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FGS UF

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.FERENCE REF FGS BR 16 c. 1 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BIENNIAL REPORT 16 1989-1990

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 903 W. TENNESSEE STREET TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304 State of Florida Department of Natural Resources Tom Gardner, Executive Director Division of Resource Management Jere my A. Craft, Director Florida Geological Survey Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief Biennial Report 16 1989-1990 By Paulette Bond Published for the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 1991 ISSN: 202-707 6452

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DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES JIM SMITH Secretary of State TOM GALLAGHER State Treasurer BETTY CASTOR LAWfON CHILES Governor BOB BUTTERWORTH Attorney General GERALD LEWIS State Comptroller BOB CRAWFORD Commissioner of Education Commissioner of Agriculture Letter of Transmittal Florida Geological Survey June 1991 Governor Lawton Chiles, Chairman Florida Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida 32301 Dear Governor Chiles: The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Management, Department of Natural Resources, herein publishes its Biennial Report for 1989-90. This report sum marizes the professional activities and contributions made by the Survey staff during this two year period. Most research results are traditionally reported in our various publication series. These reports are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the Florida Geological Survey. Respectfully yours, TOM GARDNER Walter Schmidt, Ph.D. Executive Director State Geologist and Chief n m

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Oil and Gas Section Ft. Myers Field Office Jay Field Office Florida Geological Survey Functional Organizational Chart I Governor and Cabinet I I Dept. of Natural Resources Executive Director (Gardner) I Div. of Resource Management Director (Craft) I Florida Geological Survey Chief and State Geologist (Schmidt) Geological Investigations Section Secretary (Collier) Cartographer (Jones) Cartographer (Kiper) 2 Research Associates 9 Research Assistants Sed. Petrology (Duncan) Geochemist (Bond) Sedimentologist (Campbell) Petrologist (Arthur) Paleontologist (Rupert) Lab. Tech (Rush) Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section Sr. Geol./Administrator (Lloyd) Env. Geol. (Lane) 2 Research Assistants Env. Geol; (Hoenstine) Econ. Geol. (Spencer) Table of Contents Foreword .................. Introduction ................ Geology and Environmental Concerns Public Service Activities . . Research and Regulatory Programs ... Geological Investigations Section Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section Oil and Gas Section Personnel Changes Additional Programs Drilling Program Research Library Geologic Sample Collections Data Files .......... Computer Services . . . Student Assistantship Program Continuing Education . . Cooperative Programs ...... U.S. Minerals Management Service Coooperative Program GroundWater Quality Monitering Program Publications Suwannee River Water Management District Cooperative Program South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program Southwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program The Lower Floridan Aquifer System in Brevard County . . Scanning Electron Microscopy Cooperative Analytical Facility FSU Academic Diving Program Cooperative Projects Summer Inservice Institute Cooperative Program Radon Assessment Cooperative Program Budget Summary FGS Budget Publications Map Series Report of Investigations Bulletins ........ v Page vii 1 2 5 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 17 17 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 24

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Table Of Contents ( con't) Information Circulars Special Publication Open File Reports Biennial Reports Miscellaneous . Papers by Staff Members in Outside Publications Talks by Staff Members to Professional Groups Additional Professional Activities Symposia .. Meetings .. Workshops Conferences Field trips Personnel .... Professional Staff Clerical and Technical Staff Research Associates Student Assistants Vl Page 25 25 25 25 26 26 28 30 30 31 34 35 35 36 36 38 39 39 FOREWORD The 1989-1990 calendar years were times ofheightened visibility for the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). Environmental awareness on the part of Florida's citizens and its government is at an all time high. The FGS has participated in a number of programs which result directly from this increased concern. The State Geologist, Walt Schmidt, has been an active member of the Board of Professional Geologists. The state has begun licensing geologic professionals whose work impacts public health and welfare and several FGS staff members have assisted the Board with design and preparation of the licensing examination. The Florida legislature created a "Bluebelt Commission" with the charge to examine whether "land producing high water recharge to the aquifers in the state should be classified and assessed based upon their character or use." The state geologist was appointed to the Bluebelt Commission. This commission held public workshops and hearings throughout the state. In addition, the FGS was represented on the Ground Water Resources Committee associated with the Preser vation 2000 Needs Assessment, mandated by the 1990 Legislature. The FGS has continued its cooperative relationships with the Department of Environmen tal Regulation and the regional water management districts. FGS supplies stratigraphic description and interpretation, hydrogeologic interpretation and permeability tests on specific aquifer materials among other services. Mineral resource maps have been prepared for various counties as part of a continuing program aimed at assisting county governments with the land-use planning process In addition, two environmental geology reports are nearing publication. These studies are designed to assist planners, geologists and lay citizens with issues that require geologic information as a basis for sound decisions related to environmental issues. As Florida's population has continued to grow, its need for earth resource information has also grown (more people require more water, generate more waste, and move in greater numbers, into ever-shrinking pristine areas). Most state agencies have not been able to keep pace with this growth, however, due to a downturn in the economy coupled with an associated shortfall in state revenues FGS had a geologist-inspector position deleted in its Jay field office and staff were not able to present research results at professional meetings or attend conferences due to travel restrictions. FGS has not been successful in winning approval and funding to initiate a Marine and Near-Shore Coastal Geology Program which would improve our knowledge and understanding of state lands off-shore of the coast line. Further, a request for five positions devoted to applied geology studies related to land and water planning was denied by the legislature. One bright spot was the approval by the Department of Administration of a Professional Geologist Class series to comply with the licensing requirement of Chapter 492 Florida Statutes. FGS staff awaits its implementation within the Department of Natural Resources Vll

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In the 1989-1990 biennium, program emphasis at the FGS has shifted toward applied earth resource projects. These applied studies respond to ground-water problems, environmen tal concerns, geologic hazards and geologic education. High staff productivity has resulted in the publication of numerous county studies both as bulletins and open-file reports. Over the past two years the FGS has demonstrated the r9le of the state geological survey in providing an informational basis for Florida's planning and environmental protection activities. The next task for the FGS is the "advertisement" of its research products Although the earth science community is largely knowledgeable concerning the services and information available through the FGS, county and community government, planners, and engineers as well as Florida's citizens are frequently unaware of the publications and services FGS provides. Florida's oil and gas rules have once again received attention. The Governor and Cabinet and the Florida Legislature have directed that structures are to be prohibited from off-shore, submerged state lands in association with oil and gas exploration production. In addition, workshops were held regarding oil exploration in the state's water-conserva tion areas of south Florida. Finally, the Petroleum Exploration and Production Bond Trust Fund is now fully operational. This is a security option for oil and gas drilling permit applicants. Vlll Biennial Report 16 by Paulette Bond INTRODUCTION The geology of Florida is inextricably linked with the Florida environment. The office of State Engineer and Geologist was authorized by the legislature in 1852 and held by "General" Francis L. Dancy. Dancy was charged with drainage of lowlands for agricultural development and he brought extensive engineering experience to his position. Agriculture was already seen as important to the fledgling state and scien tific and engineering input were viewed as essential to its development under "hostile" circumstances. It is a measure of how great ly our perception has changed that lowlands which were flooded or at least chronically wet were perceived as a blanket liability. In those early years it seemed in conceivable that the manipulation of the environment for economically desirable purposes might ultimately damage inter connected parts of a delicately balanced natural system. Dancy's employment with the state ended when the position of State Engineer and Geologist was abolished in 1855. The legislature took this step when $500.00 for soil testing was requested. In the 1880's, commercially valuable phos phate deposits were discovered in Florida, prompting Governor E.A. Perry to appoint Dr. John Kost, a medical doctor and amateur geologist, as State Geologist in 1886. These phosphate deposits and deposits yet undiscovered, would provide a 1 continuing source of wealth to the state of Florida. Phosphate fertilizers have con tinued to be essential in the quest to feed the earth's expanding population. The dis cipline of geology has, in one sense, come full circle. Early on, in the extraction of phosphate, there was little interest in the fate oflands which had been mined out and geology was applied almost solely to the extraction and exploitation of the phosphate resource. Currently, enormous amounts of geologic expertise are applied to the reclamation oflands which were pre viously mined for phosphate as well as other minerals. Geology has become an holistic discipline in which subsurface strata are viewed simultaneously as host to essential mineral commodities and the ground water necessary for the survival of life. Subsurface strata are viewed as in tegrated with surficial materials and the effects of man on earth systems are no longer ignored. Dr. Kost completed his studies in about one year. He requested that his tenure be extended and found his position abolished. In 1907, enabling legislation was passed creating an autonomous, permanent Florida Geological Survey (FGS), and an office of State Geologist with four support staff positions The new Survey was given latitude to formulate its own choice of re search and throughout its existence its mis sion has been guided by the vision of its state geologists Dr. E.H. Sellards, who served as state geologist from 1907 to 1919, focused early work of the FGS staff on water resources long before those issues commanded their current degree of state and national concern. He concurrently directed studies of road materials in keep ing with Florida's economic needs. The second director of the FGS, Herman

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Gunter, served as state geologist from 1919 to 1958. Gunter was especially concerned with potential damage to groundand sur face-water supplies as a result of careless drilling practices and misuse of water. Dr. R.O. Vernon held the post of state geologist from 1958 to 1971. He expanded cooperative investigations between the FGS and the United States Geological Sur vey (USGS) dealing with water resources. Dr. Vernon also emphasized the role of public education in the conservation and protection of Florida's water resources. C.W. Hendry Jr., state geologist from 1971 to 1988, recognized that improved oil and gas regulations were necessary for protec tion of Florida's environment and conser vation of the state's petroleum resources. In addition, he initiated a program in which environmental geology maps were prepared for the entire state. The current state geologist, Dr. Walter Schmidt, has initiated cooperative programs between the FGS and various state and federal earth science and environmental agencies. In addition, the Mineral Resources and En vironmental Geology Section was created to fill the need for applied studies related to minerals and the environment. The application of geology to environmen tal problems in Florida has an extensive history. It is, however, interesting to note that geology is still perceived by many as a science which is devoted to the exploitation of mineral resources with an almost malevolent disregard for the environment. The work of the FGS remains directed toward geological research as a basis for scientifically sound environmental policies. 2 Geology and Environmental Concerns Widespread confusion exists concerning the relationship of geology to the broad spectrum of "environmental" concerns. The relationship of geology to the environmental sciences may be considered as analogous to the relationship between anatomy and the medical sciences. Geology is the "anatomy and physiology" of the environmental sciences. The geologic mechanisms by which rocks form are criti cal in the development of the porosity and permeability which allow (or restrict depending on their nature) the movement of fluids such as water or oil and gas through them. The same characteristics which allow an aquifer (water-bearing rock) to yield large quantities of water may also render it extremely vulnerable to con tamination. A knowledge of an area's geol ogy allows that vulnerability to be evaluated. The evaluation may then be used as a planning tool in such a way that the potential for contamination is mini mized. The relationship of geology to the physical environment can be explained in terms of the sorts of problems faced by a typical Florida county as it attempts to meet the needs of its citizens. Requirements for the general population might include building materials for dwellings and roads, adequate quantities of potable water and the means for safe disposal of waste, among others. In addition, technical information is neces sary if the population is to protect itself against various geologic hazards common to Florida including the development of sinkholes, flooding, pollution sup plies, coastal erosion and the occurrence of radon gas. Sensitive environments such as wetlands must be prdtected against the degradation associated with encroaching civilization. This geological information is fundamental if the human population is able to coexist in a positive way with its physical environment. Florida's remarkable population growth has resulted in the need for construction of all types and that construction has required the mining and beneficiation of large amounts of limestone and dolostone. Fortunately limestone and dolostone are readily available in large .quantities throughout much of the state. The exist ence of a mineral deposit, however, does not necessarily imply that it should be mined. Some areas will never be mined because they are host to unique and fragile environments which must be preserved. In other areas, water resources may be vul nerable to damage if mining occurs. Geology is the discipline which defines the rock layers in a given area and notes their com position, including any mineral resources they may contain. It is also the discipline which defines the relationship of rock layers in an area to ground-water and sur face-water resources. All communities require adequate amounts offresh water which are protected from various sources of contamination. The discipline of geology plays a major role in the task oflocating water supplies, defin ing the rocks which both store and transmit water and in the location and definition of confining layers. Water is contained within rocks and must be able to move through them in order to be useful. Stratigraphy is a subdiscipline of geology which deals with layered rocks and their properties. Obser vations related to the porosity (the presence of voids in rocks) and permeability (the extent to which voids are 3 interconnected) are noted. The composi tion of rocks is also observed by the strati grapher since sands, clays, limestones and dolostones all transmit water differently. The stratigrapher also defines the geographical area underlain by various rock layers. This information is especially important in the protection of aquifers from potential contamination which might occur at waste sites. Waste disposal is a necessary consideration in all communities. An understanding of an area's geology is critical if its waste dis posal is to be carried out in such a way that surfaceand ground-water resources are not placed at risk. In Florida, most waste is disposed in the shallow subsurface. Waste water may be pumped into deep injection wells. The safe disposal of waste is a geologic challenge. Many aspects of an area's geology must be considered and their interrelationships must be under stood. The geographic extent of an area's principal aquifers and their areas of recharge (areas where water from the sur face enters an aquifer) must be defined. Areas of recharge are especially critical since contaminants may enter an aquifer along with water from the surface. The disposal site should be isolated from sur face-water bodies and it should never be subject to flooding. The potential for sinkhole development must be considered since sinkholes frequently provide a direct pathway to an aquifer. The types of surfi cial materials and underlying bedrock must, of course, be considered since some earth materials retard the downward movement of water while others transmit it readily. If waste is to be disposed using deep injection wells, an understanding of the geology of the injection zone and its confining layer or layers is essential in

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preventing upward movement of waste water. Certain geologic conditions, be they natural or man-made, may pose risks or danger to human life or property. These conditions are called geologic hazards. Geologic hazards reflect the geological set ting of an area. Areas may be categorized in terms of the sorts of hazards which are most likely to occur. Once the hazards have been identified, planning and public education programs can minimize their im pact. In a typical Florida county, the poten tial for sinkhole development is a cause for concern. Fortunately, many areas of the state exhibit a low probability of sinkhole development. Certain combinations of geologic conditions lead to areas which are prone to sinkhole development. However, these broad areas have been delineated so that special precautions may be taken where they are appropriate. Maps currently available from the FGS allow general areas to be evaluated in terms of their potential for sinkhole development. Many areas of Florida are subject to storms which are accompanied by heavy rain fall. In low-lying areas and in areas which are underlain by materials of low permeability, such as clays, heavy rains may lead to flood ing. An examination of an area's topog raphy (the variation in elevations of its land surface) allows areas which are prone to flooding to be delineated. The geology of an area also yields information on its sedi ments and sedimentary rocks. Flooding is a geologic hazard which may threaten both life and property. Careful examination of the topography and earth materials in conjunction with the analysis of drainage basins allows the identification of flood prone areas. These areas should probably 4 be avoided in the building process when it is possible. Pollution of water supplies is a geologic hazard which is currently the subject of state and national focus. As discussed pre viously in this section, geology is a key dis cipline in the protection of surfaceand ground-water resources. The charac teristics of water-bearing rocks and their confining layers are described. Maps of the geographic distributions of rock units can aid in the assessment of their vulnerability to various sources of contamination. Sur face water bodies are always vulnerable to pollution and must especially be con sidered in waste disposal since leachate may travel through subsurface materials and enter streams and lakes. Radon gas is a geologic hazard which has recently received much state and federal consideration. Radon is a naturally occur ring radioactive gas which is a daughter product of uranium-238, another radioac tive element which occurs naturally in many rocks and minerals of Florida. The potential for elevated radon levels is not equal in all counties of the state. Generally, areas characterized by elevated radon levels are related to geology. On a county by county basis, areas with potentially elevated radon levels have been defined. It is still advisable for individual structures to be tested since levels may vary within a county. Although geology does not supply the entire answer concerning elevated radon levels, it definitely provides a first approximation solution to this perplexing problem. Another major geologic hazard which may impact a typical Florida county is the issue of coastal and beach erosion. The geologic subdiscipline of sedimentology treats the movement and deposition of sand by water. Beaches are notoriously short-lived features geologically. They are characteristically in motion, advancing or retreating as sea level changes or their supply of nurturing sand varies. The posi tion of beaches responds to many factors which are continually changing. The ac tivities of man can impact this system as well, usually by construction which alters sand supply to a given area. Large storms, such as hurricanes, rearranged beaches long before human beings sought to inhabit them. The impact of such storms continues and is extensive. Geologic input should be considered at every turn in dealing with the beach and coastal environment. The system is delicately balanced and the poten tial forloss of property and even life cannot be ignored. Public Service Activities The FGS has mandates in two major areas related to the geology of the state. Its first mandate is related to the acquisition and subsequent utilization of fundamental geologic data. In order to provide a sound basis for both the development and conser vation of Florida's natural resources, the resources must first be understood. Thus the Survey is mandated to collect and inter pret geologic data which then becomes the basis for published reports. It is the responsibility of the Survey to store and maintain samples and data derived from them, so that the information is accessible to various government agencies as well as industry and other interested parties. The Survey's second mandate addresses issues related to the oil and gas industry. It is the responsiblity of the FGS to insure the 5 conservation and prudent utilization of the state's oil and gas resources. At the same time environmental impacts associated with the development of these resources must be minimized. In order to accomplish these goals, the oil and gas exploration and production industries are regulated through a series of statutes, rules, permits, and inspections. In order to effectively carry out its man dated responsibilities, the FGS must com municate with its scientific, industrial and lay constituency. Research results are routinely available through the Survey's various publication vehicles including Map Series, Reports of Investigation, Bulletins, Information Circulars, Special Publica tions and Open File Reports. The Florida Geology Forum, published twice yearly, in cludes brief descriptions of current re search, service and continuing education activities in the state. Research results are also presented in talks prepared for profes sional conferences and meetings, field trips, university colloquia and meetings of interested laymen. Direct requests for information on numerous subjects including well data, sample availability, regional geology, regional hydrogeology, and paleontology, among others, are handled by staff geologists. These requests are screened in terms of geographic area and topic so that they may be referred to the most ap propriate staff member. They originate from state and federal government agen cies, consulting firms, universities, and earth science related industries as well as concerned citizens. FGS staff members make presentations on various aspects of Florida geology when

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requests for this service are received. Staff members have presented talks on a variety of topics during the 1989-1990 biennium, including rocks and fossils, dinosaurs, karst geology, environmental geology and Florida geology. These talks are adapted to audiences ranging in educational back ground from preschool to high school stu dents. Staff also handles requests for presentations at the university level. Topics have included Florida geology, ac tivities of the Florida Geological Survey, and speleogenesis related to local karst fea tures. In addition, FGS staff has spoken to various civic organizations including local groups of cub scouts, scout leaders and a canoe club. The staff of the FGS Oil and Gas Section routinely hold public hearings and workshops. These meetings are advertised in the Florida Administrative Weekly and local newspapers to insure that interested persons may plan to attend. The activities of the Oil and Gas section are discussed more completely in the section of this docu ment which deals specifically with the oil and gas program. 6

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RESEARCH AND REGULATORY PROGRAMS Geological Investigations Section The Geological Investigations Section is involved in a wide variety of research projects throughout the state. Currently, a new state geologic map is being prepared. A geologic map shows the distribution of rock units at the surface of the ground and is, therefore, an invaluable aid in the en vironmental decision-making process. The formal rock-units (e.g. Hawthorn Group) which are shown on the map represent various lithologies (clays, limestones, etc.) which are, in turn, characterized by certain general hydrogeologic properties (sand is very permeable to water, while clay is fairly impermeable). Such a map, thus, provides first approximation solutions to numerous environmental problems related to waste disposal, protection of ground-water resources and geologic hazards. Additional projects pursued by Geological Investigations Section include a study of the relationship between uranium-series isotopes and organic deposits, an investiga tion of Plio-Pleistocene shell-bearing sedi ments in Florida and the initiation of a project designed to examine the wastewater injection zone in east-central Florida. Staff geologists continue geologic studies of individual counties, since this information is fundamental for sound en vironmental and planning decisions. The section also consults with other government agencies since the regional and local geology of a given area are fun damental in the evaluation of numerous environmental problems. Geologic Inves8 tigations handles inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and contamination, geologic hazards, minerals mapping, and problems related to community planning and development. The group prepares detailed lithologic logs for wells which are on file with -the FGS. This information is added to the Survey's computerized data base which currently contains logs for ap proximately 3,250 wells. This data base and the programs designed to manipulate it are currently used by other governmental agencies and a number of private firms. Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section Florida ranks first in the nation with respect to production of phosphate rock and second nationally in the production of peat, crushed stone and masonry cement. The Mineral Resource and Environmental Geology Section maintains communica tion with the mineral industry in Florida and publishes biennial status reports re lated to industry activity. Another aspect of the group's work with industrial minerals involves the prepara tion of mineral resource maps. These maps were planned to aid counties in the preparation of comprehensive land-use plans mandated by the state legislature. The maps identify areas which are characterized by the potential for mineral resource development and are accom panied by brief explanatory texts. Smaller inset maps of geomorphology and terrace deposits along with cross-sections accom pany each text. Another publication series targets environ mental geology of metropolitan areas which are experiencing high rates of

