Hogan's Creek : the living lab

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Title:
Hogan's Creek : the living lab
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Cain, Michael Z.
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School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Jacksonville
Urban
Creek
waterway
greenway

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Abstract:
Hogans Creek: The Living Lab is a visionary ecological capstone that aims to strategically resolve the large areas of urban runoff and waste adjacent to Hogans Creek in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Through ecological planning practices and stormwater guidelines, the one and a half mile creek corridor will be transformed into a naturally-aesthetic recreational greenway.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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HOGANS CREEK: THE LIVING LABSUSTAINING DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE THROUGH ECOLOGOICAL AND STORMWATER PLANNINGMICHAEL CAINSPRING SEMESTER 2012 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PLANNING DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING BACHELOR OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE CAPSTONE ADVISOR LES LINSCOTTi

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“Greenways are terribly important in the urban environment because they provide an edge, which means you have more people connected to the greenway itself, to the system of connec ons. Also, they’re prac cal. In many areas, we can’t get more ‘big fat guys’ parks in the tradi onal sense. But by restoring rivers and other corridors, we can save the skinny ones.” William Spitzerformer Ac ng Assistant Director, Na onal Recrea on Programs, Na onal Park Service, 1998ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to dedicate this to my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, for giving me a life that is full of the countless blessings in which He has provided me. For also giving me a new opportunity to know who I am, what I want to do and how You work in my life through the people around me. I would like to thank my ance, Kelly Ann, for being the real trooper and encouraging me through even the hardest of mes and stress. You are a real blessing to my life and I know we will both guide one another and encourage one another to be the best we can be through life. I love you. I would like to express to my brother that I appreciate the support and love from you more than ever. Through all the encouragement and direc on you have shown, I hope you know how appreciated you are and how I enjoy being your brother. You have made me proud in the steps you have taken and where you want to go. To my parents, with all the love and support you have shown me throughout my life. You both have exemplied what it means to be successful and how to appreciate what we have in this world. I love you both very much. To my family, I love you and thank you for all your prayers and support. To my fellow classmates, the studio adventures have come to a close but that should not stop us from being in touch wherever we go. We have all encouraged one another in some way and have provided many enjoyable memories. I wish you all the best. To the Department of Landscape Architecture & Planning, thank you for giving me the opportunity to grow and learn from each of you. Go Gators!ii iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTSPROJECT INTRODUCTION NARRATIVE..................................................................................................................... ....................... 3 LOCATION...................................................................................................................... ........................ 4 CONTEXT....................................................................................................................... ......................... 8 HISTORY....................................................................................................................... ........................... 9 EXISTING CONDITIONS........................................................................................................... ............... 11 RESEARCH DOWNTOWN VISION............................................................................................................... .............. 15 COMPREHENSIVE PLANS SUMMARY................................................................................................... .. 19 CASE STUDIES.................................................................................................................. ...................... 21 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................... ......................... 24 GOALS......................................................................................................................... .......................... 28 SYNTHESIS..................................................................................................................... ........................ 32 CONCEPTS...................................................................................................................... ....................... 35 DESIGN PROCESS OVERALL MASTER PLAN........................................................................................................... ............. 40 VISION PLAN................................................................................................................... ....................... 41 LINEAR PARK................................................................................................................... ....................... 42 SITE DESIGN WETLAND DEVELOPMENT........................................................................................................... .......... 43 COMMERCIAL HUB................................................................................................................ ................ 47 THE WETLAND EXPERIMEN......................................................................................................... .......... 53 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... .................... 55 PERSONAL CONCLUSION............................................................................................................ ........... 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES........................................................................................................ ......... 57 APPENDIX....................................................................................................................... ....................... 59iv v

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“...[the greenway story] is the story of a remarkable ci zen-led movement to get us out of our cars and into the landscape on paths and trails through corridors of green that can link city to country and people to nature...”Charles Li le Greenways for America, 1990 1 2

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HOGANS CREEK: THE LIVING LABPROJECT SUMMARYHogans Creek: The Living Lab is a visionary ecological capstone that aims to strategically resolve the large areas of urban run o and waste adjacent to Hogans Creek in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Through ecological planning prac ces and stormwater guidelines, the one and a half mile creek corridor will be transformed into a naturally-aesthe c recrea onal greenway.NARRATIVEThe focus of this capstone project is a combina on of stormwater management, public health, environmental awareness and historic preserva on. During the early twen eth century, a vision in turning Hogans Creek into an urban greenway park was an ul mate goal for architect Henry Klutho. By 1929, he had designed wetland areas to accommodate stormwater as well as the site furnishings that s ll barely exist today. With help by the Spring eld Historic District, Hogans Creek has been maintained over several decades; however, there has been a strong push for development since Jacksonville early urban growth. This growth pa ern has a ected the runo and the concentra on of water to a point that the urban runo covers approximately one square mile around Hogans Creek. The waters of Hogans Creek have collected various toxins, waste and other contaminates that environmentalists, biologists and c ity o cials have to call Hogans Creek as the “living lab” of downtown Jacksonville. The city’s research as well as the Environmental Protec on Agency have proven that over the past years there has been a gradually rise in fecal coliform This struck a major concern for the city, labeling the waters as “impaired” and a poten al health hazard to anyone enjoying its exis ng recrea onal value. By designing wetlands, trails and providing guidelines from stormwater prac ces, the poten al in developing a highly sustainable site will allow Jacksonville to grow even more than they expect in their comprehensive plans. The main goal of this project is to develop an overall master plan that highlights various solu ons to managing stormwater issues, public health and environmental awareness along Hogan’s Creek. This urban greenway project has the greatest opportunity in connec ng the Spring eld Historic District to Downtown Jacksonville as well as all other surrounding context. Historic elements on site will be highly recognized and be in favor of r estora on solu ons. Both the City of Jacksonville and the Spring eld District will see the poten al in a highly interac ve greenway that a racts a wide variety of daily users.4 3

