Ford Motor Plant : from toxic producer to biotic filter

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Title:
Ford Motor Plant : from toxic producer to biotic filter
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Loquidis, Lulu
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School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Abstract:
Built in 1924 and designed by the Detroit architect Albert Kahn, the Ford Motor Plant is unique to the east coast. The mid-century modern structure represents the industrial era and stands as an historic relic: an abandoned production site and a mere shell of its former self. Today, the brick and steel building occupies a quiet industrial lot that flanks 800 feet of St. John’s riverfront at the edge of Jacksonville’s city center. Abandoned manufacturing operations along the St. John’s are common landscapes in Jacksonville. Here, the waterfront is fragmented, exposing opportunities to reconnect the city back to the river. Through visionary projects, Jacksonville’s industrial landscapes can be recycled to right the wrongs of the past, using the same genius of industry to heal the wounds suffered by production. The Ford Motor Plant sits unassumingly in a context of production yards. Talleyrand Avenue is the western boundary of this working landscape, separating it from the historic neighborhoods which were once home to its labor force. Hidden in the shadow of Matthews Bridge, the Motor Plant site is a short walk from Jacksonville’s largest sports venue: Everbank Stadium. Portions of the building are used for storage, while the rest is unoccupied. In 2001, plans were drawn to convert the building to mixed-use, however, these visions were never realized. The Motor Plant is included on Jacksonville’s “Most Endangered Historic Buildings” list and the city’s Historic Preservation Commission has identified the site and its surrounding area as a landscape of significant heritage value to both the city and people of Jacksonville. Years of industrial use have harmed this landscape’s functioning ecologies. In a study conducted by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the site’s 50,000 gallon above-ground storage tank, fuel-oil storage facility, underground “undisclosed chemical” storage tank, wash pad and oil storage building have all bled into the ground, releasing toxins, poisoning the earth. While this diseased landscape has been slowly healing itself over a century of abandonment, traces of low-level contamination continue to wash into the St. John’s. Health to these landscapes and the river that flows through it is not yet restored.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Ford Motor Plant: From Toxic Producer to Biotic Filter Lulu Loquidis

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Project Introduction Goals and Objectives Historical Analysis Contextual and Site Analysis Building Analysis Synthesis Case Studies and Research Conceptual Design Design Development References 05 14 17 23 33 41 45 53 63 84 Table of Contents

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5 Project Introduction

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7 Built in 1924 and designed by the Detroit architect Albert Kahn, the Ford Motor Plant is unique to the east coast. The mid-century modern structure represents the industrial era and stands as an historic relic: an abandoned production site and a mere shell of its former self. Today, the brick and steel building occupies a quiet industrial lot that anks 800 feet of St. Johns riverfront at the edge of Jacksonvilles city center. Abandoned manufacturing operations along the St. Johns are common landscapes in Jacksonville. Here, the waterfront is fragmented, exposing opportunities to reconnect the city back to the river. Through visionary projects, Jacksonvilles industrial landscapes can be recycled to right the wrongs of the past, using the same genius of industry to heal the wounds suffered by production. The Ford Motor Plant sits unassumingly in a context of production yards. Talleyrand Avenue is the western boundary of this working landscape, separating it from the historic neighborhoods which were once home to its labor force. Hidden in the shadow of Matthews Bridge, the Motor Plant site is a short walk from Jacksonvilles largest sports venue: Everbank Stadium. Portions of the building are used for storage, while the rest is unoccupied. In 2001, plans were drawn to convert the building to mixed-use, however, these visions were never realized. The Motor Plant is included on Jacksonvilles Most Endangered Historic Buildings list and the citys Historic Preservation Commission has identied the site and its surrounding area as a landscape of signicant heritage value to both the city and people of Jacksonville. Years of industrial use have harmed this landscapes functioning ecologies. In a study conducted by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the sites 50,000 gallon above-ground storage tank, fuel-oil storage facility, underground undisclosed chemical storage tank, wash pad and oil storage building have all bled into the ground, releasing toxins, poisoning the earth. While this diseased landscape has been slowly healing itself over a century of abandonment, traces of low-level contamination continue to wash into the St. Johns. Health to these landscapes and the river that ows through it is not yet restored. Project Abstract 6

