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FOSTERING AN APP-LICABLE WEB OF EXCHANGE: PLANNING AN IPHONE APPLICATION FOR THE SAMUEL P. HARN MUSEUM OF ART By HANNAH SOH SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: Glenn Willumson, CHAIR Brian Slawson, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Hannah Soh
3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank a number of people for their generous support throughout my time in the Museum Studies graduate program at the University of Florida. First, I would like to thank my supervisory committee members, Dr. Glenn Willumson and Brian Slawson for their invaluable advice and guidance during the thesis process. Additionally, I would like to express my gratitude to Allysa Peyton and Jason Steuber at the Harn Museum of Art for allowing me to work on this project and for taking the time to meet with me over the last number of months. I am grateful to my supervisor, Laura Robertson, for giving me such a wonderful place to work for my graduate assistantship. My Museum Studies classmates Austin Bell, Natalia da Silva, Vivian Gornik, Renee Kiefer, and Amanda Kimble deserve special thanks for their unwavering support, inspiration, and friendship. I am very lucky to have met my roommate, Kristen Davis. The past two and a half years in Gainesville would not have been the same without her. I am extremely grateful to my boyfriend, Willie Tippie, for his continuous encouragement throughout graduate school. I cannot thank him enough for spending countless numbers of hours listening to me talk about my thesis project, as well as reading, discussing, and editing this document. Last, but not least, I would like to thank my family and friends back at home.
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ 3 ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 7 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................. 10 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 10 History of Mobile Devices in Museums ........................................................................... 11 The Potential of Smartphones and Smartphone Applications .......................................... 12 Unique Nature of Smartphone Devices ............................................................................ 14 Criticisms of Mobile Technology and Mobile Learning in Museums .............................. 16 Changing the Museum-Visitor Relationship .................................................................... 18 Constructing Meaning through Smartphones ................................................................... 21 Conclusion: Helping Museums to Achieve Their Mission ............................................... 26 3 PLANNING THE IPHONE APPLICATION PROPOSAL ............................................. 28 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 28 Background ....................................................................................................................... 28 Planning ............................................................................................................................ 31 Proposal ............................................................................................................................. 32 Medium ............................................................................................................................. 33 Type of Application .......................................................................................................... 34 Target Audience ................................................................................................................ 36 Design ............................................................................................................................... 37 Conventions and Innovations ............................................................................................ 38 Concepts ............................................................................................................................ 39 Goals of the Application ................................................................................................... 41 4 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................. 42 APPENDIX A IPHONE APPLICATION PROPOSAL FOR CERAMICS: AVENUES OF EXCHANGE ...................................................................................................................... 44 B CERAMICS: AVENUES OF EXCHANGE BROCHURE ............................................... 10 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 10 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................................................................................................... 10
5 Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts FOSTERING AN APP LICABLE WEB OF EXCHANGE: PLANNING AN IPHONE APPLICATION FOR THE SAMUEL P. HARN MUSEUM OF ART By Hannah Soh December 2012 Chair: Glenn Willumson Major: Museology Over the last several years, museums have increasingly experimented with the capabilities of smartphone devices as a means to deliver new experiences and interactions to their visitors. Modern mobile technology has shifted the way people access information, consume content, perpetuate relationships, join communities, and engage in conversations. The impact that these handheld digital tec hnologies have on everyday lives fuels the expectations that museum visitors have for immediate, accessible, and personally relevant experiences. Smartphone applications offer a variety of functions that cater to different needs, interests, and learning st yles of visitors both within and beyond the physical boundaries of the museum. By exploring the possibilities of these mobile devices, museum professionals demonstrate an understanding of their visitors and how new technologies can help them to achieve str ategic goals. Through my thesis project, I wanted to gain a deeper understanding of the role that smartphone technology, communication, and learning can play in museums, and to turn that knowledge into practice. The process involved an examination of curr ent literature, which provides a museological context for mobile devices and supports their potential for enhancing
6 the museum visitor experience. The research informed my decisions when creating an iPhone application proposal for the Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange exhibition at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. As a learning tool to accompany the exhibition, the application aims to foster deeper engagement with the collection and emphasize the concept of a web of artistic and cultural exchanges. The proposa l also contains mockup screenshots of the iPhone application and suggestions for moving forward with the mobile project. Serving as an introduction to the use of smartphones in the museum environment, the research and practical considerations included in t his thesis project will provide museum professionals with the preparatory tools for integrating mobile technology in the museum, as well as encourage them to rethink the museum's relationship with its many active audiences.
7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In a June 2012 report published by mobile device manufacturer Ericsson, by the end of 2011 there were over 6 billion mobile subscriptions worldwide. From that total, approximately 700 million were smartphone subscriptions a number that is exp ected to rise exponentially over the next several years. 1 These advanced portable devices have already made an impact on the global population, shifting the way people access information, consume content, perpetuate relationships, join communities, and eng age in conversations. They have formed into an essential part of daily life, allowing users to stay connected to the world whenever and wherever they want As a result, a new breed of on the go digital learners has emerged, fueling the expectations for ins tantly accessible and personally relevant information and experiences. The recent explosion of smartphones has given new meanings to mobile technology and mobile learning for museums. With the wide variety of services and functions available through thes e platforms, museums are capitalizing on the utility of mobile applications or software programs that run tasks on a mobile device, to deliver creative and exciting new experiences for audiences both within and beyond the physical boundaries of the museum. Recent examples of museum applications allow access to interpretive content, digitized collections, and multimedia resources, as well as opportunities that promote interaction, participation, and socialization. Through mobile applications, museums can hav e a profound influence on their visitors due to the platform's ability to cater to different needs, interests, and learning styles. As the number of people embrac ing new technologies continues to grow, the possibilities of museums extending outreach to new and existing audiences will only expand. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Ericsson, Traffic and Market Report: On the Pulse of the Networked Society June 2012, http://www.ericsson.com/ res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_report_june_2012.pdf. The report makes a distinction between subscriptions and subscribers: the total n umber of subscriptions is larger than the total number of subscribers, which is "due to the fact that many subscribers have several subscriptions."
8 While many museum professionals have felt inspired to experiment with the capabilities of smartphones, there are still a large number of museums that have yet to embrace them. Among the barriers preventing museums from implementing a smartphone application as part of the visitor experience is a general lack of knowledge about the technology. 2 As museum professionals become more adept at utilizing the platform, they increasingly publish their experiences and practic es or make them publically available online providing useful perspectives and resources for all institutions at any stage of the mobile process. The purpose of my thesis project was to use the existing research to gain a deeper understanding of the role that smartphone technology, communication, and learning can play in museums, and to turn that knowledge into practice. I created a proposal that supports the mobile initiative of an iPhone application for the Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange exhibition curren tly on view at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art on the University of Florida campus. The proposed iPhone application use s the platform as an educational tool to creatively deliver the message of the exhibition. The following chapters describe the thesis p roject at each stage of the process from the research to planning to decision making all leading up to the proposal attached in the appendix of this paper. Chapter 2 surveys the current literature on the topic of mobile technology and mobile learning in museums, with an emphasis on smartphone devices. The chapter highlights the ongoing debate surrounding museum handheld technology and focuses largely on the advantages of smartphones for museums. The history of mobile devices in museums, the innovation of the smartphone, and the theory behind mobile learning are used to justify this digital platform as a valuable tool for both museums and their visitors. Chapter 3 explains the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 American Alliance of Museums, Mobile in Museums Study 2012 https://aam us.org/docs/research/mobile muse ums2012 (aam).pdf.
9 entire development process of my iPhone application proposal for Ceramics: Avenue s of Exchange This includes detailing the context of the project, the meetings involved, and the choices made, such as the selection of the platform, application, design, and target audience. Chapter 4 offer s reflections on the entire thesis project. The proposal document in the appendix was presented to the Harn Museum of Art on November 15, 2012 It contains mockup screenshots of the iPhone application, suggestions for moving forward, and reasons why the tec hnology advances the mission and goals of the museum and the University of Florida. For museum professionals hesitant about or interested in the integration of smartphone devices into the museum environment, this thesis project serves as an introduction. T he research and practical considerations included in this paper will provide the preparatory tools and knowledge for taking the leap into the world of museum smartphone technology. At the very least, this paper strives to encourage museum professionals to rethink the museum's relationship with its many technologically active audiences, all in the enduring pursuit of enriching the museum visitor experience.
10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The diverse and increasing capabilities of smartphones expand the ways in which museums can enhance and extend the visitor experience. As a mobile technological device, however, it faces criticism from museum professionals who are opposed to its use. Servi ng as a review of current literature on the topic of new technology and mobile learning in museums, this chapter seeks to explore the digital divide within a museological context by first addressing the definition and functions of smartphones, confronting the arguments against them, and then focusing on an understanding of these devices and the advantages they bring to museums and their visitors. Through an examination of publications, conference papers, relevant websites, and recent studies, I use the work of museum experts to justify the use of smartphones in museums. This information provides the foundation for my thesis project and inform s the decisions that I made during the process. It is important to remember that the concept of handheld devices, use d as interpretive tools or guides, is not new to the museum scene. Ross Parry points out that as long as museum or galler y spaces have existed, there have been printed or "mobile" exhibition and educational materials offered to visitors to supplement their visit. Museums have interpreted the meanings of their collections and exhibitions through books, brochures, catalogs and guides that visitors can carry around the museum or take home with them. 3 The traditional practices of writing for these portable print mediums are still perhaps the only "mobile devices" distributed at a number of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 Ross Parry, "Afterword: The Future in Our Hands? Putting Potential into Practice," in Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008), 180.
11 museums today. In an age where digital culture, "intelligent" mobile technologies, 4 and ubiquitous access to the I nternet are on the rise, smartphones present museums with a gateway to addressing areas of concern such as increasing access to collections, contextualizing objects, engaging audiences, and extending outreach. For museums that offer no form of mobile digit al media, it is worth exploring the possibilities of smartphone technology as a way to help them achieve institutional goals. History of Mobile Devices in Museums The first handheld technological device to be introduced to the museum setting was the audi o guide In 1952, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam pioneered a museum audio tour using a radio broadcast system that transmitted a tape recording into portable radio receivers. This system allowed visitors with headsets to listen to the same content simul taneously while moving through the galleries in masses. International recognition and excitement for the new development was felt throughout the museum world. It inspired many museum professionals to experiment with similar systems and reconceive how they deliver traditional text based content through an electronic device. 5 In emphasizing the substantial impact that the Stedelijk Museum invention had on museums, Loc Tallon, a specialist in the field of museum mobile experiences, observes that "until the In ternet, handheld technologies and specifically audio guides were the only visitor technology to have been universally adopted by museums." 6 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Ibid., 181. 5 Loc Tallon, "About that 1952 Sedelijk Museum audio guide, and a certain Willem Sandburg," Musematic (blog), May 19, 2009, http://musematic.net/2009/05/19/about that 1952 sedelijk museum audio guide and a certain willem sandburg/. 6 Loc Tallon, "Introduction: Mobile, Digital, and Personal," i n Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker ( Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008 ), xiv.
12 As handheld technology advanced over the last sixty years, 7 it has proven to be both a "pervasive and permanent" pr esence in museums. 8 The technologies progressed from analog to digital, audio narration to multimedia, and portable tape recorder to mobile communication device. Additionally, the delivery mode of information transformed from broadcast to interactive and c ommunicative. Various forms of media, including text, image, audio, and video, were added over time to provide alternative didactic aids for experiencing an exhibition in ways that traditional wall text could not. With the opportunities that each new mediu m afforded, museums found new ways of connecting with visitors, as well as demonstrat ing an unwavering effort to increas e access, engag e new audiences, and enhanc e visitor experience. The fact that museums have continually turned to mobile devices indicates the success of the medium in deliver ing new experiences and interactions. 9 The Potential of Smartphones and Smartphone Applications As the next generation of mobile communication device s, smartphone s possess exciting and expand ing possibilities for their users Broadly defined a smartphone is an advanced mobile phone. It is built on a mobile operating system (mobile OS) that allows it to run different applications (apps). Smartphones combine a personal computer operating system with a versatile range of features such as a touchscreen interface, high resolution displays, Wi Fi, camera and video camera, music player, GPS navigation, motion sensor, text messaging, and last but not least, a cellphone. The leading smartphone platforms are Google's An droid, Apple's iPhone, and RIM's BlackBerry. These devices come pre installed with apps and allow users to download !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7 For a detailed survey of m useum audio guides over the last sixty years, see Tallon's introductory chapter to Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media 8 Selma Thomas, introduction to The Digital Museum: A Think Guide ed. Herminia Din and Phyl lis Hecht (Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007), 6. 9 Tallon, "Introduction," xvii.
13 additional ones from application distribution platforms, either for free or at a small charge, and they are made accessible as icons on the phones home screen. There are many different types of apps available which serve a variety of functions, from news and travel, to games and social networking, to education and entertainment.10 There is a growing interest in the museum world to develop museum-specific smartphone apps. Compared to traditional audio tours and mobile technologies of the past, smartphones have expanded not just in terms of functions, but also in terms of the amount of multimedia content that can be delivered to visitors, and where and when it can be accessed. In his discussion about the potential of mobile digital media, Parry recognizes that there are times when the handheld ceases to be just a guide and when it aspires instead to be something else. And it is here that museums are presented with not just a different medium but also an entirely different concept.11 This is certainly true for smartphone devices. For instance, they allow for two -way communication between the museum and the visitor through multiple messaging and social networking portals; they serve as a catalyst for seeking out more information about a museums collections easily and immediately; and they function as a recording device, capturing ideas and memories made in a museum through picture and text. Before turning to this technology as a solution, however, museums must make critical decisions as to which platform to use, which functions to utilize, what type of app to develop, and most importantly, what content and type of experience the museum wants to deliver to its audiences. By capitalizing on the innovation and utility of smartphones, museums have the opportunity to experiment with systems that can lead to rewarding experiences for their visitors 10 Sue Smith, What is a Smartphone App?, eH ow, accessed September 23, 2012, http://www.ehow.com/info_8656 0 54_smartphoneapp.html. 11 Parry, Afterword, 181.
14 Unique Nature of Smartphone Devices Ther e are 4 defining qualities of a smartphone that make it a unique and important platform for museums to recognize. This device is multifunctional, Internet accessible, portable, and personal. As characteristics that converge in a single smartphone device, museums are presented with an unprecedented and powerful tool for staying connected with their visitors keeping them engaged and empowering visitor experiences The multitude of features and functions available on smartphones, in addition to the vast amounts of information and multimedia content they hold, attract mu seums to this platform because it allows them to seek out new opportunities to contextualize objects and address the interests of multiple audiences. M useums can utilize features in their apps like location based services, camera, gaming technology, augmen ted reality, and Quick Response Codes (QR Codes). The multiple forms of engagement through smartphones helps visitors to have "more extensive learning experiences, demonstrate a deeper level of understanding and critical thinking, make more connections to their own history and background, and engage in greater personal learning." 12 Smartphones typically have access to high speed data networks that allow the use of web resources virtually anywhere Additionally, the emerging number of free Wi Fi hotspots surfacing in public places provides people with more opportunities to access the Internet 13 With the total number of smartphone subscriptions expected to reach 3 billion worldwide by 2017, 14 and with ownership of the device already popular among over half of the mobile consumers in !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12 Silvia Filippini Fantoni and Jonathan P. Bowen, "Mobile Multimedia: Reflection s from Ten Years of Practice," i n Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008 ), 82. 13 "Wifi Hotspots Set to More Than Triple By 2015," Informa last modified November 11, 2011, http://www. informa.com/Media centre/Press releases -news/ Latest News/Wifi hotspots set to more than triple b y 2015/. According to market research company Informa, the number of public Wi Fi hotspots worldwide is estimated to grow from 1.3 million in 2011, to 5.8 million by 2015 14 Ericsson, Traffic and Market Report 9
15 the United States 15 t he permeating presence of web enabled smartphone technology is widening the number of people that can access museum content Correspondingly, it also ex pands the influential role that museums could have on a global audience As wireless coverage continues to reach more geographic locations, on demand access to museum content and experiences will grow from visitors worldwide. In response to the proliferati on of wireless networks and Internet connected phones m useums have begun to obtain their own Wi Fi coverage for on site visitors in order to provide access to in gallery experiences. Also essential to the essence of smartphones is their portability A ccording to Google's Our Mobile Planet report, 80 percent of surveyors in the U.S. that own a smartphone responded that they do n ot leave the house without it, 16 allowing the resources and functions of the mobile device to be readily available for its users Smartphones are becoming an "everyday technology" in the 21 st century where visitors can engage with museums wherever they go. 17 As Wayne LaBar observes, these mobile devices have revolutionized the impact that museums could have on people "while on their way to work, in school, at the park, or in countless other places." 18 Having a web presence has already demonstrated that the museum visit can extend throughout the entire visitor experience, including before, during, and after. However, these experiences are no longer limited to a stationed desktop computer at home. Through smartphones, m useums have the opportunity to instill "museum moments in their audiences and impart "largely inaccessible everyday knowledge" in everyday life. 19 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15 "Young Adults and Teens Lead Growth Amo ng Smartphone Owners," NielsonWire (blog), September 10, 2012, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/young adults and teens lead growth among smartphone owners/. 16 Google, Our Mobile Planet: United States: Understanding the Mobile Consumer May 2012, http://services. google.com/fh/files/blogs/our_mobile_planet_us_en.pdf. 17 Konstantinos Arvanitis, "Museums Outside Walls: Mobile Phones and the Museum in the Everyday," in Museums in a Digital Age ed. Ross Parry (New York: Routledge, 2010), 172. 18 Wayne LaBar, "The Gyroscopic Museum," in Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 388. 19 Arvanitis, "Museums Outside Walls, 172.
