Guide to the MUE 3311 pre-internship experience at P.K. Younge Developmental Research School

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Guide to the MUE 3311 pre-internship experience at P.K. Younge Developmental Research School
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The Music in Elementary Schools (MUE 3311) Teaching Experience Guide is a comprehensive handbook designed to support music education students who teach elementary classes at P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School. Information about the school, the teaching experience design, and elementary music pedagogy are presented in detail. This guidebook includes in-depth descriptions of procedures, resources, and materials used to teach elementary general music class. The project contains step-by-step scaffold teaching designs as well as demonstration videos. Information on classroom management, student achievement, and teacher effectiveness are presented in color graphics.
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1 GUIDE TO THE MUE 3311 PRE INTERSHIP EXPERIENCE AT P.K. YONGE DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH SCHOOL By MICHAEL ROBERTS A PROJECT IN LIU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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2 2012 Michael Roberts

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3 To my family, specifically my father, aunt and mother. To my teachers that instilled with me the desire to teach to the best of my ability. In memory of my grandmother who rode a horse to teach everyday in a one room school.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like acknowledge the following people for their contribution to this book and to my teaching: Jane Frazee, Dr. Renee Boyer, Matt McCoy, Jerry Sanders, Gwen Hargrove, Dr. Timothy S. Brophy, Dr. David Edmund, Wendy Offerle, Sandra Sanchez, Kathy Robertson, Boun Smith and Dr. Patricia Bowes.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 8 LIST OF OBJECTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 PURPOSE OF COURSE GUIDEBOOK ..12 Chapter 1 School Overview ................................ ................................ ......................... 14 P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School ................................ ......................... 14 Chapter 2 Elementary General Music W ithin P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 17 Elementary Music Schedule ................................ ................................ .................... 17 Additional Music Education Programs at P.K. Yonge ................................ .............. 19 Elementary General Music Mission ................................ ................................ ......... 19 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards ................................ ............................ 21 National Standards ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 The Orff Schulwerk Philosophy within the P.K. Yonge Elementary General Music ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 24 Program ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 24 Heart of Florida Orff Chapter ................................ ................................ ................... 25 Instructional Scaffold ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Lesson Framework Movement, Song, Daily Content Lesson ................................ 27 Movement ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 27 Singing ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 27 Content Lesson ................................ ................................ ................................ 28 Elementary General Music Curriculum at P.K. Yonge ................................ ............. 28 Procedures, Routines, Rules, and Stud ent Expectations ................................ ........ 30 Chapter 3 Your Teaching Experience at P.K.Yonge ................................ ................... 32 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ............................... 32 Appropriate Student Objectives for Rhythmic Competency Fall Semester .............. 33 Chapter 4 Materials for the Elementary General Music Classroom ............................. 35 Instruments, Movement Props, and Teaching Tools ................................ ............... 37 Using the Orff Instrumentarium ................................ ................................ ................ 46 Other Instructional Tools and Devices ................................ ................................ ..... 48

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6 Technology in the General Music Classroom ................................ .......................... 53 Chapter 5 Lesson Planning and Execution ................................ ................................ 58 Planning the Le sson Selecting the Musical Concept(s) ................................ ........ 59 Chapter 6 Time to Teach ................................ ................................ ............................. 75 Time to Teach ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 75 Model, Model, Model ................................ ................................ ................................ 75 Process ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 76 Conceptualizing the Musical Concept ................................ ................................ ...... 76 Chapter 7 Assessment ................................ ................................ ................................ 78 Chapter 8 Creativity! The Road to Improvisation and Composition ......................... 82 Chapter 9 "The work of children is play" Carl Orff ................................ .................... 84 TRAINING LINKS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 85 INSTRUCTION SOURCE MATERIAL ................................ ................................ ............. 87 SAMPLE LESSONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 91 MUSIC EDUCATION PEDAGO GIES AND PHILOSOPHIES ... .. 97 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ 102 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 105

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page Table 2 1. Elementary General Music Schedule ................................ ........................... 18 Table 1 2. National Standards for Music Education ................................ ...................... 23 Table 4 1. Table of Instruments ................................ ................................ ..................... 44 Table 4.2. Traditional Orff Instrumentarium Layout ................................ ........................ 45 Table 5 1. S equence of Conceptual Learning ................................ ................................ 60 Table 8 1. Sequence of Melodic Improvisation ................................ ............................. 82

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page Figure 4 1. Instruments Membranes ................................ ................................ ........... 38 Figure 4 2. Woods ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Figure 4 3. Metals ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 40 Figure 4 4. Scrapers and Shakers ................................ ................................ ................. 41 Figure 4 5. Tambourines ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 Figure 4 6. Specialty Instruments ................................ ................................ ................... 43 Figure 4 7. Orff Instrumentarium ................................ ................................ .................... 44 Figure 4 8. Orff Instrumentarium with students ................................ .............................. 45 Figure 4 10. Picture Books ................................ ................................ ............................. 49 Figure 4 11. Rhythm Notation Tools ................................ ................................ .............. 50 Figure 4 12. More Manipulative Teaching Tools ................................ ............................ 51 Figure 4 13. Erasable White Boards ................................ ................................ .............. 52 Figure 4 14. Heart Cha rt Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............ 54 Figure 5 1. Lesson Planning and Execution ................................ .............................. 62 Figure 5 2. The Process Activity First ................................ ................................ ...... 63 Figure 5 3. The Process Attach Musical Concept to Activity ................................ .... 64 Figure 5 4. The Process Practice ................................ ................................ .............. 65 Figure 5 5. The Process Review and Assess ................................ .......................... 66 Figure 5 5. The Process Create ................................ ................................ ................ 67 Figure 5 6. Example Lesson Activities ................................ ................................ ........ 68 Figure 5 7. Example Lesson Attach Musical Concept to Activity ................................ 69 Figure 5 8. Example Lesson Practice ................................ ................................ ......... 70 Figure 5 9. Example Lesson Review and Assess ................................ ....................... 71

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9 Figure 5 10. Example Lesson Create ................................ ................................ .......... 72 Figure 7 1. Marzano based Assessment Tool for Music Education ............................... 80

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10 LIST OF OBJECTS Ob ject page Object 1 1. Watch a introductory video about P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 16 Object 2 1. See Orff Schulwerk in Action ................................ ................................ ....... 24 Object 2 2. Orff Schulwerk Training ................................ ................................ ............... 24 Object 4 1. Watch a 5 th Grade Demonstration video on how to use the Orff Instrumentarium ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 47 Object 5 1. Robert deFrece A Conceptual Rhapsody, AOSA National Conference 2002 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 58 Object 5 2. 2 nd Grade Demonstration Lesson Video ................................ ...................... 73

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11 Abstract of Project in Liu of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Unive rsity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music GUIDE TO THE MUE 3311 PRE INTERSHIP EXPERIENCE AT P.K. YONGE DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH SCHOOL By MICHAEL ROBERTS December 2012 Chair: Dr. Timothy Brophy Membe r: Dr. Kevin Orr Major: Music Education The Music in Elementary Schools (MUE 3311) Teaching Experience Guide is a comprehensive handbook designed to support music education students who teach elementary classes at P.K. Yonge Developmental Rese arch School. Information about the school, the teaching experience design, and elementary music pedagogy are presented in detail. This guidebook includes i n depth descriptions of procedures, resources, and materials used to teach elementary general music class. The project c ontains step by step scaffold teaching designs as well as demonstration videos. Information on classroom management, student achievement, and teacher effectiveness are presented in c olor graphics.

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12 PURPOSE OF COURSE GUIDEBOOK M UE 3311, Music in Elementary Schools, is your introduction into the pedagogy of elementary music education. You will find elementary music a fulfilling path in sharing your passion for music. In this course you will be introduced to the concepts and peda gogy of teaching primary and intermediate learners. You will have the opportunity to develop your skills in designing and delivering elemental instruction within a real life elementary general music program. Imagine a school setting that allows fo rty five minutes of instructional time for general music. Over a forty two week school year, that equates to less than thirty one and a half hours of instruction per year. Within that thirty one and half hours, the general music teacher must cover content in rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, form, composition, and improvisation. By default, elementary music teachers develop skills that make them some of the most efficient pedagogues within their respective learning communities. Targeted delivery instruct ion becomes a necessity to fit standards and content into the time allotted for music instruction. Elementary music teachers learn to expand their instruction while putting on programs, supporting the PTO meetings, and teaching across curricula to help s tudents achieve success in reading and other areas. They collaborate with colleagues, bringing their expertise into diverse areas of study outside of music. Elementary general music teachers also collaborate with other music education professionals in th eir communities. Within this guide you will find information about your MUE 3311 teaching experience. Background data about the population of P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School and the students with whom you share this experience is included. Take the time to

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13 familiarize yourself with the teaching tools and materials available for your use, which are similar to those in the elementary lab at the University. This guide also contains descriptions of the class teaching experiences and strategies for lesson plan design and implementation. This experience will give you the skills necessary to increase your confidence in teaching young learners. You will learn how to serve varying musical intelligences as you develop the students "elemental" understanding of the musical educational standards and elements of music. This experience guide will give you the information necessary to succeed in your teaching and class experiences. This experience guidebook will also be your post undergraduate reso urce guide as you begin your own career and join your first learning community as a teaching professional.

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14 CHAPTER 1 SCHOOL OVERVIEW P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School As you begin your student teaching experience at P. K. Yonge you may find it helpful to have some background information about the school and its mission. The school is named for Philip Keyes Yonge (1850 1934) who was prominent in the lumber business of North Florida. Throughout his adult life, he served in a variety of educational leadership positions in the state. He had just retired as President and member of the State Board of Control when the laboratory school at the University of Florida was established in 1934. The school was named for him in honor of his strong influence on education in the state. (P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School College of Education, University of Florida, 2010) P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School is a public school district affiliated with the Universit y of Florida and located on its campus. The school serves approximately 1200 students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. P.K. Yonge is designed as a special school district under Florida Department of Education funding and is given the responsibility t o develop innovative solutions to educational concerns in the state and to disseminate successful instructional programs to other school districts. As a developmental research school, P.K. Yonge faculty work closely with members of the College of Educatio n on a variety of projects aimed at enhancing student accomplishments at all grade levels and in all subject areas. (P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School, 2012) The P.K. Yonge Parent Handbook cites the following mission statement: The purpose o f P. K. Yonge Developmental Research School is to provide a challenging and diverse learning community focused on ensuring our students acquire the knowledge, skills, and dispositions required for success now and in the future through a process based on so und research principles while fulfilling our role as a developmental research school. (P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School College of Education, University of Florida, 2010) In the accreditation report for the Southern Association of Colleges a nd Schools, the P.K. Yonge leadership team authored that one objective of the school is to

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15 build a community of learners who work well together, respect differences, and hold high expectations for intellectual, social, and emotional growth. The community of learners begins with the teachers and students and extends itself outward through the University of Florida, school districts throughout Florida beginning with the Northeast Florida Educational Consortium, various other school districts in the United St ates, its affiliation with the U.F. Department of Education and it's program to partner with Chinese Education communities and at home here Gainesville. (Team, 2010) The 2012 13 School Director, Dr. Linda Hayes continuously seeks opportunities for P.K. Yonge students and staff to collaborate with University of Florida colleagues, State of Florida government officials, and educational leaders nationally and internationally. P.K. Yonge has recently entered a partnership with the College of Education to connect with schools in China. Dr. Cathy Atria serves as School Principal, and Dr. Russell Froman is the Assistant Principal. P.K. Yonge is consider ed a "school of choice", where parents opt out of their "regularly zoned" school and enroll their c hild here P.K. Yonge is not a school designed strictly for University of Florida employees As legislated by the Sid Martin Bill, the student population at P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School represents Florida's racial and income demographics. S tudent demographics that represent typical Floridian schools are essential to the integrity of the research conducted at the school. P.K. Yonge offers a healthy student environment where all groups interact regardless of race or income. (Calvin Campbell, 1 998) This kind of diversity is unique to P.K. Yonge and a great benefit to our students. A recent snapshot of the student population included the following sub groups: 52% male, 48% female; with, 57% Caucasian, 24% African American, 12% Hispanic, 2% Asia n, .5% American Indian, 5% Multi racial. 19% of our students qualify for free/reduced lunch; 12% are students with disabilities. Our students live in 37 different cities; 69% live in Gainesville, while 31% come from surrounding rural cities and counties. P.K. Yonge maintains established lists of potential students for each demographic

