Higher education in an emerging nation: The College of The Bahamas

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Higher education in an emerging nation: The College of The Bahamas
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30 p.
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English
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Reid, John Y.
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Toledo University/University of Miami
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Florida
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Higher Education--Bahamas.   ( lcsh )
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Caribbean

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A historical overview of higher education in the Bahamas Islands and an examination of The College of the Bahamas are presented.

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College of The Bahamas
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College of The Bahamas
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ED 180301 AUTHOR TITLEINSTITlJTIONPOBDATENOTEEDRSPRICEDESCRIPTOR SIDENTIFIERSABSTRACT DOCOBEWT RESOIIE fll 0'1 992 Reid,JohnY.Higher inan Nation:TheCollegeofthe Bahamas as a Casestudy.Tole-doOniv., Ohio., CenterforthestudyofHigher Jul7930p.:Paper presented attheconference,"Issues ir. Carribea nStudies"fOni versityof Miami,fL, July B-20,'9"79lMF01/PC02 Plus Postage. Case Studies: .College Administration: College Faculty: .CollegeRole:.DevelopingNations;Educational History: Enroll.entTrends:FinancialSupport: Foreign Govern.entSchoolRelationship:.HigherEducation:Institutional Mergers:TrendAnalysisBahamas:.Colleqeof the BahamasAhistoricaloverviewofhighereducaticnintheBahamasIslandsandanexamination TheCollegeof the Bahamasasitexiststoday areAfter anintroductioninclUdinginformationonthegeogra t:hy,educa4:ional history,theBahamianeconomy, governmentalstructure, andculturalinsularity,thepaperfocusesonthedevelopmentof TheCollege oftheBahamas.Itisexplained that thecollegevasfoundedinDecember, '974, anamalgamationofthree colleges.Administration ofthecollege,degreesoffered,faculty characteristics, enrollmenttrends,andfundingforthecollege areeach surveyed.Fourmajcrproblemsfacingthecollege are listed,includinglackofaclearlyarticulatedmissionormeaningfulphilosophical orientation. Sevenrecommendationsfor arespecified,includinggovernmentalcooperation with collegeand representativesto determine aphilosophical orientationfor the It isconcludedthattheeducationsystemofthe Bahamas isunderqoinga time cftrialcallingforeducationleaderstogiveproperformand purposetothe institution.Amongappendices are a list ofprograms bythecollege,acharttracing trends,andfinancialfigures.(PHR) Hftda';;OWlM'Gl'OSVenoJ00of I.P.O. Boxr....g12NM'''u15mal** Reproductionssupplied byEDFS arethebestthatcanbe made fromtheoriqinaldocument. $ ***

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1Il>.... 0wW ::>z0 Oa: a:C!ll1.z W ula:WOeD....'"Zifj'E:;a: a:W l1. INTRODUCTIONHigherEducationinanEmergingNation:TheCollegeoftheBahamasasaCaseStudy*byJohnY.ReidUS OEPARTMENTOFHEDUCATION& TH. NATIONAlINn'TUTEOFEDUCATION''''5OOCV ....EN' OUCEOEXAC'LY "ASBEENREPRO.'HEPERSONORAS RECEIVEO FRO...."'TiNG IT ORIGIN-STAIEO 00 NOTVIEWOROPIN'ONS SENT OF:F'CIA Y REPRE. cnUCAT'ON INSTITUTEOF ,N OR POLICY acUJ IIThenationalanthem1oftheBahamasdoesnotenjoytheprestigeofalongandillustrioushistory.Indeed,sincetheBahamaIslands beenindependentforjustsixyears,theanthemisa newcomertotheranksofnationalcelebra-tion.However,whilethenationremainsinitsinfancy.thenewplainsongconveysideasthatspancenturies:love.unity.commonandloftygoals.andsalvation.Tofulfillidealsandtoachieveparticulargoals,anationmustdependonitseducationalsystemtoproducearticulate.wise.andwell-trained men andwomen.Inrecognitionofthistruth.theBahamasgovernmenthastriedinrecentyearstoimprovethecountry'seducationalsystemthrougha numberofchangesandinnovations.The mostdramaticdevelopmenthasbeenthecreationoftheCollegeoftheBahamas,whichtookplaceon December19,1974.BecausetheCollegeoftheBahamashasthepotentialtogreatlyinfluencethesmallislandcountryinnumerous,profoundways. isimportantthattheinstitutiontrulyreflectstheneedsandgoalsoftheindigenousBahamianculture. thewidearrayofformsonefindsamonginstitutionsofpostsecondary.tertiary,orfurthereducation,welltrained,appropriateauthoritiesmustselectthepiecesthatcreateeachnewcollegeoruniversity.Towardthedualendof.IevaluatinghowsuccessfultheprocesshasbeenintheBahamasandofmakingspecifLcrecommendations,itwillbeusefultohaveanoverviewoftheBahamiansituation,fromhistoricalandcurrentperspectives.andtomakeanexamination*Paperpresentedattheconference "Issues inCaribbeanStudies,"the University ofMiami,July19-20,1979.2

