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Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 1 THE VALUE AND USE OF HISTORICAL BASED PROCESSES IN A CONTEMPORARY HIGH SCHOOL PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAM By Deborah J. Brock August 2012 SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: ELIZABETH DELACRUZ, CHAIR CRAIG ROLAND, MEMBER Supporting Paper for Caps tone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 2 2012 Deborah J. Brock
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 3 TO: This capstone project is de dicated to my students (past, present, and future) who have inspired me from day one to fulfill my dreams of becoming a teacher who makes a di fference in her student's lives I will always remember and have gratitude for the teachers in my own past that en couraged and inspired my dreams. Especially, Mrs. Parkerson at Shawnee Mission South high school and Professor James Novak from Florida Atlantic University who's question in a hallway one day changed the direction of my life!
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would f irst like to acknowledge all the scientist, photographers and artist who have come before me. It is because of them, that as a child, I fell in love with the processes of photography. Second, I could not have accomplished this capstone project without the encouragement and support of my committee members and mentors Dr. Elizabeth Delacruz and Dr. Craig Roland Together they were instrumental to my deve lopment as a teacher researcher and to my continued faith in the process and success of this project. I would also like to thank the University of Florida for offering a program such as the one I participated in. It enabled me to form lasting relationships with educators and artists in my field as well as enhance my skills as a student, teacher, researcher, and artist. Lastly, n one of this would have been possible without the love and support of my friends, and especially, my family! I love you all dearly!
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES pg. 6 7 LIST OF APPENDIX .. pg. 8 ABSTRACT pg. 9 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION .. pg. 1 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW pg. 20 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLG Y. pg. 36 CHAPTER 4: WHAT WAS REALLY DONE? WHAT W AS SAID? AND WHAT REALLY HAPPENED? .. pg. 58 CH A P TER 5: SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS .. pg. 81 REFERENCES .. P g 90 NARRATIVE BIOGRAPHY Pg. 89 APPENDIXES Pg 92
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 6 LIST OF FIGURES FIG. PAGE # 1 1 19 2 2 21 2 3 22 2 4 26 2 5 27 3 6 3 9 3 7 42 3 8 45 3 9 46 3 10 51 3 11 52 3 12 53 3 1 3 55 4 14 61 4 15 62 4 1 6 64 4 17 66 4 18 67 4 1 9 68 4 20 70 4 21 71 4 22 72
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 7 4 23 73 4 24 76 4 25 7 7 4 26 78 4 27 79 5 28 85
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 8 APPENDIXES APPENDIX PAGE APPENDIX A (Blog & Flickr site) 93 APPENDIX B ( Lomography site) ..... 94 APPENDIX C ( Jerry Uelsmann )... ..... 95 APPENDIX D ( An My Le "29 Palms: Infantry Platoon Retreat" ). 96 APPENDIX E ( Zoe Leonard ) .. 97 APPENDIX F ( Anne Collier ) .. ... 98 APPENDIX G ( Pilot Study ) ... ..... 99 APPENDIX H ( List of ways to avoid Bias ) .. 105 APPENDIX I ( Photography I Survey ) ...... 106 APPENDIX J ( Journal ent r i e s from students ) .. .. 10 7 APPENDIX K ( Mark Tweedie ) ........ 111 APPENDIX L (Additional a rtwork from lesson 1 ) ........ 11 2 APPENDIX M (Additional a rtwork from lesson 2 ) ... 113 APPENDIX N (Additional a rtwork from lesson 3 ) 114 APPENDIX O ( Artwork outside lessons ) ....... .. 11 7
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 9
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 10 Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requi r ements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE VALUE AND USE OF HISTORICAL BASED PROCESSES IN A CONTEMPORARY HIGH SCHOOL PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAM By Deborah J. Brock August 2012 Chair: Elizabeth Delacruz Major: Art Education When teaching historical based methods in a high school photography art progr am, I typically introduce students to the manor in which early photographers like Louis Daguerre, Henry Fox Talb ot, Henry Peach Robinson, Julia Margaret Cameron, Laszlo Moholy Nagy, and May Ray once worked; but I am also interested in how new photographic processes and technologies might compliment these methods pioneered by these respected artists. I believe a mix of historical based methods and new popular photographic processes and technologies might help students become better informed about their role in contemporary art photography. This capstone project and paper answers the question, "What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondary and post secondary art students?" My belief that both traditional and emerg ing alternative processes have a place in the photography classroom led to t his capstone project which demonstrated how a photography curriculum designed with this belief in mind impacted the work of my own students who were beginning and advanced high sch ool art students. My research also demonstrates how this curriculum encouraged these students to see themselves as artist photographers rather than just
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 11 photographers creating good photographs as a result of a lesson/project, a technology, or the equipment being used. This capstone paper shares these findings. In order to examine the impact of historical based but alternative experimental photography processes in a high school photography classroom I conducted a pilot study that helped me determine and un derstand my students attitudes and interest towards these processes. My pilot study also provided a glance at the attitudes of art educators on this topic. In the creation of my capstone project, I collected and examined various resources about photographi c processes from print, online, and social media I then created and implemented a high school photography curriculum that included both traditional and experimental photographic processes and newer technology I utilized action research methods to conduct my capstone project of what happened in the classroom by collecting images, documenting activities, and keeping my own journal of observations and reflections as the lesson/projects and projects unfolded. In documenting both my curriculum construction and the student work that resulted, my students and I utilized current multimedia communication technologies creatively expressing, preserving, and facilitating discussions, writings, and visual documentations of the processes and artwork that they created. O ur blog site, which we named Room3130 http://room3130.tumblr.com shares our observations, reflections, and the artworks of my students as they explored historical based and alternative photographic processes while creating contemporary imagery. This blogs ite also houses my own curricular materials and reflections as well as links to contemporary artist photographers who utilize historical based methods in their art work, links to forums and discussion boards, and resources for purchasing supplies Our blogs ite also connects to other sites such as Flickr that contains additional information that we created and maintained. Our Flickr site includes additional tutorials, a class portfolio, and a place for students to share and
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 12 comment on one another's artworks ( http://www.flickr.com/photos/room3130 ). The blog and Flickr site demonstrates the ease with which a contemporary high school photography curriculum involving both traditional and alternative processes c an be constructed, shared, and perpetuated on the Internet ( Appendix A). This capstone paper shares the results of my study and pays homage to the history and traditions of the photographic medium while at the same time embracing newer processes and tech nologies. My research reveals methods for not only how to develop a curriculum that mixes historical based and contemporary photographic processes but how it facilitates the creation of student art works that are rich and evocative kinds of imagery. My caps tone project also reveals the growing importance of social media and networking sites such as the ones that were used in my curriculum. That is, my capstone paper and accompanying materials also demonstrate the potential of teachers' utilization of social media as a means of enriching the creative and educative experiences of art students
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 13 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION "If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants" ~ Isaac Newton, Letter to Robert Hooke, February 5, 1675 Statement of the Problem According to the Spring/Summer 2012 Society for Photographic Education Member's Newsletter 2013 will be the first year since 1953, that the SPE's national conference will include presentations, workshops, demonstrations and lectures that focus on teaching and learning as well as teaching resources and strategies (p p 16 17). It is interesting to me that few people would argue the importance and value of the photograph in today's culture, yet as the newsletter and my initial conversations with ph otography educators indicated, the study of photography education as a whole and especially methods for teaching historical based processes in the contemporary high school setting are underserved in the professional community. The purpose of this capsto ne project was to examine and use current technologies creatively to help preserve, perpetuate, and express historical based photography processes as they are investigated and produced in new and contemporary ways within a high school photography program. Students participating in this capstone project were part of a high school photography classroom in which I created three lesson/projects asking students to explore and create historical based photographic processes in contemporary artwork. In addition, th is capstone project used action research to examine how these projects and techniques informed the identity of the students as artists photographers and their understanding and role in contemporary art photography.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 14 I feel that historical based methods hav e a role in contemporary photography education and as educators if we explore and create historical based projects combined with newer technologies; we can help students become better informed about their role in contemporary art photography as well assist them to identify with photographers past and present. Leaders in photography related technology see a value in historical based processes. For example, educator and artist Tom Persinger has already merged historical processes with newer ones. In 2011 Pers inger used the historical process of the Cyanotype with images made on his Hipstamatic application calling them Hipstanotype.' In July 2011, he posted the following on his blog, "I spent a few hours today taking photographs I made with my iPhone Hipstamat ic and printing them as cyanotypes. Cyanotype is a very hands on process in which you mix chemistry, apply it to a sheet of water color paper, and develop it in the sink. it takes you out of a pure digital realm of pushing buttons and moving sliders to m ake a print! Marrying 21st and 18th century technologies to create something unique is a great way to spend a few hours ( http://bit.ly/Ns6Cn5 )!" Applications ( aka apps) like iPhone's Instagram and Hipstamatic are popular amongst my high school students and I have noticed after using them, that the terminology and/or filters built into these iPhone apps duplicate the language of traditional photography. Hipstamatic even claims on their website that the aim of this app, is to mimic the look and feel of photog raphs made using toy cameras from the past. They also offer printing services "produced with photo chemicals and printed on archival paper" ( http://bit.ly/LIQW98 ). My capstone project supports my belief that engaging students in projects investigating his torical based processes along with digital and other creative methods will help to create new forms of photography of the 21st century.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 15 Definition of Terms This section explains the common terms related to what I will call "historical based processes" and the "artist photographer" in this capstone project. For the purpose of this capstone paper the meaning of "historical based processes" refers to processes derived from techniques and ideas dating back to the late 1800's and early 1900's. On the Interne t and in discussions with my peers, some people refer to these practices as film based arts, wet darkroom techniques, alternative photography and historic processes but all of these terms together originate or have to do with non digital technologies. This capstone project includes discussion s of, but is not limited to, historical based processes such as tintypes, cyanotypes, pinhole cameras, image transfers, the Gum Bichromate process and other traditional processes taking place in the wet darkroom. The artist photographer" refers to the artist who uses photographic processes and techniques as a means of creating contemporary artwork and expressing ideas in the manner that artists have expressed ideas through the medium from its first invention. Signific ance of Study I argue here that the hands on experience with materials associated with traditional and historical based processes in a contemporary high school photography classroom enhanced and informed students' learning of past and present photography technologies as well as their understanding about their role in producing contemporary art. This role includes how students identified themselves as artists photographers. During my capstone project, I realized even more why this paper and the creation o f an online resource for educators, artist, and students is important today. In order to have future educators with experience or knowledge of these processes we must preserve, share, and
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 16 perpetuate them now in order to continue teaching them in the high s chool level. This occurred to me one day as I reflected on a conversation with a former photography student. An excerpt from my journa l conveys this insight. Today I was talking to a student who graduated a few years ago and is now attending an art school pursuing a degree in photography. She was telling me about her large format photography class and feeling very proud of the fact that she felt more knowledgeable (technically) than some of her peers because of what she had learned in my photo classes. Whe n I asked her what she meant, she told me that more than half of her classmates had never worked with film or been in a darkroom until they reached this particular program. As we talked further, I began to daydream a bit, thinking about what this means for future students in a high school photography class. If their future teachers are some of her peers who never had experienced or had direct hands on learning about film, the darkroom, or other historical based methods then the future of these processes wou ld be forgotten and doomed, Panic sank in immediately! I'll be honest; it's difficult (partly because my knowledge of historical based, traditional, and alternative photography methods) that others wouldn't develop a passion for them if just given the c hance!! LOL, I know that it is ridiculous but think about it those graduating from college who were in high schools where darkrooms have been removed and become teachers will have NO knowledge of this stuff. Ugh My capstone project also demonstrates h ow new multimedia communication technologies, particularly various social networking websites such as Apug.org, an international on line community completely devoted to traditional (non digital) photographic processes can support the education of traditio nal and historical based processes. I found that additional
