No Name Institute of Marine Research and Education : sea the future

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Material Information

Title:
No Name Institute of Marine Research and Education : sea the future
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Thommes, Alex
Publisher:
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable
Marine
Low-Impact
Tourism
Education

Notes

Abstract:
This project focuses on the planning and design of a marine research facility located in The Florida Keys within a unique and fragile ecosystem. Sustainability and low-impact design were the primary concerns in regards to site planning and layout of the facilities, as well as architectural and material characteristics. A research-based tourism program evolved from site opportunities and was incorporated to co-exist on-site and share program elements with the research facility and its faculty, respectively. The final design proposes a variety of sustainability initiatives with thorough site planning to maximize site potential and opportunities while minimizing impact and disturbance of existing ecosystems.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00013337:00001


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NO NAME INSTITUTE OF MARINE RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONSEA THE FUTURE

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NO NAME INSTITUTE OF MARINE RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONSEA THE FUTURE ALEX THOMMES 2012 BACHELOR OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE FACULTY ADVISOR: LES LINSCOTT

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research-based tourismtouriststouriststouristsrecreation $$ marine research education $stage I stage II stage III students educators n CONCEPT ICONCEPTUAL EXPLORATION The possibility of utilizing ecotourism as an umbrella for a marine research facility creates interesting relationships between tourism, research, and education. Opportunities exist to draw tourists to the site and provide environmental awareness, revenue and a basic framework for the primary goal of marine research. ABSTRACT This project focuses on the planning and design of a marine research facility located in The Florida Keys within a unique and fragile ecosystem. Sustainability and low-impact design were the primary concerns in regards to site planning and layout of the facilities, as well as archi tectural and material characteristics. A research-based tourism program evolved from site opportunities and was incorporated to co-exist on-site and share program elements with the initiatives with thorough site planning to maximize site potential and opportunities while mini mizing impact and disturbance of existing ecosystems.

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research-based tourismtouriststouriststouristsrecreation $$ marine research education $stage I stage II stage III students educators n CONCEPT ICONCEPTUAL EXPLORATION The possibility of utilizing ecotourism as an umbrella for a marine research facility creates interesting relationships between tourism, research, and education. Opportunities exist to draw tourists to the site and provide environmental awareness, revenue and a basic framework for the primary goal of marine research. Project Introduction Site Introduction Site Inventory Site Analysis Site Synthesis Conceptual Exploration Sustainable Initiatives Masterplan Site Design Bibliography TABLE OF CONTENTS 7 10 11 14 15 20 21 28 29 34 35 44 45 46 47 58 59 60 61 72 73 75

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PROJECT INTRODUCTION

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My passion for the ocean and the potential that marine research and education can offer to human-kind is the reason I chose this project. There is probability that new opportunities for research will arise in remote, undeveloped, or ecologically sensitive regions of the world; this would create a demand for low-impact highly sustainable design that landscape architecture could provide. PROJECT INTENTINTRODUCTION 8

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GOALS AND OBJECTIVESINTRODUCTIONPrimary Goal: Prepare a master plan for a sustainable, low-impact marine research facility that relies heavily on alternative energy, desalination, and storm water to meet its utility needs. Objective: Be aware and recognize sustainable design opportunities throughout all stages and scales of design, then incorporate them conceptually, schematically, or at the site plan ning level Objective: Be aware of minimizing and reducing impact throughout all stages and scales of design, then create or chose alternative solutions with less impact when faced with design decisions. Objective: Think off-grid; strive to come up with creative solutions to meet all utility demands onsite, as well as waste removal. Sub-Goal: Utilize the natural environment, marine research, and sustainability to educate people, formally or informally, on these issues. Sub-Objective: At some stage at a scale to be determined incorporate an educational program element(s). Secondary Goal: Explore a second program(s) that could coexist on-site, and share program elements, in order to provide economic sustainability for the primary goal. 9

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INITIAL PROGRAMINTRODUCTION Marine ResearchLab SpaceWetField StagingDry Vessels Dockage Residences Interim Permanent Dorm Bungalow Computer Administrative Offices Conference Infrastructure Parking Access Utilities Access Boat Ramp The program for the primary goal of marine research has been developed through research of existing facilities. These program elements accommodate the basic needs for a research facility ranging in size from small to large. To meet the goal of providing ec onomic sustainability, additional program elements will be explored and incorporated based upon the analysis and synthesis of the site and the opportunities that are present. 10

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INITIAL PROGRAMINTRODUCTION Marine ResearchLab SpaceWetField StagingDry Vessels Dockage Residences Interim Permanent Dorm Bungalow Computer Administrative Offices Conference Infrastructure Parking Access Utilities Access Boat Ramp The program for the primary goal of marine research has been developed through research of existing facilities. These program elements accommodate the basic needs for a research facility ranging in size from small to large. To meet the goal of providing ec onomic sustainability, additional program elements will be explored and incorporated based upon the analysis and synthesis of the site and the opportunities that are present. SITE INTRODUCTION

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4 r eef l i neLOWER FLORIDA KEYSSITE INTRODUCTION miami key west no name key gulf of mexicoatlantic ocean scale (mi) 0 2 8 4key west 1. Bahia Honda State Park 2. Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary 1. Newfound Harbor Marine Institute 2. Mote Marine Tropical Research Lab 3. Sugarloaf Elementary and Middle School 4. Key West International Airport 1. Tethered Aerostat Radar System (blimps) 2. Naval Air Station Key West 1. Downtown Big Pine Key h awk c h an nelbi g p i ne key Major Channel Minor Channel Site No Name Key 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3The Lower Florida Keys comprise of 40 miles of islands from the west end of The Seven Mile Bridge to Key West. The two largest and most populous islands in this part of the Keys are Key West (mile marker 0) and Big Pine Key (mile marker 33; see following page). lower keys 12