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-2-ofTheCollegeoftheBahamasasitexiststoday.BACKGROUNDFor almost six-hundredmiles,theBahamaIslandsstretchinabeautiful,multi-huedarchipelago.Thisfragmentedlandofislands,cays,androcksextendssouth-eastfromtheMantanillaShoa}offFloridatotheislandofGreatInagua, ncarCape Nicholas,Haiti.Althoughthecurveoftheislandsismorenarrowthanwide,thereisa 380milestretchfromtheCaySalBankoffCubatoSanSalvador,attheedgeoftheAtlantic.Inscatteredpieces,thislandofshipwrecksandpirates,street-hawkersandNewYorktouristshsconsistentlydefiedattemptstoprovidepolitical,economic,andculturalunity.Historically,NewProvidenceIslandhasbeenthecenteroftheBahamianuniverse;theotherislandshavebeen,andstillare,bestknownasthe"OutIslands,"despiterecentgovernmentattemptstoencouragetheadoptionofthewannerterm"FamilyIslands."TIlattheexpression"FamilyIslands"hasnotcaughtoncompletelyisindicativeofthecleardifferencesonefindsbetweenlifeinNassau,onNewProvidence,orin Freeport, on Grand BahamaIsland,andlifeononeoftheOutIslands.Toalargeextent,peoplewholiveinthetwomajorcentersofpopulationhavedifferentvalues,differenteconomies,anddifferentpoliticalorientations.IntheOutIslandsthepaceofliferemainsleisurely,thepeoplepleasant;onNewProvidenceand Grand Bahamathepaceapproachestwentieth-centuryfrantic,atruthreflectedintheattitudeofthepeople.IntheOutIslands,forthemostpart,theeconomicsareprimitive;thereissomesmallscalefishingand someagriculture.NassauandFreeport,ontheotherhand,arelacedwithshopsandhotelswhichcatertothebulkofthe1.7milliontouristswhoenteredthecountrylastyear.Duringthedebateonthequestionofindependence,someoftheOutIslandssupportedmaintaining3

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-3-thestrongtie with motherEngland;thestrengthforthemovetoindependencecame from the populationcenters,whoseresidentsmorereadilyacceptedthesymbolicimportanceofthepushtopoliticalindependenceandeconomicautonomy. somewhat morethan70percentoftheBahamiangrossnationalproductemanatesfromthetouristindustry,andtourismdirectlyorindirectlyaffectsthelifeofalmosteveryBahamianandexpatriateresident.Insuranceandbankingarealsoimportantandaccountforbetween12and14percentofthegrossnationalproduct.Agriculture,thoughstilllargelyundeveloped,hasshownpromisinggrowthinrecentyears;andanaragoniteindustrywillbecomeincreasinglyimportantasmarketsforthisvastmineralresourceareexpanded.WillIethepopulationoftheBahamasfor1979wasestimatedatjustover225,000,thecountryhasafullcomplementofgovernmentbureaucracy:for1978-197110fewerthan51ministriesanddepartmentswerelistedwithseparatebudgets.APrimeMinister,Cabinet,Senate,andHouseoverseeamorassofdepartmentsub-levelsandfunctionaries.Governmentinitsmanyshadesisbigbusiness.Itisthe largestemployer.Tnthepast,mostBahamianshavebeentoopoortotravelextensively.MosthavebeenonlyasfarasMiami;and populationis,toagreatdegree,connectedtotherestoftheworldbytheMiamipressandsouthFloridatelevisionandradio.AnyonetheorizingabouttheCollegeoftheBahamas mustconsider theseriousimplicationsofthislimitedhorizon,fortheeducational"givens"intermsofculturalperspectivearequitedifferentfromthosefoundindevelopedindustrialnations,suchastheUnitedStatesorEngland.TIlisisnottosaythatallthepeopleinthoselandshavehorizonsanybroaderthantheaverageBahamian.However,thereexistsasignificantdifferenceindegree.Wl1atthesefactsindicate,ofcourse,isthatthedegreetowhichthe 4

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-4-CollegeoftheBahamassucceedsasa tertiaryleveleducationalinstjtution.,,2 will ultimately,inpart,dependonthedegreeto which it canbeand usedtoreflecttheneedsof a verydiversepeople.It will alsodependonthesuccesstheCollegehasinovercomingasorrynationaleducationhistory.Michael Craton providesthebestshortsummaryofthehistoryofBahamianeducation.Hepointsoutthat"It was perhapsineducationthattheNegroes wereworst served,"bythe whites. Theydominatedthemajorityblackpopulation withwhat reallyamountedtobenevolentdespotismuntil1967,whentheblackProgressiveLiberalPartytookthereinsof However,ProfessorCratonstatesthat while "Cynicswillobservethatit was totheinterestofthedominant whites tokeeptheNegroesignorantthis was lessacalcu-latedpolicythanthecombinedresultofapathy,poverty,andthesquabblesbetweenthevariouschurchesoverwhoshouldcontrol,orevenshareintheeducationofthegeneralpopulation.,,3After1800,Methodistmissionarieshadpioneeredgeneraleducation,buttheirattempts were largelyunproductive.Notuntil1835, when "theImperialGovernmentmade agrantofL25,OOOforcolonialeducation," was arealbegin-ningmade:"Inthatyear,theBoardofEducation with theGovernorasPresidentwasestablished,localcommissionerswereappointedand anormaltrainingschoolforteacherswasproposed."Foryears,however,theBoardofEducation"becamethecusofareligiousdispute,amicrocosmofthereligious thenbeginningtodividethecolonyandtheconditionofeducationimprovedatasnail'space."4DespitevariouslegislativeattemptstoincreasethepercentageofBahamiansattendingschool,mostmembersofthepopulationneverbenefittedfrom muchformal5