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 17 benefits of social media are that they allow students to give and receive feedback about the work they create as evident on sites such as Flickr where I created a page for this capstone project, http://www.flickr.com/photos/room3130/ to share artwork created by my photography students. In addition to these examples, this capstone project does not focus on, but acknowledges companies that cater to high school age demographics. For example, Urban Outfitters, Lomography, and Freestyle Photographic Supplies all sell various versions of film based cameras ( see Appendix B). Each of these company's websites also include links to additional information about methods for working with photography in traditional ways. To emphasize the value that these companies are placing on historical based processes, I will share something I read on the company, Freestyle Photographic Supplies, in May of 2012. On their website they announce that they have "drawn a line in the photographic sand, and that line is in the darkroom! We have staked our very identity on our film belief in the value of traditional B&W photography" ( http://www.freestylephoto.biz/importanceofdarkroom.php ). On one final note, support for this capstone project is evident by institutions like museums and art galleries that have historically been responsible for promoting traditio nal and contemporary art and who continue to exhibit past and contemporary artist photographers engaging in methods of traditional and historical based processes in photography alone or in collaboration with digit al photography and technologies. Methodolog y Action research will allow for the examination of the educational practice in my classroom through observations I make, discussions and documentation of student writings and projects, as well as conversations with other educators and artist photographer s. Reading my own writing as well as the writings of my students will allow for the "reflective process that
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 18 allows for inquiry and discussion as components of the "research" (Ferran ce, 2000, p. 6) r ather than just dealing with the theoretical. This will h elp provide an understanding to how the experiences and the production of historical based projects impacts students' formations of identity as artist photographers. Additional benefits of action research include allowing me to address concerns impacting m y practice. This includes ways to maintain the facilities in my school and how to draw attention to our program. I have come to believe that teachers exhibit considerable influence over curriculum and the visibility of their programs. The process of action research also allows educators including myself to assess, document, analyzing data and make informed decisions that can lead to desirable outcomes (Ferrence, 2000, p21). In this case, desirable outcomes would be to preserve, perpetuate, and encourage his torical based photography processes within a high school photography program. Outcome This capstone project will result in the creation of an online resource in the form of a blog and an interactive gallery. Utilizing varying social media, my students an d I shared images and information about traditional and contemporary approaches to photography, with hopes of generating conversations with other artists, educators, and students. This project demonstrates how using social media technologies like Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, Flickr, Delicious, and Facebook showcase what can be done in today's high school photography classroom ( see Figure 1). This capstone project also serves as a rationale for preserving, promoting and encouraging photography educators to cr eatively engage historical based methods of photography in the contemporary high school photography classroom.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 19 Figure 1 Example of how a site such as Delicious can be used to showcase student artwork.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 20 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVI EW "If absolute truth were the only thing photography had to offer, it would have disappeared a century ago. Photography isn't merely a window on the world, it's a portal into the unconscious, wide open to fantasies, nightmares, obsessions, and the purest abstraction, as envisioned by Julia Margaret Cameron, Hans Bellmer, Man Ray, Joel Peter Witkin, Laurie Simmons, and Adam Fuss" ~Vince Aletti Investigation of Online Resources Chapter 2 details a review of literature supporting this capstone project and helps answer the question, "What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondary and post secondary art students?" It also sheds light about the attitudes that high school students have towards past and contemporary ar tist and art making practices. Internet as Resource In my examination of online sources, photography publications and through conversations with photography educators, I found that much of the recent academic writing that has been conducted about photogra phy education focuses on the advantages of new technology and digital imaging. Yet, in one single Google search for historical based photography methods, or alternative photography yields many links to Web pages about photography resources, tutorials, arti sts, and exhibitions (see Figure 2). In fact one of the first ten websites to be displayed when I did a Google search using the key phrase "historical based photography methods" or "alternative photography" is a link to a directory called DMOZ, the Open Di rectory Project, listing 76 contemporary and practicing artist photographers whose work included historical based photography methods (see Figure 3).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 21 Figure 2 A screen shot of what appears when a search is performed using Google to find information on historical based processes or alternative photography methods.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 22 Figure 3 A partial list of DMOZ website.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 23 During my investigation of online sources and as I came across lists, websites, blogs, competitions, or artists engaged in historical and alternative photography I asked myself, "As educators, how can we not include these artists and processes in a high school photography curriculum? They are right here on the Internet for all to find." I understand th at everyone does not have access to the Internet, but I also maintain that even a simple search on it reveals that high school age students are actively engaged in online communities that are interested in historical based processes. One example of one suc h online community is .org, which is an international on line community devoted to traditional (non digital) photographic processes. Through sites like this and general searches, students and educators also have easy access to examples of artwork created by contemporary artist photographers like Florian Maier Aichen, Sally Mann and Jerry Uelsmann. These are just a few contemporary artists who are utilizing methods from both traditional and historical processes in their work. For example, Jerry Uelsmann (2006 ) discusses what motivated him to create images assembled by multiple negatives, the process, as well as his technique and the digital revolution that is taking place in photography. He shoots with a medium format camera, uses film and creates his work in the darkroom using multiple enlargers and negatives but acknowledges that Photoshop has created a much broader audience for his work. Uelsmann began assembling his photographs from multiple negatives decades before digital tools like Photoshop were availab le. He even uses as many as seven enlargers to expose and create a single print. According to him this process allows him to, "create evocative images that combine the realism of photography and the fluidity of our dreams." Uelsmann believes that no matter what tool is used, creating a great image is equally difficult but for him, "the alchemy of the photographic process" is inextricably tied to his creative vision (see Appendix C)
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 24 So much information is available on the Internet that one can find a multi ple of means from which to learn. Discussions with my students revealed that we both found that many popular websites, like YouTube, Vimeo, and Art21 provide videos about historical accounts of photography, interviews with past and contemporary artist phot ographers, and tutorials on their art making practice and techniques. One example on YouTube is a video demonstrating how to convert a room into a camera obscura. This video is about renowned artist Abelardo Morell ( http://youtube.be/yvWX6 0_VHU ). Other searches revealed videos posted by students of all ages, who have converted their bedroom and dorm rooms into camera obscura One high school student posted a video on Jun 7, 2009 showing how he made his room in to a giant camera obscura for his physics final project ( http://youtu.be/_qrG5jWZO ). Should We Do Without the Darkroom? Through various sources online and in conversations with teachers in my school district, I found that the disappearance of the darkroom in photography education signaled to them the end for the need of traditional and historical processes in photography education. It was disappointing to see that popular websites containing lesson and project p lans such as The Incredible Art Department either removed or revised lesson plans dealing with film and/or darkroom processes. I was surprised to see four of the six lesson/project plans in the category, "Photography and previously viewed by me on The In credible Art Department website have been revised or changed entirely to accommodate programs no longer using film or darkrooms. They now recommend or suggest as an alternate using a Digital SLR and Photoshop instead of 35mm film and the darkroom to create projects ( http://bit.ly/OnGwMw ). My examination of syllabi lessons and project plans created by photography teachers online, found that a majority of the lessons focus ed on newer technology rather than integrating
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 25 these new methods with historical base d process es This was especially true for beginning photography, whose lessons revealed a greater focus on the formal aspects and history of the medium as a document without thinking much about how the medium can be pushed creatively. This aligned with the idea of Darren Newbury (1997) as he wrote in Talking About Practice: Photography Students, Photographic Culture and Professional Identities" that a curriculum having a narrow conception of photographic education is to leave many aspects of photographic practice unarticulated I am not saying that the technical or formal aspects of creating good compositio n and design are not of value and I can agree that digital photography with its speed, affordability, hi quality and versatility, is permeating our l ives both at home and in the workplace But, this does not mean that it is the only means of capturing imagery in today's culture for both personal and professional use and therefore would be limiting. For example, Navada Weir, a travel photograph er whose imag e s have appeared in National Geographic, Smiths onian and Geo, stated during a 2005 interview in Shutterbug Magazine that she may use a digital camera at times, but film cameras are simply more practical for the sort of photography she shoots. Weir to ld Shutterbug Magazine, "I could care less, film digital; the only problem is that in many places I travel there is no electricity and that eliminates th e digital camera (biit.ly/LRes3U) Sacha Dean Biyan is a nother example of a contemporary photographe r who still uses film in the field. Biyan is an award winning fashion photographer and p hotojournalist who work for clients such as Sony Music, the Gap, and Lexus. Biyan s hoots entirely on film but admits that he might use digital manipulation in postprodu ction He was quoted as saying, "For now, despite the obvious advantages of digital, my obsession with quality always draws me back to traditional means. I use medium or large format cameras, and still prefer platinum palladium printing for my images,
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 26 whic h unfortunately cannot be appreciated over the Internet ." (blogs.photopreneur.com/photographers who still use film) I am proposing in my capstone paper that by incorporating historical based methods students can gain more freedom to play and investigate newer ways of using photography. For example, t he pinhole camera is not a new invention, but re thinking what a camera device can be made from pushes how the medium can be used creatively. Like l ast fall, students in my Photography club came up with the i dea to make a pinhole camera from a pumpkin ( see Figure 4 and Figure 5). After creating our own "Pumpkin Camera", during the spring of 2012, I found a video fro m NPR created and posted in October, 2010, demonstrating just "How To Turn A Pumpkin Into A Cam era ( http://n.pr/NNjYZN ). Figure 4. A pinhole camera with multiple lenses made from a pumpkin
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 27 Figure 5. This is an example of a paper negative and positive taken using a pinhole camera made from a pumpkin.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 28 To summari ze, my investigation of the Internet as a resource concluded two things 1. There is a abundance of resources available through the Internet about historical based, traditional, and alternative methods including past and contemporary artist pursuing them, tuto rials, resources for equipment and supplies, discussions via forums and blogs sharing practice and ideas, as well as galleries and places to showcase one's work. 2. High school students are activity engaged and interested in these processes as evident by th e increased number of those participating in International Pin Hole Photography Day, Lomography, Sales at Urban Outfitters, and the plethora of image sharing websites supporting exhibition and feedback to one's work. Photography Then and Now In the early 19 th century much like today, the American culture embraced new technology and photography grew in popularity. This was not very different from the late 1880's when the dry plate was introduced. According to F.C. Beach, editor of the American Amateur Phot ographer Digest around 1894, "The practice of photography as an amusement did not assume much importance until early in the eighties. (with) the introduction of the modern dry plateMany people who never imagined they could master photography were attrac ted by the new process, and gave it a try. In the wake of the dry plate came smaller, more portable cameras, commercial processing, and eventually the Kodak, a hand camera with a roll of film requiring that the photographer do no more than simply "press th e button" ( p. 27 as cited in Sternberger, 2001).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 29 The same could be said of today's technological advances in photography and the unsurprising popularity of the digital camera amongst the general public. I do not discount the advantages that newer technol ogy provides the medium of photography. As readers, you will see, new media were used in this capstone project to document activities in my classroom, as well in the creation of our artwork. But I do contend that art students today need to see that photogr aphy history and historical processes are more than just facts. We have all heard the saying, "history repeats itself" and time and time again we have seen this in photography. The seventies were a time when photographers began to rebel against the unif ormity of the commercial silver gelatin enlarging papers therefore hand sensitizing their papers and surfaces (Ware, 2007). Here we are approximately thirty years later, and we find contemporary artist photographers engaged in dialogue and/or techniques fr om the past. For example, the photographs of An My Le ( see Appendix D) whose "29 Palms: Infantry Platoon Retreat" created between 2003 2004, were taken with a large format camera. Le consciously cites the history of landscape photograph and the pre cedents set by the earliest war photographers from the mid nineteenth century. Another artist of interest to this discussion includes Zoe Leonard ( Appendix E ). Her project, "Analogue" consists of street photographs made in various cities that she visited or lived. Leonard used a vintage camera, the Rolleiflex, to create this series capturing the enduring possibilities of the camera to reflect and document what surrounds us. According to Charlotte Cotton, author of The Photograph as Contemporary Art, Leonard's photo graphy explicitly declares the continuing and meaningful status of the wandering, observant street photography in the contemporary era while acknowledging its own historicized gesture. Leonard's Analogue project is sensitive to photography's twentieth cent ury heritage but it also makes for a poetic reminder of the still resonant and intelligent ways that