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NO NAME KEYSITE INTRODUCTION 11 20 m imia m ik ey w est30 mi2 3 4 5 6 78 9 124 3 1 4 4 5 6big spanish channelbogie channelbahia honda channel Commercial / Retail 1. Big Pine Shopping Plaza: Various Shops & Restaurants Winn-Dixie Library Bealls DMV 2. Flea Market, Walgreens, CVS 3. Big Pine Medical Plaza; Various Small Businesses 4. Bank of America, Various Small businesses 5. Big Pine Motel 6. Big Pine Key Fishing Lodge 7. No Name Pub 8. Old Wooden Bridge Fishing Lodge 9. Dolphin MarinaU S 1US 1 Historic Ferry Landing Major Channel Minor Channel Site No Name Key US 1Vehicular / Utility Accessbig pine keylittle torch key scale (mi) 0 1/4 1 2 Institutional 1. State of Florida Road Prison 2. Big Pine Academy, PK-5 3. Newfound Harbor Marine Institute at Seacamp 4. St. Peters Catholic Church, Soccer Field 5. Boy Scout Camp Sawyer 6. Girl Scout Camp Wesumkee Parks / Open Space 1. Bahia Honda State Park 2. Big Pine Key Park 3. Watson Field 4. The Blue Hole 13

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rfntnb rrn r nfn r rn rnf- n rn fnn ft ntrr rf n rff fffntfrfn rr n f nff fn nff fn n nHISTORY 14

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SITE INVENTORY

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1 2 6 11 4 3 8 9 7 5 10 EXISTING CONDITIONSSITE INVENTORY 1. No Name Bridge (Watson Road) 4a. End of Watson Road 2. Scrub Mangrove Habitat 3. Entrance to Borrow Pit 10. Area of Interest 11. Area of Interestscale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5 16

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EXISTING CONDITIONSSITE INVENTORY 9. Saltmarsh 5. Roadway 6. Freshwater Pond 7. Key Deer and Alligator on Paradise Road 4b. Trail 8. Exposed Caprock on Roadway 17

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3 6 4 1 5 2 EXISTING CONDITIONSscale (in hundreds of feet) 0 1.5 6 3 Located to the west and center of No Name is an oolite limestone borrow pit, or quarry. It is rectangular in shape measuring 600 north to south and 1,250 east to west, with a slight irregularity in the northeast corner. With a surface area of nearly 17 acres and an average depth of 70, it holds approximately 387,468,900 gallons of seawater, equivalent to 242 tanks that house Shamu at SeaWorld. It is accessible by road from Watson Road while a service road borders the perimeter of the water body.1a. Oolitic Limestone Boulders1b. Edge Condition of Borrow Pit 2. View of Borrow Pit 3. Freshwater marsh 4. Service Road; varies in width from 20-40 5. Access to Watson Road; 24 wide 6. Overgrown Road; 8-12 wide SITE INVENTORY 18

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5 2 1 3 4 EXISTING CONDITIONSSITE INVENTORYNear the southeast corner of No Name, just south of Paradise Roads terminus, is a shallow cove with a previously dredged channel linking it to Big Spanish Channel. This area is predominately salt and mangrove marsh near the water, containing very wet and muddy soils. Just to the west of the marsh the elevation slowly rises and the hammock begins. From the end of Paradise Road it is approximately 800 to the edge of the water, from this point it is 1000 to the beginning of the dredged channel.3. View of Big Spanish Channel 1. View of Paradise Road 2. View of trail to south end of No Name 4. Boat Access to Big Spanish Channel 5. Hard Bottom Shoalscale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5 19

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SITE INVENTORY INVENTORY OF EXISTING SITE FEATURESWatson Road 2 lane asphalt Borrow Pit out of service Residences Access Road to Borrow Pit gravel, 24 wide Canal Canal Unmaintained Roadways gravel, caprock, 8-12 wide Saltwater Body / Tidal Zone No Name Bridge Informal Nature / Wildlife Trail Informal Nature / Wildlife Trail Residences Paradise Road gravel, 10-14 wide Dredged ChanThe current conditions on No Name Key consist of several roads which are overgrown in many places. These appear to have been originally 12-16 wide, but are now 8-12 in many places. A few roads which are shown on FDOT roadway maps are not accessible due to vegetation. Numerous informal trails are present, some of which are accessible. Pinelands in the center of the island appear to be healthy, although in a few areas there is a rfff not been present for some time. scale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5 20