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-5-schooling:Duringthenineteentllcentury..therewas noattemptbytheGovernmenttosponsorsecondaryeducation.Nor,despitesev eral promisingstarts,was a permanentschoolfortrainingteachers estabUshed. A GovernmentlIighSchool was not set upuntil1925,norhousedinadequate premises until1960.Tn1857theratloof primary schoolchildrentothoseinsecondaryschoolwas67:I,threetimesashlgh as anyotherareaintheCaribbean,includinglIaiti.Throughpovertyandindifference,educationallocationsneverkeptpacewithtileincreaseofpopulation.AslateasJanuary,1961,anewspaperwriterwasabletoreportaprimaryschoolwhere250childrenweretaughtin a leakybuilding50feetsquare,withadearthofbooksandmaterials,andsanitaryfacilitiesunworthyof amedievalprison. Ofthe770"teachers"intheBahamas,heclaimed,628weretotallyuntrained.Thesmallimprovementineducationinthe124yearssinceemancipationisprobablytheworstindictmentthatcanbemadeofthegoverningclassintheBahamasduringthatperiod.STIlattheeducationalhistoryoftheBahamasisshamefulisimplicitinthefacttllatwritersofBahamianhistoryfrequentlymake nomentionofeducation.Inapamphletdesignedtobe"anon-technicalsummaryofthemajoreventsand6periodsofBahami2nhistorytomarkourIndependence,"MichaelSymonettehasnotonesentenceabouteducation.Similarly,onedoesnot find educationintheIndexofPaulAlbury'srecentTheStoryoftheBahamas.However,whilewritershavetheoptionofignoring partictilar socialissues,today'sBahamianleaderscannotaffordtheluxuryofforgettingtheircountry'smelancholyedu-cationhistoryintheirattempttobuildaneffectivecollege.TIleseleadersmustunderstandthesignificanceofthehistoricalpatternandmustunderstandthattheCollegeoftheBahamasis but oneinstitutioni.ntheeducationpyramidtemperedbytllathistoryandtradition.Withsuchunderstanding,theywillknowthatthecreationofacollege which simplyapes a NorthAmericanor modelcannotleadtosuccess.If CollegeoftheBahamasistobeaninstitutionabletomake a 6

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-6-significantimpactonthecountry.thefollowingfactors will havetobeevaluatedwithanhonestythatwillnotnecessarily correlate strongly with politicalpopularity:1. a populationthatisscatteredgeographicallyand which remains dividedalong NewProvidence/GrandBahamaandOutIslandlines;2. a historyofeducationalneglect;3.aneconomythatisperilouslydepen dent ontourism and justa fewotherindustries;4.acomplexgovernmentwhich pervades the1ivesof a 11citizens;5.aculturalinsularitywhichhasresultedfrompoverty and geographicdispersion.TilECOLLEGEOFTHEBAHAMASOnemightwellhaveanticipatedthataCollegeoftheBahamasoraUniversityoftheBahamaswouldbefoundedsoonafterindependence.AsTorsten Husen113S pointedout,institutionsofpostsecondaryeducationarcoftenan efiect ofmountingnationalism:"Duringthelastcoupleofdecades,therehasbeenanobservablemountingnationalisminhighereducation.Innewlyestablishedor emerging countriesthereisanaturalstrivingfornationalidentity.Because the university thepinnacleofculturalandintellectualendeavorsin a coulltry,theestablishmentofanationaluniversitybecomesanimportantsymbolofidentity.,,7Accordingly,theCollegeoftheBahamasformallycameintobeinginDecember,1974.ItwascreatedbyanamalgamationoftheBahamasTeachers'College,theSanSalvadorTeachers'College,andtheC.R.WalkerTechnicalCollege.Theseinstitutionscontinuedtooperateseparatelyuntiltheendofthe1974-75academicyear,whentheSanSalvadoroperationclosed down, andanintegratedorganizationalstructurebecameoperational. As anewlystructuredcurriculumwasintroducedinSeptember,1975,thesixthformofGovernmentHighSchoolbecamepartofthenewcollege.IntermsofthemodeloftheNorthAmerican'7

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-7conununity college,a modelstronglyadvocatedbytheCOllege'sfirst tl.lO princi-pals(i.e.?residents),theoccupationaleducationfunctionand,tosomeextent,thedevelopmentoflearning sldlls functioncame fromtheC.R.WalkerTechnicalCollege;thegeneraleducationandtransferfunctionscame fromtheGovernment High Scholllsixth form program; :1I1d thecontinuingeducationand cormlUnityser-vicefunctions,aswellasguidance,werelargelyignored.TI1enewCollegealsoremainedverymuchintheteacherpreparationbusiness,assumingthatbur-denfromthecountry'stwoteacherscolleges.TheCollege,whichcurrentlyhastwomaincampuslocationsonNewProvidence,wasestablishedasapubliccorporationundertheCollegeoftheBahamasActofi974.TheActprovidesforaCollegeCouncilandan AcademicBoard.Theformer is "responsibleforthegovernment,control,andadministrationoftheCollege";thelatteris"responsiblefor the academicadministration."BInasmuchasthegovernanceoftheCollegeremainsunderthecontrolofthenationalgovernment'sMinistryofEducationandCulture,andsincetheMinisterofEducationandCul-tureservesatthe ofthePrimeMinister,onemightsuspectpoliticalinterferenceintheoperationoftheCollegetobeaproblem.However,whilesomeexpatriatefacultymembersfeeltheiroutspokennessoncertainissueswouldinvitepoliticalretaliation,thecurrentprincipal,Dr.JacobBynoe,saysthatinacademicmatterssuchascoursedesignandevaluationtheCollegeenjoyscon9siderablefreedom.IntheCollege'sshortlife,tllerehasbeenbutoneblatantcaseofpoliticalinterference.Onthatoccasion,thegovernment,inaclearviolationoftheprincipleofacademicfreedom,prohibitedawellqualifiedBahamian fromteachingattheCollege.Mrs. KevaBethel,whohasbeenbothActingPrincipalandAcademic DeanattheCollege,callstheinstitutiona"totalhybrid."lOWhiletheCollegeofthe8