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8 9 Site: Historic Ford Assembly Plant Architect: Albert Kahn Built: 1924 and closed in 1960 Site Location: Metro Jacksonville, Florida: 1903 Adams Street, North of the Mathews Bridge on the St. Johns River, 1500 ft. from Everbank Stadium County: Duval Site Size: 35 acres Building Size: 165,000 square feet Client: Sonny Redmond, Hill Street, LLC owner of the Ford Plant Contacts: Mike Saylor: Jacksonville contact for the owners Richard Shieldhouse: Represents DOCOMOMO, a non-governmental organization that helps document, conserve, and protect buildings in Florida. Image 1

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10 11

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12 13

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14 15 Ensure that the Ford Motor Plant is restored/preserved and seen as a valued historic relic that may be enjoyed by future generations Provide the building with new meaning by harmoniously merging new with old and highlighting the industrial and port-city sense of place Celebrate the historical signicance of the site which can be seen as a value to both the city and people of Jacksonville Manage stormwater on site and treat runoff before it meets the St. Johns Introduce new habitat and restore old Physically stitch the site with the St. Johns, and highlight the natural ecology of northeast Florida Remediate soils on site and strive to improve water quality of the St. Johns River by implementing a lter system that inltrates water to reduce algae blooms and increase dissolved oxygen levels Educate users about water quality, remediation, and environmental impacts Generate a sense of community by heightening pride in Jacksonville and providing residents with an amenity they can enjoy Promote education and exploration through means of interpretation and interactive design Provide exible spaces that can be used for a variety of uses Connect exterior spaces with interior spaces and site with surrounding neighborhoods and waterfront 01 Regenerate 02 Ecology 03 Experience Goals and Objectives

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17 Historical Analysis

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18 19 It was the name Gateway to Florida that sparked Henry Fords interest in bringing the automotive business to Jacksonville. The location of Jacksonville, with its roadway, rail, and port amenities made it a perfect location. The building was designed by Albert Kahn in 1924, and the architecture reects mid-century modern. The plant is constructed of steel, concrete, and bricks. One of the primary design features that the building is recognized for is its early innovation of skylights. Kahn designed a series of glass panels that extend 1600 allowing natural light to lter into the working quarters. For an industrial plant of this time, the light was not only a sustainable feature, but it enhanced working conditions. The architecture style creates a certain sense of place for the area and marks an important historic era. The plant is 165,000 square feet and is located at 1901 Hill Street on the St. Johns River. Frequent ferry service between Arlington and the plant helped 600 men get to work. Arlington soon became the plants largest employer. The Building incorporates a rail line that extends into the interior of the building. The rail line along with a series of docks provided the plant with sufcient means to export. Though the plant was protable for many years, it shut its doors in 1960. Today the building remains on Jacksonvilles Most Endangered Historic Buildings list. Today a portion of the building is used by Wood-Hopkins Contracting Co. for storage; the rest of the building remains vacant. In 2001 there were preliminary plans to turn the building into a mixed use development, but the plans were never realized. Background

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20 21 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 Timeline

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23 Contextual and Site Analysis

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24 1 2 3 8 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 9 1. Ford Motor Plant Site 2. Mathews Bridge 3. Exchange Island 4. Clifton Neighborhood 5. St. Johns River 6. Isaiah D Hart Bridge 7. Bishop Kenny Fields 8. Arlington Marina 9. Arlington Neighborhood 10. Memorial Park 11. Marina 12. Retention Basin 13. Abandon Industrial 14. Fuel Plant 15. EverBank Stadium 16. Jax Port Authority 17. Industrial 18. Light Industrial 19. Springeld 20. Parking Context 25 16