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population growth. The reports explore numerous aspects of geology of each area as they relate to environmental protection. It is anticipated that these documents will be used extensively as a planning aid since growth must take cognizance of the physi cal environment. Oil and Gas Section Exploration for and production of oil and gas are regulated by the Oil and Gas Sec tion through a system of permits and in spections. Environmental concerns and protection of correlative rights are a priority at all levels in the permitting process. The section's main office is lo cated in Tallahassee, with field offices lo cated near producing fields in north (Jay) and south (Ft. Myers) Florida. Activities regulated by the section include: drilling for oil and gas, water injection wells, transportation of oil or gas from wells, plugging and abandoning of wells, and geophysical exploration. Ten drilling permits were issued in 1989. Eight wildcat wells were drilled in northwest Florida and one was drilled in south Florida; all were dry holes. One development well was drilled in the Jay field in north Florida and is producing. No permits were issued for saltwater disposal or water injection wells. Nine drilling permits were issued in 1990. Seven wildcat wells were drilled in northwest Florida and one was drilled in south Florida; all were dry holes. One dry field development well was drilled in the Mt. Carmel field in northwest Florida. No service wells were drilled in 1990. 9 Geophysical exploration companies ob tained 11 seismic exploration permits in 1989 for a total of 409 line miles; 255 miles were completed. Of the completed miles, 185 were located offshore in state waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the remaining 70 miles were for onshore ex ploration. The onshore exploration con sisted almost entirely of exploration using explosives; these 68 miles were located in northwest Florida (Escambia, Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties). The remaining two miles of the onshore exploration used vibratory energy sources in south Florida (Dade County). The Department issued six seismic ex ploration permits for 83 line miles in 1990; 59 miles were completed. All the completed miles were located onshore in northwest Florida (Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties) and all permits were for exploration using explosives. Two per mits for gravity surveys were also issued; only one was conducted and was located in south Florida (Collier, Hendry and Lee counties). The FGS adopted revisions to the Oil and Gas Rules (Chapters 16C-25 through 30, Florida Administrative Code) which were effective June 5, 1989. The FGS began considering revisions to the Oil and. Gas Rules resulting from changes to the statutes made during the 1989 and 1990 legislative sessions. The Department held a public workshop in October, 1990 to gather input from other agencies, environ mental groups, industry and the public. The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Commit tee is an ad hoc committee set up by the Governor and Cabinet to inspect drill sites and access routes in the Big Cypress Swamp of south Florida. The Committee recom mends any necessary changes resulting from environmental concerns in order to mitigate drilling impacts in sensitive areas. The Committee is chaired by the State Geologist and meets quarterly if there are sites to be inspected. During 1989, the Committee met once and inspected one drill site and its associated access route. The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Commit tee did not meet during 1990 because the FGS received no applications for permits to drill in that .area. PERSONNEL CHANGES A number ofmajorpersonnel changes have occurred in the FGS during the 1989-1990 biennium. J. William "Bill" Yon retired at the end of January, 1990 ending a 39 year career with the FGS. Bill's research inter ests were concentrated in stratigraphy and economic geology and his diplomatic per sonality was a major asset in the estab lishment of a congenial and cooperative relationship with the minerals industry in Florida. Bill headed the fledgling Mine Reclamation program for a number of years after its inception and remained in charge of reclamation research at the newly formed Mine Reclamation Bureau for several years. When the FGS created its Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section, Bill was chosen to lead the group, a position he held until retire ment. Richard Howard, an invaluable FGS employee, retired in August of 1989 at the end of 25 years of exemplary service. Richard was in charge of all core and cut ting samples received by the FGS. He washed and bagged cuttings, assigned ac cession numbers to wells and supervised 10 and maintained the FGS sample repository. His outstanding work perfor mance was officially recognized when he was chosen as D.N.R. Employee-of-the Month in August, 1984. Harold Barnes "Pete" Parker, northwest Florida oil and gas district coordinator, lost his battle with cancer in August, 1990. Pete had a long career as a petroleum geologist in both industry and public service. He served as FGS oil and gas coordinator for south Florida for nine years, at which time he returned to industry. In 1987, he once again chose to work with state government, this time in northwest Florida. Pete was well-liked and a respected coworker. We miss him. Alison Lewis, research librarian at the FGS, left in August, 1989 to pursue doctoral studies at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ms. Alice Jor dan joined the staff as librarian, bringing extensive experience in science libraries to the job. She has served as research librarian at a number of medical libraries and a university physics library in addition to her other library experience. Three geologists joined the FGS in the 1989-1990 biennium, while one left to pur sue his own geological studies. Marycarol Reilly, a licensed Professional Geologist in Florida, joined the Ft. Myers Field Office in November, 1989. Her duties include field inspections of oil and gas related work, conducted under permits issued by DNR and geologic investigations related to the environmental impacts associated with oil and gas drilling and production. Mitch Covington joined the FGS staff in June 1990. He specializes in nannofossil paleontology and works at the FGS head-

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quarters in Tallahassee. Joel Duncan, a licensed Professional Geologist in Florida, also joined the FGS staff in mid-1990. He is based in Tallahassee and concentrates his efforts in carbonate petrology and petroleum geology. Richard Johnson, a staff geologist specializing in stratigraphy, left the FGS in mid-1990 to carry out inde pendent geological research. The 1989-1990 biennium saw a number of upgrades and promotions at the FGS. J ac queline Lloyd, a petroleum geologist and geological supervisor with the FGS was promoted to fill Bill Yon's position on his retirement. She is now Administrator and Senior Geologist over the Mineral Resour ces and Environmental Geology Section. In December, 1990, Scott Hoskins was promoted to an Environmental Specialist III and now heads the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office. His duties now include regulatory of all petroleum ex ploration, drilling and production opera tions as well as management of the field office. Ken Campbell was promoted to the, position of Geological Supervisor I in 1990. He originally joined the FGS as a graduate assistant and was hired as a Geologist II on the completion of his Master's degree. His duties include supervision of the augering program and oversight of the FGSMinerals Management Service Coopera tive Project, among others. John Morrill, the FGS driller, was upgraded from an En gineering Technician IV to an Engineer I, in 1990. He is responsible for conducting all coring operations in addition to other well drilling activities. Jim Jones, a draftsman and longtime employee of the FGS, was upgraded in 1990 from an Engineering Technician III to an Engineer I. His photographic and drafting expertise have contributed greatly to the FGS publication 11 process over the years and his development of computerized drafting techniques for the Survey have greatly enhanced the capabilities in that department. Frank Rush joined the FGS as a full-time employee in August 1989 after having as sisted Richard Howard as an OPS (Other Personal Services) employee on a full-time basis. Frank prepares and catalogues samples, manages the FGS sample repository, and also assists with the Survey augering and drilling programs. ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS A number of additional programs which are overseen by the FGS are critical to its mission. These programs benefit Survey staff as well as other government agencies, industrial representatives, consulting groups, academic researchers and inter ested citizens. The Survey's drilling pro gram acquires cores from various locations around the state for in-house projects as well as for cooperative projects. The Geologic Sample Repository contains storage space for core and cutting samples, allowing this valuable information to be preserved and cataloged in a systematic fashion. Lithologic and geophysical logs are filed for ease of retrieval at the Gunter Building in Tallahassee. The Survey's computer system is used to handle the growing volume of information associated with geological research and oil and gas regulation. FGS's research library allows its users the advantage of computerized database searches along with traditional library services geared specifically to geology. FGS supervises an active student as sistant program in which qualified graduate students assist staff members in various ongoing research programs. Continuing education is a vital program at the Survey, offering staff advanced educational oppor tunities in many affiliated disciplines. Drilling Program The FGS maintains an active scientific drilling program. The state is charac terized by very low topographic relief and data obtained from cores is essential to the understanding of subsurface stratigraphy. The FGS owns and operates a truckmounted Failing 1500 drill rig which is deployed on a full-time basis in various parts of the state depending on research needs. The drill rig is operated by a fully licensed driller and one assistant. During 1989 and 1990, 19 cores were obtained, ranging from 48 to 822 feet in depth, for a total cored length of 5,536 feet. Two auger rigs, one truck mounted, the other trailer mounted are available for staff use. Twen ty-three auger holes were drilled in Glades County in 1990. Drilling procedures with the auger rig are modified to provide the highest quality samples possible. Research Library The FGS library is an integral part of its research and regulatory programs. It provides access to basic research materials including books, state and federal docu ments, photographs and periodicals totaling approximately 30,000 volumes. Materials are collected on various aspects of geology, mining and mineral resources, environmental studies, hydrology and re lated topics. The library has one of the largest and oldest map collections in the state of Florida with over 15,000 maps, in cluding a rather large collection of 19th century maps. The library has access to 12 GEOREF, an international computerized bibliographic information retrieval system. In addition to the holdings available at the Survey's facility, the library participates in a nationwide Interlibrary Loan Network through which the staff has access to other special and academic collections. The library cooperates with other libraries through various networking groups on the local, state and national level. The librarian participates in the activities of the Florida Library Association, Panhandle Library Access Network, Geoscience In formation Society and Southeastern Map Librarians. The library is used by the public, private consulting firms and various governmental agencies. Circulation is restricted to Sur vey staff and personnel of other state agen cies and Florida State University Geology Department. The library also provides detailed information on the Survey's 500 published documents and reports and over sees the distribution of those documents presently in print. During 1989-1990 this included over 2,000 requests for 20,000 documents. In addition, 250 various depository libraries around the world received some 3,000 documents to update their depository collections. Geologic Sample Collections The FGS maintains separate collections of well and surface outcrop samples. The well collection consists of approximately 16,270 sets of samples from research wells as well as water and oil wells. Most wells are rep resented by sets of drill cuttings. Some 566 wells are, however, represented by con tinuous core (a total of approximately 133,000 feet). The sample repository facility occupies about 9,500 square feet,

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with 17,655 square feet of shelf space. A small office/lab is available for use by Sur vey staff and visiting scientists. A collection of approximately 4,600 outcrop samples and mineral specimens is maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the Gunter Building. These samples are cross indexed by formation, lithology, county, and location. The collection is referred to as the "M-Series." The "MSeries" is particularly valuable given Florida's high rate of population growth and development. Surface exposures of critical lithologies have become inacces sible to researchers with the continued proliferation of roadways, shopping centers, parking lots and high-rise housing. The Survey also maintains a paleontologi cal reference set. This invertebrate fossil reference set contains over 20,000 specimens of macro-fossils and over 10,000 micro-fossil specimens and is located at the Gunter Building. The collections of Florida typical and/or guide fossils consist of mollusks, echinoids, ostracodes, foraminifera, bryozoans, corals, nannofos sils, and diatoms. Data Files Samples from wells which are stored at the FGS sample repository are indexed by accession number, county, and section, township and range location. Lithologic logs, drillers logs, and information sheets which correspond to these wells are filed by county and accession number in a series of looseleaf binders (the "Green Books"). Information from the "Green Books" is gradually being transferred to the Survey's computerized data base which currently contains data from approximately 3,250 13 wells. Computer services are discussed more completely in another section of this report. A file of geophysical logs contains informa tion for approximately 4,800 wells. Many (but not all) of these wells have corresponding lithologic samples available and are assigned FGS accession numbers. Geophysical logs represented include electric (normal, lateral, SP) natural gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity or conduc tivity, temperature, single point resistivity, acoustic velocity, fluid velocity, neutron (porosity) and gamma-gamma (density). In addition, complete suites of geophysical logs accompany most permitted oil and gas wells. Computer Services The primary focus of computer services at the FGS is its inventory of geologic logs corresponding to wells archived at the Survey's sample repository. The database contains lithologic descriptions of cores and cutting samples, as well as formational picks. Computer coding of well data began in 1972. The database currently contains 60 county files with approximately 3,250 descriptions. An analogous database of outcrop descriptions was begun in 1987. It currently contains descriptions of 50 out crops from 27 Florida counties. This extensive database provides a detailed source of information concerning the sub surface geology of Florida. The software system written to manage and use this database is called the Well Log Data Sys tem (written by Dr. Robert Lindquist, GeoLogic Information Systems, Gainesville, Florida). The system was written for PC compatibility, providing FGS and outside users access to the state-wide geologic database. The BASIC programs which make up the system allow for entering and editing data, and generating both graphic (when combined with Surfer, a separate commercial software package) and text output of geologic data. Graphic output includes structure and isopach maps, geologic cross-sections, and well location maps. Additional programs generate geologic columns for both well and outcrop data. Two additional computer databases are maintained by the FGS Oil and Gas Sec tion. These include an inventory of oil and gas well data (approximately 1,268 per mits) as well as an inventory of about 142 geophysical permits. In-house and com mercial software packages allow for sorting and tracking of the data in both databases. Valuable computer services are available to FGS staff through the library. Using DIALOG information service, the FGS librarian conducts searches for references to geologic and hydrologic literature on the GEOREF, GeoAbstracts, Water Resour ces Abstracts, and Science Citation Index. The librarian can also contact the LUIS on-line system. This system accesses the on-line library catalog for Florida State University and other State University Sys tem (SUS) libraries. All computer work at the FGS is ac complished on IBM (or IBM-compatible) personal computers. Data and graphic input devices include one 11" X 17" GTCO digitizer and three 36" X 48" GTCO digitizers. Text and graphic output is through two Hewlett Packard (HP) Plot ters, two HP Laserjet Series II printers, and several dot matrix printers of varying 14 quality. Software used includes in-house Basicand C programs, the Well Log Data System described above, shareware, and standard commercial packages (e.g., Lotus 123, dBase IV, WordPerfect, WordStar, Xerox Ventura Publisher, Surfer, and AutoCad). Student Assistantship Program The FGS sponsors an active student assis tantship program which is beneficial for students and staff geologists. Qualified graduate students in geology obtain work experience in a professional setting while staff geologists, in turn, are assisted by knowledgeable and motivated individuals. The assistantship program was begun in 1974 and has run with minor interruptions since that time. Currently, most students are employed by contract and grant funded studies. These students conduct research tasks while under the supervision of professional geologists on the Survey staff. As the pro gram has developed, the FGS and several Water Management Districts have provided funding for assistants. Additional funding sources include the U.S. Minerals Management Service, and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. The number of students employed in a given year varies with available funding. Continuing Education Numerous opportunities for continuing education are available to staff at the FGS. The state of Florida maintains a unique program in which tuition is waived for state employees enrolling in job-related univer sity courses on a space available basis. A number of Survey staff members have

PAGE 14

taken advantage of this program enrolling in related geology, geography, planning and oceanography courses. Attendance at technical short courses is also encouraged. Staff members have at tended courses related to various topics including oil production technology, KEVEX microanalysis of minerals, geographic information systems and oil and gas exploration and production waste management practices. In addition, staff have attended workshops developed in response to environmental concerns. Topics for these classes include wetlands ecosystems of the Big Bend, uplands ecosystems of the Big Bend area, coastal and freshwater habitats, as well as karst hydrogeology. Survey staff members are also offered a number of short courses which enhance job performance. Professional staff have par ticipated in courses related to oral presen tations, speed reading and writing skills. Secretarial staff have taken advantage of a number of courses designed to improve job performance including courses aimed at improved communication skills (Getting the Message Across, Developing your Lan guage Skills, Acting and Reacting) as well as courses which enhance fundamental secretarial skills (Improving the Basics, The Take Charge Secretary, and Proofreading, Editing and Writing Skills). Staff have access to a number of courses related to the use of commercial software packages including WordPerfect, Xerox Ventura Publisher and Lotus 1-2-3. Super visory staff are offered a number of courses dealing with management techniques in cluding Successful Employee Selection, Certified Public Management, and Attain ing Superior Management Performance. 15 The Department of Natural Resources, parent organization of the FGS, recognizes that circumstances beyond the workplace may have a major impact on job perfor mance. Survey staff members have par ticipated in classes designed to have a positive impact on family interactions (Parent Education and Parenting for Self Esteem). In addition, supervisory staff have attended workshops which explain the Employee Assistance Program and discuss its applicability to various personnel situa tions. Safety related classes and classes in first aid, CPR and defensive driving are available to all interested employees.

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COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS The FGS participates in cooperative programs with federal agencies, other state agencies and water management districts. In addition, FGS houses a scanning electron microscope which was donated to the Florida State University (FSU) Geology Department by Texaco. The unit is maintained jointly by FGS and interested parties in the FSU Geology Department. The FGS also benefits from a cooperative research effort with the FSU Academic Diving Program and the Woodville Karst Plain Project. FGS is ideally suited to these collaborative efforts since it routinely col lects and processes information pertinent to many geologic subdisciplines on a state wide basis. This extensive in-house data base is immediately available as the foun dation for various joint studies. Staff geologists design projects in conjunction with their collaborators, hire research as sociates and supervise student assistants. Each project is continually monitored by the staff geologist who is in charge of it. Two projects aimed at defining heavy mineral resources off coastal Florida have been undertaken in conjunction with the United States Minerals Management Ser vice. FGS has been actively involved in cooperative projects with the Suwannee River Water Management District (WMD), Southwest Florida WMD and South Florida WMD. Suwannee River WMD has contracted with the FGS to pro vide a number of maps related to various hydrogeologic parameters in the District. Southwest Florida WMD has contracted with FGS for the description and entry of additional wells into the computerized data base. South Florida WMD and the FGS 17 have completed a cooperative arrangement in which continuous cores were drilled and described in high growth regions of south Florida. In addition, FGS and the Florida Department of Environ mental Regulation are currently cooperat ing on two very different projects, both of which have as their goal, the enhanced protection of Florida's environment. Florida DER has contracted with the FGS to publish the results of investigations as sociated with its Ambient Ground Water Quality Network. DER has also con tracted with FGS to conduct a study of the highly permeable, but nonpotable portion of the lower Floridan aquifer system, as well as its confining layer, in Brevard Coun-ty. U.S. Minerals Management Service Cooperative Program The FGS has been involved with two heavy mineral reconnaissance studies during 1989 and 1990. These studies were conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Minerals Management Service, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, the U.S. Geological Survey, University of South Florida, and Florida Institute of Technology. The 1989 study was the second and final phase of a two-year study of sediments from the shoal complex offshore of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Coast. One hundred and forty samples derived from 84 vibracores were analyzed during the two-year study. The average total heavy-mineral content of the samples is 0.26 weight percent. The heavy mineral suite consists of, in decreas' ing order of abundance, epidote, ilmenite,

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aluminosilicates, zircon, pyroxene-am phibole, staurolite, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, monazite and others (magnetite, phosphorite, sulfides, unidentified opa ques, quartz and coated grains). The minerals of highest economic importance which are present in the Cape Canaveral offshore area include ilmenite, rutile, zir con and monazite. Monazite is present in minute quantities and does not figure in calculations of economic heavy-minerals. Economic heavy-minerals comprise an average of 39.2 percent of the recovered heavy-mineral concentrate. The heavy mineral species which occur offshore of Cape Canaveral are similar to those found in onshore economic deposits such as Trail Ridge and Green Cove Springs, however absolute abundance and concentration is almost an order of magnitude lower for the offshore deposits. The results of these analyses show a very low potential for detri tal heavy-mineral resources in the study area. Sand and gravel deposits on the shoal bodies are sand-rich and mud-poor and maintain these characteristics to a depth of at least 3 meters over a broad area. The complete thickness of these sediments can not be assessed using data from the current study. The 1990 study builds on the Cape Canaveral study and examines vibracores from the inner Atlantic continental shelf of northeast Florida, north of Cape Canaveral to the Florida-Georgia state line. Seventy samples from 49 vibracores were examined for phase 1 (1990) of this study. The average total heavy-mineral content of the 70 samples examined to date is 0.49 weight percent. The heavy-mineral species present, in decreasing order of abundance are epidote, ilmenite, aluminosilicates, zir-18 con, staurolite, rutile, garnet, pyroboles, tourmaline, monazite and others (phos phorite, sulfides, unidentified opaques, quartz and coated grains). Economic heavy-minerals comprise 52.7 percent of the recovered heavy-mineral concentrate. Sand and gravel deposits may locally pro vide materials for beach renourishment since they are oflow mud content: The best sites, based on available data are offshore from St. Augustine and Fernandina Beach, although these data are insufficient to quantify thickness and lateral extent of the sediments. Much of the-laboratory work and sample analysis for the MMS projects is conducted by graduate assistants under supervision by either FGS staff geologists or research as sociates. Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Pro gram Publications The Florida Legislature's Water Quality Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the estab lishment of an Ambient Ground Water Quality Network to aid in the prediction and detection of contamination of Florida's ground-water resources. Administered through the Florida DER, this legislation provides the funding for construction of a state-wide background ground-water quality monitoring well network. Also in cluded within the scope of the Act are re search provisions for defining aquifer systems based on new and existing hydrogeologic data, water-quality sampling and analysis, as well as in-depth studies ranking the hydrogeologic pollution poten tial of each aquifer system. The bulk of the hydrogeologic data acquisition, compila tion, and analysis work is currently being undertaken by the state's five water management districts and, in Alachua County, by the Alachua County Depart ment of Environmental Services. The Department of Environmental Regulation has contracted with the FGS to begin publishing the results of these inves tigations. Two volumes are in preparation. The first will be a series of maps which portray the basic hydrogeologic conditions present within the principal aquifer sys tems of Florida. The second publication will be a series of maps portraying back ground water-quality parameters for Florida's principal aquifer systems. Suwannee River Water Management Dis trict Cooperative Program The FGS and the Suwannee River WMD have maintained a success-ful and mutually beneficial working relationship for nearly fifteen years. For much of this period, the Suwannee River WMD has funded geology graduate students to work as research assis tants at the FGS, describing well samples and cores and entering the coded lithologic logs into the FGS computer data base. This arrangement has worked exceedingly well, resulting in the addition of much new data on the geology of the District to the data bases of both agencies. This cooperative arrangement continued through the years 1989-1990. During this period, a top of Floridan aquifer system map for the Suwannee District was com pleted, and lithologic logs from all pre-1972 wells drilled in the District were computer coded. In addition, the Suwannee River WMD contracted with the FGS to provide three new products. These consisted of: 1) a series of maps depicting the top and thick19 ness of the intermediate aquifer system within the District based on data on file at the FGS, 2) computer digitized maps show ing the locations of all mines greater than 10 acres in size, located within District boundaries, and 3) a coring study of the Waccasassa Flats region of Gilchrist Coun ty. The FGS hired both undergraduate and graduate geology students to work on the mapping projects, which are on-going, and provided its core-drilling rig for the Wac casassa study. By the close of 1990, nine cores had been recovered from transects across the Waccasassa Flats, and ground water monitor wells were installed at each site. As a continuing part of the contract, the lithology of the cores will be described. Permeability, clay mineralogy and grain size analyses will be performed by graduate assistants under the supervision of an FGS staff geologist. South Florida Water Management Dis trict Cooperative Program In July 1988, the FGS and the South Florida WMD began a cooperative project in Lee, Hendry and Collier Counties. South Florida is experiencing rapid population growth and sound water managment prac tices must be predicated on an adequate understanding of the lithologic units which comprise aquifer systems. Topographic relief in these counties is especially low, making reliable subsurface data an invalu able asset. The three counties targeted by this study are characterized by sparse data coverage. This project involves the drilling and evaluation of six continuous cores and coding of 180 existing longhand geologic logs within the South Florida district to computer format with subsequent entry of