16 Since smartphones are an individual's own personal device, combined with their handheld size, they have an intimate relationship with the user. According to James M. Bradburne, we learn through "self initiated, self directed, self sustaining engagement," 20 which smartphones encourage through their personal nature. Each individual has both choice and control over how he or she decides to personalize and customize his or her museum visit, leaving the potential for these mobile devices to deliver personally rew arding experiences. Criticisms of Mobile Technology and Mobile Learning in Museums While s martphones possess the promising potential to help museums achieve their goals as a mobile technological device, there are strong feelings against its use among m any in the traditional museum community. The museum professionals that criticize mobile devices believe that exclusively serving the needs of contemporary society should not be the museum's sole responsibility. Being driven by the ephemeral trends of a dig itally active society and integrating smartphone technology into the museum environment is therefore considered antithetical to the "grand mission" of the museum, which involves a commitment to perpetuating intellectual progress and cultural development. 21 However, m useums are moving away from existing as places that are strictly tied to the "grand mission" and as institutions that disseminate education through a one way delivery mode. They are opening up as spaces that support dialogue and reflection through interactivity, customization, and multiple narrative pathways, which can be facilitated by mobile digital technologies. 22 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 20 James M. Bradburne foreword to Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008), xi. 21 James E. Katz Lora Appel, an d Ellen Lynch, c onclusion to Creativity and Techno logy: Socia l Media, Mobiles and Museums e d. James E. Katz Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 405, 423. 22 Ibid. 407.
17 The argument against handheld digital devices is further strengthened when museum experts such as Nancy Proctor, the lead mobil e strategist for the Smithsonian Institution, admit s that mobile technologies of the past decade including audio guides, have failed to live up to their high expectations. The "take up" rate at which people actually use on site audio tours for permanent c ollections remains below 10 percent. It is for this reason that Proctor calls audio guides "a nice to have rather than a have to have technology. 23 As the newest wave of handheld digital devices that contain aspects of the audio guide, there is the fear th at smartphones could possess the possibility of following in the footsteps of their predecessors. Nevertheless, Proctor has hope for the new platform's exciting potential to deliver content, reach broad audiences, and en rich the museum visitor experience. 24 W hen mobile devices are utilized in the museum context they are accused of encouraging antisocial behavior. Since museum visits are often considered social occasions where human to human interaction and conversation occurs, handheld technology is believed to lead to solo experiences that are isolated and devoid of contact. Mobile devices are also attacked when they involve headphones, leaving little or no room to socialize with the group that visitors come to the museum with. 25 In order to find a so lution to this problem, m useums are discoveri ng creative ways to approach smartphone apps to enhance the social experience. For instance, apps designed in a game like manner or include some form of social component could stimulate participation and discuss ion among group members. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23 Nancy Proctor, "From Headphones to Microphones: Mobile Social Media in the Museum as Distributed Network in Creati vity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 23 24 Ibid., 23. 25 Bjarki Valtysson, Nanna Holdgaard, and Rich Ling, "The iPhone and Its Use in Museums," in Creativit y and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 111.
18 Drawing further attention to the handheld nature of smartphones, the small size of their screens is criticized for distracting on site visitors from looking at the objects and encouraging them instead to pay attention to the techn ology. 26 Also known as the "lure of the screen," 27 there is the fear that mobile technology prevents visitors from forming a deeper appreciation for the aesthetics and cultural significance of the objects on display. When visitors come to the museum and focu s on screen based devices, real objects are remediated through a digital interface, negating the raison d'tre of museums as institutions that collect and display real artifacts. I n his chapter in Mobile Apps for Museums: The AAM Guide to Planning and Stra tegy Ed Rodley argues instead that using smartphones in the museum context can deliver two kinds of experiences. He explains that "looking down" experiences are introspective and draw attention to the screen, while "looking around" experiences directs attention out in front of the visitor. A seamless transition between both elements, along with good content and design, can help visitors deepen engagement with the exhibition. 28 In the ongoing debate surrounding mobile technology, a divergence in opinion of digital handhelds in the museum is likely to persist. Yet, in spite of the negative aspects just addressed, smartphone s can help advance the mission of the museum, promote personal, social and educational experiences, and support learning in various ways Changing the Museum Visitor Relationship As cultural and civic institutions that serve the public, by respond ing to societal trends, museums strengthen their connection with visitors and fulfill their social responsibilities. This !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 26 Tallon, "Introduction ," xx xxi. 27 Filippini Fanton i and Bowen, "Mobile Multimedia," 89. 28 Ed Rodley "Looking Around vs. Looking Down: Incorporating Mobility into Your Experience Design," in Mobile Apps for Museums: The AAM Guide to Planning and Strategy ed. Nancy Proctor (Washington D.C.: The AAM Press, 2011), 35 36.
19 social role includes being compelled to keep pace with a dynamically changing public and its heightened enthusiasm for smartphones. With the new classes of advanced mobile phones increasingly infiltrating our technologically active society, museums must reassess how mobility is shifting the ways their visitors learn and interact There are two innovations that contributed to this change: th e Internet and social media. Since the early 1990s, the Internet provided a portal for museum access through a visual digital interface. 29 Fundamentally, the Internet shifted the informational and educational needs of contemporary society and allows us to communicate rather effortlessly across the globe. 30 More importantly, the web opened a "digital door" to the museum for a "new breed of remote visitors," 31 which enabled museums to reach visitors from a distance. The introduction of the smartphone transform ed the notion of mobile learning. Museums can connect to an even newer breed of on the go audiences that "cram learning into the gaps of daily life" 32 and navigate museum web resources whenever they want The mobile Internet unlocked a digital world full o f immediately accessible social networks, dialogues, communities, and collaborations. 33 The recent explosion of social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr have blurred the line between personal and social worlds, allowing individua ls to publicize their personal and social experiences to a global audience. 34 Web enabled portable devices like the smartphone encourage instant !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 29 William B. Crow and Herminia Din Unbound By Place or Time : Museums and Online Learning (Washington D.C.,: The AAM Press, 2009), 1. 30 Deborah Seid Howes, "Why the Internet Matters: A Museum Educator's Perspective," in The Digital Museum: A Think Guide ed. Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht (Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007), 77. 31 Antonio M. Battro, "From Malraux's Imaginary Museum to the Virtual Museum," in Museums in a Digital Age ed. Ross Parry (New York: Routledge, 2010), 145. 32 Rudman et al., "Cross Context Learning," i n Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker ( Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008 ), 147. 33 Parry, "Afterword," 184. 34 Isabel Fres and Kevin Walker, "The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums," in Conversations with Visitors: Social Media and Museums (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2012), 1 21.
20 communication through social media apps that are on th e device's home screen. For most Americans that own a smar tphone social networking has become a frequent form of communication 35 These users can share their experiences or read about someone else's experiences wherever they go. Taking this information into account, museums are presented with multiple outlets for fortifying relationships, perpetuating conversations, extending learning, and remaining interconnected with mobile audiences. Through social networks, museums are also able to foster open discussion, engagement, collaboration, and content creation and alt eration w ith their visitors wherever they may be Together, the Internet and social media are challenging the traditional flow of information from museums to their visitors. Through these communication channels, m useums are increasingly e ngaging in dialogue with their visitors and breaking down the hierarchical barriers between creators and receivers of knowledge to allow for multiple voices to take place in the museum. T he ir present role involves being responsive and relevant to the publi c they serve. 36 Museums can assume the responsibility of agents of social change to their real, virtual, and on the go visitors and communities by adapting to the digital age society. The increasing pressure on museums to stay on trend with technological de velopments rather inspires museums to rethink their roles as both educators and learners within a new contemporary context. As a result of the integration of modern mobile technology, museum audiences increasingly expect experiences that are immediate, sea mless, personal, and relevant. In this networked world, visitors are accustomed to instantly accessing information and communication resources. There is growing pressure on museums to have a web presence, in addition to securing strong and seamless network connectivity for on site visitors; poor or no wireless connection !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 35 Google Our Mobile Planet 36 George F. MacDonald and Stephen Alsford, "The M useum as Information Utility," i n Museums in a Digital Age ed. Ross Parry ( New York: Routledge, 2010 ), 72
21 could result in visitors that are frustrated or cut off from their usual habits and museum experiences. 37 For instance, if a museum has poor wireless connection, visitors that want to downlo ad the museum's mobile app to supplement their on site experience may get turned off from the slow time it takes to download the app or to load additional components within the app that requires the use of the Internet. By d esigning personally relevant mob ile experiences museums ha ve the ability to deepen the impact th ey have on their visitors. S martphones enable museums to meet these visitor expectations and foster ideas that "penetrate more effortlessly into visitors' lives." 38 Constructing Meaning thro ugh Smartphones In the postmodern digital age, the museum functions within a "distributed learning network," a complex space full of experiences, interactions, and knowledge and it encompasses both formal academic institutions and informal learning enviro nments 39 As museum visitors navigate through the network, they actively engage in a "continuous contextually driven effort" to make their own meanings of the world. 40 This follows constructivist educational theory, which recognizes the individual as a learn er within a series of constructs and places the individual at the center of the experience. 41 Through an understanding of how smartphones support the principles of constructivism and how visitors learn through mobile technologies museums can design a !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 37 Proctor, "From Headphones to Microphones," 38 39. 38 Peter Samis, "The Exploded Museum," in Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other M edia ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008), 13. 39 Susana Bautista and Anne Balsamo, "Understanding the Distributed Museum: Mapping the Spaces of Mu seology in Contemporary Culture," (paper, Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6 9, 2011 ), http://www. museumsandtheweb.com/mw2011/papers/understanding_the_distributed_museum_mapping_t 40 John H. Falk and Lynn D. Dierking, "Enhancing Visitor Interaction and Learning with Mobile Technologies," in Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008), 20. 41 Timothy Zimmerman, "Mobile Devices for Promoting Museum Learning," in Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. by James E. Katz Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch ( Edinbur gh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 270 and George E. Hein, "The Constructivist Museum," in The Educational Role of the Museum ed. Eilean Hooper Greenhill, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1999), 73 79.
22 smartphone app that not only enhances the experience for a broader audience, but also delivers a personal and meaningful experience for each individual. Museums are typically considered settings where free choice learning occur s. T he level of choice and co ntrol that an individual can exercise during the visit is an attractive quality about these institutions 42 While at the museum, the visitor encounters a constructed experience in the sense that the museum decides how to present its collections through the physical layout and interpretation of an exhibition Jeffrey K. Smith and Pablo P. L. Tinio recognize that a tension exists between freedom and structure during the museum visit: visitors desire the freedom to learn what they want, but they also desire some form of structure in the way the information is organized by the museum. To help visitors find a comfortable place in this tension, the authors suggest that the museum offers an "optimal amount" and different types of content P roviding variability ar ound the information that is presented can also help museums to reach an array of individuals. 43 A critical component of constructivism is that interpretation is not one size fits all. T he world is filled with "a spectrum of distinct individuals, as well as learning communities, that are tied together in very different ways." 44 Parry further d iscuss es this: After all, visitors enter the museum with their preferred learning styles, in different visiting modes, in different social groups, and from different cul tural backgrounds. They make meaning in different ways, have different types and levels of literacy, and carry different experiences and levels of subject knowledge. They have different expectations for that visitor on that day in that museum, and they hav e different skills and attitudes toward different types of interpretive media. The exhibitions they move within are of differing sizes, temporary and permanent, set within different academic and conceptual frameworks, with different levels of curatorial au thority and narrativity, containing objects of different dimensions and media, designed to convey different messages and offer different learning outcomes, with different opportunities for physical, social, and intellectual engagement. Furthermore, the con texts of all of these functions may vary !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42 Fal k and Dierking, "Enhancing Visitor Interaction," 21. 43 Jeffrey K. Smith and Pablo P. L. Tinio, "Audibly Engaged: Talking the Walk," in Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanha m: AltaMira Press, 2008), 65. 44 Crow and Din, Unbound By Place or Time 11 12.
23 across the size and type of organization, as well as across the different cultures of professional practice across the world.45 Smartphones have the ability to support this range of individual interactions through the devices multiple capabilities and access to multimedia content. While smartphone apps provide a less constructed, and thus a more desirable, experience than in the physical museum space, a level of structure still exists in terms of the types of information available. By layering the interpretation and varying the content, visitors have more opportunities to select and consume information that appeals to their own learning interests and styles. Taking into account the number of different learners, John H. Falk and Lynn D. Dierking have done extensive research to understand how individuals learn within informal or free -choice learning environments. Falk and Dierking provide insight into how museum visitors make meaning through smartphone devices and how a well-designed mobile application can enhance visitor learning. They offer a framework, the Contextual Model of Learning, which pulls from constructivist, cognitive, and sociocultural learning theories. The framework recognizes the museum visitor experience as influenced by 3 contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical. The personal context is the sum total and personal history of an individual, including prior knowledge, experiences, interests, beliefs, motivations, and expectations.46 Sma rtphones enable personalization and customization of content by allowing visitors to select what they view or do not view and to pick individualized pathways for navigating the experience. These devices also allow for scaffolding of information to occur. In a smartphone app, an object label can serve as a base of understanding about an object and visitors can build on their learning interests by tapping on the available buttons that contextualize the object in various ways .47 These buttons 45 Parry, Afterword, 182. 46 Falk and Dierking, Enhancing Visitor Interaction, 21.!47 Katz, Appel, and Lynch, c onclusion, 415.
24 move the users dee per into the app and allows them to further their engagement with the object. Since the personal context involves visitors enter ing the museum with their own personal histories and knowledge, including preconceived notions about the museum, mobile technology can be a way to engage audiences that were previously turned off from the traditional museum and excited by the new ways that it is trying to connect to visitors. There is also the opportunity to "hook in" individuals that are attracted to smart phones and are comfortable with navigating their functions. For this reason, museums tend to cater experiences to younger audiences growing up in the digital age that are more adept at using these devices and therefore more willing to adopt them into the v isitor experience. 48 The sociocultural context involves interactions within the visitor's social group, as well as interactions that occur outside the social group such as with docents, staff, and other visitors. The relationships between the visitor and t he people they come in contact with have a profound influence on how he or she makes meaning. 49 If a smartphone application is designed to provoke conversation, participation, and sharing of thoughts within a group, the device can help facilitate an interac tive experience for these social museum outings. A less discussed, but notable aspect of mobile communication tools and how they fit into the sociocultural context of Falk and Dierking's learning model is the feeling of a "co presence" mediated through tec hnology. In Conversations with Visitors Isabel Fres and Kevin Walker describe this idea: Sharing things daily is part of the success of social networks like Facebook and Twitter. Whenever we do or see something interesting, sharing it is now part of the activity, and this has contributed to a sense of community and of fulfillment in social networks; they work by bringing people together in spite of location or timeThis activity can, in turn, become a memory which is kept and remembered on a mobile device which can serve as a portal back into the museum playground. 50 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 48 Kevin Walker, "Struc turing Visitor Participatio n," i n Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media e d. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker ( Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008 ), 112 114. 49 Falk and Dierking, "Enhancing Visitor Interaction," 21. 50 Fres and Walker, "The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums," 1 12, 1 21 122.
