Junctions of contemporary art trends and new methods of art education

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Title:
Junctions of contemporary art trends and new methods of art education
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Ferrell, Karissa Holstein
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College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
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Abstract:
Art, as a field, is constantly amidst change and challenge. Art educators have to constantly keep up with what is new, relevant, and approachable in today’s contemporary culture. Throughout my studies and eight years of teaching experience I have come to recognize a gap between the trends and concepts emerging from the contemporary art world and the resources available to K-12 art educators (including myself). In preparation for this capstone project, I completed a literature review in which I analyzed and evaluated 40 articles published during the past ten years in the National Art Education Association’s Art Education and Studies in Art Education journals. I found a surprisingly high percentage of articles that lacked examples of contemporary art or instructional strategies for engaging students with contemporary art in the classroom (Ferrell, 2011). This finding spurred my interest in creating a web-based resource for high school teachers, a well-researched guide that would bring together relevant resources, highlight emerging artists, describe shifting trends, and offer curriculum strategies. The first phase of research for my capstone project began as an investigation into existing resources dealing with contemporary art. I mined through the 40 articles that I had previously used for my literature review. Additionally I examined dozens of artist’s websites, educator’s blogs, and contemporary art museum sites. I also curated collections and gathered ideas from social media networks like as Pinterest.com, Scoop.it, Twitter.com, Tumblr.com, and Delicious.com. After collecting and examining artists and websites, I evaluated my findings and organized them into seven major trends that I have identified to categorize emerging contemporary art practice. These trends included: Altered Place, EcoArt, Interdisciplinary, Interactive, Globalization (including social/political), New Media, and the Everyday. Although I encountered difficulty trying to categorize and “pin down” artists who intentionally break boundaries and often desire to resist against old systems of evaluating art, I believe that these trends encompass the diversity and breadth of contemporary art practice happening today. By labeling and “tagging” my findings using multiple categories, a web-like structure became apparent. This allowed selected artists to exist in multiple categories, formed connections between concepts, and opened up exciting teaching possibilities. I chose the micro-blogging site Tumblr to create Teach Art™, my web-platform that consists of an overview map (to show connections between concepts), a summary of seven contemporary art trends (including linked resources), an artist guide (featuring thirty-five representative contemporary artists and collaborative groups), and curriculum strategies for teaching about contemporary art in the classroom. This capstone project facilitates innovative, current, and practical strategies derived from notable contemporary artists. Ultimately this capstone project will begin to answer the question: How can contemporary art become approachable and practical to secondary art educators? My web-platform may be viewed at TeachArt.org.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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AA00013343:00001


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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION BY KARISSA HOLSTEIN FERRELL SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE CRAIG ROLAND, CHAIR ELIZABETH DELACRUZ, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 2 2012 Karissa Holstein Ferrell

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 3 AKNOWLEDEMENTS I would like to thank my loving husband, DW Ferrell, for the countless hours of brainstorming, concept refinement, editing, marketing, and for supporting me though this journey. I would also like to thank my family and friends who have provided necessary mental breaks and emotional support. And finally, a huge tha nk you to my supervisory committee for helping guide me through the coursework and especially supporting me through this capstone project. I couldn't have done it without you all!

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page AKNOWLEDGMENTS ...pg. # 3 LIST OF FIGURES...pg. # 5 ABSTRACT.. pg. # 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION......pg. # 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ...... pg. # 15 3 RESEARCH STRATEGIES.. pg. # 23 4 RESULT S .. pg. # 34 5 DISCUSSION ...pg # 43 APPENDIX A ( Online S urvey Q uestions) .. .. pg # 46 APPENDIX B (IRB 02 forms)... ..pg. # 49 APPENDIX C ( Literature Review, Pilot Study C hart) .pg. # 5 1 APPENDIX D ( Annotated Glossary of Terms ) ... pg # 5 2 REFERENCESpg. # 56 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...pg. # 6 1

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 5 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Pa ge 3 1 ( Capacity of Classroom Use ) 27 3 2 ( Pinterest Boards Showing Resources Organization by Trend Boards )... 30 3 3 ( Scoop.it Page Featuring Entries Filtered by Tag "Altered Place" ) ... 31 3 4 ( Illustration of Unique Navigational Features of Teach.Art.org ) 33 4 1 ( Screen Capture of Trends Page at TeachArt.org/trends ) 35 4 2 ( Screen Capture of Artist Page at TeachArt.org/artists ) 39 4 3 ( Screen Capture of Curriculum Strategies Page at TeachArt.org/curriculum ) .40

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 6 Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University Of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION By Karissa Holstein Ferrell August 2012 Chair: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Art, as a field, is constantly amidst change and challenge. Art educators have to constantly keep up with what is new, relevant, and approachable in today's contemporary culture. Throughout my studies and eight years of teaching experience I have come to recognize a gap between the trends and concepts emerging from the contemporary art world and the resources available to K 12 art educators (including myself). In preparation for t his capstone project, I completed a literature review in which I analyzed and evaluated 40 articles published during the past ten years in the National Art Education Association's Art Education and Studies in Art Education journals I found a surprisingly high percentage of articles that lacked examples of contemporary art or instructional strategies for engaging students with contemporary art in the classroom (Ferrell, 2011). This finding spurred my interest in creating a web based resource for high scho ol teachers, a well researched guide that would bring together relevant resources, highlight emerging artists, describe shifting trends, and offer curriculum strategies. The first phase of research for my capstone project began as an investigation into e xisting resources dealing with contemporary art. I mined through the 40 articles that I had previously used for my literature review Additionally I examined dozens of artist's websites, educator's blogs, and contemporary art museum sites. I also curated collections and gathered ideas from

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 7 social media networks like as Pinterest .com Scoop.it, Twitter .com Tumblr .com and Delicious .com After collecting and examining artists and websites, I evaluated my findings and organized them into seven major trends that I have identified to categorize emerging contemporary art practice These trends included: Altered Place EcoArt Interdisciplinary Interacti ve Globalization (including social/p olitical ) New Media and the Everyday Although I encountered diffic ulty trying to categorize and "pin down" artists who intentionally break boundaries and often desire to resist against old systems of evaluating art, I believe that these trends encompass the diversity and breadth of contemporary art practice happening tod ay. By labeling and t agging" my findings using multiple categories, a web like structure became apparent. This allowed selected artists to exist in multiple categories, formed connections between concepts, and opened up exciting teaching possibilities. I cho se the micro blogging site Tumblr to create Teach Art my web platform that consists of an overview map (to show connections between concepts), a summary of seven contemporary art trends (including linked resources), a n artist guide (featuring thirt y five representative contemporary artists and collaborative groups ) and curri culum strategies for teaching about contemporary art in the classroom. This capstone project facilitates innovative, current, and practical strategies derived from notable cont emporary artists. Ultimately this capstone project will begin to answer the question: How can contemporary art become approachable and practical to secondary art educators? My web platform may be viewed at TeachArt. org

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION One of the bi ggest challenges an educator faces is creating innovative lessons that will engage students. As an art educator this task is even more challenging when it comes to teaching students about the ever evolving t rends emerging from contemporary art. As an experienced high school art educator I have decided to explore the junctions between the changing and multi dimensional f ield of contemporary art and today's secondary art classrooms. It is inherent to my profe ssion and my avocation as an art educator to prepare my students to understand, appreciate, and contribute to the contemporary art world. To accomplish this goal, my Capstone P roject will help secondary art teachers develop curriculum that bridges the gap between these two worlds. At this juncture it is important to contextualize my interest, knowledge, and training in a rt h istory and contemporary art. My interest began as a senior in high school w hen I took a humanities course where I learned how to st udy artworks, artists, and the cultures that produced all the great images and objects of civilization Looking at a painting, sculpture or architectural work, I could suddenly understand more about the historical context and the culture who produced the a rtwork. I was able to more easily remember information about the kings and queens in power, the religious rituals, historical events, and get a sense for the culture of everyday life. That course awoke a passion in me that has continued to grow ever sinc e I continued my studies at the University of California, Davis where I earned a Bachelor of Arts in both Art History and Studio Art. During my senior year of college I had the opportunity to study abroad at the Lorenzo de Medici Art Institute of Flore nce, Italy. It was there that I encountered two teachers, Rose Shakinovsky and Claire Gavronsky who would become my long term mentors in my pursuit of mixed media art, art history and art education. Since 2001 I have returned to Italy for three summer i nvitational workshops including a three

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 9 day visit to the Venice Biennale in 2007, and had the pleasure of working with Rosenclaire (their collaborative pseudonym) in Santa Ana and San Francisco, California as well as in New York City. The work we did as a collaborative workshop was influential in shaping my teaching philosophy and art practice. Concepts of collaboration, participation, utilization of new media, mixed media, video, performance, and installation were at the forefront of their teaching. I experienced first hand teaching that was in line with contemporary art, melded with the contextual history of art, and moving forward towards the contribution of art that is now My educational experience with Rosenclaire was largely influential in my de cision to become an art educator. I pursued my K 12 teaching credential in art at California State University, Long Beach and from there I went on to Los Alamitos High School where I am still teaching today. Throughout my professional preparation and my first few years teaching Printmaking and AP Art History I became frustrated that I wasn't prepared and didn't have enough time to plan curriculum that would really engage my students with the art of their day. While m y credential program prepared me to me et the requirements of the California State Framework for the Arts, there was very little training or discussion about engaging students with the art of today In 2010 when I wrote the entrance essay for the Masters of Arts in Art Education program at U niversity of Florida, I wrote about my observations of a "lag" between academic theory/educational classroom practice and the contemporary art world. As I continued through my the graduate coursework, readings, and independent research projects I collecte d various articles, artist websites, and classroom projects ideas that have culminated into the organization and production of my capstone project, a nd the TeachArt web platform