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these logs into the FGS computer data base. The first core (W-16242, South Seas #1, 760 feet TD) was drilled on Captiva Island, Lee County in 1988. The remaining cores were drilled during 1989 and 1990 (W-16329, Hilliard Brothers, 740 feet TD, Hendry County; W-16387, U.S. Sugar, 662 feet TD, Hendry County; W -16434, Collier Corporation Immokalee, 715 feet TD, Collier County; W-16505, Fakahatchee Strand, 702 feet TD, Collier County; and W-16523, Koreshan, 822 feet TD, Lee County). The South Seas site was developed into a monitor well while the remainder were plugged after drilling and logging. Each core was described lithologically, computer coded and entered into the FGS and SFWMD data bases. Detailed stratigraphic columns were developed for each core and cross-sections were generated. The final report was delivered to the SFWMD in mid-1990 and filed as FGS OFR-37. Evaluation of the cores ob tained through this program and computer coding is undertaken mainly by student as sistants under the supervision of a FGS staff geologist. Southwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program In June, 1990 the FGS and Southwest Florida WMD entered into a cooperative program designed to enhance data coverage for the counties which comprise the Southwest Florida WMD. Decisions concerning hydrogeologic and environ mental matters must be based on a data base which is as broad as possible. The FGS has an extensive collection of lithologic logs which predate its computer system. Although this information is readily acces20 sible to FGS staff, it is not part of the com puterized data base shared by the FGS and Southwest Florida WMD. In addition, a number of wells archived at the FGS sample repository lack lithologic logs. The current project is aimed at upgrading the agencies' shared.data base by the addition of previously existing lithologic logs to the computerized data base using student as sistants. Student assistants have also begun describing samples from wells which are archived by the FGS, but have not been described. These new descriptions will then be entered into the computerized data base. The augmented computerized data base will facilitate manipulation of lithologic data using various software packages. Student assistants work under FGS staff supervision. The Lower Floridan Aquifer System in Brevard County In late-1990, the Florida DER contracted with the FGS to complete a detailed geological analysis of the lower Floridan aquifer system in Brevard County. This study includes both the confining layer and its underlying injection zone. In Brevard County, some treated liquid sewage waste products are disposed by pumping into deep injection well bores. The waste material is forced outward into a highly permeable but nonpotable part of the lower Floridan aquifer system. The injec tion zone is directly overlain by a confining layer of impermeable carbonate rock which prevents the upward movement of injected waste and resultant contamination of the shallow, potable water supply of the upper Floridan aquifer system. The current cooperative study was prompted by the discovery of contaminated. water zones above the confining layer at one injection site. In the initial phase of this project, cores and cuttings from eight injection wellbores have been examined and described using a binocular micro scope. Geophysical logs for the bores have been correlated and cross-sections have been constructed. This intensive examina tion of available evidence will aid in the identification of potential geologic factors which may affect the disposal of waste by deep well injection in Brevard County. Scanning Electron Microscopy Coopera tive Analytical Facility An ETEC AUTOSCAN scanning electron microscope and KEVEXx-ray analysis sys tem were donated to the Florida State University (FSU) Department of Geology through Dr. Sherwood Wise, Jr. by Texaco USA's geologic lab in New Orleans. The entire unit is valued at over $100,000. The Florida Geological Survey houses the SEM and it is available to researchers from both FGS and FSU. The instrument has been used primarily for quantitative whole rock chemical analyses. FSU Academic Diving Program Coopera tive Projects Efforts at the FGS to understand various aspects of karstic aquifers have been en hanced by a cooperative underwater cave research effort with the FSU Academic Diving Program and the recently-formed Woodville Karst Plain Project, a project of the National Speleological Society. During research dives, volunteer divers from both groups have collected geologic data from underwater caves. During the past two 21 years, rock samples have been collected from several sinks and underwater caves in the Woodville Karst Plain in Wakulla County, Florida. The samples were described by FGS staff, and the stratigraphic data added to the Survey's database. These samples represent other wise unobtainable outcrop samples, and will thus be added to the FGS "M-series" collection for permanent reference. Divers have also provided the FGS with underwater cave survey maps and video tapes of several cave conduit systems statewide. These materials provide non diving geological staff with important in sight into the cave network locations as well as the size, shape and hydrogeology of sub aqueous caves in Florida. Most of these volunteered materials are stored in the Na tional Association for Cave Diving (NACD) Archives, maintained in the FGS research library. Summer Inservice Institute Cooperative Program In order to make geologic information ac cessible to nongeologists, the FGS has be come increasingly involved in various educational activities. FGS, as a research, regulatory and service agency is in a unique position to contribute both instructional expertise and educational materials to con tinuing education efforts which are oriented toward the earth sciences. Florida A&M University, in cooperation with the FGS, the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey Water Resource Division and the Florida Department of Education, sponsored an Inservice In stitute titled "Studies of Geologic and

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Hydrologic Foundations of Florida's Environment." The Institute presented elementary and secondary science teachers with an interdisciplinary introduction to geology and hydrology as keystones in the understanding of the environment of Florida. FGS staff members were responsible for introductory instruction on numerous aspects of basic geology. This material provided a basis for discussions of specific topics in Florida geology. Geologic concepts were reinforced during field trips run by FGS staff members in cluding the examination of Pleistocene shell-bearing sediments, a trip to an active phosphate mine (IMC Four Corners Phos phate Mine) and excursions to two active limestone quarries (Florida Rock In dustries Quarry and Florida Mining and Materials Quarry). Additionally, each par ticipant received a packet of FGS publica tions related to geologic topics considered at the institute. Radon Assessment Cooperative Program The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of preparing a map of the United States which will delineate areas of elevated radon potential. The geologic data which provides the basis for this map must be reviewed and the EPA has entered into an agreement with the Association of American State Geologists (A.A.S.G.) to accomplish that task. Florida received a draft version of the pamphlet containing maps and a short text which discusses the geology of radon in Florida and the radon data base for the state. A Survey staff geologist reviewed the document and contacted an extended group of scientists within the state to act as additional reviewers. This group of scien-22 tists has research interests related to radon and provided numerous technical com ments which were returned to the FGS and compiled by the staff geologist in charge of the project. Compiled review comments were forwarded to the United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.), the agency which is in charge of map preparation for the E.P.A.. In addition, Walt Schmidt, Florida's State Geologist, is acting as A.A.S.G. coordinator of the southeastern states to ensure that document reviews from the states in this area are consistent and completed in a timely manner. BUDGET SUMMARY The FGS is funded primarily from General Revenue each year with additional funding from the Petroleum Exploration and Production Bond Trust Fund which sup ports an Engineer III position in the Oil and Gas Section. The requested budget is reviewed by the Division of Resource Management and the Executive Director's Office of the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) before being presented to the Governor and Cabinet (DNR's Ex ecutive Board). Upon approval of the Board the budget request is submitted to the Florida House of Representatives and the Florida Senate for review by their Budget Committees. Budgets approved for the Survey by the Florida Legislature for Fiscal Years 19891990 and 1990-1991 are summarized below. In general, the overall budget has received increases similar to that of the national inflation rate over the last 15 years. However, due to a projected shortfall of state revenues, these two years have seen the loss of previously approved and ap propriated funds. Not included in the figures below are appropriations approved in 1990-1991; $17,500 that would allow FGS to add an outside fire escape to the top two floors at the core facility in order to correct current fire code violations, and $185,905 for pur chase of a new core drilling rig and acces sories. Included in the Operating Capital Outlay shown below is $38,095 also marked as a part of the drill rig purchase, all of which is to be paid for in equal installments through Fiscal Year 1993-1994. FGS Budget 1989-1990 1990-1991 Salaries & Benefits $1,042,606 $1,061,825 Other Personal Services Expenses 13,842 230,082 Operating Capital Outlay 45,010 Outside Contracts 184,902 13,842 238,611 85,010 174,564 Total $1,516,442 $1,573,852 The Survey is currently funded as a single entity and for that reason the budget is not broken out by section as it has been in the 23 past. The Survey consists of the following four sections and positions: Administrative Direction and Support Section (5 full-time staff and 1 part-time) State Geologist, Administrative Assistant, Executive Secretary, Librarian and 1 part time assistant, Custodian Geologic Investigations Section (13 fulltime staff and 11 part-time) 1 Senior Geologist/Administrator, 6 Geologists, 2 Engineers, 2 Engineering Technicians, 1 Lab Technician, 1 Secretary, 11 part-time research assistants Mineral Resources and Environmental Geolog,y Section (4 full-time staff and 2 part-time assistants) 1 Senior Geologist/Administrator, 3 Geologists, 2 part-time research assistants Oil and Gas Regulation and Conservation (9.5 full-time staff and I part-time) 1 Ad ministrator, 2 Geologists, 3 Engineers, 2.5 Secretaries, 1 Environmental Specialist, 1 part-time assistant PUBLICATIONS The FGS recognizes that dissemination of geologic data and research results are an essential part of its mission as a public ser vice agency. The Survey publishes results of staff investigations and investigations undertaken with cooperating agencies. Studies which are pertinent to the geology of Florida which are undertaken by other earth scientists may also be published. Results of technical symposia and field guidebooks are also published on occasion.

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Publications of the FGS are available to the public for a small fee which covers postage and handling. If publications are obtained directly at the FGS offices in Tallahassee, they are free. All FGS publications are free to other agencies of city, county, state and federal government. In addition, publica tions of the FGS are supplied without charge to 55 depository libraries in Florida, 127 depository libraries in the U.S. exclud ing Florida, and 21 foreign depository libraries. The FGS maintains an open file series of publications which, may be purchased for the cost of reproduction. The contents of the open-file series are listed in the Survey's List of Publications which is updated annually. Lithologic logs, well coverage maps, geophysical logs and maps showing the locations of oil wells are avail able for a fee determined by reproduction costs. The following publications were issued by the FGS during 1989-1990. Map Series (MS) MS 123 Freshwater Withdrawals and Water-Use Trends in Florida, 1985, 1989. By R. L. Marella. (Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, published in coopera tion with the Florida Geological Survey). MS 124 Ground-Water Sources and 1985 Withdrawals in Florida, 1989. By C. S. Conover, J. T. Vecchioli, and D. W. Foose. (Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, published in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey). 24 MS 125 A Guide Map to Geologic and Paleontologic Sites in Florida, 1989. By F. R. Rupert. MS 126 Mineral Resources of St. Johns County, Florida, 1989. By R. W. Hoenstine, P. A. Bond, S. M. Spencer, and J. W. Yon, Jr. MS 127 Mineral Resources of Flagler County, Florida, 1989. By E. Lane, P. A. Bond, R. W. Hoenstine, S. M. Spencer, and J. W. Yon, Jr. MS 128 Mineral Resources of Putnam County, Florida, 1989. By S.M. Spencer, R. W. Hoenstine, E. Lane, and J. W. Yon, Jr. MS 129 Mineral Resources of Jefferson County, Florida, 1989. By P. A. Bond, R. W. Hoenstine, and E. Lane. MS 130 Mineral Resources of Lee County, Florida, 1990. By E. Lane, T. M. Scott, R. W. Hoenstine, and J. W. Yon, Jr. MS 131 Mineral Resources of Alachua County, Florida, 1990. By R. W. Hoenstine, J. W. Yon, Jr., E. Lane, and S.M. Spencer. Report of Investigations (RI) RI 98 Geology of Sumter County, Florida, 1989. By K. M. Campbell, 28 p. Bulletins (B) B 61 Geology and Ground-Water Resour ces of Madison County, Florida, 1990. By R. W. Hoenstine, S. M. Spencer, and T. O'Carroll, 98 p. B 62 Geology of Gadsden County, Florida, 1990. By F.R. Rupert, 61 p. Information Circulars (IC) IC 105 Part I The Industrial Minerals Industry of Florida, 1989. By S.M. Spencer. Part II-Geology, Mining and Reclamation at the Radar Hill Quarry, Citrus County, Florida, 1989. By J. W. Yon, Jr., W. R. Waite, and C. T. Williams, 51p. IC 106 1986 & 1987 Florida Petroleum Production and Exploration, 1989. By J. M. Lloyd, 39 p. Special Publication (SP) SP 30 Geologic Descriptions of Selected Exposures in Florida, 1989. By R. A. Johnson, 175 p. Open File Reports (OFR) OFR 26 Stratigraphic Correlation of Out crop Gamma Ray Profiles in Florida, 1989. By R. A. Johnson, 27 p. OFR 27 The Geology of Hamilton County, Florida, 1989. By F.R. Rupert, 4 p. OFR 29 Characteristics of the Sediments Overlying the Floridan Aquifer System in Alachua County, Florida, 1989. By R. C. Green, J. G. Duncan, T. Seal, J. M. Wein berg and F. R. Rupert, 114 p. OFR 30 Summary of the Geology of Glades County, Florida, 1990. By K. M. Campbell, 15 p. OFR 31 A Brief Overview of the Miocene Lithostratigraphy Northern Florida and Eastern Georgia, 1990. By T.M. Scott, 6 p. 25 OFR 32 The Geomorphology and Geology of Calhoun County, Florida, 1990. By F. R.Rupert, 7 p. OFR 33 The Geomorphology, Geology and Hydrogeology of Baker County, Florida, 1990. By P. A. Bond, 16 p. OFR 34 The Geology and Geomorphology of Florida's Coastal Marshes, 1990. By F. R. Rupert and J.D. Arthur, 13 p. OFR 35 Sand, Gravel and Heavy-Mineral Resources Potential of Surficial Sediments Offshore of Cape Canaveral, Florida, 1990. By B. W. Nocita, P. Kohpina, L. W. Papetti, M. M. Olivier, A. E. Grosz, S. Snyder, K. M. Campbell, R. C. Green and T. M. Scott, 55 p. OFR 36 The Lithostratigraphy of the Haw thorn Group of Peninsular Florida, 1990. By T. M. Scott, 12 p. OFR 37 Core Drilling Project: Lee, Hendry and Collier Counties, 1990. By R. C. Green, K. M. Campbell and T. M. Scott, 44p. OFR 38 Licensing of Geologists in Florida: A Result of the Population/ Development Explosion and Political Environmental Awareness, 1990. By W. Schmidt, 4 p. Biennial Reports BR 15 Biennial Report 1987-1988, 1990. By P. A. Bond, 34 p.

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Miscellaneous Arthur, J.D., 1989, Florida geologya slide presentation with commentary, 10035mm slides, 19 p. Nocita, B. W., Kophina, P., Olivier, M. M., Campbell, K. M., Green, R. C., and Scott, T. M., 1989, Results of a preliminary recon naissance study of the sand, gravel and heavy mineral resources potential of sedi ments offshore of Cape Canaveral, Florida Phase I, Report to the U.S. Minerals Management Service, 42 p. Rupert, F. R., 1990, Geologic history of Lake Seminole, in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lake Seminole Museum dis play. Papers By Staff Members In Outside Pub lications Allmon, W. and Scott, T. M., eds. 1990, Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleon tology of South Florida: Guidebook Num ber 31, Southeastern Geological Society, (unpaginated). Arthur, J. D. and Rupert, F. R., 1989, Selected geomorphic features of Florida, in Scott, T. M.,Arthur, J.D., Rupert, F. R. and Upchurch, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida: Field Trip Guidebook T185, American Geophysical Union, p. 10-14. Arthur, J. D., Melkote, S., Applegate, J., Scott, T. M., 1989, Heavy-mineral recon naissance off the coast of the Apalachicola river delta, northwest Florida: A summary and new interpretation, Marine Geology, v. 90 p. 51-57. 26 Bond, P. A., 1989, Geology, government, and swamps: the evolution of wetlands policy in Florida: The Professional Geologist, v. 26, p. 5-6. Bond, P. A., 1989, Peat and uranium in Florida: Program Guide for the 1989 meeting of the Florida Section of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 20p. Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic hazards and society: an interactive relationship: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 22, p. A169. Bond, P. A., 1990, Geology of Hendry County, Florida, in Belz, D. J., Carter, L. J., Dearstyne, D. A., and Overing, J.D., Soil Survey of Hendry County, Florida: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conserva tion Service, p. 3-8. Boyle, J. R., and Schmidt, W., 1989, The mineral industry of Florida, in Minerals yearbook 1987: U.S. Bureau of Mines, v. 2, p. 97-105. Campbell, K. M., Scott, T. M., Allard, M. M., Green, R. C., Kophina, P., Nocita, B. W., and Olivier, M. M., 1990, Summary of the heavy-mineral reconnaissance studies off the Gulf coast of northwest Florida and off Cape Canaveral, Florida, in Hunt, M. C., Doenges, S., and Stubbs, G. S., eds., Proceedings, second symposium on studies related to continental margins, Austin, Texas, May 21-23, 1989, p. 95-99. Grosz, A. E., Cathcart, J. B., Macke, D. L., Knapp, M. S., Schmidt, W., Scott, T. M., 1989, Geologic interpretation of the gamma-ray aeroradiometric maps of central and northern Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1461,48 p. Hoenstine, R. W., Cooper, R., Lane, E., 1989, An extension of the intermediate aquifer system in north-central Florida: Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, sup plement 1, p. 29. Johnson, R. A., 1989, Stratigraphic correla tion of outcrop gamma-ray profiles in Florida: Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, supplement 1, p. 29. Lane, E., and Hoenstine, R.W., 1989, Ocala Environmental Report: Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, supplement 1, p. 30. Lloyd, J. M., and Ragland, J. R., 1989, Petroleum exploration and development policies in Florida: response to public con cern for sensitive environments: Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 21, p.48. Lloyd, J.M., Hoenstine, R. W., Lane, E., Spencer, S. M., 1990, The Florida Geologi cal Survey's mineral resource investiga tions and environmental geology program: Geological Society of America Abstracts. with Programs, v. 22, p.375-376. McGurk, B., Bond, P. A., and Mehan, D., 1989, Hydrogeologic and lithologic charac teristics of the surficial sediments in Volusia County, Florida: Technical Publi cation SJ 89-7, St. Johns River Water Management District, 144 p. Rupert, F.R., and Arthur, J.D., 1990, Geol ogy and geomorphology of Florida's coas tal marshes: Gulf Coast Intertidal Marsh 27 Conference Abstracts, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, Florida, p. 28. Schmidt, W., 1989, Physiography and stratigraphy of Walton county, Florida, in Overing, J.D., and Watts, F. C., Soil survey of Walton County, Florida: U.S. Depart ment of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, p. 3-6. Schmidt, W., 1989, Florida Caverns State Park, Jackson County, Florida, in Scott, T. M., Arthur, J.D., Rupert, F. R., and Up church, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook Tl85, American Geophysical Union, p. 60.., 62. Schmidt, W., 1990, Data available for Florida radon potential mapping, in Florida, in Proceedings of the Florida workshop on radon potential mapping: Florida Department of Community Affairs and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. 7-1 to 7-3. Schmidt, W., 1990, Licensing of geologists in Florida: a result of the popula tion/development explosion and political environmental awareness, in Tepel, R. E., ed., Proceedings of the national colloquium on professional registration for geologists: Association of Engineering Geologists, p. 163-165. Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida, in Scott, T. M., Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R. and Upchurch, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook Tl85, American Geophysical Union, p. 2-9.

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Scott, T. M., 1989, The geology of central and northern Florida with emphasis on the Hawthorn Group, in Scott, T. and Cathcart, J., eds., Florida phosphate depositsField Trip Guidebook T178, American Geophysical Union, p. 2-17. Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy of the sediments exposed along the Suwannee River in the vicinity of White Springs, in Morgan, G., ed., Miocene paleontology and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River basin of north Florida and south Georgia: Guidebook Number 30, Southeastern Geological Society, p. 6-13. Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group as exposed in Brooks Sink, Bradford County, Florida, in Scott, T. M., Arthur, J.D., Rupert, F. R. and Up church, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook T185, American Geophysical Union, p. 56-59. Scott, T. M., 1990, Coastal plains stratig raphy: The dichotomy of biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy -a philosophical ap proach to an old problem, in Allmon, W. and Scott. T., eds., Plio-Pleistocene stratig raphy and paleontology of south Florida: Guidebook Number 31, Southeastern Geological Society, (unpaginated). Scott, T. M., Arthur, J.D., Rupert, F. R. and Upchurch, S., eds., 1989, The lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook T185, American Geophysical Union, 78p. Scott, T. M. and Cathcart, J., eds, 1989, Florida Phosphate Deposits: Field Trip 28 Guidebook T178, American Geophysical Union, 52p. Spencer, S. M., 1989, Mapping Florida's mineral resources: Florida Scientist Pro gram Issue, v. 52, supplement 1, p. 29. Spencer, S. M., 1990, Geology of Florida's aggregates: Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 22, p. 63. Yon, J. W., Jr., 1989, The use of Florida's industrial minerals past and present: Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, sup plement 1, p. 29. TALKS BY STAFF MEMBERS TO PROFESSIONAL GROUPS Arthur, J. D., 1989, Geomorphology of Florida's Gulf Coast, presented at the Gulf Coast Intertidal Marsh Conference, Tal lahassee, Florida. Bond, P. A., 1989, Peat and Uranium in Florida, presented to American Institute of Mining Engineers, Lakeland, Florida. Bond, P. A., 1989, Uranium and Peat in Florida, presented to Brevard County Summer Science Institute, Brevard Com munity College, Melbourne, Florida: Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic Hazards in Florida, presented to Brevard County Summer Science Institute, Brevard Com munity College, Melbourne, Florida. Bond, P. A., 1990, Uranium and Peat in the Florida Environment, presented to Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, Florida. Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic Hazards and Society: An Interactive Relationship, presented to annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, Dallas, Texas. Campbell, K. M., 1989, Summary of the Heavy Mineral Reconnaissance Studies Off the Gulf Coast of Northwest Florida and Off Cape Canaveral, Florida, presented at the Second Symposium on Studies Related to Continental Margins, Austin, Texas; Hoenstine, R. W., 1989, An Extension of the Intermediate Aquifer System in NorthCentral Florida, presented to Florida Academy of Science, Jacksonville, Florida. Johnson, R. J., Stratigraphic Correlation of Outcrop Gamma Ray Profiles in Florida, presented to Florida Academy of Sciences, Jacksonville, FL. Lane, E., 1989, Ocala Environmental Report, presented to Florida Academy of Sciences, Jacksonville, FL. Lloyd, J. M., 1989, Petroleum Exploration and Development Policies In Florida: Response to Public Concern For Sensitive Environments, presented to Southeastern GSA, Atlanta, GA. Lloyd, J. M., 1990, The Florida Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Investigations and Environmental Geology Program, presented to GSA, Dallas, TX. 29 Lloyd, J. M., 1990, The Florida Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Investigations and Environmental Geology Program, presented to Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, FL. Rupert, F. R, 1990, Geology of Florida's Gulf Coastal Marshes, presented to the Gulf Coast Intertidal Marsh Conference, Tallahassee, FL. Schmidt, W., 1989, The Florida Geological Survey's Role in GroundWater Resour ces, presented to The Florida Chapter of the American Water Resources Associa tion, Gainesville, FL. Schmidt, W., 1989, Interview, published in the Florida Petroleum Producers Associa tion Newsletter, vol. 1, no. 1. Schmidt, W., 1989, Oil Exploration and Production on the Uplands of Florida, presented to The Florida Spill Response Task Force, Tallahassee, FL. Schmidt, W., 1989, Update on Florida Oil and Gas Administrative Rules, presented to The Annual Meeting of the Florida In dependent Petroleum Producers Associa tion, Pensacola, FL. Schmidt, W., 1989, The Florida Geological Survey's Education Program, presented to The Florida Environmental Education Committee, Tallahassee, FL. Schmidt, W., 1990, Florida Oil and Gas Rules Update, presented to The Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Ad visory Committee, Tallahassee, FL.

