongly
acid, somewhat escessively drained soils
with more than 30 inches sandy surface
soil, interspersed with areas of well
drained soils with less than 30 inches to
sandy clay loam subsoil.
The Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are
nearly level or gently sloping, well
drained sandy soils With less than 30
inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They
are dissected by well formed stream
pattern with short steeper slopes
adjacent to stream.


i. I


The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are
well drained, nearly level, sloping, acid
soils with loamy sand or sandy loam
surface soils less than 30 inches thick
and well aerated sandy clay loam or
sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with
lighter textured, well drained soils and
narrow wet stream bottoms.


Leaf-lzagora soils are well to poorly
drained and occur on nearly level stream
terraces. The surface layers are
predominantly fine sand to very fine
sandy loam.
Blanton-Klej-Plummer soils are nearly
level moderately well and poorly
drained. They contain sandy surface
layers, more than 30 inches thick and are
gently sloping.
The Barth soils are nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well to somewhat
poorly drained river terrace soils with
more than 30 inches sandy surface soil,
interspersed with small well and poorly
drained deep sands and small swampy
areas.
The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly
level. They consist of strongly acid,
poorly to very poorly drained soils with
more than 30 inches sandy surface soil,
interspersed with occasional small
moderately well and somewhat poorly
drained areas and swamps.


-4- ________ 'PIlE









YII
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The Blanton-Klej soils are nearly level
and gently sloping, moderately well
drained, strongly acid soils with more
than 30 inches sandy surface soil,
interspersed with swampy areas. -


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SOIL



PERMEABILITY

The permeability* of the soil influences the rate at
which water will seep into the ground. The rate of
infiltration is significantly influenced by the grain size
of the earth material which is related to effective
permeability. Soils consisting primarily of sand or
gravel usually transmit water rapidly. On the other
hand, water will move at a more moderate rate in
soils containing some clay. In soils containing large
amounts of clay that tend to swell the pore spaces are
closed and water percolates very slowly through
them. The rate at which water moves through the soil
is important in locating sanitary landfills, septic tanks
and construction sites.


L II," I--'- -".t


Rapid. Soil has low water holding capacity and is
well drained.


Moderate. Soil has high water holding capacity.


Moderately
Slow. Soil has high water holding capacity.


3,;,


*The soil permeabilities (infiltration rates) are based on data
obtained from U.S. Soil Conservation Service.


RIW


-I- R I E
MILE








SINKHOLES


*G E 0 R G I A


In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant
process in landform development resulting in a
unique type of topography to which the name Karst
has been applied. Most of the notable Karst areas are
in regions where limestones underlie the surface
although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic
limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in
their distribution; hence it might be expected that
Karst topography would also be widespread. In
actuality, significant development of Karst features is
restricted to a relatively small number of localities.
Some of the important areas are in western
Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece,
northern Yucat9n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico,
western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee,
Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. In any of the
above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but
in none are all the possible individual forms to be
seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst
development and different types of geologic
structures.

The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary
for the optimum development of Karst can be
summarized as follows:

1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the
surface.
2) The limestone should be dense highly
jointed, and thin bedded.
3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a
position such that ground water can emerge
into surface streams.
4) The region should have moderate to
abundant rainfall.

Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions
only in part and consequently has only moderately
well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly
indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree
of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are
highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical
differential permeability to concentrate water
movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable
throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and
move through the whole of the rock resulting in no
differential solution.

Florida also does not have major entrenched
valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain


off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a
similar result. In this case water entering the system
moves down gradient discharging through springs or
eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico.
The rate of movement in this system is very slow and
this decreases the amount of solution taking place.

Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the
conditions for optimum Karst development and
reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst
topography characterized by one Karst feature,
sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and
widespread topographic form in a Karst terrain.

It is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of
the many variations that they exhibit and the varying
local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally,
however, they are of two major types, those that are
produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an
underground void and those that are developed
slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle
with physical disturbance of the rock in which they
are developing. These two types have been referred to
as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines.
Collapse sinks are normally steep-sided, rocky and
abruptly descending forms while dolines range from
funnel-shaped depressions broadly open upward to
pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both
of the above categories, however, more commonly
they constitute a third type.

Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an
environment with the following physical
characteristics:

1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated
sediments less than 100 feet thick.
2. Cavity systems present in the Limestone.
3. Water table higher than the potentiometric
surface.
4. Breachihg of the Limestone into the
cavernous zone creating a point of high
recharge of the artesian aquifer.

Under these circumstances water moving down
into the Limestone may take large amounts of
sediments into the cavernous system creating a void
in the overlying sediments. These sediments are
generally incompetent and will reflect at the surface
as either a structural sag or as catastrophic collapse.


J L F -
F' 411F L'



of








This large portion of 1
where the piezometric
surface and/or the clast
100 feet thick. It app(
area for sinkhole develop


r LITR


A TLANTIC


M E XICO 0


:he State represents the area
surface is at or above land
:ic overburden is in excess of
ears to be the least probable
ipment.


This area is the portion of the State characterized by
stable prehistoric sinkholes, usually flat bottomed,
steep sided, both dry and containing water.
Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate
process again.


This portion of the State is characterized by
limestones at or very near the surface. The density of
sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity
of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of
overburden. Exploration by drilling and geophysical
methods for near-surface cavities can be realistically
accomplished.


This portion of the State has moderate overburden
overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water
use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, wider
sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A
thick overburden or high water table present within
these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring.


---- ~ CEAN
S',. I OSC'OLA BRE'iAOD ,




MANATEE HARDEE KEECHOBEE
- B T ,' s ST1 LUCI

SI I M RT. \
V '-' -i I -A R . ......




LE E I



I BROWARD
COLLIER I





(MONROE









19








RIESERVOORS


GROUND WATER


STREAMS


FROM WELLS


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REEOUJRCEEl


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LAKES


I


21


WATER










THE WATER


CYCLE


Management of Leon County's water resources
requires knowledge of the interchange of water
between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the
cyclic processes involved.

Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water
evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in
vapor form is transported by convective air currents
through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of
the vapor condenses and precipitates. In Leon
County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too
warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain.

Rain that reaches the land returns either to the
ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by
evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces.
Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much
interchange of water may take place between lakes,
swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a
water particle to complete the cycle may vary from
an instant to many years, depending on the path it
takes.

Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends
on the terrain. Two important characteristic. are the
slope of the land surface and the permeability of the
surficial and underlying materials.

Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the
runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and
sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams
leading to the ocean.


Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the
infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the
water that infiltrates is stored in the soil zone, serving
to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves
down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at
some lower level, usually in areas that contain or
adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps.

In Leon County water may also move downward
into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the
water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it
by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a
confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams
and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan
aquifer. Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually
emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or
the ocean.

Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges
water depends on the potential energy of the water
involved; water moves always from a higher to a
lower level of potential energy. This potential energy
relates directly to the level at which water stands
when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the
Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is
represented by an imaginary surface, called the
potentiometric surface, which is determined by the
level at which water freely stands in tightly cased
wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary
openings in the confining bed, water can move into
the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand
above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the
Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water
bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric
surface.


1 T O r~ f e \. 4 1 fi t ^ l fk \f ^ f ^ ^ -t

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PRECIPITATION


SURFU
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POTENTIOMETR C LAKE
-SURFACE ._*^ ^^ i!* A

-- -- -STREAM
I NS I i- 1 SWAMP



FLORIDAN AQUIFER
1 / I -


SOLAR RADIATION







EVAPORATION


GULF of MEXICO









RAIN FALL


Much of Leon County's water resource is derived
from rainfall within the county; however, most of the
water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and
some of the water that moves underground through
the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in
neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia.

U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal
yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern
Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern
part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable,
however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in
1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal
yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40
percent of the time.