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 1 0 Th is product of my research a web based resource and strategy guide present s a well rounded picture of globalized views of art from various cultures, values, gender and religious perspectives while drawing on the similarities rather than the differences TeachArt serves not only as my own springboard for teaching with and through contemporary art at the forefront, it also offers high school art teachers a resource for bringing contemporary artists into their classrooms. My intended audience is motivated K 12 art teachers like myself, museum and community art educators, as well as teachers of other disciplines who are interested in refreshing ideas for their curriculum. My web platform guide reveals connections and thematic parallels between artists' work and critical theory from the past 10 years. It also provide s strategies for cr eating cross disciplinary and collaborative lessons, links to artists' websites, and propose s essential questions that can guide teachers and students through the evaluation of art's content and role in society The teaching strategies are intended to enga ge students with challenging topics intended to structure students' knowledge of contemporary art and build confidence in their modes of interpretation. Statement of the Problem I am very fortunate to teach in an affluent school is southern California t hat prides itself on outstanding academic achievement, the support of a wonderful community, and teachers have access to many of the latest technological gadgets at thei r fingertips The Visual and Performing Arts Departments are respected as an asset of the school's reputation ; yet as an art educator I find myself with very few curriculum resources, and none of them are about contemporary art. My school has never adopted a n art textbook, nor is there a n art periodical or publication to which my school su bscribes Furthermore, the most easily accessible online art resources and websites are often blocked from classroom use. I like other motivated art educators find myself

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 11 spending countless hours at home and on the weekends trying to create a do it yours elf ( DIY 1 style ) art curriculum that is current and engaging to my students. I don't mention this to sound unfortunate or ungrateful but rather to set the stage for art teachers working within a struggling economy and a public education system that places it's highest values on standardized test scores and regional or state wide competitions. It is a daily challenge to find the time to promote my art program and compete with the core curriculum subjects. Teachers of o ther disciplines have established, pi loted current curriculum resources that are revised and reevaluated to follow standardized curriculum content As I found in my pilot study of art education literature, very few contemporary art resources exist for art teachers. The aim of this Capston e Projec t is to provide teachers with an overview of emerging trends in contemporary art, vocabulary, and strategies with which to discuss and engage students with the prominent artists of today (and the last 10 years). TeachArt.org is a web base d re sourc e guide that presents teachers with starting point s (an artist, a trend, or a curriculum strategy) to build lessons and projects It is intended to help begin to answer the question: Ho w can contemporary art be made more accessible and practical for art t eachers and students ? Many art teachers don't have the time or resources to help expand their curriculums into the realm of contemporary art. However, I maintain here that if art teachers do not demonstrate what is current and viable in the art world, t heir students are left unaware and unprepared. More than any other art form, I believe that the study of contemporary art provides students with much needed critical thinking and creative skills to build a successful career as an artist or to appreciate t he art and visual culture of their day As Stuhr (2003) states, "All education like all subjects should be connected intimately to students' lives; therefore, curriculum, because of this connection to student life and their worlds, should be thought of as an ongoing process a nd not a 1 (EyePopArt, 2008)

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 12 product" ( p.303). This sentiment reflects my desire to create a web based resource that can easily change adapt and expand to reflect developments within contemporary art. A print article or traditional textbook becomes nea rly outdated by the time it is published, whereas a self published site in the World Wide Web can be easily updated, corrected, and transformed to fit the time. Web 2.0 2 is the philosophy that is driving current web content to be user centered, interactiv e, engag ing to viewers with multi media information, and allowing re use of content that is open source d 3 As a result website users can easily collaborate and share information on a global scale. Discussion and reflection are presented along side conten t, which may be a video or audio clip, a still image or article and each with embedded reference links. These technological developments have changed the arts, education, and culture as a whole. The nature of curating 4 (to organize the exhibition of inf ormation) mirrors contemporary values and digital culture ; and therefore is an accepted strateg y for teachers to use in creating their own curriculum. In 2011 Smart H istory .org merged with the Kahn Academy two noteworthy online programs advancing the fiel d of education. Smart H istory .org founded by Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker began in 2005 as a blog featuring free podcast audio guides for use in The Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Smart H istory .org developed from the blog format into a free multi media web book designed as a dynamic enhancement (or even substitute) for the traditional art history textbook. Their 2 (Buffington, 2008) 3 Open Sourc e id s term in production and development that d escribes a philosophy or pragmatic methodology that free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details. This approach has various interdisciplinary applications. Artists have used this model to share their ideas globally by creating images that can be freely distributed or a list of instructions for a relational aesthetics piece that be repeated by anyone. This approach to art making challenges traditional values of authorship and originality ( Bradford, M. (2010 ). 4 Curation recognizes the unique voice of an editor who selects and presents content, media, performance, or other works. Traditionally the role of a curator has been to use their knowledge and refined ta ste to select creative works and present a narrative to help viewers contextualize the work. Digital curation works much the same way and a recent trend in curation has been to flip this relationship, where the curator's role is primary and frames the wor k that is included (ie Chris Anderson, curat or of TED) ( Scime, 2009 ).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 13 multimedia approach presents balanc ed and engaging stories and discussion about the history of art, along with links to the newest online resources and still images Users are encouraged to collaborate by submitting their own photos through a public Flickr account. Smarthistory.org is org anized based on traditional chronology, geography, and stylistic development yet is innovative in its willingness to encounter the unfamiliar and transform it in ways that become meaningful to learners. Although it presents an innovative and engaging art education model, it does not yet have content relating t o contemporary art. M y C apstone P roject aims to fill this gap by facilitating classroom investigation s and empower ing today's art teachers with the language of and examples from contemporary art as a starting point for their own curriculum development Significance of the Study My research and culminating project move s the theoretical language of contemporary art criticism and research into an accessible conversation that engage s secondary art teac hers and students alike. Many students are independently motivated to explore the possibilities of online venues; however, these "digital resources have been seen as distractions in the classroom and are commonly undervalued in an educational setting ( Bu ffington, 2008 ). TeachArt.org will challenge art teachers and students to see "online venues" as spaces for creative expression and innovation; and to see the activities and discussion questions included in the guide a s means to discover the values presen ted to them through contemporary visual media. It is essential to teach young people to become critical rather than passive consumers and to equip them with ideas and skills that contribute to society in a meaningful way. School budgets ebb and flow and very widely across the country, and so do restrictions on I nternet material for "educational merit," therefore this w eb based guide offer s low cost strategies and ways to carefully address

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 14 controversial topics while still teaching the main concepts of post modernism and contemporary art which are reflected in today's culture. Limitations of the Study My Capstone Project and research are based on the assumption that contemporary art should be an important component of any K 12 art curriculum. I acknowled ge this is a biased position that has perhaps impact ed the types of questions I ask ed, websites I ch ose to include or exclude, and generally flavor ed the C apstone P roject. I limited my literature review pilot study to 40 articles written since 2000 from t he National Art Education Association's (NAEA) publications of Art Education and Studies in Art Education. These selections and limitations will be further explained in Chapter 2 and 3. For the survey portion of my research I completed a purposefu l samp ling poll in which I received a relatively small number of valid responses (n=24). I realize that by using an online survey and social media networks to gather responses, the outcome was slanted towards educators who are already focused on improving their teaching practice through higher education and interactive exchange. I acknowledge that the demographics of those pol l ed affects the outcome of my survey therefore I cannot reach universal conclusions or assumptions about secondary art educators.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 15 CHAP TER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Prior to creating my web platform TeachArt.org I completed a literature review as a research pilot study 5 to find out what resources are available about teaching contemporary art in the two main journals of the NAEA within the las t decade. This literature review was not intended to be an exhaustive study of all references published but rather a small sampling of information that I found accessible to secondary teachers (like myself) I realize that much has been written about sec ondary art education and contemporary in the mid 1990s by authors like Szekeley (1991) Barrett ( 1994, 1995 ) Lankford & Katz (1994) Freedman and Efland (1996 ) Hume (1990 ,1994 ) Gaudelius and Spiers (2002 ), and Dale y (1995) as well as curriculum resource s produced by The Getty Education Foundation and other art institutions; however in my initial search I found only a handful of books published within the last decade that were geared towards teaching contemporary art at the secondary level 6 As an experi enced but still relatively new teacher I am continually trying to locate the most current 7 curriculum resources that are looking forward towards the future of art education rather than relying on the mature and traditional approaches to teaching. What I f ound from my initial search was a lack of information leading teachers towards building curriculum that connects artists (who have emerged in the international art scene within the past decade) with creative classroom teaching strategies. Although limit ed, this literature review raised an important finding since the mid 1990s there has not been much published in the two major professional journals of the National Art 5 Visit tinyurl.com/d948wzd to read this unpublished pilot study. 6 Author Terry Barrett is one of the exceptions that has written several rele vant and practical books about contemporary art and curriculum for art educators. 7 For use in this study, I define current as those authors and concepts proposing ideas for the future of art rather than what has taken place in the past. I feel that cur rent artists and resources are relevant, connected to various facets of society, represent innovative ideas which cross beyond boundaries of media or fields of study, encourage collaboration, reflect on the process of art ma king, and consider things in our everyday lives not previously defined as art (Ferrell, 2011).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 16 Education Association to connect contemporary artists to teaching strategies. On the ot her hand, since the 1990's the Internet has exploded with information about contemporary artists. I have concluded that teachers who want to continue redefining and updating their curriculum are left to adopt a "Do It Yourself 8 approach, which is effecti vely the method I have taken in completing this C apstone P roject. My literature review helped me refine criteria for evaluating other kinds of resources about contemporary artists, and thus c reate a framework for selecting and analyzing web based resources videos, blogs, a nd exhibition publications for TeachArt.org. Throughout my research I have relied on a few authors who emphasize the great need for a taxonomy ; language and teaching strategies that fit the context and challenges of contemporary art. For example, authors Villeneuve and Erickson (2008) observe in their article, The Trouble with Contemporary Art is that many people young and old seem more comfortable with traditional and representational art and are less equipped to comprehend and app reciate contemporary art. The authors note that within American culture, knowledge of the arts falls on the non universal or non essential end of the spectrum ( Velleneuve & Erickson, 2008). Therefore unless one is taught to appreciate and make art they m ay never acquire the knowledge necessary to make informed decisions about contemporary art. Although art has been a required subject in elementary and middle schools those who teach it are often not specifically trained nor do they use rigorous art curric ulum that is seriously assessed. Therefore, accurate knowledge and understanding of contemporary art is, "usually achieved only by interested individuals through concerted exposure and further educationThis results in a gulf of [mis]understanding 8 DIY (do it yourself) is an approach where project methods are made openly available as templates or "recipes" for others to recreate a project. This allows for personalization and adaptation of the methods. DIY methods are often available online for sharing, embellishing, and re contributing nuances to the methods in the same way as recipes are shared for cooking.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 17 between the general public and the contemporary art world and provides a strong imperative for education in the classroom and gallery ( Velleneuve & Erickson, 2008). Prior to the timeframe for my search and review of the last 10 years, Wilson (1994) wrote passion ately about the importance of staying current with contemporary art. In his article, Reflections on the Relationships among Art, Life, and Research, he argued, "If we are to be good art teachers and art educational researchers we must first become insig htful critics ( Wilson, 1994, p.201). His most serious criticism of contemporary art education was that art teachers do not understand how to help students make meaningful thematic connections between the works of art they study and the works they create which is the very thing that artists have always done Wilson (1994) also promoted the practice of looking directly to the art world for ideas rather than the world of art education where notions are frequently narrow, shallow and outmoded While art c ontinually redefines itself, we [art educators] tend to direct our research toward artistic content and values from previous eras rather than rise to the challenge of creati ng contemporary lessons (Wilson, 1994). Gude (2000) also addresses the importanc e of art teachers looking to contemporary art practice for curriculum content and reveals a disconnect between what teachers view as important to know about art and what they often choose to teach their beginning students. She describes an exercise where she asks a group of prospective teachers to brainstorm areas in the visual arts that they found exciting and related to vital issues of contemporary culture and living (Gude, 2000). They came up with controversial topics, the meaning and importance of usi ng appropriated images, collaborative community art, and so on She went on to describe how a few weeks later she asked the same group of prospective teachers to list topics and issues for a beginning high school art curriculum. She was surprised that th e students chose traditional