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16 subset to maintain the integrity stipulated by the Sid Martin Bill. (Team, 2010) Object 1 1. Watch a n in tr oductory video about P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School http://pkyonge.ufl.edu/modules/groups/homepagefiles/cms/1506775/File/Videos/About %20PK.mp4?sessionid=8f48ed1d69ca1219a19a6626cfc06cd8 (P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School, 2012)

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17 CHAPTER 2 ELEME NTARY GENERAL MUSIC WITHIN P.K. YONGE DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH SCHOOL The elementary general music program serves all three hundred sixty kindergarten through fifth grade students enrolled i n the elementary school There are three classes for each gra de level. Eighteen students are enrolled in each class kindergarten through third grade. Twenty two students are enrolled to each fourth and fifth grade class. These classes are maintained at eighteen students for prima r y and twenty two students for inte rmediate grade levels. Elementary Music Schedule Elementary music, art, and physical education classes are defined as "specials" within the P.K. Yonge terminology. These classes operate on a three day rotation set within a four day framework. On We dnesdays, P.K. Yonge students attend school for a half day. After elementary students dismiss on Wednesdays, the elementary teachers receive in service training in their respective academic areas. The music teacher uses this time as rehearsal period for elementary chorus. Over the course of a typical grading period each class will attend between fourteen and sixteen class periods of music, art, and physical education. Each specials period is forty minutes long. Every grade level has one special every da y; therefore each specials teacher has a different class from each grade level every day. See table 2 1 for a view of the daily schedule.

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18 Table 2 1 Elementary General Music Schedule Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Before School 7:50 8:25 Elementary Drum Ensemble Elementary Drum Ensemble Elementary Drum Ensemble 8:30 9:10 5 th grade A 5 th grade B Different Grade Each Week A 5 th grade C 5 th grade A (start next rotation) 9:10 10:00 2nd grade A 2nd grade B Different Grade Each Week B 2nd grade C 2nd grade A (start next rotation) 10:25 11:05 3rd grade A 3rd grade B Different Grade Each Week C 3rd grade C 3rd grade A (start next rotation) 12:20 1:00 Kinder A Kinder B Chorus Kinder C Kinder A (start next rotation) 1: 05 1:45 1st grade A 1st grade B Chorus 1st grade C 1st grade A (start next rotation) 1:50 2:30 4 th grade A 4 th grade B Chorus 4 th grade C 4 th grade A (start next rotation) After School 2:30 3:15 Elementary Strings Class Elementary Chorus Elementary Strings Class Car Duty Elementary Strings Class 3:15 4:15 Middle Strings Class Middle Strings Class Faculty Meeting Middle Strings Class

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19 The elementary music teacher also teaches elementary chorus two days a week after sch ool, elementary strings class three days a week after school, elementary drum group two mornings a week and extra curricular rehearsals for performances when necessary. Additional Music Education Programs at P.K. Yonge Elementary General Music is al so the feeder to many fine arts programs offered to P.K. Yonge students in both middle and high school. The middle school curriculum expands its offerings to include vocal, dance, drama and instrumental music. Blue grass, rock, and soul bands as well the more traditional concert and marching bands are student options in both high school and middle school. The performing arts component in high school branches out to include ensembles such as Women's Ensemble and two mixed voice ensembles, as well as a the spian troupe with full large scale play and musical productions every school year. The performing arts program at P.K. Yonge includes four music teachers. One teacher is assigned to elementary general music. There is one music teacher for the midd le school / high school vocal program and two for the middle / high school instrumental ensembles. The fine arts department also integrates drama and dance in the performing arts program with one full time drama teacher and one half time dance instructor. The elementary general music program provides an important basis for the entire performing arts program. Elementary General Music Mission The mission of the general music program is to provide all elementary students a knowledge base for musical e xperiences beyond fifth grade. Those

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20 experiences may be very diverse. Students may go on to become an appreciative patron of music or they may decide to select a career in music. In many instances those next experiences are the P.K. Yonge instrumental o r band programs, the performing arts program, their local church choir, a regional children's chorus, or a after school or private studio music program. This mission statement is congruent with the P.K. Yonge mission stated earlier.

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21 Next Generation Sunshi ne State Standards Using Next Generation Sunshine State Standards through the Orff Schulwerk teaching philosophy, a resea rch based design of el emental music instruction; P.K. Yonge students will acquire the knowledge and skills to ready them for middle school band, chorus, dance, or other further studies in music. (Calvin Campbell, 1998) (Goodkin, Orff Schulwerk in the New Millennium, 2001) At P.K. Yonge the general music program includes emphasis on the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards wi thin a six year, Kindergarten through fifth grade scaffold. Complete listings of Next Generation Sunshine State Standards are located here: http://www.cpalms.org/Standards/FLStandardSea rch.aspx (Florida Department of Education, 2012) More information on all NGSSS including all grades can be found at the following web sites: Florida Department of Education: http://www.fldoe.org / Florida Department of Education Next Generation Sunshine State Standards: http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/ The Complete Guide to Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for Dance, Music, Theatre, and Visual A rt: (PDF File copy and paste into browser) http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CEUQ FjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcurriculum.leeschools.net%2FSubject%2520Areas%2F F ine%2520%26%2520Performing%2520Arts%2FNGSSS%2520for%2520the%2520A

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22 rts.pdf&ei=nitfUJnFJcme2wW0YC4Dg&usg=AFQjCNFnoPG6ZNaQfKtm9Y4GsnGY AccEQQ&sig2=H_EUnwUzTdThHAnZSqSarA (Florida Department of Education, 2012) Assignment # 1 Use the CPALMS website to navi gate to the NGSSS in Music for Kindergarten through 5 th grade.

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23 National Standards The National Standards from the National Association for Music Education are also consistently represented in the learning activities within the general music program. NAfME maintains a strong collegiate chapter at U.F. If you are not already a member, you will want to become a member at the School of Music. Table 1 2 National Standards for Music Education National Standards for Music Education 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. 2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments. 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines. 5. Reading and notating music. 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music. 7. Evaluating music and music performances. 8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outs ide the arts. 9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture. http://musiced.nafme.org/resources/national standards for music education/ (National Association for Music Education, 2012)

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24 The Orff Schulwerk Philosophy within the P.K. Yonge Elementary General Music Program The general music program at P.K. Yonge is predominantly based on the Orff Schulwerk philosophy, and therefore most of the models exhibited through the pedagogy are derived from the Orff Schulwerk movement and music education model. Orff Schulwerk teachers are trained in movement, improvisation, elemental music and the specialized instruments used for instruction. You are encouraged to watch the following video links where you can find more information about Orff Schulwerk: American Orff Schulwerk A ssociation Homepage http://www.aosa.org/ What is Orff Schulwerk? http://www.aosa.org/orff.htm Object 2 1. See Orff Schulwerk in Action http://www.aosa.org/videos/The Winning Way.html Object 2 2. Orff Schulwerk Training http://www.aosa.org/012conferenc e/Media/promo.html (2012 American Orff Schulwerk Association Music and Movement Education, 2012)

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25 Heart of Florida Orff Chapter University of Florida Music Education students are fortunate to have an Orff Schulwerk chapter based in Gaine sville. It is recommended that undergraduate music education majors get involved with the Heart of Florida Orff chapter as you explore your various career opportunitie s. Music education majors at University of Florida are automatically considered student members of the Heart of Florida Orff Chapter. Accordingly, students may attend workshops at no personal cost. This is a valuable resource for you as a next generation music teacher. Heart of Florida Orff Chapter: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Heart of Florida Orff Chapter/95638078285 http://www.heartoffloridaorff.com (Heart of Florida Orff Chapter 2009) Orff Schulwerk pedagogy is closely tied to the developmental level of the individual student. Elementary students are already engaged in singing, chanting, and patching (body patt ing) at this stage of their maturity. This creates a natural pathway to learning on the level of the student understanding at this point in their lives. (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) Assignment # 2 Write a reflective paragraph on the information yo u learned in the AOSA videos and visiting the Heart of Florida web site.

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26 Instructional Scaffold The lessons at P.K. Yonge are not forty minute exercises. Rather, they form the bases of a six year music curriculum. The skills to be learned fo llow a scaffold from year to year and are designed to link one skill to the next. A concept is introduced and put into practice to facilitate the mastery of that skill. Once the skill is mastered, new learning or skills that derive from that skill or conc ept can now be attached and the learning expands outward. Please refer to the example below. Figure 1 1. Scaffold Example Introduction of the half note is a second grade rhythmic skill or concept. Before the half note can be introduced to the learner, the learner must first have a firm understand of quarter note. The learner must be able to identify a quarter note and master the use of quarter notes before the half note can be introduced. Once the learner has a firm understanding of the quarter note, two quarter notes can be "tied" together showing the second beat of the half note. Once the learner has experie nce using the two quarter notes tied together the half note can be introduced and the half note can replace the representation of the two quarter notes. q q = h or q q q q = h h Connecting the new learning of the half note to the existing knowledge of the quarter note is a example of the material being designed in scaffold, much like a building is built from the ground up, one layer of bricks lays atop the next layer

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27 Lesson Framework Movement, Song, Daily Content Lesson When you observe a lesson at P.K. Yonge, y ou will see that the eleme ntary general music classes at have a definable framework of movement first, then singing, followed by the lesson concept of that day. This design structure of movement first, singing, and presentation of the musical concept for the lesson builds a routin e that benefits students. You do not have to follow this framework or routine in your lessons, however this framework is already in place should you decide to use this design. Having a set framework provides a comfortable lesson structure for the student s. Movement Movement is often used to reinforce and/or introduce the musical concept of the day. It is productive to have students move to a particular pattern or beat that will be used later in the lesson. Movement is also used as a tool to acti vate the students into music pedagogy. Movement has been shown to be an important factor in brain based teaching and learning. Movement increases student energy and ability to concentrate. (Marzano, 2009) If you are going to use a piece in your content that emphasizes a specific rhythm, movement is a valuable tool to prepare that rhythm. Movement can also be used to illustrate form and structure. Singing The second segment of class is devoted to singing. Music students should sing in each and e very music class. Singing is the first instrument of the body. Additionally, research shows that if students have not learned to sing on pitch by the end of third grade, it is likely they will never sing on pitch. (deFrece, 2002) Therefore, the second segment of class is dedicated to singing. In most classes singing is

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28 designed to fit a musical concept such as eighth notes or rests. Sometimes though, singing is presented just for the enjoyment of singing. Content Lesson The third segment o f class is devoted to the musical concept(s) to be taught that day. For your teaching purposes you are welcome to select one or more of the concepts from the list provided to you. The activities for the content part of the lesson should be designed with the concept(s) in mind. If the concept were sixteenth notes, perhaps a drum piece, melodic instrument piece, or song with sixteenth notes would be presented. Perhaps rhythmic identification will be used, the raising of hands or use of manipulative tools will be used to indicate where the sixteenth notes appear within a piece. Examine the second grade lesson in the appendix ; the lesson illustrates the format just described. Elementary General Music Curriculum at P.K. Yonge The general mu sic curricu lum in place at P.K Yonge is derived from Jane Frazee's "D ISCOVERING O RFF in close correla tion with the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in Music (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) (Florida Department of Education, 2012) In the curriculum guide, "D ISCOVERING O RFF Jane Frazee clearly defines the elementary scope and sequence through each grade level. (Frazee, Discove ring Orff, 1987) You are encouraged to check it out of the music library and compare scope and sequence with the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards. (Florida Department of Education, 2012) The content areas of rhythm, melody, harmony, form, timbre, and improvisation including movement are presented for each grade level beginning with the first grade sequenced through fifth grade. The skills for