-J
74C
U) w
uJ 0
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Iw
>~20


About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs
between June and September, as a result of
thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions;
but intense storms may occur at any time of the year.
Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have
occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such
intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually
occurs within a 6-hour period. This is beneficial in
that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers
is replenished, but these storms also cause flood
damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the
magnitude and frequency of floods that result from
such storms are required for intelligent zoning and
land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage
systems.


1880


1900


1920


1940


Rainfall at U.S. Weather Bureau station, Tallahassee, Florida.


NORMAL


MINIMUM


A LABAMA


J I- M AM J J A S U N U


Monthly rainfall at Tallahassee.


Summary of 24-hour rainfalls in excess of 5 inches recorded at Tallahassee, Fla.
from 1952 to 1971.

Maximum Maximum concentration Ratio of
24-hour for indicated period 6-hour to
Year Date rainfall (inches) 24-hour
(inches) 1-hour 2-hour 6-hour rainfall


1958 April 9-10
1 1959 March 5-6
1962 Mar. 31-Apr. 1
J t e X /* 1964 Feb. 27-28
C July 17-18
So Oct. 14-15
Dec. 3-4
1965 June 14-15
1966 June 9-10
Sept. 18-19
1968 Sept. 8
1969 Sept. 20-21
Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. 1970 July 21-22


0.89
1.54
.56
3.23
.73
2.15
2.03

.77
4.83
2.18
3.46


Vv v wVVVVVVXTVU V


Normal Roinfoll,
57 inches -


1960


1980


6 0 ,------.---------1------,-1---------1---


A*


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I











PHYSIOGRAPHY







WOODVILLE KARST PLAIN


INTRODUCTION

Leon County's physical features are separated into
four major divisions the high, sandy, clay-hill
northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone
southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes
and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested
western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers.
The accompanying text and illustrations portray the
major physiographic divisions and their pertinent
features.

TALLAHASSEE HILLS

TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a
maximum elevation of 279 feet.

SOILS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather
impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand.

BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly
permeable limestone with large solution
cavities.

DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream
pattern. Streams generally short, many
terminating at sinks or lakes.

LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated
sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes.

SINKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to
the underground water supply. Those in or
near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains.

WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer.
The water is of good quality, is moderately
hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water
supply is susceptible to contamination by
wastes dumped on the surface or directly into
the sinks.


TOPOGRAPHY: A gently sloping plain from 20 to
60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered
sand dunes are as much as 20 feet high.

SOI LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock.

BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large
solution cavities. It is near the surface and
crops out at many places.

DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally
well drained owing to the great numbers of
sinks and the ease of percolation of water
through the overlying sand and into the
limestone.

LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and
deep (sink-type).

SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic
of the division. Generally direct connectors to
the underground water supply.

WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in
the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of
good quality, is moderately hard, and is
available in adequate quantities. It is
susceptible to contamination by wastes.


Blue Sink.


APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS

TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy,
tree-covered plain near elevation 100 feet, with
an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to
and south of State Road 20.

SOILS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay
sediments. Permeability is poor.

BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and
greater. Apparently less permeable than the
limestone underlying the eastern part of the
county.

DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few
streams.

LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north
and east perimeter of the division.








SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the
north and east perimeter of the division. The
poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are
major surficial characteristics of the area.

WATER SUPPLY: From shallow sources or from
wells penetrating the Floridan limestone
aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below
the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is
generally adequate for a home supply. Because
most of the area lies within the boundaries of
the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not
been a need for large public or industrial
supply wells.




OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS

These lowlands form the flood plain of the
Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the
southern end of the valley and the Lake
Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a
stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the
Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico.

ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS

The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood
plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high
water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several
springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly
permeable limestone.


G E 0 R G


Elevotion 279 Ft.
LHighest in county


TALLAHASSEE HILLS


I A


Air view of a sink that has been isolated from Lake Miccosukee by a dike.
z

0











UL



LL
U-


Natural Bridge Sink.


APALACHICOLA


COASTAL LOWLANDS


W A K U L L A


0 4 MILES
I I i i I







I 00U U 1 I I i I II II I t i I I I I


LAKES


90


o80


Leon County includes part or all of several large
lakes that provide a base for water-oriented recreation
within convenient reach of most of the people of the
county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes
ultimately entails the solution of problems related to
pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels.

Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for
its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a
drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of
greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high
enough to flood prime residential areas. Other lakes
fluctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall.

Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion
that eventually may lead to pollution of the lake
unless precautionary measures are included as part of
the development. Other lakes also could be polluted
if shoreline properties were developed. Lake Munson
already has been polluted by sewage from
Tallahassee.

Lake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are
relatively shallow lakes that are largely filled with
aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of
natural processes of eutrophication. Extensive
research is needed to determine the extent of
eutrophication and to develop ways to retard or
temporarily reverse this natural aging process.


1950


1955


1960


1965


1970


Prolonged periods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson.


G E O R G I A


Lake Bradford a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels -- tends to go dry
during droughts.


W A K U L L A


Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71.





E^


0 1i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I a1 I







STREAMFLOW -L


IAMONIA

z


ST. MARKS RIVER

St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County JACKSO
as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times
of extreme floods the entire flow of the river
disappears into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of -
the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge W /
northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it /
threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is
largely inundated during periods of high flow.

Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St. L r. -
Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of
Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. \
Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural
Bridge, where ground water from the Floridan aquifer A
enters the stream. NATURAL BRIDGE

Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured M NATURAL BRIDGE 4 MILES
continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological /SINK
Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County --- RHODES
line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water SPRINGS
flowing at the gage site is well within the limits
recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a
municipal water supply.

260
MAXIMUM DAILY DISCHARGE EON COUNTY
2200 WAKULLA COUNTY


1800


1400
0 GAGING STATION


z At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as E
0 spring low at downstream points.


20

0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. Marks River. Flow averages about
435 million gallons per day.











OCHLOCKONEE


RIVER


The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western
boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills
of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to
the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river
becomes a major stream by the time it reaches
Florida.

The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream
from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the
water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the
Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely
between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968,
and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969.

Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow
water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown
hue that the water takes on from the fine clay
sediment that it carries at times of medium to high
flow.

The concentrations of major chemical constituents
in the river fall within the limits recommended by the
U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and
recreational uses.


< 100,000-
0
S10,000 -



z
. 100



J Minimum flow 11 mgd,1954.
_J

R Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954.


The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. Highway 27
near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641
million gallons per day.


0 4 MILES


The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State
28 Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926,
averages about 1,120 million gallons per day.


,e








IMPOUNDMENTS


Lake Talquin was created by construction of
Jackson Bluff Dam on the Ochlockonee River in the
late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power
Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric
power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to
the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was
terminated at that time. The lake is being developed
as a recreational area.


I-
LLJ
LU

>

F <
> V
LU W

-J


flooding of valley bottom lands of several small
tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are
ideally suited for recreational development. In a
setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake
provides one of the most attractive areas in the state
for water-based recreation.


Considering the vast re(
Talquin, systematic mo


Lake Talquin derives its name from the biological changes could
neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in broad program to maint
Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers water. Concentrations of
about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from are within the acceptable
one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The U.S. Public Health Se
long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the recreational uses.










0








a> A


300 25


LAKE AREA, ACRES


VOLUME OF USABLE
creational potential of Lake STORAGE, ACRE-FEET
nitoring of chemical and
be undertaken as part of a
ain the quality of the lake
major chemical constituents a
limits recommended by the
'rvice for municipal and


A %f'
~. .. $.


30025'


0 I 2 3 Miles


Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam













AQUIFERS


Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield
significant quantities of water to wells and springs.
The number and size of spaces between the rock
particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect,
determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the
particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers
generally are not productive, whereas those that
contain coarse-grained particles are usually highly
productive.

Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon
County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan
aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and
clay and is generally underlain by beds of clay and
silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining
layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper
Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of
limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution
chambers.

Because of the confining layer, water in the
Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure
greater than atmospheric. 'Thus, water generally rises
to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells
that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level
represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer.

Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The
water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that
infiltrates through the surficial materials down to the
water table. Where the water table is above the
potentiometric surface, water can move through
openings in the confining layer to the Floridan
aquifer. Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface
(that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches
the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall
recharges the aquifer directly.

Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped
from the Floridan aquifer. Well depths range from
150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000
gpm (gallons per minute). Productivity is greatest in
northern and central parts of the county and
decreases southwestward.


: ". ....... ..: .. ... : ; .

."':' : : ..':POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE'.'`


WATER-TABLE AQUIFER :

Sand and clay with moderate ". "
permeability. Constitutes a minor source__, : .
of water supply in Leon County.






CONFINING LAYER

Clay and silt, with low permeability,
which yield very little water. I I I


FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Limestone and dolomite, which yield
moderate to large quantities of
good-quality water. Most water-supply
wells in Leon County penetrate this
aquifer.


Water is stored in large quantities; but
because of very small spaces between
particles it moves very slowly.







Water is stored in the confining layer;
but because of extremely small spaces
between particles; movement either
vertically or horizontally is extremely
slow.







Water is stored in large amounts.
Solution chambers and fissures act as
conduits in which ground water can be
moved and stored.


L~ I I I I I I I~~I I LIIJ


-0


L 1 I I I I I


-L -II L






GROUND


Ground water is the principal source of water in
Leon County for municipal, industrial and domestic
supplies. Most of the water is pumped from wells that
penetrate the highly productive Floridan aquifer,
which underlies all of Leon County and consists
mostly of limestone and dolomite.
The accompanying map shows the altitude and
shape of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer following a 3-year period of about-average
rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates
that the ground-water body is recharged in the
northern and the western parts of the county.
Most wells yield water of good chemical quality,
ranging from 100 to 275 milligrams per liter dissolved
solids. The concentration of dissolved solids reflects
the degree of mineralization that results from the
solution of the limestone and dolomite rock in the
Floridan aquifer.


WATER


G E O R G I A


Shows elevation to which water will rise in wells penetrating Floridan
aquifer.
Contour interval 10 leet. Datum is mean sea level.


Old-fashioned lift pump.











TOTAL WATER USE






The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground The temperature of water returned to the aquifer
water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all usually exceeds 320C (900F), and, as a result, water
water used is derived from this source (Hendry, temperatures in the aquifer are at least 30C (50F)
1966). above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and
in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells
MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES are generally drilled outside those areas containing
air-conditioning supply and return wells.
Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is
pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches Institutional and industrial use of ground water for
in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep. Their uses other than air conditioning was only 0.4 mgd in
total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per 1970.
day). The greatest demand for water usually occurs
during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes PRIVATE SUPPLIES
reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks
provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. Most domestic water-supply systems outside the
area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately
INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The
WATER, SELF SUPPLIED wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are
generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to
Because the temperature of ground water is nearly 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a
constant at 210C (700F), water from the Floridan total of about 2 to 3 mgd.
aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State
office buildings, the two State universities, and a IRRIGATION
growing number of commercial establishments.
Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon
million gallons, more than twice the municipal water County. About 20 million gallons of water was used
use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres.
through wells and thus does not represent a net
withdrawal of water from the aquifer.


MILE






Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the
Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer.


U r F M A I


S3 U I U


Air-conditioning supply well in the Tallahassee area.


Seasonal trends in municipal water use.


Municipal


Air-conditioning I Other
Industrial ond Institutionol
Self supplied


Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping
stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system.


Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of
Tallahassee's water system.


Water use increased from 1965 to 1970.


www












WATER QUALITY


Recommended upper limit
Chemical of concentration
Constituent (milligrams per liter)' Significance

Iron (Fe) 0.3 Causes red and brown staining
of clothing and porcelain
High concentrations affect the
color and taste of beverages

Nitrate (NO3) 45 Hazardous to infants

Chloride (CI) 250 A large amount, in association
with sodium, imparts a salty
taste; also causes corrosion
of plumbing fixtures.

Sulfate (SO4) 250 Begins to produce a laxative
effect at concentrations above
600 to 1,000 mg/I.

Dissolved Solids 500 Includes all of the materials
in water that are in solution.
Amounts up to 1,000 mg/I are
generally considered acceptable
for drinking purposes if no
other water is available.

1 U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962.


The chemical quality of water on and beneath the
land surface is primarily determined by the type and
solubility of rock formations with which water comes
in contact and by the length of time that water
remains in contact with each formation.

In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the
surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the
concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water
that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams.
Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water
that reaches the water-table aquifer because water
remains more completely in contact with the sand
and clay materials for a long period of time; however,
the low solubility of these materials limits -the
concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest
concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that
reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone
and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble.

Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical
quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60
mg/I) and low in chloride and dissolved solids.
Recreation activities constitute its primary use.

Most wells in the county yield hard water (121 to
180 mg/1) of good chemical quality. Iron is the only
constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and
it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks.
Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for
use without treatment.


MUNICIPAL


BOILER FEED
(150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH)


GENERAL FOOD CANNING


CARBONATED BEVERAGES


200 400 600 800
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER


1000


SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES
FOR SPECIFIED USES


Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County.

Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter

St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee Well penetrating the
Constituent River Jackson River Floridan aquifer

Iron (Fe) 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.00
Nitrate (N03) .6 .00 1.2 0.0
Chloride (CI) 5.0 3.8 8.5 6.0
Sulfate (SO4) 8.2 0.4 3.5 3.2
Hardness 136 7 19 146
Dissolved Solids 159 18 42 171


I II I I


SIHARDNESS
*DISSOLVED
SOLIDS


I I I I 1I








AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER USE









The only municipal water system in Leon County
is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970
supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and
its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from
wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is
of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment
is limited to chlorination.


The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water
system have expanded greatly since 1930. Average
daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg
(million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is
projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capital
water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day)
in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues,
per capital water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980.


G E O R G I A


I-

4
gL


W A K U L L A


0 4 MILES
I 1




CITY OF TALLAHASSEE-1970
(TOTAL AREA, 26 SQUARE MILES)

CITY OF TALLAHASSEE 1940
(TOTAL AREA, 4 SQUARE MILES)

AREA OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS
SERVED BY CITY OF
TALLAHASSEE -1 970


35












DRAINAGE

Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is
handled through storm sewers and improved drainage
channels. About 50 percent of the area inside the city
is served by storm sewers.

Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of
Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A
small part of the city area drains north into Lake
Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east
into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city
area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake
Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes
temporary flooding in some low lying places.

Data are not available on the flood volumes or the
quality of water draining into these lake systems. As
urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads,
parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm
runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the
magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some
stream channels in urban areas may have to be
deepened, widened, and straightened to
accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff.


Completely sewered basin having a
highly impervious surface. Urban areas
with a high density of streets, parking
areas, roofs, and other impervious
surfaces.


LL
4
I'-
U.
0
z
3


0
1-
(n
h
U.

0
w
I-
it
rr"


and STORM RUNOFF


On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of
drainage -hannai at I ake Bradford Road.


Partly sewered basin having a natural .
surface. Suburban areas with .
medium-density housing. 1"



Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10
feet lower than flood peak.

Natural channels and natural basin
surface, agricultural and wooded land.


~7 ____I


Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost
total runoff of rainfall.


RIW


36 TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF STORM


S0 I E
SCALE







FLOODS





Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and
lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone
areas have scenic or commerical value, buildings are
constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result r
of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can H 4
contaminate water-supply systems within these -
flood-prone areas.

Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent
inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas
are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are
wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent .
continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and -
provide refuge for wildlife. '

Flood plains can also be used for parks and other
recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of
recreation areas results in negligible damage if the
facilities are designed to accommodate flooding.


Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are
occupied by residential housing and commercial
buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced
by the use of special types of flood-proofing
construction and remodeling.


Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969.


'I:


A flooded mobile-home park west of Tallahassee, Sept. 1969.


=o=4MMILE


The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in
100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes that may be inundated
every year, but not to the limits as shown in red.


Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969.









MINERAL


RESOURCES


Ofb
*~...dc-


I


I I







GEOLOGIC

RELATED


IZ1


EOCENE


I)


M


KOVINL b AND

INERALS I RA P
CERRELL I 'TU
/H E Y^L RWRTH I--4RWIN
AREA L AHOUN )DOUG HETY Y
L_ iT' I F T
AREA ^ .n-Vj .. \
/D A L EI^ iL !.fj ir' fs'A \
DAL ....- EA R LY BAK E Y- .---T I
/,~ O I M ILLER IT CH LL CLU I T. .
M I L ~L ERI C] 0cL Q U IT T '
!HO0U 5S ON COOK .
A.LB.M A I-.--------r \ .
OLME SEMINOLE C L IN C H
SDEC TU GR EDC O rES
'R G R A D Y THOMAS BROOKS-4DE .S
..J A S50 N ,
Jl-- -GG A D S D E N H rA E LT O N
? W M--- O.- I- R IA D I "0 N
h ^ ^ /-- ,( D ADDEN --_r f AION HAMILTO N\ J
S.-EFFERSON '--.
8 A Y
CALHOU W 'dU---- -----
V@^ "LO / -___ 4.-.A)5 /..._ / ) "
SUWANNEE O
'-J'C ----^-f I~~ I B E R 7 YS \ | d / 1

'---^ ^- S LI E T ,.r ^fI
WAK LL A
T A Y LOR L A A Y ETTE".
4AJ G U LF FItR A N K L I Nv" .4


SLt l D I X I E
o\


EXPLANATION
A SAND
( SAND and GRAVEL
* FULLER'S EARTH
STRUCTURAL CLAYS HIGH ALUMIN
BAUXITE and REFRACTORY CLAYS
* PEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS
El LIMESTONE
* IRON ORE
w KAOLIN
FIl PHOSPHATE ROCK
* MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME


r%1r .ki IaL I A IW


TALLAHASSEE



PLEISTOCENE

MIOCENE

OLIGOCENE







MINERAL


FACTS


AND


COMMODITIES


". .Society should be reminded that nearly all the
amenities of modern life which it takes for granted
are products of the minerals industry and the
engineers and others who serve it."

This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his
acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the
Imperial College of Science and Technology at
London, England during October, 1963, should serve
to remind people everywhere of our dependence
upon the mining or minerals industry.

Our standard of' living is directly correlative with
the development of our mineral resources. Our
affluence is contingent upon the continued
availability of mineral resources or reliable
substitutes.

Mineral reserves are finite, they are not
inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also
come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral
shortages come not only fr6m the physical
exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their
unavailability at reasonable cost.

Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their
utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and
development may be considerably more costly than
the development of an open pit or quarry operation,
but aesthetic or environmental problems are an
inherent part of the strip mining operation. The
exploration and extractive costs so comparatively
cheap in the construction or industrial minerals
industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water
and noise), control equipment.

Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's
derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast
distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low
unit value construction materials must be transported
by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and
expensive handling operations.

Further, termination of production from wells
drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public
reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with
the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are
involved in restoration and reclamation and these in
1971 and in the future must now become part of the
cost of the mining operation.


Mineral resource problems, that is the surface
minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved
through more extensive exploration programs, but
through the broadening of technology to utilize those
mineral resources known to exist. Continued and
expansive exploration programs are paramount to the
continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a
lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and
significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are
unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's
surface has allowed them to be m6re readily
tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is
therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for
the fuels or metallics.

Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36
counties in three states produce six distinctly
different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties
produce sand while thirteen also have gravel
production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron
ore, bauxite and various clays account for the
remainder of the mineral production, while twenty
counties have no recorded mineral production.

Most of the mineral production in the tri-state
Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction
type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have
direct application in the building trade after cleaning,
crushing and screening. Since these are high volume,
low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials,
the economic haul perimeters are considerably more


restrictive than for decorative or manufactured
products. Transportation economics change with the
supply and demand parameters of mineral resources,
but a radius of 100 miles is commonly used.


CLAY

No commercial clay operations occur within the
Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in
Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady
counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called
Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name
suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to
remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of
Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially.
Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud,
fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal
bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers,
pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement.

However, this processing is not done in the
Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the
area as a finished product.

Six counties in the tri-state area of influence
commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary
pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used
for highway fill, may be found throughout the area.
Much of the upland topography is a result of these
sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt
to be found near an existing or previous need locale.

Lumping of individual company and county
statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the
immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of
clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its
nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in
value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton
values for recorded production during 1969 were:
$2.30 in Alabama, $15.02 in Florida and $17.37 in
Georgia. This discrepancy in unit values between the
Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the
higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth
and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the
Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton.

The national demand outlook for all clays shows
an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging
from 2.8 to 4.1 percent year' Uses in hydraulic
41


























a


cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest
expected growth rates for this period. Therefore, the
Tallahassee area should similarly experience the
highest clay consumption rate based on its
construction minerals economy.

Although attendant environmental problems are
encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and
in the mined out areas, these problems are not
insurmountable. Advances in pollution control
technology plus tax incentives for land reclamation
and ever increasing land values will allow the clay
industry to remain compatible with our necessary and
increasing environmental concern.

SAND AND GRAVEL

The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two
materials, as well as their utilization, favors their
combining when discussing production, value,
reserves, and use. Quantitatively, the demand (in the
U.S.) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined
demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic
minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which
the nation is self sufficient. The annual growth rate
for sand and gravel to the year 2000 is expected to be
between 3.9 and 4.7 percent.


Remaining interstate highway construction and the
need for residential building is likely to keep the sand
and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the
projected national growth rate for some years to
come.

The withholding of individual company
confidential data prevents an accurate disclosure of
sand and gravel production in the Tallahassee area of
influence. However, during 1969 both tonnage and
value records were established in Alabama and
Florida.

Problems associated with sand and gravel
production are normally two-fold and somewhat
diametrically opposed. First, the accretionary
flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the
most common type deposits, are similarly some of
the more desirable building sites. Waterfront, lake, or
river property is a goal shared by many.

Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel
aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their
transportation to areas of need, economically
unfeasible.

Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are
much less objectionable than some of their mineral
production counterparts. An exception would be the
dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved.
Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash
water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are
minimal.

Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and
efficient mine planning can result in more valuable
real estate afterward than before the mining venture.


STONE

Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any
number of structural materials which may be
chemically, physically, or mineralogically different
and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the
highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the
nation and is second only to sand and gravel in
volume produced.

Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee,
means crushed limestone and therefore excludes the
finished dimension or decorative stones mined in
other areas of the three states.

Eight counties in the tri-state area of economic
consideration produce crushed limestone. Individual
statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are
not available, but 1969 statewide totals show
Alabama producing 4.3 million tons with an average
value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million
tons valued at $1.52 per ton while Florida produced
40.7 million tons with an average value of $1.32 per
ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in
the production of crushed limestone, reflecting the
near 20 percent increase in construction activity from
the previous year.




MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS


4


A limestone quarry operation was begun early in
1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators
claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing
knowledge and previous investigations indicate that
the stone in this area s rather soft. Should this stone
prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors
should realize a substantial transportation saving as
the nearest present operations are some 50 miles
distant.