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LOCATIONDuval County is located in Northeast Florida. It has an es mated popula on of nearly 865,000, covering approximately 4.5% of the state of Florida. The main geographically feature is the St Johns River, which ows north through downtown Jacksonville and out into the Atlan c Ocean. THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLEJacksonville is o en considered as being Duval County because of e ects from sprawl, crea ng just one large metropolitan city within Duval County. Sta s cs prove that sprawl is very apparent in Duval County, considering persons per square mile in 2010 accounted for 1,133.9, whereas 350.6 persons per square mile was the state average. The popula on of Jacksonsille con nues to grow, as noted between 2000 to 2010, by an increase of 11%, just below the average state level. The City of Jacksonville has developed mul ple comprehensive plans to accommodate the developing growth of the city. Various elements highlighted in these comprehensive include incorpora ng a variety of housing types as well as expanding natural and recrea onal areas throughout the city. 5 6

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JACKSONVILLE’S URBAN CREEKHogans Creek is located in downtown Jacksonville along the St Johns River and at the heart of Duval County. The urban creek is 1.5 miles long with a variety of land use parcels adjacent to the creek’s corridor. The exis ng parks along the creek serve as ac ve recrea onal spaces for people to play various sports and enjoy leisure ac vi es. The size of the proposed project is approximately 100 acres. Most of the parcels are owned by the City of Jacksonville and the Spring eld Historic District. 7 8

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NEIGHBORHOODSHogans Creek is surrounded by a diverse group of urban neighborhoods. From the historic neighborhoods to downtown se ng, the enre urban area is vastly unqiue. The architecture and the people from one neighborhood to the next gives each area an iden ty and culture. With Eastside being heavily focused on the professional sports and entertainment industrises to the industrial factories in Nixon Town, the urban puzzle of Jacksonville s ll remains to be missing the connec ng pieces. Those pieces being the opportuni es to link each neighborhood together and de ne the real urban edge of downtown Jacksonville. CONTEXT THE HISTORY OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLEThe history of Jacksonville dates back to the early inhabitants of the ancient Timucua city, Ossachite. It existed over 1,000 years ago un l taken by the Spanish government during the 18th century. Oassachite was bordered by two creeks, known today as McCoy’s and Hogans creeks, as well as the St Johns River. Many of the people built their homes along the edges of both creeks. A er the Spanish government reign in the eighteenth century, the early se ling of Jacksonville began taking shape; however, one signi cant event plays a major role in making Hogans Creek famous. In 1901, as Jacksonville was developing into an established city, a spark started in a ma ress factory, eventually destroying 2,368 buildings and leaving 10,000 people homeless and killing seven residents. Jacksonville spent the next several decades rebuilding all the demolished buildings. Throughout the 20th century, Jacksonville grew even more in being a port city, using the St Johns River as means of trade. JACKSONVILLE’S HISTORIC CREEKDuring the years of rebuilding a er the 1901 Great Fire, the city of Jacksonville purchased addi onal land along Hogans Creek to begin crea ng a series of greenspaces along the northern edge of downtown. By 1928, the city wanted to improve the condi on of the creek. Architect Henry J. Klutho developed a plan, adopted by the City Commission, and by 1929, his design was completed. This plan involved diver ng the creek channel and crea ng two over ow reten on ponds to mi gate high des. The construc on of bulkheads, vehicular bridges, three pedestrian bridges, sidewalks and ligh ng xtures were all essen al features of the Hogans Creek Improvement Plan. Today, Hogans Creek has been viewed as one of the primary focuses for genera ng future growth and poten al for Jacksonville. In order to draw more a en on to the downtown environment, the linear corridor has great opportuni es to connect the surrounding neighborhoods to Downtown Jacksonville. DISPLAY PRESENTATION OF HENRY J. KLUTHO DESIGNS FOR HOGANS CREEK PEOPLE EVACUATING THE CITY DURING THE 1901 GREAT FIRE 9 10

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11 12

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THE CURRENT CONDITION OF HOGANS CREEKThe sense of abandonment is apparent when walking through the Hogans Creek neighborhood. Vandalism and the destruc on to several of the historic features are just a few visible examples of how the historic environment is being treated. Even the lack of maintenace goes to show as erosion and sediment build-up are some the natural processes that have a ected the appearance of the creek. However, the most no ceable problem that largely a ects the creek is the amount of waste, trash and other containments, that is seen throughout the site. The current condi ons of the Hogans Creeks have received local news coverage and even community par cipa on organiza ons, giving people direct insight to knowing how lthy the creek is in the neighborhood environment. 13 14

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URBAN ENVIRONMENT ISSUESHogans Creek has been studied mul ple mes by the City of Jacksonville and the Environmental Protec on Agency. These studies have been mainly focusing on the composi on of the waters in Hogans Creek. Within the past few years, Hogans Creek was declared in having “impaired” waters, which means that the water in Hogans Creek is a strong health hazard to all people that come in contact with the creek. The Environmental Protec on Agency issued a grant proposal to any urban green infrastructure that would like to be considered. The grant’s scope for any restora on to a wetland, creek or waterbody includes both improving the water quality and suppor ng community revitaliza on. With the deadline having passed, the opportunity to at least give a visionary plan to the City of Jacksonville and the EPA can help them seek out other greenway opportuni es. MEETING WITH THE EPA AND CITY OF JACKSONVILLE FOR A PRESENTATION ON URBAN CREEKS 15 16

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FLOODING ISSUESThe current stormwater situta on in Hogans Creek is channeled by concrete barriers through majority of the site (see cross-sec on on page 12). The problem during heavy rains is that once sediments build up along the creek crea ng traps where water cannot ow through; therefore, causing heavy ooding. One of the other reasons for ooding issues is that since majority of Jacksonville is comprised of imperious surfaces, most of the soils in and around the Hogans Creek area are compacted urban soils. These soils do not allow water to in ltrate and drain properly.URBAN RUNOFFThe EPA and the City of Jacksonville are aware of the urban runo situta on ( oodzone depicted right) and how serious it is to restore several of Jacksonville’s urban creeks. While downtown Jacksonville is in the current process of revitalizing the urban environment, new improvement projects are being proposed and implemented with the inten on of sustaining Jacksonville. FLOODZONE MAP CONCEPTUAL DRAWING DURING EPA MEETING17 18