25 Through multiple co mmunication portals accessible o n smartphones, visitors can still come in "contact" with people within and outside their social groups during the museum visit. How they resp ond, react, and interact with each other can still influence how visitors construct meaning in the museum setting. M useums can incorporate social aspects into their mobile app, including social media, which can allow visitors outside the museum to feel par t of the museum community. The app can bring together a community of visitors with like interests and increase interaction, participation and collaboration among the group. 51 As a result, museum experiences delivered through a smartphone has the potential t o be remembered and documented as an enjoyable experience. Falk and Dierking's physical context is the space of the museum environment where meaning making takes place. Factors like architecture, exhibition design, space, lighting, wall color, climate, a nd technology influence the ways that visitors respond to the setting. 52 There are two ways that mobile technology fits into the physical context. A museum smartphone application that utilizes location based services or includes a digital map of the museum impacts how visitors orient themselves within the physical space. This is known as wayfinding. Being able to successfully navigate a three dimensional environment impacts what information the visitor absorbs and how much the visitor learns. 53 The overall de sign layout, functions, navigation, and quality of the smartphone application itself is also part of the physical context. 54 The appearance of the content on a small screen and the usability o f the touchscreen interface influence the experience and how a vi sitor responds to the technology. If the application is planned out with the same effort and thinking required for planning a physical !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 51 Crow and Din, Unbound By Place or Time 11 13. 52 Falk and Dierking, "Enhancing Visitor Interaction," 22. 53 Ibid., 22. 54 Ibid. 27.
26 exhibition, "the design could fit well into the personal and social nature of discovery at the museum and support curiosi ty, engagement, and learning." 55 Smartphones can help visitors to orient themselves within personal, social, and physical contexts, as well as explore new opportunities and make connections to information and other people. Centering on the mobility of this device, the contexts of where and when a user accesses the museum continually changes. For a society that is increasingly adapting mobile learning to their daily lives, Rudman et al. explain that the "key issue [for museum professionals] is to underst and how people artfully create impromptu contexts for learning." The challenging part is creating "temporarily stable sites for learning, providing appropriate technology and services at just the time and place needed to support productive interactions and access to learning sources." 56 Conclusion: Helping Museums to Achieve Their Mission Smartphones are often treated as a tool used to foster engagement with audiences. In fact, many scholars call it a tool, pairing it with adjectives such as unprecedente d, powerful, effective, flexible, interactive, interpretative, and didactic. While they are all accurate characterizations, Angela T. Spinazze argues that mobile technology is more than a tool: "it is an extension of the staff, it serves as a key component in the larger organizational mission and there is a healthy respect for the planning process becausemuseums have consistently realized great benefits from integrating technology into all facts of professional practice." 57 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 55 Sherry Hsi "Designing for Mobile Visitor Engagement," in Digital Technolog ies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media ed. Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker (Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008), 127. 56 Rudman, et al., "Cross Context Learning," 147 148. 57 Angela T. Spinazze "Technology's No Tea Party for Small Museums," in The Digital Museum: A Think Guide ed. Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht (Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007), 131.
27 As this all encompassing "tool," smartphones can help museums to fulfill their organizational goals, while still remaining true to the traditional mission of the museum: to collect, preserve, interpret and display. They expand the social role of the museum to one that responds to and eng ages with a changing society of the digital age. Smartphones allow museums and visitors to partake in mission related activities and participate in mission serving interactions, anytime an d anywhere. It is due to the technological advancements of these dev ices that museums must think of themselves "beyond an organization rooted in an exclusive place in real time to a ubiquitous source of around the clock education experiences." 58 The potential for museums to foster "museum moments" through mobile devices acr oss contexts, time and space is an extremely powerful idea. The role of new technologies and mobile learning in the museum environment will continue to be a debated discussion among museum professionals. F or those that are ready to accept the utility of smartphones, a working knowledge about their capabilities and the audiences that use them within learning contexts can help museum professionals to understand the device's ability to lead to meaningful museu m experiences. Silvia Filippini Fantoni and Jonathan P. Bowen suggest that taking a gradual approach to mobile digital media may be the best way to ease into the technology S tarting simple and progressively adding more components will help both the museum and the visitor to become more comfortable with th e tool. 59 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 58 Howes, "Why the Internet Matters," 77. 59 Filippini Fantoni and Bowen, "Mobile Multimedia," 90.
28 CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING THE IPHONE APPLICATION PROPOSAL Introduction This chapter focuses on the practical considerations made for developing the iPhone application proposal. To begin, I address the background of Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange and the value of a mobile application to the visitor experience in this particular exhibition Then, I share information from the initial meetings with museum staff in order to gain an idea of the scope of the mobile project. This is followed by explanations of the chosen platform, application, targe t audience, design conventions and innovations, concepts, and goals of the app. See Appendix A for the proposal and iPhone application designs. Background In March 2012, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida experienced the opening of the David A. Cofrin Asian Art Wing. The new exhibition space, dedicated to the museum's extensive Asian art collection, showcased over 700 works for the inaugural exhibitions. On view since the opening, Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange occupies an existing gallery space that serves as a transition between the new wing and the rest of the museum. This exhibition alone hosts 215 objects, representing the artistic and cultural achievements of China, Japan, Central Asia, and South and Southeast Asia. One of the benefits of t he exhibition is its ability to also act as "open" or "visible" storage. The museum was able to place many ceramic pieces on display that were previously in closed storage and make them visually accessible to the public, while also safely housing them behi nd glass. The objects are exhibited in a series of tall wooden cases that line the walls of the gallery, enveloping the viewer in a vibrant and stunning spectacle of ceramics. With a total of 20
29 cases, each wall reflects a different region and each case en closes multiple ceramic wares from different time periods. The open storage format allows visitors to visually compare and contrast objects that are near each other, in the same case, or in a case across the gallery. The challenging part of exhibiting the ceramics this way is determining how to best pr ovide information about them. The cases themselves are undisturbed by labels or text of any kind T he curators decided to present the objects in a way that creates an aesthetic experience exclusively between the visitor and the object. By looking at an objec t uninterrupted by interpretation, the visitor can for m a personal understanding and draw his or her own conclusions about the ceramic For visitors that want to know more information about the object the curators created portable laminated guides available for use around the gallery that identify each ceramic. These double sided sheets contain images of the cases with numbered objects on one side and corresponding label information listed on the other side Since the opening of this exhibition, the museum has received criticism about the guides in terms of the format The only other informational materials included in the exhibition are an introductory wall panel, a map outlining Afro Eurasian trade routes, and a paper brochure with similar introductory text and a map highlighting the geographic locations of some of the objects (see Appendix B for the brochure). For visitors who want a more in depth learning experience about the objects beyond the label information in the guides, a smartphone application can be a valuable learning tool that facilitate s deeper engagement with the exhibition and further s an appreciation for the ceramics on display. The app can provide lab el information, interpretation, and multimedia content that contextualize the objects in different ways all organized into one portable smartphone device. The app can also offer a variety of ways to experience the exhibition, including the use of social
30 and interactive components. By varying what is available in the app, it can allow different users to select what appeals to their own personal learning styles, interests, and preferences. One of the reasons that prompted the curatorial staff of Asian art to want to develop a smartphone app for Ceramics : Avenues of Exchange was the mobile web compatible online exhibition that accompanies another inaugural exhibition, Korean Art: Collecting Treasures 60 Although the online component is available to on site vi sitors through a stationed iPad in the gallery, the staff understood that advancem ents in mobile technology enables visitors to view the exhibition on their own Internet connected devices as well. The staff was drawn to the concept of delivering content th rough a convenient, portable platform and making an exhibition accessible to both on site and off site audiences. However, the de sire for a smartphone app seemed to have more to do with the trendiness and sexiness of the platform As demonstrated in the previous chapter, an app is much more than that. The expanding capabilities of the medium and increasing adoption of it by a global audience can enable the museum to support individual and social learning foster meaningful museum ex periences, and reach out to the broadest possible audience. In addition to the Curatorial Department, other staff members at the museum have expressed an interest in developing a smartphone application, including in the Education and IT Departments an d the Director of the Harn. The museum already offers a mobile experience through visitors' own communication devices with a cellphone guided audio tour, but perhaps the reason for delaying the production of a smartphone application is due to lack of fundi ng, resources, and education about the technology. The research and practical considerations of my !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 60 Korean Art: Collecting Treasures online exhibition, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, in collaboration with the University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries, 2012, http://exhibits.uflib.ufl.edu/harnkoreanart/.
31 project will help the museum to recognize the exciting benefits and potential of smartphones beyond their cool appeal. Planning Throughout the research proc ess and before designing the app, I periodically met with the curatorial staff of Asian art to discuss the scope of the project, share ideas, and update them on my progress. Rather than making this mobile project my project and only including my ideas, I w anted it to be collaborative and work with the staff to design a smartphone application that met the staff's expectations as well. The resulting smartphone app evolved over time, but it reflects the product of my vision, the staff's vision, research, and c urrent practices. For t he first couple meetings the curatorial staff shared some initial thoughts for what they imaged the application to do and have: Information about the shape, type, design, glaze and history of the objects Timeline Touchable map More information about the Silk Road Email object as postcard Ability to curate exhibition (rearrange objects in cases) Bibliography and books used for content research that are available at the museum store Calendar of events occurring in the Cofrin Wing or r elated to the Asian art collection General visitor information Membership and donation promotion Option to enlarge text Language selection List of other free museums around the country I incorporated as many of the staff's ideas as I could without overloading the app and eliminated the ones that did not seem relevant to its goal. The app is designed to include elements such as interpretation of all the objects, a timeline, and additional information about the Silk Road. Options to enlarge the text and select a language are incorporated into the application to make it more accessible to broader audiences. It excludes a bibliography of books found in the museum
32 store, a calendar of events, and a list of free museums around the country because they do not pertain directly to the exhibition. Also during the ini tial meetings, we discussed future plans for the exhibition, copyright issues, and expectations for the accompanying mobile app. The curators intend to keep Ceramics : Avenues of Exchange on view for at least another few years, which would give the museum time to implement the app and provid e visitors with a mobile exhibition experience. They also informed me that the objects in the exhibition are no longer under copyright restrictions, allowing the production and distribution of images to b e disseminated through the app. I was given 2 adjace nt cases to work with, both centering on Chinese Qing Dynasty ceramics. Since the staff was interested in how the app would look and function for the cases we agreed that I would design the app and provide a storyboard illustrating its navigation. In term s of the content, the original plan was to write the text for each of the 22 objects contained in the 2 cases, but that involved curatorial work that remained outside of the scope of the project. Instead, the content was drawn from the exhibition's brochur e and the museum's collections database and website. I wrote the text for a couple of the screenshot pages including the Silk Road and Web of Exchange. Although the proposed mobile app only focuses mostly on the 2 cases, I had to think about how it would appear and function on a much larger scale, keeping in mind the exhibition as a whole. The app includes information about the Cofrin Wing to provide context for the exhibition's existence, as well as general visitor information about the museum to inform a udiences how they can visit the exhibition. Proposal Using the research from the literature review, I also wanted to present to the Harn, through a proposal, the knowledge surrounding smartphone technology in museums and the
33 practical considerations requ ired to assimilate the proposed smartphone app to the museum environment. The proposal for the iPhone application is a written document that was presented to Harn staff members. It assesses the issues of the exhibition and demonstrates the reasons why an i Phone application is a beneficial learning tool that furthers the mission of the museum. The proposal explains the current situation of smartphones within a contemporary cultural context and as an emerging trend for museum mobile technology. This prepares a framework for the design and contents of the iPhone application. A detailed site map of the app is included in the proposal, providing a mockup and description of each of the screens. This is followed by suggestions that the museum could consider if the staff decides to move forward with the mobile project. The staff also expressed an interest in the costs associated with such a project, so the proposal includes an estimated budget and potential funding opportunities that could support the smartphone app. The information and tools contained within the proposal are intended to be helpful resources for the museum and will hopefully encourage the staff to take action. Medium As an emerging platform for museum content, I selected the iPhone to experiment wi th and therefore, the mockup screenshots reflect iPhone design and navigation. I am not alone, however, in the decision to focus on this particular smartphone platform. Bjarki Valtysson, Nanna Holdgaard, and Rich Ling, scholars at the IT University of Cope nhagen that specialize in mobile communication and digital culture, observe from their study that many museums are also interested in developing iPhone applications. This is in large part "rooted in the fetishism related to the iPhone and the identity of t he Apple brand." The company has successfully cultivated an
34 image among key influential groups, instilling a catalytic vogue for its products. 61 This includes students on a university campus. 62 The increasing numbers of college students that own iPhones prov ide the Harn Museum of Art with the opportunity to reach a constantly targeted audience. The iPhone, combined with other iOS platforms such the iPod Touch and iPad, increase ownership of app enabled Apple devices among college students. 63 Since users percei ve the brand as chic, sleek, cool and modern, by adopting the very recognizable iPhone platform, the museum could potentially become more attractive to students, general visitors that enjoy the use of mobile technology, and even to its donors 64 Type of App Using the iPhone platform, I chose to design a native application. It is one of two different kinds of mobile applications, the other being web based. A native app operates only on the platform that it is built for, like the iPhone, and requires smartp hone users to download the app from Apple's iTunes Store. Once installed, it is easily accessible on the smartphone's home screen and typically does not require connectivity to run the application. Native apps provide a responsive user interface and can ac cess the hardware sensors, making the experience more interactive and engaging. A web based app works across different platforms by accessing a web browser optimized for mobile devices and requires Internet connectivity to transmit information. Web based a pps provide advantages such as working on a greater range of web enabled devices, requiring nothing to download or install, making it easier for museums to update information !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 61 Valtysson, Ho ldga ard, and Ling, "The iPhone and Its Use in Museums," 109 114. The authors focus their research on the use of iPhones in Scandinavian museums, but the section in their chapter discussing the Apple brand is applicable to all museums 62 Sam Laird, "In a Re lationship: College Students and Their Smartphones," Mashable June 30, 201 2 http://mashable.com/2012/06/30/smartphones college students infographic/. 63 Stephen Beasley and Annie Conway, "Digital Media in Everyday Life: A Snapshot of Devices, Behaviors, a nd Attitudes Part 1: Mobile Device Ownership" (paper, Museums and the Web 2012, San Diego, CA, April 11 14, 2012), http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2012/papers/digital_media_in_everyday_life_a_snapshot_of_d. 64 Valtysson, Holdgaard, and Ling, "The iPhone a nd Its Use in Museums," 112.
35 instantly, and they are generally cost effective for both museums and users. 65 How ever, many people are unaware that mobile web apps exist. 66 Lie Luo of the Global Intelligence Agency suggests that the lack of public knowledge about web based apps is tied to the commercial interests of smartphone manufacturers in marketing native apps. 67 Cultural awareness surrounding native apps is much larger. Whether people use smartphones or not, they understand that you can "get an app for that," 68 referring to native apps that can be downloaded through application distribution platforms. Currently, t here are over 700,000 active native apps available for download through the iTunes Store 69 The total number of active web based apps, however, is harder to determine, but it is believed to be significantly lower. 70 Museums have capitalized on the popularity of native apps by distributing them largely through iTunes. Doing a search for "museum" yields 1,732 hits for iPhone apps. While only about 1 in 7 are official museum apps, this still leaves at least 250 museums worldwide that offer mobile museum experien ces for iPhone and iPod Touch devices. 71 Through iTunes, museums have the ability to market their name and educational product (application) to a global audience in a way that is not possible elsewhere. 72 While native and web based apps each have their pros !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 65 Ted Forbes, Native or Not? Why a Mobile Web App Might Be Right for Your Museum," in Mobile Apps for Museums: The AAM G uide to Planning and Strategy ed. Nancy Proctor (Washington, D.C: The AAM Press, 2011), 26 28. 66 "Mobile applications: native v Web apps what are the pros and cons?," mobiThinking http://mobithinking.com/ native or web app. 67 "Mobile applications." Ac cording to Luo, smartphone manufacturers use the number and variety of native apps to compete with other vendors. Additionally, the manufacturers receive a percentage of every native app that is distributed through their app stores making it more financia lly beneficial for them to promote native apps. 68 Forbes, Native or Not?," 28. 69 "App Store Metrics," 148appbiz.com, accessed November 1, 2012, http://148apps.biz/app store metrics/. 70 "Mobile applications." To compare to the number of apps in the iTunes Store, there are only five thousand web apps listed on Apple's Web app website. 71 Valtysson, Holdgaard, and Ling, "The iPhone and Its Use in Mus eums," 113. At the time that the authors wrote the chapter, there were 361 hits for "museum" in the iTunes Store, which is what they based the number of official museums apps on. While the number of "museum" apps has significantly increased since then, Val tysson, Holdgaard, and Ling's assessment of there being only 1 in 7 official museum apps is still significant. 72 Ibid., 112.