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Schmidt, W., 1990, Data Available for Florida Radon Potential Mapping, presented to The Florida Workshop on Radon Potential Mapping, Gainesville, FL. Schmidt, W., 1990, Florida Offshore Petroleum Deposits and the Continuing Controversy, presented to The Florida Sec tion of the American Institute of Profes sional Geologists, Sable Park, FL. Scott, T. M., 1989, The Lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group Along the Suwannee River in the Vicinity of White Springs, presented to Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip, White Springs, FL. Scott, T. M., 1990, Florida Lithostratigraphy -A Guide to Identification, presented to American Institute of Profes sional Geologists, Florida Section, Tampa, FL. Scott, T. M., 1990, An Overview of Miocene Lithostratigraphy -Northern Florida and Southern Georgia, Presented to the Second Bald Head Island Con ference on Coastal Plains Geology, Hilton Head, SC. Scott, T. M., 1989, The Florida Geological Survey and the Lithostratigraphy and Hydrostratigraphy of Southeastern Florida, presented to The Southeastern Florida Geological Society, West Palm Beach, FL. Scott, T. M., 1989, Florida's Phosphorites Deposition to Reclamation, presented to Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, Atlanta, GA. 30 Spencer, S. M., 1989, Mapping Florida's Mineral Resources, presented to Florida Academy of Science, Jacksonville, FL. Spencer,. S. M., 1990, Geology of Florida's Aggregates, presented to Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, Tuscaloosa, AL. Yon, J. W., Jr., 1989, The Use of Florida's Industrial Minerals-Past and Present, presented to Florida Academy of Science, Jacksonville, FL. ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES Symposia April, 1989, Geological Society of America Mineral Symposium: Atlanta, GA. May, 1989, Second Symposium on Studies Related to Continental Margins: U.S. Minerals Management Service, University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX. November, 1989, 1989 Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium: Reston, VA. February, 1990, U.S. EPNAASG Sym posia and Meeting on Radon: Atlanta, GA. September, 1990, First International Sym posium on Oil & Gas Exploration & Production Waste Management Practices, New Orleans, LA. (Sponsored by USEPA &API). Meetings January, 1989, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists Meeting and meeting of the Application Review Committee: Tal lahassee, FL. January, 1989, Annual Meeting of the Everglades Coalition: Port of the Isles, Collier County, FL. February, 1989, Governor's Outer Con tinental Shelf Advisory Committee: Tal lahassee, FL. February, 1989, Big Cypress Swamp Ad visory Committee: Naples, FL. February, 1989, American Institute of Professional Geologists, Florida Section, Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee, FL. February, 1989, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists Meeting and meeting of the Application Review Committee: Tal lahassee, FL. February, 1989, U.S. Deep Diving Cave Team: Wakulla Springs, FL. March, 1989, Northeastern Section of the Geological Society of America: New Brunswick, NJ. March, 1989, Eighth Coastal Sedimentol ogy Conference: Tallahassee, FL. March, 1989, Florida House Natural Resources Committee: Tallahassee, FL. March, 1989, Staff depositions regarding Exxon vs. Department of Natural Resour ces: Tallahassee, FL. 31 March, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society, Quarterly Meeting: Lakeland, FL. March, 1989, Department of Environmen tal Regulation, regarding Cascades Park: Tallahassee, FL. March, 1989, American Water Resources Association, Florida Chapter: Gainesville, FL. March, 1989, Florida Academy of Sciences: Jacksonville, FL. April, 1989, Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America: Atlanta, GA. April, 1989, Association of State Boards of Geology: Atlanta, GA. April, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey/As sociation of America State Geologists Eastern Cluster Meeting: Stowe, VT. April, 1989, Florida Board of Professional Geologists meeting and meeting of Ap plication Review Committee: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey, regard ing their program: St. Petersburg, FL. May, 1989, Workshop on offshore mineral assessment of the U.S. South Atlantic Con tinental Shelf, Skidaway Institute, Savan nah, GA. May, 1989, Annual Meeting, Association of American State Geologists: Norman, OK. May, 1989, Florida Board of Professional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

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May, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society, Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey and Southeastern State Geologists regarding USGS Coastal Geology Program: St. Petersburg, FL. June, 1989, Florida Board of Professional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. August, 1989, American Institute of Professional Geologists, Florida Section: Tallahassee, FL. August, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Tallahassee, FL. September, 1989, Annual Meeting of the Florida Independent Petroleum Producers Association: Pensacola, FL. September, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Commission, Hydrogeology Committee: Tampa, FL. September, 1989, Geology Board/Depart ment of Professional Regulation Budget Review Committee: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society, Quarterly Meeting, Hamilton Co., FL. October, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Orlando, FL. October, 1989, Florida Section of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: Lakeland, FL. November, 1989, Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, in conjunc32 tion with the Association of American State Geologists Mid-Year Meeting, Southeastern Section of GSA Geology and Public Policy Committee Meeting: St. Louis, MO. November, 1989, Oil and Gas Public Hear ing on a Permit Application: Milton, FL. November, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Com mission, Hydrogeology Committee: Tal lahassee, FL. November, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Com mission: Jacksonville, FL. November, 1989, USGS National Coastal Geology Program Meeting : Reston, VA. December, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society, Quarterly meeting: Tampa, FL. December, 1989, Oil and Gas Interagency Policy Review: Tallahassee, FL. December, 1989, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists Meeting, and Application Review Committee Meeting: Tallahassee, FL. December, 1989, Florida Environmental Education Committee: Tallahassee, FL. January, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Tallahassee, FL. January, 1990, Oil and Gas Policy Public Workshop: West Palm Beach, FL. January, 1990, Annual Meeting of the Everglades Coalition: West Palm Beach, FL. January, 1990, Governor's Outer Con tinental Shelf Advisory Committee: Tallahassee, FL. January, 1990, Underground Injection Practices Council, Winter Meeting: Tampa, FL. February, 1990, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. February, 1990, South Florida Water Management District regarding oil drilling in South Florida: West Palm Beach, FL. February 1990, Geology and Hydrology of South-Central Florida: Planning for future land use: Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, FL. March, 1990, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Professional Geologists Committee: Tallahassee, FL. March, 1990, U.S. Geological Survey/As sociation of American State Geologists, Eastern Region Cluster Meeting: Colum bus,OH. March, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Miami, FL. March, 1990, Florida Department of En vironmental Regulation Rule Hearing regarding use of Professional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. April, 1990, Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America, in conjunc tion with GSA Agency Liaison Meeting and Geology and Public Policy Committee Meetings: Tuscaloosa, AL. 33 April, 1990, U.S. EPNAASG Radon Pro gram Briefing: Denver, CO. May, 1990, U.S. Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf/Lease Sale 137 Public Hearing: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1990, Florida Professional Geologists Examination Committee, Tallahassee, FL. May, 1990, Southeastern Geological Society, Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1990, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Ambient Ground-water Quality Meeting: Daytona Beach, FL. May, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commission: Tampa, FL. June, 1990, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention: San Francisco, CA. June, 1990, Florida Board of Professional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. June, 1990, Annual Meeting of the As sociation of American State Geologists: Madison, WI. June, 1990, Interstate Oil Compact Com mission Meeting: Bismarck, ND. July, 1990, Florida Board of Professional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. August, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion, Hydrogeology Committee: Tallahassee, FL.

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August, 1990, Florida Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists: Sable Park, FL. August, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Gainesville, FL. August, 1990, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL. September, 1990, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/ American Association of State Geologists Radon Program Brief ing: Reston, VA. October, 1990, Florida Preservation 2000, Ground Water Committee: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1990, Florida Professional Geologists Examination Committee, Tal lahassee, FL. October, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis sion: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1990, Association of American State Geologists, Federal Liaison Commit tee: Washington, DC. October, .1990, Florida Preservation 2000, Ground Water Committee: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1990, Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America: Dallas, Texas. November, 1990, Interagency Conference on Geology and Minorities, sponsored by Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL. 34 November, 1990, Florida Professional Geologists Examination Committee, Tal lahassee, FL. December, 1990, Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists: St. Petersburg, FL. December 1990, Preservation 2000: Or lando, FL. Workshops January, 1989, Defensive Driving: Tal lahassee, FL. January, 1989, Attaining Superior Manage ment Performance: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1989, Ground-Water Symposium sponsored by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1989, Wetland Ecosystems Short Course: Tallahassee, FL. June, 1989, Karst Hydrology Workshop: Mammoth Cave, KY. August, 1989, Expert Witness Workshop: Tallahassee, FL. August, 1989, Employee Assistance Training: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1989, KEVEX Microanalysis Course: Foster City, CA. October, 1989, American Institute of Min ing Engineers/American Institute of Professional Geologists technical meeting: Lakeland, FL. November-December 1989, Upland Ecosystems Short Course: Tallahassee, FL. March, 1990, Department of Natural Resources, Geographic Information Sys tems workshop: Tallahassee, FL. April, 1990, Employee Appraisal Stand ards: Tallahassee, FL. April, 1990, The Florida Workshop on Radon Potential Mapping, sponsored by the Florida Department of Community Affairs and the U.S. Environmental Protec tion Agency: Gainesville, FL. July, 1990, Basic Supervisor Training, Tal lahassee, FL. August, 1990, Parent Education: Tallahas see, FL. October, 1990, Oil and Gas Rules Workshop: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1990, Division Strategic Plan ning: Tallahassee, FL. October, 1990, Parenting for Self Esteem: Tallahassee, FL. November, 1990, Department Strategic Planning: Tallahassee, FL. November, 1990, Coastal Land and Fresh water Habitats: Apalachicola, FL. November, 1990, First Aid: Tallahassee, FL. December, 1990, Department Strategic Planning: Tallahassee, FL. 35 December, 1990, Certified Public Manage ment, Levell: Tallahassee, FL. December, 1990, Uplands Ecosystems Workshop, Big Bend Area, FL. Conferences May, 1989, National Waterwell Association's Outdoor Action Conference: Orlando, FL. October, 1989, Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida: Tallahas see, FL. October, 1989, Third Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and their En gineering and Environmental Impact: St. Petersburg, FL. December, 1989, National Association for Cave Diving "Research '89" Conference: Tallahassee, FL. May, 1990, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Gulf Coast Inter tidal Marsh Conference: Tallahassee, FL. November 1990, Bald Head Island Con ference on Coastal Plains Geology: Hilton Head, SC. Field trips April, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society Annual Field Trip: Lake City, FL. May, 1989, Lower Cretaceous Carbonate Tidal Facies of Central Texas: Presented by University of Texas at Austin in conjunc tion with Second Symposium on Studies Related to Continental Margins, Austin, TX.

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September, 1989, American Institute of Professional Geologists, field trip: Citrus County, FL. October, 1989, Southeastern Geological Society, annual field trip: Suwannee River in Hamilton County, FL. July, 1990, Four fieldtrips run for par ticipants in the Summer Inservice Institute: Hernando, Sarasota, and Polk counties. October, 1990, Fieldtrip run for Executive Staff of the Department ofN atural Resour ces: Northwest Florida. November, 1990, New Orleans Geological Society field trip: Hamilton, Gadsden and Liberty Counties, FL. December, 1990, Southeastern Geological Society, annual field trip: Sarasota County, FL. PERSONNEL Professional Staff Jonathan D. Arthur, Geologist II, Geologi cal Investigations Section, B.S., Florida State University, 1982, Ph.D. Candidate, Florida State University. Research Inter ests: Geochemistry, igneous petrology and hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Professional Memberships: Southeastern Geological Society, Geological Society of America and Sigma Xi. Paulette Bond, Geologist II, Geological In vestigations Section, B.S., West Virginia University, 1971, M.S., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974, Ph.D. Can-36 didate, Florida State University. Research Interests: Low temperature geochemistry and environmental geology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Consultant to Florida Board of Profes sional Geologists, Geology Examination Committee. Professional Memberships: Geological Society of America and Southeastern Geological Society. Kenneth M. Campbell, Geological Super visor I, Geologic Investigations Section, B.S., Old Dominion University, 1975, M.S., Florida State University, 1979. Research Interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and sedimentation ahd coastal processes. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Consultant to Florida Board of Professional Geologists, Geology Ex amination Committee. Robert S. Caughey, Professional Engineer I, Fort Myers Oil and Gas Field Office, B.S., University of Arizona, 1976, Research Interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Professional Memberships: Society of Mining, Metal lurgical Engineers ofAmerican Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, As sociation of Exploration Geochemists, Na tional Association of Geology Teachers and American Association for the Advan cement of Science. James Mitchener Covington, Geologist II, Geological Investigations Section, B.A., University North Carolina at Wilmington, 1981, M.S., Florida State University, 1986. Research Interests: Cenozoic and Mesozoic Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. Professional Memberships: International Nannoplankton Association and New Or leans Geological Society. Lawrence D. Curry, Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, B.S., University of South Florida, 1973. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Joel G. Duncan, Geologist II, Geological Investigations Section, B.S., University of Alabama, 1977. Currently working on Masters Degree at Florida State Univer sity. Research Interests: Carbonate petrology, tectonics and basin analysis. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Don L. Hargrove, Engineer III, Oil and Gas Section, Florida State University/Florida A & M University Engineering Program. Geophysical permits field ob servers coordinator. Ronald W. Hoenstine, Geologist III, Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section, B.S., University of Florida, 1967, M.S., University of Florida, 1974, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1982. Research Interests: Hydrogeology and en vironmental geology. Licensed Profes sional Geologist, State of Florida. W. Scott Hoskins, Environmental Specialist III, Jay Oil and Gas Field Office, B.S., Florida State University, 1985. James P. "Jim" Jones, Engineer I, Geologi cal Investigations Section. Alice Jordan, Librarian Specialist, B.A., Guilford College, 1959. M.S., Drexel University, 1970. Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Geologist III, Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section, B.S., University of Delaware, 1966, M.S., Pennsylvania State 37 University, 1968. Research Interests: Hydrogeology, environmental geology and karst. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Member: Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee, State of Florida. Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Geological Super visor II, Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section, B.S., Florida Atlantic University, 1976, M.S., University of Chicago, 1979. Research Interests: Petroleum geology and environmental geology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Professional Member ships: Geological Society of America, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Southeastern Geological Society and Computer Oriented Geologi cal Society. John A. Morrill, Driller Coordinator/En gineer I, Geological Investigations Section,. A.A., Lake City Junior College, 1973, at tended the University of Montana from 1974-1976. Florida Water Well Contractor License. Joan M. Ragland, Geologist II, Oil and Gas Section, B.A., State University of New York at Geneseo, 1973, M.S., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1976. Re search Interests: Seismic exploration, igneous geochemistry and petrology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Marycarol Reilly, Geologist II, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office, B.A., Franklin & Marshall College, 1977. Research Inter ests: Hydrogeology and Cenozoic stratig raphy. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida.

PAGE 26

Frank R. Rupert, Geologist II, Geological Investigations Section, B.S., Florida State University, 1976, M.S., Florida State University, 1980. Research Interests: Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostratigraphy and hydrology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Professional Memberships: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Florida Academy of Science, and Florida Paleontological Society. Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief, B.A., University of South Florida, 1972, M.S., Florida State University, 1977, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1983. Research Insterests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental geology, and paleogeography. Board Member, Florida Board of Professional Geologists; Mem ber: Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Committee, Florida Bluebelt Commission, Florida Preservation 2000 Ground Water Resources Committee, Geological Society of America, Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Southeastern Geological Society, Florida Academy of Sciences; State Representative to the Association of American State Geologists; Adjunct Professor, Florida State University Geology Depart ment; Chairman of the Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee. Certified Profes sional Geologist, American Institute of Professional Geologists, Licensed Profes sional Geologist in the states of Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Thomas M. Scott, Geological Supervisor II, Geological Investigations Section, B.A., University of South Florida, 1971, M.S., Eastern Kentucky University, 1973, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1986. Research 38 Interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and hydrogeology. Con sultant to the Florida Board of Professional Geologists, Geology Examination Com mittee. Member: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Geological Society, Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Florida Academy of Science, Sigma Xi. President, Southeastern Geological Society, 1990. Research Associate, University of South Florida. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida and Certified Professional Geologist, American Institute of Professional Geologists. Steven M. Spencer, Geologist II, Office of Mineral Resource and Environmental Geology Section, B.S., Florida State University, 1981. Research Interests: Economicgeology. Licensed Professional Geologist, State of Florida. Charles Tootle, Petroleum Engineer I, Oil and Gas Section, B.S., Louisiana Tech nical University, 1961, M.S. Louisiana Technical University, 1964, Ph.D., Louisiana Technical University, 1971. Re search Interests: Petroleum resources and exploration. Licensed Professional En gineer, States of Florida and Louisiana. Clerical and Technical Staff Brenda J. Brackin, Secretary Specialist Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Secretary Specialist, A.A.S., Tallahassee Community College, 1975. Peter M. Dobbin&, Administrative Assis tantii, A.A., SantaFeJunior College, 1981. Joan V. Gruber, Secretary Specialist Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian Ted B. Kiper, Engineering Technician III, A.A., Tallahassee Community College, 1976; B.S., Florida State University, 1988; Masters Program, Florida State University, 1990. Barbara E. McKamey, Secretary Specialist Albert E. Phillips, Driller Assistant/En gineering Technician II Sandra "Sandie" Ray, Administrative Secretary, A.A., Chipola Junior College, 1970. Franklin R. Rush, Jr., Laboratory Tech nician I Research Associates Andrew Grosz Bruce W. Nocita, Ph.D. Steve Snyder, Ph.D. Gary Zarillo, Ph.D. Student Assistants Vanessa Allred David Allison Tania Bacchus Melanie Carpenter Chris Casper Maryann Civil Lee Clark Renee Cooper Will Evans Richard C. Green Terry Griffin Mark Groszos Kent Hartong George Heuler Robert Hogue Clay Kelly Pramuan Kohpina Lucy Lagasse Nancy LaPlace Milena Macesich Ted Maul Katherine A. Milia Mary M. Olivier Lawrence Papetti Libby Robertson Tom Seal Koren Taylor Troy Thompson 39

PAGE 27

Russell Watrous Jay M. Weinberg Ron White 40

PAGE 28

.. ... flORIDA GEOlOGICAL SURVEY 903 W. TENNESSEE STREET TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304

PAGE 29

39380000125862 11111111111111111 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
    Organizational chart
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Research and regulatory programs
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Personnel changes
        Page 10
    Additional programs
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Cooperative programs
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Budget summary
        Page 22
    Publications
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Talks by staff members to professional groups
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Additional professional activities
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Personnel
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



BIENNIAL REPORT 16



1989-1990


REFERENCE


REF
FGS
BR
16
c. 1






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304










State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources
Tom Gardner, Executive Director


Division of Resource Management
Jeremy A. Craft, Director


Florida Geological Survey
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief






Biennial Report 16
1989-1990



By
Paulette Bond



Published for the
Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee
1991


ISSN: 202-707-6452








DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


LAWTON CHILES
Governor


JIM SMITH
Secretary of State


TOM GALLAGHER
State Treasurer


BETIY CASTOR
Commissioner of Education


BOB BUTTERWORTH
Attorney General


GERALD LEWIS
State Comptroller


BOB CRAWFORD
Commissioner of Agriculture


TOM GARDNER
Executive Director









Letter of Transmittal


Florida Geological Survey
June 1991




Governor Lawton Chiles, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Management, Department of
Natural Resources, herein publishes its Biennial Report for 1989-90. This report sum-
marizes the professional activities and contributions made by the Survey staff during this
two year period. Most research results are traditionally reported in our various publication
series. These reports are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other
activities of the Florida Geological Survey.

Respectfully yours,



Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief









Florida Geological Survey
Functional Organizational Chart


Governor and Cabinet



Dept. of Natural Resources
Executive Director
(Gardner)



Div. of Resource Management
Director
(Craft)


Florida Geological Survey


Chief and State Geologist
(Schmidt)


Secretary -- Adm. Asst.
(Ray) (Dobbins)


Librarian
(Jordan) Custodian
(Hawkins)

Assistant
(Al red)


I
Oil and Gas
Section


Administrator
(Curry)


Secretary
(McKamey)


Geologist
(Ragland)






I
Ft. Myers
Field Office


Geological Investigations
Section


Sr. Geol./Administrator
(Scott)


- Pet. Eng.
(Tootle)


- Engineer
(Hargrove)


Res. Asst.
(Taylor)



Jay
Field Office


Secretary
(Collier)


Core Driller
(Morrill)


Driller Asst.
(Phillips)


Cartographer
(Jones)


Cartographer
(Kiper)
Dis. Coor.
(Hoskins)
2 Research
Associates
Secretary
(Brackin)
(Brackn 9 Research -
Assistants


Sed. Petrology
(Duncan)


Nanno. Biostra.
(Covington)


Geochemist
(Bond)


SSedimentologist
(Campbell)


Petrologist
(Arthur)


Paleontologist
(Rupert)


Lab. Tech.
(Rush)


I
Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology
Section

Sr. Geol./Administrator
(Lloyd)


Env. Geol. Env. Geol.
(Lane) (Hoenstine)


2 Research Econ. Geol.
Assistants (Spencer)









Table of Contents


Foreword ..................
Introduction .................
Geology and Environmental Concerns
Public Service Activities . . . .
Research and Regulatory Programs . .
Geological Investigations Section .
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Oil and Gas Section ..........
Personnel Changes ............
Additional Programs ...........
Drilling Program ............
Research Library ............
Geologic Sample Collections . . .
Data Files ................
Computer Services ...........
Student Assistantship Program ....
Continuing Education .........
Cooperative Programs ...........


.............
.............






Geology Section .
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............


.............
.............


.............
.............


U.S. Minerals Management Service Coooperative Program
Ground-Water Quality Monitering Program Publications


Suwannee River Water Management District Cooperative Program
South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program .
Southwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program
The Lower Floridan Aquifer System in Brevard County ........
Scanning Electron Microscopy Cooperative Analytical Facility ...
FSU Academic Diving Program Cooperative Projects .........
Summer Inservice Institute Cooperative Program ...........
Radon Assessment Cooperative Program ................
Budget Summary ................................
FG S Budget .................................
Publications ...................................
M ap Series .... .... ... ... .. ... ..... ..... ... .
Report of Investigations ..........................
B ulletins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


.


Page
vii
1
2
5
8
8
8
9
10
11
12
12
13
13
13
14
15
17
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
24









Table Of Contents (con't)
Page
Information Circulars ................................ 25
Special Publication ...................... ........... 25
Open File Reports .......................... .......... 25
Biennial Reports ..................................... 25
M miscellaneous ...................................... 26
Papers by Staff Members in Outside Publications . . . . . ..... 26
Talks by Staff Members to Professional Groups . . . . . . . . ... 28
Additional Professional Activities ................. .......... 30
Symposia ......................................... 30
M meetings ......................................... 31
W workshops ....................................... 34
Conferences ..... ................................. 35
Fieldtrips .................................... ... .35
Personnel .................................... ....... 36
Professional Staff ................... ................. 36
Clerical and Technical Staff ................... ........ 38
Research Associates ................... .............. 39
Student Assistants ................... ................ 39

























vi








FOREWORD


The 1989-1990 calendar years were times of heightened visibility for the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS). Environmental awareness on the part of Florida's citizens and its govern-
ment is at an all time high. The FGS has participated in a number of programs which result
directly from this increased concern.