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THE FUTURE OF JACKSONVILLEThe City of Jacksonville has dreamed of a vision, a vision that many see as being vibrant and sustainable for the urban environment. The city has always re ected its life on the waters of the St Johns River and celebrated its history as a growing city since the early establishment along the river. For the past decades, comprehensive and vision plans have been created to give Jacksonville an opportunity to prepare itself for the future. In a 2030 Downtown Jacksonville vision plan, four objec ves were noted as to improve the walkabilty, to make downtown a des na on, to make downtown a neighborhood, and to ensure a framework for sustainable success. The quality of life exis ng today for Jacksonville is fading quickly and if the inten ons for designing a sustainable future, then the ac on of implemen ng these plans needs to happen sooner than later. The City of Jacksonville is in need of a sustainable greenway project to begin the process of greening their future. THE SUSTAINABLE IDENTITY JACKSONVILLE’S 2030 COMPREHENSIVE PLANS With all the goals, objec ves and policies that are outlined in the future comprehensive plans for Jacksonville, the city is ready to begin implemen ng sustainable prac ces to nally give the city a push to grow a posi ve iden ty. The city wants to purchase more land for park purposes, providing a variety of recre onal facili es, both ac ve and passive. There are high inten ons of proposing more greenway trial systems including new park development and the expansion of natural areas such as waterfronts, park lands, and open spaces. One of the major recrea onal objec ves involves “acquring and preserving major stream valley corridors plus adjacent vital resources such as wetlands, wooded areas, and conserva on areas when deemed necessary for watershed protec on” (Recrea on and Open Space Element 2030 Comprehensive Plan, 10). While protec ng natural areas, the city aims to protect cultural and historic elements that are vital to Jacksonville. Hogans Creek is highly considered in being an integral piece for implemen ng the 2030 Comprehensive Plans, especially in developing a func onal greenway corridor. The poten al of having a strong greenway will boost the economic value of most proper es, especially businesses and residen al homes along the creek. 1929 201219 20

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EXAMPLES OF GREENWAYS AND URBAN CREEK PROJECTSFrom Mountain House Creek in California to the Tanghe River Park in China, examples of greenway and urban waterway projects similar to the future of Hogans Creek are all available resources. During the early 20th century as Klutho was designing for the Hogans Creek Improvement Project, the idea of connec ng McCoy’s Creek and Hogans Creek together by crea ng this “Emerald Necklace” around the downtown was an intriguing vision for the city. The Boston Back Bay Fens has been an in uen cal case study for the City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville’s Emerald Necklace would connect the neigbhorhoods to the river and through various greenspaces. The opportunity to create that kind of environment is not applicalbe today as it was a hundred years ago. With today’s condi ons in both the economic and land value, the opportunity to at least incorporate ecological and stormwater planning is essen al in reducing of urban runo around Hogans Creek. Some Examples of Greenway and Urban Creek projects include: Mountain House Creek, California The Red Ribbon Tanghe River Park, China Back Bay Fens, Boston Shanghai Houtan Park, China Hogtown Creek, Gainesville Indianapolis Canal, Indiana San Antonio Riverwalk, Texas MOUNTAIN HOUSE CREEKProject Details: Located in California Scope of Project: Planning, Landscape Architecture Size: 4,700 acres Mountain House Creek was designed by the SWA Group with other planners and engineers working right alongside them. With using Smart Growth ini a ves, the in al design was to create “a be er way to manage growth and agriculture”. The creek is approximately 15,700 feet long. The project also included the addi on of stormwater reten on and ltra on ponds. Prior to the project, the creek was used for irriga on, a water source for livestock and a drainage ditch. The restored corridor averages 20 feet wide with a na ve plan ng pale e that creates green spaces, na ve wildlife habitat, and recrea onal facili es Water quality, stormwater management prac ces and research involved trea ng runo from rest of development with combina on of the creek waters. Stormwater Management Program (available online)21 22

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THE RED RIBBON: TANGHE RIVER PARKProject Loca on: Qinhuangdao City, China Project Size: 49.4 acres Completed in 2008 Received 2007 ASLA Professional Award for General Design Honor Award “A celebra on integra ng ar s c elements into a natural landscape in an ingenious way. Very drama c, yet highly func onal. It’s transforma ve and cura ve” 2007 Professional Awards Jury Comments (The Red Ribbon – Tanghe River Park).The Red Ribbon site is a linear river corridor that preserves the natural habitats while also allowing new urban uses of recrea on and educa on to drawn people closer to the natural environment. The design solu on was to create this “red ribbon” which stretches 500 meters long and creates the riverbank, the integrated boardwalk, ligh ng and sea ng, and lastly environmental interpreta on. The red color gives a sense of iden ty to the vegetated site and draws people to it both day and night. All informa on is found on the ASLA website (see Bibliogrpahy) 23 24

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WATERSHED AND CIRCULATIONThe watershed of Hogans Creek covers over a square mile of the Jacksonville’s urban context. Within the watershed, a few adjacent neighborhoods, especially Spring eld, a ect the concentra on of water as well as major roadways. Interstate 95 cuts through the western edge of downtown Jacksonville, providing easy accessibilty in and out of the downtown area. Main Street is the major roadway corridor to get out of downtown Jacksonville to access the Hogans Creek neighborhood. 25 26

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EXISTING LAND USE The downtown area of Jacksonville is mainly comprised of residenal land uses, from mobile homes, elderly towers to duplexes and mixed uses. The average lis ng for a house in the Hogans Creek neighborhood is around $134,143; however, that number has been on the decline of several thousands of dollars due to the economy. All other land uses are mainly commercial, educa onal and industrial uses because of the urban area. The lack of greenspaces in the downtown area is apparent and the city struggles to provide it. The nearest natural areas are along the eastern coastline of Duval County. To incorporate a strong greenway throug the heart of Duval County will bring a real educa onal se ng for people to learn more about the natural environment. Several of the educa onal ins tu ons in downtown Jacksonille are adjacent or near to Hogans Creek. By designing an environment for students to understand various natural processes and enhance the learning environment as well as become passionate about the outdoors. 27 28