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 18 exercises in customary media and predictable art movements for their curriculum. "The list of students art interests reflected many important ideas in making and valuing art in contemporary America; most of their list of thin gs to teach in a beginning art class could have been chosen 75 or more years ago." She concluded that, "these emerging teachers, like may teachers currently in the field, are imagining their curriculum with the style, content, and methods of their earlier education, rather than reflecting the reality of contemporary art and their own understanding of contemporary culture" ( Gude, 2000, n p ). This observation points to the fact that it is difficult not only to keep up to date with the changing trends of art but also to find approachable ways to bring these artworks into the classroom. I encountered another example of this disconnect in Whit h ead's (2004) article entitled Graffiti: The Use of the Familiar written for a special issue of Art Education devote d to instructional research. In this article Whitehead outlines the history and styles of graffiti and shows examples of wall images in their context. A useful component of the article was devoted to discussi ng the wall images and their meaning the his tory of stylistic developments, aspects of individual expression, and of course the question of graffiti art in a public place as vandalism ( Whithead, 2004). Based solely on the subheadings, this article seemed to offer a timely and practi cal guide for ar t teachers; however, the author took a formalist approach to stylistic analysis that harkened back to the 1960s. This outdated method of critically analyzi ng a prominent contemporary art form was disappointing in its lack of depth and innovation. There w as no discussion of the ephemeral or anonymous aspects of the work, the territorial use of graffiti and colloquial vocabularies, or how graffiti affects our experience of our everyday urban spaces. Although the topic of Street Art has great potential to i nspire a teenage audience, the

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 19 direction of this article was steeped in a decontextualized view about art that seems contrary to my teaching approach, which is to help students understand art in context. Throughout my research I prob ed the Internet and found some valuable teaching resources including Gude's UIC Spiral Art Education website ( uic.edu/classes/ad/ad382 ), The Getty Museum's Open Studio resource ( b logs.getty.edu/openstudio ), and the PBS' television series book and interactive web resource entitled Art 21 : Art in the Twenty First Century ( pbs.org/art21 ). These sites are impressive in their scope, offer relevan t looks at contemporary artists, and yet they are somewhat lacking in either their organization or timeliness The UIC Spiral Art Education website designed and edited by Gude parallels her prolific academic writings that aim to bridge theory and pra ctice by offering an organized introduction to postmodern trends while contributing practical lesson that show what postmodern art education would actually look like in school classroom s ( uic. edu/classes/ad/ad382/sites/CCC/CCC_01 ). Gude's website is an essential tool for any teacher wishing to understand and use contemporary art in their classroom. However, in spite of Gude's involvement in the Contemporary Community Curriculum Initiative, h er examples are dated to the mid to late 1990s. The format and connections are still very relevant, but I would like to see the site incorporate artworks from 2007 and beyond. I dr e w upon these resources in connection to my own findings, essential ques tions, and curriculum strategies throughout the C apstone P roject but I have chosen more current examples and trends in which to inform the project Art:21 is a companion website for a PBS series on contemporary art, now in its fifth season. It is orga nized around broad subjects; each episode contains interviews from four contemporary artists whose work can be seen in relation to that particular theme. It is an invaluable resource which allows artis ts to talk about their own work like a present day

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 20 ma nifesto; however, the production is carefully coordinated and edited in a way that impacts the artists' own voices and the lens through which viewers interpret their works B road themes are essential for presenting multiple artists with different methods of working while allowing various interpretations That said, the connection to the organizational theme is not always clear or may not always match the artists' intentions. The interactive website shows videos, allows patrons to organize information by theme or artists, incorporates lesson plans, and provides some background into the larger questions surrounding contemporary art. The Getty Museum's Open Studio: A Collection of Art Making Ideas by Artist aims to make contemporary arts education accessi ble to teachers and classrooms across the nation and around the world ( Bradford, 2010 ). The web si te offers brief outlines for "lesson ideas" from eleven different contemporary artists. The lessons can be categorized by skill level or suggested media and provide a short biography of each artist who authored the lesson and an example of his or her work. I found the concept engaging yet the actual lesson ideas lacked context and therefore application for the classroom teacher. I also could not determine a strong conceptual thread connecting the lesson ideas to the artists' own work which was my expectation from reading about the project. Key Concepts Emerging art can be difficult to categorize and comprehend especially since artists and artworks ofte n defy categorization Therefore it is helpful to define certai n terms relating to the field that I used throughout my TeachArt.org web platform and this supporting paper. I started by brainstorming a list of words based on my knowledge of contemporary art and critical theory. I then created a working definition in terms of how the words are used within the context of

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 21 contemporary art. ( A more thorough explanation of each trend is discussed in Chapter 4 and a n annotated glossary of key terms can be fo und in Appendix D .) The term "Contemporary Art" c ommonly refers to art made after WWII within the museum context, but is also used to define artworks made by contemporaries of the present day (Desmond, 2011). In this context I will use the term Contempor ary Art to refer to works made within the last ten years by artists who are still producing work. Contemporary Art falls under the larger umbrella term, "P ostmodern ism" which can be defined as a complex, international, philosophical movement which evolve d in reaction to modernism ( Felluga, 2012 ). Various trends embody the tendenc ies of Postmodernist artists including a shift towards global cultural narrative s ( or meta narrative s) increasing attention to marginalized cultures and female artists rather t han a male, Western centric approach to history and culture. Postmodernism is characterized by subjective, relativistic thought which embraces diversity and pluralism. Some relevant examples for how to incorporate Postmodern thinking in the classroom co me from Gude's (2007) article, Principles of Possibility: Considerations for a 21st Century Art & Culture Curriculum. Gude (2007) outlines methods for using Appropriation, Encountering Difference, Attentive Living, Deconstructing Culture, and Reconstruc ting Social Spaces as the starting point for art lessons. In more recent critical theory the term r elational a esthetics" was introduced by Bourriaud (2002) in his book by the same name. He defines r elational a esthetics as, "a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space" (Bourriarud, 2002 p. 113). Within the context of my research I use this term to refer to all works that focus on the interactions between people to generate meaning and message s These works

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 22 are often performances and require the participation of specific audiences, and therefore are non reproducible and difficult to document. "Interdiscipl inary" is a term applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study. Interdisciplinary involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goa ls of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies along with their specific perspectives in the pursuit of a common task. Defining these terms and methods for categorization will help my audience comprehen d emerging organization or trends and begin to see connections between contemporary artists, methods of working, contexts and themes.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 23 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH STRAT E GIES The following section summarizes the components of my Capstone Project including m y pilot study, planning process, evaluation criteria, and a description of various online tools that I used throughout my research. Additionally, I will explain my research strategies and decision making processes for the literature review, online survey, web based research (collection), and web platform creation. Literature Review Strategy The intent of my literature review was to investigate a small sampling of available and practical resources on contemporary art for today's secondary classroom. For this pilot study I specifically considered the questions: What has been published in Art Education and Studies in Art Education over that last ten years that pertains to contemporary art trends and art education methods; how relevant, useful, and practica l are these sources for today's teachers; and what artists (if any) and trends or themes do these articles introduce to educators? The research design of my pilot study was based on a systematic review, similar to the method outlined by Ryan and Bernard ( 2003) which provided me with a framework to analyze trends emerging from current art education articles. I began this query by u sing the keyword search "contemporary art" in JSTOR's database of articles published from 2000 to 2011. This search resulted in over three hundred articles. I used my knowledge of contemporary art and critical theory to generate an additional list of 20 keywords relating to art that has emerged since 2000. I also used an online concept mapping tool called Xmind.net, 9 to expand and branch out those terms so I could see connections and overlaps between trends. This process helped me solidify the seven main trends I chose to focus on throughout this Capstone Project I also used 9 I reworked the map several times throughout my research process. A finalize d version can be viewed on the Overview Map page of TeachArt.org at teachart.org/overviewmap