The State Geologist, Walt Schmidt, has been an active member of the Board of Professional
Geologists. The state has begun licensing geologic professionals whose work impacts
public health and welfare and several FGS staff members have assisted the Board with
design and preparation of the licensing examination. The Florida legislature created a
"Bluebelt Commission" with the charge to examine whether "land producing high water
recharge to the aquifers in the state should be classified and assessed based upon their
character or use." The state geologist was appointed to the Bluebelt Commission. This
commission held public workshops and hearings throughout the state. In addition, the FGS
was represented on the Ground Water Resources Committee associated with the Preser-
vation 2000 Needs Assessment, mandated by the 1990 Legislature.

The FGS has continued its cooperative relationships with the Department of Environmen-
tal Regulation and the regional water management districts. FGS supplies stratigraphic
description and interpretation, hydrogeologic interpretation and permeability tests on
specific aquifer materials among other services. Mineral resource maps have been
prepared for various counties as part of a continuing program aimed at assisting county
governments with the land-use planning process. In addition, two environmental geology
reports are nearing publication. These studies are designed to assist planners, geologists
and lay citizens with issues that require geologic information as a basis for sound decisions
related to environmental issues.

As Florida's population has continued to grow, its need for earth resource information has
also grown (more people require more water, generate more waste, and move in greater
numbers, into ever-shrinking pristine areas). Most state agencies have not been able to
keep pace with this growth, however, due to a downturn in the economy coupled with an
associated shortfall in state revenues. FGS had a geologist-inspector position deleted in
its Jay field office and staff were not able to present research results at professional
meetings or attend conferences due to travel restrictions. FGS has not been successful in
winning approval and funding to initiate a Marine and Near-Shore Coastal Geology
Program which would improve our knowledge and understanding of state lands off-shore
of the coast line. Further, a request for five positions devoted to applied geology studies
related to land and water planning was denied by the legislature. One bright spot was the
approval by the Department of Administration of a Professional Geologist Class series to
comply with the licensing requirement of Chapter 492 Florida Statutes. FGS staff awaits
its implementation within the Department of Natural Resources.








In the 1989-1990 biennium, program emphasis at the FGS has shifted toward applied earth
resource projects. These applied studies respond to ground-water problems, environmen-
tal concerns, geologic hazards and geologic education. High staff productivity has resulted
in the publication of numerous county studies both as bulletins and open-file reports. Over
the past two years the FGS has demonstrated the role of the state geological survey in
providing an informational basis for Florida's planning and environmental protection
activities. The next task for the FGS is the "advertisement" of its research products.
Although the earth science community is largely knowledgeable concerning the services
and information available through the FGS, county and community government, planners,
and engineers as well as Florida's citizens are frequently unaware of the publications and
services FGS provides.

Florida's oil and gas rules have once again received attention. The Governor and Cabinet
and the Florida Legislature have directed that structures are to be prohibited from
off-shore, submerged state lands in association with oil and gas exploration and production.
In addition, workshops were held regarding oil exploration in the state's water-conserva-
tion areas of south Florida. Finally, the Petroleum Exploration and Production Bond
Trust Fund is now fully operational. This is a security option for oil and gas drilling permit
applicants.








Biennial Report 16

by

Paulette Bond


INTRODUCTION

The geology of Florida is inextricably
linked with the Florida environment. The
office of State Engineer and Geologist was
authorized by the legislature in 1852 and
held by "General" Francis L. Dancy. Dancy
was charged with drainage of lowlands for
agricultural development and he brought
extensive engineering experience to his
position. Agriculture was already seen as
important to the fledgling state and scien-
tific and engineering input were viewed as
essential to its development under "hostile"
circumstances. It is a measure of how great-
ly our perception has changed that
lowlands which were flooded or at least
chronically wet were perceived as a blanket
liability. In those early years it seemed in-
conceivable that the manipulation of the
environment for economically desirable
purposes might ultimately damage inter-
connected parts of a delicately balanced
natural system. Dancy's employment with
the state ended when the position of State
Engineer and Geologist was abolished in
1855. The legislature took this step when
$500.00 for soil testing was requested.

In the 1880's, commercially valuable phos-
phate deposits were discovered in Florida,
prompting Governor E.A. Perry to appoint
Dr. John Kost, a medical doctor and
amateur geologist, as State Geologist in
1886. These phosphate deposits and
deposits yet undiscovered, would provide a


continuing source of wealth to the state of
Florida. Phosphate fertilizers have con-
tinued to be essential in the quest to feed
the earth's expanding population. The dis-
cipline of geology has, in one sense, come
full circle. Early on, in the extraction of
phosphate, there was little interest in the
fate of lands which had been mined out and
geology was applied almost solely to the
extraction and exploitation of the phos-
phate resource. Currently, enormous
amounts of geologic expertise are applied
to the reclamation of lands which were pre-
viously mined for phosphate as well as
other minerals. Geology has become an
holistic discipline in which subsurface
strata are viewed simultaneously as host to
essential mineral commodities and the
ground water necessary for the survival of
life. Subsurface strata are viewed as in-
tegrated with surficial materials and the
effects of man on earth systems are no
longer ignored. Dr. Kost completed his
studies in about one year. He requested
that his tenure be extended and found his
position abolished.

In 1907, enabling legislation was passed
creating an autonomous, permanent
Florida Geological Survey (FGS), and an
office of State Geologist with four support
staff positions. The new Survey was given
latitude to formulate its own choice of re-
search and throughout its existence its mis-
sion has been guided by the vision of its
state geologists. Dr. E.H. Sellards, who
served as state geologist from 1907 to 1919,
focused early work of the FGS staff on
water resources long before those issues
commanded their current degree of state
and national concern. He concurrently
directed studies of road materials in keep-
ing with Florida's economic needs. The
second director of the FGS, Herman








Gunter, served as state geologist from 1919
to 1958. Gunter was especially concerned
with potential damage to ground- and sur-
face-water supplies as a result of careless
drilling practices and misuse of water. Dr.
R.O. Vernon held the post of state
geologist from 1958 to 1971. He expanded
cooperative investigations between the
FGS and the United States Geological Sur-
vey (USGS) dealing with water resources.
Dr. Vernon also emphasized the role of
public education in the conservation and
protection of Florida's water resources.
C.W. Hendry Jr., state geologist from 1971
to 1988, recognized that improved oil and
gas regulations were necessary for protec-
tion of Florida's environment and conser-
vation of the state's petroleum resources.
In addition, he initiated a program in which
environmental geology maps were
prepared for the entire state. The current
state geologist, Dr. Walter Schmidt, has
initiated cooperative programs between
the FGS and various state and federal
earth science and environmental agencies.
In addition, the Mineral Resources and En-
vironmental Geology Section was created
to fill the need for applied studies related
to minerals and the environment.

The application of geology to environmen-
tal problems in Florida has an extensive
history. It is, however, interesting to note
that geology is still perceived by many as a
science which is devoted to the exploitation
of mineral resources with an almost
malevolent disregard for the environment.
The work of the FGS remains directed
toward geological research as a basis for
scientifically sound environmental
policies.


Geology and Environmental Concerns

Widespread confusion exists concerning
the relationship of geology to the broad
spectrum of "environmental" concerns.
The relationship of geology to the environ-
mental sciences may be considered as
analogous to the relationship between
anatomy and the medical sciences. Geol-
ogy is the "anatomy and physiology" of the
environmental sciences. The geologic
mechanisms by which rocks form are criti-
cal in the development of the porosity and
permeability which allow (or restrict
depending on their nature) the movement
of fluids such as water or oil and gas
through them. The same characteristics
which allow an aquifer (water-bearing
rock) to yield large quantities of water may
also render it extremely vulnerable to con-
tamination. A knowledge of an area's geol-
ogy allows that vulnerability to be
evaluated. The evaluation may then be
used as a planning tool in such a way that
the potential for contamination is mini-
mized.

The relationship of geology to the physical
environment can be explained in terms of
the sorts of problems faced by a typical
Florida county as it attempts to meet the
needs of its citizens. Requirements for the
general population might include building
materials for dwellings and roads, adequate
quantities of potable water and the means
for safe disposal of waste, among others.
In addition, technical information is neces-
sary if the population is to protect itself
against various geologic hazards common
to Florida including the development of
sinkholes, flooding, pollution of water sup-
plies, coastal erosion and the occurrence of
radon gas. Sensitive environments such as
wetlands must be protected against the








degradation associated with encroaching
civilization. This geological information is
fundamental if the human population is
able to coexist in a positive way with its
physical environment.

Florida's remarkable population growth
has resulted in the need for construction of
all types and that construction has required
the mining and beneficiation of large
amounts of limestone and dolostone. For-
tunately limestone and dolostone are
readily available in large quantities
throughout much of the state. The exist-
ence of a mineral deposit, however, does
not necessarily imply that it should be
mined. Some areas will never be mined
because they are host to unique and fragile
environments which must be preserved. In
other areas, water resources may be vul-
nerable to damage if mining occurs. Geol-
ogy is the discipline which defines the rock
layers in a given area and notes their com-
position, including any mineral resources
they may contain. It is also the discipline
which defines the relationship of rock
layers in an area to ground-water and sur-
face-water resources.

All communities require adequate
amounts of fresh water which are protected
from various sources of contamination.
The discipline of geology plays a major role
in the task of locating water supplies, defin-
ing the rocks which both store and transmit
water and in the location and definition of
confining layers. Water is contained within
rocks and must be able to move through
them in order to be useful. Stratigraphy is
a subdiscipline of geology which deals with
layered rocks and their properties. Obser-
vations related to the porosity (the
presence of voids in rocks) and per-
meability (the extent to which voids are


interconnected) are noted. The composi-
tion of rocks is also observed by the strati-
grapher since sands, clays, limestones and
dolostones all transmit water differently.
The stratigrapher also defines the
geographical area underlain by various
rock layers. This information is especially
important in the protection of aquifers
from potential contamination which might
occur at waste sites.

Waste disposal is a necessary consideration
in all communities. An understanding of
an area's geology is critical if its waste dis-
posal is to be carried out in such a way that
surface- and ground-water resources are
not placed at risk. In Florida, most waste is
disposed in the shallow subsurface. Waste
water may be pumped into deep injection
wells. The safe disposal of waste is a
geologic challenge. Many aspects of an
area's geology must be considered and
their interrelationships must be under-
stood. The geographic extent of an area's
principal aquifers and their areas of
recharge (areas where water from the sur-
face enters an aquifer) must be defined.
Areas of recharge are especially critical
since contaminants may enter an aquifer
along with water from the surface. The
disposal site should be isolated from sur-
face-water bodies and it should never be
subject to flooding. The potential for
sinkhole development must be considered
since sinkholes frequently provide a direct
pathway to an aquifer. The types of surfi-
cial materials and underlying bedrock
must, of course, be considered since some
earth materials retard the downward move-
ment of water while others transmit it
readily. If waste is to be disposed using
deep injection wells, an understanding of
the geology of the injection zone and its
confining layer or layers is essential in








preventing upward movement of waste
water.

Certain geologic conditions, be they
natural or man-made, may pose risks or
danger to human life or property. These
conditions are called geologic hazards.
Geologic hazards reflect the geological set-
ting of an area. Areas may be categorized
in terms of the sorts of hazards which are
most likely to occur. Once the hazards
have been identified, planning and public
education programs can minimize their im-
pact. In a typical Florida county, the poten-
tial for sinkhole development is a cause for
concern. Fortunately, many areas of the
state exhibit a low probability of sinkhole
development. Certain combinations of
geologic conditions lead to areas which are
prone to sinkhole development. However,
these broad areas have been delineated so
that special precautions may be taken
where they are appropriate. Maps current-
ly available from the FGS allow general
areas to be evaluated in terms of their
potential for sinkhole development.

Many areas of Florida are subject to storms
which are accompanied by heavy rain fall.
In low-lying areas and in areas which are
underlain by materials of low permeability,
such as clays, heavy rains may lead to flood-
ing. An examination of an area's topog-
raphy (the variation in elevations of its land
surface) allows areas which are prone to
flooding to be delineated. The geology of
an area also yields information on its sedi-
ments and sedimentary rocks. Flooding is a
geologic hazard which may threaten both
life and property. Careful examination of
the topography and earth materials in con-
junction with the analysis of drainage
basins allows the identification of flood-
prone areas. These areas should probably


be avoided in the building process when it
is possible.

Pollution of water supplies is a geologic
hazard which is currently the subject of
state and national focus. As discussed pre-
viously in this section, geology is a key dis-
cipline in the protection of surface- and
ground-water resources. The charac-
teristics of water-bearing rocks and their
confining layers are described. Maps of the
geographic distributions of rock units can
aid in the assessment of their vulnerability
to various sources of contamination. Sur-
face water bodies are always vulnerable to
pollution and must especially be con-
sidered in waste disposal since leachate
may travel through subsurface materials
and enter streams and lakes.

Radon gas is a geologic hazard which has
recently received much state and federal
consideration. Radon is a naturally occur-
ring radioactive gas which is a daughter
product of uranium-238, another radioac-
tive element which occurs naturally in
many rocks and minerals of Florida. The
potential for elevated radon levels is not
equal in all counties of the state. General-
ly, areas characterized by elevated radon
levels are related to geology. On a county
by county basis, areas with potentially
elevated radon levels have been defined. It
is still advisable for individual structures to
be tested since levels may vary within a
county. Although geology does not supply
the entire answer concerning elevated
radon levels, it definitely provides a first
approximation solution to this perplexing
problem.

Another major geologic hazard which may
impact a typical Florida county is the issue
of coastal and beach erosion. The geologic








subdiscipline of sedimentology treats the
movement and deposition of sand by water.
Beaches are notoriously short-lived fea-
tures geologically. They are charac-
teristically in motion, advancing or
retreating as sea level changes or their
supply of nurturing sand varies. The posi-
tion of beaches responds to many factors
which are continually changing. The ac-
tivities of man can impact this system as
well, usually by construction which alters
sand supply to a given area. Large storms,
such as hurricanes, rearranged beaches
long before human beings sought to inhabit
them. The impact of such storms continues
and is extensive. Geologic input should be
considered at every turn in dealing with the
beach and coastal environment. The sys-
tem is delicately balanced and the poten-
tial for loss of property and even life cannot
be ignored.

Public Service Activities

The FGS has mandates in two major areas
related to the geology of the state. Its first
mandate is related to the acquisition and
subsequent utilization of fundamental
geologic data. In order to provide a sound
basis for both the development and conser-
vation of Florida's natural resources, the
resources must first be understood. Thus
the Survey is mandated to collect and inter-
pret geologic data which then becomes the
basis for published reports. It is the
responsibility of the Survey to store and
maintain samples and data derived from
them, so that the information is accessible
to various government agencies as well as
industry and other interested parties.

The Survey's second mandate addresses is-
sues related to the oil and gas industry. It
is the responsibility of the FGS to insure the


conservation and prudent utilization of the
state's oil and gas resources. At the same
time environmental impacts associated
with the development of these resources
must be minimized. In order to accomplish
these goals, the oil and gas exploration and
production industries are regulated
through a series of statutes, rules, permits,
and inspections.

In order to effectively carry out its man-
dated responsibilities, the FGS must com-
municate with its scientific, industrial and
lay constituency. Research results are
routinely available through the Survey's
various publication vehicles including Map
Series, Reports of Investigation, Bulletins,
Information Circulars, Special Publica-
tions and Open File Reports. The Florida
Geology Forum, published twice yearly, in-
cludes brief descriptions of current re-
search, service and continuing education
activities in the state. Research results are
also presented in talks prepared for profes-
sional conferences and meetings, field
trips, university colloquia and meetings of
interested laymen.

Direct requests for information on
numerous subjects including well data,
sample availability, regional geology,
regional hydrogeology, and paleontology,
among others, are handled by staff
geologists. These requests are screened in
terms of geographic area and topic so that
they may be referred to the most ap-
propriate staff member. They originate
from state and federal government agen-
cies, consulting firms, universities, and
earth science related industries as well as
concerned citizens.

FGS staff members make presentations on
various aspects of Florida geology when







requests for this service are received. Staff
members have presented talks on a variety
of topics during the 1989-1990 biennium,
including rocks and fossils, dinosaurs, karst
geology, environmental geology and
Florida geology. These talks are adapted
to audiences ranging in educational back-
ground from preschool to high school stu-
dents. Staff also handles requests for
presentations at the university level.
Topics have included Florida geology, ac-
tivities of the Florida Geological Survey,
and speleogenesis related to local karst fea-
tures. In addition, FGS staff has spoken to
various civic organizations including local
groups of cub scouts, scout leaders and a
canoe club.

The staff of the FGS Oil and Gas Section
routinely hold public hearings and
workshops. These meetings are advertised
in the Florida Administrative Weekly and
local newspapers to insure that interested
persons may plan to attend. The activities
of the Oil and Gas section are discussed
more completely in the section of this docu-
ment which deals specifically with the oil
and gas program.

























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RESEARCH AND
REGULATORY
PROGRAMS
Geological Investigations Section

The Geological Investigations Section is
involved in a wide variety of research
projects throughout the state. Currently, a
new state geologic map is being prepared.
A geologic map shows the distribution of
rock units at the surface of the ground and
is, therefore, an invaluable aid in the en-
vironmental decision-making process. The
formal rock-units (e.g. Hawthorn Group)
which are shown on the map represent
various lithologies (clays, limestones, etc.)
which are, in turn, characterized by certain
general hydrogeologic properties (sand is
very permeable to water, while clay is fairly
impermeable). Such a map, thus, provides
first approximation solutions to numerous
environmental problems related to waste
disposal, protection of ground-water
resources and geologic hazards.

Additional projects pursued by Geological
Investigations Section include a study of
the relationship between uranium-series
isotopes and organic deposits, an investiga-
tion of Plio-Pleistocene shell-bearing sedi-
ments in Florida and the initiation of a
project designed to examine the waste-
water injection zone in east-central
Florida. Staff geologists continue geologic
studies of individual counties, since this
information is fundamental for sound en-
vironmental and planning decisions.

The section also consults with other
government agencies since the regional
and local geology of a given area are fun-
damental in the evaluation of numerous
environmental problems. Geologic Inves-


tigations handles inquiries regarding
aquifer recharge and contamination,
geologic hazards, minerals mapping, and
problems related to community planning
and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells which are
on file with the FGS. This information is
added to the Survey's computerized data
base which currently contains logs for ap-
proximately 3,250 wells. This data base and
the programs designed to manipulate it are
currently used by other governmental
agencies and a number of private firms.

Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section

Florida ranks first in the nation with respect
to production of phosphate rock and
second nationally in the production of peat,
crushed stone and masonry cement. The
Mineral Resource and Environmental
Geology Section maintains communica-
tion with the mineral industry in Florida
and publishes biennial status reports re-
lated to industry activity.

Another aspect of the group's work with
industrial minerals involves the prepara-
tion of mineral resource maps. These maps
were planned to aid counties in the
preparation of comprehensive land-use
plans mandated by the state legislature.
The maps identify areas which are charac-
terized by the potential for mineral
resource development and are accom-
panied by brief explanatory texts. Smaller
inset maps of geomorphology and terrace
deposits along with cross-sections accom-
pany each text.

Another publication series targets environ-
mental geology of metropolitan areas
which are experiencing high rates of








population growth. The reports explore
numerous aspects of geology of each area
as they relate to environmental protection.
It is anticipated that these documents will
be used extensively as a planning aid since
growth must take cognizance of the physi-
cal environment.

Oil and Gas Section

Exploration for and production of oil and
gas are regulated by the Oil and Gas Sec-
tion through a system of permits and in-
spections. Environmental concerns and
protection of correlative rights are a
priority at all levels in the permitting
process. The section's main office is lo-
cated in Tallahassee, with field offices lo-
cated near producing fields in north (Jay)
and south (Ft. Myers) Florida. Activities
regulated by the section include: drilling
for oil and gas, water injection wells,
transportation of oil or gas from wells, plug-
ging and abandoning of wells, and
geophysical exploration.

Ten drilling permits were issued in 1989.
Eight wildcat wells were drilled in
northwest Florida and one was drilled in
south Florida; all were dry holes. One
development well was drilled in the Jay
field in north Florida and is producing. No
permits were issued for saltwater disposal
or water injection wells.

Nine drilling permits were issued in 1990.
Seven wildcat wells were drilled in
northwest Florida and one was drilled in
south Florida; all were dry holes. One dry
field development well was drilled in the
Mt. Carmel field in northwest Florida. No
service wells were drilled in 1990.


Geophysical exploration companies ob-
tained 11 seismic exploration permits in
1989 for a total of 409 line miles; 255 miles
were completed. Of the completed miles,
185 were located offshore in state waters in
the northern Gulf of Mexico and the
remaining 70 miles were for onshore ex-
ploration. The onshore exploration con-
sisted almost entirely of exploration using
explosives; these 68 miles were located in
northwest Florida (Escambia, Santa Rosa
and Okaloosa counties). The remaining
two miles of the onshore exploration used
vibratory energy sources in south Florida
(Dade County).

The Department issued six seismic ex-
ploration permits for 83 line miles in 1990;
59 miles were completed. All the com-
pleted miles were located onshore in
northwest Florida (Santa Rosa and
Okaloosa counties) and all permits were
for exploration using explosives. Two per-
mits for gravity surveys were also issued;
only one was conducted and was located in
south Florida (Collier, Hendry and Lee
counties).

The FGS adopted revisions to the Oil and
Gas Rules (Chapters 16C-25 through 30,
Florida Administrative Code) which were
effective June 5, 1989. The FGS began
considering revisions to the Oil and Gas
Rules resulting from changes to the
statutes made during the 1989 and 1990
legislative sessions. The Department held
a public workshop in October, 1990 to
gather input from other agencies, environ-
mental groups, industry and the public.

The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Commit-
tee is an ad hoc committee set up by the
Governor and Cabinet to inspect drill sites
and access routes in the Big Cypress Swamp








of south Florida. The Committee recom-
mends any necessary changes resulting
from environmental concerns in order to
mitigate drilling impacts in sensitive areas.
The Committee is chaired by the State
Geologist and meets quarterly if there are
sites to be inspected. During 1989, the
Committee met once and inspected one
drill site and its associated access route.
The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Commit-
tee did not meet during 1990 because the
FGS received no applications for permits
to drill in that area.

PERSONNEL CHANGES

A number of major personnel changes have
occurred in the FGS during the 1989-1990
biennium. J. William "Bill" Yon retired at
the end of January, 1990 ending a 39 year
career with the FGS. Bill's research inter-
ests were concentrated in stratigraphy and
economic geology and his diplomatic per-
sonality was a major asset in the estab-
lishment of a congenial and cooperative
relationship with the minerals industry in
Florida. Bill headed the fledgling Mine
Reclamation program for a number of
years after its inception and remained in
charge of reclamation research at the newly
formed Mine Reclamation Bureau for
several years. When the FGS created its
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section, Bill was chosen to lead
the group, a position he held until retire-
ment.

Richard Howard, an invaluable FGS
employee, retired in August of 1989 at the
end of 25 years of exemplary service.
Richard was in charge of all core and cut-
ting samples received by the FGS. He
washed and bagged cuttings, assigned ac-
cession numbers to wells and supervised


and maintained the FGS sample
repository. His outstanding work perfor-
mance was officially recognized when he
was chosen as D.N.R. Employee-of-the-
Month in August, 1984.