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29 each content area are explained within the context how they fit within the developmental level of the stu dent. This is called scope and sequence (what to teach and when to teach it). The scope is the range of content to be delivered each school year and the sequence is the developmental path upon which the skills and knowledge content are taught. It is unu sual for a school district to prescribe a "standardized approach" for teaching elementary general music. Some school districts provide a text; however what you will find in each individual school will vary greatly. Most textbook series follow a scope and sequence as well. Typically music education graduates are certified kindergarten through twelfth grade with varying approaches for every college or university that provide training. Some colleges and universities are connected to teacher training progra ms such as Orff Schulwerk Kodaly or Dalcroze training. Many of these courses are offered in the summer as in service trainings to practicing professionals. Links to a sampling of these offerings are included in the appendix. As you begin your career in music education you will have the opportunity to decid e which pedagogical approach works best for you and your students. Aided by the invaluable work of music education professionals who have preceded you, the scope and sequence has largely already been conceived for you. There are many excellent existing e xamples to follow and there is little need for you to reinvent the wheel. As mentioned previously, Jane Frazee's D ISCOVERING O RFF is one example. (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) The Kodaly equivalent, K ODALY A PPROACH M ETHOD B OOK 1 AND 2 written b y Katinka Daniel is another excellent example. (Daniel, 1979) These high quality examples of scope and sequence are based on the elemental and

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30 developmental levels of your students. It is suggested you find and use one of these exceptional resources and adapt it to your teaching and your student's needs. Procedures, Routines, Rules, and Student Expectations Consistent procedures and rules will help you obtain the objectives you desire. Here at P.K. Yonge, the specials teachers (elementary visual art, physical education, music) have developed a short list of rules / expectations for students. The rules are consistent across art, P.E., and music classes. This design creates a comfortable, coherent and more or less relaxed atmosphere to maximize st udent success. The rules are as follows: Figure 1 2. Bravo Rules B e prepared for class ( positive attitude, energy, prepared to learn) R espect people and property (teaching opportunity to discuss respect for instruments) A sk before l eaving your assigned area (safety, teacher knows where you are) V oices stay quiet (respect for other voices) O bjects, hands, and feet are kept to oneself (teaching opportunity too discuss how touch might be involved with dance or movement) Consistent routines and procedures also increase teaching effectiveness through efficient time management. As I mentioned in the introduction, a generous amount of time allocated to elementary general music may allow y ou as much as thirty one and a half hours of total teaching time for the entire school year. Routines and procedures established over time will increase the amount of time devoted to curriculum instruction. You will not be expected to enforce behavioral issues during your P.K. Yonge experience. If you feel toward the middle or end of the experience that you wish to monitor behavior and manage student behavior such as talking or not following directions you are invited to do so. Upon entering the music r oom, students have a

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31 routine of quickly finding a spot around the circular carpet to sit or stand. This point is where the lesson begins with some form of movement. As mentioned previously, the lesson has a framework or a routine of movement, singing, an d content lesson of the day. You are free to deviate from this routine should you wish to experiment with another method. Routines are something that will maximize your instructional time regardless of the age level or type of music education you teach. (Marzano, 2009) Whether you teach you middle school band, high school orchestra, or vocal ensembles you will want to develop routines that help define the expectations for your students. You can expect P.K. Yonge students to be respectful and open to instruction. P.K.Yonge students are acclimated to university students and visitors from the College of Education. Older students, in particular, are well versed on the mission of the school as a teaching institution for teacher training. Students resp ond well to hand cues (hand up two fingers extended or one finger over mouth) for quiet. Using proximity, standing or sitting beside a student that requires extra care (Marzan o, differentiated instruction) can provide a quick learning cue to the student t o focus attention. (Marzano, 2009) As previously stated there is an expectation for students to adhere to the BRAVO rules.

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32 CHAPTER 3 YOUR TEACHING EXPERI ENCE AT P.K. YONGE Teaching Experience You will be working with 2 nd and 5 th grade classes at P .K. Y onge The 5th grade classes begin at 8:30 and dismiss at 9:10. The 2 nd grade classes begin at 9:20 and conclude at 10:00. In accordance with the State of Florida Class Size Amendment, t here are 22 students in the 5 th grade classes and 18 students i n the 2 nd grade classes. As previously illustra ted in the schedule ( Table 2.1) t here are three classes of each grade level. You should design your lessons as one thirty five to thirty eight minute segment of instruction. Your class will be di vided into teaching cohorts or teams and each cohort will teach approximately four lessons, two lessons to fifth grade (intermediate level) and two lessons to second grade (primary level). Each cohort will have 3 to 4 members and you will work together to create and teach your assigned lesson. It is best to work together as a team and have each member of your cohort lead small segments of your lesson. While one of your cohort members leads the teaching, the other team members will lend support with manipu lative learning tools and materials management. This experience is designed to provide you a safe, successful, and effective learning environment to develop your skills. Because your class meets on Tuesday and Thursday, your teaching cohort may or may no t see the same class of students. Therefore, you should plan and design your lessons for a "one time" stand alone lesson as much as possible. If your teaching cohort does meets with a class a second time, you are encouraged to revise or extend the conten t you presented in the first lesson. But, this is unlikely given

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33 the structure of your Tuesday / Thursda y schedule set against the P.K. Yonge elementary rotation of three specials every four days. Appropriate Student Objectives for Rhythmic Competency Fal l Semester MUE 3311 is scheduled during the unit plan of rhythm in the P.K.Y onge curriculum sequence. The unit plans of r hythm, m elody, h armony and recorder, loosely follow the four grading periods of the school year. The musical elements timbr e and form are taught throughout each of these units. Students will be asked to make informed decisions about "instrument sounds" to use and common Rondo forms (ABACAD..ect.) are common in question and answer improvisations. Presentation of unit material will vary from school to school. As stated earlier, there is no "standardized plan" to teach elementary general music, each program is unique to the design of the teacher. Rhythmic competency is a vital basic skill upon which all subsequent steps are bu ilt Therefore it is important to assure students are well grounded in rhythmic study (horizontal) before adding the vertical step of melodic instruction. That does not mean there is no singing during the study of rhythm. Every music class includes sin ging (refer to the lesson framework in Chapter 2), but the lesson focus of the song can be rhythmic. For example, a foreign language song with a syncopated beat is a rhythmic content lesson for fourth and fifth grade. The curriculum is designed to build knowledge in sequential steps. When one considers the role of elementary general music, perhaps a view that lessons are not 40 minutes in length but in fact are actually six years long in one continuous sequential pedagogy from k indergarten through f if th grade is an appropriate one Listed below are the concepts from the units on Rhythm for 2 nd and 5 th grades during the first quarter of the school year. This is the scope of material to present in your

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34 teaching, but not necessarily the sequence. The Tuesday / Thursday teaching situation will not allow you to properly sequence the content, however it is important to consider what pedagogical steps should precede and follow the lesson. Each cohort will design les sons based upon these concepts: Fi gure 3 1. Teaching concepts for MUE 3311 students 2 nd grade Rhythm concepts to be developed in the first 10 weeks : 1. Introduce half note, introduce half note with two quarter notes tied 2. Define 2/4 meter determine bar line placement in 2/4 3. Perform m ovement, speech, rhythmic canons over lapping imitation 4. Read, write, perform, half note and half rest in rhythm pieces on instruments 5. Create rhythmic pieces with eighth notes, quarter notes/rests, half notes/rests, add complementary ostinato 6. Take simpl e rhythmic dictation in 4 beats 7. Clap rhythm of songs while walking the beat 8. Clap a simple complementary ostinato while singing Musical Terms 1. Dynamics Piano Forte Improvisation 1. Use texts as basis for rhythmic exploration using un pitched percussion 2. Build rhythmic phrases using a 4 beat question answer 5 th grade rhythm concepts to be developed in the first 10 weeks : 1. Read, write, Sing and play 4 sixteenth notes 2. Read, write, sing and play eighth followed by 2 sixteenth and 2 sixteenth fol lowed by 1 eighth 3. Read, write perform eighth rest 4. Perform syncopated rhythm eighth, quarter, eighth 5. Read, write, sing and play dotted quarter eighth, eighth dotted quarter 6. Take rhythmic dictation 8 and 12 beat phrases using learned note values 7. Read, w rite, sing and play with upbeats 8. Introduce mixed meter Texture 1. Play 3 and 4 part rhythmic canons Improvisation 1. Create instrumental introductions, contrasting s ections and codas for rhythmic p ieces

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35 CHAPTER 4 MATERIALS FOR THE EL EMENTARY GENERAL MUS IC CLASSROOM Source Materials / Lesson Repertoire Based on Sequence and Developmental Levels of the Student In a typical band, chorus, or orche stra of any age or skill level the objective usually has performance as its core outcome. B eginning band students performing Jingle Bells at the holiday concert, marching band students competing for the highest ranking, chorus or orchestra members perform i ng a concert all foc us on learning particular works of music. While preparing for a performance there are lessons to be taught to accomplish th e musical demands of each particular piece of music The lesson design i n developmental elementary general musi c is somewhat reversed. Within the pedagogy of elementary general music sequential skills a re put into a scaffold that dovetail s with the previous skills and lead to the next set of new skills. Therefore, the appropriate source material is selected with the sequential pedagogy of skills in mind. Selection of the source material is dictated by the sequential and develo pmental level of the concept to be taught and needs to be appropriately focused to fit the need of the students Just as a performance e nsemble director selects the repertoire for the ensemble, you will select or create the pieces you wish to use to teach your content. As already discussed, in elementary general music the repertoire content is driven by the concept and the concept is deri ved from the sequential developmental level. Selecting a mixed meter piece to teach quarter note and eighth note rhythmic patterns to first grade would be a poor selection of source material. Subdivision of the beat is one of the first developmental step s after mastering the skill of keeping a steady beat. To teach to that concept you are going to select an appropriate piece of music (poem,

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36 rhyme) that contains the beat and the eighth note subdivision of that beat. "Ted dy Bear" eighth eighth quarter is one example This is how source material is used in elementary general music to teach to a targeted musical concept. After developing the scope and sequence, the next step of the design is selecting the piece(s) (dance, chant, song, instrument piece) that teaches to the concept in the sequence. For the purposes of teaching in this class the scope of rhythmic content for fifth and second grades is provided for your use. The class schedule of Tuesdays and Thursdays will preclude the ability to properl y design a content sequence. Most modern general music classrooms will include a music text of some variety. The text available at P.K.Yonge is the same series in the music education laboratory within the school of music. McGraw Hill's Series S HARE THE M USIC is a popular choice with many school districts. (McGraw Hill, 2003) A full set of accompanying compact disks is included with the text and is available to use in lessons. Many curriculum source material books are also available from the School of Music elementary lab and the P.K.Yonge general music source material library. The appendix includes a list of source materials available to you. Source materials for elementary music are generally shorter pieces and more elemental than the music you are accustomed to using in middle school and high school. It is very common for elemental pieces to be no more than four to eight lines or phrases in length. Balanced phrases in your content material will allow for greater success Elemen tal music is pattern based music built on natural speech and body rhythms, familiar melodic patterns, and simple forms that can be learned, created, understood, and performed without extensive technical or theoretical musical training.