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SITE ANALYSIS

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CLIMATE, SUN, AND WINDSITE ANALYSISClimateThe Florida Keys have a subtropical climate with long, hot, summers, and warmer winters. The average temperature in the summer is 84F with an average daily maximum of 89F; sea breezes help to cool the land during this time. During the winter months the temperature averages 70F with a daily average low of 65F; cold fronts during this time bring cooler temperatures and windy conditions. Annual rainfall averages 40 with an average daily humidity of 60 percent, which rises at night to nearly 90 percent.WindThe Florida Keys are not in the trade winds; during the warmer season (May-Oct) most wind is in the form of on-shore sea breezes which occur as the land heats up during the day and becomes hotter than the surrounding ocean waters; the prevailing direction is East Southeast. Sporadic bursts of wind also accompany the large number of thunderstorms during this period, but are highly unpredictable. The cooler season (Nov-Apr) consists of higher winds driven primarily by passing cold fronts; wind direction during this time will be experienced from nearly every direction except southwest. SunSolar insolation is the amount of solar radiation that a given surface receives over a period of time and is commonly measured in kilowatt hours per square meter of surface area; this gives an accurate portrayal of the potential for solar systems in a given area. Precipitation (in inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wind Speed (in mph)j a n feb m ar aprm a yjun j ulaugse p o ct n o vd e c2 4 6 8 10 12 14 j a n feb ma r a prm a yj un j ula ugs e p o ct n o vd e c 22

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Pineland Hammock Mangrove Buttonwood Developed Land Exotic Freshwater Wetland Saltmarsh Scrub Mangrove Undeveloped Land Surface WaterPinelandrrfnrtb trrff r rrtHammockMore common then pinelands but second in biodiversity, tropical hammocks occupy eleb rtbrf rfrfrf f rPinus elliottii densa Coccothrinax argentata rThrinax morissii), saw palmetto Serenoa repens Lantana involucratab Psidium longipes)Saltwater Marshbfr ffrffFreshwater Wetlandfr frrrff rrButtonwood This habitat borders marsh communities on slightly higher elevations and shares many similarib fConocarpus erectus ) dominate buttonwood forests; many species rfMangrovefrr Rhizophora mangle ), f Avicennia germinansLaguncularia racemosa ftr frfrfr rfb lands, hammock, mangrove, pineland, and saltwater marshb f frfr Hammocks and pinelands dominate higher elevations that rareb r rCladium jamaicense Eleocharis rMetopium toxiferumfConocarpus erectus), frGuapira discolorr Thrinax morissii Eugenia foetidaPiscidia piscipula Coccoloba uvifera ), joeb Jacquinia keyensis ffBursera simaruba r SalicorniarMonanthochloe littoralis Spartina spartinae Fimbrystylis brrBorrichia frutescens rf Conocarpus erctus ) r Rhizophora mangle fAvicennia germinans Laguncularia racemosa )LAND COVER AND VEGETATION 0 d d r a mangle ) os a ) 23

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TOPOGRAPHY AND HYDROLOGYSITE ANALYSISThe Lower Keys, including No Name Key, are considered the Oolite Keys, as opposed to the Upper Keys which are known as the Coral Keys. Oolite is a medium to hard limestone which is formed r over time become packed together to form limestone. This limestone is moderately porous, allowing for seawater to percolate rfrrrnt No Name Key has natural elevations ranging from -2-6 above sea-level. The elevations from -2-0 are primarily located in the mangrove habitats and tidal zones around the perimeter of the island. The highest elevations of 6 are located centrally and slightly to the east while a ridge between 2-4 runs north to south along the eastern part of the island. Many depressions in the limestone occur throughout the landscape; in higher elevations these capture and hold rainwater that support local wildlife during the dry season. Mote Marines Tropical Research Laboratory on Summerland Key utilizes saltwater wells at a depth of 55-60 to accommodate all their saltwater needs for research; this water has a constant temfbrfrt The pH of this water is around 7.4 and must be aerated to remove excessive amounts of carbon dioxide which form under pressure and create acidic conditions. After 24 hours of aeration the pH settles around 8.2, which is normal for seawater. scale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5 Elevation above sea level (ft)-2 -1 0 1 2 4 5 6 leve 24

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SOILSSITE ANALYSISscale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5Cudjoe Marl, Tidal 0-1 above sea level Poorly drained; seasonal high water table within 6 Supports native vegetation and are is as habitat for wetland wildlife rfrntbrtrfbIslamorada Muck, Tidal tr Very poorly drained, seasonal high water table is near the surface most of the year Supports native vegetation and is used as habitat for wetland wildlife rfrntbrtrfbKeyvaca Very Gravelly Loam, Extremely Stony 4-6 above sea level rrfbbtb Supports native vegetation and is used as habitat for woodland wildlife bnbfrtbbrrfb rbrbtrfbLignumvitae Marl, Tidal 0 above sea level Poorly drained, seasonal high water table depth within 6 Supports native vegetation and is used as habitat for wetland wildlife brfrntbrbbtr within 20-40Matecumbe Muck, Occasionally Flooded <15 above sea level bfrrfbbtb Supports native vegetation and is used as habitat for woodland wildlife bbrrntrb rbrtrbtbrbbtr within 2-9Rock Outcrop, Cudjoe Compex, Tidal 0-1 above sea level Poorly drained, seasonal high water table depth of 6 Supports native vegetation and is used as habitat for wetland wildlife brfrnbtbr bbtrfbUdorthents, Urban Land Complex tr Moderately well drained, seasonal high water table depth of 2-4 brrbrrbrbtbbrtrb rbrbrt brbrttrrrt trrrtbbntrbrbr Surface WaterThe soils located on No Name Key are generally very shallow in depth, with ttrrfrfrbb greater soil depth and organic richness. As the elevation increases the soil trbtrbrbtrb brtbbrbbrrrbrrbb rbbrrrr rbtbbrbrrbbrbrr tcrop, Cud j oe Compex, Tida l e sea l eve l ined, seasonal high water table depth of 6 nat a a a a a a a i ve vege tat i on and i s used as hab i tat f or wetland w i ldl if e b rf r n b t b r t r fb 25