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26 Contextual Conditions Physical Features Today, it is visible that the site has suffered years of neglect. The industrial wear has caused negative impact on the site and structure. Currently classied as a browneld, the site will need sufcient improvements. The property consists of 24.51 acres of uplands and 6.62 acres of submerged land abutting 2,070 linear feet of bulk headed frontage along the St. Johns River. The site contains 130,293 square feet of warehouse in addition to the primary warehouse containing 165,025 square feet of gross building warehouse (City of Jacksonville). Surrounding Uses and Context The context for eastern Jacksonville is comprised of primarily industrial uses. Talleyrand Avenue creates a dividing line that separates industry from residential. The plants immediate neighbors include residential, vacant lots, Jacksonvilles Port Authority, and Hal Jones contractors. The site is 1,500 feet from the stadium and would provide an opportunity to connect the sport complexes, businesses and retail corridors, with the waterfront, and residential neighborhoods. Only 3,000 feet off the coast is Exchange Island Park. This park is accessible only by boat and encompasses 34 acres of uninhabited land which has been zoned as a public park. This opens opportunity to link with the public park and provide a sanctuary where residents could retreat from the city. Circulation There are two primary expressway systems that provide circulation to the Ford plant. The Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway (US-1 alternative) runs north-south and the Arlington Expressway which traverses the Mathews Bridge and runs east-west. Taking Swift Street, Duval Street, Faireld Place, or Talleyrand Avenue exits will direct you to the area. 27

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28 29 Industrial Residential Commercial Recreation Facilities Parking Institutional Landuse Map Upland Shrub and Brushland Freshwater 100 Year Flood Map Contour Map Soils Map Area Located Outside Hazard Zone Area Located Within Hazard Zone 2 3 4 1 Urban Land Hurricane Albany Complex

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30 31 Exchange Island Located 3145 ft. from site Access by boat/ water taxi 34 acres of land comprised of upland shrub on the west and saltwater marshes/ wetlands on the east 350 in width and 2,400in length The island was formed from muck dredged from the St. Johns River during construction of the bridge. J acksonville may be one of the few major cities in the United States with an uninhabited refuge of greenspace in the heart of its urban core. Image 2 Ecologically, years of industrial wear have caused negative impacts on the site. In a study conducted by the FDEP the primary sources for contamination included a 50,000 gallon above-ground storage tank, oil room with ll pipe vault, underground storage tank, and wash pad and oil storage building. Though conditions have improved on the site since then, light contamination remains. The condition of the St. Johns River is also of particular concern. Stormwater from the surrounding area contains heavy metals and surface pollutants that ow directly into the St. Johns from surrounding industrial facilities. Environmental Issue

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33 Building Analysis

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34 35 Though the site is in need of serious secondary repairs (such as windows and exterior foundation improvements), the buildings structural integrity has remained surprisingly intact. However, from my preliminary research I have found that the bulkhead will need sufcient repairs. Many years ago the bulkhead could handle large load bearing capacities, but today it would not be safe to presume it could handle such loads. Also, because the site is considered a browneld, there probably will be some need for remediation. Current Issues Show Room and Ofce Upstairs Bathroom Upstairs Bathroom Packaging Ford Motor Plant Floor Plan St. Johns River

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36 37 Existing Building Elevation East Building Section

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38 39 Existing Building Section Extracted Proposed Building Initial Building Program Initial Building Circulation Building Ideation

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40 41 1 2 3 6 7 7 9 14 15 2 8 5 4 Context Synthesis 1. Jax Port No opportunities for development north of the site 2. Adjacent Industrial Conditions of buildings and associated area/uses are a constraint Possibility for area to transition 3. Arlington Marina Connections via the river to site Opportunities for personal boat docking 4. Arlington Neighborhood Opportunity to connect neighborhood to site amenities 5. Exchange Island Preserving the island while allowing people to enjoy Access to island must be monitored 6. Mathews Bridge Offers Access to site Opportunity to incorporate pedestrian and bike access Opportunity to provide interesting views from site 7. Abandoned Waterfront and Industrial Parcels Waterfront is disjointed with many lots abandoned or light industrial, opportunity to reclaim and rejuvenate waterfront 8. Metropolitan Par k Opportunity to open up a central park space for the sta dium while proving a linking joint to the Ford Motor Site 9. EverBank Stadium Opportunity to bring people and revenue to area Opportunity to connect with site and waterfront A constraint is the amount of trafc and associated events brought to the area on game days 10.Transitional Residential/ Springeld Neighborhood Transitional piece is an opportunity for commercial growth and mixed used development Springeld neighborhood is an opportunity to bring resi dents to the waterfront amenities and the site.