36 and cons, native apps have demonstrated a recognizable and growing platform for delivering content and experiences to on site and off site visitors. Target Audience Multiple museum experts, including Proctor, have demonstrated that delivering mobile interpretation using a one size fits all approach for audien ce risks fitting no audience since each visitor's learning style is different and highly personal. 73 Presently, the Harn Museum of Art does not have demographics of its visitors. Additionally, the museum has not yet conducted a survey to find out how many of its visitors own a smartphone device and what these visitors expect in a mobile technology experience. 74 Witho ut visitor research and evaluation, I was unable to target the iPhone application either toward the majority of on site visitors or the percentage of on site visitors with smartphones. As a result, I suggest ed a n audience that the museum continually strive s to reach: university students. Located on a university campus, the Harn is always trying to find ways to collaborate with students and make its collections and programs relevant to this public. In the proposal, I also wanted the Harn to be aware of the growing number of incoming freshmen that are accustomed to using new technologies Studies have shown that smartphone ownership increases among high school students as they get older 75 The widening presence of smartphones on the university campus allows th e Harn to utilize a device that has become an essential part of daily campus life and perhaps provides a more comfortable museum environment for students. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 73 Proctor, "From Headphones to Microphones," 48. 74 Although performing a survey of the visi tors, especially ones in the Ax line Gall ery where the Ceramics exhibition is held, would have been a valuable resource for planning the iPhone application, it was outside the scope and timing of my project Any research involving human subjects must first go through the approval process of the U niversity of Florida's Institutional Review Boards. 75 Beasley and Conway, "Digital Media in Everyday Life." The authors observe that smartphone ownership trends upwards among youths (ages 8 to 17) starting at age 14, so that by 17, 40% of this age group ow ns a smartphone. The iPhone is the most desired and owned platform among youths.
37 Design In order to design the mockups of the iPhone application, I used Adobe Photoshop to generate t he screenshots. There are free tools and templates available online which were helpful to the process. I designed the app using the display size of the iPhone 4 and 4s, which is 960 pixels by 640 pixels. 76 Due to the actual dimensions of the screen, 3 inche s by 2 inches, I had to be mindful of the relatively small size of the screen when designing the mockups. This meant thinking about the sizes of images, text, and functional buttons, as well as how they would be appropriately arranged on the screen. In ter ms of layout, I tried to make each screen visually pleasing and kept it uncluttered by including only what was necessary, so as to not overwhelm the visitors with too much information. I constantly had to keep in mind how the app would appear and function for the end user. For the overall appearance of the iPhone application, I wanted it to possess elements of the existing brochure that accompanies the exhibition to maintain continuity between the print and digital mediums. The celadon glazed Chinese ceram ic featured on the front of the brochure also became a prominent part of the app by incorporating it into the opening and home screens. The brochure uses bright green and red for the headings, white for the body of the text, and black for the background. A similar color scheme was applied throughout the app. As a responsive touchscreen interface, the navigation of the app needed to be simple, intuitive, and easy to use. The app requires the use of common hand gestures such as swiping to move left or right tapping to select a function, pinching to zoom in, and spreading to zoom out. I tried to take the navigational elements of native apps and apply them to my design so that it would be familiar to visitors with iPhones and will need minimal, if any, instru ctions for visitors !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 76 At the time of my project, Apple launched the iPhone 5, which has a different display size than the iPhone 4 and 4s. I continued to d esign for the latter platforms.
38 who are new to the platform. The mobile application should further learning and enhance the visitor experience, rather than distract from it through complicated navigation and actions. Conventions and Innovations During the research p rocess, I also examined other museum iPhone applications to get a sense of the format, functions, and design and navigational elements that are included. Collectively, these apps heavily influenced the overall appearance and functions of the app designed f or Ceramics : Avenues of Exchange In the iTunes Store, I searched for museum iPhone applications using the keyword "museum." I downloaded a number of apps, both for special exhibitions and the entire museum, that were primarily produced for art museums and available for free. Additionally, the iTunes Store allows people to visually preview an app before downloading it by providing a maximum of 5 screenshots of the app. These screenshots were also helpful to see museum iPhone apps that I did not download or were available at a cost. Conventions The following is a list of the elements included in the Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange iPhone application that were adapted fr om or inspired by other museums: Toolbar icons Home screen gateway buttons Object list Object page (size of image, placement of label information, other button features) Format and length of interpretation Option to enlarge text Language selection Sha re through Facebook, Twitter, and e mail General visitor information Innovations Out of the museum iPhone applications that I have seen, I have yet to experience one that allows visitors to engage in an exhibition that so closely resembles its physical counterpart.
39 Other museum apps let users browse through objects in an exhibition eit her through a list view or gallery view of just images. The Ceramics : Avenues of Exchange app provides the option to browse through the exhibition by case image, allowing users to "touch" the objects as they are realistically displayed in the physical exhi bition. On site visitors can more easily identify the case represented in the app with the actual case and off site visitors can enjoy an "authentic" exhibition experience without physically being present at the museum. The Web of Exchange is an interacti ve component specifically designed for the app. It highlight s unique and distinct regional features about each ceramic, as well as call ing attention to the exchange of arts and culture represented through the ceramics as it crossed over land and through ti me The Web of Exchange point s out connections between objects in different cases in the exhibition that are perhaps not visually explicit to visitors without the app. Concepts There were several concepts that guided the overall structure and design of t he iPhone application. Personalization Since visitors have different learning styles, habits, and interests they can personalize their mobile experiences by selecting, navigating, and controlling what they see or do not see. Visitors have the options to c hoose how they view the exhibition and what ceramic they want to learn more about. There is also the ability to bookmark an individual's favorite objects and easily access them through the home screen. Layered Content The app provides different layers of i nformation for learners that want to deepen their engagement with a ceramic by tapping on the buttons in each object's individual page. For
40 example, if a visitor is interested in reading additional interpretation about an object, there is a "Description" b utton available that directs the visitor to a page with text. Variety The app utilizes the platform's capacity to hold multimedia information, providing visitors with a variety of content to view and interact with, including text, images, maps, audio, and videos. Visitors can consume different types of information based on their learning preferences. Variety also comes into play in each object's individual page. Rather than having complete uniformity for all 215 ceramics, many of objects' pages have an extra component that is different perhaps a video of the curators describing an object, an audio clip of a university professor talking about ceramic production of a particular dynasty, additional images of an object, or a 360 degree rotation al view of a v essel with interesting detail. This allows for elements of surprise and discovery when browsing through the app that could also l ead to longer engagement with the app 77 Community Each object page has a comment box where visitors can leave their name and s hare a comment or question about a particular object. These are publicly available on the app, allowing other visitors and museum staff to respond to the comments. Through this section of the app, conversations can form around objects and foster a larger sense of community among the app users and the museum. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 77 H owes, "Why the Internet Matters ," 73. Howes describes "the joy of serendipitous discovery" when audiences visit the museum or website and find something unexpected, making it a more enjoyable experience and reason for returning.
41 Goals of the Application The main curatorial goal of the iPhone application, "to provide an innovative way for delivering the message of the exhibition," focuses on the content and not the technology. 78 B eyond its innovation, the app provides users with a multimedia educational tool through which they can have a new museum exhibition experience. For on site visitors that want to supplement the aesthetic enjoyment of the ceramics the app is a way to provide interpretation that deepens engagement with the objects. Contained in a portable handheld device, the app can be used in and out of the gallery and still allow the physical space to maintain its aesthetic appearance The app ca n extend before, during, and after the museum visit, as well as create in gallery and off site experiences. It facilitates the message of the exhibition by identifying the distinct qualities of each individual object, celebrating the artistic and cultural exchanges between the objects, and highlighting connections between objects as a result of those exchanges. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 78 Loc Tallon and Isabel Fres, "Going Mobile? Insights into the Museum Community's Perspectives on Mobile Interpretation," (paper, Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6 9, 2011), http://www.museumsand theweb .com/mw2011/papers/going_mobile_insights_into_the_museum_communit
42 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION Admittedly, at the start of the thesis project I mistakenly followed the hype of technology and saw it as a cool and convenient way to supply content for the exhibition. In addition, it was fueled by my own desire as a visitor to the museum to learn more about the objects in the exhibition that the laminated guides lacked. After beginning research on the topic, I quickly realized that I underestimated the power of mobile technology to impact the museum learning experience. Exploring smartphones within the context of the museum world, as well as placing the museum within the context of a digitally active society, involve d a complex understanding of social, cultural and technological interactions. B efore embarking on the mobile project, it was necessary to consider smartphone user s how they use and learn through mobile technology and how the museum can maximize the capabilities of the device to stay connected with the ir visitors My thesis project as a whole has shown that the smartphone possesses promising potential, making it worth the time and effort to invest in the technology. As the adoption of these devices c ontinue to grow, museums have the opportunity to open and enhance the museum visitor experience to audiences worldwide. Much of the time dedicated to the entire thesis process was spent doing research. I thought it was important to have the fundamental und erstanding of the technology and the museological conversation surrounding it before I moved onto designing the iPhone application. By the time I began creating the screenshots of the app, it took surprisingly less time to do because I had been building up in my mind during the research period how it would look and function. The creative process involved incorporating ideas taken from the research and applying them to design the best possible app for the exhibition. For instance users of the app can navigate and personalize their own experience by viewing information about objects that they
43 want to learn more about and selecting how they contextualize the object through available textual conten t or multimedia resources. Another ex ample is taking the idea of wayfinding and using it to help on site visitors orient themselves more easily within the physical context of the exhibition. The app provides a floor plan of the gallery that color codes series of cases by region and numbers al l of the cases While my thesis project stops short of actually developing the iPhone application and seeing it through its execution, my hope is that the research and proposal provides the Harn Museum of Art with the incentive to turn an interest in smar tphone applications into the first steps of a fully implemented smartphone app project. For museums, like the Harn, that are curious and ready to take on the challenge of new mobile technologies exploring the opportunities of smartphones could open a new door to innovative approaches to achieving institutional goals.
44 APPENDIX A IPHONE APPLICATION PROPOSAL FOR CERAMICS: AVENUES OF EXCHANGE
"" Presented to the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art By Hannah Soh November 2012 iPhone Application Proposal for Ceramics : Avenues of Exchange
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ 3 2.MUSEUM BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................... 4 2.1 Mission .......................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Vision ............................................................................................................................ 4 2.3 Institutional Goals ......................................................................................................... 4 3.CURRENT SITUATION ............................................................................................................ 5 3.1 Defining Key Terms ..................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Smartphone Adoption ................................................................................................... 5 3.3 Museums and Smartphone Technology ........................................................................ 6 3.4 Current Position of the Harn ......................................................................................... 8 3.5 Competition ................................................................................................................... 8 4.CONTEXT FOR THE MOBILE APPLICATION ..................................................................... 9 5.TARGETED PUBLIC .............................................................................................................. 10 6.GOAL AND OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................... 11 5.1 Goal ............................................................................................................................. 11 5.2 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 11 7.DESIGN AND CONTENTS OF APPLICATION ................................................................... 12 7.1 Site Map for the Application ....................................................................................... 12 7.2 Site Map with Descriptions and Screenshots .............................................................. 13 8.CONSIDERATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOVING FORWARD ............. 34 8.1 Wayfinding ................................................................................................................. 34 8.2 iPod Touch Distribution .............................................................................................. 34 8.3 Schedule ...................................................................................................................... 34 8.4 Evaluations .................................................................................................................. 34 8.5 Wi-Fi ........................................................................................................................... 35 8.6 Staff Training .............................................................................................................. 35 8.7 Marketing and Promotion ........................................................................................... 35 9.COSTS AND FUNDING RESOURCES ................................................................................. 36 9.1 Budget Overview ........................................................................................................ 36 9.2 Hardware Costs ........................................................................................................... 36 9.3 Development Costs ..................................................................................................... 36 9.4 Funding Resources ...................................................................................................... 37 10.CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 38 APPENDICES A MUSEUM IPHONE APPS ............................................................................................... 39 B UNIVERSITY ART MUSEUMS WITH IPHONE APPS ............................................... 44 C HARDWARE DETAILS .................................................................................................. 45
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 2 D DEVELOPMENT DETAILS ........................................................................................... 46 E FUNDING DETAILS ....................................................................................................... 48 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 53