Nationally, the demand for crushed stone is
expected to have a growth rate range to the year
2000 from 3.5 to 5.1 percent since this included the
initial years of expanded interstate highway
construction. However, the importance of Florida as
a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued
demand for new construction and its basic materials.

Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to
be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas
of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area
near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to
twenty years. However, recent research by Yon
indicates potentially much longer life in the area but
with added exploration, development and operational
costs.


Of the remaining minerals produced within 100
miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster
Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only
peat and oyster shell have direct application locally,
and these in small quantities.

Peat, contrary to much of the world, is not used as
a fuel in the United States but for agricultural and
horticultural purposes only. Peat occurs throughout
Florida in highly localized "pockets" but the only
current production comes from Lowndes and Miller
counties, Georgia. Production figures are not available
but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat
firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year.

Oyster shell is produced just outside the
environmental area in Walton County, Florida and is
used locally for dense road base material. No
production figures are available. Estuarine
considerations are likely to prevent any significant
future expansion of this particular industry.

Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits
have no direct application locally, but return to the
area as finished products. Also, these operations are
so remote and products so varied as to have little
effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the
local environment.


THE MINERALS FUTURE

Of the three proposals for solving future mineral
shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in
Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate
to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national
mineral policies for producing countries with the
necessity for international cooperation. A similar
policy, enacted at the state level with interstate
cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems
facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls,
particularly in the field of land reclamation, would
effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically
similar regions regardless of political boundaries.


Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is
also a solution to mineral shortages. Land must be
evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface
and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts,
then these must be recovered as efficiently and
completely as possible; the land restored and then
dedicated to a permanent useful purpose.










OIL


AND


GAS


THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS


Florida had no oil production until December 2,
1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field.
This was the culmination of an exploration effort
by many companies dating from 1900 and
involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing
about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later,
Florida has six producing oil fields.

THE JAY OIL FIELD

Most important by far in the history of the oil
industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11,
1970 of the Jay field which produces from the
Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about
15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production
test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of
1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million
cubic feet of gas. The recoverable reserves of the
Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of
oil.

OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY

Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has
focused its attention on other parts of the Florida
panhandle in the hope of finding another ancient
marine embayment in which Smackover rocks
might have been deposited. The Apalachicola
National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts
of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla
County is included in such an embayment as
contoured on shallow subsurface structural
markers. This shallow feature may reflect a
deeper embayment, and may have contributed to
the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil
and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest
by a major oil company interest during the fiscal
year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis,
magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted
over the area of these leases.

The oil and gas rights to a considerable but
undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big
Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies.
44


Within 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's
demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of
oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that
much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production
from presently-known reserves will have declined
to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently
unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil,
our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only
be met by imports.

Offshore production is important in supplying
the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T.
Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the
Interior, predicted recently that within ten years
oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under
water more than one mile deep, and that at least a
third of the nation's oil production will come from
offshore.

Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work
over the past nine years is reported to have
revealed a number of structures on both Federal
and State acreage offshore from Florida which may
trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east
coast is less desirable, geophysical exploration
continues because the need for new petroleum
reserves is great.

THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS

Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry.
With the advent of the Jay field, and recent
discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that
petroleum is destined to increase the value of the
State's mineral industry. By 1975 the
conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons
produced from fields already discovered will be
$83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will
make a significant contribution to the state's
mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent
severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this
time on the oil and gas produced in Florida.


JAY FIELD A LA BAMA
;BAMBI-- !g -- --- ---------
S ( HOMES G E 0 R G I
S ANTA ROSA OKALOOSA! WALTONj JASON G E O R G I A
\ ^ !o -- --~o- ^ ^ G '7 '\ '~ *^- *---
S --GADSDEN .
CALHOUN 'LION MADISON

1 TAYLOR WAKU SUWANNEE'
/ GULF FRANKLIN LAFAYETTE


FLORIDA

Scale. In Mils..


0
0
00 ~


HISTORY











HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES
FOR FLORIDA

Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf
recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle
Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a
very rough basis of comparison) are:

RESERVES


Onshore
and
Offshore


Oil Gas
(billion bbls) (trillion ft.3) Sources


Florida
Peninsula 7.8
Alaska 30


NPC, July, 1970
NPC, July, 1970


The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were
prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the
Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve
estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska
estimates were not so qualified.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
BY THE
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Because of the relatively late start of the oil
industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental
problems which resulted from the exploratory and
development activities in some of the early oil states.
The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a
slow but continuous pace of development from the
time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field
was discovered.

NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS

For the past two years, the Department of Natural
Resources has been involved in the compilation of a
very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules
and Regulations. Both industry and various
conservation groups have made valuable contributions
to this code, which should become effective in the
first quarter of 1972.

These new Rules and Regulations will help to
protect Florida's environment and also contribute to
a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will
also facilitate the systematic accumulation of
information to be used by the Executive Board of
Government given decision-making responsibilities for
the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and
Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the
proposed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located
in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida.


Jay Area, Florida.


TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS


Discovery
Date


Oil Field


No.
Of
Wells


Operator


Southern Florida:


1943
1964
1966
1968
1970


Sunniland
Sunoco-Felda
West Sunoco-Felda
Lake Trafford
Lehigh Acres


Humble Oil Co.
Sun Oil Co.
Sun and Humble
Mobil Oil Corp.
Humble Oil Co.


1970
Production
(barrels)



722,534
688,635
1,473,016
25,806
81,542


NW Florida
(Santa Rosa County):


Humble, LL and
E, Amerada Hess,
Sun et al


2,998,352


Cumulative
Production
as of
Aug. 31, 1971
(barrels)



13,071,065
5,451,723
3,787,202
63,397
187,574


22,940,144


Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD capacity separator plant. An additional
12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972.
A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well
Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, was test yield from 4 wells.


o
1960


1965 1970 1975 1980 1985













ENERGY RESOURCES






A-A
....4 C..
," \l"/, -.. .. -- .. E .. ..- _I,
I/
















I PAIL im Woodruff Dam
..- _' .l // ., -- ---_.__ _
... """ -- -' .._ -_ ---
.-
-_ __" ,,/ I,, __-L ---- _----- -... -
V...i .. -- ~ __-- ....
-.., t ... .. ._ II_ ... .. .. ___ _-
I .- .'' .. .. ..k -. .
"(1 5' .. ..- --."- ------
-- r.-.....

__ __- _( _- -L --- > ..S .-, , ., ,
.. .- - ._ : ._ .-- -., .''/< ,, ,
_-,. ._ ... J j& __'
'I "& I'd"-'-' -- "- -
-;,--*- -- .. -- 4" -

-- i- _(&'. -- Ji W oodruff Da











ENERGY RESOURCES:


HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HYDROCARBONS,


AND NUCLEAR FISSION


1. PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS
(WHAT WE HAVE)

Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and
distributing system. The excess generating capacity of
the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak
demand. This highly favorable ratio of
reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell
40,000 kilowatts, per hour to the Florida Power
Corporation during peak demand hours in the
summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility
companies operating in southern Florida have less
than 10 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe
level of reserve capacity is 20 percent.

The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in
Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000
kilowatt hours per hour at peak load. This dam and
its power generating facilities were constructed with
federal funds under an R.E.A. program to make
power available to rural areas of Leon, as well as
Gadsden and Wakulla Counties. Talquin Electric
Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor in the tri-county area.
Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking
unit of this same capacity to its system next summer.
The municipal electric system is connected to the
national power network, from which it could draw
reserve energy in an emergency.