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42 43 2 8 6 5 4 1 3 7 1. Railroad Tracks/AccessLack of site visibility from road Not located on a main road Opportunity for privacy One access road Railroad tracks maintain sense of place 2. Ford Motor Plant Buildings degraded condition Opportunity for rebirth and reprogram 3. Site Condition The site is a blank slate for design because it has been left abandoned for years Light contamination of the soils leaves opportunities for bioremediation 4. Jax Port Colorful shipping containers create a sense of place Opportunity to provide interesting views from site 5. St. Johns River Provides access to site Opportunity for public water transportation Opportunity to take advantage of amenity Opportunity for remediation due to industrial leaching 6. Views Opportunity to provide pleasant views to the Mathews Bridge, Exchange Island, and Jax Port 7. South Storage 130,000 sq ft of abandoned storage space that will need to be removed 8. Bulkhead The bulkhead will require sufcient repairs in order to meet standards that are safe for the general public The General shape of the bulkhead/ inlet is awkward. Site Synthesis

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45 Case Studies

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46 Copenhagen Harbour Baths Firm: BIG Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Size: 6 Acres Like the Ford Motor Plant in Jacksonville, the Harbour Baths are located in Copenhagens industrial zone. This particular area of Copenhagen has progressively begun to transform from a once unfriendly industrial port, into an area that is growing with vibrant character. The Harbour Baths project was one of the initial transformations that helped bring the change. The baths offer an urban landscape for city dwellers to swim right outside their front doors. The project incorporates, swimming areas, boat docking, sunning decks, cliffs, and playgrounds (Archdaily). The baths are free of charge, and are monitored by lifeguards at all time. The lifeguard location was designed on a radial line so swimmers can be easily viewed. The Harbour Baths bring the beach to the city. 47 Images 3-5

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48 Leca Baths Architect: Alvaro Siza Location: Matosinhos, Portugal Built: 1966 Located on the northern coast of Matosinhos and designed by Alvara Siza, the Leca Baths blend with the natural contours and merge into the beach landscape. Siza uses the existing rock formations to his benet. His design incorporates the existing rock masses, and he is careful not to block views from the coastal road Avenid da Liber dade and vise versa. Between the rocky outcrops and the Atlantic Ocean, Siza inserts a wall to help defend the pools from strong winds and rough currents. Siza is delicate and aware of the landscape, it is sometimes hard to recognize architectural details from nature itself. Though these baths do not lter water, they demonstrate the idea of blending new with old. 49 Images 9-11

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50 Caixa Forum Firm: Herzog de Meuron Location: Madrid, Spain Program: Cultural Center The Swiss architecture duo Jacques Herzog, and Pierre de Meuron transformed this abandoned power plant in Madrid into a successful cultural center for the community. In order to create the appearance that the building is oating, they chiseled away at the existing concrete as to give the feeling that one is entering the building from underneath. They also demolished the existing roof and added on an extra two stories doubling the square footage. The building is owned by the Social Works Foundation of La Caixa and is used for theater, music, art and literature (Cohn). This kind of adaptive reuse allows for the building character to remain, but invites new meaning and use. 51 Images 6-8

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53 Conceptual Design

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54 55 The conceptual design process proposes modest moves towards healing the damaged landscape. The sites contours serve as the basis of research and the foundation of design. Using energy generated on site, water is pulled from the St Johns and dropped through a ltering matrix of ponds, pools and runnels carved into the surface of the site. The water is scoured, cleansed and restored as it is ltered through oysters, sand beds and sunowers, pushed across aeration planes and swept across littoral terraces. Oysters thrive in water improved by their presence as sunowers strip it of its heavy metals. As this water moves towards the St Johns once again, it ushes through a succession of biotopes, oating islands and sh ponds. Oxygen is folded into the water as it crashes across agitation planes, ows against the Motor Plant foundation walls and pushed through a gridded plane of remnant columns from the factory oor: building structure, returned to purposefulness. Cleansed, the water lls a public bath where it cools and restores the spirit and body of humans who bath there. In the streets beyond the Motor Plant site, stormwater is collected and channeled through a parallel fabric of runnels, ponds and terraces into rehabilitative wetlands where it is held and its contaminants settle. Outows course through sand beds and more littoral terraces. Finally, joining the surge of water from the public baths, water from Fords urban lter rejoins the river: a small but not inconsequential contributor to restoring the health of the St Johns. Conceptual Design