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 3 1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The development of a smartphone application is an emerging trend in the museum world. With the diverse capabilities available through smartphone devices, museums are capitalizing on the utility of the platform to deliver innovative and exciting experiences for visitors both within and beyond the physical boundaries of the museum. The permeating presence of networked mobile technology is widening the number of people that can access museum information anytime and anywhere. As more people begin to embrace these new technologies, the possibilities of museums extending outreach to new and existing audiences will only expand. The Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange exhibition at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art presents an ideal opportunity for introducing an iPhone application. The application can make the exhibition accessible to broad audiences, foster engagement with the objects, provide a variety of creative content, and encourage an interactive learning experience. Used as a educational tool, the museum can leverage the functions and services of mobile applications to transform the exhibition experience for its visitors. The purpose of this proposal is to support the mobile initiatives of an iPhone application for Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange. The proposal serves three functions: 1) to provide education about mobile technology in museums, 2) to illustrate the design and functions of the proposed application, and 3) to offer practical considerations and suggestions for moving forward. As the Harn Museum of Art concludes its five-year strategic plan in 2013 and prepares for the next strategic cycle, this proposal encourages the museum to rethink its relationship with a technologically active and increasingly networked society. The iPhone application provides a gateway for achieving institutional goals and enriching museum visitor experiences by using the tool that is already in visitors back pockets.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 4 2.MUSEUM BACKGROUND 2.1 Mission The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art promotes the power of the arts to inspire and educate people and enrich their lives. To this purpose the museum builds and maintains exemplary art collections and produces a wide variety of challenging, innovative exhibitions and stimulating educational programs. As an integral part of the University of Florida, the museum advances teaching and research and serves as a catalyst for creative engagement between the university and diverse local, state, national and international audiences. 2.2 Vision The Harn Museum of Art distinguishes itself among university art museums as a creative laboratory for innovation in the visual arts. Accordingly, the Harn unites the university and the wider community to make groundbreaking contributions to research, teaching and service. The Har n makes great works of art accessible to diverse audiences by using a variety of innovative approaches to the exhibition and interpretation of art. 2.3 Institutional Goals To weave the museums programs into the academic fabric of the University of Florida in order to enhance student learning experiences and support university goals To broaden the national and international influence and reputation of the Harn as a leader among university art museums To provide a welcoming environment that stimulates art-centered visitor experiences for diverse audiences To use the museums diverse art collections and exhibitions to facilitate dialogue about global ideas and issues To work with University of Florida Cultural Plaza partners to make the plaza a destination for the enjoyment of art, culture and nature
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 6 of advanced mobile phones penetrating the market, smartphones possess a range of capabilities and can connect to networks virtually at anytime. This becomes increasingly important for the Harn as the museum is able to reach broader audiences and as visitors also expect on-demand access to museum content and experiences wherever they go. Nation-wide Adoption In the United States alone, there are over 322 million mobile subscriptions.2 Over half of these mobile consumers now have a smartphone, which is an increase of 14 percent in the last year.3 Most smartphone owners in the U.S. access the Internet everyday, are avid social networkers, and never leave the house without the device.4 As an everyday technology5 that is readily available, these advanced mobile phones have revolutionized the impact that the Harn could have on people while on their way to work, in school, at the park, or in countless other places.6 Keeping an eye on technological trends, the museum can work to better understand the platforms relationship to its visitors and leverage the devices potential to lead to rewarding museum experiences. 3.2 Museums and Smartphone Technology Attracting Museums Since the introduction of the iPhone in 2007, museums have been experimenting with and responding to the proliferation of smartphone apps. Over half of the museums in the United States now offer a mobile service, including apps.7 The range of operations available on these platforms provides new and creative opportunities for museums to support learning in ways that traditional wall labels cannot. This includes the ability to hold multimedia content (i.e. text, image, audio, video, and animation) and access multiple communication portals (i.e. phone, text message, e-mail, and social networks). Additionally, by nature of its size, smartphones have an intimate relationship with the user and can therefore deliver personally relevant experiences. Museums are increasingly expecting their visitors to use their own personal mobile devices,8 which expands the possibility of extending learning before the visitor walks into the museum, during the visit, and after they leave. Museum iPhone Apps and subscribers: the total number of subscriptions is larger than the total number of subscribers, which is due to the fact that many subscribers have several subscriptions. 2 Wireless Quick Facts: Year-E nd Figures, CTIA, accessed October 12, 2012, http://www.ctia.org/media/industry _info/index.cfm/AID/10323. 3 Young Adults and Teens Lead Growth Among Smartphone Owners, NielsonWire (blog), September 10, 2012, http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_ mobile/young adultsand teens lead growthamong smartphone owners/. 4 Google, Our Mobile Planet: United States: Understand the Mobile Consumer May 2012, http://services.google. com/fh/files/blogs/our_mobile_planet_us_en.pdf. 5 Konstantinos Arvanitis, Mus eums Outside Walls: Mobile Phones and the Museum in the Everyday, in Museums in a Digital Age, ed. Ross Parry (New York: Routledge, 2010), 172. 6 Wayne LaBar, The Gyroscopic Museum, in Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 388. 7 American Alliance of Museums, Mobile in Museums Study 2012, 2012. 8 Ibid., and Loc Tallon, Museums & Mobile in 2012: An Analysis of the Museums & Mobile Survey 2012 Responses (Pocket Proof and LearningTimes, February 2012), http://www.museums mobile.org/survey/.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 7 Museum iPhone Apps Developing iPhone apps is a current trend in museums. A search for museum in the App Store yields 1,732 hits for iPhone apps.9 While only about 1 in 7 are official museum apps, this still leaves roughly 250 apps that offer mobile museum experiences for iPhone and iPod Touch users.10 Comparatively, the same search in the Android Market gives 480 hits, which also includes apps that were not developed by or for a public museum. Through the App Store, the Harn has the opportunity to market its name and deliver educational content (application) to a global audience that is not possible elsewhere.11 Appendix A is a snapshot list of 180 official museum iPhone apps that were available in the App Store in June 2012.12 They are alphabetized by institution and include the name of the application, developer, type, price, and release date/last updated. From the list, the U.S. makes up half of the institutions worldwide that offer an iPhone app. This demonstrates that multiple institutions around the country have taken the time to understand mobile applications, dedicated the time and resources to developing content, and recognized the value of apps as educational tools. A third of the apps from the list were developed in-house, although these institutions tend to be larger, have more foot traffic, and have a bigger budget to spend on mobile programs. However, a recent study by AAM shows that due to the limited budget of many U.S. museums, they will most likely find ways to take on the mobile projects themselves.13 A third of the institutions on the list designed an iPhone app for a special exhibition, illustrating that museums are beginning to look at apps as part of the whole exhibition planning process. An app could be an essential part of the physical exhibition, supplement it, or standalone as a digital exhibition. The last piece of data pulled from the list is that most institutions offer their mobile educational product for free to end-users. In fact, these apps receive higher usage rates than apps downloadable at a fee.!14 By looking at trends at other museums, the Harn could benefit from the 9 As of November 2012 10 Bjarki Va ltysson Nanna Holdgaard and Rich Ling, The i Phone and Its Use in Museums, i n Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums ed. James E. Katz Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch (Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011), 113. At the time that the authors wrote the chapter, t here were 361 hits for museum in the iTunes Store, which is what they based the number of official museums apps on. While the number of museum apps has significantly increased since then, Valtysson, Holdgaard, and Lings assessment of 1 in 7 official museum apps is still important. 11 Ibid., 112. 12 The list of museum iPhone apps was compiled by expanding on the list from iPhone Apps, Museums2Go accessed June 11, 2012, http://www.museums2go.com/iphone apps/ I found other apps by searching for museum i n the iTunes Store. The list includes institutions such as museums, galleries, gardens, zoos, churches, historic sites, and games. It does not reflect all of the official museum apps available in iTunes. 13 AAM, Mobile in Museums Study 2012. 14 Al legra Brunette et al., Getting On (not Under) the Mobile 2.0 Bus: Emerging Issues in the Mobile Business Model, (paper, Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6 9, 2011), http://www.museumsandtheweb. com/ mw2011/papers/getting_on_not_under_the_mobile_20_bus.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 8 initiatives of others and begin to form an idea of how the museum will approach its own smartphone initiative. 3.3 Current Position of the Harn The Harn is a mobile museum. It currently offers a cellphone tour that accompanies the What is the Good Life? humanities course at UF and an online exhibition for Korean Art: Collecting Treasures that is mobile web-compatible. The museum already has a base of interest to pursue more mobile initiatives with support from upper-level administration and staff members from various departments. 3.4 Competition In the App Store, there are only 7 out of 169 university art museums in the country that offer an iPhone app.15 While the Harn is not in direct competition with these institutions, the museum can become a leader among university art museums through the creative use of mobile technology. The museum can set an example and serve as a catalyst for the large majority of university art museums that do not have a mobile application. Following the implementation of a smartphone app, the Harn can share its practices, knowledge, and resources with other museums. For a list of university art museums with iPhone apps, see Appendix B. 15 This is based on the university art museums that are members of the Association of Academic Museums and Galleries (http://www.aamg us.org/about us/institutional members#art). In July 2012, each of the 169 institutions listed on the website were searched in the App Store using the museums name and the associated universitys name. This does not include the number of museums that are in the process of developing an iPhone app nor does it include the museums with web based apps; this only reflects the museums with apps that are publicly available in the App Store.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 9 4.CONTEXT FOR THE MOBILE APPLICATION On view since the opening of the David A. Cofrin Asian Art Wing in March 2012, Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange hosts an ensemble of 215 ceramic wares from the extensive Asian art collection at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Displayed in a series of tall wooden cases that line the walls of the Axline Gallery, the exhibition envelops visitors in a vibrant and stunning spectacle of ceramics from China, Japan, Central Asia and South and Southeast Asia. The open storage format of the exhibition places many ceramic pieces on display that were previously in storage, making more of the collection visually accessible to the public. Visitors can view the objects closely and draw comparisons between ceramics that are near each other, in the same case, or in a case across the gallery. The exhibition evokes illuminating inspirations, influences, and interactions between works of art that represent the artistic and cultural achievements from all across Asia. The challenging part of exhibiting the objects this way, however, is determining how to best provide information about them while still upholding the aesthetic presentation. Currently, the cases do not contain any labels or text, but rather are supplemented by portable laminated guides that identify each object in the gallery. These guides have been criticized for making it difficult to navigate within the guides themselves and to coordinate the printed text with the real world surroundings. A smartphone application is a convenient way to facilitate navigation through the exhibition while providing information and interpretation about all the objects in one handheld digital device, without being obtrusive to the space. With the range of capabilities in a smartphone, it can be used as a valuable learning tool for visitors through its ability to hold vast amounts of multimedia content, encouraging deeper engagement with the exhibition, furthering an appreciation for the ceramics on display, and reaching broader audiences either in the gallery or outside of the museum. More than just a trendy technological product of contemporary society, a smartphone provides a way to enrich the visitor experience. The iPhone application is intended to transform the museum exhibition experience through the use of a mobile multimedia tool. The app can extend before, during, and after the museum visit, as well as create in-gallery and off-site experiences. It facilitates the message of the exhibition by identifying the distinct qualities of each individual object, celebrating the artistic and cultural exchanges between the objects, and highlighting connections between objects as a result of those exchanges.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 10 5.TARGETED PUBLIC The iPhone application university students. Located on a large university campus, the Harn could take advantage of the majority of students that own smartphones, 16 the iPhone. 17 high school 18 Since the continually seeks ways to make its collections and programs relevant to students, the museum could harness the device that is already an essential part of daily campus life. This could also provide a museum environment that is more comfortable for students. 16 Zoe Fox, How Cellphones Shape the Lives of College Students, Mashable October 31, 2011, http://mashable. .com/2011/10/31/cellphones collegestudents/. 17 Sam Laird, In a Relatio nship: College Students and Their Smartphones, Mashable June 30, 2012, http://mashable.com/2012/06/30/smartphones collegestudents infographic/. 18 Stephen Beasley and Annie Conway, Digital Media in Everyday Life: A Snapshot of Devices, Behaviors, and At titudes Part 1: Mobile Device Ownership, (paper, Museums and the Web 2012, San Diego, CA, April 11 14, 2012), http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2012/papers/digital_media_in_everyday_life_a_snapshot_of_d. The authors observe that smartphone ownership trend s upwards among youths (ages 8 to 17) starting at age 14, so that by 17, 40% of this age group owns a smartphone. The iPhone is the most desired and owned platform among youths.!
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 11 6.GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 6.1 Goal To provide an innovative way for delivering the message of the exhibition 6.2 Objectives To provide additional interpretation and diverse multimedia content To foster deeper engagement with the collection To encourage dialogue and form communities around the exhibition To supplement the in-gallery experience and create a standalone off-site experience To broaden access to the exhibition
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 12 7. DESIGN AND CONTENTS OF THE APPLICATION 7.1 Site Map of the Application Opening Select a Language (English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean) Home Introduction Introduction to Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange Trade Routes Explore this Exhibition Case List Object Zoom Label Information Map Floor Plan Description Timeline Other Comment Bookmark Case Image Web of Exchange Information About the Harn Harn Overview Harn Mission About the Cofrin Asian Art Wing Visitor Information Floor Plan Hours and Admission Directions and Parking Museum Policies Membership Donation About this App Bookmark (Top Bar: More Button) Home Enlarge Text Change Language Share through Facebook Share through Twitter Share through Email
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 13 7.2 Site Map with Descriptions and Screenshots Opening The Opening (or Loading) screen appears when the application is activated and takes a few seconds for the Home screen to load. Before the Home screen appears, the user has the option to select a language for the app: English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 14 Home The Home screen contains three buttons: Introduction, Explore this Exhibition, and Web of Exchange. There are also three toolbar buttons at the bottom of the screen: Home, Information, and Bookmark. Each of these six buttons directs the user to the corresponding screen. Every scr een except for the Home screen has a bar on top with a button that takes the user back to the Home screen.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 15 Introduction The Introduction screen contains the introductory text to the exhibition. It includes an image of the Axline Gallery to give the user, especially if he or she is remotely accessing the app, a sense of what the exhibition looks like in the physical space. At the bottom of the screen is a link that directs the user to screen with more information about the Silk Road and trade routes.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 16 Trade Routes The Trade Routes screen provides more information about the Silk Road, Silk Maritime and other trade routes that contributed to the interactions between regions. It includes the same map that is displayed in the Axline Gallery.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 17 Top Bar At the top of every screen is a red bar with a Back button on the left, a brief title of the screen in the center, and a More button indicated by three white circles on the right. The More button presents six more buttons: Home, Enlarge Text (shown below), Change Language, Share through Facebook, Share through Twitter, and Share through Email. Tapping the More button again makes these options disappear.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 18 Explore this Exhibition The Explore this Exhibition screen presents 2 ways of browsing the objects in the exhibition: Case List or Case Image. From the Home screen, the user is automatically taken to the Case List screen and from there can switch to the Case Image screen by tapping on t he button in the top bar. The list starts on Case 1 and goes in numerical order until it reaches the last case, Case 20 The bar indicating the case number also has the region(s) represented in that particular case. The user scrolls down to see more cases. All the objects in a case are listed as they are displayed in the physical case, from top to bottom and left to right. Each object listing has an image of the ceramic, title, date, and material. To learn more about an object, the user taps on an object listing. The second way to explore the exhibition is by Case Image. The Case Image screen shows pictures of each case from the physical exhibition starting with Case 1 and ending with Case 20. The user can swipe left or right to view each case. To learn m ore about an object, the user touches the desired object.