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37 This allows elem ental music, rhymes and chants to work well for rhythmic content material. Elemental music can be easily adapted to rhythmic or melodic ostinato patterns, which can be layered in parts. Once all the parts are played together, a piece that once seemed ele mental can become quite complex. Closely examine and select source material for multiple examples of the targeted concepts in your lesson. For instance, if your fifth grade lesson content includes syncopation you will want to find source material th at contains multiple examples of syncopation. (Example eighth, quarter, eighth note. | This will allow students multiple opportunities to practice the targeted content. Source material with common patterns offers students opportunities to identify the common patterns and build confidence in their performance and und erstanding of the piece. Instruments, Movement Props, and Teaching Tools At P.K. Yonge you will be fortunate to have access to the same materials available in the elementary lab within the School of Music. Un pitched percussion, woods, metals, scra pers, and membranes in the form of woodblocks, rhythm sticks, claves, lumi sticks, triangles, finger cymbals, cymbals, jingle bells, maracas, guiros, hand drums, tubanos, and djembes are available just as they are in your lab. There are sufficient quantit ies of these instruments to work with a whole class. P.K. Yonge also has a full Orff Schulwerk instrumentraium for melodic work and harmonic accompaniment which can also be used to supplement your lessons in rhythm. Movement props, including scarve s, canes, neckties, and fabric are included in the equipment inventory. Balls, cups and stuffed animals intended for passing games are also available. It needs to be noted that you are fortunate to have such a complete set

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38 of tools at your disposal withi n the U.F. School of Music Elementary Music laboratory. Everything necessary in a well designed elementary music program, such as tools to create dynamic visuals have been secured for your use. It should be observed that Dr. Timothy Brophy obtained many of these materials for the elementary music laboratory Figure 4 1 Instruments Membranes From left to right: Conga Drums (Tubanos) Djembes Hand Drums

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39 Figure 4 2 Woods From left to right: Claves Woodblocks Rhythm Sticks

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40 Figure 4 3 Metals From left to right: Cow Bell Jingle Tree Jingle Shakers Jingle Bells Triangles Finger Cymbals Cymbals

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41 Figure 4 4 Scrappers and Shakers From left to right: Guiro Cabasa Maracas

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42 Fig ure 4 5 Tambourines Tambourines with and without membranes

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43 Figure 4 6 Specialty Instruments From left to right: Vibra Slap Ratchet Chime Balls Bird Chirp Turtle Rasp

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44 Table 4 1 Table of Instruments Membranes Woods Metals Sc rapers and Shakers Tambourines Specialty Instruments Conga Drums (Tubano) Claves Cow Bell Maracas With Membranes Vibra Slap Djembe Woodblocks Jingle Tree Guiro Without Membranes Ratchet Hand Drums Rhythm Sticks Jingle Shaker Cabasa Chime Balls Jing le Bell Bird Chirp Triangle Turtle Rasp Finger Cymbals Cymbals Figure 4 7 Orff Instrumentarium

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45 Figure 4 8 Orff Instrumentarium with students Table 4.2 Traditional Orff Instrumentarium Layout Ro ROW 1 Glockenspiel Glockenspiel Glockenspiel Glockenspiel ROW 2 Soprano Xylophone Soprano Xylophone Soprano Xylophone Sopr ano Xylophone Soprano Metalophone Soprano Metalophone ROW 3 Alto Xylophone Alto Xylophone Alto Xylophone Alto Xylophone Alto Xylophone Alto Metalophone Alto Metalophone ROW 4 Bass Xylophone Bass Xylophone Bass Metalophone Bass Metalophone

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46 Using the Orff Instrumentarium A prominent Orff Schulwerk teacher was once heard to comment "you CAN play hits from the radio like All My Ex's Live In Tex as on the Orff bars but that is not really what Carl Orff and Gunild Keetman had in mind". Indeed, the design of the Orff Instrumentarium is to teach "elemental" music to children. One of the philosophies that guide the Orff Schulwerk process is the not ion that humans do not learn to read first and then speak. Obviously, babies speak first and learn the nuances of language as they develop into young children. Orff Schulwerk teachers place an emphasis on playing and engaging in music first, then teachin g the more formal aspects of theory after the music making process is already in place. Another feature of Orff Schulwerk is the ability for young students to produce quality musical sounds early the music making process. It is difficult for a student to produce a quality sound on the violin or trumpet during the first lessons. However, producing a quality sound on the Orff instruments requires much less training. A student can strike the bar in a tapping fashion in the middle of the bar to produce a qu ality sound. Within minutes of sitting at the instruments young learners can produce high quality musical sounds. The "bars" on the instruments are designed to b e removed. Therefore, unneeded notes can be "lifted out" of the instrument completely, r emoving the undesirable musical consequence of a student playing the wrong note. A typical accompaniment for a first grade song would allow for only one note, the tonic of the song. The students (or teacher previous to the class starting) would remove a ll bars except the tonic of the piece. For instance, to accompany a song in F major, first graders would play a pattern only on the "F" bars. The bar removal option allows teachers greater flexibility in the use of the instruments. By removing the fourt h and seventh degree of the scale

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47 (creating a pentatonic scale), improvisation becomes easily accessible through the Orff instruments. Student can use rhythmic patterns to design "instant" pentatonic improvisations. Reading notation can be used with the Orff instruments, but note reading while playing is typically not the teaching process for using the instruments. Orff Schulwerk teachers use patterns to teach songs and accompaniments. The teacher "deconstructs" the music by finding patterns in the material that can be easily communicated to the student. The teacher than reconstructs the piece with the students by "chunking" patterns together in parts and pieces until the complete piece of music is developed. Using notation after students learn the complete piece, is a effective method of teaching notation using the instrumentarium. Most typically, the Orff teacher would teach the students on the instruments using patterns as described and then put the notation in front of the students after the pi ece is learned to teach aspects of notation. In the following video students are taught an introductory piece to the instruments using sequential patterns. Object 4 1 Watch a 5 th Grade Demonstration video on how to use the Orff In strumentarium

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48 Other Instructional Tools and Devices Figure 4 9 Movement props From left to right: Stuffed Animals Passing Cups Passing Stones Balls Balloons Movement Strips Streamers Movement Scarves In addition to musical instruments, many supplementary tools and materials are also available for use in lessons. Materials that enhance movement are popular tools for lesson activities. Stuffed animals, stones, cups, balls, and balloons can be used for passing games. Streamers, fabric st rips, and scarves can also be used as movement props for creative movement activities. When planning lessons it is important to design strategies that include how to manage the distribution of materials to students.

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49 Figure 4 10 Picture Books Picture Books Hundreds of picture books are also available for lesson design. Books that feature repeated words or phrases and cumulative phrases are natural choices for inclusion in music lessons. Themed b ooks for holidays and music themed books provide more avenues to bring children's literature into the music classroom.

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50 Figure 4 11 Rhythm Notation Tools From left to right: Rhythm Strips Popsicle Stick Kits for Rhythmic Dictation Manipulat ives make composition and dictation fun and easy for younger learners. Rhythm strips can be used to create rhythmic pieces or rhythm practice. Popsicle sticks in small baggies can be used to facilitate primary composition ( quarter notes, quarter rests, eighth notes) and dictation. (Depicted in photo q q ee q )

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51 Figure 4 12 More Manipulative Teaching Tools From left to right: Rhythmic Heart Chart Erasable White Boards with Staff Shape Manipulatives Student manipulatives can be used to visualize music concepts and assess student knowledge. The "Heart Chart" is used to demonstrate rhythmic notation. (Zentz, 2010) It can be used with "hearts" that represent the beat and sub divisions of the beat. Standard rhythmic notation can also be depicted on the same chart. Geometric shapes can be used to display form or other representations of musical content such as

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52 dynamics. Erasable "white boards" are also are included in the inventory of materials for students to write and practic e their own musical notation skills. Figure 4 13 Erasable White Boards

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53 Technology in the General Music Classroom Today's generation of young learners are accustomed to an atmosphere of smart phones and smart devices. The rate of techno logical development is so rapid, it is difficult for school administrators to secure funding to keep pace with the latest technology. The white boards of only a few years ago are now supplanted by the latest versions of smart boards and tablet computers. A video projector / screen and a smart board are accessible to us e in your lessons. There is a limited amount of software for you to use on a smart board. The "Heart Chart" produced by Laurie Zentz, a music educator from Duvall County School District, is now available in a white board format. (Zentz, 2010) Employing the "Heart Chart" teachers and students can manipulate rhythmic note values on the chart. The chart is four lines of four beats. Younger children use the shape of hearts to show steady bea t and subdivisions of the beat, while older children use standard notation. The young learners of this generation are engaged with the use of technology, the ease of manipulatives is also advantageous for learners with physical disabilities.

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54 Fig ure 4 14 Heart Chart Screen Shot (Zentz, 2010)

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55 Figure 4 15 Heart Chart Rhythm Game Screen Shot (Zentz, 2010)

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56 Figure 4 16 Heart Chart Rhythm Heart Subdivision Screen Shot (Zentz, 2010) Many new music education applicati ons are now available for smart devices such as the Apple iPad. Using a tool such as iPad can offer a technology revolution into education. Several applications that teach music notation and elements of music concepts are now available, and new applicatio ns are being developed at a rapid pace. Although use of the iPad is limited to one student at a time, the image can be projected on a screen for all learners to see and participate in the ac tivity. The iPad has become a n invaluable tool for presenting te aching models from YouTube.com.

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57 Perhaps the one of the largest impacts derived from devices such as the iPad is as sessment. Within a performance based activity, the iPad can be used for instant assessment. The video tool on the iPad can capture a performance or activity and within seconds the iPad can be turned around or adapted to video link and the learners can see the recorded video. It should be noted here that P.K. Yonge students and parents sign a waiver to allow video capture of students. All school districts have policies on video recording, all teachers will want to investigate their school district policy before engaging in employing video capture. Many Orff Schulwerk based practitioners shy away from technology, and there is a ca se to be made for students taking a break from technology and singing or playing instruments together in community. Community is a large part of the general music classroom and should be encouraged especially in the age of individuals disappearing into th eir technology, but we must remain relevant to world of our younger learners. Assignment #3 Technology Research a n application for a smart device that could be used in the elementary general music classroom. Write a short description of the applica tion, review the usefulness of the application and provide a short explanation of how you employ the application to a grade specific learning community.

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58 CHAPTER 5 LESSON PLANNING AND EXECUTION Planning the Lesson : Targeting the Lesson Toward A Musica l Concept Object 5 1 Robert deFrece, A Conceptual Rhapsody, AOSA National Conference 2002 Watch the first 22 minutes of the embedded video : A Conceptual Rhapsody. The presenter Robert deFrece explain s how the musical activity of a lesson must b e conceptualize around the concept to be introduced and developed. (deFrece, 2002)

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59 Assignment #4 Lesson Design Watch the first 22 minutes of the video and write a reflective paragraph on how the musical concept being taught relates to the student act ivity selected for the lesson. Planning the Lesson Selecting the Musical Concept(s) A teacher stands at the front of the classroom and holds up a poster of the words "piano" and "forte". The teacher says "boys and girls", "do you know what t hese words are?" "These are called dynamics." In the above example, the teacher is introducing the concept of "dynamics". However, the students have no frame of reference from which to derive any knowledge. In elementary general music the activity is essential to tying the knowledge to the musical concept in the lesson. The teaching of the musical concept will have more meaning when tied to a reference of understanding. The activity will provide the reference the students need to attach the concept(s ). Planning a successful lesson is the first step to teaching a successful lesson. In chapter four you learned about the care in selecting the appropriate source material to target the musical concept(s) in the lesson. A well designed lesson plan must consider the sequence of concepts over a series of lessons. Using the example of dynamics introduced in a second grade lesson, it is important to note that previous to the introduction of "piano" and "forte", students would have mastery of the terms "soft" and "loud". In kindergarten class the students would have been intr oduced to the basic concepts of : Talking voice Whisper voice Yelling voice Singing voice

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60 By the end of kindergarten the students would be expected to have "mastered" these concep ts. In first grade, this learning would have been expanded to differentiate between the words "low / soft" and "high / loud". By the end of first grade the expectation would be that students have mastered the understanding of those terms. Having mastere d loud and soft and differentiated those terms from low and high, the teacher can now apply the terms piano and forte to soft and loud. Later, after the students master the understanding of "piano" and "forte", the teacher can continue the learning to inc lude further divisions to mezzo piano, mezzo forte, pianissimo, fortissimo. This is a brief example of the scaffold used to build student competency. Table 5 1 Sequence of Conceptual Learning Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Talking Voice Whisp er Voice Yelling Voice Singing Voice Loud Soft Differentiated from : Low Sounds High Sounds Forte Piano Dynamics Having selected the concepts and considered what learning should have preceded the concept as well as the following step in the s caffold, the teacher selects resource materials and plans activities that focus on the concept. Continuing the example of dynamics in second grade, the source material(s) properly selected would include multiple opportunities for students to experience an d practice the concepts of "piano" and "forte". Once the source materials and activities have been selected to

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61 target the concept(s), the teacher devises a plan to implement the engagement of the concepts and manage the materials used to present the less on. The teacher should now study and dissect the source material (instrument piece, song, poem, or activity) they selected. They should know the source material well without having to look at it or practice it while teaching. Previous to the lesso n the teacher will have designed activities that target the concepts and the activity should come before the explanation in the lesson. Follow the subsequent diagram and notice how the activity is placed ahead of the conceptual learning. The conce ptual knowledge is tied to the activity once the students have a frame of reference to understand the concept(s). Once the concepts are introduced they can be practiced. The concepts are then applied again in a different activity that reinforces and broa dens the opportunities for students to learn with expanded experiences. After the students have sufficient experience and practice with the concept a formal assessment for conceptual understanding can be used to gauge competency with the new concept or s kill. When the concept reaches a high level of understanding by the students they apply the concept in their own creations. The diagram illustrates the teaching process at first conceptually and then again as a demonstration lesson. The first diag ram illustrates the complete over all process. The second diagram includes steps to the process. The third diagram is an example lesson of the process. A demonstration video of the lesson follows the diagrams.