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56 57 The two storage facilities on site expose the primary concentration of heavy metals. Overlaying contours on the site help reveal how the water carries contaminates to the St. Johns River. The diagram reveals that the water is carried through the site in a southeastern direction. The formal grid organizes the three networks; one which relates to the building orientation and one which relates to the ow of contaminates on site. Contaminate Mapping Filter Network Formal Grid

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58 59 Vertical Zones Horizontal Striations Integrated Matrix The diagrams above allowed for a relationship between the impaired site and the St. Johns River to emerge. The aquatic matrix allows the river to carve through the site and creates a series of networking water elds that lter and treat the St. Johns River, and provide a new series of user experiences. The matrix is made up of six different processes that lter and clean the water of the St. Johns and treat stormwater runoff before it reaches the river. In the last phase of the process, the eld folds and bends creating a series of public baths and wading pools

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60 61 Physical Models

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63 Design Development

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64 65 User Groups Arlington and Springeld Neighborhoods The Ford Motor Plant is adjacent to two prominent neighborhoods, Arlington and Springeld. The water amenity will provide a place where families can go on the weekends to get away from city life. The event space may also be rented out for larger functions. Jacksonville Port Authority With accommodations and unique amenities available just south of the port authority, the Ford Motor Plant Hotel will offer a convenient alternative for traveling business personal. Everbank Stadium Football season brings a lot of activity to the surrounding areas. Typically visitors arrive for a game, and leave immediately following. Revitalization of the area will provide fans with a reason to stay in the area. The hotel would also be used by football fans from out of town. Downtown /Veterans Memorial Arena The Jacksonville Landing, though underused, is a node in the downtown area that was developed to attract consumers. Unfortunately, the success of the Landing has not been great. The Ford Motor Plant and Everbank Stadium together create two strong nodes in eastern downtown; redevelopment of a consumer core could revitalize the area and provide Jacksonville with a successful waterfront. Bishop Kenny High school With implementation of a water-taxi, high school students are minutes away from an urban beach. The site would be used by the students of Bishop Kenny on the weekends.

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66 67 First inow Basin Water from the St. Johns Biotope Filtration Bathing Water Secondary Filter Tertiary Filter Filtered Water Preliminary Filter Diagram Masterplan

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68 69 Baths Biotope Rhizoremediation Fish Hatchery Bath Roof Runoff Biotope Stormwater Parking Wetland Habitat Floating Island Aquaculture Center Rhizoremediation Oyster Cultivation Program Diagram Filter Section Innity Pool Pervious Deck Baths Rhizoremediation Biotope Filtration

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70 71 The rst process of ltration is oyster cultivation. Because the St. Johns is a northerly owing river, the water enters on the southern portion of the site and weaves its way through a series of oyster racks. Oysters naturally grow in estuarine bodies of water and are native to the St. Johns. The water then weaves through a series of runnels, undergoing the process of rhizoremediation. In this process sunowers take up heavy metals and other pollutants through their roots. The next system combines a cycle of biotopes that lters the water into a controlled ecosystem that contains oating islands and a sh hatchery. In eutrophic waters such as the St. Johns, oating islands have the ability to remove hazardous wastes and nutrient overloads through their complex root systems. This system benets the ora and fauna by reducing algae growth and increasing dissolved oxygen levels. In this phase of the system the water makes contact with the existing foundation of the Ford Plant and exposes a gridded eld of structural columns. The remaining building footprint is incorporated into a public plaza, hotel and spa. A collection of rain barrels consolidate roof runoff from the hotel that are introduced into the system. Another series of runnels captures stormwater from nearby roads and transports it into the wetland retention system. This system incorporates a soft edge of engineered soils and vegetation where the water can collect and seep back into the natural system. The nal evolution of the lter results in a combination of engineered sands and sunower rhizoremediation before the water is introduced into the public pools. The public pools are situated on the northern portion of the site and provide generous views to an adjacent island, the Ford Motor Plant, and the Matthews Bridge. In order to provide an array of user experiences each bath is designed to incorporate a different function including interactive fountains, water walls, diving areas, shallow childrens pools and hot baths woven between multiple public walkways and gathering spaces. Filter Network Processes Filter Network