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 19 Object (Example #1) Each Object screen follows the same format. An image of the ceramic and the corresponding label information are the focus of the screen until the user scrolls down to see more information. On each Object screen, there are buttons to zoom in on the image ( white plus sign), write a comment (bubble), bookmark the ceramic (heart), find the location of the object in the gallery (Show on Floor Plan), read additional interpretation (Description), look at the object on a timeline (Timeline), and see an extra component about the object (green button at the bottom of the screen). In order to provide variety among the 215 objects, the app utilizes the multimedia aspect about smartphones, which can help cater to different visitor learning styles. Extra components could include ideas such as videos of the curators talking about an object, interviews with students or professors, music audio clips, more images of an object, a 360 degree rotation of objects with interesting detail, or video demonstrations of ceramic techniques.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 20 Zoom By tapping on the white plus button on the Object screen, the user is taken to a Zoom screen with just an image of the ceramic and condens ed label information. The user can view high-resolution images and focus on particular details of the ceramic. Zooming in requires spreading the index finger and thumb apart, and zooming out involves pinching the two fingers together. While zoomed in, the user can move around to see different parts of the image.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 21 Floor Plan The Floor Plan screen has a diagram of the Axline Gallery with series of cases color coded by region and cases numbered according to the number of cases in the series. The numbering system starts from the Persian case and continues clockwise around the gallery until it reaches the last Southeast Asian case. A red dot indicates the location of the object in the physical gallery space.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 22 Description The Description screen includes additional interpretation for users that want to learn more about an object.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 23 Bookmark Each Object screen has a bookmark button represented by a heart. When users select their favorite ceramic pieces and tap on the bookmark button, the heart turns from black to red. The heart remains red unless the user decides to un-bookmark it by tapping the button again. All bookmarked items are listed on a Bookmark screen, which are accessible from the Home screen. Tapping on an object from the Bookmark screen takes the user to the Object screen of that particular ceramic.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 24 Object (Example #2) This Object screen is an example of another ceramic. A button containing a comment bubble is found on each Object screen. By tapping on it, the user it taken to a Comment screen where he or she can share a comment or question. The number in the bubble increases with the number of comments posted.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 25 Comment Each Object screen has a bubble button that takes the user to a Comment screen. The user can leave a name and comment or question about an object, which is made publicly available to all app users. Users, as well as staff, can respond to these comments or questions, developing a dialogue and community around an object. The museum staff can monitor the comments
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 26 Web of Exchange The first Web of Exchange screen provides a brief introduction and an action for the user to take. After tapping the Start button, the user is t aken to the first object page, which includes an image of an object, information, a map indicating its geographic location, a floor plan showing its location in the gallery, and a Next button. If the user taps on the image of the object, a separate window pops up with label information for the object. When the user hits the Next button, he or she is taken to a page with the next object page. From the second page and onwards, two objects are shown; the one on the left is the previous object and the one on the right is another image (i.e. object in the exhibition, map, another medium, etc.). The purpose of juxtaposing two images is to demonstrate the correlation between the two, which is accompanied by an explanation of how they are connected. The map creates a link between the previous geographic location and the next, while the floor plan creates a link between the previous location in the gallery and the next. By the end of the series, both the map and floor plan produce a web of es. The intent behind the Web of Exchange is meant to emphasize the message of the exhibition by forming relationships between objects and celebrating the network of artistic and cultural inspirations of one object to the next as it crosses over space (and time). While visitors on-site and off-site can perhaps identify visible similarities, this section of the app allows the users to see more concrete connections. Objects can be tied together through factors such as shape, glaze, technique, pictorial detail, and history.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 27
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 28
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 29 Information The Information screen, accessible through the Home screen, contains four buttons that pertain to the museum and the app: About the Harn, About the Cofrin Asian Art Wing, Visitor Information, and About this App.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 30 About the Harn The section on the Harn Museum of Art includes an image of the building, an overview, its mission, and the museums logo.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 31 About the Cofrin Asian Art Wing Since the exhibition in the Axline Gallery serves as an extension of the David A. Cofrin Asian Art Wing and opened along with the other inaugural exhibitions of the new wing, an image and overview of the Cofrin Asian Art Wing is included, as well as the logo and sponsors. At the bottom of the page is a video about the Cofrin Wing that opens in full screen viewing mode when the user taps on the video image.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 32 Visitor Information The Visitor Information screen shows general visitor information about the Harn for users that are interested in visiting the museum. It includes contact information and seven buttons: Floor Plan, Hours and Admission, Directions and Parking, Museum Policies, Membership, and Donation. The address, phone number and website are links that activate the Map app, Phone app, and web browser respectively, utilizing the multifunctional aspect of smartphones. The first four buttons navigate to the corresponding screen, while the Membership and Donate buttons notify the user that they are about to open up the Internet browser to the museums website.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 33 Floor Plan, Hours and Admission, Directions and Parking, and Museum Policies
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 34 8. CONSIDERATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR MOVING FORWARD 8.1 Wayfinding In order for on-site visitors to seamlessly navigate the exhibition, the information provided in the mobile app needs to correspond with the physical space, also known as wayfinding. Since the floor plan in the app has color-coded and numbered cases, there should be similar indicators or some form of signage that helps to orient visitors in the real world setting. 8.2 iPod Touch Distribution By adopting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) approach, the museum can save money that would otherwise be spent on hardware and mainten ance costs. However, since this excludes parts of the audience that do not own an iPhone or an iPod Touch, the museum can loan out iPod Touch devices to visitors who want to partake in the mobile app experience. 8.3 Schedule When creating a schedule of the mobile project, two factors should be taken into account that may delay the development and launch of the application. If a survey of the visitors is conducted before creating the app, as it is suggested below, the process time for approval through the Universitys Institutional Review Boards (IRB) can slow the development process, if it is approved. If the museum decides to develop an application for iOS devices, once submitted to Apple it must go through the App Review Board and meet approval before it is distributed through the iTunes Store. This could take as long as 3-6 weeks. 8.4 Evaluations Initial Survey Conducting a survey among visitors before beginning the development process could help the museum better understand its audiences and their relationship to mobile technology. This includes finding out how many visitors own a smartphone device, what age group holds the majority of smartphone ownership, if there is a demand for the implementation of mobile applications, and what is expected from the mobile experiences. Prototype Testing Before the iPhone application is submitted to the iTunes Store for approval, a protot ype of the app should be tested among visitors in the gallery and outside of the museum. This will help determine how the app is used on-site and off -site, what visitors like or do not like about the app, how they respond to it, how they use the controls, and if they have difficultly navigating or finding information in the app. This will ensure that any last modifications or bugs can be made before launching the app to the broader public through iTunes. Prototype testing can also be an indicator of what features the users utilize the most. For instance, if they are interested in watching videos, the Harn could incorporate more videos into the object pages.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 35 8.5 Wi -Fi While the Axline Gallery currently provides free Wi-Fi service, this is only made available to students, faculty and staff at UF. Since the Harn is located on the main campus, it receives the Universitys wireless network, which was recently upgraded to avoid logging in multiple times with a GatorLink username and password. This makes the mobile user experience seamless for individuals affiliated with UF, but isolates the other visitors who are not part of the University. Perhaps by demonstrating the importance of reaching all visitors that walk into the museum, the Harn could advocate to the University the need for an unrestricted wireless network. Another option could be to adopt a process like hotels where visitor s go to the front desk to obtain a temporary login for the Internet during their time at the museum. This would help keep the network semi-restricted. 8.6 Staff Training Especially if iPod devices are loaned out to visitors, the adoption of new technolo gies to the museum means that staff and security guard training is required for distribution, use and maintenance. 8.7 Marketing and Promotion A mobile app can be a beneficial marketing tool for the museum; however, a marketing campaign must be established. The museum can increase awareness of the app by providing signage and advertisements in the following locations: entrance of the museum Axline Gallery banner on the exterior of the museum museums website social networks press releases University of Floridas home page
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 36 9. COSTS AND FUNDING RESOURCES 9.1 Budget Overview Development (see below) Hardware 5 iPod Touch (@ $169.99) $849.95 5 general equipment (@ $19.47) $97.35 1 charging rack $149.95 5 AppleCare Protection Plan (optional @ $59) ($295) Signage $300___________ TOTAL $1,496.25 (at least) 9.2 Hardware Costs iPod Touch $169.99 (8GB) $199 (16GB) Charging Rack $149.95 Case $4.49 Custom Lanyard $3.99 Headphones $10.99 (See Appendix C for hardware details) 9.3 Development Costs The following is a list of some development options19: Student Mobile Task Team $0 TourSphere Build Your Own Native App $1,500 upfront, $399/month Build Your Own Web and Native App $1,500 upfront, $599/month App Quickstart Option $3,500 one-time fee 19 TourSpheres prices are on the website. Tristan Interactive and GuideOne wer e the only companies to respond back to an e mail requesting pricing information.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 37 Tristan Interactive Autour standardized app $4,500-$7500 upfront, $199-$299/month GuideOne Custom app typically $22,000-$44,000 (See Appendix D for development details) 9.3 Funding Resources Funding from Internal Resources 2013 Research Opportunity Seed Fund Competition UF Technology Fee Grant Funding from National Resources Institute of Museum and Library Services National Endowment for the Arts National Endowment for the Humanities Funding for Asian Art Henry Luce Foundation Arts Network Asia (ANA) Asian Cultural Council (See Appendix E for funding details)
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 38 10.CONCLUSION Smartphone technology reflects a new generation of museum mobile devices that hold the promise of delivering inspirational, educational, and enriching experiences to peoples lives. For the Harn Museum of Art, it has opened a new door to creative and diverse approaches to the exhibition and interpretation of art through digital interfaces. It also helps the museum to strengthen relationships with new and existing visitors, as well as increase access to local, national, and international audiences. The proposed iPhone application for Ceramics: Avenues of Exchange allows the museum to take advantage of the capabilities contained within the device and use them to facilitate the message of the exhibition in new and innovative ways. By experimenting with the platform for the exhibition, the Harn continues to embody a laboratory for the visual arts in the ongoing pursuit to encourage learning, engagement, interaction, and dialogue. The museum can produce an effective educational and marketing tool for the surrounding student body, as well as form interdisciplinary collaborative partnerships across campus to make that tool into a tangible reality. The Harn can become one of the leading models among university art museums by sharing its knowledge and resources from the mobile initiative to those unsure or enthusiastic about embarking on a mobile application project. In addition to advancing the mission and goals of the museum, the development of the mobile application supports the University of Floridas threefold mission of teaching, research and service. The device has the potential to enhance learning experiences, stimulate creative thinking, form a catalyst for further research, and serve the broadest possible audience. As smartphones continue to penetrate the global population and dynamically change the ways people communicate and connect to information, the Harn is presented with a compelling opportunity to play an integral role in the daily lives of its audiences.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 39 APPENDIX A: MUSEUM IPHONE APPS Institution/ Location App Name Developer Category Price Released/Upd 1 Allentown Art Museum (Allentown, PA) Allentown Art Museum of the Leigh Valley Klunk & Millan Museum FREE Mar. 9, 2012 2 American Association of Museums AAM Mobile MultiView Inc. Organization FREE Feb. 8, 2012 3 American Folk Art Museum (New York, NY) Infinite Variety Toura Exhibition FREE Jun. 14, 2011 4 American Museum of Natural History (New York, NY) AMNH Explorer AMNH Museum FREE Jan. 18, 2011 5 Cosmic Discoveries AMNH Museum FREE Feb. 15, 2011 6 Dinosaurs AMNH & Mosaic Legends Museum FREE May 9, 2011 7 Beyond Planet Earth Augmented Reality AMNH Exhibition FREE Jan. 31, 2012 8 Amsterdam Museum (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Amsterdam Museum Antenna Audio Museum $1.99 Dec. 1, 2011 9 Andy Warhol Museum (Pittsburg, PA) The Warhol: Art Toura Museum $0.99 Oct. 25, 2011 10 Aquarium of the Pacific (Long Beach, CA) Aquarium of the Pacific Visitor Guide Aquarium of the Pacific Aquarium FREE May 21, 2012 11 Arizona Museum of Natural History (Mesa, AZ) Arizona Museum of Natural History AzTech Apps Museum FREE May 15, 2012 12 Art Gallery of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia) Art Gallery of NSW: The First Emperor The Nest Exhibition FREE Dec. 18, 2010 13 Art Gallery of Ontario (Ontario, Canada) Art Gallery of Ontario Tristan Interactive Museum FREE Feb. 15, 2012 14 Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, IL) French Impressionism Toura Museum $3.99 Feb. 23, 2011 15 Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, UK) Ashmolean Museum ATS Heritage Museum $4.99 Jan. 25, 2011 16 Asia Society Museum (New York, NY) Asia Society Museum: Yoshitomo Nara Toura Exhibition $2.99 Sept. 28, 2010 17 Asian Art Museum (San Francisco, CA) Acoustiguide Smartour Asian Art Muse. Espro Acoustiguide Group Museum FREE Dec. 9, 2011 18 Asian Civilisations Museum (Singapore) ACM: Terracotta Warriors Magna Studios Pte Ltd Exhibition FREE June 13, 2011 19 Aurora Museum (Shanghai) B Retrospective Bulgari S.p.A. Exhibition FREE Feb. 6, 2012 20 Australian Museum (Sydney, Australia) DangerOz Australian Museum Museum $1.99 Nov. 28, 2011 21 Bean Life Science Museum (Provo, UT) Identify Me Bean Life Science Museum Museum FREE Mar. 28, 2012 22 Bode Museum (Gerline, Germany) Gesichter der Renaissance Antenna Audio Exhibition FREE May 25, 2011 23 Bristol City Museum & Art Gallery (Bristol, UK) Bristol: The Blitz and the City We Lost Interactive Places Museum $2.99 Nov. 16, 2011 24 British Library (London, England) British Library: Treasures Toura Museum $1.99 Mar. 8, 2012 25 British Museum (London, England) Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead British Museum Exhibition FREE Jan. 28, 2011 26 Brooklyn Museum (New York, NY) Brooklyn Museum Mobile Brooklyn Museum Museum FREE Jun. 29, 2010 27 Canadian Museum of Civilization (Quebec, Canada) Canadian Museum of Civilization Tristan Interactive Museum FREE Dec. 15, 2010 28 Canadian War Museum (Ottawa, Canada) Canadian War Museum Tristan Interactive Museum FREE Jan. 6, 2012 29 Capitoline Musem (Rome, Italy) Lux In Arcana Accenture LLP Exhibition FREE April 9, 2012 30 Centre Pompidou (France) Centre Pompidou Centre Pompidou Museum FREE Feb. 4, 2011 31 Edvard Munch, The Modern Eye Antenna Audio Exhibition $1.99 Sept. 30, 2011 32 Danser sa vie Antenna Audio Exhibition $1.99 Nov. 21, 2011 33 Chicago History Museum (Chicago, IL) Chicago Fire Chicago History Museum Museum $4.99 May 8, 2012 34 Chrysler Museum of Art (Norfolk, VA) Chrysler Museum of Art GuideOne Mobile Museum FREE May 2, 2012 35 Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden (Cincinnati, OH) Cincinnati Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo FREE Aug. 9, 2011 36 Civil War Trust Fredericksburg Battle App NeoTreks Inc. Historic Site $2.99 Dec. 11, 2011 37 Gettysburg Battle App NeoTreks Inc. Historic Site $2.99 Dec. 11, 2011