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LAND PARCELSSITE ANALYSISscale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5Single Family Residential Parcels 43; 8.7% of total Acres 12.23; 1.0% of total Vacant Residential Parcels 81; 16.4% of total Acres 54.77; 4.7% of total Federal Land Parcels 127; 25.7% of total Acres 778.86; 66.5% of total State Land Parcels 128; 25.9% of total Acres 66.65; 5.7% of total County Land Parcels 83; 16.8% of total Acres 28.89; 2.5% of total Public Schools Parcels 1; 0.2% of total Acres 1.02; 0.1% of total Mineral Processing Parcels 2; 0.4% of total Acres 41.02; 3.5% of total Non-Agricultural Parcels 24; 4.9% of total Acres 1 34.93; 11.5% of total Park, Forest, Recreation Parcels 5; 1.0% of total Acres 53.07; 4.5% of total Total Parcels 494 Acres 1 171.44Current parcel data for No Name Key shows that there are 494 individual parcels totaling 1171.44 acres of land. A majority of the 124 residential parcels are located on the north and towards the center of the island; private residences on 43 of these parcels are located north of SR4A and are the only structures on the island. Federally owned lands comprise of 66.5% of No Name Key, with the heaviest concentration east and south of SR4A. State, County, Non-Agricultural, and Park, Forest, and Recreation lands make up the remaining 24.2% of the island. Two mineral processing parcels which function as rock quarries are located north and centrally. SITE ANALYSIS scale(i n th ousands offeet) 0 1.25 5 2 .5 S i ngle Fam i ly Res i dent i al Parcels 43; 8.7 % of total Acres 12.23; 1.0% of tota l Vacant Res i dent i a l Parcels 81; 16.4 % of total Acres 54.77 ; 4 .7 % of tota l F ede r al L a n d Parcels 127; 25.7 % of tota l Acres 778.86; 66.5 % of total S tate Land Parcels 128 ; 25.9 % of tota l Acres 66.65 ; 5.7 % of tota l C ou nty Lan d Parcels 83; 16.8 % of total Acres 28.89; 2.5 % of tota l P ubl i c S chools Parcels 1; 0.2 % of total Acres 1.02; 0.1% of total Mi neral Process ing Parcels 2; 0.4 % of total Acres 41.02 ; 3 .5 % of tota l N on-A g ricultura l Parcels 24 ; 4.9 % of total Acres 134.93 ; 11.5 % of total P ark, Forest, Recreation Parcels 5; 1.0 % of total Acres 53.07; 4.5 % of tota l Tot al Parce l s 494 A cre s 11 71. 44 r rent p arcel data for No Name Ke y shows that there are 494 ind i ual parcels totaling 1171.44 acres of land. A majority of the 124 resi n t i al parcels are located on the north and towards the center o f the nd; p rivate residences on 43 of these p arcels are located north of 4 A and are the onl y structures on the i sland. Federall y owned lands mp rise of 66.5% of No Name Ke y with the heaviest concentration s t and south of SR4A. State, County, Non-A g ricultural, and Park, Fo r and Recreation lands make up the remaining 24.2 % of the island. o mineral processin g parcels which function as rock quarries are l o t e d nort h an d centra lly. 26

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Notable Hurricanes: rfffntbffrt damage to the Lower Keys. Historical accounts of settlers on No Name Key reveal the fbrffnrtbbtffbtftbfb extended periods of time resulting in their demise. 1935 September 2nd Great Labor Day Hurricane, lowest barometric pressure (892Mb) ever recorded over a North American body of land. Wind speed was estimated at over 200 mph with storm surge reaching 18. The Middle and Upper Keys sustained the heaviest damage. 1948 September 21st, sustained winds approximately 120 mph with gusts reaching 160 mph, surge estimated at 6. October 5th, winds estimated at 100 mph, caused little damage. 1960 September 10th, Hurricane Donna, sustained winds of 140 mph with gusts to 180 fbrfrtrff 1965 September 8th, Hurricane Betsy, sustained winds of 125mph with gusts to 160mph rntfrtrf 1998 September 25th, Hurricane Georges, sustained winds of 90 mph, with gusts to 110 mph, surge was be tween 4-6 in the Middle and Lower Keys. 2005 October 24th, Hurricane Wilma, wind speeds of 125mph, most impact to the Lower Keys was from the 6-8 storm surge from the Gulf of Mexico.The Florida Keys have experienced hurricanes throughout their history and will continue to do so in the future. Hurricane season begins June 1st and ends November 30th, during this time low-pressure systems form in the eastern Atlantic, some of which become tropical storms and hurricanes. Low elevations above sea level and isolation make the possibility of severe hurricanes even more threatening to the Florida Keys. In the event that power-lines, bridges, or the solitary potable water pipeline are destroyed, aid and accessibility to resources can become cut-off or limited for weeks at a time. However, the two primary concerns in the event of a hurricane are: storm surge, which results in a rise of water driven by wind ffbtfbfffrn high winds, with the possibility of exceeding 170 mph, batters vegetation and structures causing severe damage. HURRICANESSITE ANALYSIS scale (in thousands of feet) 0 1.25 5 2.5 Storm Surge Flood Analysis 1-2 3-4 5-6 6+ Surge Height h e b ) v e r v i 60 80 f and and the a nes. f se v ent de m ited o f a wi nd h ig h and S torm S urge F l oo d Analysis Analysis 27