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62 Figure 5 1 Lesson Planning and Ex ecution Activity Musical Concept Practice Review and Asses s Create

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63 Figure 5 2 The Process Activity First Activity 1. Model the activity; show the students a complete model of the activity they will be expected to perform. (Dance, Play or Sing Song/ Accompaniment, Listening) 2. Use a teaching process to break down the learning of the a ctivity. Echo / Rote Process Directed Listening Process 3. Achieve student competency of the activity (Movement, Dance, Song, Accompaniment) Echo / Rote Process Teacher sing/ play first line / ph rase Students sing/play first line / phrase Teacher sing/ play second line / phrase Students sing/play second line / phrase Teacher sing/ play third line / phrase Students sing/play third line / phrase Teacher sing/ play fourth line / phrase Students sing/play fourth line / phrase Teacher sing/ play first 2 lines / phrases Students sing/ play first 2 lines / phrases Teacher sing/ play last 2 lines / phrases Students sing/ play last 2 lines / phrases Teacher sing/ play complete piece Students sing/ play complete piece Directed Listening Process Teacher "directs / prompts" students to listen for a part ic ular feature or word. Students are asked to identify or respond to the prompt in some manner(make a motion, or show with fingers the number of times the prompted event happens in the teacher model ) Teacher "models" complete piece Students identify the prompt for which they were directed to listen Teacher sing/ plays com plete piece Students sing/play complete piece

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64 Figure 5 3 The Process Attach Musical Concept to Activity Attach Musical Concept to Activity 1. Introduce and Label the musical concept from the model. 2. Students perform model piece while applying concept.

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65 Figure 5 4 The Process Practice Practice 1. Allow st udents to practice the model piece s everal times applying the musical concept 2. Alter the content slightly asking the students to perform the musical concept in a different place in the piece. 3. Apply the musical concept to a different piece or a piece th e students already know. 4. Ask students to identify the musical concept in a different way

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66 Figure 5 5 The Process Review and Assess Review and Assess 1. Review the original activity; students identify the musical content within the original activity. 2. Using a different ac tivity, students identify the previously introduced musical concept. 3. Use formal assessment to measure student learning of the musical concept. 4. In future activities when the learning focus is a different musical concept, refer back to the concept taught previously and reinforce the learning of the musical con cept

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67 Figure 5 5 The Process Create Create 1. Use the original activity as a basis for the creativity. It becomes the "A" section from which other student cr eated can be attached sections OR: It becomes a model that can altered in some fashion by the students. 2. Students have opportunities to share their student creations with the class. Student Creations Contrary to w hat the classroom may look like in the middle of the creation process, preparing the creat i vity has structure. The boundaries of the student product must be established and include some set of controls. The teacher cannot just ask the students to "create something". The teacher will set boundaries for the creation to exist. The teacher will set the expectations for the creat i vity such as how long and what elements should be included in the creation. The teacher may produce a model for the students to se e a final product. Once the students have the parameters of their creations, they require a set amount of time to construct and then practice their creations. When finished, the new student creations should be sha red with the whole class. The creations m ay be individual or groups. If the creations are individual, the length of the creation needs to fit a time frame where all students can share. If the creations are group based, the teacher must consider how to design groups that will produce the most su ccessful outcomes.

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6 8 Figure 5 6 Example Lesson Activities Student Activities 1. Movement Activity Students enter room to find movement sca r ves placed around the room allowing each student sufficient movement space. Students are instructed that the scarf is their "da nce partner". Students are instructed when they hear music, their "dance" with their partner should try to reflect the loudness of the music. If they hear the music as "loud" the scarf should dance higher from the ground and the movement should be more dy namic. If they hear the music as being softer their dance should becom e closer to the ground and gentler in nature. Teacher models the movement with appropriate responses. The teacher plays classical music with many musical instances of "piano" and "fort e" dynamics. Students respond with the appropriate movements using the scarves. 2. Singing Teacher "models" song with dynamics. Teacher uses a process to teach the song. Students sing the song using dynamics of "piano" and "forte" as prompted by the teache r. The teacher uses the same gesture with arms to illustrate the music getting louder and softer, student copy gesture. Students use gesture without the aid of the teacher prompt to indicate different levels of dynamics. 3. Rhythm Piece Teacher "models" rh ythm piece with appropriate dynamics. Teacher uses a "process" to teach the rhythm piece. Students learn rhyme to perform with rhythmic instruments practicing quarter notes and eighth note rhythms. Students use indicated dynamic markings to perform rhythm piece with un pitched percussion instruments. Teacher alters dynamic markings and students reflect changes of dynamics during performance of piece.

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69 Figure 5 7 Example Lesson Attach Musical Concept to Activity Attach Musical Concept to Activity 1. Movement After the movement exercise the teacher "labels" the terms "piano" to indicate "soft" and "forte" to indicate "loud". 2. Singing The teacher adds arm movements to the song to help students understand when the song changes dynamics. The students at first mimic the teacher movements, t hen produce the moves by themselves. Students perform song with proper dynamics. 3. Rhythm piece Students learn and perform rhythm piece using "piano" and "forte" dynamics.

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70 Figure 5 8 Example Lesso n Practice Practice 1. Allow for Practice Allow students to practice the a ctivities several times. 2. Change Applications The teacher changes the musical selection for the movement and students respond with the same corresponding movements for "piano" and "forte". The teacher changes the dynamic markings in the rhythmi c piece. Students apply the new dynamic markings. 3. Student Changes Ask students to create new scarf movements reflect "piano" and "forte". Ask students to create new arm movements to reflect "piano" and "forte" while singing.

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71 Figure 5 9 Example Lesson Review and Assess Review and Assess 1. Review the original activity. Students review the movement activity, song, and rhythm piece with the lesson content now completely taught. 2. Using a different activity, students identify the previously introduced musical concept. Students respond with scarves to a different piece of music. Opportunity for assessment : Teacher observes if students respond appropriately to the different dynamic levels. Students sing a different song and different resp ond with arm movements illustrating the varying dynamics. 3. Use formal assessment to measure student learning of the musical concept. Students respond with scarves to a different piece of music. Teacher observes if students respond appropriately to the different dynamic levels. Students sing a different song and different respond with arm movements illustrating the varying dynamics. 4. In future activities when the learning focus is a different musical concept, refer back to the concept taught pr eviously and reinforce the learning of the musical concept. Refer back to these dynamic markings when appropriate in new musical pieces and /or activities.

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72 Figure 5 10 Example Lesson Create Create Using the Rhythm rhyme as a basis for student creation Students perform rhythm piece with indicated dynamic markings. Teacher adds 16 beats of space between the performances of the rhythm piece. Teacher plays quarter notes and students count during this space. Teacher assigns students into groups. Class plays th e rhythm repeatedly with 16 counts between each performance. Teacher instructs the class that the original piece will now become the "A" section of a new extended piece. Each group is assigned to fill the space with movement and un pitched percussi on using two instances of "piano" and "forte" within their 16 beats. Their movements and instrument playing must reflect the different dynamics. Students are allowed time to develop their "B" sections. The teacher plays the "A" section and allows the students multiple chances to practice and revise their "B" section creations. After sufficient practices, the each groups shares their "B" section as the whole class performs the "A" sections and each group performs the "B" section.

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73 The followi ng video example illustrates the process from figures 5 1 through 5 10 Object 5 2 2 nd Grade Demonstration Lesson Video As signment #5 Lesson Design Watch the video and match the steps in the video with the diagram. Identify a teacher process seen in the video with a step from the diagram. The format of movement, song, and daily lesson are represented in this lesson. The movement prepped and supported the activities that were to follow later in the lesson by d esign.

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74 It is recommend you follow this teaching process for your lessons: 1. Select lesson concept(s). 2. Match source material that provides example of the selected concept(s). 3. Deconstruct the source material, design the process to teach the source mate rial. 4. Model the source material. 5. Process the learning of the source material. 6. Use the source material to teach the lesson concept. 7. Use activities to teach the lesson concept. 8. Revisit the source material with the concept now in mind. 9. Review the concept. 10. P ractice the concept. 11. Assess the concept. 12. Give ownership of the source back to the students, design parameters for students to take the source material as their base and create something different or adding to the source material. Remember, the lessons yo u teach in MUE 3311 are limited to a 38 minute stand alone lesson. Therefore your ability to cover assessment and creativity are restricted. You are encouraged to include these steps in your plan, realizing that most of the time assessment and creativity would happen in a subsequent lesson to the original lesson. Additional lesson exam ples are included in the appendix.

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75 CHAPTER 6 TIME TO TEACH Time to Teach You have selected the concept(s) that you wish to teach to the your group of selected learne rs. When you are teaching in your own school as a professional service teacher you will have double checked that the content you are going to teach links in a sequential manner to the last content previously taught to this group of learners. You are awar e of the standard/content/concept/skill that will sequentially follow the content you are about to teach. You have selected the source material, the instrument piece, song, poem, or activity that you will use to teach the content. You have dissected the source material and know the content. You have thought about how you are going to use the source material to teach the content. You have designed a formal assessment to check the knowledge and you have developed parameters to allow student creativity of the source piece. Now it is time to teach the source material. Model, M odel, M odel A model of the student outcome be it dance, song, or instrument playing, is a vital start to the lesson. A model provides the student a understanding of what the teacher wishes the student to learn. If this is middle or high school band/ chorus it is a recording of the music ( audio or YouTube ) Not so much for elementary music, but for performance based groups such as chorus, orchestra, or band, YouTube is an excellent source for performance models. For a dance group, the instructor would show a video of the dance to be learned (contingent upon availability). In mathematics, the teacher would show a problem completely worked out and illustrated, step by step In language

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76 arts, the model would be a demonstration by the teacher of the exact steps and process of the expected outcomes. Using a model in any subject matter of teaching/learning provides the learner with the expected outcomes. So very simply, for elementary general music, perform the model. The teacher model should be an exemplary performance. The students will reproduce any imperfections in the model. For instance, if the model contains a wrong note, the learners will perform the wrong note as well. Therefore the model must be as well performed as possible. Process In designing the lesson the teacher will have dissected the piece into steps that make the lesson easier to learn. In elemental music it is common to use echo technique, or directed listening" technique that asks the learners to listen for some specific attribute of the piece. Examples of both the "Echo/Rote" process and the "Directed Listening" process can be found in diagram 5.2 in the previous chapter. All the videos con tained in this book include examples of process. The process chunks the piece into learning nuggets that can be performed and put together to form a complete work. Conceptualizing the Musical Concept In the Robert deFrece video you learned about ty ing the musical concept to the source piece. After the students can competently perform the piece, the piece can now be used to teach the concept(s) of the lesson. The piece now becomes your teaching model for the concept(s). This is at the point in the lesson where the teacher can target the lesson toward the concept. If second grade is working with quarter note and eighth note combinations through a rhythmic based poem, this is the point where you as the

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77 teacher employ teaching strategies that target the musical concept(s) of the lesson The teacher would explain the notation, or use a chart (heart chart) to show or graph the notation. The teacher might h ave students identify the notation in some manner, using a manipulative or using a non verbal sig n to indicate where in the piece they recognize the division of the beat into ei ghth notes. Using student sized white boards to guide the students through notation or using popsicle sticks/ pipe cleaners to notate the rhythm on the floor (or some other le arning activity). The performance of the teaching model (source material) does not constitute the learning of the musical concept unless the students can communicate in some way their understanding of the standard/content/concept. Before the students le ave this lesson you will want to review in some manner the intended standard/content/concept. Assignment # 6 Find a n elemental rhyme and notate it for second grade using quarter notes, eighth notes, and quarter rests. What basic steps would you use to teach it to a second grade drumming community?