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PRIMARY GOALDESIGN AN ECOLOGICAL CORRIDOR ALONG HOGANS CREEK THAT ENRICHES THE GROWTH OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE AND THE SURROUNDING CONTEXT BUT ADDITIONALLY CREATES AN IDENTITY FOR ITS CONTEXTDEFINE THE HOGANS CREEK EDGE AND WIDEN THE CORRIDOR BY MEANS OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION AND STORMWATER CREATE AN EDUCATIONAL INTERPRETATION TRAIL ALONG THE CREEK TO ALLOW USERS TO BECOME MORE AWARE OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CREATE NATURALLY-AESTHETIC VIEWSHEDS THAT WILL FRAME DOWNTOWN PROPOSE ADJACENT STREETSCAPE DESIGN IN ORDER TO DRIVE OF SUSTAINABILITY TOWARDS SPRINGFIELD AND DOWNTOWN ALLOW USERS TO INTIMATELY EXPERIENCE HOGANS CREEK BY DESIGNING AN ARRAY OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE RECREATIONAL AREASSECONDARY GOALINCORPORATE SEVERAL STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THAT WILL RESOLVE THE FLOODING AND IMPAIRED WATERS OF HOGANS CREEK AND THE URBAN RUNOFF OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLEFOCUS ON CREATING PUBLIC EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES IN WAYS TO REDUCE WATER POLLUTION EPA GRANT PROMOTE LOCAL WATER QUALITY AND COMMUNITY REVILTAIZATION GOALS EPA GRANT DESIGN PARCELS ALONG HOGANS CREEK TO HAVE SUITABLE POTENTIAL FOR WETLAND DEVELOPMENT BASED ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF HOGANS CREEK NEIGHBORHOOD INCORPORATE PHYTOREMEDIATION PRACTICES THAT CAN MITIGATE THE CONTAIMINATED AND IMPAIRED WATERS OF THE CREEK PROVIDE AREA OF EXPERIENCE STORMWATER EDUCATION TO ALL USER GROUPS THROUGHOUT SITE29 30

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TERTIARY GOALCREATE A FUTURE LAND USE PLAN OF HOGANS CREEK AND DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE THAT HIGHLIGHTS THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL GROWTH WHILE COINCIDING WITH THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE COMPREHENSIVE PLANSIDENTIFY PARCELS SUCH AS PARKING AND VACANT LOTS THAT CAN BE REDEVELOPED INTO NEW COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES CONNECT TO ALL EXISTING EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND OPEN SPACES PROPOSE THE IMPACT OF A FUTURE LAND USE PLAN AND HOW IT WILL STITCH TOGETHER ALL ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS ALLOW ALL NEW LAND USES TO HIGHLIGHT SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES ULTIMATELY CONNECT SPRINGFIELD HISTORIC DISTRICT TO DOWNTOWN AND USE MAIN STREET TO DRIVE ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL GROWTH31 32

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THE OPPORTUNITY TO INITIATE SUSTAINABLE GROWTHThe City of Jacksonville has developed numerous comprehensive plans that the city is ready to implement. The underlying problem is when funding comes into play in order to in tate this downtown revitaliza on with sustainable growth. The Environment Protec on Agency is always in search of opportuni es to preserve the natural environment especially with the grant they proposed last year. There are other alterna ves to search for funding or volunteering as dona ons and community par cipa on are just a few examples. The important factor to the Hogans Creek project is to get the community to ac vely par cipate in giving their opinion to what Jacksonville can do to the historic creek. Community revitaliza on is at the heart of connec vity and by implemen ng an urban greenway through downtown Jacskonville is just the beginning for sustaining the future. 33 34

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About Concept “CONSERVE” ...Concept “Conserve” involves the idea of conserving the exis ng historic features on site as well as the other furnishings. The intent would be to restore the value of these meaningful pieces as to manage exis ng into the future. The dashed line through the concept highlights the improved interpreta ve trail, given that this would only be a restora on to the paths currently exis ng throughout Hogans Creek. The trail will be more user-friendly with the inten ons of providing informa on about Hogans Creek and Downtown Jacksonville. This trail will also connect to the new S-Line Trail that is being constructed just west of Shands Hospital. This concept is mainly designated for the Spring eld Historic District because of the focus being heavily weighed on preserving the historic bridges and other site ameni es. Most of the exis ng land uses will stay the same other than the vacant lots that are sca ered throughout the site. New a ordable housing/mixed use building will become integrated into the area along with larger open space areas and wetlands. 35 36

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About Concept “ECO-LINK” ...Concept “Eco-Link” is a completely di erent approach in striving to bring as much economic growth to the Hogans Creek area. More commercial opportuni es are set to take place while also having a strong ecological link from one place to another along the creek. There is a high emphasis on the central loca on of the creek where people can recognize the Hogans Creek environment and feel more connected to using the creek for both passive and ac ve recrea on. Sca ered throughout the conceptual plan are eco-park that have large wetland opportuni es for phytoremedia on and bioremedia on in cleansing the impaired waters. The trail system designed in this concept is to guide people through a natural environment in an urban context while also having an in mate connec on to understanding the value of stormwater and ecological planning. The design of several large wetlands in a linear park located in the northwest area of Hogans should generate poten al residen al growth in and around the Spring eld neighborhood. About Concept “INTIMATELY ECO”...Concept “In mately Eco” is a combina on of the two previous concepts with the main inten on to connect and unite Spring eld and Downtown together. The expansion of streetscapes and a future land use plan indicates the poten al sustainability for residenal, commercial and environmental growth. Guidelines for reducing imperious surfaces and incorpora ng more user-friendly spaces are just some the methods to crea ng a more sustained environment. The trail system on this concept allows people to cross the creek mul ple mes and creates a eco-friendly environment for both wildlife and humans. This allows people to feel as a ached to the natural environment in an urban se ng. All new and exis ng land uses will have opportuni es to explore stormwater planning prac ces. By means to slow the urban runo in the downtown area, proposing guidelines to reduce the amount of impervious surface will be especially essen al for Jacksonville. This concept also draws a enon for more commercial growth and business by means to connect Spring eld to Downtown. 37 38