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SITE SYNTHESIS

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SYNTHESISSITE SYNTHESISAbout two-thirds of No Name Key has elevations below 2 above sea level, and is covered in mangrove habitat, saltmarsh, or intertidal zones. While development of these areas is by no means uncommon throughout the Florida Keys, it can have a high impact on the environment. If low impact and sustainable design/planning guidelines are followed on this site, more opportunities become present by working with the environment rather than against it. Utilizing the existing landscapes high aesthetic and educational values while being sensitive to the fragility of the ecosystems within it, will help turn more constraints into opportunities. 30

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SYNTHESISSITE SYNTHESIS Due to existing residences and large quantities of mangrove and saltwater swamps, the portion of the island located north of Watson Road will not be considered for development. Opportunities exist between the two residential areas, but do not rist to the south across Watson Road. Watson Road presents the opportunity to set a northern boundary for the project site; this will separate the location of project f side. The existing pinelands provide a natural buffer between the residences to the north and the borrow pit to the south. The nffftbnftff grading. Strive to minimally impact in this area to preserve its natural beauty and ecologic value. 31

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SYNTHESISSITE SYNTHESIS Opportunities rrfnrtbtrbttrr brrrtr b rbrbrtrbrtb rr rrbrrbrrrr rt rbrbrrbrtbr rtrrttrbbrrb trrr Constraints brbtr b rrbrbtrbrtr f Opportunities trbbrbr rrt brb r rrtrbr Constraints brfbr rbbbtrrrr rrrrbr Opportunities rrrtbtbtt rrtrbrrrt br Constraints rrttrrrbtb bbbt rbbtrrrr rr 32

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SYNTHESISSITE SYNTHESIS Opportunities Access previously dredged channel links shoreline to major channel, allowing access to all surrounding marine ecosystems Protection the natural shape of the island creates a cove that is protected from prevailing winds out of the southeast, this creates an opportunity to locate a harbor or dockage for vessels Location performing marine research is facilitated by being located on or in close proximity to ocean access Constraints Access no vehicular access exists; if provided it would disturb coastal and mangrove habitat Elevation low elevations in this area would require extensive grading or pier construction techniques Habitat predominately mangrove habitat, which would be greatly impacted by developing this area Opportunities Waterfront provides the highest value for attracting tourists and locating program elements Access opportunity for kayaks and very small vessels to access the bay Sea Breeze provides natural cooling and can help reduce utility costs, also helps to regulate mosquitos rfrntb Constraints Access no existing vehicular access would require impacting mangrove habitat Habitat mangrove swamp provides a barrier between coastline and access inland Elevation low elevations in this area would require extensive grading or pier construction techniques Opportunity to link east and west sides of the island by kayaking or other recreational activities 33

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CONCEPTUAL EXPLORATION

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research-based tourismtouriststouriststouristsrecreation $$ marine research education $stage I stage II stage III students educators n CONCEPT ICONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONThe possibility of utilizing ecotourism as an umbrella for a marine research facility creates interesting relationships between tourism, research, and education. Opportunities exist to draw tourists to the site and provide environmental awareness, revenue and a basic framework for the primary goal of marine research. 36

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CONCEPT I: INITIAL STAGECONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONInitially developing the shoreline by maximizing views and access to the ocean will attract more tourists to the site and increase the value of their experience. Providing bungalows for them to stay in can create a refuge for serene vacation experiences as well as increased revenue; implementing this through sustainable design further enhances the educational and ecological value of the site. Opportunity for resort-comparable overnight experiences Opportunity for trails, boardwalks, nature observation, views Opportunity for multi-faceted recreational element 37

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CONCEPT I: INTERMEDIATE STAGECONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONDuring the intermediate stage, program elerf rf ntfb rgram elements and shared uses. A potential opbr bbf nOpportunity to expand upon the initial stage and provide more tourism Opportunity to locate research facilities separate from tourism Opportunity to overlap program elements and reduce impact 38

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CONCEPT I: FINAL STAGECONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONrf r rfr nrfrttbtbttt trrnEducation could be seperate but involved with research Opportunity to expand upon the initial stage and provide more tourism 39

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aquaculture marine research educationstage I stage II stage IIIrecreation $$students educatorsneed improves $businessbusiness CONCEPT IICONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONrfculture facility that could be used to generate funding for marine research. The relationship between these two programs is strong, as they can build upon each other and mutually benenftbftt then concept one, and would not have a high recreational component. 40

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CONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONDeveloping commercial level aquaculture rfrnt rffrbffr fnLocate initial stage elements where opportunities exist CONCEPT II: INITIAL STAGE 41

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CONCEPT II: INTERMEDIATE STAGECONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONResearch components would initially work closely or directly with existing aquaculture to enhance and increase production. Therefore program elements for the intermediate stage could be shared or located in close proximity to initial stage elements. Research Facilities can expand upon initial stage elements 42

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CONCEPT II: FINAL STAGECONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONEducation in this concept would be more intetake on the role of using higher education as a means to further research and aquaculture techniques; most likely function as a college extension where students could intern or perrfrEducation can play a more direct role 43