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-8-Bahamasorganizationalchartdoesnotlookunusual,somefactRabout the BahamianschoolsystemandabouttileCollege'smyriadprogramsindicatethe neces:;ari lycomplexnatureoftheinstitutionatthetop.Forinstance,theforty-oddprimary,junior high,;Jndhighschools in thegov(,rnmcnt systemforthemost part arepatternedafterNorthAmericanprimaryandsecondary Ontheotherhand,someprivatesecondaryschools,notablyQueen'sCollege,followaBritishmodelwhichemphasizesGCE's.According]y,theCollegeoftheBahamashasprogramsleadingtovariousAssociate'sDegrees, as wellastoGCE"A"levels.Because"A"levelwork,whichismandatedbygovernment,consistsof a programdesignedtobethetwo-yearendofa grammarschoolcourseofcontinousterms,itsinclusionintheCollege'sofferingscreatesanorganizationalprobleminclashingwiththepredominantmodular/semesterpattern,whichisthe aspect oftheinstitutionmodeledafterthecommunitycollege.NotonlydoestheNorthAmerican/Britishmixcauseorganizationalproblems,buttheCollege'sextensiveprogramofferingsandco-operativearrangementswithotherinstitutionsalsocreatesanorganizationalandadministrativequagmire.ThIsinstitutionof1700studentsoffersavirtualblizzardofdiplomas,certificates,AssociateDegrees,and"A" le.vels. Thereareprogramsinco-operationwi til localassociationsandprofessionalandindustrialgroups,aswellaswiththeUniversityofMiami,theUniversityoftheWestIndies,andwithFloridaInternationalUniversity(AppendixA).Thesevariousprogramsfallinoneofsevendivisions:AppliedScience,BusinessandAdministrativeStudies,Education,Humanities,NaturalScience., social Science,andTechnicalandVocationalStudies(AppendixB).Toadministerthiscomplexofprograms,theCollegedependsonastaffwhicltispredominantlyBahamian.ExpatriatesandBahamiansalikenotethat 9

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-9-whileBahamianeducationalleadershippotentialiscurrentlyquitelimited,Bahamiansholdalmostallofthekeyadministrativepositionsinthesystem.FortunatelytheirtaskismadeeasierbywhatmostseeasagenerousgovernmentattitudetowardtheCollege.Indeed,thereislittledoubtthatthegovernmentIs serious aboutmakingeducation a highpriority.From1960to1976,thepercentofpublicexpendituresearmarkedforeducationrosefrom6.8%oftIletotalbudgetto24.2%,includingtheCollegeoftheBahamas. The1979estimateof 22.67., whUeshowingaslightdecrease,iscertainlyrespectable(AppendixC).Despitethisseemingabundanceoffinancialsupport,manychargesofpoormanagementintheCollege,aswellasintheentireeducationsystem, comairom dissatisfiedfacultyandstaffand frompoliticians.Atthepresenttime,theCollegeoftheBahamas'lasateachingfacultyof140.Ofthisnumber,64,or45%,areBahamians.AsKevaBethelandotherspointout,littleisdoneinthewayofstaffdevelopment,andsalariesarefairlylow. Thesesamc peoplepointOlltthatitisespecial.lydifficult,ifnotimpossiblc,tohirewellqualifiedfacultymembersinappliedscienceandtechnicalareasforastartingsalary (with M.A.)ofabout$12,500.11Inthelastfiveyears,thecompositiopoftheteachingfacultyhaschangedsignificantlyintermsofthenumberintheacademicandtechnicaldivisions(AppendixD).Followingthesuggestionof ;;he BahamasUnionofTeachers,theemphasishasshiftedtorecruitingpersonnelfortheacademicprogramsattheexpenseofthetechnicalprograms.Oneques:lonthisraisesisthefollowing:At atimcofhigl1unemployment,cantileBahamasaffordcontinuingthistrend,giventhefactthattiletechnicaldivisionsfinditimpossibletomeettheever-increasingdemandfortheirgraduaLes,whilejobsforthosetrainedinthehumanItieslind soclal sciencesare feoN andfarbetween?InadditiontohavingJO