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 30 photography can abstract and make our experiences meaningful ( Cotton, 2009, p. 231). A third example, presented in Cotton's book is by A merican artist Ann e Collier ( Appendix F ). Collier uses photography to create witty and linguistic propositions. Collier's diptych, Blue Sky, Grey Sky, created in 2008, appears to have been made effortlessly. She has striped her imagery down to the their leanest economy, in part paying homage to conceptually driving photography of the 1960's and early 1970's (Cotton, 2004). We can see through three artists that history influences who we are, how we think, but also what we create. "As experimental as its historical tradition s, photography remains try to its amorphous, experimental self" ( Marion, 2006, p. 32 ) In the early 1900 s the invention of photography led to the eventual "publication of photographs of daily events, social conditions, and scientific phenomena in reading matter for the increasingly literate public, the wide dissemination of accurate reproductions of masterworks of visual art also made possible by photographic and printing technologies" that, "made the public more aware of visual culture in general" (Rosenb lum, 2008, p. 297). Today, it is still the photographic image that communicates and draws awareness to one's visual culture whether in print, on the Internet, through Instagram, or on Facebook. As Helmut Gernsheim observed, "photography is the only, langu age, understood in all parts of the world, and bridging all nations and cultures, it links the family of man." (As cited in Michael Busselle, 1980, p. 199). Photography in Education Lewis Hine is credited with creating the first full scale photography education program in 1903. Considering that Daguerre and Henry Fox Talbot made permanent photographic images as early as the 1830's this. Hine felt that the educational value of photography fit neatly into the goals and methods of the Progressive Educatio n Movement. He argued that the camera aided learning by sharpening one's perception. In the process of photographing the Ellis Island immigrants, Hine would eventually become famous for his pioneering documentation of child
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 31 labor. Along with his mentor, Fr ank Manny, they sought out social issues to present students with a larger worldview (Trachtenberg, 1977). Hine also argued that photography could enhance one's art appreciation. In an essay written in 1977 by Alan Trachtenberg he explained how Hine bridg ed the gap between social documentary and "straight" photography, which at the time was viewed as taking the place of Pictorialism in art photography. Trachtenberg wrote: For Hine, the art of photography lay in is ability to interpret the everyday world, that of work, of poverty, of factory, of street, household. He did not mean "beauty" or personal expression.' He meant how people live. A straight photographer, anticipating the direction of Strand and Stieglitz after the demise of soft focus romanticism, for Hine to be straight' meant more than the purity of photographic means; it meant also a responsibility to the truth of his vision. (p. 240) Many well known photographers in history were either self taught or picked it up from friends or colleagues. There have always been plenty of "how to" books today and with the Internet there are endless resources available. For example, readers may follow the link to tutorials or forums and blogs on the blog, Room3130 at http://www.room3130.tumblr My survey on the Internet about photography in education investigated educational websites, journal articles and blogs pertaining to the use of photography by educators in the classroom. I was trying to establish a precedent for the lesson I would create as part of thi s capstone project and the status of these processes in other contemporary photography programs. In the United States, photography has and still struggles to be accepted in some educational arenas. It was not the Photo Secession Pictorialists, led by Alfr ed Stieglitz, who first
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 32 created a union between photography and education but rather the social realism of documentary photography. This coincided with the Industrial Revolution and technological advances in American culture much like today. I have noticed that among some people, including students who enter my photography classes, that there is a common perception that the medium of photography is simple or automatic. In conversations with students, they have communicated that digital photography makes it easier to take good pictures because all you have to do is push a button. In fact, according to my students, if you mess up you, can just delete it or fix it later in Photoshop or some other software program. In my opinion, this thought process has diminis hed the medium's original craft and has alienated the photographer from the full creative process. Some people would celebrate this as a triumph of technology and expediency, yet like myself, and as with past photography inventions, photo historian A.D. Co leman sees it as a major setback: Up until 1888, anyone who wanted to make photographs had to practice photographyat a time when a growing public was acquiring craft expertise in the first democratically accessible visual communications systemKodak, by a ppealing to people's capacity for laziness allowed thee luxury' of foregoing any study of that craft. Eastman's system effectively undermined the impulse to learn the process of photography, by rendering the knowledge unnecessary. (Coleman, p. 83) Crea ting a link between the past, present, and future would be accomplished through curriculum combining instruction and practice of historical based photography techniques while engaging in newer contemporary technologies. A review of literature concerning ph otography education practices revealed to me s tudents need to have a basic understanding of why this
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 33 knowledge is important and how it relates to their present practice (Graseck, 2008) As a memb er of the Freestyle Advis ory Board of Photographic Professio nals, Edward Alfano said, "the skill sets acquired through traditional darkroom practices allow the student to grasp the underlying meanings behind digital processes. The conceptual development that is encouraged may be taught using either traditional or digital approaches, yet there seems to be more reflection and critical visual integrity when the precious commodity of film is used rather than filling a 4 GIG card with less thoughtful visuals" ( http://bit.ly/OUB181 ). I have found evidence of Alfano's cla im as well as the desire to use the darkroom in conversations with high school students and in reading students' notes about their experi ence with film and the darkroom in both my classroom an on various online blogs. For example, in a stream of post on th e blog, Swiss Miss ( http://www.swiss miss.com/2009/04/oh darkroom i miss you.html ) members reflect on the loss of darkrooms in photography programs. My pilot study (Appendix G ), conducted prior to this capstone project indicated that educators in my school district varied from formal education in the visual arts, to art education backgrounds, to those who were self taught or in the past or present now worked in the profession o f teaching art to young people. My pilot study also indicated that most educators felt their darkrooms were closed due to a lack of funding and environmental concerns. This notion was supported during my capstone project when I interviewed Margaret E vans, Professor, Communication/Journalism Department at Shippensburg University, who also wrote, Academic and Pedagogical Issues: The Impact of Digital Imaging on Photographic Education History, Mission Statement, Curriculum Issues, Digital Photography, Making the Transition. She told me that film based photography at Shippensburg University was removed in May 2009. Like the educators in my pilot study in an interview on July 12, 2012 she also stated that part of the
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 34 closing of the darkroom was due to a lack o f funding. She explained to me that when the photography program was housed in the College of Fine Arts (now part of the Communication/Journalism Department), the expenses to operate and maintain the darkroom and equipment fell on department. Her view was these changes occurred not just because maintaining a darkroom is simply more expensive than digital technology or maintaining a computer lab, but because the money to do so isn't as accessible as it used to be in her department. She continued to explain t o me that because photography is based on digital photography involving new technology, and because her unit is part of the Department of Communication and Journalism, they are able to get additional grants and funding allotted by the University for digita l technology purposes. These kinds of grants and additional funding were not made available when her program was housed in the College of Fine Art or when photography was based on darkroom and wet processes. Part of the reason photography was moved from on e department to the other was because students were also seeking photography as careers and the university felt that the newer technology would better serve their needs and ability to enter the workforce. Throughout the interview Margaret also commented on the differences in learning and motivation she observes in her students today compared to when they had to deal with the frustrations of film not coming out, or waiting to see what they did until it was developed. She misses the "ah ha" moment when stud ents get hooked on film and printing. She said she dearly misses the darkroom and teaching the 35mm camera to her students. For one, she said that it taught patience and other life skills that the immediate gratification of the digital camera cannot. Her p ersonal work incorporates both film and digital technologies but she does miss having access to a darkroom.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 35 In Hulick's (19 90) paper The Transcendental Machine? A Comparison of Digital Photography and Nineteenth Century Modes of Photographic Representatio n she observes, "that in order to judge digital and computer generated art we must recognize the characteristics that relate to its nineteenth century photograp hy predecessor (p. 425). Hulick substantiates that teaching traditional and historical process es is necessary so that our students will determine the future practices in photography, not letting technology dictate their art, but letting their art direct technology.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 36 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY "The complexity of photographic theory and practice in Ameri ca lie in two areas of significance: our understanding of the practice of photography and our understanding of the practice of photographic history" (Mary Warner Marien, 1997) The intent of this capstone project was to answer the question, "What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondary and post secondary art students? My capstone project used quantitative research methods such as a questionnaire and a brief survey but relies mainly on qualitative methods of c ollecting data based on action research methodology. Research Methods and Strategy The steps taken to develop the findings of this capstone project were as follows: 1. Based on historical photography methods, I created lessons and projects for my photograph y classes. During the courses of this capstone project, students engaged in multiple processes but individually focused on a select few of their choice. 2. I performed a literature search. I obtained and reviewed materials from journals, books, blogs, web sites, social media, and interviews related to photography teaching philosophies, practice, and traditions supporting the problem statement and methods of a conclusion. 3. My students and I made written documentation on blogs, and on social media sites (Tumb lr, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest). My students and I also kept personal diaries.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 37 4. Using a digital camera, video, and scanner my students and I documented the creation of contemporary photographic projects. 5. Conversations and interviews with artist photogra phers were conducted via email and telephone. Notes were made by myself (acting as the art teacher researcher) and collected in my diary. These notes were then summarized and transcribed in comparison to reflections and comments made by myself and partici pating students. 6. All written notes were reviewed for content and analyzed for similarities and differences. A comparison was made between my thoughts, other educators and artist photographers and those made by the students who participated in this project. I looked for evidence of their opinions about the value of using historical based processes. 7. A search was also conducted using the Internet to find how readily available information is for students and educators with regards to using historical based phot ography methods and who is supplying it and to recognize current trends amongst high school photography students in the process of making photographic projects. Research Design I based my research for my capstone project on the action research method as d escribed by Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist and educator whose work on action research was developed throughout the 1940! s in the United States and Eisner who said (1993) "the most important research agenda for art education are fine grained studies char acterized by description interpretation and evaluation of what actually goes on in the art classrooms" (as cited in Pitri,
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 38 2006, para. 15 ). By engaging in what is described as a "reflective process that allows for inquiry and discussion as components of t he research" (Ferrance, 2000, p. 6) rather than just dealing with the theoretical. I also gained a deeper understanding to how the experiences and the production of historical based projects impacted student's formations of identity as artist photographers During the capstone project and in my roll as the art teacher researcher, action research techniques appeared to be fluid and on going. As a means of collecting data, action research provided immediate and constant accessibility for feedback and evalua tion. Action research allowed students who participated and myself the freedom to record our own observations and thoughts as they occurred. I was able to record notes quickly using a form of shorthand allowing myself to make notations immediately that cou ld jog my memory later if I wanted to elaborate further about a conversation or observation I made. Personal reflections posted and shared by students using social media like our class blog, www.room3130.tumbl r.com on the Facebook group www.facebook.com/groups/496334690393153/ or on Twitter https://twitter.com/room3130 deepened my understanding of the data collected. To create a visual record, I always kept a camera on hand to document the activity and projects as they were created and finished ( see Figure 6 )