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research-based tourismtouriststouriststouristsrecreation $$ marine research education $stage I stage II stage III students educators n CONCEPT ICONCEPTUAL EXPLORATIONThe possibility of utilizing ecotourism as an umbrella for a marine research facility creates interesting relationships between tourism, research, and education. Opportunities exist to draw tourists to the site and provide environmental awareness, revenue and a basic framework for the primary goal of marine research. 44 The implementation of concept I, researchbased tourism, provides more opportunities to develop site amenities and program elements that the users of the marine research facility secondary program that will provide economic sustainability for marine research will be based upon research-based tourism. CONCEPT TO ADVANCE

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PROGRAM REFINEMENT

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REFINED PROGRAMPROGRAM DEVELOPMENT Marine ResearchLab SpaceWetField StagingDry Vessels Dockage Habitable Space Interim Permanent Dorm Bungalow Computer Administrative Offices Conference Infrastructure Parking Access Utilities Access Boat Ramp Research-Based Tourism Recreation Kayaking Birding Sailing Hiking Fishing Swimming Interpretation Entertainment and Dining After completing site analysis, site synthesis, and conceptual exploration, it was determined that research-based tourism would work best with the available site opportunities and the initial program. Many program elements between research-based tourism and ma rine research are shared, such as: habitable and lab spaces and entertainment and dining. Introducing a tourism oriented program rffnfft 46

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SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES

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Traditional solar panels will be used on buildings that have a southerly orientation where roof space is not being used for other purposes such as passive solar water heating, green roofs, or daylighting. To increase rfrffrfn roof pitch of +/-15% that of the local latitude. Plan View of Rooftop Solar System Solar Radiation in Kilowatt Hours per Square Meter per Day Do not shade the east, west, or southern sides of the building Perspective of Rooftop Solar System Single pitch roof maximizes effective solar area of the building SOLAR ENERGYSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 48

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cy of photovoltaic systems by 20% or more without additional energy requirements to operate. This reduces the total area necessary to produce rffnrtbf would.rbt canopy brrtbbbt Low Impact Can be installed with minimal disturbance No Operational Energy Requirement Uses heating/ cooling of liquid to track sun Susceptible to High Winds Large surface area creates high wind resistance Spacing Needs to be spaced to prevent shading of other units East West East West East West East WestAdvantages DisadvantagesA.M. P.M. Location of Solar Trackers off Roadway SOLAR TRACKINGSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 49

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Faculty Vehicular Parking Guest Vehicular Parking Guest and Visitor Check In Main Road Gated; Access Available only to Service and Emergency Vehicles Electric Cart Parking Encourage Biking by Providing Community Bike Locations Electric Cart, Bike, and Pedestrian Connection into Siterfnt btrtn ntt rrnrtt rnElectric Transportation Concept MINIMIZE ON-SITE CARBON EMISSIONSSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 50

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The requirement of electric carts on-site greatly reduces the impact that roadway corridors typically entail. To further reduce the impact of these rfnrtnttbnft 8 Pedestrian Lane 2x 8 Drive Lanes 24 Transportation Corridor r fnr t ntt b nft 12 Drive Lane 12 Drive Lane nt nt 36 Transportation Corridor Typical Roadway Electric Cart Roadway MINIMIZE INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDSSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 51

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Saltwater Well; Depth of 50-60 Harvested Sea-Salt Saltwater is pumped up from wells rfn Reverse osmosis produces ~2/3 potable tbnrf distributed throughout site Saltwater Potable Water Potable Water Salt Saltwaterfrf frrfff ffrfrtffrrff rrr MEET ALL WATER DEMANDS ON SITE 52

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Irrigation Fertilizer Energy Anaerobic digestion treatment of wasterwater produces biogas and fertilizer Grey and Rainwater Grey and Rainwater Rainwater Storm drains collect rainwater Storm and greywater used for fertilization and toilet Wastewater rfff Grey and Rainwater Biogas r SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVESMEET ALL WATER DEMANDS ON SITE 53

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No dilution of high strength wastes with clean water Maximum of recorvery and re-use of treated water and byproducts obtained from the pollution susbstances (i.e. irrigation, fertilization) rfnsion technologies, which are low cost (in construction, operation, and maintenance), which have a long life-time and are plain in operation and maintenance Applicable at any scale, very small and very big as well trbb Acceptable for the local populationCriteria for Sustainability in the Treatment of Wastewater No, or very low energy demand Production of valuable energy in the form of methane Low investment costs and low space requirement Applicable at small as well as large scale Low production of excess sludge, which is well stabilized Low nitrogen and phosphorus requirements High loading capacity (5-10 times that of aerobic treatment) bf Suitable for camps with long term periods without discharge of wastewater nfffAdvantages of Anaerobic Digestion TreatmentAnaerobic Digestion Treatment Unit MANAGE AND TREAT WASTEWATER ON-SITESUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES substrate biogas ground sludge pipe high-pressure valve b mixer ground injection pipe fluid zone sludge zone mixing zone tank wall insulation covering There are a variety of wastewater treatment options for a project of this size and scope. Anaerobic digestion treatment is cheap and effective with low energy costs and space requirements as well as the production of energy in the form of methane, and fertilizers. 54