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78 CHAPTER 7 ASSESSMENT There are two other important significant steps to complete the teaching process. Your ability to practice the next steps are limited, as your teaching experience does not expre ssly allow teaching the same class in succession. Following the lesson in which you previously taught the targeted concept, you will want to review that content and assess the learning of that content as well. Assessment is used to obtain evidence of le arning and growth, guide instruction, and provide evidence of accountability for learning. Assessment can come in many forms. As you are learning in this class and other education classes, assessments are both formative and summative. These differe nt forms of assessment are just what their names describe. Formative assessments are snapshots along the path of learning. Formative assessments are used during the process of the learning. Before moving from body percussion to play instruments, the tea cher will scan the learning community to see which students have mastered the body percussion and thus are ready to transfer the rhythmic pattern from body percussion to the instruments. A summative assessment is just what it describes, a summary of the l earning. Typically this type of assessment would be employed at some logical conclusion point in the learning such as at the end of a unit of study. The assessments used in the elementary music classes at P.K.Y onge are derived from A SSESSING THE D EVELOPING C HILD M USICIAN by Dr. Timothy S. Brophy, a leader in the world wide assessment community (Brophy, 2000) The following system is used to track student achievement.

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79 Plus Sign + : Mastery Check Plus + : Student knows the content with one or two errors Check : Student knows the content with more than one or two errors Check Minus : Student knows some content and with more practice could impr ove Minus : Student has no knowledge of the c ontent and could not learn the content with more practice Table 7 1 Example of student assessments in Elementary music Student Name Singing Di atonic Melody Reading a Simple Musical Score Rhythmic Drumming Exercise Performing A Rhythmic Canon Rhythmic Drumming Exercise II Reading Rhythmic Notation Remembered Imitation (Movement Exercise) Representative Cumulative Grade Student #1 + + + /+ + A Student #2 + + + + B Student #3 + C Self assessment during the learning process are also helpfu l to gauge where the students are at any given moment in the learning process. At P.K. Yonge we use a Marzano technique for self assessment. (Marzano, 2009) Included below is a self assessment tool created specifically for music posted in the music room The teacher can use this chart by asking students for a show of fingers to gauge where on the chart they assess their knowledge of the content.

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80 Figure 7 1 Marzano based Assessment Tool for Music Education (Roberts, 2012)

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81 Assessment and gra ding can be thorny issues for general music educators. Consider that some of your students will have opportunities to take private voice, piano, or instrumental lessons outside of school. Should those students be assessed on a different standard? Should the seven year old piano student be graded differently than the student that has no access to outside music experiences? There is a notion that perhaps some children are "gifted" in music or the arts and will by virtue of that "gift" achieve to a h igher level. It is helpful to remember some students are gifted in mathematics, some learners are gifted in language arts, but there is a still a expectation that all students can achieve some level of success. The arts are no different. All students ca n find success in a well designed general music class. Of course some students will be more attracted to music just as other students are more attracted to arithmetic or reading, but all students are provided equal access to find their success in all subj ect areas. Music is no different and in this respect is no different from mathematics, science, language arts or any other subject. The concept of bringing knowledge to students in each of these subjects at the developmental level of their understanding is the same in math as it is in music. All students can achieve in all subjects up to the level of their abilities, a well designed curriculum and presentation is able to provide that opportunity for success for all students.

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82 CHAPTER 8 CREATIV ITY! THE ROAD TO IM PROVISATION AND COMP OSITION The elemental steps of creativity are no different from that of any other skill we wish to develop with our students. Like all learning processes, simple, elemental creative exercises lead to more com plex creative skills. Creativity starts in Kindergarten, students are asked to move their body to reflect what they hear in music and share that move with other students who imitate the move. Over time student moves become more complex and longer in dura tion. The same is true of melodic improvisation. Using a simple rhyme and only two notes ( So Mi) first graders can form their first two note improvisations that with practice and repetition lead to their first compositions. Later in second grade the note choices are expanded to include La ( La So Me ). And the progression continues in the third grade to include the notes Mi, Re, and Do (Pentatonic). Table 8 1 Sequence of Melodic Improvisation Grade Level Developmental Melodic Improvisation Fi rst Grade So Mi Second Grade So Mi add La Third Grade So Mi La add Re Do ( Mi, Re, Do) Contrary to perception, improvisation occurs within structure. Too many choices will overwhelm the learner. Pro viding parameters of the creativity are essential to success. A student instructed to "make something up" has nothing concrete to base the creative

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83 task. Therefore the teacher provides a structure or framework to guide the creative process. The creative process requires time and many opportunities for revision. Refer to the example lesson in chapter five (figure 5 10), there are parameters in which the students "contain" their creative ideas. The students have a definable time frame to fit thei r ideas into the overall composition. The students are also given tasks they must achieve with their creations. Students should be given the opportunity to either add to the piece within a set of parameters set by the teacher, or allowed to take the whol e piece and modify it in some way, again with parameters set by the teacher. This type of activity could be something simple as a individual movement that exemplifies the words of a rhyme, or could involve a whole class period or work over several class p eriods between large groups of students collaborating together. Your experience in MUE 3311 will preclude any type of multi class period creativity sessions, but you are encouraged to develop lesson ideas where student input become a part of the lesson.

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84 CHAPTER 9 "THE WORK OF CHILDRE N IS PLAY" CARL ORFF "The work of children is play ", is attributable to Carl Orff. It is one of the best reminders that I leave with you as you prepare your lessons. Beginning your elementary gen eral music career you will want to concentrate on developing a library of games. When I say games, I don't mean games that you purchase in a store, these are the "lesson activities" that you will disguise as play. When I greet primary children to my room I tell them we will be playing "music games" or "games for our ears" or we will be creating "ear puzzles". If I were teaching mathematics or language arts, I would take the exact same approach using games, movement and manipulative tools to teach any sub ject matter. In this regard, elementary general music teachers may be more related to their elementary teaching professionals then their middle and high school music colleagues down the street. Elementary general music is a world of singing, dancing, play ing, and being creative. Young learners are already attracted to these activities. I hope you enjoy your elementary teaching experience at P.K.Y onge Perhaps like me, as this stage of your education you may think the best job for you is to lead your scho ol to become the best band in the state. But only a few years later you could find yourself immersed within a completely different path in elementary music education. If so, I hope you will use the resources and skills you gathered from this experience.

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85 APPENDIX A TRAINING LINKS Orff Schulwerk AOSA List http://www.aosa.org/approvedcourses.php (2012 American Orff Schulwerk Association Music and Movement Education, 2012) George Mason Univ ersity http://potomacacademy.gmu.edu/Orff/OrffFaculty.html (Potomac Arts Academy George Mason University 2012) Eastman ht tp://www.esm.rochester.edu/summer/orff/ (University of Rochester, 2012) Las Vegas http://unlvorff.com/unlvorff/Welcome.html (University of Nevada Las Vegas, 2012) Central Florida Orff Chapter http://www.centralfloridaorff.org/category/summers/ (Central Florida Orff, 2012) San Francisco http://www.sforff.org/ (San Francisco Orff 2012) Kodaly Organization of American Kodaly Educators http://oake.org/EndorsedPrograms/Default.aspx (Organization of American Kod‡ly Educators, 2012) Capital University http://oake.org/EndorsedPrograms/Default.aspx (Organization of American Kod‡ly Educators, 2012) George Mason University http://potomacacademy.gmu.edu / (P otomac Arts Academy George Mason University 2012) Indiana University http://music.indiana.edu/precollege/adult/kod%C3%A1ly/index.shtml (The Trustees of Indiana Univ ersity, 2012) James Madison http://www.jmu.edu/music/kodaly/why%20jmu.htm (James Madison University, School of Music., 2012)

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86 University of St. Thomas http://www.stthomas.edu/music/graduate/academics/courses/default.html (University of St. Thomas, 2012) Dalcroze Dalcroze Society of America http://www.dalcrozeusa.org/workshops and classes/adult summer (Dalcroze Society of America, 2012) University of St. Thomas http://www.stthomas.edu/music/graduate/ (Unive rsity of St. Thomas, 2012) Longy School of Music of B ard College http://www.longy.edu/ (Longy School of Music of Bard College, 2012) Carnegie Mellon Univ ersity http://music.cfa.cmu.edu/dalcroze/ (Carnegie Mellon Dalcroze Training Center, 2012) Gordon The Gordon Institute for Music Learning http:/ /gim l.org / (Gordon Institute for Music Learning, 2012)

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87 APPENDIX B INSTRUCTION SOURCE MATERIAL D ISCOVERING O RFF Jane Frazee, Schott SMC 99 ISBN 0 930448 99 5 A must have book for developmental and grade level content. Includes a grade by grade scope and sequence of elementary general music skills. Musical content and skills are outlined by grade level in suggestion sequence of teaching order. Content pieces are provided and each skill contains descriptions of how to teach the skill. (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 198 7) D ISCOVERING K EETMAN Jane Frazee, Schott SMC 547 ISBN 0 930448 97 9 This detailed book focuses on the work of Gunild Keetman, Carl Orff's protŽgŽ and assistant. Keetman's material is presented with detailed descriptions of the content skill and the pr oper sequence to develop the skill(s). (Frazee, 1998) E LEMENTARIA G u nild Keetman Schott ED 11152 ISBN 0 946935 06 1 This book provides detailed explanation of the elemental music Orff and Keetman used in the formal Orff Schulwerk Volumes. Keetman pro vides her insights into the elemental design and provides further enlightenment into Orff's intensions of the improvisatory nature within Orff Schulwerk material. (Keetman, 1974) M USIC F OR C HILDREN V OL I Carl Orff /Gunild Keetman ISBN B000JIHLPK The Music for Children Volumes are the complete and unabridged materials derived from the Guntherschule, the first teachings of the Schulwerk in a German dance studio. Volume I is based on the pentatonic improvisations and songs first developed by Carl Orff and Guntherschule students. The book includes songs, many examples of improvisatory melodies, rhythms for body percussion, canons, rounds, and suggested accompaniments. This book is difficult to use without some basic Orff training. (Carl Orff, 1957) D.R.U.M. Jim Solomon, Warner Bros. BMR08009 ISBN 0 7692 6838 2 As the title suggests this book has rhythmic pieces based on speech and chants. Primary and intermediate drum pieces are included. Drumming exercises and rhythmic warm ups. (Solomon, D.R.U .M.: Discipline, Respect, and Unity Through Music, 1998)

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88 P LAY S ING D ANCE A N I NTRODUCTION TO O RFF S CHULWERK Doug Goodkin, Schott STAP 565 ISBN 1 902455 07 X This is a book of both philosophical statement and content. Doug Goodkin weaves lessons throu gh his personal reflections on Orff Schulwerk. The philosophical perspective of Orff Schulwerk is highlighted. Emphasis on integrated learning. (Goodkin, 2002) M ONKEY B USINESS Jim Solomon, Memphis Musicraft Publications ISBN 0934017425 Rhythmic and me lodic source material for first through fourth grades. Excellent resource for primary rhythmic developmental. Uses sequential primary pieces to build rhythmic competency. (Solomon, 1997) RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR BUILDING MOVEMENT COMPETENCY The fo llowing examples of movement are appropriate to build movement and rhythmic competency in elementary general music : SIMULTANEOUS IMITATION D ISCOVERING O RFF Jane Frazee Ask a leader to go to the middle of the circle and perform a movement STANDING ON THEIR FEET that tries to show the beat. The other students will do the movement. Ask the leader after 8 16 beats to pick another leader to go the middle of the circle. (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) REMEMBERED IMITATION D ISCOVERING O RFF Jane Fra zee Now the change the game so that when the middle person moves the outside people DO NOT MOVE. The inside person moves for 4 BEATS, and then THEY STOP and the outside people copy or imitate the movement for 4 beats. Then the inside person goes again, t his process repeats 4 times until the insider person (leader) leads 4 moves, and then they pick another leader. Continue until all students that WISH to go to the middle have a chance. I do not send students to the middle if they don't wish to be the lead er. (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) OVERLAPPING IMITATION D ISCOVERING O RFF Jane Frazee Overlapping takes remembered imitation one step further by eliminating the rest for either the leader or the performers. The followers must now perform the pre vious move while watching for the new move. This is a great prerequisite for rhythmic canons and vocal canons.