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 39 Figure 6. This is an example of the type of images created while documenting the activities in my photography classroom.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 40 The idea to use social media as a means to preserve, perpetuate, and share historical based photography methods came to me after reading and listening to transcripts from the April 2010 San Francisco Museum Of Modern Art sympo sium discussing the current state of photography. SFMOMA is a museum founded in 1935 and dedicated to the examination of the medium in all forms. Upon reading the position papers from the 2010 presenters, I came across the following statement by Blake Stim son, which had a direct and profound influence in my capstone project design. Blake Stimson stated that his position on the symposiums topic, Is Photography Over? is that his own guess is, photography is not over but instead is just beginning. We might find photography's future in its role as a ritual form commemorating representation's "unsocial sociability," as Kant called it, or "the contest of meaning," as it came to be named at the end of the Cold War. Such a ritual will only survive now if its phi losophically minded performativity is given equal play with its scientifically minded criticality. The contest, in other words, can no longer only be about debunking mythologies but instead also about creating myths anew (Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Co nference on, Is Photography Over ? 2012) Stimson also stated that .if photography is to survive as a meaningful form of expression in its own right by becoming the art that it has always wanted to be my guess is that photography's better adversary wi ll be social media more than new media per se and its measure of success will be beating Facebook and the like at their own game of everyday life (Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on, Is Photography Over ? 2012).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 41 Blake Stimson's position created a challenge for me and allowed me to see social media as the means best suited for my desire to share my research with communities at large. Again, in addition to using qualitative research methods to observe and document real high school students in a re al photography program in person, I also incorporated quantitative methods like questionnaires and a short survey to reach members of the artistic, education and photography community who also may have been former students of mine, or who have never been s tudents in my photography classroom, a collection of data is posted on our blog, http:// firstname.lastname@example.org (see Figure 7).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 42 Figure 7. Here is the front page of the class blog on Tumblr.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 43 Population The target po pulation for this capstone project includes high school students participating in a photography program, photography educators, as well as contemporary artist photographers. From my pilot study (Brock, 2011), it is apparent that students in a high school p hotography program are interested in learning and creating contemporary artworks using historical based and alternative processes and equipment like those used by early photographers. In my subsequent capstone research by focusing on lesson/projects I crea ted for one high school photography classroom, the students and myself were able to reflect, record, document, and share our knowledge and experiences with a global community. Through notes made in journals and shared via the Internet and social media we w ere able to communicate, share, and receive feedback with others outside of the classroom. These "others" were not limited to, but included educators, students, and other artist. The majority of who participated in this capstone project were students from my current and past Photography II and Photography III or higher, high school or college photography instructors, or contemporary artist photographers. Data Collection I kept detailed field notes that were written as reflective journal entries during the time of capstone project by my students and myself (see Figure 8 ). My journals included my thoughts and views about conversations and interviews with photography students in my classroom with educators from various secondary and higher institutions, as we ll as my reflections and reviews of blogs, forums, and articles I examined. Most of my journal entries consist of raw field notes based on classroom observations. Borrowing from the work of previous researchers as described by Hatch (2002), once the resear cher has a general strategy for deciding what to attend to they must then decide how the notes will actually be produced. In addition to recording my own
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 44 observations and my conversations with students, educators, and artist in a journal and notebook, I al so used a laptop computer. Hatch stated "It is impossible for researchers to remember all that is done and said in any social setting, and it is impossible for the researcher to make a complete record on the spot of the rapidly changing events in that set ting. Qualitative researchers make "field jottings" (Bernard, 1994, p. 181), "scratch notes" (Sanjek, 1990, p. 96), "condensed accounts" (Spradley, 1980, p. 69) or what I call "raw field notes" that are accurate, but incomplete, written descriptions of wha t was observed in the field" (as cited in Hatch, 2002, p. 82). In order to take notes quickly and as accurately as possible I used my own abbreviations, key words as personal shorthand so that I could find and make connections between similarities and diff erences between writings. These notes were then converted into research protocols. They contain details about where the observation was made, the general activity of the participants and real thoughts and feelings about the artwork the students were creat ing Not only did I create reflective journal entries and field notes based on for the duration of this capstone project, I used constructive methods of data analysis developing categories of content to focus on when interpreting the data. Some of my studen ts and I also made documentation on social media websites. For example, we posted to our class blog, the Facebook Group "Darkroom Diaries," Pinterest, Twitter, Instagram and Flickr (see Figure 9 ). One thing I concluded about myself as a qualitative researc her was that my desire in seeking to understand the perspective of my students based on their individual perceptions of the realities surrounding them while in my classroom and engaging in the lesson/project I created grew each day.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 45 Figure 8. Field not es from my journal
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 46 Figure 9. Examples from Facebook Darkroom Diaries blog A place where students reflect and share their experiences in my classroom and in the darkroom.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 47 Analysis of Data According to art educator Wanda May, "Inquiry into our own practice centers us, grounds us viscerally in real place and time with real persons, begs our questions and possibilities, makes us responsible for what we believe and when done well, teaching as inquiry provokes our most aesthetic, pedagogical sensibilit ies. It helps us to envision and craft ourselves and our work" (May, 1993, p. 124). In my study, action research allowed me to make on going changes to the way I collected, interpreted, and shared information. When interpreting my daily notes based on th e conversations in my classroom, personal observations and self reflection, I found both predicted and unpredicted answers to my capstone project's initial question, "What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondar y and post secondary art students?" It was clear to me that acting as teacher researcher increased my ability to recognize surprises and discoveries resulting from discussions and classroom activities. For example, one of these surprises led to the use of a specific social media in this capstone project. A student introduced m e to the application, Instagram, which later became a popular way for students in my classroom to share daily with their community of online friends some of the artwork they created. A ccording to my students, Instagram, is faster than Facebook and they can do really "cool" things to the pictures. My journal entry captures this student excitement. It is April 24, 2012 and I was in the middle of showing my students the Lomography website. We were viewing images in the online gallery. I had shown (the day before) the work of Diane Arbus, Lee Freelander, talked about twin lens reflex cameras, the Holga, and the Diana plastic camera. Anyway, while looking at pictures on the Lomo website,
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 48 S.R. blurted out, "Ms. Brock do you have Instagram? You should totally download the app. These pictures (the ones we were viewing on the Lomography website) totally look just like Instagrambut their film!" I was semi convinced by students in my hour 3, Photo II to download Instagram (or least now further investigate what it is). Maybe it can be used to document stuff for my c.p. (capstone project) or maybe I'll just take pictures of Comet (1 a day), ha! Prior to April 24, 2012, I did not know about Instagram I had heard it mentioned in my class a few times throughout the school year, but thought the last thing I wanted was another application on my phone. A few days later, I did download the application and a class discussion about Instagram unfolded the nex t day in the same Photography II. In the discussion I learned that five of the seven students who had Instagram on their phone did so because they. "Like that it makes pictures look old" and they felt, "Pictures look like the one's people use to put in pho to albums, like real photos." Additional comments that were made included, "They look more like film, not digital. That makes them more memorable." One aspect I found interesting was that even students who did not have the application on their current cel l phone agreed the pictures looked like "old time" photographs and that was the attraction to using the application. Collecting data, reviewing and analyzing it using deductive and inductive methods was very time consuming. But deductive methods of analys is of my collected data (of writings and images) allowed me to search passages quickly and to scan, group, and identify similarities in the written and visual documentations thoroughly. I was able to make list of common words, ideas, or themes, and then cr eate summaries to identify what to share on our Room3130 blog ( see Figure 10 ). Deductive and inductive analysis also allowed new questions to form that were still related to the original research question and are further discussed in the findings. For exam ple, I did not
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 49 anticipate the impact my enthusiasm for the subject matter would have in developing deeper curiosity amongst my students, leading them to conduct research beyond what was required in class I did not anticipate that my students would contin ue investigating these practices long after leaving my classroom. I also was surprised at how they had no realistic idea about the accessibility or cost of materials. This interesting patterns and trends about the emerging feelings and interest of my stude nts encourage further investigation. Because I was inviting examination and commentary about my teaching practice from students with whom I was in an unequal power relationship, I needed to take account of ethical considerations. To avoid bias, I was caref ul not to ask questions in such a way as to lead respondents into providing confirmation of my own vie ws rather than eliciting theirs (Appendix H ) contains techniques I learned and adapted from advice offered by the University of Plymouth ( http://www.edu.p lymouth.ac.uk/resined/interviews/inthome.html ). I used these guidelines to help me to clarify and validate my research. My capstone project focused on Photography II and Photography III classes, but I was also curious how my Photography I classes viewed what they were learning since a greater percentage of time is spent on lessons pertaining to the history and function of photography, the introduction to film, the chemistry and equipment used, as well as the basic printing techniques in the darkroom. Thre e years ago I had my first group of students who had never seen a roll of film. Although these lessons are necessary in Photography I, I also believe that programs focusing or beginning with film and darkroom methods of working do not need to exclude histo rical and other a lternative methods for working. I remember when I began teaching twelve years ago, one concern as a new teacher was whether making pinhole cameras and photograms would bore students. I had already been told
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 50 by administration that my posit ion might not exist in subsequent years because they didn't believe students would take a film based class with all the new digital technology. To my surprise the students weren't bored at all! In fact making camera obscura's, pinhole cameras, and photogra ms were a favorite among some students enrolled in Photography V and VI. Some of the alternative methods I introduced at this level typically included: image transfers using acrylic gel medium or Mod Podge, hand coloring with oils, Sepia and other color to ning processes using teas, coffee, and manufactured toners by Print tint and Berg. I also introduced Photomontage artists and techniques. A project based on techniques by photomontage artist is great while students wait for supplies since they can use read y made images and photographs students already have. I have included examples from Photography I students who created projects based on some of these processes mentioned above in order to demonstrate that historical and alternative based methods can be int roduced in all levels of a high school photography program. ( see Figure s 11 and 1 2)
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 51 Figure 10. Student page on Tumblr blog
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 52 Figure 11. Example of autobiographical Photomontage project.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 53 Figure 12. Student example o f toned print using Berg toners
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 54 To als o satisfy my curiosity about what Photography I students think about coming into a class and learning photography using film and working in the darkroom I created an optional survey for my Photography I students (57 of them) (Appendix I ). The questions in this survey focused on their motivation for taking Photography I and whether it met their expectations, whether they found lessons fun or useful, and whether it affected their view of what photography can be. The survey was completely optional and anonymou s. I placed a box in the back of the classroom for students to leave completed surveys. The box was out of sight, with a tray containing the survey next to it. Students were told about the survey, where to find it, that it was completely anonymous (they di dn't have to put their name on it) and that although it was for my research, it was also important for me to know. I told students that the survey and box would be there for three days. After the third day, I collected the contents of the box. I made a cha rt with each question as a column and tallied the results ( see Figure 13)
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 55 Figure 13. Survey results form Photography I students Research Limitations One of the limitations I encountered is time. It was not until late into my capstone project that I di scovered social media, such as Tumblr or Instagram I knew immediately that what I was doing in my capstone project and integrating the use of social media was just the beginning rather than the end to how I will continue to share my passion and teaching p ractices while creating photography curriculum incorporating historical based methods with contemporary art will continue after I complete this project and degree. A second challenge for me was the fact that I had never conducted research like this befor e and it takes time to develop the skills and confidence to take good field notes (Hatch, 2002). It was challenging to write, listen, and recognize immediately key words an d phrases being repeated. I discovered that I had to do this part of the process aft er most of the data was collected.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 56 A third challenge was balancing my responsibilities as teacher, student, and researcher throughout the duration of my capstone project, at the same time as educating myself to new technologies. Learning to use the social media was one thing, but a more difficult aspect in recording and sharing data via social media websites was due to the fact that social media could not be accessed by myself nor students while on the school campus and in the photography classroom. This c aused problems with the frequency and reliability of myself and students to immediately translate and post notes in a timely manner or if at all. A forth challenge was to be conscious at all time that I was keeping interpretations or impressions separate from the descriptive data. I discovered that collecting observational data is labor and time intensive work, and so is updating and staying current on social media websites. Finally, additional limitations were in the form of questions that this capstone project addresses and raised including the following: 1. What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondary and post secondary art students? 2. How can historical based processes and contemporary uses of them inspire educ ators and students in high school photography education? 3. How can historical based processes be preserved in high school photography education? 4. How can historical based processes be promoted in a high school photography education? 5. How do concerns about cost sustainability, and the environment effect the ability to te ach historical based processes in a high school p hotography education?