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No dilution of high strength wastes with clean water Maximum of recorvery and re-use of treated water and byproducts obtained from the pollution susbstances (i.e. irrigation, fertilization) rfnsion technologies, which are low cost (in construction, operation, and maintenance), which have a long life-time and are plain in operation and maintenance Applicable at any scale, very small and very big as well trbb Acceptable for the local populationCriteria for Sustainability in the Treatment of Wastewater No, or very low energy demand Production of valuable energy in the form of methane Low investment costs and low space requirement Applicable at small as well as large scale Low production of excess sludge, which is well stabilized Low nitrogen and phosphorus requirements High loading capacity (5-10 times that of aerobic treatment) bf Suitable for camps with long term periods without discharge of wastewater nfffAdvantages of Anaerobic Digestion TreatmentAnaerobic Digestion Treatment Unit MANAGE AND TREAT WASTEWATER ON-SITESUSTAINABLE INITIATIVESsubstrate biogas ground sludge pipe high-pressure valve b mixer ground injection pipe fluid zone sludge zone mixing zone tank wall insulation coveringThere are a variety of wastewater treatment options for a project of this size and scope. Anaerobic digestion treatment is cheap and effective with low energy costs and space requirements as well as the production of energy in the form of methane, and fertilizers. SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVESGREEN ROOF VEGETABLE GARDENS rfrfffnfffntb this reduces additional spatial requirements for on-site agriculture by utilizing existing opportunities. These gardens will help supplement food requirements on-site and reduce the cost of importing the same products. bfftrft 50-90% ttrtrff rainfall on roof tfrffrff fffffnff tfrfrrfucation ffnrfnn traditional roofsUsing green roofs as the site for an urban agriculture project can reduce a communitys urban footprint through the creation of a local food system. (http://www.greenroofs.org) 55

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Many steps can be taken to reduce energy needs on-site. For residential units large energy savings are gained through proper building orientation, which results in passive cooling by sea-breezes and shading of the western and southern edges rf through the use of passive solar water heating, day-lighting, nrtbtEast Perspective of Residential Unit West Perspective of Residential Unit Louvered windows vent trapped hot air Solatube daylighting unit Thermosiphoning passive hot water heating unit Bahama shutters shade windows to the west Cistern harvests all rainfall off roof Large amount of windows and doors on east face take advantage of sea-breezes rtbt f REDUCE ENERGY DEMANDSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 56

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Plan View of Residential Unit Orientate building to maximize cooling effect of prevailing winds and sea-breezes Shade the western and southern sides of buildings to minimize heat gain from late afternoon sun REDUCE ENERGY DEMANDSUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES 57

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All roadways and pedestrian paths will be composed of crushed limestone, which can be obtained on-site from the quarry lorfrnprint of constructing circulation based infrastructure on-site. Piers and boardwalks will use composite materials (30% recyrtbrnrbb joists, etc. The railings will consist of reclaimed trap rope braided into larger substantial segments. Derelict trap rope accumulates throughout The Keys; damaging marine and terrestrial ecosystems Collect and repurpose trap rope into railings Composite decking material (30% recyrtbr Crushed limestone roads are attractive and sustainable SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVESMATERIALS 58

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MASTERPLAN

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Parking and Site Entry Research Facility Faculty and Guest Residences Research Vessel Dockage Vehicular Route 2.05 mi Bike Trails and Foot Paths 5.63mi Rest Stops and Ecosystem Education Res ear ch Fac ili ty scale (in hundreds of feet) 0 6 12 24 MASTERPLANSITE DESIGN 60 MASTERPLAN

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61 SITE DESIGN

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NNIMRE Building (12400ft2) 1st Story: 6200 ft2; Library, Computer Lab, Classrooms rf ntr nbr 0 25100 200Ocean Engineering Facility (4000ft2) r b b Dry Lab: 1000ft2 2nd Story: 1000ft2 f nb Aquaculture R&D Building (3000ft2) Dry Lab: 1500ft2 nb Fisheries Science Building (3000ft2) Dry Lab: 1000ft2 nb Education and Welcome Center r r nb Energy R&D Building (3000ft2) Dry Lab: 2000ft2 ENLARGEMENT A RESEARCH FACILITY SITE PLANSITE DESIGN 62

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Maintenance and Mechanical Complex (7500ft2) Mechanical and Battery Storage Building 1st Story: 5000ft2 2nd Story: 2500ft2 Rooftop Solar: 4000ft2 ~60kW/h Reverse Osmosis System and Initial Potable Water Storage External Propane Tanks for Emergency and Backup Power Wastewater Treatment Electric Cart and Bicycle Maintenance Fixed station crane allows for ease of placing and removing aquatic equipment Floating docks divide water into different spaces for research, creating large pens for isolation of different species Pump water out of quarry for use in wetlabs Large outdoor tanks allow for isolation and examination of specimens scale (in feet) 0 25 100 200 ENLARGEMENT ASITE DESIGN 63

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Education and Welcome Center Utilize Southern Orientation to Maximize Solar Production Ocean Engineering Facility Aquaculture Research and Development Fisheries Science Library, Computer Labs, VISIONINGSITE DESIGN 64

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Floating Dock 30 Research Building 8 Covered Seawall Rooftop Solar Array 10 Planted Buffer 6 Pedestrian Path 10 Parking 16 Roadway Native Habitat Perspective of Section Cut Section Location SECTION FACING WESTSITE DESIGN 65