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89 (Frazee, Discovering Orff, 1987) MIRRORING An immediate response from th e students following the leader requires a slower tempo so that the class moves as one unit. This activity can be conducted in a circle but works best when spread out in lines in front of a mirror. Mirrors are very expensive; you can use large pieces of pieces of Mylar taped to the walls to achieve the same effect. MOV EMENT CARDS / PICUTRES Set of White Cards with Movement Depictions Movement cards and pictures are simply depictions of poses to create student responses. STUDENT CREATED MOVEMENT AS CHOREOGRAPHY Use source material with descriptions that allow for s tudent created movement. Student creative movement is the goal to ultimately obtain. But the progressive steps through the development of movement will allow this to happen more naturally with students. MOVEMENT CANON Come A long With Me Music For Children Vol. I Movement canons allow the students to SEE and VISUALIZE music in parts. (Carl Orff, 1957) MOVEMENT GAMES Movement games and puzzles force students to think about space and ti me. Movement games can be based in circle or linear sets. OR GANIZED DANCE N EW E NGLAND D ANCE M ASTERS Peter and Mary Alice Amidon The most refined of the movement techniques. Organized dance allows for little or no improvisation but is important tool in music class for the connections it brings to the curriculu m.

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90 Resources for Movement J UMP J IM J OE : G REAT S INGING G AMES FOR C HILDREN Peter and Mary Alice Amidon, New England Dancing Master ASIN B000K957RC (Amidon, Jump Jim Joe: Great Singing Games for Children Book/CD Combo, 1991) L ISTEN TO THE M OCKINGBIRD Peter and Mary Alice Amidon, New England Dancing Master ASIN B004V4HVWG (Amidon, 1997) C HIMES OF D UNKIRK Peter and Mary Alice Amidon, New England Dancing Master ASIN B004V4GP7S (Amidon, 2010) S ASHAY THE D ONUT Peter and Mary Alice Amid on, New England Dancing Master ASIN B004V4IDCI (Amidon, 2010)

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91 APPENDIX C SAMPLE LESSONS Second Grade Lesson Teaching the Half Note Concept This lesson will be used to illustrate teaching to a concept and using source material to specifically target a concept. This lesson is also used to detail how the format of "movement song daily lesson" flow across one lesson. The following lesson will target the concept of the half note. Two quarter notes will be tied together to introd uce the sound over two beats. "Buzz Buzz Bumble Bee" Original Rhyme Roberts Bum ble Bee Bum ble Bee Buzz Buzz Bum ble Bee Buzz Up Buzz Down Bum ble Bee Stings Owww!

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92 Song So So La So So M e So La So So Me So La So Me So So Me Do Owww! Teaching Process Movement Students enter room gather around circle with rhythmic beats playing on the iPad through the stereo. Students step to the beat of the music and are prompted with the teacher playing the cow bell, the first prompt is the beat, followed by the subdivision of the beat. The next prompt from the cowbell is two eighths / quarter (Bum ble Bee). The final movement prompt from the cowbell is holding two quarters together ( Half note). On the holding of the q uarter notes together, students will be prompted to clasped and lower hands over two beats. Through the movement, students have been prepared with rhythms that occur in the piece and introduced to the changes that will occur in the piece.

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93 Teaching Process Song Process song through echo one line, two lines, first two lines, last two lines, whole piece. REFER TO THE PROCESS IN FIGURE 5 5 ECHO / ROTE PROCESS Students Patsch beat and sing song simultaneously. Transfer sylla bic content to patshing with body percussion. Ask students to make one change in their body percussion students will clasp hands together for words "Buzz Buzz" "Buzz Up" "Buzz Down" this is the preparation to introduc e the concept half note.

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94 Teaching Process Daily Lesson Students will use Orff melodic instruments for this lesson. Prompt students to remove "F" and "B" bars to set instruments in "C" pentatonic. Prompt students to tap and say the comp lete poem. Using visual on board show students the words "Buzz Buzz" "Buzz Up" "Buzz Down" circled or underlined in a different contrasting color. Prompt students to "glissando" on the instruments for word combinations. Prompt students to glissando up on words "Buzz Up". Prompt students to glissando down on words "Buzz Down". Prompt students to perform piece several times with the added glissandos. Now that students have played half note glissandos, r eturn to the notation of the piece and select students to go to the board and "tie" the quarter notes together where the glissandos occur. Introduce half note and select students to go to the board and CHANGE the tied quarter notes to half notes. Prompt students to play the piece again with the new HALF notes in place. Add pitches to match solfege Prompt students to "click" sticks together on "Owww". Separate students into two groups, have one group perform on the instru ments and prompt the other students to create movement that reflects the rhythm of the piece. Switch parts. Review and Asse s sment Following Class students walk in time to the beat box prompted by teacher playing cowbell students ste p and identify note values half, quarter, eighth

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95 Fifth Grade Les son Rhythmic Canon with Movement Come A long With Me!

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96 Words Come A long with me I will charge no fee Come to learn and we will have s ome fun to get her Come A long with me Teaching Sequence : Process the words REFER TO THE PROCESS IN FIGURE 5 5 ECHO / ROTE PROCESS Trans fer words to rhythmic syllables : Transfer words to body percussion, students now perform rhythms using body percussion. Form small groups and perform in canon : 2 groups 2 part canon 4 groups 4 part canon Using 4 rhythmic notation staves present each part of the canon in a different color, ask students to identify which color rhythmic line they are playing. Transfer body percussion to hand drums, students now perform rhythms using hand drums. Prompt Students to create 4 beats of movement for eac h phrase utilizing the hand drums. Add canonic movement to the rhythm cannon. Rhythmic Syllables Ta Ta Ta Ta Toooooooooe Ta Ta Ta Ta Toooooooooe Ta Ta Ta Ta Ti Ti Ti TI Ti Ti Ti Ti Ta Ta Ta Ta Toooooooooe Ta = quarter note Toooooooooe = whole Note Ti Ti = two eighth notes

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97 APPENDIX D AN OVERVIEW OF EMILE JAQUE S DALCROZE EDWIN GORDON, ZOLTN KO DLY, CARL ORFF AND SHINICHI SUZUKI, THEIR METHODOLOGIES, PHILOSOPHIES, AND BIOGRAPHIES Emi le Jaques Dalcroze Gymnastique rythmique known as Eurhythmics, are exercises for expressing rhythmical aspects of music by physical movements. This is one of the core philosophies of the Dalcroze music education movement. Movement here being an apt wor d, as Dalcroze was a advocate of moving while singing parts to work out the musical intricacies. Dalcroze would describe his insight was derived from working with a rhythmic challenged student. He noticed the student moved in a steady rhythm, he began to work with student on rhythmic exercises through movement. Following his success with his student Dalcroze created techniques of coordinating music with bodily movements. Students learn rhythm and structure by listening to music and expressing what they he ar through extemporaneous body movements. Other techniques included stepping and clapping note values rhythms. This method, which may be used with adults and children, aims to promote alertness, expressiveness, and a sense of phrasing and musical structu re. Use of musical hand signs known as solfege and improvisation are also key teaching concepts in the Dalcroze approach. Condensed Biography Emile Jaques Dalcroze, a Swiss composer and teacher was born on July 6, 1865 in Vienna, Austria. He studied composition with Gabriel Faure and Anton Bruckner before becoming professor of ha rmony at the Geneva Conservatory in 1892. After developing Eurthymics, Dalcroze's ideas would spread quickly. He would gain both official and international recognition during the early years of the 20th century. Dalcroze was invited to travel across Eur ope, share his ideas, and set up schools to teach Eurhythmics. He founded the Institute Jaques Dalcroze in Geneva 1915 to promote his teaching ideas. Today his work is represented in the United States by the Dalcroze Society of America Key Principles o f Dalcroze Movement (Eurhymics) is a key element to realization of musical development. Musicians and students learn musical concepts feeling the music through movement of their body. Solfege (Musical Hand Signs) are employed to assist students in lear ning melodic and harmonic concepts. Ear training develops musical independence. Improvisation is used to develop musicianship. Learn more: http://www.dalcroze usa.org/

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98 Edwin Gordon Music Learning Theory is attributed to Edwin Gordon. Based on research and field testing, Music Learning Theo ry offers the music teacher a comprehensive method for teaching musicianship through what he termed audiation Gordon defined auditaion as hearing music in the mind with understanding He understood audiation as a tool used to develop the aptitude of stu dents in sequential, developmental, and research based music making experiences. Gordon's Theory has been described as the student "thinking in music". Another differentiating characteristic of Gordon Learning Theory is the use of his standardized testin g materials. Gordon Learning Theory also recognizes parallels between speech and music learning. Learning sequences and processes are important traits in how the learning theory is presented to students Condensed Biography Before devoting his l ife to the field of music education, he Ed Gordon attended the Eastman School of Music, earning bachelor's and master's degrees in string bass performance and played string bass with the Gene Krupa band. He later obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Iow a in 1958. Edwin Gordon is known throughout the world as a preeminent researcher, teacher, author, editor, and lecturer in the field of music education. Since 1997 he has been Distinguished Professor in Residence at the University of South Carolina, follo wing his retirement as the Carl E. Seashore Professor of Research in Music Education at Temple University in Philadelphia. Learn more: http://giml.org/gordon/ Key Principles of Gordon's Learning Theory: Discrimination Students perform a music task to correspond to the teacher's performed ex ample. aural/oral students learn to hear and to perform tonal patterns sung or rhythm patterns chanted by the teacher with a neutral syllable. verbal association the teacher sings with syllable name tonal patterns or chants with syllable name rhythm patter ns that were made familiar at the aural/oral level. Students reproduce the patterns in an echo response. partial synthesis familiar patterns are grouped into phrases. symbolic association the teacher shows students familiar patterns in rhythmic notation. c omposite synthesis students comprehend the sight of music notation in terms of tonality and meter. Inference Patterns that are unfamiliar to students are incorporated into the learning process. generalization students compare unfamiliar music to music they have learned by rote creativity/improvisation students perform patterns that are different from but related to patterns performed by the teacher. theoretical understanding stud ents consider why music is what it is and the common applications of music theory

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99 Zolt‡n Kod‡ly The experience of preparing the Psalmus hungaricus which includes a boys' choir, led Kod‡ly to concern himself with musical education. He was instrumental in developing a school music curriculum that emphasized sight singing. Kod‡ly realized that most young people lack ed any understanding of music. He called it a state "worse than illiteracy." As he spent more and more time on the emotional and aesthetic education of school children, Kod‡ly developed a method of teaching students. "Teach music and singing at school in such a way that it is not a torture but a joy for the pupil," Kod‡ly said. "Instill a thirst for finer music in him, a thirst which will last for a lifetime." "The Kod‡ly Method," this is a term Kod‡ly himself rejected because he and his followers incorpo rated the ideas of numerous forerunners. From England came the "Curwen hand signs," to lend a visual and physical sense to the relationship between notes. Kodaly also incorporated the movement concepts of Emile Jaques Dalcroze. Condensed Biography Zolt‡n Kod‡ly was born in Hungary in 1882. The son of a railway official and enthusiastic amateur musician, Kod‡ly began to compose in his boyhood and would later become a noted composer. In 1900 he went to Budapest to study modern languages at the university and composition, with Hans Koessler at the Academy of Music. He too k interest in Hungarian folk music, and from that time he began to collaborate with his friend Bart—k both in collecting folksong and in pressing for a new vitality in Hungarian musical life. Kodaly was one of the first ethnomusicologists to record music (Hungarian Folk songs) on a primitive recording device. He was also influenced by Claude Debussy. Learn more: https://oake.org.org/default.aspx Key Principles of Kodaly pedagogy: Any methodology is deri ved from a thorough understanding of the concept. The use of musical tools and activities strengthens and enhances the learner's ability to grasp the concept. Hand signs, Flash cards, Echos, Body signs, symbols, musical ladders, and stick notation are comm on tools. Methodology must be developed to suit the age of the child:

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100 Carl Orff Or ff Schulwerk is a dynamic approach to teach and learn music. It is based on things children like to do: sing, chant rhymes, clap, dance, and keep a beat on anything near at hand. These instincts are directed into learning music by hearing and making music first, then reading and writing it later. This is the same way we all learned our language. Orff Schulwerk is designed for all children, not just the privileged, talented, or selected few. There is a place for every child and each contributes according to his/her ability. Orff Schulwerk happens in a non competitive atmosphere where one of the rewards is the pleasure of making good music with others. When the children want to write down what they have composed, reading and writing find their moment. Orff Sc hulwerk uses poems, rhymes, games, songs, and dances as examples and basic materials. These may be traditional or original. Spoken or sung, they may be accompanied by clapping and stamping or by drums, sticks, and bells. The special Orff melody instrument s include wooden xylophones and metal glockenspiels that offer good sound immediately. Played together as in a small orchestra, their use helps children become sensitive listeners and considerate participants. With Orff Schulwerk, improvisation and compos ition start students on a lifetime of knowledge and pleasure through personal musical experience. Learning is meaningful only if it brings satisfaction to the learner, and satisfaction arises from the ability to use acquired knowledge for the purpose of cr eating. For both teacher and student, Orff Schulwerk is a theme with endless variation. Condensed Biography Born in 1895 Carl Orff was learning to play piano, organ and cello by age five, encouraged and taught by his mother within the context of a music loving family. Carl Orff became interested in the dance movement of the period, first meeting Mary Wigman and Dorthy Gunther. Both of whom had studied Dalcroze and found it incomplete to their desires Dorthy Gunther and Orff would have the opportunity to open the Guntherschule that would promote their ideas of both music and dance education. The teaching materials first developed in the Guntherschule would later become the first seeds of the Schulwe rk. Learn more: http://www.aosa.org/ Key Principles of Orff Schulwerk pedagogy: S tudents learns at the appropriate developmental level. Student use familiar activities such as chants, poems, rhymes, and movements. Specialized instruments are used for accompaniment and melodic instructio n. Active music making begins before notation. Movement is used to develop student musicianship.

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101 Shinichi Suzuki The Suzuki strings philosophy was invented in the mid 20th century by Shinichi Suzuki. Suzuki was a violinist who desired to bring some beauty to the lives of children in his country after the devastation of World War II. From his perspective as an adult beginner at violin and the Ge rman language who struggled to assimilate both, Suzuki noticed that all children pick up their native language very quickly, and even dialects which adults consider "difficult" to learn are spoken with ease by people of 5 or 6 years. He reasoned that if ch ildren have the skill to acquire their mother tongue, then they have the necessary ability to become proficient on a musical instrument. He pioneered the idea that any pre school age child could begin to play the violin if learning steps were small enough and if the instrument was scaled down to fit their body Like Carl Orff, Suzuki believed in following the developmental level of the child within a sequential pattern of learning. Condensed Biography Born in Japan in 1898, and one of twelve children, Shinichi spent his childhood working at his father's violin factory. A family friend encouraged Shinichi to study Western cu lture but his father felt that it was beneath Suzuki to be a performer. He began to teach himself how to play the violin in 1916,after being inspired by recordings. Without access to professional instruction, he listened to recordings and tried to imitat e what he heard. At the age of 26, Suzuki traveled to Germany where he studied under Karl Klingler Suzuki never attained any formal education past his high school diploma. In Germany, he also met and married his wife, Waltraud Prange. Upon his return to Japan, he began teaching at the Imperial School of Mu sic and at the Kunitachi Music School in Tokyo. Extremely poor, he gave lessons to orphaned children in the outer cities of where he lived. He adopted one of his students, and started to develop teaching strategies and philosophies. He then combined his n ew practical teaching applications with traditional Asian philosophy. Learn more: http://suzukiassociation.org/teachers/suzuki/ Key Principles of Suzuki Padagogy: String instrument program only. Use of smaller designed instruments to fit developmental level of studetnts. Traditional Asian philosophy embedded in pedagogy.

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102 LIST OF REFERENCES 2012 American Orff Schulwerk Association Music and Movement Education. (2012). American Orff Schulwerk Association Home Page Retrieved 10 15, 2012, from American Orff Schulwerk Association Home Page : http://www.aosa.org/ Amidon, P. /. (2 010). Chimes of Dunkirk: Great Dances for Children Book/CD Combo. Boston: New England Dance Masters. Amidon, P. /. (1991). Jump Jim Joe: Great Singing Games for Children Book/CD Combo. Boston: New England Dance Masters. Amidon, P. /. (1997). Listen to th e Mockingbird Boston: New England Dance Masters. Amidon, P. /. (2010). Sashy the Donut. Boston: New England Dance Masters. Brophy, T. S. (2000). Assessing the Developing Child Musician. Chicago, IL, U.S.: GIA Publications. Calvin Campbell, K. (1998). Supporting the Development of the Whole Child through Orff Schulwerk, Montessori and Multiple Intelligences. N/A. Carl Orff, G. K. (1957). Music for Children. Volume I Pentatonic (Vol. I). (M. Murray, Ed.) New York: Schott. Carnegie Mellon Dalcroze Tr aining Center. (2012). Carnegie Mellon Dalcroze Training Center Homepage Retrieved 10 29, 2012, from Carnegie Mellon Dalcroze Training Center: http://music.cfa.cmu.edu/dalcroze/ Central Florida Orff. (2012). Central Florida Orff Teacher Education Retrie ved 10 29, 2012, from Central Florida Orff Web site: http://www.centralfloridaorff.org/category/summers/ Dalcroze Society of America. (2012). Dalcroze Society of America Workshops and Classes Retrieved 11 28, 2012, from Dalcroze Society of America : htt p://www.dalcrozeusa.org/workshops and classes/adult summer Daniel, K. (1979). Kodaly Approach (Teacher Edition for Wookbook 1,2,3). NA: Hal Leonard / Mark Foster Music. deFrece, R. (2002). A Conceptual Rhapsody. American Orff Schulwerk Assiciation Nation al Conference. 30MS p. Conference Video. Las Vegas: American Orff Schulwerk Association Florida Department of Education. (2012). CPALMS Standards page Retrieved 9 28, 2012, from CPALMS Florida's Platform for Educators to Collaborate Align Learn Mo tivate Share: http://www.cpalms.org/Standards/FLStandardSearch.aspx Frazee, J. (1998). Discovering Keetman. New York: Schott

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103 Frazee, J. (1987). Discovering Orff. New York, New York, U.S.: Schott. Goodkin, D. (2001). Orff Schulwerk in the New Millenniu m. Music Educators Journal 88 (III), 17 23. Goodkin, D. (2002). Play, Sing, Dance, An Introduction to Orff Schulwerk. New York: Schott. Gordon Institute for Music Learning. (2012). Gordon Institute for Music Learning Homepage Retrieved 10 29, 2012, fr om Gordon Institute for Music Learning: http://giml.org/ Heart of Florida Orff Chapter (2009, 6 25). Heart of Florida Facebook Page (M. R. Evans, Editor) Retrieved 9 15, 2012, from Heart of Florida Facebook Page : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Heart o f Florida Orff Chapter/95638078285 James Madison University, School of Music. (2012). Why James Madison University Kod‡ly? Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from James Madison University, School of Music : http://www.jmu.edu/music/kodaly/why%20jmu.htm Keetman, G. ( 1974). Elementaria. New York: Schott. Longy School of Music of Bard College. (2012). Longy School of Music of Bard College Homepage Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from Longy School of Music of Bard College Web site: http://www.longy.edu/ Marzano, J. L. (2009). A Handbook for the Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, VA, U.S.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. McGraw Hill. (2003). Share the Music. New York: McGraw Hill. National Association for Music Education. (2012). National Associati on for Music Education National Standards Retrieved 9 18, 2012, from National Association for Music Education Website: http://musiced.nafme.org/resources/national standards for music education/ Organization of American Kod‡ly Educators. (2012). Organizat ion of American Kod‡ly Educators Endorsed Teacher Edcuation Programs Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from Organization of American Kod‡ly Educators Homepage: http://oake.org/EndorsedPrograms/Default.aspx#Capital_University_ _The_Kodaly_Institute P.K. Yonge Develo pmental Research School. (2012). About P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School Retrieved 6 18, 2012, from P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School : http://pkyonge.ufl.edu/modules/cms/pages.phtml?pageid=163972&sessionid=1b381d27ef34296f 8e651e9ca4ca5457& sessionid=1b381d27ef34296f8e651e9ca4ca5457 P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School College of Education, University of Florida. (2010). P.K. Yonge Parent Handbook. Gainesville, Florida, U.S.: P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School College of Education, University of Florida.

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104 Potomac Arts Academy George Mason University (2012). George Mason University's Potomac Arts Academy Homepage Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from George Mason University's Potomac Arts Academy Web site: http://potomacacademy.gmu.edu/ Ro berts, M. (2012). Elementry Music Self Assessment Tool. Marzano Based Elementry Music Self Assessment Poster Tampa, FL, U.S.: Self Published San Francisco Orff (2012). San Francisco Orff Course Homepage Retrieved 10 29, 2012, from San Francisco Orf f Course: http://www.sforff.org/ Solomon, J. (1998). D.R.U.M.: Discipline, Respect, and Unity Through Music. New York: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc. Solomon, J. (1997). Monkey Business. (M. D. Bennett, Ed.) Memphis: Memphis Musicraft Publications. Team, P Y. (2010). P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School School Improvement Plan Southern Association of Colleges and Schools P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School / Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Gainesville: P.K. Yonge Developmental Res earch School / Southern Association of Colleges and Schools The Trustees of Indiana University. (2012). Jacobs School of Music Kod‡ly Summer Institute Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from Indiana University Jacobs School of Music Web site : http://music.indiana .edu/precollege/adult/kod%C3%A1ly/index.shtml University of Nevada Las Vegas. (2012). University of Nevada Las Vegas Orff Schulwerk Levels Certification/ Teacher Education Program Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from University of Nevada Las Vegas Orff Schulwerk Levels Certification/ Teacher Education Program: http://unlvorff.com/unlvorff/Welcome.html University of Rochester. (2012). Summers At Eastman Orff Schulwerk Teacher Education Course Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from Eastman School of Music Website : http://ww w.esm.rochester.edu/summer/orff/ University of St. Thomas. (2012). Graduate Programs in Music Education, University of St. Thomas in St. Paul MN Retrieved 11 29, 2012, from University of St. Thomas College of Arts & Sciences | Music Web site : http://www .stthomas.edu/music/graduate/ Zentz, L. (2010). Heart Chart Rhythms You Can Count On. Heart Chart Rhythms You Can Count On Jacksonville, FL, U.S.: Z & Z Publications

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105 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael Roberts is currently in residence at P.K. Yonge Develo pment al Research School within the Department of Education at the University of Florida. He teaches music and movement to children between five years old to fifth grade, elementary pedagogy to university undergraduate students and professional development in service to practicing education professionals. He regularly leads workshops for Orff Chapters throughout the U.S. and presents in service sessions for practicing educational professionals at State, National and International Conferences. Michael serv ed as Financial Assistance Chair for the American Orff Schulwerk Association National Board of Trustees, which created an International Scholarship to study at the Orff Institute under his leadership. Michael is a National Board Certified Teacher in early childhood music education and is Master level certified in Orff Schulwerk education.