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 24 this list of keywords to do an advanced search, which narrowed the results for my pilot study. I then read through the titles and abstracts to limited the selection of articles that would provide the most information relevant to my research topic. I determined that forty articles was a sufficient quant ity in which to survey the range of topics, themes, and curriculum strategies discussed in the two selected NAEA journals. Literature Review Analysis As I read the articles I ranked them in terms of the following criteria: their practicality for teachers, the inclusion of exemplary contemporary artists, and the currentness of artists and ideas presented. After reading several articles I realized they di d not always neatly fit into one category, and some articles contained practical teaching strategies but did not contain contemporary artists, or featured artworks dated before 2000. I developed a rubric chart to record my findings that can be viewed at tinyurl.com/cgbb2dx (Appendix C). Throughout my analysis of th e articles I found that, of the 38 authored or co authored essays appearing in Art Education and Studies in Art Education only 9 10 could be categorized as current, practical, and containing information about artists ( Ferrell, 2011 ). I later used these sam e 9 articles as the starting point for my web based research by mining them for artists and practical ideas. Literature Review Reflection Although the majority of articles that I surveyed were valuable contributions to the field of art education, they lack ed current examples from contemporary art or direct strategies on how to engage students with contemporary art. I also noted from my literature review that articles written after 2007 exhibited a shift towards ideas concerning interactive (Shin, 2010), mu lti 10 Based on my review criteria I found the following 9 authors exceptionally helpful in shaping curriculum based on contemporary artists and trends: Barrett (2003), Gude (2007, 2008), Inwood (2010), Marshall (2004, 2010), Roland (2009), Shin (2010), Tavin & Hausman (2004), Walker (2009), and Zupancic (2005).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 25 cultural (Tavin & Hausman, 2004), and interdisciplinary curriculum (Marshall, 2010 ; Inwood, 2010) for art education that is more reflective of contemporary art and digital culture. It seems that this shift may represent writers coming to an understand ing of the cultural and technological changes represented in contemporary art and how those changes can be reflected in classroom teaching (Ferrell, 2011 ). Online Survey Strategy As an initial component of my research I created an online survey asking c urrent K 12 art teachers to identify ways they utilize contemporary artists in their classrooms and what printed, produced, or online resources they use most in curriculum development. My hope in doing this survey was to also discover the barriers, fears, and assumptions inhibiting teachers' use of contemporary art in the classroom and to determine what strategies or methods would be most helpful for developing my web based resource guide. I created the survey questions using Formstack .com an online tool t hat tracks views and correlates data from survey responses. The survey included both qualitative and quantitative questions about the respondent's background, years of experience, subjects and setting in which they teach (See Appendix A for the questions and Appendix B for the IRB 02 Form). Background questions allowed me to group responders based on their years of experience for comparison and analysis. Due to the specific nature of the survey and a limited time for data collection I chose to distribute the survey based on a purposeful sampling method ( Lund Research, 2010 ) It was purposeful in that I targeted my colleagues at Los Alamitos High School, my peers who teach art at various high schools around California, and my colleagues from the University of Florida online Masters degree program in art education. I purposefully sought out feedback from these

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 26 teachers because I fel t they are in tune with their students, are self motivated to maintain a rich and lively art curriculum and therefore would be able and willing to help me answer my research question. However, this method for gathering responses does not represent a wide range of teaching settings (mainly affluent areas of southern California) nor does it represent a wide range of teaching exper ience (most of my peers have between 5 12 years of teaching experience). Through this distribution method I received a total of 402 views over a 3 month period but only 41 responses. Of the 41 responses 24 people reported valid email affiliations and th erefore my results are based only on those responses. Online Survey Analysis Of the 24 respondents, one third received their teaching credential between 1980 2000 and also reported over 10 years of teaching experience. This subpopulation is interesting b ecause they began their careers before my defined parameter for contemporary art. I examined individual responses and found that of those who have been teaching for more than 10 years: 1 said they rarely' use contemporary art (because there is not enough time to cover it), 1 said annually 2 said monthly 3 said weekly and 1 said daily As compared to the group with less than 10 years of experience who responded in the following way: 9 responded that they use contemporary art weekly 6 said m onthly and one said bi monthly This finding seemed to confirm my hypothesis that younger art teachers use contemporary art more frequently than those teachers who have been teaching longer. The three most common objectives reported for using contempo rary art were 2 6.3 % of teachers use it for the basis of projects and lessons 33.7 % use it for artistic examples/inspiration and 2 2.1 % for discussion ( Figure 3 1 ). This finding helped shape the curriculum components I chose to incorporate into the curric ulum strategy page of my web platform Since

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 27 critical/reflection/critique and daily warm ups were the least common responses I decided to suggest ways that educators could use interactive prompts for daily warm ups, propose philosophical big questions' f or discussion, and create active and collaborative assessments (modeled after contemporary artists' practices). Figure 3 1: Capacity of Classroom Use When asked to identify the trends they found most appropriate and interesting for classroom use, tea chers responses were fairly evenly distributed across the identified trends, which affirmed the relevance of these trends. I also asked respondents to select printed and produced resources they commonly used for gathering information about contemporary artists. Responses were again fairly evenly distributed across selections, with highest votes for web based resources. Several educators also selected other' and identified online resources they commonly use. I used these fill in responses as a startin g point for finding web based resources and included several of those resources on the TeachArt.org web platform

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 28 Online Survey Reflection I did not receive the kind of responses that I had anticipated; however, the survey helped inform my research by af firming that classroom teachers desire to teach contemporary art and they mainly look to Internet resources for curriculum ideas. As noted by Figure 3 1, teachers less frequently use examples from contemporary art for critical/reflections/critiques, and d aily warm ups. As a result of this finding, I attempted to fill those gaps with the Curriculum Strategies page of TeachArt.org. I suggested ways that educators could use interactive prompts for daily warm ups like those of Erwin Wurm 11 or Oliver Herring 12 I also generated philosophical questions for discussion, and created active and collaborative assessments (also modeled after contemporary artists' practices). Web Based Research Strategies : Information Finding I began my web based research hoping to fi nd primary resources by contemporary artists, images of their work, records of current and recent exhibitions, video clips, artist statements or manifestos. I also hoped to find relevant and sharable art education resources produced professionally or by l ikeminded art teachers that provide lesson or project ideas for engaging students with contemporary art. I was confident that with the right keyword searches I might open the floodgates of artists and art teachers working within the context of contemporar y art I employed a keyword search to my initial web based research phase. I also mined through the 40 articles looking for specific artists and practical ideas for classroom teachers. I found that by following resource links on relevant webpages I was o ften lead to additional relevant sites. Using my keyword list I would search within a site to quickly locate specific information and learn more about an organization or artist. 11 Erwin Wurm's website can be viewed at www.erwinwurm.at/ 12 Oliver Herring's website can be viewed at oliverherringtask.wordpress.com/

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 29 Web Base Resource: Collecting and Curating Phase I quickly realized that I needed a way to save and organize the resources that I had collected. I investigated a nd piloted several social bookmarking 13 platforms. Social bookmarking is a way to organize and publically share bookmarks for websites on any given topic. The bookmark s can be sorted by tags 14 for easy information retrieval and they are shared publically. The social aspect was advantageous in this phase of research because I could scour peoples' bookmark lists for topics that applied to my research questions then go di rectly to those websites. After brief encounters with Delicious.com, Scoop.it, Pinterest.com, Twitter.com and Tumblr.com I was able to set up accounts, and begin collecting and organizing resources. I evaluated the capabilities and advantages of each soc ial bookmarking platform which helped me determine that Pinterest.com was a great platform for visually presenting my collection of artists' works. I created Pinterest boards for each of the contemporary art trends I had identified ( Figure 3 2 ). I also utilized the "re pin" feature for categorizing images so they could exist in multiple categories simultaneously. Pinterest also has a unique feature that allows users to collaborate on designated boards. I experimented with my Everyday and Globalization : Social/Political boards by inviting peers and professors from University of Florida along with some art knowledgeable friends to contributing resources to these boards. Those boards then also appeared to their network, which gave my boards greater expos ure. I enjoyed the collaborative process because it opened up new artists and possible avenues for research, however I was unable to control the content submitted 13 ( LeFever 2009) This video presents an easy to understand tutorial for h ow to use and enjoy the advantages of social bookmarking using Delicious.com as an example. View the video here commoncraft.com/video/social bookmarking 14 Tagging has evolved to be the process whereby Internet users label web sites, pictures, videos, and other content with descriptive words to help locate useful information and build an accessible network of knowledge ( N et L ingo 2012 )

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 30 by others or fix misplaced images. I could see how students could easily collaborate on a P interest board for researching artists, contemporary art trends, or periods of history. Figure 3 2 : Pinterest Boards Showing Resources Organization by Trend Boards Scoop.it is also a social bookmarking platform that I found worked best for collecting and displaying articles and videos T he magazine style layout presented a thumbnail along with brief written content ( Figure 3 3 ). Scoop.it also allowed me to tag entries and push my posts directly to Tumblr.com which ultimately became the foundation for Te achArt.org. One problem I encountered was that the tags did not carry over from Scoop.it to Tumblr.com so I had to re tag all of my entries. A dditionally, each tag needed to be capitalized and spelled the same (i.e. Globalization and globalization or col laborative and collaborate) otherwise they would be put in separate categories. The tagging process was time consuming and required a learning curve but

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 31 it was an essential part of making my project mirror the complex web like connections between artists, artworks, trends, and curriculum strategies seen in contemporary art. Figure 3 3: Scoop.it Page Featuring Entries Filtered by Tag "Altered Place" Web Based Research Analysis : Selection/Evaluation Phase In less than a month, this seemingly chaotic searc h process yielded a plethora of results (granted some sites were more valid and useful than others). I then set to the task of refining the prodigious collection of information and making selections for what to include and how to organize TeachArt.org One of my first considerations for selecting content was the appropriateness for high school age students. I am a relatively conservative teacher and I applied those same moderate