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72 73 Renewed Ecosystem The lter will enhance wildlife habit and provide a sanctuary for ora and fauna that used to exist in Floridas northeastern region. Community Health It is a common occurrence today that abandoned industrial site are the places left over for public parks. The remaining browneld will be treated by the lter and reduce the risk of public exposure to contaminates. The conditions of the St. Johns River will be improved by ltering the water through a series of biotopes, cleaning the industrial waterfront, and treating stormwater runoff through detention wetlands before it meets the river. Recreation Opportunity The proposed program will provide green space and an area where residence and visitors can come to relax and enjoy Jacksonville. The space will also help residents maintain a healthy lifestyle, and keep the community vibrant and safe. Economic Benet Real-estate value will increase when neighborhoods become more attractive and potential residence / businesses began to take interest. Benets Current Conditions Site Footprint

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74 75

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76 77 Southeast view over looking sunower rhizoremediation, and wading baths. In the distance are the St. Johns River, the Ford Motor Plant, and the Matthews Bridge

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78 79 Walking north through the sunower rhizoremedation, and biotope lter

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80 81

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82 83

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84 85 References Image References Bucci, Fredrico. Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford. Princeton Architectura Press. 1993. City of Jacksonville. Ford Assembly Area Revitalization Study. Provided by Mike Saylor. 2004-2005 Cohn, David. Herzog and de Meuron Manipulates Materials, Space, and Structure to Transform an abandoned power station in Madrids Caixa Forum. Architectural Record 06 2008. Davis, Ennes. Metro Jacksonville. Ford Assembly Plant Comes Back to Life. http://www. metrojacksonville.com/article/2010-mar-ford-assembly-plant-comes-back-to-life. Davis, Ennes. Metro Jacksonville. Urban Parks: Exchange Club Island. http://www. metrojacksonville.com/article/2010-sep-urban-parks-exchange-club-island. Dreiseitl, Herbert. On-Site Sewage Treatment: Living Systems. PDF. Dreiseitl, Herbert and Grau, Dieter. Recent Waterscapes: Planning Building and Designing with Water. Birkhauser Verlag AG 2009. Jarz Hank Inltrated Cultural and Ecological Urbanism / Maxthreads Architectural Design. 10 May 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 07 Oct 2011. http://www.archdaily. com/133362. Kaja Kuhl. Urban Omnibus, From Brownelds to Greenelds: A Field Guide to Phytoremediation. 10 November, 2010. Accessed 10 March 2012. http://urbanomnibus. net/2010/11/from-brownelds-to-greenelds-a-eld-guide-to-phytoremediation/. Margolis, Liat and Robinson, Alexander. Living Systems: Innovative Materials and Technologies for Landscape Architecture. Birkhauser Verlag AG 2007. Paisajismo. Landscape Architecture, Urban Design and Green Spaces. Plasma Studio. Peter Latz+Partners. Landscape Park Duisburg Nord. 2007. Accessed 13 February 2012. http://www.latzundpartner.de/projects/listcat/1. Roseneld, Karissa. Delancey Underground a.k.a The Lowline. 30 November 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 05 December 2011. http://www.archdaily.com/188295 Labeled and in Order of Appearance Image 1: Google Earth Jacksonville, FL Image 2: Davis, Ennes. Metro Jacksonville. Ford Assembly Plant Comes Back to Life. http:// wwwmetrojacksonville.com/article/2010-mar-ford-assembly-plant-comes-back-to-life. Image 3-5: Saieh Nico Copenhagen Harbour Bath / PLOT 05 Jan 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 18 Feb 2012. . Photos: BIG, Casper Dalhoff, Esben Bruun, Hanne Fuglbjerg, JDS Images 6-9: Bann, Iwan Architectural Record. 06 2008 Images 10-12: Toto. Alvaro Siza. DNP Nishi Nippon CO. LTD. 2007. Saieh Nico Copenhagen Harbour Bath / PLOT 05 Jan 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 18 Feb 2012. Toto. Alvaro Siza. DNP Nishi Nippon CO. LTD. 2007. Weilacher, udo. Syntax of Landscape: The Landscape Architecture of Peter Latz and Partners. Birkhauser Verlag AG. 2008

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