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DESIGN THE FUTURE OF HOGANS CREEK...Through stormwater and ecological planning, Hogans Creek will bene t in sustaining the future of downtown Jacksonville. Some of the various planning prac ces involved the crea on of wetlands, the expansion of the creek’s corridor, phytoremedia on, and sensi ve-design approaches. With the lack of connec vity exis ng today, this plan will give the downtown Jacksonville the opportunity to become strongly connected to the surrounding context. The poten al to draw more people into the urban environment and improved iden ty to the city. 39 40

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THE LINEAR PARKWhen the city purchased more land a er the Great Fire of 1901, the implementa on of crea ng a linear park was underway with Klutho’s 1929 Hogans Creek Project. Along the linear park, Klutho’s intenons were to have over ow reten on ponds directly adjacent to the creek’s edge while also crea ng a strong corridor ecosystem. These reten on ponds would serve as over ow for high des and provide an ecosystem for wildlife. People also had the opportunity to experience the natural environment hands on and become in mate with understanding the creek. Over me, the development of the neighborhoods along with recrea onal spaces for basketball and tennis courts pushed the creek aside and narrowed its corridor. In order to create strong natural aesthe cs but also apply a cleansing process for the waters of Hogens Creek, the widening of the creek’s corridor would allow for heavily vegetated bu ers. Instead of being con ded to concrete barriers, the creek has a natural appeal to the environment and creates an ecosystem for wildlife. CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE VEGETATED EDGE TRAIL SYSTEM CROSSING OVER HOGANS CREEK CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE LOOKING INTO DOWNTOWNA vision that allows people to escape the urban se ng and became a part of the natural environment41 42

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Cross Sec on through Central Space WETLANDS ALONG THE LINEAR PARKStormwater wetlands are designed to maximize the removal of polluants from stormwater runo Several natural processes include the microbial breakdown of pollutants, plant uptake, reten on and in ltra on. The design of stormwater wetlands involves crea ng small pools to capture the runo from the main stream allowing plants to “extract soluble carbon and nutrients and poten ally reduce biochmeical oxygen demand and fecal coliform levels concentra on” (Constructed Wetlands Stormwater Wetlands, 3-228). Being designed speci cally for ood control, the stormwater wetlands along Hogans Creek have great poten al to mi gate the ooding a er heavy rains. ADVANTAGES TO HAVING STORMWATER WETLANDSImprovements in downstream water quality Se lement of par culate pollutants Reduc on of oxygen-demanding substances and bacteria from urban runo Biological uptake of pollutants by wetland plants Flood a enua on Reduc on of peak discharges Enhancement of vegeta on diversity and wildlife habitat in urban areas Aesthe c enhancement and valuable addi on to community green space Rela vely low maintenance costs (Constructed Wetlands Stormwater Wetlands) HOGANS CREEKCross sec on through a wetland in central space Cross sec on through linear parkHOGANS CREEK43 44

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HOGANS CREEK WETLANDSWhile the trail con nues its route, meandering along the creek’s edge, the in mate experience of being in an wetland gives opportunity to see nature rst hand. In the master plan, depicted right, the exis ng contours were vital in the development of this wetland near the center of the creek system. In plan ng cypress trees along the edge of the exis ng creek, especially in the lower pools, creates a strong ltering process for the impaired waters. Along with the cypresses, various types of recommended aqua c plants and wetland plants will be diversely planted to try enhancing the wildlife habitat and also an even more e ec ve ltering process. FUTURE HOUSING The City of Jacksonville states that they would like to create a wide variety of housing types through the downtown area. By altering the a ordable housing exis ng on site and direc ng it as to protect the creek, the development of new socio-economic houses will be constructed. Each of these houses is 1000 sq. and four units per whole will be implemented. Each house will have to follow a sustainable xeriscape pale e. The vegetated bu er along the creek’s edge allows for an ac ve environment, crea ng experiences for both humans and wildlife. By creating a place for natural experience and processes, people can understand how the environment works. In rede ning Hogans Creek’s edge, improvement projects will need to be implemented to give an a rac ve new look to the new linear corridor (see perspec ve below). Cross-sec on through Wetland Environment on next pageHOGANS CREEK WILDLIFE ECOSYSTEM VEGETATED BUFFER TRAIL SYSTEM OPEN SPACE TRAIL SYSTEM CROSSING OVER HOGANS CREEK Vegetated Edge with Aqua c and Wetlandtype plants Constructed Stormwater WetlandsTrail System A ordable Housing 4 units (1000 sq. ) per house Adding Cypress trees to mi gate the water 45 46

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COMMERCIAL HUBNear the center of Hogans Creek and directly adjacent to downtown will be the new commercial hub. The poten al in using adap ve use prac ces and applying it to several of the depicted vacant buildings would allow for bene cial mixed use complexes, mainly comprised of o ce and commercial spaces. This would ul mately de ne the edge of downtown but also enhance the Main Street roadway corridor, typing it completely to the Spring eld Historic District. New improvements to the facades and applying sustainable rehabilita on processes, these vacant buildings will create new business and retail opportuni es. The City of Jacksonville is revitalizing areas in downtown to accommodate mixed use prac ces and variety of work places. The loca on of the commerical hub is most suitable in the designated area because of the major roadways adjacent to the area. Both State and Union roads are the two east-to-west roadways that bring people from Interstate 95 into downtown Jacksonville. With the project being heavily focused on the creek corridor, the rehabilita on of these adjacent building would create an eco-friendly environment for people to come and enjoy. A large wetland will take the place of the exis ng pond that would created in Klutho’s plan by means to harvest stormwater. The new environment would draw more a en on from locals as well as establishing a new ecosystem for wildlife. Commercial Hub New Recrea onal Facility Hart Bridge Expressway BEFORE AFTER VACANT BUILDINGS47 48