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 32 choices to my selections for the final content However, I think controv ersial issues, especially those pertaining to human rights and social justice, are important to discuss within the expressively creative atmosphere of a visual arts classroom. Secondly, I took a practical look at each resource and decided i f it clearly r epresented the work In some cases I retrieved better quality images, linked to audio or video files (to show artists talking about their own work), and added more images to document interactive pieces. Memorability was another important consideration fo r my selection process Art t eachers and students alike are bombarded daily with thousands of images from visual culture, I aimed to feature new concepts that were visually appealing and curiosity brewing Thirdly, I considered how the works fit into the larger scope of art history. I compared the artworks I had collected to the defining characteristics and concepts of modernism, and postmodernism. I chose to include artists that actively redefined "art which is getting harder to do since the lines ar ound "art" are becoming more and more blurred. I also gauged the works to be faddish and derivative, or more lasting : reinterpretations of issues that can be traced through art history. I chose to include some faddish works because students need to be ab le to negotiate the differences and see how quickly something like technology can change the meaning of a work or make it suddenly outdated. One interesting example of this was in 2010, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art purchased the Learning to Love You More website ( Fletcher July, & Ono, 2009 ). It has now been archived into SFMOMA's permanent collection and is essentially no longer part of the public sphere. This change in context and public accessibility brings to mind several philosophical ques tions worth discussing with a group of high school students. Questions might include exploring the nature of Net.Art, ownership of technology based art, art accessibility, archival and preservation of ephemeral art, documentation processes

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 33 for relational art, and the list goes on Web Based Res earc h: Construction Phase For the TeachArt.org web platform I chose to use Tumblr .org with the Purify theme The Purify theme uses the I sotope Java script library to allow users to dynamically sort the entries base d on tags rather than view ing entries chronologically It also features a left side bar that displays the TeachArt logo, a short blurb about my project, links to the Resources for Teachers Pages, a feature for Filtering by Art Trends & Methods, and soci al networking buttons ( Figure 3 4 ). Figure 3 4 : I llustration of Unique Navigational Features of Teach.Art.org

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 34 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS In Chapter 3 I expla ined my research strategies, plus my selection and analysis process that lead to the development o f TeachArt.org. In Chapter 4 I reflect on and explain the unique resources available for teachers. Web Based Research Results: Overview Page The first time art teachers visit TeachArt.org they will encounter a W elcome B ar that directs them to the Overv iew Page where they will find a summary of the project, links to each of the pages, and an embedded navigational version of the overview concept map ( v iew the overview ma p at TeachArt.org/overview ). The overview map is a visual representation of the layou t of the web platform and shows the web like connections that exist between concepts, trends, artists, and teaching strategies available on TeachArt.org. This page also presents visitors with the next steps for navigating the resources. Web Based Resea rch Results: The Trends Page In this section I will describe my thought process and expand on the definition of each of the seven trends using contextual examples that exemplify each trend. I hope to reveal these trends a s loose groupings, rather than so lid boundaries, in which artists are free to cross over into multiple trends. The Trends page of TeachArt.org ( Figure 4 1 ) features a summary of each contemporary art trend, a list of associated key terms, and links to several Pinterest boards that exhibi t a collection of images for each trend. Contemporary art is often interactive and a collaborative process involving audi ence participation, instead of o n e individual 's expression. T echnology is becoming an increasing ly important part of our daily lives connecting" and "separating" us from our experiences with people, and moderating our experience of life and culture. Interactive works aim to bring people

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 35 together if only for a moment to experience something in unison Th is work is malleable ; it chang e s depending on who participate s and often incorporates improvisation or chance effects. Figure 4 1 : Screen Capture of Trends Page at TeachArt.org/trends Occasionally the se collaborative projects, like Park[ing]da y 15 or JR's Inside Out Project 16 begin as one artist's idea and result in global participation. Technology has help ed spread these concepts through planning and documentation, but the work itself exists in the moment and in the lives of those who participa te. Digital technology has changed the art making processes, just as it has changed the learning and teaching processes. Simply put artists who work in the genre of New Media could not have done so before the technology existed. A s technology is rapidl y advanc ing s o too are artists' responses to it. T he digital age ha s brought ab out a new concept of permanence 15 View the Park[ing]Day Project at parkingday.org 16 View JR's Inside Out Project at insideoutproject.net

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 36 Creating ephemeral artwork, that which is impermanent, is a not a new trend in itself; however the availability of documentation, digital arch iving, and social sharing have helped to make ephemeral artistic gestures like Internet artist R a fael Rozendaal's Biggest Kiss in the World 17 rise to public attention. S avvy smartphone users may encounter these works on their mobile devices while respond ing to a text The potential to encounter N ew M edia art is prevalent and yet within a fragmented digital context, these works may have little power. Art t eachers are needed to slow students down, altering the receptive posture from passive consumption to active evaluation, to encourage them to look critically at artworks and consider their implications. Engaged art teachers are needed to prod questions like these : How would the work be different if you experience d it in person? O r to suggest why don't w e recreate that in our classroom today? Looking at contemporary art and visual culture over the last 10 years it is easy to see how artists have crossed invisible boundar ies between "fine art and everyday life. For example, Andrea Zittel's "Pods" and h er Institute of Investigative Living" are an artistic exploration of living in a handmade, Do It Yourself (DIY) world. Her method and skills were previously considered "applied arts which is an approach to art making that has largely disappeared from s chool curriculum. As a result of this academic split between fine art' and everyday life people are no longer learning these skills. In order to learn to sew, knit, or construct people have had to teach themselves enroll in alternative workshop type learning settings or use online tutorials Technology and social networking have served to bridge this gap through D I Y blogs, self publishing, online tutorials, open sourced pattern sharing on sites like Thingiverse.com (Ferrell, 201 1 p.4 ). 18 There h as been a resurgence of craft fairs and an increasing economy for handmade goods. People are again choosing to buy and use unique handmade things that 17 View Rafael Rozendaal's website at newrafael.com 18 View the entire essay, Art in Daily Living: Exploring the Historic Relationship Between Fine' Art, Education, & Visual Culture at tinyurl.com/6u6vy4j

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 37 represent local aesthetics, as well as those exchanged through fair trade with international craftsmen" (Ferrell, 2012). Art in the Everyday has become a viable concept for contem porary artists and deserves a place in today's curriculum strategies. Another trend I 've noticed are artists who team up with scientists, and technological experts to blend the fields learning from each other's expertise Modernist attitudes prescribed that art be separate compartment from life it existed for it's own sake T oday 's art critics and art educators appreciate the possible way s art can cross into the service of ot her disciplines like political science, advertising, technology, and science Some Interdisciplinary examples included The Eyewriter, 19 Visual Mapping 20 and Projection Mapping 21 Standardiz ed education stands in the way of truly identifying and embracing t he yet un measurable advantages and learning potential of interdisciplinary education I believe if we look to examples by contemporary artists we will see the strong application of a model for interdisciplinary projects. Contemporary Artists also ofte n draw from their particular cultural identities within a global context. Sharing their personal stories about growing up in one culture and migrating or being exiled to another border crossing and hybrid cultural identity has recently become the subject of many international artists' work (Marshal, 2009 and Jones, 2009) Other conc e p ts that fall into the Globalization trend include artists who expos e and raise awareness of human rights violations and service art for social change. While researching c ontemporary content and trends I kept running int o artists who work outside of a traditional gallery or museum context. The content of these works ranged widely from ecological or community based concerns to unsanctioned or anonymous political works on 19 www.in structables.com/id/The EyeWriter/ 20 www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/aaron_koblin.html 21 www.ted.com/talks/joann_kuchera_morin_tours_the_allosphere.html

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 38 t he streets like those of Banksy 22 In spite of their various conceptual differences they share a common desire to Alter Place through ephemeral or lasting interventions in the landscape and urban environments. EcoArt is a term I borrowed from Inwood (2 008 ). He defines Eco Art Education as integrating art education with environmental education as a means for developing awareness of and engagement with concepts such as interdependence, biodiversity, conservation, restoration, and sustainability (Inwood, 2008). I used this term to categorize the range of artists who choose materials from the environment or post consumer waste to create new products Often these works intend to call attention to reducing air, land, and water pollution. Many contemporary artists take EcoArt a step further by producing site specific environmental reclamation and renewal projects. 23 These artists also often team up with biologists or environmental ecologists to complete the projects thus crossing into Interdisciplinary or C ollaborative working methods. Web Based Research: The Artists Page Once I clarified the Trends, tagged several references, and finalized the web platform structure I began to select representative artworks to feature on the Artists Page of TeachArt.or g. I decided to work backwards from each trend and select five artists and/or collaborative groups that would represent a range of work within each trend. It was difficult to prioritize one theme or trend over another. For example, I initially categoriz e Fred Wilson as a G lobal : Social/Political artist As an African American artist, he is personally i nter ested in the history of slavery and raising awareness of the cultural assumptions and stereotypes that still underlie our institutions (mainly museum collections). Wilson's work is conceptually global and yet his methods are interdisciplinary Through re contextualizing everyday objects he 22 Banksy's website can be viewed at www.banksy.co.uk/ 23 www.ecoartnetwork.org/

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 39 juxtaposes and subverts museum collections. His work raise s questions about the historical narratives we've been taught, narratives that are often reinforced by collections and displays of cultural objects (Green, 2012). Rather tha n trying to force artists into arbitrary structure s I chose artists who se work would be interesting and relevant to my students as wel l as represent a range of interpretation within each trend. I realize this evaluation and selection process is largely based on my experienced and biased by my conceptual preferences and aesthetic values. The TeachArt.org Artists Page ( Figure 4 2 ) featu res links to the artists' webpages, a short bio graphy or summary about their work, an image, and assorted tags to classify each artist. The tags link to other posts labeled with the same tag, which allows teachers to quickly sort through and see a broad s cope of how tha t artist fits into the trend. Figure 4 2 : Screen Capture of Artist Page at TeachArt.org/artists