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scale (in feet) 0 25100 200 Faculty Residential Building C (3000ft2) 1st Story: 4 15x25 (300ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 4 15x25 (300ft2) Rooms Guest Residential Building C (3000ft2) 1st Story: 4 15x25 (375ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 2 30x25 (750ft2) Suites Faculty Residential Building A (3000ft2) 1st Story: 5 12x25 (300ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 2 30x25 (750ft2) Dorm Style Rooms Guest Residential Building A (3000ft2) 1st Story: 5 12x25 (300ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 5 12x25 (300ft2) Rooms Faculty Residential Building B (3000ft2) 1st Story: 5 12x25 (300ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 2 30x25 (750ft2) Dorm Style Rooms Guest Residential Building B (3000ft2) 1st Story: 4 15x25 (375ft2) Rooms 2nd Story: 4 15x25 (375ft2) Rooms Maintenance and Mechanical Complex Mechanical and Battery Storage Building 2 Story: 2500ft2 per Rooftop Solar: 2000ft2 ~30kW/h Reverse Osmosis System and Initial Potable Water Storage External Propane Tanks for Emergency and Backup Power Wastewater Treatment Electric Cart and Bicycle Maintenance ENLARGEMENT B RESIDENCE SITE PLAN SITE DESIGN 66

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Building B: Administration and Education 1st Story: 4400ft2; Education Center, 2nd Story: 4400ft2rff Rooftop Pavilion: 900ft2 Rooftop Garden: 1500ft2Building A: Entertainment and Leisure 1st Story: 4000ft2; Gym, Laundry Facility, Badminton Court, Racquetball Court 2nd Story: 2500ft2ffnftb 3rd Story: 900ft2; Conference Room Rooftop Garden: 1100ft2Building C: Dining Hall and Bar 1st Story: 4300ft2; Dining Hall, Kitchens 2nd Story: 2000ft2; Bar, Upstairs Dining and Outdoor Deck Rooftop Garden: 650ft2 Oceanfront Dining Outside 1300ft2 Saltwater Chlorinated Pool Community Bike Racks Fruiting Canopy Trees: Mango, Guava, etc. Pier with Access to Kayaks, Hobie Cats, Fishing 8 Concrete Retaining Wall Entrance from Parking Area scale (in feet) 0 1040 80 SITE DESIGNENLARGEMENT B 67

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Natural Grade Fill From Quarry Native Mangrove Habitat Fruiting Canopy Trees Retention Wall Cisterns to Store Rainwater and Greywater Storm Drain Boardwalk to Residences Section Location Solo Solar Tracker for Education SECTION-ELEVATION FACING WESTSITE DESIGN 68

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Intertidal Zone Retaining Wall Fill From Quarry Outdoor Dining Decking Built Around Coconut Palm View to Historic Bahia Honda Bridge Section & Perspective Location SITE DESIGNSECTION PERSPECTIVES 69

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Perspective Location SITE DESIGNBIRDS-EYE VIEW FACING EAST 70

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Perspective Location PERSPECTIVE FACING WESTSITE DESIGN 71

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73 E2 Electric Passenger Vehicle : Overview. GEM. Global Electric Motorcars. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. . 26 Ecological Communities of Florida. Gainesville, FL: Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1987. Print. Adams, Dr. Chuck. Economic Analysis. Personal interview. 20 Jan. 2012. Web. Cali Bamboo. Composite Decking. 100% Recycled Bamboo Deck Material. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. . Davisson, Bryan. Monroe County GIS Acquisition. Telephone interview. 1 Feb. 2012. ter.com/products/show.aspx?pc=sw6-2400-4800-gpd>. www.asla.org/sustainablelandscapes/index.html>. Donnelly, Joe. University of South Florida Marine Research Energy Consumption. E-mail interview. 20 Jan. 2012. Evaluating Your Site For Solar Energy. Solar Site Survey. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. . FGDL Search/ Download Data. Florida Geographic Data Library. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. . Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority. Where Does Our Water Come From? Web. 3 Feb. 2012. Geos Net Zero Energy Neighborhood. Designing Our Future: Sustainable Landscapes. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. . Green Building Materials. Green Building Materials. California Government. Web. 3 Mar. 2012. . BIBLIOGRAPHY

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74 BIBLIOGRAPHY Knowles, Mark. Mote Marine Mechanical Systems. Personal interview. 16 Dec. 2011. Lombardi, Matthew, Parker, Danny, and Viera. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power 14 Mar. 2012. . Nadal, Herman. Inspirational Talk. Personal interview. 26 Apr. 2012. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Solar Resource Models and Tools. NREL: Renewable Resource Data Center -. NREL. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. . key/?n=climate>. redbook/sum2/12836.txt>. Safe Use of Household Greywater. NMSU: College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. New Mexico State Univser sity. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. . Simpler Solar Systems. Heres Whats New. Solar Energy Provided by Simpler Solar Systems. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. . Solatube. Bring Natural Light into Your Home. The Solar Guys. The Solar Guys. Web. . Swanson, Gail, and Jerry Wilkinson. Hurricane List. Florida Keys History Museum. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. .

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75 Swanson, Gail, and Jerry Wilkinson. Hurricane List. Florida Keys History Museum. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. . Taniguchi, Makoto, William C. Burnett, Jaye E. Cable, and Jeffrey V. Turner. Investigation of Submarine Groundwater Discharge. Hy United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service, and University of Florida. Soil Survey of Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida. Print. University Programs @ DISL. Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Alabamas Marine Science Institution. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. . US Naval Observatory. Sun or Moon Altitude/Azimuth Table. Astronomical Applications Department. USNO. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. . Vaughan, Dr. David. Aquaculture Viability. Personal interview. 20 Dec. 2011. Waste to Energy. Zero Waste Energy Systems :. Web. 14 Apr. 2012. . Zomeworks Corporation. Zomeworks Corporation: Passive Energy Products. Zomeworks Corporation. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. .