About a half century ago, the hydro-electric
generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and
the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this
facility went into operation using water from Lake
Talquin as outfall energy. The rated peak capacity of
this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which
was intended to furnish enough power to supply the
needs of Tallahassee and Quincy until 1970. Much of
the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a
half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power
Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, lake
bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee alone
needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the
Jackson Bluff generating system. The cessation of the
water-powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the
end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestically
available energy in Leon County. A century ago, all
of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by
wood or charcoal, available within the county. Today
this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such
as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a
commercial energy source.
48


During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1971,
the City of Tallahassee purchased about 20 billion
cubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation.
The municipally owned electric generating plants at
St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of
Tallahassee required about 8 billion cubic feet; the
remaining 12 billion cubic feet of gas was sold
through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In
addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000
gallons) of residual fuel oil were used to supplement
the fuel requirements of the municipal electric
generating system during the year 1971. In terms of
energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 10"1 BTU
compared to about 9.5 x 1011 BTU available from the
fuel oil. If gas were unavailable, approximately 1.25
million barrels of residual fuel oil would be required
to produce the 765,000,000 kilowatt hours of
electricity which were generated by the City of
Tallahassee during the past fiscal year.

SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY

Intrastate Sources:

The oil fields of Florida are located in the
Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the
extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at
Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by
its gas-oil ratio which ranges from 800:1 to 3000:1.
This means 800 to 3000 cubic feet of gas are
produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. In terms of
energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly
6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry)
provides about 1,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic
feet. The crude oil at Jay is worth about $3.35 per
barrel and the natural gas about 30 cents per
thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the
1:6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing
BTU values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil
should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas
at 56 cents, or nearly double the actual well head
price.

The field allowables will probably be fixed at 1000
barrels per well per day at Jay plus 1,000,000 cubic
feet of associated gas. The gas furnishes reservoir
energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore
gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent
possible. It seems probable that Jay Field will
produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully
developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000


80 Transmission line and Substations. Superscript indicates line capacity in
kilovolts.


30

*


Electric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in
kilowatt hours/hour.









MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The
indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22
billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent
more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but
considerably less than the growing demand for gas in
this one medium-sized city (71,763 persons at last
census). There is no other gas produced in
commercial quantities in the State of Florida at
present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on
pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1,
which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a
sustained basis.

The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a
rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high
gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons
of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons
of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is
more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field
could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption
of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons).
Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an
average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6
million barrels per year. This would suffice to power
the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric
plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at
present generating rates. The average yield in the
United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude
petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field
production would provide about 71 million gallons of
kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only
totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should
be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could
obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and
had a static population.

During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of
southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of
intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The
United States requires nearly 5 times this amount
every day (about 3 gallons per capital daily). At this
rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida
provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the
population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County
farm center which is located near the hub of oil
production in the Sunniland trend.

FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS

The most important factors affecting future energy
requirements are growth rates in population and in
the gross national product. Environmental
considerations, comparative costs of fuel and


convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also
affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative
considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption
due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of
residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal
conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on
the order of 3:1, due to thermal inefficiency of
power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage
would require rationing the consumption of
petroleum and natural gas among higher quality uses.
Electricity must be generated by coal, water power
and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of
June 4, 1971. President Nixon directed new standards


of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes.
This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as
cooling, by as much as one-third.

The growth rate for Tallahassee during the decade
of the sixties was 49 percent, nearly 4 times the
national average of 13.3 percent. If, during the next
two decades Tallahassee's population continues to
grow as forecast, it will attain 160,000 by 1990, more
than double the present population. Even if there
were no increase in the per capital rate of energy
consumption, which is not the case, our requirements
for energy would double in less than 20 years.
Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the
rest of the nation. In fact our population increase due
to the net gain in births-over-deaths in the sixties was
a modest 10.0 percent, as compared to the national
average of 11.7 percent. On the other hand, Florida
had a net in migration of 1.3 million during the past
decade, wheras the total national immigration was
only 3 million, or slightly more than double that of
our state alone.

The per capital consumption of electricity doubles
every 9 years in Florida as compared to the national
doubling rate of 10 years. The projected peak
demand for electricity in Tallahassee by 1990 will,
therefore, be 8.5 times the peak consumption rate of
1971, which was 175,000 kilowatt hours per hour.
We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5
million kilowatt hours per hour (equal to 1500
million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety
factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990,
the Tallahassee municipal generating system will
require the energy equivalent of 10.5 million barrels
of residual fuel oil.

During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969,
gasoline consumption in the United States increased
from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The
consumption of gasoline in Florida during this
interval rose from 782 million to more than 3 billion
gallons, nearly 384 percent. Florida's population
increase was 4.3 times the national average during this
period, while our gasoline consumption only
increased 2.8 times the national average. This may
indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively
immobile, once they get here. The reduced rate of
increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians,
compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in
otherwise gloomy statistics.









SOURCES OF FUEL REQUIREMENTS
OF THE FUTURE

Intrastate Petroleum Supply:


At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply
one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in
1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although
production from this field will have declined by
1990, it is probable that other large oil fields will be
discovered in the same producing trend of northwest
Florida. There is however, little likelihood that
Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in
petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects
for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum
in that half of the Florida platform which is
submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of
Mexico are rather good.

Domestic And Imported Petroleum Supply

The United States demand for petroleum products
is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per
day. This demand will double by 1990. The U.S. is
now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its
petroleum needs. More than half of these imports,
which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined
products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in
industry including electric 'power generating plants.
Canada and Venezuela together provided more than
60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all
of the imported residual fuel oil originated in
Venezuela and the Caribbean region. Unfortunately,
Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that
of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish
another hundred million barrels a year to us if
required, while our own domestic reserve capacity
totals 365,000,000 barrels annually. The two
together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion
barrels of petroleum we consume.

In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply
declines and our imports rise we must rely
increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83
percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies
are located. Western Europe now obtains more than
60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million
barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the
supply lines are cut by war or insurrection we shall
have to furnish oil to our NATO allies. We could send
them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our
non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall
ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and
Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless
alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed.
Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil
and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should
be developed now. Our pipe-line and refinery patterns
and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of


months or years it would require decades to redesign
and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion
gallons plus per day we need at present.

Intrastate Sources of Uranium:

The phosphate deposits of Florida contain
associated uranium which should be recovered during
phosphate processing. In a 1969 report prepared for
and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern
United States," the following paragraph is quoted
from page 65:

"An amazing quantity of uranium is being
wasted each year during current mining
operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the
phosphate pebble and other phosphate
minerals mined are included, the uranium
wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3
Og per year, of which approximately 2000
tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate
that economic pressures should destroy such
a precious resource."










Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity
consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs.
population increase (doubling time 18 years).


2000 2010


1970 1980 1990





















The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of
uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida is
recoverable rests on variation in method of processing
phosphate ore. Of the 30 million tons processed in
Florida annually, about 1/3 is converted to
phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using
sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace
method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated
with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet
process method is employed.

The uranium oxide reserves of the free world are
estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a
price of $8 to $10 per pound, with an additional 1.4
million tons recoverable at a price between $10 $15
per pound. It is further estimated the free world
requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors
generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons
by the end of the century. In view of the fact that
uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida
can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per pound
and considering that the free world supply available
at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30
years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The
argument that this is in response to economic
necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in
the early part of the present century is unfounded.
The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no
pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in
most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be
flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the
case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates
- the uranium should be extracted concurrently with
phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should
be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments,
if needed.


The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in
Florida represents one fifth the entire free world
supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an
average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium
oxide is worth 15 billion dollars.

Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants
in operation by the end of 1972. The combined
output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3
million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated
nuclear powered generating plants in the United
States will have a combined capacity of about
160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3
kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000
Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of
U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy
equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil.
Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil
would be required to generate the same amount of
power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235.