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 40 38 Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Cleveland, OH) Mythic Creatures Cleveland Cleveland Musem of NH Exhibition FREE Mar. 7, 2012 39 Coastal Marine Botanical Garden (Boothbay, ME) Coastal Marine Botanical Garden TourSphere LLC Garden FREE June 20, 2011 40 Columbus Museum of Art (Columbus, OH) Caravaggio: Behold the Man! Toura Exhibition $1.99 Nov. 23, 2011 41 Contemporary Jewish Museum (San Fran, CA) Are We There Yet? Exhibit John Fox Exhibition FREE Mar. 10, 2011 42 Corning Museum of Glass (Corning, NY) Corning Museum of Glass Toura Museum $1.99 Nov. 19, 2011 43 Crystal Bridges Museum (Bentonville, AR) CBMuseum Crystal Bridges Museum Museum FREE May 11, 2012 44 Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX) Dallas Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo FREE April 17, 2010 45 de Young Museum (San Francisco, CA) de Young Spotlight Mobile, Inc. Museum $2.99 Feb. 10, 2011 46 Denver Art Museum (Denver, CO) DAM_SCOUT Denver Art Museum Museum FREE Feb. 10, 2012 47 Detroit Zoo (Detroit, MI) Detroit Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo $1.99 Jan. 26, 2012 48 Edsel & Eleanor Ford House (Grosse Pointe, MI) Edsel & Eleanor Ford House Audissey Guide Historic Site FREE Jan. 11, 2011 49 Fernand Lger National Museum (Biot, France) Muse National Fernand Lger de Biot Audiovisit Museum FREE June 15, 2010 50 The Field Museum (Chicago, IL) Specimania The Field Museum Game FREE Nov. 28, 2011 51 Galleria dell'Accademia (Florence, Italy) Accademia Gallery. The Official Guide Giunti Editore Museum $3.99 May 4, 2011 52 The Getty (Los Angeles, CA) The Getty: Art in L.A., PST Toura Exhibition FREE Oct. 1, 2011 53 Graphic Design Museum (Breda, Netherlands) Graphic Design Museum Graphic Design Museum Museum FREE Oct. 20, 2011 54 Great North Museum: Hancock (Newcastle, England) Irresistible Forces Robert Cain Exhibition FREE Mar. 10, 2010 55 Guggenheim Bilbao (Bilbao, Spain) Guggenheim Bilbao TF Editores SI Museum $3.99 Nov. 30, 2011 56 Hammer Museum (Los Angeles, CA) Hammer Museum Toura Museum FREE Feb. 24, 2012 57 Hatfield House (Hatfield, Hertforshire) Hatfield House ATS Heritage Historic Site $4.99 June 3, 2011 58 Herbert F. Johnson Museum (Ithaca, NY) HFJArtGuide Spotlight Mobile, Inc. Exhibition FREE Mar. 29. 2012 59 Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg, Russia) Hermitage Museum State Hermitage Museum Museum FREE May 9, 2012 60 Historical Museum of Bern (Bern, Switzerland) James Cook & the Exploration of the Pacific Linon Exhibition $3.99 Oct. 12, 2011 61 Houston Zoo (Houston, TX) Houston Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo FREE Aug. 17, 2011 62 Imperial War Museum (London, England) Extraordinary Heroes Toura Museum $0.99 Nov. 9, 2011 63 The Israel Museum (Jerusalem, Israel) To See Is To Believe Espro Acoustiguide Group Museum FREE May 31, 2012 64 Jewish Historical Museum (Amsterdam) Jewish Historical Museum Jewish Historical Museum Museum FREE June 14, 2011 65 The Jewish Museum (New York, NY) Edouard Vuillard Espro Acoustiguide Group Exhibition FREE May 10, 2012 66 Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Los Angeles, CA) LACMA LACMA Museum FREE Mar. 10, 2011 67 California Design Toura Exhibition FREE Oct. 1, 2011 68 Art Swipe (In Wonderland) Jody Zellen Exhibition FREE Jan. 24, 2012 69 Marin History Museum (San Rafael, CA) Marin History Museum Mobile Campus Visit Museum FREE April 20, 2012 70 Mashantucket Pequot Muse. & Research Center (CT) MPMRC Sweb Development Museum FREE Aug. 2, 2011 71 Memphis Brooks Museum of Art (Memphis, TN) Memphis Brooks Museum of Art Mobile App Tristan Interactive Museum FREE Feb. 28, 2012 72 Memphis Zoo (Memphis, TN) Memphis Zoo Memphis Zoo Society, Inc. Zoo FREE Jan. 20, 2012 73 Mercedes Benz Museum (Stuttgart, Germany) Mercedes Benz Classic Daimier AG Museum FREE Mar. 12, 2012 74 Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, NY) Met Guitars Met Exhibition FREE Feb. 5, 2011 75 Milwaukee Art Museum (Milwaukee, WI) Quadracci Pavillion Milwaukee Art Museum Museum FREE Sept. 9, 2011 76 Kohl's Art Generation For iPod Touch Tours Antenna Audio Museum FREE Aug. 3, 2011 77 Minneapolis Institute of Arts (Minneapolis, MN) Minneapolis Institute of Arts Minneapolis Instit. of Arts Museum FREE Jan. 18, 2012
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 41 78 iAfrica Minneapolis Institute of Arts Exhibition FREE July 8, 2010 79 Missouri History Museum (St. Louis, MO) Historic St. Louis Missouri History Museum Exhibition FREE Feb. 22, 2012 80 Montral Museum of Fine Arts (Montral, Canada) Montral Museum of Fine Arts Kanvasys Museum FREE Mar. 30, 2012 81 Mori Art Museum (Tokyo, Japan) Mori Art Museum Official App Mori Building Co., Ltd. Museum FREE Sept. 26, 2011 82 The Morris Art Museum (Augusta, GA) The Morris Art Museum VenuLex Corporation Museum FREE May 21, 2012 83 Moscow Museum of Modern Art (Moscow, Russia) Moscow Museum of Modern Art K S Museum FREE Feb. 15, 2012 84 Muse Cluny, Muse National du Moyen ge (Paris) Paris: Muse Cluny Audiovisit Museum FREE Dec. 28, 2009 85 Muse de Grenoble (Grenoble, France) Grenoble Chagall OPHRYS Systmes Exhibition FREE April 7, 2011 86 Muse de Louvre (Paris, France) Muse de Louvre Muse de Louvre Museum FREE Mar. 15, 2012 87 Saint Anne, da Vinci's Ultimate Masterpiece Muse de Louvre Exhibition $3.99 May 15, 2012 88 Muse d'Orsay (Paris, France) Muse d'Orsay Muse d'Orsay Museum FREE May 21, 2012 89 Muse du quai Branly (Paris, France) Les Matres du Dsordre: l'audioguide OPHRYS Systmes Museum $3.99 Mar. 28, 2012 90 Muse National Marc Chagall de Nice (Nice, France) Muse National Marc Chagall de Nice Audiovisit Museum FREE Aug. 29, 2010 91 Museum of Acropolis (Athens, Greece) Museum of Acropolis Audio Guide AMFINOMI Museum $4.99 May 27, 2010 92 Museum of Art, Ein Harod Matronita: Jewish Feminist Art Espro Acoustiguide Group Exhibition $2.99 Mar. 9, 2012 93 Museum of Arts & Sciences (Daytona Beach, FL) MOAS HD Interactive Museum FREE Sept. 29, 2010 94 Museum of Aviation (Warner Robins, GA) Museum of Aviation VenuLex Corporation Museum FREE May 21, 2012 95 Museum of Central Australia (Alice Springs, Australia) Museum of Central Australia My Tours Museum $1.99 Aug. 10, 2011 96 Museum of Contemporary Art (Taipei, Taiwan) MOCA Taipei MOCA Museum FREE Feb. 17, 2012 97 Museum of Contemporary Art (Shanghai) Timeless Beauty Van Cleefs & Arpels Exhibition FREE May 17, 2012 98 Museum of Flight (East Lothian, Scotland) The Concorde Experience Toura Exhibition FREE July 1, 2011 99 Museum of London (London, England) Museum of London: Streetmuseum Thumbspark Limited Museum FREE Sept. 25, 2010 100 Museum of Modern Art (New York, NY) MoMA Museum of Modern Art Museum FREE May 16, 2012 101 Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien (Aus) MUMOK Muse. of Modern Art Vienna Museum FREE Dec. 10, 2011 102 Nasher Museum of Art (Durham, NC) Nasher Museum Adam Cue Museum FREE Feb. 23, 2011 103 National Archives (Washington D.C.) Today's Document National Archives Museum FREE Feb. 12, 2011 104 National Gallery, London (London, England) Love Art Antenna Audio Museum $2.99 July 21, 2009 105 National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne, Australia) National Gallery of Victoria National Gallery of Victoria Museum FREE Jan. 31, 2012 106 National Institutes for Cultural Heritage (Japan) eMuseum Nat'l Instit. Cult. Heritage Museum FREE Mar. 21, 2012 107 National Museum of Korea (Seoul, Korea) National Museum of Korea Korea Tourism Org. Museum FREE June 1, 2012 108 National Museum of Racing & Hall of Fame (NY) NMRHOF NMRHOF Museum FREE Aug. 19, 2011 109 National Museum of Western Art (Toyko, Japan) Touch the Museum National Museum of Art Museum FREE April 18, 2011 110 National Palace Museum of Korea (Seoul, Korea) Vietnamese Treasures Oniontech Co., Ltd Exhibition FREE Feb. 8, 2011 111 National Palace Museum of korea Oniontech Co., Ltd Museum FREE July 7, 2011 112 Changdoekgung Palace Oniontech Co., Ltd Exhibition FREE June 23, 2011 113 National Portrait Gallery, London (London, England) National Portrait Gallery ATS Heritage Museum $1.99 Jan. 24, 2011 114 NPG Freud NPG Company Limited Exhibition $2.99 Feb. 8, 2012 115 National September 11 Memorial & Museum (NY, NY) Explore 9/11 Nat'l 9/11 Memorial & Mus. Museum FREE Sept. 6, 2011 116 9/11 Memorial Guide Nat'l 9/11 Memorial & Mus. Museum FREE Aug. 23, 2011 117 Neue Galerie (New York, NY) Heinrich Kuehn Espro Acoustiguide Group Exhibition FREE April 30, 2012
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 42 118 New Britain Museum of American Art (New Brit, CT) New Britain Museum of American Art New Wave Industries, Inc. Museum $2.99 Jan. 30, 2012 119 Newseum Today's Front Page Freedom Forum/Newseum Museum FREE Mar. 22, 2011 120 Norton Simon Museum (Pasadena, CA) Norton Simon Museum Norton Simon Museum Museum FREE July 7, 2011 121 Pace Gallery (New York, NY) 50 Years at Pace Toura Exhibition FREE Sept. 4, 2010 122 Conrad Shawcross: The Nervous System Toura Exhibition $0.99 Sept. 28, 2010 123 Zhang Huan: Head from Buddha Foot Toura Exhibition $1.99 Sept. 28, 2010 124 Carsten Nicolai: moir Toura Exhibition $0.99 June 16, 2010 125 Pera Museum (Istanbul, Turkey) Pera Mzesi Pera Mzesi Museum FREE Mar. 22, 2011 126 The Phillips Collection (Washington D.C.) The Phillips Collection Tristan Interactive Museum FREE May 18, 2012 127 Picasso Museum (Barcelona, Spain) Museu Picasso Ajuntament de Barcelona Museum FREE Mar. 23, 2012 128 Powerhouse Museum (Sydney, Australia) Love Lace Powerhouse Museum Exhibition FREE Sept. 27, 2011 129 Powerhouse Museum Walking Tours Powerhouse Museum Museum FREE June 14, 2011 130 Queensland Art Gallery (Brisbane, Australia) QAGOMA Internetics Gallery FREE May 16, 2012 131 Rijksmuseum Amsterdam (Netherlands) Rijksmuseum Collection Montana Media V.O.F. Museum $0.99 May 1, 2012 132 Rodin Museum (Paris, France) Wim Delvoye at the Muse Rodin Audiovisit Exhibition FREE June 8, 2010 133 Royal Academy of Arts (London, England) ALevel Summer Exhibition Online 2011 Art Discovery Limited Exhibition FREE Sept. 1, 2011 134 Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria, Canada) Aliens Among Us Hipwood Digital Exhibition FREE Nov. 15, 2011 135 Royal Ontario Museum (Ontario, Canada) Royal Ontario Museum Guide Royal Ontario Museum Museum FREE Nov. 4, 2011 136 St. Augustine Pirate & Treasure Museum (St. Aug, FL) St. Augustine Pirate & Treasure Museum GeoQuest Technologies LLC Museum $1.99 Aug. 2, 2011 137 St. Giles Cathedral (Edinburg, Scotland) St. Giles Cathedral ATS Heritage Church $4.99 May 10, 2011 138 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (San Fran, CA) SFMOMA Rooftop Garden NOUSguide Inc. Museum FREE Jan. 7, 2010 139 SFMOMA Families Night Kitchen Interactive Museum FREE Feb. 10, 2012 140 Science Museum Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, OK) Otto Parts Science Museum Oklahoma Game $2.99 Mar. 28, 2011 141 Scottish National Gallery (Edinburgh, Scotland) Elizabeth Blackadder Kotikan Limited Exhibition FREE July 7, 2011 142 Seattle Art Museum (Seattle, WA) Gaugin & Polynesia Espro Acoustiguide Group Exhibition FREE Feb. 15, 2012 143 Smithsonian Institution (Washington D.C.) Smithsonian Mobile Smithsonian Institution Museum FREE Jan. 17, 2012 144 Infinity of Nations (NMAI) Smithsonian Institution Exhibition FREE Oct. 24, 2011 145 Artists in Dialogue 2 (NMAA) Smithsonian Institution Exhibition FREE Oct. 20, 2011 146 Owney the Dog (NPM) Smithsonian Institution Exhibition FREE Oct. 4, 2011 147 Yves Klein (Hirshhorn & Walker Art Center) Toura Exhibition $1.99 Oct. 19, 2010 148 Stories from Main Street (SITES) Smithsonian Institution Exhibition FREE Oct. 31, 2011 149 Meanderthal (NMNH) Smithsonian Institution Museum FREE May 10, 2010 150 Strawberry Banke Museum (Portsmouth, NH) Strawberry Banke Museum Audissey Guide Museum FREE Dec. 15, 2010 151 Tate Modern (London, England) Gaughin: Maker of Myth Tate & Antenna Audio Exhibition $2.99 Sept. 20, 2011 152 Tate Guide to Modern Art Terms Tate Gallery Museum $2.99 Mar. 7, 2012 153 Damien Hirst Tate Gallery Exhibition $1.99 May 10, 2012 154 How It Is Tate Gallery Exhibition FREE Jan. 24, 2010 155 Gerhard Richter: Panorama Tate Gallery Exhibition $1.99 Nov. 1, 2011 156 Mir: The Ladder of Escape Tate Gallery Exhibition $2.99 Aug. 2, 2011 157 Muybridgizer Tate Gallery Exhibition FREE June 2, 2011
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 43 158 Magritte Your World Tate Gallery Exhibition FREE Oct. 18, 2011 159 Tate Trumps Tate Gallery Game FREE Jan. 4, 2012 160 Magic Tate Ball Tate Gallery Game FREE May 29, 2012 161 Race Against Time Tate Gallery Game FREE Dec. 14, 2011 162 Telfair Museum of Art (Savannah, GA) Dutch Utopia TourBuddy Exhibition FREE May 5, 2010 163 Tellus Science Museum (Cartersville, GA) Tellus Science Museum VenuLex Corporation Museum FREE May 14, 2012 164 Teylers Museum (Haarlem, Netherlands) Teylers Museum Gadgets & Games Puckipedia Game FREE May 25, 2011 165 Instruments Livecast Museum $0.99 Feb. 21, 2011 166 The Radical Camera NY's Photo League Espro Acoustiguide Group Exhibition FREE Nov. 9, 2011 167 Timken Museum of Art (San Diego, CA) Timken Museum of Art Balboa Park Online Collabor. Museum FREE April 18, 2012 168 Toledo Museum of Art (Toledo, OH) Toledo Museum of Art Madhouse Creative LLC Museum FREE Dec. 3, 2011 169 Tropenmuseum (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Tropenmuseum Red Antenna Audio Museum $1.99 Feb. 1, 2011 170 Tulsa Air and Space Museum (Tulsa, OK) Tulsa Air and Space Museum Anyware Mobile Solutions Museum FREE Mar. 26, 2012 171 Uffizi Gallery (Florence, Italy) Uffizi Parallelo Museum $1.99 Sept. 18, 2010 172 Vatican Museums (Rome, Italy) ItalyGuides:Vatican Museums Tour ComPart Multimedia Museum $5.99 May 26, 2011 173 Victoria & Albert Museum (London, England) The V&A Medieval & Ren. Galleries Toura Museum $2.99 April 4, 2011 174 Quilts 1700 2010 Antenna Audio Exhibition $2.99 Mar. 26, 2010 175 Tipu's iTiger VAE Museum FREE Oct. 20, 2009 176 The Cult of Beauty: The Aestheic Movement Toura Exhibition $1.99 April 4, 2011 177 The Witte Museum (San Antonio, TX) Witte Sweb Development Museum FREE Jan. 26, 2011 178 Woodland Park Zoo (Seattle, WA) Woodland Park Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo FREE May 21, 2012 179 ZSL London Zoo (London, England) London Zoo AVAI Ventures Inc. Zoo FREE Jan. 18, 2012 180 Zoo Lates Gospelware Limited Zoo FREE May 15, 2012
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 44 APPENDIX B: UNIVERSITY ART MUSEUMS WITH IPHONE APPS MUSUEM/INSTITUTION APP NAME DEVELOPMENT TEAM Davis Museum & Cultural Center, Wellesley College theDavis Wellesley HCI lab and the Davis Museum Hammer Museum, UCLA Hammer Museum Toura Harvard Art Museum, Harvard University Flap Print Gran Interactive, People Did It, Harvard University Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University HFJArtGuide Spotlight Mobile, Education and Curatorial staff, Communication professor, Cornell HCI lab Madison Art Collection, James Madison University JMU Arts Snite Museum of Art, University of Notre Dame Day of the Dead Experience the Tradition Julian Samora Library at the University of Notre Dames Institute for Latino Studies and the Snite Museum Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University Wexner Center for the Arts In-house designer/developer, Director of design, Director of Marketing & Communication
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 45 APPENDIX C: HARDWARE DETAILS HARDWARE DETAILS iPod Touch (4th Generation) Description: 8 GB Price: $169.99 Vendor: Best Buy Website: http://www.bestbuy.com/site/Apple%AE+-+iPod+touch%AE+8GB*+MP3+ Player(4th+Generation)+-+Black/9225377.p?id=121806715447&skuId=9225377 iPod Touch (4th Generation) Description: 16GB* Price: $199 Vendor: Apple Website: http://store.apple.com/us/browse/home/shop_ipod/family/ipod_touch_4th generation Charging Rack Description: XtremeMac InCharge X5 Charging Station Price: $149.95 Vendor: Apple Website: http://store.apple.com/us/product/H9003ZM/A/xtrememac-incharge-x5-chargingstation?node=74 Case Description: Leather Case with Lanyard and Kick Stand for Apple iPod Touch 4th Gen Price: $4.49 Vendor: Overstock Website: http://www.overstock.com/Electronics/Leather-Case-with -Lanyard-and-Kick Stand-for-Apple-iPod-touch-4th-Gen/5902102/product.html Custom Lanyard Description: Custom Lanyards Small Quantity Price: $3.99 Vendor: Lanyard Store Website: http://www.lanyardstore.com/printed-lanyard-small -quantity.html Headphones Description: Behringer Multipurpose Headphones Price: $10.99 Vendor: Best Buy Website: http://www.bestbuy.com/site/Behringer+-+Multipurpose+Headphones/3180902. p?id=1218382962383&skuId=3180902 *Apple only sells refurbished 8GB iPod Touch
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 46 APPENDIX D: DEVELOPMENT DETAILS There are a number of mobile app development companies that concentrate on museums and other cultural institutions. They are increasingly offering 2 mobile solutions: 1) standardized (template) app and 2) custom app. The standardized app allows museums to create, manage, distribute, and update an app through the companys template development platform. It provides an easy-to-use and cheaper option for museums, but it is typically limited in terms of themes, color schemes, fonts, and features. The custom app allows museums to work with the company and design an app from scratch. The museum has the opportunity to create a dream app, but depending on the features and how many, it can be a costly project. While the list of third-party vendors in Appendix A can be a helpful resource for the Harn to see what development companies other museums have employed, I have highlighted some local and international options for the museum below: DEVELOPMENT DETAILS Student Mobile Task Team Located on a university campus, the Harn Museum of Art can utilize the unique skills and resources available at UF. By mobilizing a team of students including graphic designers, product designers, programmers, art historians, foreign language majors, and marketing majors, the museum can work with various academic departments on campus to partner on future mobile projects. Students can apply their area of expertise to a professional museum setting, think about its application to mobile technology, gain an understanding of how mobile technology fits into the museum world, and work collaboratively with museum staffthis could increase the potential of a truly creative mobile app. The Harn is continually looking for ways to form interdisciplinary relationships with the campus, so this could be a beneficial and cost effective (potentially free) option for the museum. As of July 2012, out of the 7 university art museums that had an iPhone app available through the App Store, only 2 appeared to have employed campus resourcesmainly the Human-Computer Interaction labs. The Harn can further set an example for the other university art museums by demonstrating how the museum benefits from multidisciplinary relationships with academic units on campus, how it advances missions and strategic goals, and how it can lead to the development of a success mobile app. T5 Tech http://t5inc.com/ T5 Tech is a company based in Gainesville. Centric Studios http://www.centricstudios.com/ Centric Studios is a company based in Gainesville. Boxing Clever, LLC
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 47 http://www.boxingclever.us/ Boxing Clever, LLC is the company that produced SobekPH UF Archies and SobekPH Baldwin mobile applications for the UF Digital Collections. TourSphere http://www.toursphere.com/ The TourSphere App Platform provides options to build a standardized app or have the company build a customized app. The Harn can create and test-drive the app before publishing (purchasing) it. Their clients include the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, Edsel & Eleanor Ford House, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Costal Maine Botanical Gardens, the Mary Baker Eddy Library, the Toledo Museum of Art, and the Strawberry Banke Museum. Tristan Interactive http://www.tristaninteractive.com/ Tristan Interactive platform offers the Autour Mobile Guides standardized app (not launched for use yet) and custom applications. Their clients include the Louvre, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Australia, the Smithsonian (app for the whole institution, National Museum of the American Indian, and National Museum of African Art), the Canadian War Museum, the Phillips Collection, the Art Gallery of Ontario, and the Memp his Brooks Museum of Art. GuideOne http://guideonemobile.com/ GuideOne has a plug and play standardized app option and a custom app design option. Their clients include Longwood Gardens, the National Park Service in Boston, the Barnes Foundation, Alaska Native Heritage Center, Detroit Institute of Art, and the Chrysler Museum of Art.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 48 APPENDIX E: FUNDING DETAILS FUNDING DETAILS 2013 Research Opportunity Seed Fund Competition http://my.research.ufl.edu/applications/fundingopportunities/articledetail.aspx?id=30039 Deadline: January 9, 2013 Support: $5,000 Description (taken from website): The Research Opportunity Seed Fund targets interdisciplinary, faculty-initiated research initiatives with potential for extramural support. The program focuses on new projects and/or new collaborative partnerships.!Projects should be innovative, support institutional mission goals have strong potential for garnering future funding from external sources, OR have outstanding commercial potential. Opportunity Fund awards are not intended to support on-going projects they should support new projects (not a supplement to current research) and/or new collaborative partnerships. The proposal must emphasize novel research. To be competitive, proposals must be multi-/interdisciplinary and must involve faculty from at least two departments/units/colleges. Single-investigator proposals are not eligible. Proposals may be submitted by any UF faculty member (PI) eligible to submit a proposal to an external funding agency. Note: this typically funds medical-related research, but it could be a valid contender with the projects emphasis interdisciplinary collaborations. UF Technology Fee Grant http://www.it.ufl.edu/community/techfee/ Deadline: November 2013 (for August 2014) Support: roughly $125,000 or more Some of the criteria requirements (taken from website): Enhances instructional technology resources (services and infrastructure) for students and faculty The proposal serves the institutional mission and is aligned with the University of Florida and/or college strategic plan Shows benefits to a large number of students, faculty, and staff Collaborative endeavor amongst several departments and/or colleges Improves the students learning experience Improves facultys capacity to create quality learning environments for students Institute of Museum and Library Services