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 57 To address these questions, my capstone research does not ignore the difficulties that surround the topic pertaining to co st, sustainability, or issue's related to the environment but rather seeks to inspire and promote contemporary ideas and uses for historical based processes using social media technologies My goal is to make the Room3130 blog a "go to" place for informati on about historical based, traditional, and alternative methods, and how they can be included in secondary and higher education. T his capstone project may eventually lead to the creation of a Wiki, but regardless these methods of communication provide a magnitude of ways to share with others well beyond my classroom and ultimately lead to deeper discussions and increasing knowledge of practices. They also invite others to further research and possible share solutions to the limitations of this study sta ted above I am also n ot discounting the use and popularity of digital photography nor am I saying it is not art. Rather the reader will see that historical based practices can and are being used alone and along with digital photography to pr oduce new cont emporary artwork.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 58 CHAPTER 4: WHAT WAS REALLY DONE? WHAT WAS REALLY SAID? AND WHAT REALLY HAPPENED? Results from this capstone project not only demonstrate how the lessons and projects I created in my classroom connected my students with the histories of past and contemporary artist and art making practices, but how students used knowledge of these histories to create their own unique contemporary artwork. It also demonstrates that as time went on, the methods I anticipated using to share my findings and discoveries of events taking place in my classroom evolved and are still evolving. As I became more aware of the numerous social media technologies (through my daily Internet browsing and conversations with students) I discovered additional means and reas ons for using them. An unexpected benefit to my research was that I also gained knowledge about the way my students were learning. The most unexpected outcome of this capstone project for me, was the realization that social media technologies are incredibl y popular and not only familiar methods to my high school students, but allow me to effectively preserve, promote, and perpetuate historical based methods in a high school curriculum. First Things First Before beginning research for my capstone project, I had to create lessons and projects focused on historical based photography techniques in a contemporary classroom. It was of utmost importance to me to develop lessons and projects that created, as authentic of an experience to the past, as possible. I w anted my students to feel like and see that they are inventing and redefining what photography is today. I hoped that the lessons would build upon their understanding, appreciation, and exploration to the nuances of past photography techniques. An addition al underlying goal was to introduce them to new ways of incorporating the old technology with newer means of producing images. Ultimately, I wanted my students to view
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 59 themselves as creative, innovative and contemporary artist photographers. To accomplis h my goals, I developed lessons and projects that allowed for the blending of newer technology if they so desired, while the emphasis remained on the historical based methods of working. I did this by teaching through a hands on art making and learning app roach. Ideas for the lessons and projects were made concrete after browsing the Internet, the local library, scanning previous personal journals as well as engaging in conversations with my students. I was curious to see what or if any knowledge they alr eady had about historical based processes. This method of preparation helped me to develop the specific lessons and projects that were completed during this capstone project. My note taking, journal entries and visual documentation began immediately and co ntinued through the whole capstone Documentation also extended beyond my classroom, as I found myself taking notes based on correspondence via emails, an online blog and the occasional phone call or text. What Were The Lessons and Projects This capstone paper describes and shares the results of three lesson and projects created for my Photography II and Photography III students. All of the lessons and projects developed were based on specific historical, traditional, and now alternative methods of workin g and utilized film and darkroom processes. In this section readers will find a description of how these lessons were taught and what some of the projects students created were. I always begin each lesson or project, no matter what it is, by introducing s tudents to artist past and present who have or are currently investigating the methods, techniques and/or themes and ideas we are discussing. To do this, I use PowerPoint presentations books, magazines, journals, online references, past student work, and personal experience (when applicable) to introduce the lesson/project/or topic at hand. This is a good way to later open the
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 60 floor for discussion. This discussion, or one can call it a brainstorming session, is where my students and I talk about what they saw, learned, and are thinking. It also includes discussions about what the possibilities could be to further extend the methods, techniques, ideas, and/or themes I introduced to them. I have a rule in my classroom, that there is no impossible idea, so stu dents are encouraged to unleash their creativity while brainstorming as this can only lead to furthest exploration of their ideas encouraging greater problem solving skills. A part of all of the assignments for students was to reflect at the end of the pr oject about the research, process, and result of what they did ( see Figure s 14 and 1 5 ). They were allowed to review notes made during the process, from class discussions, or discussions had with myself, or anyone outside of the classroom. According to one students journal entry about her project. Based on the work of artist Hans Bellmer, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Edmund Teske she said that, Developing my own film, printing in the darkroom, and making my photographs like Man Ray made me feel more like a real artist. I had to work so hard and it wasn't easy to make what I was trying create happen. It's a lot harder to do this than my digital camera and using Photoshop, but I would stay in the darkroom all day if Ms. Brock let me, just to get it done.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 61 F igure 14. Example of students project notes
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 62 Figure 15. A student journal entry as a part of lesson/project reflections Lesson One Lesson and project number one focused on the methods and techniques of early photographers including but not limit ed to Sir John Herschel, Louis Daguerre, the Camera Obscura, Pictorialism, Julia Margaret Cameron, Anna Atkins and many other photographers prior to 1900. As I introduced the techniques used by these artists, students were instructed that they would be giv en the freedom to select one method or technique to create a project consisting
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 63 of three five final artworks. Over the course of two weeks, I shared artworks by past photographers and contemporary photographers whose work includes these processes. Together in hands on demonstrations, we produced examples based on the following techniques: Pin Hole Photography, Cyanotypes, Photogram, Liquid Emulsion, and Pictorialism. An example of how I conducted one aspect of this lesson is as follows: When speaking about Cyanotypes in my Photography II class I shared the work of Anna Atkins (1799 1871) ( http://bit.ly/digitalgalleryAtkins and http://bit.ly/O0SlNK ), and contemporary artis t and author Christopher James (author of, The Book of Alternative Processes, 2007 ) as viewed on his website http://bit.ly/OjPdcs Students took notes and participated in a hands on demonstration including mixing the Cyanotype chemistry using raw ingredien ts. Together we created Cyanotypes on fabric and watercolor paper coated by a glass rod ( see Figure 1 6 ).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 64 Figure 16 Example of Cyanotype made by a student on watercolor paper coated with glass rod during a demo
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 65 The technique was so popular among my Pho tography II students that soon, due to word of mouth, other students from my Photography Club and my Photography I class were coming to me and asking if they could learn how to make Cyanotypes as well. Because of the number of requests to learn this proces s, a larger mural was created after school one day. This time, the students from my Photography II class instructed those who attended. Using notes they created during our initial demonstration, and guided by me, they instructed those who were attending ho w to mix the chemistry, coat the fabric and create the final mural. Some of the students who participated in the after school Cyanotype mural had no previous exposure to the darkroom or other tradit ional photography processes ( see Figure 17)
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 66 Figure 17. C yanotype mural made after school with students Following the initial two weeks, students had two days to conduct their individual research and gather information plus examples of past and contemporary artist for the process of their choice. They were then given two weeks, which was ten school days (equivalent of approximately 470 minutes) in class to prepare, create and get ready to present their final projects to the class. The project was to consist of their notes, documentation of process, and three fiv e final artworks. Figure 18 and 19 show the results from two students final projects.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 67 Figure 18. Student example of a combination print made with Liquid Emulsion on wood
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 68 Figure 19. Photogram made by a student
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 69 Lesson Two Lesson and project number two was created for both my Photography II and Photography III students. It was based on what I'll refer to as "special darkroom processes". These included creatin g (Solarized) prints, Chomoskedasic painting, Photogram & Combination Prints, as well as what I c all, Creative Methods for Developing. When I first introduced the project, students expressed a lot of excitement as some of them said, "playing in the darkroom is my favorite part of photography". There are many resources and examples of artist past and present using these techniques in their artwork. A terrific website I use to begin talking about Photogram covering the span and history of the process through the early 1800's After WWII can be found at the following link, http://bit.ly/NQhmr0 To get started, I shared the work of multiple artists including Laszlo Moholy Nagy, Jackie Fugere, Jerry Uelsmann, and past students who used these processes As in lesson one, I spent several days showing PowerPoint presentations, other visual imagery, a nd eng aging in discussions with my students. During the hands on demonstrations my students and I created examples using these processes, students were once again instructed to select one method or technique, or a combination of them to create a project consisti ng of three five final artworks. After presenting their research and examples from their personal investigation of artists and the process they selected they had seven class periods to complete three to five examples. Not only did the students learn from past and contemporary artists about the processes but also it is evident in their work and writings from journals that they reinterpreted the processes and created new contemporary artworks ( see Figure s 20, 21, 22, and 23).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 70 Figure 20. Student notes o Chr omoskedasic painting process
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 71 Figure 21 Student result from Chromoskedasic process
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 72 Figure 22 Student notes on Surrealism
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 73 Figure 23. Student artwork. Combination print inspired by Jerry Uelsmann Conversations with students one day during this projec t revealed that the method I use for demonstrations, which I feel engages them physically by using a hands on learning approach with the materials, he lps them feel more confident about using the processes the next day on their own. One male student told me after school the following Friday, "It wasn't so bad when I messed up because sometimes our demos don't work the first time either." We laughed. I am glad that my students felt like we were in it together.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 74 Lesson Three Lesson and project number three wa s created for my Photography III students and focused on the investigation of methods and techniques used by contemporary artist photographers. The lesson description included all past and current popular practices in photography that had been explored to date in photography classes they had taken with me. These included but were not limited to historical based, traditional, and alternative method of image making, which is reflected in the student's final projects. I wanted my students to really think abou t how they could push the medium of photography. Also I wanted them to push themselves, their ideas while considering what photography is and what the photograph means as a form of communication? I wanted them to ask themselves how can they push the medium and affect others perception of what art photography means? To help them get started they were given the following questions to consider and later these questions were discussed in class as a group: 1. What does the production of the image entail and mean? 2. H ow will their ideas, techniques, and methods of working integrate the past and present? 3. What artist will be their inspiration and influences in designing their project? To get started, as a group we spent several days browsing the Internet, looking at P owerPoint presentations I created and thumbing through books I pulled from the local library and my house. During conversations with each other we dreamt about all kinds of uses for a photograph as language, decoration, ritual, and more (Brock 2011 ). Br ainstorming was conducted in journals using several former journal activities I had created It was really exciting to see them allowing their creativity to take over and putting it ahead of the big question that
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 75 came later, "How will I do this?" I shared a story with them about a fellow classmate in my undergraduate program that turned himself into a walking camera by taping negatives on his body and lying in the sun for several hours. We viewed many contemporary and past artists work including the work of Justin Quinnell whose website i s, http://www.pinholephotography.org and who created images using his mouth as a pinhole camera. They were then given one week, while working on other class projects to make investigations and conduct research on artists, processes, and their own experiments. Students presented proposals for their projects to the class, receiving feedback and input from classmates and myself before making revisions to their proposals and handi ng it in to me. Once I received and approved their project proposals they had three weeks to complete and prepare for a final critique. In between students and I met three times, as a group, assessing progress and providing feedback r on the progress of t he artwork. A part of this lesson was for students to keep detailed diaries of their thoughts, working processes, daily challenges and successes along the way. They were given the freedom to write as much as they wanted during this time with a minimum of at least one paragraph each day reflecting on their project (whether they spent time on it that day or not). Readers can read excerpts of these entries in (Appendix J ). Entries from journals and examples of projects resulting from lesson three are below ( see Figures 24, 25, 26 and 27).