Harold Barnes "Pete" Parker, northwest
Florida oil and gas district coordinator, lost
his battle with cancer in August, 1990. Pete
had a long career as a petroleum geologist
in both industry and public service. He
served as FGS oil and gas coordinator for
south Florida for nine years, at which time
he returned to industry. In 1987, he once
again chose to work with state government,
this time in northwest Florida. Pete was
well-liked and a respected coworker. We
miss him.

Alison Lewis, research librarian at the
FGS, left in August, 1989 to pursue doc-
toral studies at Temple University in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ms. Alice Jor-
dan joined the staff as librarian, bringing
extensive experience in science libraries to
the job. She has served as research
librarian at a number of medical libraries
and a university physics library in addition
to her other library experience.

Three geologists joined the FGS in the
1989-1990 biennium, while one left to pur-
sue his own geological studies. Marycarol
Reilly, a licensed Professional Geologist in
Florida, joined the Ft. Myers Field Office
in November, 1989. Her duties include
field inspections of oil and gas related
work, conducted under permits issued by
DNR and geologic investigations related to
the environmental impacts associated with
oil and gas drilling and production. Mitch
Covington joined the FGS staff in June
1990. He specializes in nannofossil
paleontology and works at the FGS head-








quarters in Tallahassee. Joel Duncan, a
licensed Professional Geologist in Florida,
also joined the FGS staff in mid-1990. He
is based in Tallahassee and concentrates his
efforts in carbonate petrology and
petroleum geology. Richard Johnson, a
staff geologist specializing in stratigraphy,
left the FGS in mid-1990 to carry out inde-
pendent geological research.

The 1989-1990 biennium saw a number of
upgrades and promotions at the FGS. Jac-
queline Lloyd, a petroleum geologist and
geological supervisor with the FGS was
promoted to fill Bill Yon's position on his
retirement. She is now Administrator and
Senior Geologist over the Mineral Resour-
ces and Environmental Geology Section.
In December, 1990, Scott Hoskins was
promoted to an Environmental Specialist
III and now heads the Oil and Gas Section's
Jay Field Office. His duties now include
regulatory supervision of all petroleum ex-
ploration, drilling and production opera-
tions as well as management of the field
office. Ken Campbell was promoted to the,
position of Geological Supervisor I in 1990.
He originally joined the FGS as a graduate
assistant and was hired as a Geologist II on
the completion of his Master's degree. His
duties include supervision of the augering
program and oversight of the FGS-
Minerals Management Service Coopera-
tive Project, among others. John Morrill,
the FGS driller, was upgraded from an En-
gineering Technician IV to an Engineer I,
in 1990. He is responsible for conducting all
coring operations in addition to other well
drilling activities. Jim Jones, a draftsman
and longtime employee of the FGS, was
upgraded in 1990 from an Engineering
Technician III to an Engineer I. His
photographic and drafting expertise have
contributed greatly to the FGS publication


process over the years and his development
of computerized drafting techniques for
the Survey have greatly enhanced the
capabilities in that department. Frank
Rush joined the FGS as a full-time
employee in August 1989 after having as-
sisted Richard Howard as an OPS (Other
Personal Services) employee on a full-time
basis. Frank prepares and catalogues
samples, manages the FGS sample
repository, and also assists with the Survey
augering and drilling programs.


ADDITIONAL
PROGRAMS
A number of additional programs which
are overseen by the FGS are critical to its
mission. These programs benefit Survey
staff as well as other government agencies,
industrial representatives, consulting
groups, academic researchers and inter-
ested citizens. The Survey's drilling pro-
gram acquires cores from various locations
around the state for in-house projects as
well as for cooperative projects. The
Geologic Sample Repository contains
storage space for core and cutting samples,
allowing this valuable information to be
preserved and cataloged in a systematic
fashion. Lithologic and geophysical logs
are filed for ease of retrieval at the Gunter
Building in Tallahassee. The Survey's
computer system is used to handle the
growing volume of information associated
with geological research and oil and gas
regulation. FGS's research library allows
its users the advantage of computerized
database searches along with traditional
library services geared specifically to geol-
ogy. FGS supervises an active student as-
sistant program in which qualified graduate
students assist staff members in various on-








going research programs. Continuing
education is a vital program at the Survey,
offering staff advanced educational oppor-
tunities in many affiliated disciplines.

Drilling Program

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. The state is charac-
terized by very low topographic relief and
data obtained from cores is essential to the
understanding of subsurface stratigraphy.
The FGS owns and operates a truck-
mounted Failing 1500 drill rig which is
deployed on a full-time basis in various
parts of the state depending on research
needs. The drill rig is operated by a fully
licensed driller and one assistant. During
1989 and 1990, 19 cores were obtained,
ranging from 48 to 822 feet in depth, for a
total cored length of 5,536 feet. Two auger
rigs, one truck mounted, the other trailer
mounted are available for staff use. Twen-
ty-three auger holes were drilled in Glades
County in 1990. Drilling procedures with
the auger rig are modified to provide the
highest quality samples possible.

Research Library

The FGS library is an integral part of its
research and regulatory programs. It
provides access to basic research materials
including books, state and federal docu-
ments, photographs and periodicals total-
ing approximately 30,000 volumes.
Materials are collected on various aspects
of geology, mining and mineral resources,
environmental studies, hydrology and re-
lated topics. The library has one of the
largest and oldest map collections in the
state of Florida with over 15,000 maps, in-
cluding a rather large collection of 19th
century maps. The library has access to


GEOREF, an international computerized
bibliographic information retrieval system.
In addition to the holdings available at the
Survey's facility, the library participates in
a nationwide Interlibrary Loan Network
through which the staff has access to other
special and academic collections. The
library cooperates with other libraries
through various networking groups on the
local, state and national level. The
librarian participates in the activities of the
Florida Library Association, Panhandle
Library Access Network, Geoscience In-
formation Society and Southeastern Map
Librarians.

The library is used by the public, private
consulting firms and various governmental
agencies. Circulation is restricted to Sur-
vey staff and personnel of other state agen-
cies and Florida State University Geology
Department. The library also provides
detailed information on the Survey's 500
published documents and reports and over-
sees the distribution of those documents
presently in print. During 1989-1990 this
included over 2,000 requests for 20,000
documents. In addition, 250 various
depository libraries around the world
received some 3,000 documents to update
their depository collections.

Geologic Sample Collections

The FGS maintains separate collections of
well and surface outcrop samples. The well
collection consists of approximately 16,270
sets of samples from research wells as well
as water and oil wells. Most wells are rep-
resented by sets of drill cuttings. Some 566
wells are, however, represented by con-
tinuous core (a total of approximately
133,000 feet). The sample repository
facility occupies about 9,500 square feet,








with 17,655 square feet of shelf space. A
small office/lab is available for use by Sur-
vey staff and visiting scientists.

A collection of approximately 4,600 out-
crop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters
in the Gunter Building. These samples are
cross indexed by formation, lithology,
county, and location. The collection is
referred to as the "M-Series." The "M-
Series" is particularly valuable given
Florida's high rate of population growth
and development. Surface exposures of
critical lithologies have become inacces-
sible to researchers with the continued
proliferation of roadways, shopping
centers, parking lots and high-rise housing.

The Survey also maintains a paleontologi-
cal reference set. This invertebrate fossil
reference set contains over 20,000
specimens of macro-fossils and over 10,000
micro-fossil specimens and is located at the
Gunter Building. The collections of
Florida typical and/or guide fossils consist
of mollusks, echinoids, ostracodes,
foraminifera, bryozoans, corals, nannofos-
sils, and diatoms.

Data Files

Samples from wells which are stored at the
FGS sample repository are indexed by ac-
cession number, county, and section,
township and range location. Lithologic
logs, drillers logs, and information sheets
which correspond to these wells are filed by
county and accession number in a series of
looseleaf binders (the "Green Books"). In-
formation from the "Green Books" is
gradually being transferred to the Survey's
computerized data base which currently
contains data from approximately 3,250


wells. Computer services are discussed
more completely in another section of this
report.

A file of geophysical logs contains informa-
tion for approximately 4,800 wells. Many
(but not all) of these wells have cor-
responding lithologic samples available
and are assigned FGS accession numbers.
Geophysical logs represented include
electric (normal, lateral, SP) natural
gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity or conduc-
tivity, temperature, single point resistivity,
acoustic velocity, fluid velocity, neutron
(porosity) and gamma-gamma (density).
In addition, complete suites of geophysical
logs accompany most permitted oil and gas
wells.

Computer Services

The primary focus of computer services at
the FGS is its inventory of geologic logs
corresponding to wells archived at the
Survey's sample repository. The database
contains lithologic descriptions of cores
and cutting samples, as well as formational
picks. Computer coding of well data began
in 1972. The database currently contains
60 county files with approximately 3,250
descriptions. An analogous database of
outcrop descriptions was begun in 1987. It
currently contains descriptions of 50 out-
crops from 27 Florida counties.

This extensive database provides a detailed
source of information concerning the sub-
surface geology of Florida. The software
system written to manage and use this
database is called the Well Log Data Sys-
tem (written by Dr. Robert Lindquist, Geo-
Logic Information Systems, Gainesville,
Florida). The system was written for PC
compatibility, providing FGS and outside








users access to the state-wide geologic
database. The BASIC programs which
make up the system allow for entering and
editing data, and generating both graphic
(when combined with Surfer, a separate
commercial software package) and text
output of geologic data. Graphic output
includes structure and isopach maps,
geologic cross-sections, and well location
maps. Additional programs generate
geologic columns for both well and outcrop
data.

Two additional computer databases are
maintained by the FGS Oil and Gas Sec-
tion. These include an inventory of oil and
gas well data (approximately 1,268 per-
mits) as well as an inventory of about 142
geophysical permits. In-house and com-
mercial software packages allow for sorting
and tracking of the data in both databases.

Valuable computer services are available
to FGS staff through the library. Using
DIALOG information service, the FGS
librarian conducts searches for references
to geologic and hydrologic literature on the
GEOREF, GeoAbstracts, Water Resour-
ces Abstracts, and Science Citation Index.
The librarian can also contact the LUIS
on-line system. This system accesses the
on-line library catalog for Florida State
University and other State University Sys-
tem (SUS) libraries.

All computer work at the FGS is ac-
complished on IBM (or IBM-compatible)
personal computers. Data and graphic
input devices include one 11" X 17" GTCO
digitizer and three 36" X 48" GTCO
digitizers. Text and graphic output is
through two Hewlett Packard (HP) Plot-
ters, two HP Laserjet Series II printers, and
several dot matrix printers of varying


quality. Software used includes in-house
Basic and C programs, the Well Log Data
System described above, shareware, and
standard commercial packages (e.g., Lotus
123, dBase IV, WordPerfect, WordStar,
Xerox Ventura Publisher, Surfer, and
AutoCad).

Student Assistantship Program

The FGS sponsors an active student assis-
tantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified
graduate students in geology obtain work
experience in a professional setting while
staff geologists, in turn, are assisted by
knowledgeable and motivated individuals.
The assistantship program was begun in
1974 and has run with minor interruptions
since that time.

Currently, most students are employed by
contract and grant funded studies. These
students conduct research tasks while
under the supervision of professional
geologists on the Survey staff. As the pro-
gram has developed, the FGS and several
Water Management Districts have
provided funding for assistants. Additional
funding sources include the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, and the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation.
The number of students employed in a
given year varies with available funding.

Continuing Education

Numerous opportunities for continuing
education are available to staff at the FGS.
The state of Florida maintains a unique
program in which tuition is waived for state
employees enrolling in job-related univer-
sity courses on a space available basis. A
number of Survey staff members have








taken advantage of this program enrolling
in related geology, geography, planning
and oceanography courses.

Attendance at technical short courses is
also encouraged. Staff members have at-
tended courses related to various topics
including oil production technology,
KEVEX microanalysis of minerals,
geographic information systems and oil and
gas exploration and production waste
management practices. In addition, staff
have attended workshops developed in
response to environmental concerns.
Topics for these classes include wetlands
ecosystems of the Big Bend, uplands
ecosystems of the Big Bend area, coastal
and freshwater habitats, as well as karst
hydrogeology.

Survey staff members are also offered a
number of short courses which enhance job
performance. Professional staff have par-
ticipated in courses related to oral presen-
tations, speed reading and writing skills.
Secretarial staff have taken advantage of a
number of courses designed to improve job
performance including courses aimed at
improved communication skills (Getting
the Message Across, Developing your Lan-
guage Skills, Acting and Reacting) as well
as courses which enhance fundamental
secretarial skills (Improving the Basics,
The Take Charge Secretary, and
Proofreading, Editing and Writing Skills).
Staff have access to a number of courses
related to the use of commercial software
packages including WordPerfect, Xerox
Ventura Publisher and Lotus 1-2-3. Super-
visory staff are offered a number of courses
dealing with management techniques in-
cluding Successful Employee Selection,
Certified Public Management, and Attain-
ing Superior Management Performance.


The Department of Natural Resources,
parent organization of the FGS, recognizes
that circumstances beyond the workplace
may have a major impact on job perfor-
mance. Survey staff members have par-
ticipated in classes designed to have a
positive impact on family interactions
(Parent Education and Parenting for Self-
Esteem). In addition, supervisory staff
have attended workshops which explain the
Employee Assistance Program and discuss
its applicability to various personnel situa-
tions. Safety related classes and classes in
first aid, CPR and defensive driving are
available to all interested employees.





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COOPERATIVE
PROGRAMS
The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other state
agencies and water management districts.
In addition, FGS houses a scanning
electron microscope which was donated to
the Florida State University (FSU) Geol-
ogy Department by Texaco. The unit is
maintained jointly by FGS and interested
parties in the FSU Geology Department.
The FGS also benefits from a cooperative
research effort with the FSU Academic
Diving Program and the Woodville Karst
Plain Project. FGS is ideally suited to these
collaborative efforts since it routinely col-
lects and processes information pertinent
to many geologic subdisciplines on a state-
wide basis. This extensive in-house data
base is immediately available as the foun-
dation for various joint studies. Staff
geologists design projects in conjunction
with their collaborators, hire research as-
sociates and supervise student assistants.
Each project is continually monitored by
the staff geologist who is in charge of it.

Two projects aimed at defining heavy-
mineral resources off coastal Florida have
been undertaken in conjunction with the
United States Minerals Management Ser-
vice. FGS has been actively involved in
cooperative projects with the Suwannee
River Water Management District
(WMD), Southwest Florida WMD and
South Florida WMD. Suwannee River
WMD has contracted with the FGS to pro-
vide a number of maps related to various
hydrogeologic parameters in the District.
Southwest Florida WMD has contracted
with FGS for the description and entry of
additional wells into the computerized data
base. South Florida WMD and the FGS


have completed a cooperative arrange-
ment in which continuous cores were
drilled and described in high growth
regions of south Florida. In addition, FGS
and the Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation are currently cooperat-
ing on two very different projects, both of
which have as their goal, the enhanced
protection of Florida's environment.
Florida DER has contracted with the FGS
to publish the results of investigations as-
sociated with its Ambient Ground Water
Quality Network. DER has also con-
tracted with FGS to conduct a study of the
highly permeable, but nonpotable portion
of the lower Floridan aquifer system, as
well as its confining layer, in Brevard Coun-
ty.

U.S. Minerals Management Service
Cooperative Program

The FGS has been involved with two heavy-
mineral reconnaissance studies during
1989 and 1990. These studies were con-
ducted in cooperation with the U.S.
Minerals Management Service, Texas
Bureau of Economic Geology, University
of Texas at Austin, the U.S. Geological
Survey, University of South Florida, and
Florida Institute of Technology.

The 1989 study was the second and final
phase of a two-year study of sediments from
the shoal complex offshore of Cape
Canaveral on the Atlantic Coast. One
hundred and forty samples derived from
84 vibracores were analyzed during the
two-year study.

The average total heavy-mineral content of
the samples is 0.26 weight percent. The
heavy mineral suite consists of, in decreas-
ing order of abundance, epidote, ilmenite,








aluminosilicates, zircon, pyroxene-am-
phibole, staurolite, garnet, tourmaline,
rutile, monazite and others (magnetite,
phosphorite, sulfides, unidentified opa-
ques, quartz and coated grains). The
minerals of highest economic importance
which are present in the Cape Canaveral
offshore area include ilmenite, rutile, zir-
con and monazite. Monazite is present in
minute quantities and does not figure in
calculations of economic heavy-minerals.
Economic heavy-minerals comprise an
average of 39.2 percent of the recovered
heavy-mineral concentrate. The heavy-
mineral species which occur offshore of
Cape Canaveral are similar to those found
in onshore economic deposits such as Trail
Ridge and Green Cove Springs, however
absolute abundance and concentration is
almost an order of magnitude lower for the
offshore deposits. The results of these
analyses show a very low potential for detri-
tal heavy-mineral resources in the study
area. Sand and gravel deposits on the shoal
bodies are sand-rich and mud-poor and
maintain these characteristics to a depth of
at least 3 meters over a broad area. The
complete thickness of these sediments can-
not be assessed using data from the current
study.

The 1990 study builds on the Cape
Canaveral study and examines vibracores
from the inner Atlantic continental shelf of
northeast Florida, north of Cape Canaveral
to the Florida-Georgia state line. Seventy
samples from 49 vibracores were examined
for phase 1 (1990) of this study.

The average total heavy-mineral content of
the 70 samples examined to date is 0.49
weight percent. The heavy-mineral species
present, in decreasing order of abundance
are epidote, ilmenite, aluminosilicates, zir-


con, staurolite, rutile, garnet, pyroboles,
tourmaline, monazfte and others (phos-
phorite, sulfides, unidentified opaques,
quartz and coated grains). Economic
heavy-minerals comprise 52.7 percent of
the recovered heavy-mineral concentrate.

Sand and gravel deposits may locally pro-
vide materials for beach renourishment
since they are of low mud content. The best
sites, based on available data are offshore
from St. Augustine and Fernandina Beach,
although these data are insufficient to
quantify thickness and lateral extent of the
sediments.

Much of the laboratory work and sample
analysis for the MMS projects is conducted
by graduate assistants under supervision by
either FGS staff geologists or research as-
sociates.

Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Pro-
gram Publications

The Florida Legislature's Water Quality
Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the estab-
lishment of an Ambient Ground Water
Quality Network to aid in the prediction
and detection of contamination of Florida's
ground-water resources. Administered
through the Florida DER, this legislation
provides the funding for construction of a
state-wide background ground-water
quality monitoring well network. Also in-
cluded within the scope of the Act are re-
search provisions for defining aquifer
systems based on new and existing
hydrogeologic data, water-quality sampling
and analysis, as well as in-depth studies
ranking the hydrogeologic pollution poten-
tial of each aquifer system. The bulk of the
hydrogeologic data acquisition, compila-
tion, and analysis work is currently being








undertaken by the state's five water
management districts and, in Alachua
County, by the Alachua County Depart-
ment of Environmental Services.

The Department of Environmental
Regulation has contracted with the FGS to
begin publishing the results of these inves-
tigations. Two volumes are in preparation.
The first will be a series of maps which
portray the basic hydrogeologic conditions
present within the principal aquifer sys-
tems of Florida. The second publication
will be a series of maps portraying back-
ground water-quality parameters for
Florida's principal aquifer systems.

Suwannee River Water Management Dis-
trict Cooperative Program

The FGS and the Suwannee River WMD
have maintained a successful and mutually
beneficial working relationship for nearly
fifteen years. For much of this period, the
Suwannee River WMD has funded geology
graduate students to work as research assis-
tants at the FGS, describing well samples
and cores and entering the coded lithologic
logs into the FGS computer data base. This
arrangement has worked exceedingly well,
resulting in the addition of much new data
on the geology of the District to the data
bases of both agencies.

This cooperative arrangement continued
through the years 1989-1990. During this
period, a top of Floridan aquifer system
map for the Suwannee District was com-
pleted, and lithologic logs from all pre-1972
wells drilled in the District were computer
coded. In addition, the Suwannee River
WMD contracted with the FGS to provide
three new products. These consisted of: 1)
a series of maps depicting the top and thick-


ness of the intermediate aquifer system
within the District based on data on file at
the FGS, 2) computer digitized maps show-
ing the locations of all mines greater than
10 acres in size, located within District
boundaries, and 3) a coring study of the
Waccasassa Flats region of Gilchrist Coun-
ty. The FGS hired both undergraduate and
graduate geology students to work on the
mapping projects, which are on-going, and
provided its core-drilling rig for the Wac-
casassa study. By the close of 1990, nine
cores had been recovered from transects
across the Waccasassa Flats, and ground-
water monitor wells were installed at each
site. As a continuing part of the contract,
the lithology of the cores will be described.
Permeability, clay mineralogy and grain
size analyses will be performed by graduate
assistants under the supervision of an FGS
staff geologist.

South Florida Water Management Dis-
trict Cooperative Program

In July 1988, the FGS and the South Florida
WMD began a cooperative project in Lee,
Hendry and Collier Counties. South
Florida is experiencing rapid population
growth and sound water management prac-
tices must be predicated on an adequate
understanding of the lithologic units which
comprise aquifer systems. Topographic
relief in these counties is especially low,
making reliable subsurface data an invalu-
able asset. The three counties targeted by
this study are characterized by sparse data
coverage.

This project involves the drilling and
evaluation of six continuous cores and
coding of 180 existing longhand geologic
logs within the South Florida district to
computer format with subsequent entry of








these logs into the FGS computer data
base. The first core (W-16242, South Seas
#1, 760 feet TD) was drilled on Captiva
Island, Lee County in 1988. The remaining
cores were drilled during 1989 and 1990
(W-16329, Hilliard Brothers, 740 feet TD,
Hendry County; W- 16387, U.S. Sugar, 662
feet TD, Hendry County; W-16434, Collier
Corporation Immokalee, 715 feet TD, Col-
lier County; W-16505, Fakahatchee
Strand, 702 feet TD, Collier County; and
W-16523, Koreshan, 822 feet TD, Lee
County). The South Seas site was
developed into a monitor well while the
remainder were plugged after drilling and
logging.

Each core was described lithologically,
computer coded and entered into the FGS
and SFWMD data bases. Detailed
stratigraphic columns were developed for
each core and cross-sections were
generated. The final report was delivered
to the SFWMD in mid-1990 and filed as
FGS OFR-37. Evaluation of the cores ob-
tained through this program and computer
coding is undertaken mainly by student as-
sistants under the supervision of a FGS
staff geologist.