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-10-toestablisha moresatisfactorybalancebetweenthe"academic"and"technical"divisionsintheCollege,theadministrationforcesanalarmingenrollmentpat-tern.AlthoughLivingstoneCoakley,theMinisterofEducationandCulture,ex12pressesnogreatconcernabouttheCollege'senrollmentdecline,thefigures are notencouraging(AppendixE).TIle1975 and 1976Fallenrollments were vir-tuallyidentical;fromFall1976toFall1977,therewas adecreaseof 9%; andfromFall1977toFall1978,there was adecreaseof27%.Whiletheseoverallenrollmentfiguresarecertainlycauseforconcern,thepatternin two divisionsisparticularlydisturbing.Overthesameperiod,thenumberofstudentsen-rolledincoursesintheDivisionofTechnicalandVocationalStudieshasdroppedby81%.ThepatternhasbeenmoreerraticintheDivi.sionofHumanities;butin the lastyear,thenumberofstudentsinthatdivision'scoursesfellby77%(Apl'cndixF).Clearlytllere ure seriousunsolvedproblemswhichcontributetosuchabnormalenrollmentswings.Withoutadoubt,muchofthecausecanbetracedtothe new feestructure wentintoeffectintheFallof1978. Atthattime, fees wereraisedfrom a singlechargeof$18,whichwasassessedtoeachstudentregardlessofthenumberofcreditsforwhiehheorshewasenrolled,to$15percredit.Thismeantthatafulltimestudentnolongerpaid$18forasemesterattheCollegeoftheBahamas;heorshe now spent$225.Despiteanincreasedeffortonthepartofthegovernmenttosupportvarioussortsofstudentassistance,theimplicationsofsuchanincreaseareobvious.Atthesametime,adecisionwas madethatthecollegepreparatoryprogram was toolarge,andasaresult,moreprerequisiteswererequiredforadmissiontotheCollege.This new policyconcerningadmissionstardards,combinedwithtilenewfeestructure,nodoubtparticularlydiscouragedtheill-preparedandpoor.11

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-11-FundingforthecollegecomesdirectlyfromtheGovernmentConsolidatedFund,fromwhichfundsarevotedbyParliament.TIleCollegeoftheBahamashasbeentreated well, seeingitsbudgetrisefrom twomilliondollarsin1975tothe1979estimateoffourandaquartermillion.However,whereasinthe yearsloefore thefeeincrease,studentfeesprovidedbetween 2% and 3% oftheColIege'sbudget,theynowaccountformorethan12%(AppendixG).13Further,thefees, as wellasanymoniescollectedfromoutsidesources,gotothePublic withtheCollegehavingnodiscretionintheirimmediateallocation.ThatallmoniessolicitedbytheCollegemustbefilteredthroughthePublicTreasuryismostimportant.Theprocedureclearlydiscouragesmanypotentialcontributorswhodesire,orwhoseorganizationalby-lawsrequire,theCollege,notthenationalgovernment,tohaveultimatediscretionoverfundsprovidedtil roughgiftH orgrants.Certainlymorefreedom and flexibilitywouldbedesirableandwouLdencourageeffartsonthepartofCollegeadministratorstopursuegrantsandgifts.PROBLEMSInthebriefdiscussionoftheCollegepresentedabove,implicitisthe f(Jetthot theinstitutionhasandfacesmar:ydifficuitproblems.Themostim portont arelistedbelow.1.TIleCollegeoftheBahamas has noclearlyart.iculatedmissionor mean IngfulphIlosophicalorientation.Tobesure,nine '.1ain objectivesarelistedintheCalendar,buttheyaresimplyacopyofthetypicallistonefindsinmostconunun'jtycollegecatalogs.OnesearchesinvalnforasuccinctstatementofpurposewhichtakesintoaccountBallamiancultureandgeography,as well astheuniqueneedsoftheBahamian workforce.TIlelackofphilosopllicalorientationcanbeseen,inpart,interms 0;:the College'splaceintheoverall,12

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-12-educationstructureofthecountry(AppendixH).TheCollegeoftheBahamascrownsa pr.1maryand seconda-ry systemwhichappearstobeNorthAmericanbutwhichretains,especiallyinpartsoftheprivatesector,strongstructuraltiestoEngland. The College',withlimitedeconomicandhumanresources,struggles toarticulateitsmultitudeofprogramswiththoseofAmericancollegesanduniverSities,withtheUniversityoftheWestIndies, and withBritishuniversities.Atthesametimeitalsoisinvolvedextensivelywiththetrain-Lng ofteachersfortheBahamianschoolsystem. That anumberofotherproblemsstemfromthislackofasharplyfocusedpurposeisnotsurprising.2. TIle administrationoftheCollegeisatbestconfusedandconfusing.Tnitsfiveyearsofexistence,theCollegehasemployedthreefull-timeprincipals. Two otherpersonshaveserved
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-1)-J.TheCollegeoftheBahamasistrulyaninstitutionwithits"tentaclesallover."lSHowever,intalkingtomembersofthegovernment,toCollegeadministrators,andtoCollegefaculty,onefactemergesclearly:thevariouspartsoftheCollegeseemindependentofoneanother.Thereseemstobenowhole,nocenter.Thetentacles,tostretchananalogy,havebeencutofffromthebodyandsquirmandoperateasbesttheycan.Despiteupdated,formalorganizationalcharts,thereisnocohesiveinternalorganization,ifbythatonemeansthatthepartsrelatetothewholeina somewhatsensibleandsympatheticway.4.WhiletheprincipaltalksaboutdevelopingextensionservicesandalearningresourceunitattheCollege,thereseemstobeanabsenceofmeaningfullong-rangeplanningwhichtakesintoaccountthemanpowerneedsoftheemergingnation.Whilethecountrydesparatelyneedsmanypeopletrainedinavarietyoftechnicalandvocationalfields,students,apparentlyattractedbythepromiseoffuturewhitecollarprestige,flocktothe"academic"programs(AppendixI).Inresponse,thefacultystaffingpatternshiftstoaccomodatetheexpressedwishesofthestudentpopulation(AppendixD).Nooneseemstobedoingverymuchaboutthecriticaldifferenceinstudent,orfamily,desiresandthemostpressingneedsofthecountry.RECOMMENDATIONSI.Thegovernment,inco-operationwithrepresentativesfromtheCollegeandfromvarioussegmentsofthecommunity--especiallythebusiness mustdetermineaphilosophicalorientationfortheCollege.This,inturn,mustbecomplementedby ameaningfulstatementofpurposewhichtakesintoaccounttheuniqueculturalsettinginwhichtheinstitutionoperates.Atthepresenttime,thegovernmentiscirculatingamong a fewsectorsofthesociety14