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 76 Figure 24. Cyanotype sculpture project. Students final p hotography project from lesson 3
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 77 Figure 25. Prom dress made by student during lesson/project 3
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 78 Figure 26. An image from a students final project during lesson/pro ject number three, using a Holga camera
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 79 Figure 27. One image printed four ways, four times. An example of a students final project from lesson/project three. The feedback from students about this lesson and the projects they created was one of increased confidence in developing ideas on their own. They told me they felt like "real" artist s One student wrote in her journal, "I'm proud of what I created, I actually made the artwork from conception to end. I did it with own two hands I feel like more of a n artist than I do when I take a picture with my cell phone and just put it on FB or use Photoshop to make it better." Our class discussion at the end of this project reflected positive attitudes about being able to develop a concept, conduct research, dic tate the methods for working, and produce work using technologies and methods from the past combined with newer ones. Importantly, as indicated in the lesson description, this was not a requirement. My students told me that the most difficult aspect of thi s project was deciding what to do and to decide how to do it. Most of them continued working on other projects in addition to this one, because as they told me, they were having so much fun with the projects all semester (both film based, digital, and alte rnative) they didn't want to stop. Readers may view additional artwork created from projects t hat were completed by
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 80 students as part of lessons one, two, and three in the Appendices (Appendix L, M, N,). Readers can also view other art work produced in roo m3130 during the duration of this capstone project ( Appendix O P)
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 81 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS No one is a complete photographer until he or she gains a fundamental knowledge of darkroom p ractice" Kodak, the essence of photography (bit.ly/MoxvUF) This capstone project and paper did not answer my initial question, What old and new photographic media and processes are most suitable for teaching secondary and post secondary art students?" B ut it answered a more relevant question such as, How can a contemporary photography program integrate historical based and alternative methods with digital and newer technology to create, share, and promote artwork created by high school photography stude nts in the 21 st century? It also addressed whether integrating these methods influenced how students view ed themselves as contemporary artist. And, it introduced ways social media can be used by teachers and students to create and share ideas online throug h discourse, curriculum, techniques, processes, materials, and artists. It is evident that u pon completion of this research I will continue my investigation of teaching strategies and methods using social media technologies to help preserve, perpetuate, an d express curriculum ideas blending the past, present, and future means of creating photographic images. My capstone project also solidified my commitment going forward to use social media technology to preserve, perpetuate, and share historical based phot ography processes as part of contemporary art making. Conducting this research also expanded my knowledge and analysis about my own teaching practices and methods of instruction. As I became more aware and engaged in social media technologies, it continu ally amazed me in terms of the number of resources available and how quickly my interactions wi th communities of fellow artists and educators grew. I never
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 8 2 thought that I would be using nine to 10 social media websites and/or applications on a daily basis. Honestly, prior to my capstone project, I didn't have much interest in using social media. As I reflect on this, I realize my prior apprehension was due to a lack of knowledge about how to use social media effectively. Working on this project also provi ded insight about my students' perspectives on the methods of instruction I employ in the classroom. Students' journals and diaries included everything, from the lessons and their experiences the ups and downs of daily academic life to their opinions a bout my teaching practices and my daily habits. I saw myself and everything I did through their eyes, including when I twisted my hair around my finger and told a story about skating with Tony Hawk, to how frustrated they were with me when I told them to l eave the darkroom to retrieve their notes on using Soloral developer instead of just simply feeding them the answers. As one student wrote, "She was standing right there! And still made me go get my journal with my notes!" I never anticipated that I would learn so much about myself through this process or that I am not just the teacher while in my classroom, but a student of my students. The knowledge I gained outside of the intended questions of this capstone project and the questions that it raised are j ust as important to me as the ones I answered Action research methodology served the purpose of my capstone project best, because when using action research, theory and practice are not viewed as separate but rather two sides of the same thing (May, 199 3, p. 116). Teachers may not aim to solve specific problems, but through their inquiry discover connections between their students learning and their own experiences. This was never more true to me then as I read writings by both my students and myself ab out activities we both engaged in together in the classroom. According to Tripp in the article, Theory into Practice, "Education is a social practice, it's techniques are not socially
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 83 neutral: they produce, reproduce, and transform peoples abilities, attit udes, and ideas therefore teachers need to understand their influence over and responsibility for the social conditions and outcomes of education" (Tripp, 1990, p. 165). I was not as aware, prior to analyzing the data, how my e nthusiasm and attitude about various methods of working in photography impacts my students. I now believe that it is vital for teachers to keep written and visual documentation of what happens in their classroom. As a teacher, I was able to examine and reflect upon not just curricul um and lessons but also the relationships between my students and myself. Participating in action research helped me see that my personal attitudes and feelings contributed to the success of my students. In his book, Criticizing the Photograph, Terry Barre tt comments on the student teacher relationship. He states, "Whether consciously held or not, assumptions and theories affect how we make photographs and how we understand them. The theories of our teachers, whether fully developed or a loosely held set of assumptions, certainly influence the way they teach about photography, the way we learn about photography, and the kinds of photography we are encouraged to make" (Barrett, 2005, p. 179). I also discovered that I am not alone in my belief that there is a need to preserve and teach historical and analog methods in photography I found that these processes are still valued by fellow educators artists, and the outside photography community. Support for these findings is evident in articles such as one writ ten by Jonathan Stead. In it, Stead focuses on the importance of craft and a hands on approach to making art through interviews with contemporary photographers like Mark Tweedie, and examines the current practices of these artists using analog and historic al processes ( Appendix K ). He defines photography as open ended and "born of the human desire to accurately make visual representations from life." Stead
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 84 claims that because of improvements in technology associated with digital photography, everyone feels like they can create a good image, and that this may devalue photography as an artistic medium, resulting in photographers and artists revisiting historical methods ( Stead, p. 1). The artists that Stead interviewed shared a common theme, the "love of proce ss and an ability to affect outcomes at any stage of the image making process" in these contemporary practices ( Stead, p .3). He concludes that analog photography achieves this for many. B ased on his interviews with these artists, Stead finds that the current resurgence of analogue processes and alternative process is a reaction to the current digital environment and is similar to the rise of Pictorialism at the end of the Nineteenth Century. Analog "is often about slowing down, changing your state of m ind. It is used by many as a form of escapism from the increasingly digital world" ( Stead, p. 2) because "The need for visualization or pre visualization, is something that has been intrinsic to the medium from its birth" ( Stead, p. 4), whereas the instant review of images on the digital camera eliminates the need and practice for pre and post visualization. Stead's findings from his interviews correlate with the interviews I had with my high school photography students. For example, because my students were also participating in action research methods, and engaging in self reflection writings, it appeared that they were developing a greater connection to what they created, and, as a result, felt their artwork had stronger meaning. Stead supports the nee d for further investigation into fine art photography and the working methodologies of artists, as well as the importance of teaching historical methods in art education. My capstone paper focuses more on the processes surrounding the lessons I developed and the artworks students created, versus what the artworks mean. Nonetheless, when I read their
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 85 journals, i t was wonderful to see that what they were creating appeared not just to be a lesson or project I gave them, but something of their own creation. Th eir writings and discussions with me, both individually and as a group illustrated how the act of developing, printing, and experimenting with techniques made the students feel more connected to what they created, and as one student said, "It just means mo re because I did it." A consensus was made in one particular class that engaging in research, writing, documentation, and group discussions helped them to better understand their own creative motivations, and ultimately helped them see the meaning of wh at they created and the reasoning behind it. They were not simply taking the picture with the camera, and viewing it immediately or making a print, but creating something uniquely per sonal and authentic. Figure 28 contains part of a student's discovery abo u t a combination print she made. Figure 28. One Student's combination print and notes on meaning from her journal
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 86 As a result of my experience during this capstone project and using action research, I believe it should be a common practice in the art c lassroom for both teachers and students. My personal notes about students' progress and final projects provided me with greater insight and clarity when grading compared to a traditional rubric. Action research also made me encourage my students to documen t and keep personal notes, in addition to the reflections required in the lessons. The result of their notes replaced any need for further written critiques. By allowing my students the time to reflect and document what they did through research, in partne rship with the physical work their art required, increased their likelihood to share and actively participate in our group discussions. I also noticed that the depth and level of intellectual thought and discourse with my students was significantly great er during this capstone project than in prior classes. I attribute this to the methods I used in my research and the role I played as teacher researcher. This capstone project provided much greater personal rewards to both my students and myself than I had anticipated. Several of my students who participated in this capstone project now have their own blogs and are using other forms of social media that were introduced during this project to further share and document their own artistic practice. For exampl e, this is a link to one of several students who has a blog on tumblr http://stephaniemetz.tumblr.com/ W hen I began this capstone project, I had been teaching photography at the same school for 12 year s, a nd felt a certain level of confidence in my curriculum design and methods of instruction. Continued growth increasing popularity in the program I created supported this feeling. In 2000, the program consisted of two levels of photography. Now, 12 years later, I am teaching five to six different levels each semester. Knowledge of my students engaged in photography related programs and activities beyond my classroom also support its success. For
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 87 example, during my capstone project, one student created and taught an after school photography program based on film cameras to children ages 7 15 a local Boys and Girls Club. He shared his experience with me throughout the spring semester, and as he heads to college to pursu e a degree in photography this F all, he is training two current students to take over. Two other graduating seniors shared with me their desire to start photography clubs at the universities they will attend this fall, as there is currently not photography program at one, and no club at the oth er. In fact, one of these students recently told me that the university has offered to donate an existing classroom for her to use as a darkroom. Additionally, I received a text last week from a rising senior high school student that she presented a propos al to conduct a workshop based on the Cyanotype process to The Young at Art Children's Museum in Davie, Florida. These stories demonstrate the impact that learning historical based photography techniques has had on these students. Over the years, I have witnessed students receiving scholarships and opportunities based on the work they created in my classroom. In the past two years, four of my students set up darkrooms in their homes. One of them received his darkroom as a Christmas present, along with a M amiya 645 medium format camera. This summer, some of my students are attending both digital and film based photography workshops throughout the United States. It doesn't stop there. Many of my students have attended various universities and art school, so me of whom pursued degrees in photography with majors in Bio Medical Photography, Portraiture, Photojournalism, Mixed Media, and general Studio Arts. Two of these former students only use medium format film in their undergraduate work. I have also witnesse d former students develop professional careers in photography as studio photography owners, product photographers, photojournalist photographers working in research and medicine, teachers, and studio artists.