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 40 Web Based Research: The Curriculum Strategies Page The final component of my web platform w as the Curriculum Strategies Page ( Figure 4 3 ). I intended this page to give teachers an overview of some of the fundamental shifts and inherent principles that have emerged in the last 10 years. This page functions like a list of ingredients and instruc tions for a recipe, however the method for putting it all together into a lesson or project is open to each individual teacher's interpretation. I worked backwards from the Trends and the Artists pages to generate ideas for discussion questions, art maki ng prompts, activities, and interactive formative assessments. I asked myself, How can this artist be used in the classroom? What concepts underlie this artist's work and how can that become a seed' for a project? After I generated ideas I wrote a short explanation of some basic concepts and included a link (when possible) to a contemporary artist for reference to illustrate that strategy. Figure 4 3 : Screen Capture of Curriculum Strategies Page at TeachA rt.org/curriculum

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 41 In general, I focused on interactive and interdisciplinary lessons because many contemporary artists branch beyond art for their subject matter and use "play" as a starting point for their creative and artistic practice. Many a rt te achers may intuitively and theoretically understand the role of "play" in the creative process but may also lack ideas for how to approach "play" within their classrooms. Several of the strategies I have listed on the Curriculum Strategies Page are activi ties that I use in my classes I avoided assigning materials or media to any of these strategies because the same prompt or activity could be adapted to work in a drawing printmaking, or a digital photography classroom Most contemporary artists cannot be defined as "painters" or "sculptors" anymore ; they move beyond the boundaries of media and often start with a concept or message first and then explore how the meaning would carry through in photography, video, installation, or an interactive website The work develops from the openness of possibilities. At this point in time most high school art programs are still defined by modernist modes (i.e. students take drawing then painting, then printmaking) Y et today s artists explor e alternative process es for traditional materials and ways to mix media. Contemporary art curriculum should reflect this freedom to explore. TeachArt.org: A Source for Collaboration and Connect ion It is my intent that teachers will see TeachArt.org as a hub that can lead t hem in and out of the network of links to explore resources beyond those which I have curated and even bring resources they find back into TeachArt.org through the "Got Ideas?" Page. The Got Ideas? Page makes the web platform more engaging by generating intera ction as users contribute content and comments/dialogue. I remain the curator but as I found through collaboration on Pinterest boards there is strength in allowing a resource like this to be shaped by likeminded teachers.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 42 Additionally, I created a Facebook page for TeachArt.org where teachers follow conversations and post comments, links, ideas, or questions about the work Those comments also appear on their personal Facebook wall, which is visible to a wide audience of their peers and will hel p drive traffic to TeachArt.org Lastly, I have provided several ways for interested art teachers to connect with me thr ough various social media sites. From this I hope to receive positive and constructive feedback that will help me improve the project and help to bring contemporary art into the classroom.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 43 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION In thi s last chapter I reflect on what I learned from the project and venture into how it may impact the field of art education. Additionally, this chapter is a chance to e xplore potential next steps for this project, ways I can improve the navigation, add clarity to the curriculum strategies, and market TeachArt.org to the larger arena of art teachers. Reflection s One of the most important things I learned through doing th is project was that even art teachers (like myself) with very little technological experience can utilize the Internet for research, curate relevant content, and build curriculum resources. Long before starting my g raduate degree at University of Florid a I recognized the need for good resources on contemporary art, but I had no idea that I could contribute to bridging that gap. I am excited to have contributed this resource during what I feel is an important turning point for both technology and art edu cation. Before starting my M asters of Arts degree I had very little experience with social media, online learning, or digital tools for education. Throughout this project I explored the potential of various social bookmarking and micro blogging platforms and learned how the tools of collaborative and interactive technology can shape new possibilities in art education. I am excited to be on the forefront of art curriculum development, both with new technology and by presenting the artists of today in an a ccessible format. This project has developed my understanding of how contemporary art can fit within a globalized and technologically savvy world. That I was able to put some structure to the multitude of interesting contemporary art works that bubble up internationally gives me confidence that other art teachers will be able to better understa nd contemporary art by utilizing and contributing to my web platform as a starting point for their own curriculum development.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 44 After several months of collecting r esources and developing my web platform I realized that it could continue to grow because of its format, and that I can improve upon it and involve others with it going forward. At this juncture I feel like this is only the beginning and I will continue t o add curriculum strategies and artworks in months and years to come. Additionally, I hope to spend time marketing the site through social media developing an online following and engaging the participation and collaboration of fellow art teachers throug h the Got Ideas? Page. The curation process of the web platform was challenging because I had to first research the subject matter itself, which included collecting, connecting, organizing, and then select ing appropriate content for classroom use I l earned a lot about the last 10 years of contemporary art. I set out feeling relatively assured that I had kept up with contemporary art, but I was continually delighted to learn more about each of the new artists and art process es I came across and to be able to see trends and themes emerge. I really enjoyed the process of distilling the complexity of contemporary art into a few manageable trends and themes and creating a structure around the unclassifiable artists of today. Secondly, I had to overcome the technical concerns of how to blog about and tag art works, link websites together, and the many formatting issues that arise when curating content from multiple online sources. Next Steps For TeachArt.org to be successful it needs to be not only up t o date and practical for users but it needs to be easy to navigate. I have a few ideas for how to improve the usability of this site. One is to make a "recipe" page that demonstrates for art teachers how the components (ingredients) of the web platform can be used to help generate activities (instructions) into projects (recipes) I will d emonstrate a sample lesson using any of the trends as an example template t hat art teachers can adapt to their teaching environment. I will also post "recipe" pages

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 45 o n how.com and wikihow.com as resources and g ive creative commons rights to repost with attribution to TeachArt.org These sites are more visible on search engines and will lead new art teachers to my site. A nother step would be to build my professional relationships online. Right now I am the only curator for this content and I am "publishing it I would like to see what would happen if I shifted control of the content over to the netw ork In other words, what if I deputized other curators, and made it easy for art teachers to post a link, an image, and their thoughts about an artist or work? By giving away some control I trust that the network will see it as an opportunity to participate in a project that is larger than any one teacher's resources. Finally, I hope that projects like this will start to open up even more possibilities in art education, as teachers continue to network and share resources. But there is a hurdle that needs to be overcome due to restrictions on website access. Currently m y web platform Pinterest boards, and several other online collaborative and social platforms are blocked on many school computers due to strict content restrictions. I will rally to relax these restrictions at my local campus, but a new way of thinking an d managing access needs to be implemented. Perhaps a simple permission slip for certain classes could be signed by parents, and then such classes can have increased access. It is my hope that this project is an example of how curation and DIY approaches a re a viable process for research and that looking to what is out in contemporary art and culture today can help art education move forward into the future.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 46 APPENDIX A Survey: Contemporary Art and Practicing Secondary Level Art Educators The following are sample components and questions to be used in the web based survey of secondary teachers from across the country I am Graduate student at the University of Florida. As part of my coursework I am conducting a short survey, the purpose of which is to learn about how secondary art educators use contemporary art (made between 2000 and the present) in their classrooms, what resources they utilize, and any fears or inhibitions that may prohibit them from doing so I am asking art educators across the country th rough social media and personal connections to participate in this survey. Any information you provide will be confidential and secure. Your name or any identifying information will not be used in reporting my findings. Your responses are greatly apprec iated and will inform and support my capstone project; a web based research guide for engaging students with contemporary art. The survey is 12 questions and will take you about 20 minutes. Your participation is completely voluntary; you are free to withd raw your consent to participate and may discontinue your participation in the interview at any time without consequence. There are no anticipated risks, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this survey. If you have any questio ns about this research protocol, please contact me at kferrell@losal.org or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Craig Roland at, Rolandc@ufl.edu Questions or concerns about your righ ts as a research participant rights may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 392 0433. By checking the box below, you give me permission to report your responses anonymously in the final report and/or in the University of Florida capstone project to be submitted to my faculty supervisor as part of my course work. Please click the box to indicate your consent to this survey. Click the box below if you wish to be included in an email list tha t will provide you with information and links to my developing resource web based guide. You may print this letter and save a copy for your records. Karissa Ferrell High School Art Teacher 1. Name: (fill in) 2. Email : (affiliated with school where y ou teach, fill in + verify) 3. Year you completed your secondary credential in art: (drop down question) 4. Number of years teaching at the secondary level: (choose one) 1 3 4 7 8 10 11 15 16 20 21 +

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 47 **For the following questions please consider les sons and resources you have used in your classroom with in the last year and/or are currently using. 5. How often have you used artwork s produced between 2001 and 201 2 in your classroom practice? (choose one) Daily Weekly Monthly Bi monthly Bi annual ly Annually Rarely Never 6. If you responded Never' or Rarely' to #5, w hat are your reasons for not using contemporary artists in you teaching practice? (choose all that apply ) Not r elevant to my teaching practice I don't have experience and knowled ge of contemporary art, so I wouldn't know where to start. I dislike contemporary art; therefore I don't want to expose my students to it. I do not understand most of contemporary art therefore I am not confident in teaching about contemporary artists Most contemp orary art is controversial and i nappropriate for the age level I teach 7. In what capacity have you used contemporary artists in your classroom practice? (choose all that apply ) d iscussions daily warm up s artistic examples/inspiration as the basis for projects and lessons for critical reflection/critique 8. Which of the following trends and themes are most appropriate and interesting to you as an art teacher? (choose all that apply ) Relational aesthetics (art about the process of rel ating to other indivi duals as a shared artistic experience) Collaboration (having students work in small groups to produce an artwork or achieve a common goal) Digital Art (art made using new technology: digital photography, PhotoShop, video e diting, digital painting programs) New Media (second life/avatars, podcasts, net art, open source I nternet based projects, Post consumerism (using discarded and found object to inspire new creations, sustainability recycling) Globalization (a rt focused on intercultural intracul tural, promoting positive human connections Interdisciplinary (science, ecology, music, math, mapping, politics and social studies, Street Art (graffiti, public sculpture, site specific works, ya rn bombing, urban pr ojection mapping) Art in the everyday (visual culture, ecology art, found object sculpture) None of the Above

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 48 9. How do you or would you like to gain information about contemporary artists to inform and develop your curriculum. (choose all that apply). Interactive and Local visiting local galleries & museum openings attending art history lectures or taking studio courses talking to colleagues watching TV specials Online interactions through Art Education 2.0 or Facebook groups Communi ty organizations (art fairs, open studio days, art walks) attending professional state or national conferences reading and discussing print publications other: _______________________________ Internet Resources: This i s small sampling please list any thing you find helpful Google or other search engines ( keyword searching ) Art Education 2.0 (interaction, collaborative) Individual Artist's websites (local and international) Art 21 ( videos of artists and lesson plans ) Spiral Curriculum ( ar t curriculum based on trends of postmodernism ) Getty Open Studio (a collection of art making ideas arranged by artist) Art Junction (a collaborative art space for teachers and students) National Art Education Association artsonia (requires members hip) Artisancam Flickr Deviant Art Youtube /Vimeo Museum Websites other : ________________________________ Please list websites you have used that aren't included in this list. Produced/Printed resources; Art 21 (TV series and bo oks) DVD productions (how to videos) E ducation periodicals and magazines Art magazines Museum and Foundation publications other : ___________________________ 10. Additional comments or questions regarding this survey. (fill in) _____________ ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 49 APPENDIX B IRB 02 For m 2012

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 50

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 51 APPENDIX C Literature Review Chart The image below is a screen capture of the Literature Review Chart Pilot Study. Please visit tinyurl.com/cgbb2dx to view the complete chart.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 52 APPENDIX D Annotated Glossary of Terms related to Contemporary Art Art in the Everyday refers to art based on common, mundane objects and moments. It relates to "Kitsch Art" in the sense that the objects may be of little value or the moments may not be elevated t o unusual importance. This term also refers to "making something out of nothing," work ing with reclaimed and repurposed, found or discarded objects from everyday life. (Ferrell, 2011) Collaboration two or more people working together to achieve a goal, requires leadership, building consensus and shared ownership of the end result ( Marinez Moyano, 2006). Community Based Arts are organized between professional artists and city organizers to create opportunities for collaborat ion with in a community or grou p of people who don't normally actively engage in the arts. Sometimes public sculptures can created to engage a community setting Works can be of any form and are characterized by interaction o ften community based art is focused on deprived areas, with a community oriented, grassroots approach (Ulbrict, 2005). Contemporary Art commonly refers to art made between WWII and the present day. In this context I will use the term "contemporary art" to refer to works made within the last ten years by artists wh o are still producing work (Desmond, 2011). Crowdsourcing is based on the "wisdom of crowds", a theory proposed by James Surowiecki in his book by the same name. The theory proposes that the many are smarter than the few when their collective wisdom is a ggregated. Crowdsourcing creates an opportunity for a large group of individuals to contribute to a solution, decision making, fundraising, or even collective buying. It occurs in groups that meet in person, or participate online (Surowiecki, 2005). Dialo gue based Art is a cross between community based art and performative work where the "art" consists of dialogue exchanges between individuals. The focus is on the process of participation and the work cannot be repeated in a traditional sense (Meban, 2009 ). Digital Art a term under the umbrella of "New Media Art," digital art refers to work that uses digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process (Paul, 2006). DIY Culture ( D o I t Y ourself) is an approach where projec t methods are made openly available as templates or "recipes" for others to recreate a project. This allows for personalization and adaptation of the methods. In the context of teaching art, teachers openly share DIY methods for new projects and adapt the m to their courses, rather than wait for curriculum publishers to define projects and methods. DIY methods are readily available online for sharing, embellishing, and re contributing nuances in the same way as recipes are shared for cooking. With ever decr easing budgets for art education, resources for low cost alternatives to materials and methods are continually pursued and considered part of the DIY ethic (EyePopArt, 2008).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 53 Eco Art Education integrates art education with environmental education as a m eans of developing awareness of and engagement with concepts such as interdependence, biodiversity, conservation, restoration, and sustainability (Inwood, 2010). Education as Art a theme of participatory and/or collaborative works focused on informing a nd teaching the audience. A variety of media or process techniques could constitute Education as Art, however, the focus is mainly on collaborative or dialogue based artworks (Ferrell, 2011) Globalization refers to the increasing unification of the worl d by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through the reduction of barriers, increased communication, transportation, and trade. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular cu lture through acculturation (Martin & King, 1990). Graffiti is a type of art that became popular in the 1960s and 70s. Graffiti is public marking using images or lettering scratched, scrawled, painted, pasted, sprayed, or marked by any media on private p roperty (Leibowitz, 2008). Installation describes an artistic genre of three dimensional works that are often site specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior intervent ions are often called Land Ar t or Site Specific works ; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap (Kaprow, 2003). Interactive Installation based or New Media based works that involve and respond to the viewer or audience. Interactive works frequ ently feature computers and sensors to perceive motion, heat, meteorological changes or other types of input M any examples of virtual Internet A rt i are also interactive. V isitors are able to navigate through a hypertext environment; some works accept te xtual or visual input from outside that can influence the course of a performance (Paul, 2003) Interdisciplinary is a term applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established discipli nes or traditional fields of study. Interdisciplinary involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies along with their specific perspectives in th e pursuit of a common task (McLuhn, 1964). Net Art The term Internet art ( Net Art) typically does not refer to art that has been simply digitized and uploaded to be viewable over the Internet, but expands to interactive, participatory, and multi media b ased artwork that is distributed via the Internet, circumventing the traditional galley and museum system (Rush, 2005). New Media encompasses artworks created with new media technologies, including digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, vir tual art, Internet art, interactive art, computer robotics, and art as biotechnology. New Media concerns are often derived from telecommunications, mass media and digital modes of deliver ing the artworks and New Media practices rang e from conceptual to vi rtual art, performance to installation ( Rush, 2005 ).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 54 Open Source In production and development is a philosophy or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details. This approach has various interdisciplinary applications. Artists have used this model to share their ideas globally by creating downloadable images that can be freely distributed or a list of instructions for a perfor mance or relational aesthetics piece that could be repeated by anyone. This approach to art making challenges traditional values of authorship and originality ( Open Source Initiative, n.d.) Podcasting is a method for recording audio files and making the m easily accessible, through download to the public. Podcasts are often produced by museums and tak e the place of more traditional audio tours. Artists, critics, lecturers and museum educators use podcasts as an educational tool to inform the public about certain artworks (Berry, 2006). Postmodern is a complex philosophical movement evolved in reaction to modernism, the tendency in contemporary culture to accept only objective truth and to be inherently suspicious towards a global cultural narrative or m eta narrative. Postmodernist thought is an intentional departure from the previously dominant modernist approaches. The term "postmodernism" comes from its critique of the "modernist" scientific mentality of objectivity and the progress associated with the Enlightenment (Huyssen, 1986). Public Art Refers to sculpture, paintings, and site specific installations that are intended for a public audience; usually located in a par k shopping center, corporate campus or similar setting ( Community Arts Network, 2010 ) Recycling Art uses used materials (waste) to create new products with the intention of calling attention to consumer waste and preventing the misuse of potentially useful materials, as well as reducing air, land, and water pollution (Ferrell, 201 1). Relational Aesthetics a term coined by Nicolas Bourriaud in the late 1990s to refer to, "a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space" (Bourriaud, 2002 p.113 ) Second Life is an online virtual world developed by Linden Lab. It was launched on June 23, 2003. Second Life users, called Residents, interact with each other through avatars (proxies of themselves). Residents can explore the world (known as the grid), meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another ( Linden Lab, 2002 ) Social Bookmarkin g is a way to organize and publically share bookmarks for websites on any given topic. The bookmarks can be sorted by tags for easy information retrieval and shared publically (LeFever, 2009). Social Media uses web based and mobile technologies to turn communication into an interactive dialogue; within the foundations of Web 2.0, this technology allows the creation and exchange of user generated content and social interaction (Kaplan & Haenlein 2010)

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 55 Street Art i s any art developed in public spaces t hat is, "in the streets" though the term usually refers to unsanctioned art, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. The term can include traditional graffiti artwork, sculpture, stencil graffiti, sticker art, wheat pasting and street poster art, v ideo projection, art intervention, guerrilla art, flash mobbing and street installations. Typically, the term S treet A rt or the more specific post graffiti is used to distinguish contemporary public space artwork from territorial graffiti, vandalism, and c orporate art (Lewisohn, 2008). Tagging is a term that has evolved to mean the process whereby Internet users label web sites, pictures, videos, and other content with descriptive words to help locate useful information and build an accessible network of knowledge (NetLingo, 2012). Virtual Reality i s a term that applies to computer simulated environments that recreate one's physical presence in imaginary worlds (or worlds that mimic the "real world") Most current virtual reality environments are prim arily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones (Davis, 1998). Visual Culture as an acade mic subject and field of study that generally includes some combination of cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy, and anthropology, by focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images (Barrett, 2006). Web 2.0 is a term assoc iated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialog ue as creators of user generated content in a virtual community I n contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them Web 2.0 enables user interactivity, (i.e. Social Networking ) (Prashan t, 2008).

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 56 RE FERENCES Art 21. (n.d.). [Web site]. Retrieved from pbs.org/art21/ Banksy (2012). Banksy. [Web site]. Retrieved from banksy.co.uk/menu.html Barrett, T. (1994). Criticizing art: Understanding the contemporary. New York NY : McGraw Hill 2nd edition Barrett, T. (1995). Lessons for teaching art criticism. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Art Barrett, T. (2003). Interpreting visual culture. Art Education, 56 (2), 6 12. Bourriaud N. (2002). Relational a esthetics. France: Les Presses du reel p. 113 Barrett, T. (2006). Visual culture in art e ducation Humanities Exchange, College of Humanities: The Ohio State Universi ty, 22 (Autum n ), p. 23. Berry, R. (2006). Will the ipod kill the radio star? Profiling podcasting as radio. Convergence: The I nternational Journal of Research Into New Media Technologies, 12 (2), 143 Bradford, M. (2010). Open studio: A collection of art making ideas by artists. [Web site]. Retrieved from blogs.getty.edu/openstudio Buffington, M. (2008). What is w eb 2.0 and how can it further art education? Art Education, 63 (1), 36 41. Community Arts Network (2010) [Web site] Retrieved from wayback.archive i t.org/2077/20100906194747 Daley, N. (1995). Finding art's place Experiments in contemporary education and culture. London, UK: Routledge Davis, E. (1998). Techgnosis: myth, magic and mysticism in the information age New York, NY: Harmony Books. Desmond K. (2011). Ideas about art West Su ssex UK: Wiley Blackwell. Efland, A Freedman, K. & Stuhr P. (1996). Postmodern art education: An approach to curriculum. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. EyePopArt (2008 August, 26). Parents teach art: A DIY approach to elementary school art education [Web log post]. Retrieved from etsy.com/blog/en/2008/parents teach art a diy appro ach to elementary school art ed

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 57 Felluga, D. (2012). Modules on Postmodernism. Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Purdue University. Re trieved from purdue.edu/guidetotheory/postmodernism/modules Ferrell, K. (2012) TeachArt.org. [Web site]. Retrieved from TeachArt.org Ferrell, K. (2012). Art in daily living: Exploring the historic relationship between fine' art, education & visual cult ure. Unpublished Essay, University of Florida. Ferrell, K. (2011). Junctions of contemporary art and art education: Periodical review (2000 2010). Unpublished Literature Review, University of Florida. Fletcher, H. July, M., & Ono,Y. (2009). Learning t o love you more [Web log]. Retrieved from learningtoloveyoumore.com Gaudelius Y. & Speirs, P. (2002). Contemporary issues in art education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Green, T. (2012, June 21). Modern art notes podcast, with Fred Wilson. [Audio file]. Recorded The Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved from manpodcast.com/post/25854896730 Gude, O. (2004). Postmodern princ iples: In search of a 21st century art education. Art Education, 57 (1), 6 14. Gude, O. (2007). Principles of possibility: Considerations for a 21 st century art & culture curriculum. Art Education, 60 (1), 6 17. Gude, O. (2000). Investigating the culture of curriculum. In D.E. Fehr, K. Fehr, & K. Kiefer Boyd (Eds.). Real World readings in art education: Things your professor never told you. New York: Falmer Press. Gude, O. (n.d.). Spiral Education Contemporary Community Curriculum Initiative. [Web sit e]. Retrieved from www.uic.edu/classes/ad/ad382 Harris, B., & Zucke, S. (n.d.). Smarthistory. [Web site]. Retrieved from smarthistory.khanacademy.org/about smarthistory.html Herring, O. (2012). Task. [Web site]. Retrieved from oliverherringtask.wordpre ss.com Howe, J. (2006). The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired Magazine. Retrieved from wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html Hume, H. (1990). A survival kit for the secondary school art teacher. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Center for Applied Research in Edu cation Hume, H. (1996). American art appreciation activities kit: Ready to use lessons, slides, and projects for grades 7 12. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 58 Huyssen, A (1986). After the Great Divide. Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism Blo omington: Indiana University Press, p.188. Inwood, H. (2010). Shades of green: Growing environmentalism through art education. Art Education, 63 (6), 33 38. Jones, R. B. (2009). Border theory, nationalism, and transnational art pedagogy. In E. M. Delac ruz, A. Arnold, M. Parsons, and A. Kuo, (Eds.), Globalization, art, and education (pp. 97 102). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. JR. (2012). Inside out project. [Web site]. Retrieved from insideoutproject.net Ka plan, A. & Haenlein, M. (20 10). Users of the world, unite! The challenges an d opportunities of Social Media Business Horizons 53 (1) 59 68. Kaprow, A. (2003). Notes on the Creation of a Total Art. In Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life. Kelley J. (E d.) Berkeley CA : Unive rsity of California Press. Knobel, M. & Lankshear, C. (2008). Remix: The art and craft of endless hybridization. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52 (1), 22 33. Lankford, L., Katz, E. & Plank, J. (1994). Themes and foundations of art/student's edition. Eagan, MI: West Publishing Company LeFever, L. (2009) Social bookmarking in plain English. CommonCraft [Video file] Retrieved from www.commoncraft.com/video/social bookmarking Leibowitz, L (n.d.) Art c rimes. Retrieved from jinxmagazine.co m/art_crimes.html Lewisohn, C (2008). Street art: The g raffit i r evolution New York, NY: Abrams. Liao, C. (2008). Avatar, second life, and new media art: The challenge of contemporary art education. Art Education, 61 (2),87 91. Linden Lab (2002). Lind en lab debuts, c o mpany dedicated to 3D e ntertainment" Retrieved from lindenlab.com/press Lund Research Ltd. (2010). Purposeful s ampling [Web site]. Retrieved from dissertation.laerd.com/articles/purposive sampling an overview.php Marinez Moyano, I. J. (2006). Exploring the dynamics of collaboration in interorganizational settings I n Schuman S. (Ed. ). Creating a Culture of Collaboration (p. 83). West Sussex, UK : Jossey Bass Marshall, J. (2004). Articulate images: Bringing the pictures of science and natural hi story into the art curriculum. Studies in Art Education, 45 (2), 135 152.

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 59 Marshall, J. (2009). Globalization and contemporary art. In E. M. Delacruz, A. Arnold, M. Parsons, and A. Kuo, (Eds.), Globalization, art, and education (pp. 88 96). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Marshall, J. (2010). Five ways to integrate: Using str ategies from contemporary art. Art Education, 63 (3), 13 19. Martin, A. & King, E ( E ds.) (1990). Globalization, knowledge and society London UK : Sa ge. Meban, M. (2009). The aesthetic as a process of dialogical interaction: A case of collective art praxis. Art Education, 62 (6), 33 38. Modern Art Notes Podcast with Fred Wilson, 06/21/12 R ecorded at Toledo Museum of Art Retrieved from manpodcast.c om/post/25854896730 McLuhan M. (1964) Understanding m edia : The extension of man Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. NetLingo (2012). Tagging. Retrieved from www.netlingo.com/word/tagging.php Open Source Initiative (n.d.) Retrieved from opensource.org/docs/os d Prashant, S. (2008). Core characteristics of web 2.0 services. Retrieved from www.techpluto.com/web 20 services Rebar (2005). Park[ing]Day. [Web site]. Retrieved from p arkingday.org/about parking day Roland, C. (2009, April). Think green: Recycle, reduce, reuse! SchoolArts. 38 Retrieved from davisart.com/Portal/SchoolArts/articles/4_09 art education online think green recycle reduce reuse craig roland.pdf Rush, M. (2005). New media in a rt. New York NY : Thames & Hudson Inc. Ryan, G. W., & Bern ard, H. R. (2003) Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15 (1), 85 109. Scime, E. (2009). The content strategist as digital curator. [Web log]. Retrieved from alistapart.com/articles/content strategist as digital curator Stuhr, P. (2003). A tale of why social and cultural content is often excluded from art education and why it should not be. Studies in Art Education, 44 (4), 301 314. Surowiecki J. (2005). Wisdom of the crowd. New York, NY: Random House Digital, Inc Szekely, G. (1991). Fr om play to art. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 60 Tavin, K. & Hausman, J. (2004). Art education and visual cultur e in the age of globalization. Art Education, 57 (5), 47 52. Ulbrict, J. (2005). What is community based art education? Art Educa tion, 58 (2), 6 12. Villenveu, P. & Erickson, M. (2008). The trouble with contemporary art is Art Education, 61 (2), 92 97. Walker, S. (2009). Artmaking, subjectivity, and signification. Studies in Art Education, 51 (1), 77 91. Whitehead, J. (2004). Gra ffiti: The use of the familiar. Art Education, 57 (6), 25 32. Wilson, B. (1994). Reflections on the relationships among art, life, and research. Studies in Art Education, 34 (4), 197 208. Wurm, E (2012). Erwin Wurm [Web site.] Retrieved from erwinwurm.at Zupancic, T. (2005). Contemporary artworks and art education International Journal of Education through Art, 1 (1), 29 41

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JUNCTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART TRENDS AND NEW METHODS OF ART EDUCATION 61 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH : Passionate about developing new methods for expanding the creativity of young people, Karissa Ferr ell is engaged in developing curriculum that parallels the shifts reflected in contemporary art. Karissa's enthusiasm for art is what initially led her into the teaching profession and has kept her striving through the tandem roles of educator a rtist and student Karissa was born in Los Altos, California and raised by an artistic and creative family. She earned her Bachelors of Arts degree from the University of California, Davis in Studio Art and Art History She completed her degrees through a study abroad program at the Lorenzo de Medici Art Institute of Florence. In 2002, Karissa moved to Long Beach, California where she completed the single subject teaching credential program in art at California State University of Long Beach (2003) Karissa has worked as a full time art educator since 2004 at Los Alamitos High School. She teaches AP Art History, 3 D Design and Printmaking, and is developing curriculum for a Mixed Media course based on contemporary art trends. Karissa is currently working towar ds a Master of Arts in Art Education at the University of Florida (expected graduation, 2012 ). Freedom and encouragement to move between traditional art materials has been instrumental in K arissa's development as a mixed media artist. She feels that mixe d m edia approaches lend themselves to interdisciplinary connections and require both the maker and the viewer to reevaluate various sources from their everyday experiences. It is her goal as an educator to facilitate learning experiences that empower stud ents with a new vocabulary, based on both philosophy and art making, which allows students to more fully participate in the dialogue of contemporary art.