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-14-anewdocumentwhichdealswiththefuturedirectionoftheCollege.However,ratherthanpresentforcomment apolicypapergeneratedbythegovernment, with relativelylittleoutsideconsultation,theMinistryofEducationandCultllre would havebeenbetteradvisedtohaveusedtheDelphitechniquefromthebeginning.Thisiterativemethodforapproachingconsensusoncomplexissues--suchasdetermininginstitutionalgoals--allowsawidevarietyofexpertstocontributethroughoutthedecision-makingprocess.Theeffectcanbetoarriveatapolicyquitedifferentfrom,andusuallybetterthan,onewhichemergesfrom aprocessinwhicha few offercomments on a"proposedpolicy,"withitselementofimpliedauthorityandfinality.2.Acomprehensiveassessmentofthecountry'sshorttermandlongrangeneedsmustbemade. Thentheprograms,finances,andstaffingpatternsoftheCollegemustbestructuredtoreflectthoseneeds.ThisassessmentcouldalsousetheDelphitechniquetoarriveatsomelevelofconsensusconcerningpriorities.ThiswouldbeespeciallyusefulintheBahamiansituation,wherelimitedresources will prohibitallneedsfrombeingmet.3.The numberofprogramsofferedshouldbereduced,andthoseretainedshouldbetheoneswhichmostdirectly af(ect thecountry'simmediateandlongrangeneeds.Withlimitedresources,theCollegecannotsuccessfullybeallthingstoallinterestedparties.Prioritiesmustbeestablishedandmaintained.Forexample,itmakeslittlesensetohaveboth"A"levelandAssociateinArtsprogramsinthesamefield.AlthoughsomepoliticiansandbusinessmenwhowereeducatedinBritainstillretainemotionaltiestothatsystem,theeducationallinktoEnglandismore amatterofsentimentthanamatterofsoundeducationalpolicy.ThemajorityofCollegeoftheBahamasstudentswhocontinuetheirstudi.esabroadwilldosoinNorthAmerican,andmostCollegeoftheBahamascooperativearrangementswillcontinuetobe madewithNorthAmericaninstitutions.15

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-15-4.Studentfeesshouldbereduced.Currentlystudentfeesarebeing raised by $15percrediteachyear.Acontinuationofthispolicy will insurethatfewerofthepooranddisadvantagedcanattendtheCollegeevenon aparttimebasis.Alreadyenrollmentshavetumbledandendangereda numberofworthwhileprograms.Atleastpartofthisdecline,andthefactthatthere arenow morepart-timethanfull-timestudents,mustbeattributedtochangesinthefeestructure.Itshouldnotbeforgottenthatthe whole society,notjustcertainindividuals,benefitsfromraisingacountry'slevelofeducation.5.Qualificationsforthoseteachingintechnicalandvocationalareasshouldbemorerealistic;andsalariesforpeopleintechnicalareasshouldreflectthefactthattheyaremoreindemandthanteachersin"academic"areas.Justasitisamatteroffalseprestigetobelievethat"A"levelsare betterthanAssociateDegrees,soalsoisitamatteroffalseprestigetoassumethatacademiccredentialsarealwaysappropriateornecessarytoeffectivelyteachintechnicalandvocationalareas.6.TheCollegeshouldemploymore, well trainedcounselorstohelpinthevitalprocessofmakingcareerdecisions.Thecurrentnumberofthreefor a studentbodyof1700issimplyunreasonable.7.Thegovernmentshouldco-operate with thebusinesscommunityinidenti fying successfulBahamianbusiness,political,andcivicleaders who begantheircareerswithtechnical,ratherthanpurelyacademic,trainingorexpertise.Onceidentified,theserolemodels would gointotheschoolstotalkwith.studentsabouttheireducationandpathstosuccess.Thisefforthasthepotentialtobenefitmany youngBahamians who currentlybelievetechnicalorvocationaleducationissecondclass.Appropriaterolemodelscanindicatethata wide varietyofoccupationscanresultinpersonalsecurityanddignity,as well associalbenefit.Further,thesepeopleareproofthatthose with technical16