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The new commercial hub will highlight some of the stormwater prac ces that will reduce the urban runo in the downtown area. Such prac ces include crea ng stormwater planters that allow water runo to be directed from roo ops to a planter lled with aqua c and wetland plants. Several of these planters will be incorporated to also be aesthe cally draw a en on to the Hogans Creek environment. AQUATIC PLANTS STORMWATER PLANTER VEGETATING THE CREEK’S EDGE SUSTAINABLE FACADE IMPROVEMENTSBEFORE AFTERCommercial Hub perspec ve STORMWATER PLANTER PLAZA SPACEPLAZA SPACE COMMERCIAL HUB STATE RDMAIN STCONFEDERATE STORANGE STN OCEAN ST NEWMAN ST N MARKET STStore-front with parking garage in back Commercial and O ce complexes Boardwalk and plaza space Commercial and O ce complex Confederate Memorial 49 50

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WALKING OVER HOGEN CREEKThe Commercial Hub will be linked to Confederate Park by a boardwalk that will be integrated within the wetland environment. An example of this type of boardwalk is depicted le where it is eco-sensi ve to the surrounding area. Cross-sec on through Community Hub Wetland AreaHOGANS CREEK TRAIL SYSTEM COMMERCIAL HUB Boardwalk example for Hogans Creek Cross-sec on through Community Hub KEEPING IT NATURALThe southeast loca on of Hogans Creek already exists as the natural environment, giving the impression that this was original nature of Hogans Creek. The impact from development and construc on has created some issues; however, there is an opportunity to create wetlands and widen the exis ng edge. The process of ltering the imparied waters will have a longterm e ect on the St Johns River. With the amount of urban runo from east downtown, the reducon in urban runo with be essen al in sustaining the downtown environment.AFTER BEFORE NATURAL EDGE HOGANS CREEK NATURAL EDGE Cross-sec on through Natural Area51 52

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THE WETLANDS EXPERIMENTDepicted above is one of the several wetland environments that will play a major role in the reduc on of urban runo and the cleansing process for Hogans Creek. Each wetland in the plan o ers a func onal way to in ltrate water but also lters the toxins and contaminates through phytoremedia on and wetland pools. In a heavy rain event, given that the sec on above illustrates a par cular wetland area, water will ood over and se le into the wetland. If the rains con nue, the water will be ltered and have an opportunity to con nue downstream and out into the St Johns River. Some of the other designed wetlands along the creek are design to allow Hogans Cree k to ow right through the middle of the wetland environment. This will allow for water to retain itself and be ltered by various aqua c and wetland plants before con nue downstream. The greenway process involved bu ering the creek’s corridor by 100 and 200 feet to where future land development would not encroach upon the proposed creek edge. By developing a greenway corridor for natural aesthe cs and wildlife restora on, the opportunity to link the downtown area to a natural environment will have a maximum poten al in crea ng an ecological iden ty for Jacksonville. HOGANS CREEK WETLAND ECOSYSTEM NATURAL EDGE NATURAL EDGE53 54

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PERSONAL CONCLUSIONAs landscape architects, we are responsible for crea ng experiences where humans interact with the natural environment. There are so many bene ts to enjoying the natural environment emo onally, physically and mentally (and spiritually for some people). The enjoyment in designing these spaces for people gives a sense of knowing that the spaces will be used for community revitaliza on, par cipa on and connec vity. However, I am disappointed to see the impact of sprawl and clear-cut development that has ruined the natural environment. The idea of sustaining a city or place should be prac ced everywhere; therefore, I had chosen my capstone project on Hogans Creek for a couple of reasons: (1) In my future career as a professional Landscape Architect, I want to work on restoring natural systems especially within the urban context. I felt this project helped me acquire useful knowledge as an environmental designer and will further my skill set for the professional career. (2) Stormwater management prac ces and public health are areas that I just recently began learning about, par cularly because sustainability and health issues have been heavily focused on for the past several decades. (3) The absence of connec vity between the Spring eld Historic District and the city of Jacksonville shows the lack of interest and preserving historic sites and structures within the urban context. The value of restoring the history and crea ng the original natural environment of Hogan’s Creek will bring a strong connec vity to the city. (4) The Florida Department of Environmental Protec on and the City of Jacksonville are interested in learning how they can interpret the importance of Jacksonville’s natural environment. This project will lead to crea ng outreach programs and an educa onal laboratory environment for all people. (5) Lastly, I wanted to create a place where people could ul mately get away from the urban se ng and experience the natural environment. Every day, we push ourselves to a point of needing a place to go and nd peace and rest. The natural environment somehow allows us to re ect and enjoy what we have in this world.CONCLUSIONThe City of Jacksonville has envisioned itself as a future sustainble city that celebrates its history but also the natural environment upon which it established itself several centuries ago. The St Johns River is what people mainly associate the downtown area with but it should not stop there. All the tributaries, streams and creeks that lter out into the river play an essen al role in celebra ng the river in Jacksonville. Hogans Creek directly takes part in this celebra on for not only its history but also its proximity in the urban area. For Jacksonville to begin the sustaining revitaliza on of the downtown se ng, a restora on to Hogans Creek by means of crea ng a greenway system will only drive the city to start implemen ng strong connec ons and linkages to the surrounding context. Hogans Creek: The Living Lab project is presented as a visionary ecological plan for Jacksonville, giving opportuni es to established itself as a future green city. Many ci es today are incorporta ng sustainable prac ces in order to sustain their future but also drawn people’s a en on back to the urban environment. Through ecological planning, the new Hogans Creek will create an iden ty that thrives on original nature of downtown Jacksonville and the St Johns River. By incorpora ng stormwater prac ces through wetland development and stormwater planters, the opportunity to educate people on the importance of water and runo will become vital for the community. Lastly, the future growth of downtown and the surrounding areas is in need of prac cing sustainability. When the opportunity presents itself for the city to begin implemen ng these prac ces, Hogans Creek should be considered as the rst step in movita ng people moving back to the urban context as well as providing various recrea onal spaces for people to escape the urban hardscape. Both the City of Jacksonville and the surrounding neighborhoods can begin visioning a highly interac ve greenway that a racts a wide range of daily users. There is ac ve community par cipa on in downtown Jacksonville and the community revitaliza on process will be one of the many future bene ts that will connect all surrounding neighborhoods a er the implementa on of this greenway project. 55 56