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 88 These are the reasons I do what I do. It is the experiences I have and those I provide for my students, which ultimately benefit them, but grant me the deepest rewards. In my daily practice as an artist, photographer, educator, and student, I am aware that when I am looking at today's photography, whe ther my students, other artists or I create it, I can see various influences from the past, some deliberate others unconscious. W hen people learn that I teach high school photography classes and utilize photographic processes based on historical and alter native methods in my curriculum, they always ask me why "Why do you still teach film in your photography classes when the world has gone digital?" I have offered many answers over the years, but maybe the simplest is expressed in something I once read. Wh ile I can't recall where I read it, this quote has remained in my memory since I first saw it in high school, "As photographers, we all stand if not on the shoulders of giants, then at least in their shadows."
Historical based Processes In A High School Photography Program 89 NARRATIVE BIOGRAPHY Deborah J. Brock is an a rt educator and studio artist in Bellaire, Texas and teaches high school studio art and art history. Prior to coming to Texas, Deborah taught in S. Florida for twelve years where she played an essential roll in the design and development of the visual arts program at one private college preparatory high school. Not only did she assist in the design of department facilities on two campuses, but single handedly created, developed and taught curriculum for six levels of photography incorporating film, darkroom alternative, digital, and new technology. She also taught AP Art History and ceramics. In addition, she helped conceive, develop, and implement an introduction survey course for secondary students. From 2004 2006 Deborah served as the art department's c oordinator before becoming the Broward County Regional Director for the nationally recognized Scholastic Art & Writing competition sponsored by the Alliance for Young Artist & Writers and Scholastic Inc, a position she held for six years. As a studio arti st and art educator, Deborah received her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Florida Atlantic University in 1997, and her Masters in Art Education in August 2012 from the University of Florida. Aside from her teaching and studio practice, Deborah considers herself a teacher researcher who values the methodology of action research. Her thesis and capstone project focused on the integration of historical based photography processes with digital and newer technology in a high school photography program. She con tinues to develop and expand upon her research, using social media, such as the blog, Room3130@tumblr.com to preserve, promote, perpetuate and provide a resource for others about past and current photographic pro cesses in contemporary art.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 90 R EFERENCE S Auer, T. and Herbert, G. (2011, October 25). Lights out in the darkroom. [Web log comment]. Messages posted to http://my.hsj.org/465409 Barrett, T. (2005). Criticizing pho tographs: An introduction to understanding images. New York, McGraw Hill. (1986). Teaching About Photography, Art Education Berman, L. (Interviewer) & Maher, C. (Interviewer) & Uelsmann, J. (Interviewee). (2006). Jerry Uelsmann Interview [Interview tran script]. Retr ieved for http://www.bermangraphics.com/press/jerry uelsmann.htm Busselle,M. (2008). The complete book of photographing people: A comprehensive guide to taking superb photo graphs of people. p 199. Cotton, C. (2009). Revived and Remade. The photograph as cont emporary art (2nd ed.). p 191 217. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. Cotton, C. (2009). Physical and material. The photograph as contemporary art (2nd ed.), pp. 219 241. Lo ndon: Thames & Hudson Ltd. Dean. (2008, February 2). Photographers who still use film. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://blogs.photopreneur.com/photographers who still use film Eisenberg, T. (2009, April 7). Oh darkroom I miss you. [Web log comments]. Retrieved from http://www.swiss miss.com/2009/04/oh darkroom i miss you.html Evans, M. (201 2, June 7). Telephone interview. Ferrance, E. (2000). Themes in education: action research, LAB at Brown University. Brown University 1 41. Goodyear, F. (2001, June 1). A merican Studies International [ Review of the book Between
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 91 amateur and aesthehte: the legitimization of photography as art in america, 1880 1900 ]. University of Ne w Mexico Press. Retreived from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1 76488172.html Graseck, S. (Nov Dec, 2008). Explore the past to understand the p resent and shape the future. Social Education 72, (7) (p. 367 371) Publisher: National Council for the Social Studies. Hatch, A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education setting s. Albany: State University of New Y ork Press. Hulick D.E. (1990). The transcendental machine? a compari son of digital photography and nineteenth century modes of photographic representation. Leonardo 23 (4), 419 425. Marien, M.W. (1997). Photography and its critics: A cultural history, 1839 1900 New Yor k: Syracuse University. James, C. (2007). The book of alt ernative photographic processes (Ed. 2). Delmar, New York: Cengage Learning. Marion, S., (2006). Getting beyond: Is photography a lost tradition? Afterimage 33 (6) p. 32. May, W.(1993). Teachers as researchers or action research: What i s it, and what good is it for art education? Studies in Art Education 34 (2), 114 126. Newbury D. (1997). Talking about practice: photography students, photographic culture and professional identities. British Jou rnal of Sociology of Education. 18 (3), 421 434. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1393340 Pitri, Eliza. "Teacher Research in the Socioconstructivist Art Classroom." Art Education National Art E ducation Association. 2006. Retrieved June 6 2012 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3 1126245831.html Society for photographic education, Members newsletter. (2012, Sprin g/Summer ) Society for Photographic Education Member's Newsletter (Retrieved from
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 92 http://www.spenational.org/files/news/2012spespsumwebopt.pdf ). Stead, J. Analogue & Process An investigation of the proc ess of analogue photography in c ontemporary fine ar t p hotography. (Retreived from http://www.mediaarts.mmu.ac.uk ) Tripp, D. (1990). Socially critical action research. Theory into Practice, 29 (3), 158 166. VanWynsberghe, R., & Samia Khan, S. (2007). Redefining ca se study International Journal of Qualitative Research, 4 (6), 80 94. Ware, M. (2007, August). The enduring image. Chemistry Worl d, 62 65
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 93 APPENDIX A Front page of class blog at http:// Room3130.Tumblr.com & Flickr site
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 94 APPENDIX B Page from Lomog raphy website.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 95 APPENDIX C Artwork created by Jerry Uelsmann, Combination Print.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 96 APPENDIX D 29 Palms: Infantry Platoon, Retreat Le, An My 2003 2004
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 97 APPENDIX E
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 98 APPENDIX F Anne C ollier D ip tych, Blue Sky, Grey Sky, 2008
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 99 APPENDIX G Pilot Study Problem The lack of research concerning teaching methods today in secondary and higher level photography education support the need for research in curriculum with regards to historical proc esses such as film and other wet processes vs. digital or a combination of both. This pilot study was formed and conducted to help determine and understand the attitude towards wet processes and their value in the classroom. The study will also help determ ine the value students who have experienced wet processes feel towards the medium. It will also provide a glance at the attitudes of art educators on this topic. I also contend that upon the completion of this study I will have be able to narrow my researc h and have sufficient support to further validate the value of historical processes in the photography classroom. Hypothesis I hypothesize that the value of wet processes in photography education is being eliminated due to a lack of understanding about th e value of history as part of art education, our cultures obsession with technology, teaching photography as a trade, the belief that it is obsolete, expensive, and not environmentally friendly and the idea that black and white photography and digital phot ography are the same. I hypothesize that most people will argue that digital is more practical, cheaper, easier to use, and what students need to know for greatest earning potential. I hypothesize that although education seems to be eliminating wet and hi storical processes, institutions such as museums, and students do not view film based photography and digital photography the same way. I hypothesize that the reason for these views is based on the experience in learning and using the medium. I also hypot hesize that greater satisfaction and appreciation is achieved in the wet process vs. the digital and that students who learn to use film before digital feel a greater responsibility to what they create, and are able to better decode popular images. Pilot Study Research Design 1. Based on ethnographical research where the "the challenge to combine participation and observation so as to become capable of understanding the experience as an insider while describing the experience for outsiders" I first conducted general and informal interviews with students and educators. Since I have some type of relationship with students an educators involved in this pilot study I viewed myself as a participant and observer. According to Genzuk (2003) being a participant and observer in my research "is an omnibus field strategy in that it simultaneously combines document analysis, interviewing of respondents and informants, direct participation and observation, and introspection. In participant observation the researcher share s as intimately as possible in the life and activities of the people in the observed setting. The purpose of such participation is to develop an insider's view of what is happening. This means that the researcher not only sees what is happening but "feels" what it is like to be part of the group". 2. Using general interview methods to develop surveys and conduct the initial part of the interview I acquired basic information reflecting location, age, experience in photography and knowledge of subject matter. Se condly, I used a Informal, conversational interviews to make connections between the beliefs of students and educators as well as identify how the experience
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 100 using film and the darkroom has impacted their view about the value of wet processes and historica l processes in the photography classroom. Because the informal interviews occurred in person and via the Internet, and once by chance at a Starbuck's, there were no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview the interviewer "goes with the flow" (Genzuk, 1999). The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the subjects. The main task i n interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say. (Kvale,1996). Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's experiences. The interviewer can pursue in depth information around the topic. Interview s may be useful as follow up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. (McNamara,1999). I then collected journals consisting of personal narratives by students who attend American Heritage and have taken or a re currently enrolled in Photography I V. I looked for writings pertaining to their behaviors, opinions/values, feelings, knowledge and sensory experiences using film, wet processes, digital cameras, technology such as cameras on phones, as well as Holga medium format, pinhole, and Polaroids. I used these types of topics Valenzuela & Shrivastava, to focus on the following: Behaviors what a person has done or is doing. Opinions/values what a person thinks about the topic. Feelings what a person fe els rather than what a person thinks. Knowledge to get facts about the topic. Sensory what people have seen, touched, heard, tasted or smelled. Procedure For Educators I began with interviews and surveys via email and on Internet forums and social ne tworks by asking a set of standard questions to determine location and general background. [See appendix]. Conversation from interviews and answers to the surveys were compiled and notes were made in the end. For educators, beginning questions established how long they have been an educator, what grade levels they are currently teaching, and how long they have been teaching photography. They also established location, education and experience with photography, and current practices. The next set of question s asked educators to describe their beliefs and attitudes towards film, wet processes and digital photography. The last set of questions addressed their ideas about the future of photography education and whether historical or wet processes should be a par t of that. If they answered "yes" I then asked them to describe what their curriculum would look like. If they answered "no" then I asked what prevents them from incorporating these processes in their classroom. In the end, I asked the same final questions about beliefs they have pertaining to cost and materials. Procedure For Students I began with anonymous surveys via email and in my classroom asking a set of standard questions to determine a general background. [See appendix]. Informal interviews and c onversation with individuals as well as small groups of four or five students along with narratives collected from journals provided data for comparison and revealed several themes about film and wet processes compared to digital photography.