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-16-training,aswellasthosewitl\academicdegrees,canattainleadershippositionsinavarietyoffields.CONCLUSIONSTheeducationsystemof the Bahamasfacesatimeoftrial.RecentlyaMemher of Parliament hascalledit a "fraud"and a"nationaldisgrace.,,16Storiesofterribleovercrowdingandunsanitaryhealthconditionsabound.Thegovern-ment,itseems,hasenjoyedlittlesuccessinplanningforeitherthestafforfacilitiestoaccomodatetheexplosionofschool-agechildren.Withanesti-mated63%ofthepopulationundertwenty,manypredicttheworstisyettocome.Giventhisbasic,system-wideproblem,little good willcome fromanattempttodesignahighereducationinstitutionsuitedforadifferenttimeandplace.ThisisnottosuggestthatthereshouldbenoCollegeoftheBahamas;butitistosuggestthatitmustbeaninstitutionwhichinitsprogramsandplanningreflectsthelimitationsofthesystemofwhichitisapart.PoliticianstalkinggrandlyaboutaUniversityoftheBahamasinthenearfuture d0 littleservicetoanemergingnationsaddledwithfundamentalproblemsthroughouttheeducationsystem.InhisFrom ColumbustoCastro:The'HistoryoftheCaribbean1492-1969,EricWilliams,thePrimeMinisterofTrinidadandTobago,says,"Thewholehis-toryoftheCaribbeansofarcanbeviewedasaconspiracytoblocktheemergenceofaCaribbeanidentity-inpolitics,ininstitutions,ineconomics,inculture17'andinvalues."Withthisinmind,onecanseetheironyintheBahamiangovernment'ssupportofaninstitutionwhichinmany wayslookstoNorthAmericaor'Britain for guidelines,ratherthantotheneedsoftheBahamianpeople.ThoseincontroloftheCollegeoftheBahamasmustrealizetheycannotescapethehistoryoftheircountryandtheirpoeple.Itisimperativethat1'7

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-17-theyheedthewordsofGeorgeSantayana:"Thosewhocannotrememberthepast18arecondemnedtorepeatit."Only when Bahamianeducationleadersacceptthefullimplicationsofthisfactwilltheygiveproperpurposeandformtoaninstitutionthattrulyreflectstheneedsofthepeople.18

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-18-Endnotes---ll.lft upyourheadtothe sun,Bahamaland; Narch on to your hright banners waving high.Seehowtheworldmarksthe manner ofyour bearing!Pledbt' to excel thrllIsic]loveandunity.Pressingonward,march togetller toa commonloftiergoal; SteadyHl!l1Ward, tho' theweatherhid., LIIl' wldl'n,"1tr"ach('rollssho,li. LiftIII'yourheadto the risingsun,Bahamaland;'Tiltheroadyou'vetrodlead[sic]untoyourGod, ON BAI-lANALAND: 2CollegeoftheBahamasCalendar1978-1979,p.1.3MichaelCraton, !'_Yist_('-!:J! ofthe (London:Collins,1968),p.210.4Craton,p.211.5Craton,p.212.TheBahamaIslandswerenotaloneinhavingashockingcoLonialeducationalhistory as Eric Williams pointsalItinFromColumbus !.'? Castro:TheHistoryoftheCaribbean1492-1969(London:Andre-Deutsch,1970).Seeespeciallyp.133. II. Symonette,DiscoveryofaNation(Nassau:Management Conununica tionServices,Ltd.,.1973),from"AbouttheAuthor"onthe buck panelofthepamphlet.7Torsten Huse'n, "TheConununity:ItsNatureandResponsibilities,"inEducationinthe I,lorldComm'.II1J:.!y, ed.StephenK. Bai.lcy (Washington:COllncilonEdllcation,1977),p.200.HigherAmerican8"BackgroundCollegeoftheBahamas," undatedpamphlet,p. 1. 9.JacobBynoe,personalinterview,July3,1979,CollegeoftheBahamas,Nassau.10KevnBethel,personalinterview,June26,1979,CollegeoftheBahamas,Nassau.llIbid.12 Coakley,personalinterview,June27,1979,MinistryofEducationandCulture.Nassau.13Thisfigureapproachesthe13.3%representedbystudenttuitionandfeesoftotalrevenuefundsinUnitedStates'publiclycontrolledinstitutionalunitsin1978.Source:"EarlyRelease,"NationalCenterforEducationalStatistics,U.S.DepartmentofHealth,Education,and Washington,D.C. (N:HCh 15,1979, p. [.).14JacobBynoe,personalinterview,July3,1979,CollegeoftheBahamas.Nassau.19

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-1916ThcTr"lhune(Nassau) .July5.1979,p.1.Nassau Guardian. July5.1979.p.6.17EricWilllams.FromColumbustoCastro:TheHistoryoftheCaribbean1492-1969(London:Andre-Deutsch,1970),p.503.18Cenrge Silntilyana.(New York:Scrlhner's,1929).p. 2ll4.