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References“Trail Quotes From Advocacy to Wilderness.” South Carolina Trails Program. N.p., 2001. Web. 5 Feb 2012. . “Duval County, Florida.” U.S. Census Bureau. N.p., 2011. Web. 05 Apr 2012. Davis, Ennis. “Exposing Hogans Creek.” Metro Jacksonville. N.p., 05 Oct 2010. Web. 5 Jan 2012. . “Future Land Use Plans.” 2030 Comprehensive Plan City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville Planning and Development Department, Dece mber 2011. Web. 05 Feb 2012. . “Housing Element.” 2030 Comprehensive Plan City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville Planning and Development Department, July 2011. Web. 05 Feb 2012. . “Recrea on and Open Space Element.” 2030 Comprehensive Plan City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville Planning and Development Department, October 2009. Web. 05 Feb 2012. . “Hogans’s Creek Market Trends.” Trulia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar 2012. . “Mountain House Creek Project.” SWA Group. . “The Red Ribbon – Tanghe River Park.” American Society of Landscape Architects. 2007 Professional Awards. 2007. . “Constructed Wetlands Stormwater Wetlands.” Metro Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Marr 2012. Images ReferenceShipyards-1950. N.d. Photograph. Metro Jacksonville, Jacksonville. Web. 18 Feb 2012. . City going up in smoke Jacksonville, Florida. N.d. Photograph. Florida Memory, Division of Library & Informa on Services, Jacksonville. Web. 18 Feb 2012. Designs by H.J. Klutho. N.d. Photograph. Florida Memory, Division of Library & Informa on Services, Jacksonville. Web. 15 Feb 2012. . E.P.A. O ers $1.8 million in Urban Green Infrastructure Grants. American Society of Landscape Architects. The Dirt. Connec ng the Built & Natural Environments:. 2011. . Spring eld Flooding Klutho Park. 2008. Photograph. Flickr, Jacksonville. Web. 15 Feb 2012. . Aerial Image of Hogans Creek. N.d. Photograph. Google Maps, Jacksonville. Web. 20 Mar 2012. Jacksonville 2030. 2011. Brochure. City of Jacksonville, Jacksonville. Web. 7 Oct 2012. The Lake, Spring eld Park, Jacksonville, FLA. N.d. Photograph. My Spring eld, Jacksonville. Web. 18 Feb 2012. . Kongian Yu, and Cao Yang. Red ribbon runs across a former garbage dump and has a strong contrast with the na ve wol ail grass. 2007. Photograph. American Society of Landscape ArchitectsWeb. 05 Feb 2012. . Kongian Yu, and Cao Yang. The red ribbon as a gathering place.. 2007. Photograph. American Society of Landscape ArchitectsWeb. 05 Feb 2012. . Kongian Yu, and Cao Yang. Computer-rendered bird’s eye view of the park. 2007. Photograph. American Society of Landscape Archit ectsWeb. 05 Feb 2012. . Kongian Yu, and Cao Yang. The site plan. 2007. Photograph. American Society of Landscape ArchitectsWeb. 05 Feb 2012. . Kongian Yu. Shanghai Houtan Park: Landscape as a Living System. N.d. Photograph. American Society of Landscape ArchitectsWeb. 1 8 Feb 2012. . All other photos were taken by Michael Cain57 58 BIBLIOGRAPY

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PRESENTATION AGENDAPROJECT INTRODUCTION Loca on of Hogans Creek Hogan’s Creek History Surrounding Context RESEARCH Environmental Protec on Agency Urban Waterway Issues Jacksonville’s Comprehensive Plans ANALYSIS Watershed, Accessibility and Roadways Land Use and Greenspace GOALS Objec ves SYNTHESIS Opportuni es for Sustainable Growth and Connec vity DESIGN Master Plan Linear Park Wetland Development Commercial Hub Guidelines CONCLUSION

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“...[the greenway story] is the story of a remarkable ci zen-led movement to get us out of our cars and into the landscape on paths and trails through corridors of green that can link city to country and people to nature...”Charles Li le Greenways for America, 1990

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HOGANS CREEK: THE LIVING LABPROJECT SUMMARYHogans Creek: The Living Lab is a visionary ecological capstone that aims to strategically resolve the large areas of urban run o and waste adjacent to Hogans Creek in downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Through ecological planning prac ces and stormwater guidelines, the one and a half mile creek corridor will be transformed into a naturally-aesthe c recrea onal greenway.NARRATIVEThe focus of this capstone project is a combina on of stormwater management, public health, environmental awareness and historic preserva on. During the early twen eth century, a vision in turning Hogans Creek into an urban greenway park was an ul mate goal for architect Henry Klutho. By 1929, he had designed wetland areas to accommodate stormwater as well as the site furnishings that s ll barely exist today. With help by the Spring eld Historic District, Hogans Creek has been maintained over several decades; however, there has been a strong push for development since Jacksonville early urban growth. This growth pa ern has a ected the runo and the concentra on of water to a point that the urban runo covers approximately one square mile around Hogans Creek. The waters of Hogans Creek have collected various toxins, waste and other contaminates that environmentalists, biologists and c ity o cials have to call Hogans Creek as the “living lab” of downtown Jacksonville. The city’s research as well as the Environmental Protec on Agency have proven that over the past years there has been a gradually rise in fecal coliform This struck a major concern for the city, labeling the waters as “impaired” and a poten al health hazard to anyone enjoying its exis ng recrea onal value. By designing wetlands, trails and providing guidelines from stormwater prac ces, the poten al in developing a highly sustainable site will allow Jacksonville to grow even more than they expect in their comprehensive plans. The main goal of this project is to develop an overall master plan that highlights various solu ons to managing stormwater issues, public health and environmental awareness along Hogan’s Creek. This urban greenway project has the greatest opportunity in connec ng the Spring eld Historic District to Downtown Jacksonville as well as all other surrounding context. Historic elements on site will be highly recognized and be in favor of r estora on solu ons. Both the City of Jacksonville and the Spring eld District will see the poten al in a highly interac ve greenway that a racts a wide variety of daily users.