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 49 http://www.imls.gov/applicants/detail.aspx?GrantId=11 Grant: Museums for America (Collections stewardship) Deadline: January 15, 2013 Support: $5,000-$150,000 (match 1:1) Description (taken from website): IMLS supports exemplary stewardship of museum collections and promotes the use of technology to facilitate discovery of knowledge and cultural heritage. Projects should support the care and management of collections to expand and sustain access for current and future generations. Projects should reflect systematic, holistic, logical approaches to the documentation, preservation, and conservation of tangible and digital collections to sustain and improve public access. National Endowment for the Arts http://www.nea.gov/grants/apply/GAP13/MuseumsAW.html Grant: Art Works for Museums (Engagement Outcome) Deadline: August 2013 Support: $10,000-$100,000 (match 1:1) Description (taken from website):!Support is available for projects that provide public engagement with artistic excellence across a diverse spectrum of artistic disciplines and geographic locations. These projects should engage the public directly with the arts, providing Americans with new opportunities to have profound and meaningful arts experiences. Note: includes technology projects that provide online or in -museum access to collections, exhibitions, organizational history, and other programming information; innovation uses of technology or new models to exhibit new work or reach out to audiences National Endowment for the Humanities http://www.neh.gov/grants/public/americas -media-makers-development-grants Grant: Americas Media Makers: Development Grants (Interactive digital media) Deadline: January 9, 2013 (for projects beginning August 2013) Support: $40,000-$75,000 Description (taken from website): Development grants enable media producers to collaborate with scholars to develop humanities content and to prepare programs for production. Grants should result in a script or a design document and should also yield a
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 50 detailed plan for outreach and public engagement in collaboratio n with a partner organization or organizations. National Endowment for the Humanities http://www.neh.gov/grants/public/americas -media-makers-production-grants Grant: Americas Media Makers: Production Grants (Interactive digital media) Deadline: January 9, 2013 (for projects beginning August 2013) Support: $100,000-$800,000 Description (taken from website): Production grants support the production and distribution of digital projects, films, television programs, radio programs, and related programs that promise to engage the public. National Endowment for the Humanities http://www.neh.gov/grants/odh/digital-humanities-start-grants Grant: Digital Humanities Start-Up Grant Deadline: September 12, 2013 (for projects beginning May 2014) Support: Level I$5,000-$30,000; Level II$30,001-$60,000 Description (taken from website): This program is designed to encourage innovations in the digital humanities. By awarding relatively small grants to support the planning stages, NEH aims to encourage the development of innovative projects that promise to benefit the humanities. Proposals should be for the planning or initial stages of digital initiatives in any area of the humanities. National Endowment for the Humanities http://www.neh.gov/grants/odh/digital-humanities-implementation-grants Grant: Digital Humanities Implementation Grant Deadline: January 23, 2013 (for projects beginning September 2013) Support: $100,000-$350,000 Description (taken from website): The program is designed to fund the implementation of innovative digital-humanities projects that have successfully completed a start -up phase and demonstrated their value to the field. Such projects might enhance our understanding of central problems in the humanities, raise new questions in the humanities, or develop new digital applications and approaches for use in the humanities. The program can support innovative digital-humanities projects that address multiple audiences, including
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 51 scholars, teachers, librarians, and the publicUnlike NEHs start-up grant program, which emphasizes basic research, prototyping, experimentation, and potential impact, the Digital Humanities Implementation Grants program seeks to identify projects that have successfully completed their start-up phase and are well positioned to have a major impact. Henry Luce Foundation http://www.hluce.org/asiarespongrant.aspx Grant: Asia Responsive Grant Deadline: requests can be made anytime of the year Description (taken from website): Asia Responsive Grants provide opportunities to improve understanding between the United States and the Asia-Pacific region. These grants typically support research, create new scholarly and public resources, or promote the exchange of ideas and information between Americans and Asians. Note: the grant only supports work related to Northeast and Southeast Asia. Arts Network Asia (ANA) http://www.artsnetworkasia.org/main.html Deadline: open call for projects announced in November 2012 Support: maximum of $10,000 Description (taken from website): Arts Network Asia (ANA) will consider projects that encourage challenging, provocative exchanges and collaborations between different cultures within Asia. This includes contemporary art, contemporary art and its relationship to traditional arts or encounters between traditional culturesWe believe that such a grant scheme is the most participatory way to approach a broad and i nclusive base responding to the needs within Asia. Hence, the workshops, collaborative processes, research, study grants, residencies, internships should move towards diversity, mutual understanding, empowerment, autonomy, dialogue through arts and culture. Asian Cultural Council http://www.asianculturalcouncil.org/apply/organization -guidelines Grant: Asian Cultural Council Grant for Organizations Deadline: November 2013 Support: maximum of $10,000 Description (taken from website): The Asian Cultural Council supports international
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 52 dialogue, understanding, and respect through cultural exchange and nurtures the individual talents of the artists and scholars in Asia and the United States. The Asian Cultural Council grants are open to citizens and permanent residents of the United States or citizens and permanent residents of the countries of Asia, from Afghanistan eastward through Japan and Indonesia. Since the program resources of the Asian Cultural Council are focused on fellowship awards to individuals, the Councils grants for organizations are usually modest in size and are generally awarded to support the participation of individual artists, scholars, and specialists from the United States or from Asia in project activities administered by the applicant organization. Note: supports planning process, not implementation or development costs
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 53 LIST OF REFERENCES American Alliance of Museums. Mobile in Museums Study 2012. https://aam-us.org/docs/ research/mobilemuseums2012-(aam).pdf. Arvanitis, Konstantinos. Museums Outside Walls: Mobile Phones and the Museum in the Everyday. In Museums in a Digital Age, edited by Ross Parry. New York: Routledge, 2010. Association of Academic Museums & Galleries. AAMG Supporting Members. http://www. aamg-us.org/about-us/institutional-members#art. Beasley, Stephen and Annie Conway. Digital Media in Everyday Life: A Snapshot of Devices, Behaviors, and Attitudes Part 1: Mobile Device Ownership. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2012, San Diego, CA, April 11-14, 2012), http://www.museumsandtheweb. Com/mw2012/papers/digital_media_in_everyday_life_a_snapshot_of_d. Brunette, Allegra, Rich Cherry, Nancy Proctor, and Peter Samis. Getting On (not Under) the Mobile 2.0 Bus: Emerging Issues in the Mobile Business Model. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6-9, 2011. Accessed June 11, 2012. http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2011/papers/getting_on_not_under_the_mobile_ 20__bus. CTIA. Wireless Quick Facts: Year-End Figures. Accessed October 12, 2012. http://www.ctia. org/media/industry_info/index.cfm/AID/10323. Ericsson. Traffic and Market Report: On the Pulse of the Networked Society, June 2012. Accessed September 20, 2012. http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_ report_june_2012.pdf. Fox, Zoe. How Cellphones Shape the Lives of College Students. Mashable, October 31, 2011. Last accessed June 27, 2012. http://mashable.com/2011/10/31/cellphones-college-students/. Google. Our Mobile Planet: United States: Understanding the Mobile Consumer May 2012. Accessed October 9, 2012. http://services.google.com/fh/files/blogs/our_mobile_planet_us_ en.pdf. iPhone Apps. Museums2Go. Last accessed June 11, 2012. http://www.museums2go.com/ iphone-apps/. LaBar, Wayne. The Gyroscopic Museum. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums, edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011. Laird, Sam. In a Relationship: College Students and Their Smartphones. Mashable, June 30, 2012. Last accessed October 1, 2012. http://mashable.com/2012/06/30/smartphones-collegestudents-infographic/.
Harn Museum of Art Ceramics iPhone App 54 NielsonWire (blog). http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/young -adults-and-teenslead-growth-among-smartphone-owners/. Tallon, Loc. Museums & Mobile in 2012: An Analysis of the Museums & Mobile Survey 2012 Responses. Pocket-Proof and LearningTimes, February 2012. http://www.museums mobile.org/survey/. Valtysson, Bjarki, Nanna Holdgaard, and Rich Ling. The iPhone and Its Use in Museums. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011.
10 APPENDIX B CERAMICS: AVENUES OF EXCHANGE BROCHURE
10 LIST OF CITED REFERENCES American Alliance of Museums. Mobile in Museums Study 2012. https://aam-us.org/docs/ research/mobilemuseums2012-(aam).pdf. App Store Metrics. 148appbiz.com. Accessed November 1, 2012. http://148apps.biz/app-storemetrics/. Arvanitis, Konstantinos. Museums Outside Walls: Mobile Phones and the Museum in the Everyday. In Museums in a Digital Age, edited by Ross Parry. New York: Routledge, 2010. Association of Academic Museums & Galleries. AAMG Supporting Members. http://ww w. aamg-us.org/about-us/institutional-members#art. Battro, Antonio M. From Malrauxs Imaginary Museum to the Virtual Museum. In Museums in a Digital Age, edited by Ross Parry. New York: Routledge, 2010. Bautista, Susana and Anne Balsamo. Understanding the Distributed Museum: Mapping the Spaces of Museology in Contemporary Culture. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6-9, 2011. http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2011/ papers/understanding_the_distributed_museum_mapping_t. Beasley, Stephen and Annie Conway. Digital Media in Everyday Life: A Snapshot of Devices, Behaviors, and Attitudes Part 1: Mobile Device Ownership. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2012, San Diego, CA, April 11-14, 2012), http://www.museumsandtheweb. Com/mw2012/papers/digital_media_in_everyday_life_a_snapshot_of_d. Bradburne, James M. Foreword to Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Brunette, Allegra, Rich Cherry, Nancy Proctor, and Peter Samis. Getting On (not Under) the Mobile 2.0 Bus: Emerging Issues in the Mobile Business Model. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6-9, 2011. http://www.museumsandthe web.com/mw2011/papers/getting_on_not_under_the_mobile_20__bus. Crow, William B. and Herminia Din. Unbound By Place or Time: Museums and Online Learning. Washington D.C.: The AAM Press, 2009. CTIA. Wireless Quick Facts: Year-End Figures. Accessed October 12, 2012. http://www.ctia. org/media/industry_info/index.cfm/AID/10323. Ericsson. Traffic and Market Report: On the Pulse of the Networked Society June 2012. http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2012/traffic_and_market_report_june_2012.pdf.
10 Falk, John Falk and Lynn D. Dierking. Enhancing Visitor Interaction and Learning with Mobile Technologies. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Filippini-Fantoni, Silvia and Jonathan P. Bowen. Mobile Multimedia: Reflections from Ten Years of Practice. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Forbes, Ted. Native or Not? Why a Mobile Web App Might Be Right for Your Museum. In Mobile Apps for Museums: The AAM Guide to Planning and Strategy, edited by Nancy Proctor. Washington, D.C: The AAM Press, 2011. Fox, Zoe. How Cellphones Shape the Lives of College Students. Mashable, October 31, 2011. http://mashable.com/2011/10/31/cellphones-college-students/. Fres, Isabel and Kevin Walker. The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums. In Conversations with Visitors: Social Media and Museums. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2012. Google. Our Mobile Planet: United States: Understanding the Mobile Consumer May 2012. http://services.google.com/fh/files/blogs/our_mobile_planet_us_en.pdf. Hein, George E. The Constructivist Museum. In The Educational Role of the Museum, edited by Eilean Hooper-Greenhill, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1999. Howes, Deborah Seid. Why the Internet Matters: A Museum Educators Perspective. In The Digital Museum: A Think Guide, edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht. Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007. Hsi, Sherry. Designing for Mobile Visitor Engagement. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. iPhone Apps. Museums2Go. Accessed June 11, 2012. http://www.museums2go.com/iphoneapps/. Katz, James E., Lora Appel, and Ellen Lynch. Conclusion to Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums, edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011. Korean Art: Collecting Treasures. Online exhibition. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, in collaboration with the University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries, 2012. http://exhibits.uflib.ufl.edu/harnkoreanart/. LaBar, Wayne. The Gyroscopic Museum. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums, edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011.
10 Laird, Sam. In a Relationship: College Students and Their Smartphones. Mashable, June 30, 2012. http://mashable.com/2012/06/30/smartphones-college-students-infographic/. MacDonald, George F. and Stephen Alsford. The Museum as Information Utility. In Museums in a Digital Age, edited by Ross Parry. New York: Routledge, 2010. Mobile applications: native v Web apps what are the pros and cons?. mobiThinking. http://mobithinking.com/native-or-web -app. NielsonWire (blog). http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/young-adults-and-teenslead-growth-among-smartphone-owners/. Parry, Ross. Afterword: The Future in Our Hands? Putting Potential into Practice. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Proctor, Nancy. From Headphones to Microphones: Mobile Social Media in the Museum as Distributed Network. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011. Rodley, Ed. Looking Around vs. Looking Down: Incorporating Mobility into Your Experience Design. In Mobile Apps for Museums: The AAM Guide to Planning and Strategy, edited by Nancy Proctor. Washington D.C.: The AAM Press, 2011. Rudman, Paul, Mike Sharples, Peter Lonsdale, Giasemi Vavoula, and Julia Meek. CrossContext Learning. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Samis, Peter. The Exploded Museum. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Smith, Jeffrey K. and Pablo P. L. Tinio. Audibly Engaged: Talking the Walk. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Smith, Sue. What is a Smartphone App?. eHow. Accessed September 23, 2012. http://www. ehow.com/info_8656054_smartphone-app.html. Spinazze, Angela T. Technologys No Tea Party for Small Museums. In The Digital Museum: A Think Guide, edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht. Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007.
10 Tallon, Loc. Introduction: Mobile, Digital, and Personal. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Tallon, Loc. Musematic (blog). http://musematic.net/2009/05/19/about-that-1952-sedelijkmuseum-audio-guide-and-a-certain-willem -sandburg/. Tallon, Loc. Museums & Mobile in 2012: An Analysis of the Museums & Mobile Survey 2012 Responses. Pocket-Proof and LearningTimes, February 2012. http://www.museumsmobile.org/survey/. Tallon, Loc and Isabel Fres. Going Mobile? Insights into the Museum Communitys Perspectives on Mobile Interpretation. Paper presented at Museums and the Web 2011, Philadelphia, PA, April 6-9, 2011. http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2011/papers/ going_mobile_insights_into_the_museum_communit. Thomas, Selma. Introduction to The Digital Museum: A Think Guide, edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht. Washington D.C.: American Association of Museums, 2007. Valtysson, Bjarki, Nanna Holdgaard, and Rich Ling. The iPhone and Its Use in Museums. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011. Walker, Kevin. Structuring Visitor Participation. In Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media, edited by Loc Tallon and Kevin Walker. Lanham: AltaMira Press, 2008. Wifi Hotspots Set to More Than Triple By 2015. Informa. Last modified November 11, 2011. http://www.informa.com/Media-centre/Press-releases--news/Latest-News/Wifi -hotspots-set to-more-than-triple-by-2015/. Zimmerman, Timothy. Mobile Devices for Promoting Museum Learning. In Creativity and Technology: Social Media, Mobiles and Museums, edited by James E. Katz, Wayne LaBar, and Ellen Lynch. Edinburgh: MuseumsEtc Ltd, 2011.
10 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hannah Soh graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Virginia Tech in 2005. Prior to attending the University of Florida, she interned in the education department at the Taubman Museum of Art, the Collections Processing Unit at the Smithsonian Institutions National Air and Space Museum, and she was a contractor for the collections management department at the Smithsonians National Postal Museum. While enrolled as a student in the Museum Studies graduate program at UF, she interned in the registration departments at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art and the Florida Museum of Natural History, and again for the CPU at the National Air and Space Museum.