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AProgramsOfferedbytheCollegeoftheBahamasI.CollegePreparatoryProgramme -"...apre-collegelevelprogramme, tooffer remedialand upgradinggeneraleducationcourses...."2.General Certificate ofEducation"A"level-variouscourses3. Associate inArts-variousmajors4.AssociateinScience-inSecretarialScience5.AssociateInAppliedScience inElectronicTechnology b.Associate In GeneralStudies 7.Universitytransfer programmes -forPre-BusinessAdministration.Pre-Law,Pre-VeterinaryScience,Pre-Engineering,Pre-Agriculture8. College Diplomaprogrammes-"...lessacademic.butmore specialized andjob-relatedthantheAssociateDegree...."9. College Certificateprogrammes "...awardedtostudents who completeacoliegeprogrammeofshorterthan two yearsduration,butatleastonesemesterinlength...." 10.TeachersCertificateforPrimaryEducation It. TeachersCertificateforJuniorSecondaryEducation-variousmajors12.TransitionalEducation-"...concernsitselfwiththepreparationofmatureadultsforcollegelevelstudies."13.Inco-operationwithlocalassociationsandprofessional and industrial groups. theColIegeoffersprogrammesleadingto certificatesanddiplomas:BahamasInstituteofBankersDiploma;Bahamas Motor TradeCertificate;MinistryofWorks -PhaseandThree-PhaseLicence;COB/MinistryofHealthMedicalTechnologistsDiplomaIl..Inco-operation theUniversityofthe Indies: BachelorofEducation;DiplomainEducation;Advanced Certificate;Bacheloruf Science inHotelManagement 15.Inco-operationwiththeUniversityofMiami:BachelorofEducation; Bacllelor ofBusinessAdministration;MasterofEducation;MasterofBusinessAdministration lb. Inco-operationwithFloridaInternationalUniversity:BachelorofScienceinArchitecturalTechnology;BachelorofScienceinElectricalEngineeringTechnology;BachelorofScience/BachelorofTechnologyinIndustrialTecllnoiogy;MasterofScienceinManagement(Accounting)17.TheCollegealsoofferscourseswhichallowstudentstowriteexternalexaminationswhichareusuallysetbyexaminingbodiesintheUnitedKingdom fe.g. CityandGuildsofLondonInstitute;RoyalSocietyofArts).[nadditiontotheCollegeoftheBahamasIprograms,the Ministry ofEducationoverseestheseadditionalpartsofthecountry'stertiary systems: DepartmentofNursing.RoyaiBahamasPoliceForceCollege.BahamasHotelCollege, and the Nassau AcademyofBusiness.Sources:CollegeoftheBahamasCalendar1978-1979andCollegeoftheBahamasscheduleforSummerSession792(1979).21

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APPENDIXBCollegeoftheBahamasDiplomas,CertificatesandAssociatesDegrees Awarded 1977-19791977 19781979Div.ofAppliedSci.142447Div. Bus. Admin.Studies223558Div.ofEduc.(bothcreditpassandordinarypass)1149787Div.oflIumanities181118Div.ofNat.Sci.123124Div.ofSoc.Sci.2 822Div.ofTech.andVoc.Studies25 24 22Source:CollegeoftheBahamasGraduationPamphlets,1977-7922

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APPEl'OIX CPercentofPublicFinanceExpendituresSpentonEducation1960-1979 .10 J510 s-+-'.8 \\\includingCollegeoftheBahamasbudget I. 0 ft.,1..2.b 3 f,,"'1!D5"''''b7M1.'1 1071 7).niJ estimatesSource:Bahamas Handbook,EtienneDupuch.Jr.Publications,NassauBahamas,1964-1979eds.2324

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. DCollegeoftheBahamasStaffingPatterns10IIII II1IIII e r Sc\e.f\c. I1 ( 1 Uoca.f/ona./ISc./ence 1I1II 191r'f ,1 Source: College oftheBahamasPersonnelOffice25

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APPENDIXECollegeoftheBahamasEnrollmentsTotalStudentsFull-timePart-timeOtherFall1975 2554 N.A. N.A. N.A.Fall1976 2546 1401 970 175finalyearofteachered.Spring1977 2208 1260 948 0 Fall 1977 2325(estimate-recordsmissing)Spring1978 21731372801 N.A.Fall1978 1702 712 990 48transitionaleducationSpring1979 1698 641 1009 N.A.Source:CollegeoftheBahamasOfficeofStudentServices 26

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APPENDIXFDivisionofTechnicalandVocationalStudiesEnrollments*1975-76 1226 1976-77 919 1977-78 756 1978-79 235DivisionofHumanitiesEnrollments*1975-76 3216 1976-77 5189 1977-78 4844 1978-79 1113 *Total enrollmentsinthedivision'scourses,notthenumberofindividualsinthedivision.SelectedEnglishCourses1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79Indus. I,IInotoffered13510025Bas.Eng.I,II670 689 19346Inter. El!8.. I,II769 1261 1003 203Col.Eng.Skills1,II2071012 1044 340Source:CollegeoftheBahamasOfficeofStudentServices27

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APPENDIXGEstimatedPer Cent ofCollegeoftheBahamas Revenues fromStudentFees1977 2.8% 1978 2.2% 1979 12.5%Sources:Bahamas Handbook,EtienneDupuch,Jr.Publications,Nassau,Bahamas,1977-1979editionsCollegeoftheBahamasOfficeofStudentServices .28

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TheCollegeofthe Bahamas intheNation'sEducationalSystemU.S.A./I 7// GCE GCE GeE f:lJ/e){ //IGOVERNME.NTSCHOOLS 29 \,/ 'A LE.vE.LS\ac

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.. APPF.NUIX1Student'sPreferences onRecentCollegeoftheBahamasEnrollment "