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LOCATIONDuval County

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THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLEJacksonville is Duval County! The popula on of Jacksonsille con nues to grow, as noted between 2000 to 2010, the popula on increased by 11%, just below the average state level Developing mul ple comprehensive plans

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JACKSONVILLE’S URBAN CREEKHogans Creek is 1.5 miles long Exis ng parks along the creek serve as ac ve recrea onal spaces Size of the proposed project is approximately 100 acres Parcels are owned by the City of Jacksonville and the Spring eld Historic District

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DISPLAY PRESENTATION OF HENRY J. KLUTHO DESIGNS FOR HOGANS CREEK PEOPLE EVACUATING THE CITY DURING THE 1901 GREAT FIREHISTORY OF JACKSONVILLE AND HOGANS CREEK Ancient Timucua city, Ossachite Spanish government rule 1901 Great Fire Destroyed 2,368 buildings and 10,000 people were le homeless – 7 residents were killed Hogans Creek saved the eastside of city Parks Movement 1929 Hogans Creek Improvement Project designed by architect Henry J. Klutho Many environmental studies and research have been done on Hogans Creek

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MEETING WITH THE EPA AND CITY OF JACKSONVILLE FOR A PRESENTATION ON URBAN CREEKS

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CURRENT FLOODZONE FOR HOGANS CREEK

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PRIMARY GOALDESIGN AN ECOLOGICAL CORRIDOR ALONG HOGANS CREEK THAT ENRICHES THE GROWTH OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE AND THE SURROUNDING CONTEXT BUT ADDITIONALLY CREATES AN IDENTITY FOR ITS CONTEXTDEFINE THE HOGANS CREEK EDGE AND WIDEN THE CORRIDOR BY MEANS OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION AND STORMWATER INCORPORATE A TRAIL SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES AN EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE ALLOWING ALL USERS TO BECOME MORE AWARE OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CREATE NATURALLY-AESTHETIC VIEWSHEDS THAT WILL FRAME DOWNTOWN PROPOSE SUSTAINABLE STREETSCAPE DESIGN IN ORDER PUSH SUSTAINABILITY TOWARDS SPRINGFIELD AND DOWNTOWN ALLOW USERS TO INTIMATELY EXPERIENCE HOGANS CREEK BY DESIGNING AN ARRAY OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE RECREATIONAL AREAS

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SECONDARY GOALINCORPORATE SEVERAL STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THAT WILL RESOLVE THE FLOODING AND IMPAIRED WATERS OF HOGANS CREEK AND THE URBAN RUNOFF OF DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLEFOCUS ON CREATING PUBLIC EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES IN WAYS TO REDUCE WATER POLLUTION EPA GRANT PROMOTE LOCAL WATER QUALITY AND COMMUNITY REVILTAIZATION GOALS EPA GRANT DESIGN PARCELS ALONG HOGANS CREEK TO HAVE SUITABLE POTENTIAL FOR WETLAND DEVELOPMENT BASED ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF HOGANS CREEK NEIGHBORHOOD INCORPORATE PHYTOREMEDIATION PRACTICES THAT CAN MITIGATE THE CONTAIMINATED AND IMPAIRED WATERS OF THE CREEK PROVIDE AREAS FOR EXPERIENCING STORMWATER THROUGH DIFFERENT METHODS

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TERTIARY GOALCREATE A FUTURE LAND USE PLAN FOR HOGANS CREEK AND DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE THAT HIGHLIGHTS THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL GROWTH WHILE COINCIDING WITH THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE COMPREHENSIVE PLANSIDENTIFY PARCELS SUCH AS PARKING AND VACANT LOTS THAT CAN BE REDEVELOPED INTO NEW COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES CONNECT TO ALL EXISTING EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND OPEN SPACES DESIGN A VARIETY OF HOUSING TYPES TO OFFER A LARGER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PEOPLE MAKE ALL NEW LAND USES HIGHLIGHT SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES ULTIMATELY CONNECT SPRINGFIELD HISTORIC DISTRICT TO DOWNTOWN AND USE MAIN STREET TO DRIVE ECONOMIC AND RESIDENTIAL GROWTH

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TRAIL SYSTEM CROSSING OVER HOGANS CREEK CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE LOOKING INTO DOWNTOWNA vision that allows people to escape the urban se ng and became a part of the natural environment

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PERSPECTIVE LOOKING NORTHWEST ON TOP OF BRIDGE POTENTIAL BRIDGE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

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Constructed Stormwater Wetlands Trail System A ordable Housing 4 units (1000 sq. ) per house Vegetated Edge with Aqua c and Wetlandtype plants LINEAR PARKsee Cross-sec on of Wetland Environment Adding Cypress trees to mi gate the water

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Cross-sec on through Wetland Environment on previous pageHOGANS CREEK WILDLIFE ECOSYSTEM VEGETATED BUFFER TRAIL SYSTEMOPEN SPACE

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Commercial Hub BEFORE AFTER VACANT BUILDINGS New Recrea onal Facility Hart Bridge Expressway

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COMMERCIAL HUB STATE RDMAIN STCONFEDERATE STORANGE STN OCEAN ST NEWMAN ST N MARKET STStore-front with parking garage in back Commercial and O ce complexes Boardwalk and plaza space Commercial and O ce complex Confederate Memorial

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SUSTAINABLE FACADE IMPROVEMENTS STORMWATER PLANTERBEFORE AFTERCommercial Hub perspec ve STORMWATER PLANTER PLAZA SPACEPLAZA SPACE

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Cross-sec on through Community Hub Wetland AreaHOGANS CREEK TRAIL SYSTEM COMMERCIAL HUBBoardwalk example for Hogans Creek Vegetated edge for Hogans Creek Cross-sec on through Community Hub

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AFTER BEFORE NATURAL EDGE HOGANS CREEKNATURAL EDGE Cross-sec on through Natural Area

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HOGANS CREEK WETLAND ECOSYSTEM NATURAL EDGE NATURAL EDGE CONCLUSION: What does this mean for downtown Jacksonville? What does this mean for Hogans Creek?