As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5
million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990. In
lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel
oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a
nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of
uranium oxide could be processed to yield the
necessary 3600 Ibs of U235. That is one-eighth the
amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection
with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder
reactors are commercially available and U238 can be
converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy
available from uranium oxide will be increased
140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted
annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors
generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is
more than a thousand times the electricity
requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990.


At full load, 440 gal./minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam
generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system
shown in foreground.


Arvah B. Hopkins Plant.







L


A


N


D


URBAN


U


S


E


OPEN SPACE


A. i t- 'a. a ', ",'14.
~~. "li ri t i .
'-G IICU LTUR
AGRICULTURE


---

SRECREAT ION
I^A. .^ .^ 4 ^ ---^-g- ... -c---.. -

"R EC RE ACTION"


MINERAL RESOURCES












PRESENT LAND USE






URBAN


Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the
geology and physiography of the area. Rapid
suburban development is spreading northward into
the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known
as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is
less desirable physically and consequently less
expensive. Certain attributes of the land have been
important in the selection of institutional sites.
Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the
physical characteristics of the land such as soil type
and topography. The designation of recreational areas
is also dependent on the physical setting. Water
bodies, forests and rolling hills are the natural assets
of the Tallahassee area recreational lands.

A clear understanding of the geology and
physiography of the area is essential to optimum land
development. When environmental factors are not
considered as an integral phase of planning, problems
arise. Construction problems related to physical
conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up
the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a
basis for land development.

The desirability of a land area for a particular use
may be evident to the casual observer, but the
suitability of the land for that use must be
determined by environmental study.


Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large
portion of the land within the study area and
centers around major highway intersections. The
Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles
of residential, industrial and commercial
properties. The limited industrial areas are located
in the south and west sections of town in
proximity to transportation facilities.

SUBURBAN

Large suburban areas are found north and east
of the City. Three recent residential developments
include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes.
The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of
Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further
suburban growth in that area.

INSTITUTIONAL

One of the notable features of Tallahassee is
the preponderance of institutional land use. Two
state universities, a community college and various
state buildings give a distinct character to the city.
A correctional institute is found east of urban
Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification
generally accompany institutional use.

WOODLANDS

Much of the total surface area is taken up by
natural and planted woodlands. These include pine
flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and
hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines.


RECREATIONAL


Recreational lands within the area include
part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state
parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat
landings.

AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES

Agricultural land uses include horse farms,
dairy farms, pasture land, etc The remainder of
the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp.


Ill'


L~II


1730 +R II
SCALE MILE
SCALE


LI


RIW






FUTURE LAND USE

TALLAHASSEE AREA

INTERIM LAND USE PLAN,

1971-1995
EXPLANATION


As the population of Tallahassee grows and
urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural
areas, competition for space will require efficient land
use planning. The populace will need more land for
work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the
wastes they generate.
Compatible coexistence between urban spread and
the physical environment will require that those
responsible for future land use planning will need
basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is
directed toward presenting basic facts about the
physical environment of the area which will aid in
planning for future urban spread.
This work is not to be considered as the ultimate
or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings
together at this moment in time the most accurate
data available. As additional data becomes available
through research the picture will become more
definitive and for this reason, environmental
geological studies of this nature should be
continuously used for the improvement of our
environment.


W CITY LIMITS

- URBAN AREA

RESIDENTIAL

RECREATIONAL

- TRANSPORTATION

W COMMERCIAL

- INDUSTRIAL

INSTITUTIONAL

EZ UNDEVELOPED












GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS


Affecting




Solid-Waste Disposal


The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming
more acute as the population increases. In a survey of
solid-waste practices in Florida it is shown that
presently Floridians are generating over five million
tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day
per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this
figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year
or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the
present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary
landfills will be needed to accommodate this increase,
and the selection of proper sites is an important
factor in the disposal problem. The American Society
of Civil Engineers defines the Sanitary Landfill as: "A
method of disposing of refuse on land without
creating nuisances or hazards to public health or
safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to
confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to
reduce it to the smallest practical volume, and to
cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of
each day's operation, or at such more frequent
intervals as may be necessary."

As rainwater passes through the refuse in the
landfill, chemicals derived from the decomposing
material are taken into solution thus creating
leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater
and surrounding surface water. Also, in landfills
where refuse is placed below the water table or is
subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the
solid waste will produce leachate.

Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in
biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved
chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium)
and hardness."

To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a
sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors


should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be
placed in areas where earth material underlying the
site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These
relatively impervious earth materials retard the
downward movement of leachate and ideally would
remove the contaminants by filtration and
adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30
feet of relatively impervious earth material should be
present below the base of the landfill.

The following are areas that should be avoided for
sanitary landfill sites: (1) Areas that are underlain by
sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps,
flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3)
Sinkholes because of the possibility of the
contaminants moving through solution cavities
directly into groundwater systems; (4)Slopes that are
too steep for stabilization or that are subject to
surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by
limestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the
direction and rate of groundwater movement in such
material may not be readily determined.

The greater the depth to the water table below the
base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of
pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest
that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It
is also suggested that sites should be several miles
down gradient from areas where there are large
withdrawals of groundwater.

To reduce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the
sanitary landfill, a fine-grained earth material should
be compacted and used as a cover. However, if the
fine-grained material is predominantly clay it may be
difficult to work when wet. Also it may crack
excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to
enter the landfill.


c~


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SA. Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions.
I No physical obstructions nor preempted regions.


The following set of criteria is suggested as a guide
in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary landfill site
in the Tallahassee area.

1. The bottom of the landfill site should
be underlain by at least 30' of clay or
other low permeable material.
2. The site area should not be prone to
flooding.
3. The water table should be 30 feet
below land surface.
4. The site area should not display
sinkholes or other karst features that
may indicate the underlying limestone is
highly permeable.
5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains
should be avoided.
6. Site areas should be at least several
miles down gradient from large
withdrawals of ground water.


Rapid


Moderate
B. Soil permeabilities.


Moderately Slow


+ -


G E O R G I A


+ "fl


4 "1


C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer.


R w mlw








Miccosukee Formation



Hawthorn Formation



St. Marks Formation


D. Geologic map.





The land-use map showing potential sanitary
landfill sites in this publication was compiled using
these criteria. However, it is presented only as a
preliminary guide for planning sites; the map does not
show the exact character of the geologic (earth)
materials overlying the bedrock, nor the precise
groundwater conditions. Each potential sanitary
landfill site should be investigated and evaluated
before being put into operation.

It should be pointed out the position of the water
table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated.
However, in the northern half of Leon County,
discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee
and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers
that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In
the southern part of Leon County the water table is
essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer.


I- -
C.
t~o
U


Suwannee Limestone








Pleistocene sands and clays covering
formations on larger map.


"MArea may have 30
feet or more of
relatively
impermeable earth
material overlying bedrock. Area not
prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and
not currently used for residential,
commercial, industrial or recreational
purposes. Provided no high water table is
encountered the pollution potential of
water supplies in these areas is probably
low.
-Area may have 30
feet or more of
re I at i ve I y
impermeable earth
material overlying bedrock; gentle slopes
and other favorable criteria. However,
because of the flow pattern of the
groundwater toward areas of large
withdrawals from the aquifer and the
chance of a high water table the
pollution potential of water supplies
should be considered.
Area may have 30
feet or more of
permeable to very
s I i g h t I y
impermeable earth material overlying
bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has
gentle slopes, and not currently used for
residential, commercial or industrial
purposes. However, because of the
possible permeable nature of the earth
material the pollution potential of the
Water supplies should be considered.