Southwest Florida Water Management
District Cooperative Program

In June, 1990 the FGS and Southwest
Florida WMD entered into a cooperative
program designed to enhance data
coverage for the counties which comprise
the Southwest Florida WMD. Decisions
concerning hydrogeologic and environ-
mental matters must be based on a data
base which is as broad as possible. The FGS
has an extensive collection of lithologic
logs which predate its computer system.
Although this information is readily acces-


sible to FGS staff, it is not part of the com-
puterized data base shared by the FGS and
Southwest Florida WMD. In addition, a
number of wells archived at the FGS
sample repository lack lithologic logs. The
current project is aimed at upgrading the
agencies' shared.data base by the addition
of previously existing lithologic logs to the
computerized data base using student as-
sistants. Student assistants have also begun
describing samples from wells which are
archived by the FGS, but have not been
described. These new descriptions will
then be entered into the computerized data
base. The augmented computerized data
base will facilitate manipulation of
lithologic data using various software
packages. Student assistants work under
FGS staff supervision.

The Lower Floridan Aquifer System in
Brevard County

In late-1990, the Florida DER contracted
with the FGS to complete a detailed
geological analysis of the lower Floridan
aquifer system in Brevard County. This
study includes both the confining layer and
its underlying injection zone. In Brevard
County, some treated liquid sewage waste
products are disposed by pumping into
deep injection well bores. The waste
material is forced outward into a highly
permeable but nonpotable part of the
lower Floridan aquifer system. The injec-
tion zone is directly overlain by a confining
layer of impermeable carbonate rock
which prevents the upward movement of
injected waste and resultant contamination
of the shallow, potable water supply of the
upper Floridan aquifer system.








The current cooperative study was
prompted by the discovery of contaminated
water zones above the confining layer at
one injection site. In the initial phase of
this project, cores and cuttings from eight
injection wellbores have been examined
and described using a binocular micro-
scope. Geophysical logs for the bores have
been correlated and cross-sections have
been constructed. This intensive examina-
tion of available evidence will aid in the
identification of potential geologic factors
which may affect the disposal of waste by
deep well injection in Brevard County.

Scanning Electron Microscopy Coopera-
tive Analytical Facility

An ETEC AUTOSCAN scanning electron
microscope and KEVEX x-ray analysis sys-
tem were donated to the Florida State
University (FSU) Department of Geology
through Dr. Sherwood Wise, Jr. by Texaco
USA's geologic lab in New Orleans. The
entire unit is valued at over $100,000. The
Florida Geological Survey houses the SEM
and it is available to researchers from both
FGS and FSU. The instrument has been
used primarily for quantitative whole rock
chemical analyses.

FSU Academic Diving Program Coopera-
tive Projects

Efforts at the FGS to understand various
aspects of karstic aquifers have been en-
hanced by a cooperative underwater cave
research effort with the FSU Academic
Diving Program and the recently-formed
Woodville Karst Plain Project, a project of
the National Speleological Society. During
research dives, volunteer divers from both
groups have collected geologic data from
underwater caves. During the past two


years, rock samples have been collected
from several sinks and underwater caves in
the Woodville Karst Plain in Wakulla
County, Florida. The samples were
described by FGS staff, and the
stratigraphic data added to the Survey's
database. These samples represent other-
wise unobtainable outcrop samples, and
will thus be added to the FGS "M-series"
collection for permanent reference.

Divers have also provided the FGS with
underwater cave survey maps and video-
tapes of several cave conduit systems
statewide. These materials provide non-
diving geological staff with important in-
sight into the cave network locations as well
as the size, shape and hydrogeology of sub-
aqueous caves in Florida. Most of these
volunteered materials are stored in the Na-
tional Association for Cave Diving
(NACD) Archives, maintained in the FGS
research library.

Summer Inservice Institute Cooperative
Program

In order to make geologic information ac-
cessible to nongeologists, the FGS has be-
come increasingly involved in various
educational activities. FGS, as a research,
regulatory and service agency is in a unique
position to contribute both instructional
expertise and educational materials to con-
tinuing education efforts which are
oriented toward the earth sciences.

Florida A&M University, in cooperation
with the FGS, the U.S. Department of the
Interior Bureau of Land Management, the
U.S. Geological Survey Water Resource
Division and the Florida Department of
Education, sponsored an Inservice In-
stitute titled "Studies of Geologic and








Hydrologic Foundations of Florida's En-
vironment." The Institute presented
elementary and secondary science teachers
with an interdisciplinary introduction to
geology and hydrology as keystones in the
understanding of the environment of
Florida. FGS staff members were respon-
sible for introductory instruction on
numerous aspects of basic geology. This
material provided a basis for discussions of
specific topics in Florida geology.

Geologic concepts were reinforced during
field trips run by FGS staff members in-
cluding the examination of Pleistocene
shell-bearing sediments, a trip to an active
phosphate mine (IMC Four Corners Phos-
phate Mine) and excursions to two active
limestone quarries (Florida Rock In-
dustries Quarry and Florida Mining and
Materials Quarry). Additionally, each par-
ticipant received a packet of FGS publica-
tions related to geologic topics considered
at the institute.

Radon Assessment Cooperative Program

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy (EPA) is in the process of preparing a
map of the United States which will
delineate areas of elevated radon potential.
The geologic data which provides the basis
for this map must be reviewed and the EPA
has entered into an agreement with the
Association of American State Geologists
(A.A.S.G.) to accomplish that task.
Florida received a draft version of the
pamphlet containing maps and a short text
which discusses the geology of radon in
Florida and the radon data base for the
state. A Survey staff geologist reviewed the
document and contacted an extended
group of scientists within the state to act as
additional reviewers. This group of scien-


tists has research interests related to radon
and provided numerous technical com-
ments which were returned to the FGS and
compiled by the staff geologist in charge of
the project. Compiled review comments
were forwarded to the United States
Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.), the agency
which is in charge of map preparation for
the E.P.A.. In addition, Walt Schmidt,
Florida's State Geologist, is acting as
A.A.S.G. coordinator of the southeastern
states to ensure that document reviews
from the states in this area are consistent
and completed in a timely manner.


BUDGET SUMMARY
The FGS is funded primarily from General
Revenue each year with additional funding
from the Petroleum Exploration and
Production Bond Trust Fund which sup-
ports an Engineer III position in the Oil and
Gas Section. The requested budget is
reviewed by the Division of Resource
Management and the Executive Director's
Office of the Department of Natural
Resources (DNR) before being presented
to the Governor and Cabinet (DNR's Ex-
ecutive Board). Upon approval of the
Board the budget request is submitted to
the Florida House of Representatives and
the Florida Senate for review by their
Budget Committees.

Budgets approved for the Survey by the
Florida Legislature for Fiscal Years 1989-
1990 and 1990-1991 are summarized
below. In general, the overall budget has
received increases similar to that of the
national inflation rate over the last 15 years.
However, due to a projected shortfall of
state revenues, these two years have seen








the loss of previously approved and ap-
propriated funds.

Not included in the figures below are ap-
propriations approved in 1990-1991;
$17,500 that would allow FGS to add an
outside fire escape to the top two floors at
the core facility in order to correct current
fire code violations, and $185,905 for pur-
chase of a new core drilling rig and acces-
sories. Included in the Operating Capital
Outlay shown below is $38,095 also marked
as a part of the drill rig purchase, all of
which is to be paid for in equal installments
through Fiscal Year 1993-1994.

FGS Budget


1989-1990


1990-1991


Salaries & Benefits


$1,042,606

Other Personal Services

13,842


Expenses


$1,061,825



13,842


230,082 238,611


Operating Capital Outlay


45,010


85,010


Outside Contracts


184,902


Total


$1,516,442


174,564

$1,573,852


The Survey is currently funded as a single
entity and for that reason the budget is not
broken out by section as it has been in the


past. The Survey consists of the following
four sections and positions:

Administrative Direction and Support
Section (5 full-time staff and 1 part-time)
State Geologist, Administrative Assistant,
Executive Secretary, Librarian and 1 part-
time assistant, Custodian

Geologic Investigations Section (13 full-
time staff and 11 part-time) 1 Senior
Geologist/Administrator, 6 Geologists, 2
Engineers, 2 Engineering Technicians, 1
Lab Technician, 1 Secretary, 11 part-time
research assistants

Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section (4 full-time staff and 2
part-time assistants) 1 Senior
Geologist/Administrator, 3 Geologists, 2
part-time research assistants

Oil and Gas Regulation and Conservation
(9.5 full-time staff and 1 part-time) 1 Ad-
ministrator, 2 Geologists, 3 Engineers, 2.5
Secretaries, 1 Environmental Specialist, 1
part-time assistant


PUBLICATIONS
The FGS recognizes that dissemination of
geologic data and research results are an
essential part of its mission as a public ser-
vice agency. The Survey publishes results
of staff investigations and investigations
undertaken with cooperating agencies.
Studies which are pertinent to the geology
of Florida which are undertaken by other
earth scientists may also be published.
Results of technical symposia and field
guidebooks are also published on occasion.








Publications of the FGS are available to the
public for a small fee which covers postage
and handling. If publications are obtained
directly at the FGS offices in Tallahassee,
they are free. All FGS publications are free
to other agencies of city, county, state and
federal government. In addition, publica-
tions of the FGS are supplied without
charge to 55 depository libraries in Florida,
127 depository libraries in the U.S. exclud-
ing Florida, and 21 foreign depository
libraries.

The FGS maintains an open file series of
publications which may be purchased for
the cost of reproduction. The contents of
the open-file series are listed in the
Survey's List of Publications which is up-
dated annually. Lithologic logs, well
coverage maps, geophysical logs and maps
showing the locations of oil wells are avail-
able for a fee determined by reproduction
costs.

The following publications were issued by
the FGS during 1989-1990.

Map Series (MS)

MS 123 Freshwater Withdrawals and
Water-Use Trends in Florida, 1985, 1989.
By R. L. Marella. (Prepared by the U.S.
Geological Survey, published in coopera-
tion with the Florida Geological Survey).

MS 124 Ground-Water Sources and 1985
Withdrawals in Florida, 1989. By C. S.
Conover, J. T. Vecchioli, and D. W. Foose.
(Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey,
published in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey).


MS 125 A Guide Map to Geologic and
Paleontologic Sites in Florida, 1989. By F.
R. Rupert.

MS 126 Mineral Resources of St. Johns
County, Florida, 1989. By R. W. Hoenstine,
P. A. Bond, S. M. Spencer, and J. W. Yon,
Jr.

MS 127 Mineral Resources of Flagler
County, Florida, 1989. By E. Lane, P. A.
Bond, R. W. Hoenstine, S. M. Spencer, and
J. W. Yon, Jr.

MS 128 Mineral Resources of Putnam
County, Florida, 1989. By S. M. Spencer,
R. W. Hoenstine, E. Lane, and J. W. Yon,
Jr.

MS 129 Mineral Resources of Jefferson
County, Florida, 1989. By P. A. Bond, R. W.
Hoenstine, and E. Lane.

MS 130 Mineral Resources of Lee County,
Florida, 1990. By E. Lane, T. M. Scott, R.
W. Hoenstine, and J. W. Yon, Jr.

MS 131 Mineral Resources of Alachua
County, Florida, 1990. By R. W. Hoenstine,
J. W. Yon, Jr., E. Lane, and S. M. Spencer.


Report of Investigations (RI)

RI 98 Geology of Sumter County, Florida,
1989. By K. M. Campbell, 28 p.

Bulletins (B)

B 61 Geology and Ground-Water Resour-
ces of Madison County, Florida, 1990. By
R. W. Hoenstine, S. M. Spencer, and T.
O'Carroll, 98 p.








B 62 Geology of Gadsden County, Florida,
1990. By F.R. Rupert, 61 p.

Information Circulars (IC)

IC 105 Part I The Industrial Minerals
Industry of Florida, 1989. By S.M. Spencer.
Part II Geology, Mining and Reclamation
at the Radar Hill Quarry, Citrus County,
Florida, 1989. By J. W. Yon, Jr., W. R.
Waite, and C. T. Williams, 51p.

IC 106 1986 & 1987 Florida Petroleum
Production and Exploration, 1989. By J.
M. Lloyd, 39 p.

Special Publication (SP)

SP 30 Geologic Descriptions of Selected
Exposures in Florida, 1989. By R. A.
Johnson, 175 p.

Open File Reports (OFR)

OFR 26 Stratigraphic Correlation of Out-
crop Gamma Ray Profiles in Florida, 1989.
By R. A. Johnson, 27 p.

OFR 27 The Geology of Hamilton County,
Florida, 1989. By F.R. Rupert, 4 p.

OFR 29 Characteristics of the Sediments
Overlying the Floridan Aquifer System in
Alachua County, Florida, 1989. By R. C.
Green, J. G. Duncan, T. Seal, J. M. Wein-
berg and F. R. Rupert, 114 p.

OFR 30 Summary of the Geology of
Glades County, Florida, 1990. By K. M.
Campbell, 15 p.

OFR 31 A Brief Overview of the Miocene
Lithostratigraphy Northern Florida and
Eastern Georgia, 1990. By T.M. Scott, 6 p.


OFR 32 The Geomorphology and Geology
of Calhoun County, Florida, 1990. By F.
R.Rupert, 7 p.

OFR 33 The Geomorphology, Geology
and Hydrogeology of Baker County,
Florida, 1990. By P. A. Bond, 16 p.

OFR 34 The Geology and Geomorphology
of Florida's Coastal Marshes, 1990. By F.
R. Rupert and J. D. Arthur, 13 p.

OFR 35 Sand, Gravel and Heavy-Mineral
Resources Potential of Surficial Sediments
Offshore of Cape Canaveral, Florida, 1990.
By B. W. Nocita, P. Kohpina, L. W. Papetti,
M. M. Olivier, A. E. Grosz, S. Snyder, K.
M. Campbell, R. C. Green and T. M. Scott,
55 p.

OFR 36 The Lithostratigraphy of the Haw-
thorn Group of Peninsular Florida, 1990.
By T. M. Scott, 12 p.

OFR 37 Core Drilling Project: Lee,
Hendry and Collier Counties, 1990. By R.
C. Green, K. M. Campbell and T. M. Scott,
44 p.

OFR 38 Licensing of Geologists in Florida:
A Result of the Population/ Development
Explosion and Political Environmental
Awareness, 1990. By W. Schmidt, 4 p.

Biennial Reports

BR 15 Biennial Report 1987-1988, 1990.
By P. A. Bond, 34 p.








Miscellaneous

Arthur, J. D., 1989, Florida geology a slide
presentation with commentary, 100- 35mm
slides, 19 p.

Nocita, B. W., Kophina, P., Olivier, M. M.,
Campbell, K. M., Green, R. C., and Scott,
T. M., 1989, Results of a preliminary recon-
naissance study of the sand, gravel and
heavy mineral resources potential of sedi-
ments offshore of Cape Canaveral, Florida
- Phase I, Report to the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, 42 p.

Rupert, F. R., 1990, Geologic history of
Lake Seminole, in U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Lake Seminole Museum dis-
play.

Papers By Staff Members In Outside Pub-
lications

Allmon, W. and Scott, T. M., eds. 1990,
Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleon-
tology of South Florida: Guidebook Num-
ber 31, Southeastern Geological Society,
(unpaginated).

Arthur, J. D. and Rupert, F. R., 1989,
Selected geomorphic features of Florida, in
Scott, T. M., Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R. and
Upchurch, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy
and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan
aquifer system in Florida: Field Trip
Guidebook T185, American Geophysical
Union, p. 10-14.

Arthur, J. D., Melkote, S., Applegate, J.,
Scott, T. M., 1989, Heavy-mineral recon-
naissance off the coast of the Apalachicola
river delta, northwest Florida: A summary
and new interpretation, Marine Geology, v.
90 p. 51-57.


Bond, P. A., 1989, Geology, government,
and swamps: the evolution of wetlands
policy in Florida: The Professional
Geologist, v. 26, p. 5-6.

Bond, P. A., 1989, Peat and uranium in
Florida: Program Guide for the 1989
meeting of the Florida Section of the
American Institute of Mining Engineers,
20 p.

Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic hazards and
society: an interactive relationship:
Geological Society of America Abstracts
with Programs, v. 22, p. A169.

Bond, P. A., 1990, Geology of Hendry
County, Florida, in Belz, D. J., Carter, L. J.,
Dearstyne, D. A., and Overing, J. D., Soil
Survey of Hendry County, Florida: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Soil Conserva-
tion Service, p. 3-8.

Boyle, J. R., and Schmidt, W., 1989, The
mineral industry of Florida, in Minerals
yearbook 1987: U.S. Bureau of Mines, v. 2,
p. 97-105.

Campbell, K. M., Scott, T. M., Allard, M.
M., Green, R. C., Kophina, P., Nocita, B.
W., and Olivier, M. M., 1990, Summary of
the heavy-mineral reconnaissance studies
off the Gulf coast of northwest Florida and
off Cape Canaveral, Florida, in Hunt, M.
C., Doenges, S., and Stubbs, G. S., eds.,
Proceedings, second symposium on studies
related to continental margins, Austin,
Texas, May 21-23, 1989, p. 95-99.

Grosz, A. E., Cathcart, J. B., Macke, D. L.,
Knapp, M. S., Schmidt, W., Scott, T. M.,
1989, Geologic interpretation of the
gamma-ray aeroradiometric maps of
central and northern Florida: U.S.








Geological Survey Professional Paper
1461, 48 p.

Hoenstine, R. W., Cooper, R., Lane, E.,
1989, An extension of the intermediate
aquifer system in north-central Florida:
Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, sup-
plement 1, p. 29.

Johnson, R. A., 1989, Stratigraphic correla-
tion of outcrop gamma-ray profiles in
Florida: Florida Scientist Program Issue, v.
52, supplement 1, p. 29.

Lane, E., and Hoenstine, R.W., 1989, Ocala
Environmental Report: Florida Scientist
Program Issue, v. 52, supplement 1, p. 30.

Lloyd, J. M., and Ragland, J. R., 1989,
Petroleum exploration and development
policies in Florida: response to public con-
cern for sensitive environments:
Southeastern Section, Geological Society
of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 21,
p. 48.

Lloyd, J.M., Hoenstine, R. W., Lane, E.,
Spencer, S. M., 1990, The Florida Geologi-
cal Survey's mineral resource investiga-
tions and environmental geology program:
Geological Society of America Abstracts
with Programs, v. 22, p.375-376.

McGurk, B., Bond, P. A., and Mehan, D.,
1989, Hydrogeologic and lithologic charac-
teristics of the surficial sediments in
Volusia County, Florida: Technical Publi-
cation SJ 89-7, St. Johns River Water
Management District, 144 p.

Rupert, F.R., and Arthur, J. D., 1990, Geol-
ogy and geomorphology of Florida's coas-
tal marshes: Gulf Coast Intertidal Marsh


Conference Abstracts, Florida A & M
University, Tallahassee, Florida, p. 28.

Schmidt, W., 1989, Physiography and
stratigraphy of Walton county, Florida, in
Overing, J. D., and Watts, F. C., Soil survey
of Walton County, Florida: U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Service, p. 3-6.

Schmidt, W., 1989, Florida Caverns State
Park, Jackson County, Florida, in Scott, T.
M., Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R., and Up-
church, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and
hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer
system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook
T185, American Geophysical Union, p. 60-
62.

Schmidt, W., 1990, Data available for
Florida radon potential mapping, in
Florida, in Proceedings of the Florida
workshop on radon potential mapping:
Florida Department of Community Affairs
and U.S. Environmental Protection Agen-
cy, p. 7-1 to 7-3.

Schmidt, W., 1990, Licensing of geologists
in Florida: a result of the popula-
tion/development explosion and political
environmental awareness, in Tepel, R. E.,
ed., Proceedings of the national collo-
quium on professional registration for
geologists: Association of Engineering
Geologists, p. 163-165.

Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy
and hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan
aquifer system in Florida, in Scott, T. M.,
Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R. and Upchurch,
S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and
hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer
system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook
T185, American Geophysical Union, p. 2-9.








Scott, T. M., 1989, The geology of central
and northern Florida with emphasis on the
Hawthorn Group, in Scott, T. and Cathcart,
J., eds., Florida phosphate deposits Field
Trip Guidebook T178, American
Geophysical Union, p. 2-17.

Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy of
the sediments exposed along the Suwannee
River in the vicinity of White Springs, in
Morgan, G., ed., Miocene paleontology
and stratigraphy of the Suwannee River
basin of north Florida and south Georgia:
Guidebook Number 30, Southeastern
Geological Society, p. 6-13.

Scott, T. M., 1989, The lithostratigraphy of
the Hawthorn Group as exposed in Brooks
Sink, Bradford County, Florida, in Scott, T.
M., Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R. and Up-
church, S., eds., The lithostratigraphy and
hydrostratigraphy of the Floridan aquifer
system in Florida, Fieldtrip Guidebook
T185, American Geophysical Union, p. 56-
59.

Scott, T. M., 1990, Coastal plains stratig-
raphy: The dichotomy of biostratigraphy
and lithostratigraphy a philosophical ap-
proach to an old problem, in Allmon, W.
and Scott. T., eds., Plio-Pleistocene stratig-
raphy and paleontology of south Florida:
Guidebook Number 31, Southeastern
Geological Society, (unpaginated).

Scott, T. M., Arthur, J. D., Rupert, F. R. and
Upchurch, S., eds., 1989, The lithostratig-
raphy and hydrostratigraphy of the
Floridan aquifer system in Florida,
Fieldtrip Guidebook T185, American
Geophysical Union, 78p.

Scott, T. M. and Cathcart, J., eds, 1989,
Florida Phosphate Deposits: Field Trip


Guidebook T178, American Geophysical
Union, 52p.

Spencer, S. M., 1989, Mapping Florida's
mineral resources: Florida Scientist Pro-
gram Issue, v. 52, supplement 1, p. 29.

Spencer, S. M., 1990, Geology of Florida's
aggregates: Southeastern Section,
Geological Society of America, Abstracts
with Programs, v. 22, p. 63.

Yon, J. W., Jr., 1989, The use of Florida's
industrial minerals past and present:
Florida Scientist Program Issue, v. 52, sup-
plement 1, p. 29.


TALKS BY STAFF
MEMBERS TO
PROFESSIONAL
GROUPS
Arthur, J. D., 1989, Geomorphology of
Florida's Gulf Coast, presented at the Gulf
Coast Intertidal Marsh Conference, Tal-
lahassee, Florida.

Bond, P. A., 1989, Peat and Uranium in
Florida, presented to American Institute of
Mining Engineers, Lakeland, Florida.

Bond, P. A., 1989, Uranium and Peat in
Florida, presented to Brevard County
Summer Science Institute, Brevard Com-
munity College, Melbourne, Florida.

Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic Hazards in
Florida, presented to Brevard County
Summer Science Institute, Brevard Com-
munity College, Melbourne, Florida.

Bond, P. A., 1990, Uranium and Peat in the
Florida Environment, presented to








Division of Resource Management,
Florida Department of Natural Resources,
Tallahassee, Florida.

Bond, P. A., 1990, Geologic Hazards and
Society: An Interactive Relationship,
presented to annual meeting of the
Geological Society of America, Dallas,
Texas.

Campbell, K. M., 1989, Summary of the
Heavy Mineral Reconnaissance Studies
Off the Gulf Coast of Northwest Florida
and Off Cape Canaveral, Florida,
presented at the Second Symposium on
Studies Related to Continental Margins,
Austin, Texas.