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 101 For student s, beginning questions established whether or not they had taken or were currently enrolled in a photography class, what grade they in, their age, and what type of processes/equipment they have learned are use. The next set of questions asked them to descr ibe their beliefs and attitudes towards film, wet processes and digital photography as well as compare them. Following these questions students were asked whether they felt historical and wet processes enhanced and helped their knowledge of photography as fine art. If they answered "yes" I then asked them to describe and explain in what way. If they answered "no" then I asked them if they learning these processes altered their view of the photograph in any way. The last questions was the same for all and ad dressed a hypothetical scenario for students at my school pertaining to the future removal of film and the darkroom in photography and their feelings about this. Data Collection & Data Analysis Surveys were returned to me via email or to a box in my clas sroom. Educators and students had the option to remain anonymous. Once I collected them I made a "score sheet" to record the number of "yes" or "no" responses, categorized the range of experiences or classes taken or enrolled in, and then I read responses to short answer questions tracking how many seemed in favor of or against wet processes, had positive experiences and comments vs. neutral or negative. I recorded a numerical number in either a "for" or "against" column. Each individual interview lasted approximately between five and ten minutes and each small group interview lasted between 25 35 minutes. I kept detailed notes in a journal for the informal interviews/conversations as well as their journal narratives. Using word list generated from the re petition of ideas, similar metaphors, as well as differences, in the personal narratives, I was able to identify three themes (Ryan and Bernard, 2003). I made a record sheet using the three themes as categories: Personal Knowledge, Experience, and Apprec iation Then I separated and tallied the positive and negative comments as numerical values. Finally I compared the numerical findings to my hypotheses. Findings Students and educators both expressed various ideas and values about the wet process vs. dig ital photography. Some students who have not had any experience with wet processes said that they want to. When asked why? Three of them said, "I want one of those plastic cameras they sell at Urban Outfitters." They had either seen them in person or knew someone who owns one. In general, all three thought they were "cool" "authentic" and "the pictures look so much more real". Each student who had a friend currently or in the past enrolled at American Heritage in photography "wants to take photography." I found that students compared to educators were the most enthusiastic and found value in the wet processes. This seems to be partly due to curiosity, the idea of working under a safe light, and that to them everyone does digital so it seems more authentic Students at American Heritage who were currently enrolled in photography, or have taken a class using film or wet processes expressed the most enthusiasm about including these processes in their education. The range for reasons were that they perceive t hat the knowledge they have now makes them a better artist, a better photographer, has made connections for them to the past, is more authentic and just somehow more special and unique to it seems cool.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 102 Educators varied from formal education in the visual arts, to art educators, to those who were self taught or in the past or present worked in the field. Ideas about the value of historical and wet processes varied greatest among art educators. Those who came from a background of art education said the histo ry was important but there was not much support that wet processes should be included in photography education. The main reason for this was a lack of funds and lack of support from administrators. It does appear that those who trained or had formal educat ion as studio artist favored the practice and combination of wet processes and digital practice in the classroom strongest. Those who were self taught or had experience directly from the commercial field tended to feel there isn't any value in teaching any thing other than digital practices. Whether asked or not, one thing everyone (both educators and students) agreed upon was that digital photography is essential to them being able to participate and earn a living as a photographer commercially. Conclusio ns Findings from this pilot study have informed and supported my hypotheses and interest in validating the importance of historical and wet processes in photography education. One of the most interesting and an important consideration revealed from this s tudy is that students are aware of film and historical processes in photography regardless of education because companies and aspects of their culture are perpetuating and introducing 35mm, medium format, and pin hole photography. As educators how can we d efend not teaching historical methods in art education? To date I have found that most studies focus on the advantages of technology and digital photography rather than a blend of the old and new. This pilot study also has made me aware that in order to preserve the art of black and white film, as educators, we have a duty to teach the history and processes demonstrating and connecting them to contemporary art and artist. I did not feel that my survey was very successful compared to the narratives and jou rnals from my students. This is mainly because the lack of response was surprisingly low. Both the surveys and questionnaires may not show a true representation of feelings. I feel that the best alternative is to present both histories, processes, and tr ends. This supports my argument that there is value in film, wet processes, and the darkroom as well as the history and historical processes. APPENDIX Appendix A: Educators Survey General Information: (For most questions you may answer "yes" or "no". If y ou wish to provide additional information, please feel free to do so) 1. Your Name: (optional) 2. Your email: (optional) 3. Are you currently teaching photography?
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 103 4. If yes, how long have you been teaching? 5. What levels do you or have you taught? 6. Wha t state do you teach in? 7. If no, have you ever taught photography? 8. Are you retired? 9. Did you earn a B.F.A in art? 10. Did you earn a Bachelor in Art Education or Education? 11. Did you concentrate in photography? 12. Do you have a Masters degree? 13 Did you acquire your photography background by other means? 14. Do you use film? digital? of both? 15. If you answered both, do you use film for commercial use? 16. For fine art? 17. Do you use digital for commercial use? 18. For fine art? 19. Do yo u have darkroom access? 20. If yes, is it at home? or other? 21. Have you ever had a darkroom at home? Questions for Educators: 1. Do you teach photography classes? 2. What ages do you teach? 3. Do you teach in an after school or community program? 4. Are you still teaching film and wet processes in your class? (If "No" then skip to question 14. Otherwise answer questions 5 12) 5. If yes, where do you purchase supplies? 6. Do your students pay a lab fee?
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 104 7. If yes, how much do your students pay? 8. If no, who pays for your class supplies? 9. Approximately how much do you spend in a given school year (Two semesters). 10. Approximately what percentage of your students has 35mm or other film based cameras? 11. Approximately what percentage of your students h as digital SLR cameras? 12. How do you interpret your students like or dislike of using film and the darkroom? 13. Do you think that students who learn to use a 35mm film camera have better control of their Digital SLR? 14. If you answered "No" to questi on 4, when did you switch to digital? 15. Do your students use digital SLR cameras, point and shoot cameras or both? 16. What were the reasons for the switch? 17. Who made the decision to discontinue the darkroom practice? 18. Do you feel that historical methods in photography and the wet processes are important in your photography class? 19. If you are not using film and the darkroom how else do you incorporate these historical processes in to your curriculum? Additional Questions: 1. If you could design the curriculum at your school, would you incorporate film, and digital? 2. Are you aware that there are environmentally safe chemicals for the darkroom today? 3. How much do you think it cost to teach a class size of 25 students using film and darkroom process es for one semester? 4. How much do you think it cost to teach a class size of 25 students using digital cameras and computer software? Appendix B: Survey for Students RESOURCES: Genzuk, M. (1999). Tapping Into Community Funds of Knowledge In: Effective St rategies for English Language Acquisition: A Curriculum Guide for the Development of Teachers, Grades Kindergarten through Eight Kearlsey, G. (2000). Phenomenology. [On line]. Available: http://ww w.gwu.edu/~tip/marton.html Kvale, Steinar. Interviews An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Publications, 1996 McNamara, Carter, PhD. General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, Minnesota, 1999
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 105 APPENDIX H List of ways to help avoid bias in action research 1. Check on apparent contradictions, imbalances, implausibility, exaggerations, or inconsistencies. (Yes, but didn't you say a moment ago?' How can that be so if?'); 2. Search for opinions (what do you think of that? Do you believe that?'); 3. Ask for clarification (what do you mean by?' Can you say a little more about?'); 4. Ask for explanations: pose alternatives (Couldn't one also say?'); 5. Seek comparisons (How does that relate to?' Some others have said that'); 6. Pursu e the logic of an argument (does it follow, the, that?' Presumably?'; 7. Ask fro further information (What about?' Does that apply to?); 8. Aim for comprehensiveness (have you any other?' Do you all feel like that?'; 9. Put things in a different way 10. Pu t things in a different way (would it be fair to say that...?' 'Do you mean...?' 'In other words...?'); 11. Express incredulity or astonishment (in the fourth year?' 'I don't believe it!' 'Really??'); 12. Summarize occasionally and ask for corroboration ( 'So...?' 'What you're saying is...?' Would it be correct to say...?'); 13. Ask hypothetical questions (yes, but what if...?' 'Supposing...?'); 14. Play devil's advocate (an opposing argument might run...' 'What would you say to the criticism that.. .?).
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 106 APPENDIX I
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 107 APPENDIX J Journal entries from students.
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Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 111 APPENDIX K Mark Tweedie is a contemporary artist who was interviewed by Jonathan Stead about the craft and a hands o n approach to making art He is known for his pinhole photography.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 112 APPENDIX L (Additional artwork from lesson 1) Photogram Print from negative made in pinhole camera Photogram and chemicals
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 113 A PPENDIX M (Additiona l artwork from lesson 2) Experimenting with chemicals in darkroom
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 114 Family member portraits mixed together Combination Print, Two Negatives, Two Enlargers Painting with developer
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 115 APPENDIX N (Additional artwork from lesson 3) Color Film/ Holga Camera Self directed assignment Scanography Chihuly inspired sculpture. Images transferred on tissue paper, seale d in plastic.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 116 Experiments with cameras
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 117 APPENDIX O Artwork created during the capstone project, but outside of the of the lessons All artworks we re developed and printed in a darkroom.
Historical Based Processes in a Contemporary High School Program 118 Chromoskedasic, Abstract Street Photography Assignment