L Pollution potential
of water supplies in
area is high because
of steep slopes,
swamps, sink holes, and places that have
less than 30 feet of earth material
overlying the bedrock. It also has
portions that are prone to flood. Also,
some of the area is currently being used
or will be used for residential,
commercial, industrial and recreational
purposes.


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Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D.


.1 1. -t I


















In preparing a land-use plan for general
construction, factors such as slope, subsurface
geology, and soil conditions should be considered.
Stream flood plains and topographically low areas
should be avoided, as they may have a high
fluctuating water table and may be subject to
periodic flooding.

The earth materials occurring in the
topographically high areas are composed of
heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands
(Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable
as construction sites. However, perched water tables
occur locally; so subsurface investigations should be
conducted for larger buildings.

The Hawthorn Formation contains bedded clays
that are plastic and will swell upon wetting. The
cyclic swelling and shrinking of these clays during dry


CONDITIONS


and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable
foundation conditions. When saturated with water
the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in
slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are
recommended before building in these areas.

In the southern portion of the area, porous sands
overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to
the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole
activity. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor
frequently formed, those planning to use this area
should be aware that such conditions may exist.

In much of the area, the slopes are moderate to
gentle and offer no particular problem to
construction. However, along some valley walls the
slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn
Formation are present slumping as well as sliding may
occur.


GEOLOGIC




Affecting Constructior


C. Geologic Map
* '- .- .


Pleistocene sands and clays
covering formations on
larger map.


E _I Lakeland-Eustis soils
M Lakeland shallow-Eustis soils

m Blanton-Klej-Plummer soils

{ Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils

Blanton-Klej soils

Plummer-Rutledge soils

: Leaf-lzagora soils

Barth soils

[ Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils


- Flood Prone Areas


1 to 4% Greater than 4%
A. Slopes


B. Flood Prone Map


= _Miccosukee Formation


= Hawthorn Formation


EOSt. Marks Formation


=-- Suwannee Limestone


Less than 1%
58


D. Soil Associations










PLEISTOCENE


Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie
limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less than one to four
percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and
some flooding occurs in low flat.areas. Sinkholes are numerous
and may occur in the area.


MICCOSUKEE FORMATION


32' 30


Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays.
Generally earth materials in this area present very few
foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow
depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they
should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils
generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are
present in the area. Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to
moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers
may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with
slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten
percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that
are almost level.


HAWTHORN FORMATION


Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The
topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes
ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent.
Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas
where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to
moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths
generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The
continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may
be detrimental to foundations.





Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area
will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100.
Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes
may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in
red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However,
flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains.


(5


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RECREATION


Natural forces have been continually changing and
modifying the face of the earth for billions of years.
Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's
surface and we see the manifestation of these changes
in the natural beauties all about us.

The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these
wonders of nature that have been focal points for
recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills)
and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of
an ancient highland that has been partitioned by
erosion occurring over thousands of years. This
beautiful hill and valley topography provides
excellent sites for the golf courses found in the
Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes
lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These
large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of
the underlying limestone over a period of thousands
of years and provide people of the area, as well as
many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl
hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee
Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports.
McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully
landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of
the lake.

South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially
flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two
areas. A portion of the plain lies almost entirely
within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest.
It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing
many densely wooded swamps.

The nature of the region and the occupational
restrictions imposed by the U.S. Forest Service has


left the area essentially in its natural state. Several
camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S.
Forest Service for recreational use.

Joining the above area on the east is the other
portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is
characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a
limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole
topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are
popular with swimmers and scuba divers.

Several recreational areas are developed around the
many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake
Bradford provides water-oriented recreational
facilities for the residents who live around the lake,
for Florida State University students (at a University
camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and
Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National
Forest where recreational facilities for camping,
swimming, and fishing are made available to the
public by the U.S. Forest Service.

The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf
of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a
valley along the western side of Leon County. Many
boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee River and
many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing
in the river. Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies
a portion of the broad valley carved out by the
Ochlockonee River. Lake Talquin plays a major role
in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A
State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake
Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private
boat landings found along its shore provide citizens
access to some excellent fishing areas.


R5W R4W


R5W _


The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the
southern portion of Leon County, is an area of
natural beauty. The river is much wider there than to
the north because of the addition of water from the
springs in the area. The springs, the State Park, and
the scenic splendor of the Natural Bridge area
provides the aesthetic qualities for anyone interested
in enjoying the great outdoors.

Wakulla Springs, located near Tallahassee, one of
the deepest springs in the world, is an interesting
geologic feature. Natural scenic areas around the
spring are available for the nature lovers and hikers.


S+RIW + RIE + R2E 4-
G E 0 R G I


R4W + R3W + R2W + RW + RIE R2E


IW0.


R3W + REW









REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Hendry, C.W. Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.

Kiplinger
1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by
localities: Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington
Editors, Inc.

Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida
1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning
Dept.

Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida
1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon
County, Florida Planning Dept.

Tallahassee, Florida City of
1971 Capital City of Florida, University City, County Seat of Leon County, Regional
Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of
Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept.

TOPOGRAPHY

Hendry, C.W., Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.

Hughes, G.H.
1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida:
Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of Inv. 48, 25 p.

U.S. Department of Agriculture
1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. Inf. Bull. 243, p. 5.

U.S. Geological Survey
1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p.

GEOLOGY

Hendry, C.W., Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.

U.S.. Department of Agriculture
1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No. 5.

Soil survey, Leon County: Unpublished report.

WATER RESOURCES

Hendry, C.W., Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.

MINERAL RESOURCES

Babcock, Clarence
1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. Inf. Circ. 65, 40 p.


Chen, Chih Shan
1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida:
Fla. Bur. of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p.

Downs, Matthews
1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p.

Flawn, P.T.
1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co., 406 p.

1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning, and Resource
management: Harper and Row, 313 p.

Foss, R.E.
1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications): Our Sun, summer, 1969,
2 p.

Hendry, C.W., Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105.

National Petroleum Council
1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in
response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p.

Oil and Gas Journal
1971 US. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32.

Oil and Gas Journal
1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years: Oil and Gas Jour., October 4,
1971, p. 77.

Park, C. F., Jr.
1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy:
Freeman, Cooper and Co., 368 p.

Puri, H.S.
1964 (and Vernon, R.O.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the
classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p.

Sweeney, J. W.
1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral
Yearbook, 1969, 14 p.

The Council of State Governments
1964 Surface mining extent and economic importance, impact on natural resources,
and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on
Surface Mining, p. 3

U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines
1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p.

U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines
1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. III: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67,
207-231.

ENERGY RESOURCES

American Gas Association, Inc. et. al.
1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gasliquids, and natural gas in the United States and
Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25,
May, 1971, 256 p.


National Academy of Sciences National Research Council
1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p.

Scientific American
1971 Energy and power: Sci. Am., vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971, 246 p.

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate
Nuclear Board, 230 p.

U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines
1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 3084 p.

LAND USE
American Society of Civil Engineers
1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of
Civil Eng.
Cartwright, Keros
1969 (and Sherman, F.B.) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in Illinois: Illinois State
Geol. Survey Environmental Geology. Note 27. 15 p.

Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services
1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan. Div. of Health

Hendry, C. W., Jr.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.

Hughes, G.M.
1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern Illinois: Illinois State Geol.
Survey Environmental Geology note 17, 26 p.

Landon, R.A.
1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground
Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 9-13.

McHarg, I.L.
1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p.

Moser, P.H.
1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County,
Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1,
p. 68-70.

Stewart, J.W.
1970 (and Hanan, R.V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary
landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur.
of Geol., Map Series no. 32.

Sorg, T.J.
1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education,
and Welfare, Public Health Service no. 1792, 30 p.

Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida
1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning
Dept.

1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida
Planning Dept.


American Petroleum Institute
1971 Petroleum facts and figures: 604 p.