Hoenstine, R. W., 1989, An Extension of
the Intermediate Aquifer System in North-
Central Florida, presented to Florida
Academy of Science, Jacksonville, Florida.

Johnson, R. J., Stratigraphic Correlation of
Outcrop Gamma Ray Profiles in Florida,
presented to Florida Academy of Sciences,
Jacksonville, FL.

Lane, E., 1989, Ocala Environmental
Report, presented to Florida Academy of
Sciences, Jacksonville, FL.

Lloyd, J. M., 1989, Petroleum Exploration
and Development Policies In Florida:
Response to Public Concern For Sensitive
Environments, presented to Southeastern
GSA, Atlanta, GA.

Lloyd, J. M., 1990, The Florida Geological
Survey's Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Program,
presented to GSA, Dallas, TX.


Lloyd, J. M., 1990, The Florida Geological
Survey's Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Program,
presented to Division of Resource
Management, Florida Department of
Natural Resources, Tallahassee, FL.

Rupert, F. R, 1990, Geology of Florida's
Gulf Coastal Marshes, presented to the
Gulf Coast Intertidal Marsh Conference,
Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W., 1989, The Florida Geological
Survey's Role in Ground-Water Resour-
ces, presented to The Florida Chapter of
the American Water Resources Associa-
tion, Gainesville, FL.

Schmidt, W., 1989, Interview, published in
the Florida Petroleum Producers Associa-
tion Newsletter, vol. 1, no. 1.

Schmidt, W., 1989, Oil Exploration and
Production on the Uplands of Florida,
presented to The Florida Spill Response
Task Force, Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W., 1989, Update on Florida Oil
and Gas Administrative Rules, presented
to The Annual Meeting of the Florida In-
dependent Petroleum Producers Associa-
tion, Pensacola, FL.

Schmidt, W., 1989, The Florida Geological
Survey's Education Program, presented to
The Florida Environmental Education
Committee, Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W., 1990, Florida Oil and Gas
Rules Update, presented to The
Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Ad-
visory Committee, Tallahassee, FL.








Schmidt, W., 1990, Data Available for
Florida Radon Potential Mapping,
presented to The Florida Workshop on
Radon Potential Mapping, Gainesville,
FL.

Schmidt, W., 1990, Florida Offshore
Petroleum Deposits and the Continuing
Controversy, presented to The Florida Sec-
tion of the American Institute of Profes-
sional Geologists, Sable Park, FL.

Scott, T. M., 1989, The Lithostratigraphy of
the Hawthorn Group Along the Suwannee
River in the Vicinity of White Springs,
presented to Southeastern Geological
Society Field Trip, White Springs, FL.

Scott, T. M., 1990, Florida Lithostratig-
raphy A Guide to Identification,
presented to American Institute of Profes-
sional Geologists, Florida Section, Tampa,
FL.

Scott, T. M., 1990, An Overview of
Miocene Lithostratigraphy Northern
Florida and Southern Georgia, Presented
to the Second Bald Head Island Con-
ference on Coastal Plains Geology, Hilton
Head, SC.

Scott, T. M., 1989, The Florida Geological
Survey and the Lithostratigraphy and
Hydrostratigraphy of Southeastern
Florida, presented to The Southeastern
Florida Geological Society, West Palm
Beach, FL.

Scott, T. M., 1989, Florida's Phosphorites -
Deposition to Reclamation, presented to
Southeastern Section, Geological Society
of America, Atlanta, GA.


Spencer, S. M., 1989, Mapping Florida's
Mineral Resources, presented to Florida
Academy of Science, Jacksonville, FL.

Spencer, S. M., 1990, Geology of Florida's
Aggregates, presented to Southeastern
Section, Geological Society of America,
Tuscaloosa, AL.

Yon, J. W., Jr., 1989, The Use of Florida's
Industrial Minerals-Past and Present,
presented to Florida Academy of Science,
Jacksonville, FL.


ADDITIONAL
PROFESSIONAL
ACTIVITIES
Symposia

April, 1989, Geological Society of America
Mineral Symposium: Atlanta, GA.

May, 1989, Second Symposium on Studies
Related to Continental Margins: U.S.
Minerals Management Service, University
of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic
Geology, Austin, TX.

November, 1989, 1989 Exclusive
Economic Zone Symposium: Reston, VA.

February, 1990, U.S. EPA/AASG Sym-
posia and Meeting on Radon: Atlanta,
GA.

September, 1990, First International Sym-
posium on Oil & Gas Exploration &
Production Waste Management Practices,
New Orleans, LA. (Sponsored by USEPA
& API).








Meetings

January, 1989, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists Meeting and meeting of
the Application Review Committee: Tal-
lahassee, FL.

January, 1989, Annual Meeting of the
Everglades Coalition: Port of the Isles,
Collier County, FL.

February, 1989, Governor's Outer Con-
tinental Shelf Advisory Committee: Tal-
lahassee, FL.

February, 1989, Big Cypress Swamp Ad-
visory Committee: Naples, FL.

February, 1989, American Institute of
Professional Geologists, Florida Section,
Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee, FL.

February, 1989, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists Meeting and meeting of
the Application Review Committee: Tal-
lahassee, FL.

February, 1989, U.S. Deep Diving Cave
Team: Wakulla Springs, FL.

March, 1989, Northeastern Section of the
Geological Society of America: New
Brunswick, NJ.

March, 1989, Eighth Coastal Sedimentol-
ogy Conference: Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1989, Florida House Natural
Resources Committee: Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1989, Staff depositions regarding
Exxon vs. Department of Natural Resour-
ces: Tallahassee, FL.


March, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society, Quarterly Meeting: Lakeland,
FL.

March, 1989, Department of Environmen-
tal Regulation, regarding Cascades Park:
Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1989, American Water Resources
Association, Florida Chapter: Gainesville,
FL.

March, 1989, Florida Academy of Sciences:
Jacksonville, FL.

April, 1989, Southeastern Section of the
Geological Society of America: Atlanta,
GA.

April, 1989, Association of State Boards of
Geology: Atlanta, GA.

April, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey/As-
sociation of America State Geologists
Eastern Cluster Meeting: Stowe, VT.

April, 1989, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting and meeting of Ap-
plication Review Committee: Tallahassee,
FL.

May, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey, regard-
ing their program: St. Petersburg, FL.

May, 1989, Workshop on offshore mineral
assessment of the U.S. South Atlantic Con-
tinental Shelf, Skidaway Institute, Savan-
nah, GA.

May, 1989, Annual Meeting, Association of
American State Geologists: Norman, OK.
May, 1989, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.








May, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society, Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee,
FL.

May, 1989, U.S. Geological Survey and
Southeastern State Geologists regarding
USGS Coastal Geology Program: St.
Petersburg, FL.

June, 1989, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1989, American Institute of
Professional Geologists, Florida Section:
Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Tallahassee, FL.

September, 1989, Annual Meeting of the
Florida Independent Petroleum Producers
Association: Pensacola, FL.

September, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Com-
mission, Hydrogeology Committee:
Tampa, FL.

September, 1989, Geology Board/Depart-
ment of Professional Regulation Budget
Review Committee: Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society, Quarterly Meeting, Hamilton Co.,
FL.

October, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Orlando, FL.

October, 1989, Florida Section of the
American Institute of Mining Engineers:
Lakeland, FL.

November, 1989, Annual Meeting of the
Geological Society of America, in conjunc-


tion with the Association of American
State Geologists Mid-Year Meeting,
Southeastern Section of GSA Geology and
Public Policy Committee Meeting: St.
Louis, MO.

November, 1989, Oil and Gas Public Hear-
ing on a Permit Application: Milton, FL.

November, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Com-
mission, Hydrogeology Committee: Tal-
lahassee, FL.

November, 1989, Florida Bluebelt Com-
mission: Jacksonville, FL.

November, 1989, USGS National Coastal
Geology Program Meeting: Reston, VA.

December, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society, Quarterly meeting: Tampa, FL.

December, 1989, Oil and Gas Interagency
Policy Review: Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1989, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists Meeting, and Applica-
tion Review Committee Meeting:
Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1989, Florida Environmental
Education Committee: Tallahassee, FL.

January, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Tallahassee, FL.

January, 1990, Oil and Gas Policy Public
Workshop: West Palm Beach, FL.

January, 1990, Annual Meeting of the
Everglades Coalition: West Palm Beach,
FL.








January, 1990, Governor's Outer Con-
tinental Shelf Advisory Committee: Tal-
lahassee, FL.

January, 1990, Underground Injection
Practices Council, Winter Meeting:
Tampa, FL.

February, 1990, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

February, 1990, South Florida Water
Management District regarding oil drilling
in South Florida: West Palm Beach, FL.

February 1990, Geology and Hydrology of
South-Central Florida: Planning for future
land use: Archbold Biological Station,
Lake Placid, FL.

March, 1990, Florida Department of En-
vironmental Regulation, Professional
Geologists Committee: Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1990, U.S. Geological Survey/As-
sociation of American State Geologists,
Eastern Region Cluster Meeting: Colum-
bus, OH.

March, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Miami, FL.

March, 1990, Florida Department of En-
vironmental Regulation Rule Hearing
regarding use of Professional Geologists:
Tallahassee, FL.

April, 1990, Southeastern Section of the
Geological Society of America, in conjunc-
tion with GSA Agency Liaison Meeting
and Geology and Public Policy Committee
Meetings: Tuscaloosa, AL.


April, 1990, U.S. EPA/AASG Radon Pro-
gram Briefing: Denver, CO.

May, 1990, U.S. Minerals Management
Service Outer Continental Shelf/Lease
Sale 137 Public Hearing: Tallahassee, FL.

May, 1990, Florida Professional Geologists
Examination Committee, Tallahassee, FL.

May, 1990, Southeastern Geological
Society, Quarterly Meeting: Tallahassee,
FL.

May, 1990, Florida Department of En-
vironmental Regulation, Ambient
Ground-water Quality Meeting: Daytona
Beach, FL.

May, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commission:
Tampa, FL.

June, 1990, American Association of
Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention:
San Francisco, CA.

June, 1990, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

June, 1990, Annual Meeting of the As-
sociation of American State Geologists:
Madison, WI.

June, 1990, Interstate Oil Compact Com-
mission Meeting: Bismarck, ND.

July, 1990, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion, Hydrogeology Committee: Tallahas-
see, FL.








August, 1990, Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional
Geologists: Sable Park, FL.

August, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Gainesville, FL.

August, 1990, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists: Tallahassee, FL.

September, 1990, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency/American Association
of State Geologists Radon Program Brief-
ing: Reston, VA.

October, 1990, Florida Preservation 2000,
Ground Water Committee: Tallahassee,
FL.

October, 1990, Florida Professional
Geologists Examination Committee, Tal-
lahassee, FL.

October, 1990, Florida Bluebelt Commis-
sion: Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1990, Association of American
State Geologists, Federal Liaison Commit-
tee: Washington, DC.

October,.1990, Florida Preservation 2000,
Ground Water Committee: Tallahassee,
FL.

October, 1990, Annual Meeting of the
Geological Society of America: Dallas,
Texas.

November, 1990, Interagency Conference
on Geology and Minorities, sponsored by
Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL.


November, 1990, Florida Professional
Geologists Examination Committee, Tal-
lahassee, FL.

December, 1990, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists: St. Petersburg, FL.

December 1990, Preservation 2000: Or-
lando, FL.

Workshops


January, 1989, Defensive Driving:
lahassee, FL.


Tal-


January, 1989, Attaining Superior Manage-
ment Performance: Tallahassee, FL.

May, 1989, Ground-Water Symposium
sponsored by the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation: Tallahassee,
FL.

May, 1989, Wetland Ecosystems Short
Course: Tallahassee, FL.

June, 1989, Karst Hydrology Workshop:
Mammoth Cave, KY.

August, 1989, Expert Witness Workshop:
Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1989, Employee Assistance Train-
ing: Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1989, KEVEX Microanalysis
Course: Foster City, CA.

October, 1989, American Institute of Min-
ing Engineers/American Institute of
Professional Geologists technical meeting:
Lakeland, FL.








November-December 1989, Upland
Ecosystems Short Course: Tallahassee,
FL.

March, 1990, Department of Natural
Resources, Geographic Information Sys-
tems workshop: Tallahassee, FL.

April, 1990, Employee Appraisal Stand-
ards: Tallahassee, FL.

April, 1990, The Florida Workshop on
Radon Potential Mapping, sponsored by
the Florida Department of Community Af-
fairs and the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency: Gainesville, FL.

July, 1990, Basic Supervisor Training, Tal-
lahassee, FL.

August, 1990, Parent Education: Tallahas-
see, FL.

October, 1990, Oil and Gas Rules
Workshop: Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1990, Division Strategic Plan-
ning: Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1990, Parenting for Self Esteem:
Tallahassee, FL.

November, 1990, Department Strategic
Planning: Tallahassee, FL.

November, 1990, Coastal Land and Fresh-
water Habitats: Apalachicola, FL.

November, 1990, First Aid: Tallahassee,
FL.

December, 1990, Department Strategic
Planning: Tallahassee, FL.


December, 1990, Certified Public Manage-
ment, Level 1: Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1990, Uplands Ecosystems
Workshop, Big Bend Area, FL.

Conferences

May, 1989, National Waterwell
Association's Outdoor Action Conference:
Orlando, FL.

October, 1989, Annual Conference on
Water Management in Florida: Tallahas-
see, FL.

October, 1989, Third Multidisciplinary
Conference on Sinkholes and their En-
gineering and Environmental Impact: St.
Petersburg, FL.

December, 1989, National Association for
Cave Diving "Research '89" Conference:
Tallahassee, FL.

May, 1990, Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University Gulf Coast Inter-
tidal Marsh Conference: Tallahassee, FL.

November 1990, Bald Head Island Con-
ference on Coastal Plains Geology: Hilton
Head, SC.

Fieldtrips

April, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society Annual Field Trip: Lake City, FL.

May, 1989, Lower Cretaceous Carbonate
Tidal Facies of Central Texas: Presented
by University of Texas at Austin in conjunc-
tion with Second Symposium on Studies
Related to Continental Margins, Austin,
TX.








September, 1989, American Institute of
Professional Geologists, field trip: Citrus
County, FL.

October, 1989, Southeastern Geological
Society, annual field trip: Suwannee River
in Hamilton County, FL.

July, 1990, Four fieldtrips run for par-
ticipants in the Summer Inservice Institute:
Hernando, Sarasota, and Polk counties.

October, 1990, Fieldtrip run for Executive
Staff of the Department of Natural Resour-
ces: Northwest Florida.

November, 1990, New Orleans Geological
Society field trip: Hamilton, Gadsden and
Liberty Counties, FL.

December, 1990, Southeastern Geological
Society, annual field trip: Sarasota County,
FL.


PERSONNEL
Professional Staff

Jonathan D. Arthur, Geologist II, Geologi-
cal Investigations Section, B.S., Florida
State University, 1982, Ph.D. Candidate,
Florida State University. Research Inter-
ests: Geochemistry, igneous petrology and
hydrogeology. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida. Professional
Memberships: Southeastern Geological
Society, Geological Society of America and
Sigma Xi.

Paulette Bond, Geologist II, Geological In-
vestigations Section, B.S., West Virginia
University, 1971, M.S., University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974, Ph.D. Can-


didate, Florida State University. Research
Interests: Low temperature geochemistry
and environmental geology. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida.
Consultant to Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists, Geology Examination
Committee. Professional Memberships:
Geological Society of America and
Southeastern Geological Society.

Kenneth M. Campbell, Geological Super-
visor I, Geologic Investigations Section,
B.S., Old Dominion University, 1975, M.S.,
Florida State University, 1979. Research
Interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and
sedimentation and coastal processes.
Licensed Professional Geologist, State of
Florida. Consultant to Florida Board of
Professional Geologists, Geology Ex-
amination Committee.

Robert S. Caughey, Professional Engineer
I, Fort Myers Oil and Gas Field Office,
B.S., University of Arizona, 1976, Research
Interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and
hydrogeology. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida. Professional
Memberships: Society of Mining, Metal-
lurgical Engineers of American Institute of
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, As-
sociation of Exploration Geochemists, Na-
tional Association of Geology Teachers
and American Association for the Advan-
cement of Science.

James Mitchener Covington, Geologist II,
Geological Investigations Section, B.A.,
University North Carolina at Wilmington,
1981, M.S., Florida State University, 1986.
Research Interests: Cenozoic and
Mesozoic Nannofossil Biostratigraphy.
Professional Memberships: International
Nannoplankton Association and New Or-
leans Geological Society.








Lawrence D. Curry, Administrator, Oil and
Gas Section, B.S., University of South
Florida, 1973. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida.

Joel G. Duncan, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section, B.S., University of
Alabama, 1977. Currently working on
Masters Degree at Florida State Univer-
sity. Research Interests: Carbonate
petrology, tectonics and basin analysis.
Licensed Professional Geologist, State of
Florida.

Don L. Hargrove, Engineer III, Oil and
Gas Section, Florida State Univer-
sity/Florida A & M University Engineering
Program. Geophysical permits field ob-
servers coordinator.

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Geologist III,
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section, B.S., University of
Florida, 1967, M.S., University of Florida,
1974, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1982.
Research Interests: Hydrogeology and en-
vironmental geology. Licensed Profes-
sional Geologist, State of Florida.

W. Scott Hoskins, Environmental
Specialist III, Jay Oil and Gas Field Office,
B.S., Florida State University, 1985.

James P. "Jim" Jones, Engineer I, Geologi-
cal Investigations Section.

Alice Jordan, Librarian Specialist, B.A.,
Guilford College, 1959. M.S., Drexel
University, 1970.

Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Geologist III,
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section, B.S., University of
Delaware, 1966, M.S., Pennsylvania State


University, 1968. Research Interests:
Hydrogeology, environmental geology and
karst. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida. Member: Solid Waste
Management Advisory Committee, State
of Florida..

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Geological Super-
visor II, Mineral Resources and Environ-
mental Geology Section, B.S., Florida
Atlantic University, 1976, M.S., University
of Chicago, 1979. Research Interests:
Petroleum geology and environmental
geology. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida. Professional Member-
ships: Geological Society of America,
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, Southeastern Geological
Society and Computer Oriented Geologi-
cal Society.

John A. Morrill, Driller Coordinator/En-
gineer I, Geological Investigations Section,.
A.A., Lake City Junior College, 1973, at-
tended the University of Montana from
1974-1976. Florida Water Well Contractor
License.

Joan M. Ragland, Geologist II, Oil and Gas
Section, B.A., State University of New
York at Geneseo, 1973, M.S., University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1976. Re-
search Interests: Seismic exploration, ig-
neous geochemistry and petrology.
Licensed Professional Geologist, State of
Florida.

Marycarol Reilly, Geologist II, Ft. Myers
Oil and Gas Field Office, B.A., Franklin &
Marshall College, 1977. Research Inter-
ests: Hydrogeology and Cenozoic stratig-
raphy. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida.








Frank R. Rupert, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section, B.S., Florida State
University, 1976, M.S., Florida State
University, 1980. Research Interests:
Cenozoic micropaleontology and
biostratigraphy and hydrology. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida.
Professional Memberships: Society of
Economic Paleontologists and
Mineralogists, Florida Academy of
Science, and Florida Paleontological
Society.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief,
B.A., University of South Florida, 1972,
M.S., Florida State University, 1977, Ph.D.,
Florida State University, 1983. Research
Insterests: Cenozoic stratigraphy,
hydrogeology, environmental geology, and
paleogeography. Board Member, Florida
Board of Professional Geologists; Mem-
ber: Governor's Outer Continental Shelf
Advisory Committee, Florida Bluebelt
Commission, Florida Preservation 2000
Ground Water Resources Committee,
Geological Society of America, Society for
Sedimentary Geology (SEPM),
Southeastern Geological Society, Florida
Academy of Sciences; State Repre-
sentative to the Association of American
State Geologists; Adjunct Professor,
Florida State University Geology Depart-
ment; Chairman of the Big Cypress Swamp
Advisory Committee. Certified Profes-
sional Geologist, American Institute of
Professional Geologists, Licensed Profes-
sional Geologist in the states of Florida,
South Carolina, and North Carolina.

Thomas M. Scott, Geological Supervisor II,
Geological Investigations Section, B.A.,
University of South Florida, 1971, M.S.,
Eastern Kentucky University, 1973, Ph.D.,
Florida State University, 1986. Research


Interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy,
geologic history, and hydrogeology. Con-
sultant to the Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Geology Examination Com-
mittee. Member: Geological Society of
America, Southeastern Geological Society,
Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM),
Florida Academy of Science, Sigma Xi.
President, Southeastern Geological
Society, 1990. Research Associate,
University of South Florida. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida
and Certified Professional Geologist,
American Institute of Professional
Geologists.

Steven M. Spencer, Geologist II, Office of
Mineral Resource and Environmental
Geology Section, B.S., Florida State
University, 1981. Research Interests:
Economic geology. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida.

Charles H. Tootle, Petroleum Engineer I,
Oil and Gas Section, B.S., Louisiana Tech-
nical University, 1961, M.S. Louisiana
Technical University, 1964, Ph.D.,
Louisiana Technical University, 1971. Re-
search Interests: Petroleum resources and
exploration. Licensed Professional En-
gineer, States of Florida and Louisiana.

Clerical and Technical Staff

Brenda J. Brackin, Secretary Specialist

Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Secretary
Specialist, A.A.S., Tallahassee Community
College, 1975.

Peter M. Dobbins, Administrative Assis-
tant II, A.A., Santa Fe Junior College, 1981.

Joan V. Gruber, Secretary Specialist







Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian

Ted B. Kiper, Engineering Technician III,
A.A., Tallahassee Community College,
1976; B.S., Florida State University, 1988;
Masters Program, Florida State University,
1990.

Barbara E. McKamey, Secretary Specialist

Albert E. Phillips, Driller Assistant/En-
gineering Technician II

Sandra "Sandie" Ray, Administrative
Secretary, A.A., Chipola Junior College,
1970.

Franklin R. Rush, Jr., Laboratory Tech-
nician I

Research Associates

Andrew Grosz

Bruce W. Nocita, Ph.D.

Steve Snyder, Ph.D.

Gary Zarillo, Ph.D.

Student Assistants

Vanessa Allred

David Allison

Tania Bacchus

Melanie Carpenter

Chris Casper

Maryann Civil


Lee Clark

Renee Cooper

Will Evans

Richard C. Green

Terry Griffin

Mark Groszos

Kent Hartong

George Heuler

Robert Hogue

Clay Kelly

Pramuan Kohpina

Lucy Lagasse

Nancy LaPlace

Milena Macesich

Ted Maul

Katherine A. Milla

Mary M. Olivier

Lawrence Papetti

Libby Robertson

Tom Seal

Koren Taylor

Troy Thompson







Russell Watrous

Jay M. Weinberg

Ron White

























































FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304













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FLORI.DA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY