Joining hands for health

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Material Information

Title:
Joining hands for health caring and sharing at school time
Abbreviated Title:
Joining hands for health
Physical Description:
35 p. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ministry of Health
Publisher:
Health Education Division, Ministry of Health
Place of Publication:
Nassau, Bahamas
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Health care--Bahamas.   ( lcsh )
Health education--Bahamas.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Caribbean Area

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Health Education Division, Ministry of health

Record Information

Source Institution:
College of The Bahamas
Holding Location:
College of The Bahamas
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00013241:00001


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Volume 3 No. 4 1985/86 f

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ., Page 1. Immunisation Protects the Nation................................................................................................. 1 2. Life Abroad .................................................. ........................................ Kayla Musgrove ........ .... .. 2 3. Employment Opportunities within the Public Analyst Laboratory .................................................................. Donald Cooper .... .. .. .... .... .. 2 4. Editorial................................................................................................................................. .......... 3 5. Go with Agriculture ............................................................................. Cecil Dorsett...................... 4 6. Radiography .......... .... ...................................... .... ................................. Jane Treco .... .. ... .... .. .. ... ..... 6 7. Career Life Planning ...... .................. .... ............................................... Portia Jordan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 8. Community Health Nursing An Exciting Career ............................................ ...... ............................ Philabertha Carter............ 9 9. A very Special Visitor ............... ............................... ...... ..... .... ............ ... ..... .. ...... .... ...... ......... ........ 10 10. Overview of the Medical Records Department.. ................................. Brenda Ingraham.............. 13 11. Up-Date .... ............ ... ........ ................. .......... ........ ..... .......... .............. ... Felicity Aymer ................ ... 14 12. What Nurses are Made For (Poem) ....... .......... .......... ........................ Enid Ruddock..................... 22 13. Dietetics-A Caring Profession ........................................ ...... ......... Rosalie Foulkes........ ... ....... 23 14 Physiotherapy .... ................ .... ..... ..... .................. .................................. Velma Burrows ..... .......... ... 25 15. The Field of Social Work ........ .......... ............. ........ .................. ........... Lorene Clarke.................... 26 More on Immunisation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ...... .... ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 16. On Becoming a Pharmacist ........ ....... ..... ........ ............... ....... ...... ......... Sy Pierre.. ..... .... ...... ......... 27 17. Health Education in Motion ............. .... ............. ........ ......................... Felicity Aymer .................. 31 18. A Brief on the Health Inspectorate ........ .......... ....................... ........ Melony McKenzie.............. 33 19. Editorial Committee.................... .... ........... ..................... ........ ...... ....... .... .... ..... ........ ... ....... ... ... 35 20. Evaluation........... ............ ........ .... ............... .... .... ..... .................................. ... .... .. ....... ....... .. .... ...... 35 21. About the Contributors ........................................ ......................... ....... ....... .Inside Back Cover

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IMMUNISATION PROTECfS THE NATION. Minister Gay addressing the group at the Awards Ceremony, Anns Town Clinic. The Minister is expecting 100% coverage by year's end!! The week of June 1st-7th was observed in New Providence as Immunisation Week. The focus was to create a greater public awareness of the importance of basic immunisation coverage for the nation's children The media, radio and daily newspaper focused on va rious aspects of immunisation and contributors to the media effort were drawn from all the clinics as well as the Community Nursing Services, Clarence A. Bain Building. Although the thrust for the activities occurred dur ing that week, all children completing their basic cover age on schedule -triple DPT and polio by age seven months and DPT/Polio and MMR by age twelve months -in the month of June, were awarded certificates and gifts Light refreshments to parents (predominantly mothers) were served after each ceremony held at the -Blue Hill Road Clinic on Monday, 30th June at lpm Audience waiting for the start of the Award Ceremony, Blue Hill Road Clinic. Certificates were awarded by Mr. L Emerson Smith, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Health. -Fox Hill Clinic on Wednesday, 2nd July 4pmCer tificates were awarded by Dr. Ken Barko, Public Health Department. Ann's Town Clinic on Thursday, 3rd July 3pm Certificates were awarded by the Minister of Health Honourable Dr. Norman Gay. Coconut Grove Clinic on Thursday, 3rd July at 4:30pm Certificates were awarded by Mr. L. Emerson Smith, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Health. The Number of children qualifying for Certificates:-Blue Hill Road Clinic 78 DPT/Polio 78MMR Fox Hill Clinic 7 DPT/Polio 5 MMR Ann's Town Clinic 33 DPI'/Polio 33 MMR Coconut Grove 43 DPI'/Polio 44 MMR Dr. F. Mahmood, Acting Medical Officer of Health!N.P. awarding cerficates and gifts at the Blue Hill Road Clin ic.

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LIFE ABROAD KA YLA MUSGROVE Studying abroad can be both an enriching and en lightening experience. On my arrival in Nova Scotia, Canada, where I pursued a Bachelor of Science degree I was greeted by very unpleasant weather. No amount of reading about a far away country could have pre pared me for such a drastic change in climate. Acclimi tisation though, which was at first difficult, was quickly surmounted as I developed a new lifestyle especially in the way I dressed and I soon began to appreciate the weather as I got involved in a variety of winter sports. These included such things as cross-country skiing, ice skating, tobogganing and sleigh riding. Making snow men was the paramount feature. Studying abroad, one obtains a multifaceted educa tion. One does not only obtain book knowledge but also lives in and is exposed to a different culture; one learns to accept and respect other people s beliefs and values and they learn to respect yours The Nova Scotians are a friendly, mild-spirited and easy going people, there fore adjustment was effortless In fact, to help foreign students adjust the International Student Advisor im plemented a programme whereby each student was given a 'host parent'. These parents functioned in as sisting students, where possible by having them at their homes during week-ends and inviting them to nu merous social gatherings. The host parents represented 'a home away from home There was also an International Students' Club where further cultural exchange took place. I was a very active member. The university consisted of about 3,000 students which is quite small. This is advantageous as rapport can be more easily de veloped between students and professors. Acadia Uni-light refreshments being served on a hot afternoon fol lowing the award ceremony. versity and its environs are very picturesque, especially during winter when the surrounding mountains are snow-capped To be successful in studying abroad the individual must never forget his/her purpose in being there. You must realize that your first duty is to yourself and your family and that you are an ambassador for your coun try. To attain set goals requires prayers, discipline and perseverance. You must be very careful not to become side tracked with the seemingly easy life and various choices afforded by campus life such as drugs and other immoralities. Studying and living abroad has been ben eficial -it has not only made me more "learned" in my field of study, but also it has helped in my development of self exposed me to a country at first-hand and it has helped me to appreciate home especially the sun, that many of us so often take for granted. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES WITHIN THE PUBLIC ANALYST lABORATORY DONALD COOPER Within the past two years the portfolio of the Pub lic Analyst Laboratory ( PAL ) has been expanded to in corporate environmental monitoring, risk assessment and waste disposal evaluation In addition the Public Health components of water, food and dairy products analysis had been more tightly structed to allow for an increase in the monitoring rate. This has resulted in a 75 % increase in the work load To meet these increased commitments, the section has had to be restructured. Most senior administrative positions have been filled and new technicians and junior technicians hired. The Department of Environmental Health has also revised the hierarchical structure within the Lab delineating a clear promotion ladder which makes the post of technician a career orientated one. At present there are vacancies within the PAL for junior technicians (trainee), technicians (usually with a B. Sc. degree) and technologists (technician who has acquired a speciality area) Plans also envisage the hir ing of senior technologists (to coordinate technicians in an area) and an Assistant Analyst (to supervise a sec-

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tion). The picture therefore appears very favourable for skilled people contemplating a career in science. With the restructuring of the Lab, technicians are now being sought to fill particular needs. This means that a person with a degree in Biology may not find a position, but one with a B.Sc in Chemistry will. Techni cians in the following areas are currently in demand at the PAL: Environmental Chemistry, Mtcrobiology, Biochemistry, Food Science. Of the disciplines named, Chemistry is the most re quired one and this trend is likely to continue for the next three to five years. In summary, the future appears bright for techni ctans at the PAL. The present emphasis, however is based primarily around Chemistry EDITORIAL For many teenagers, choosing a career is not easy. Very few of us know from an early age in what area we wish to spend our lives. Additionally, the choices are so many and so varied that, rather than making it easier career choices seem to be getting more difficult and what many school leavers really are interested in is finding paid employment. Critical to employment and living a reasonably re-warding existence for the individual and his family though, is a basic sound education the ability to read, write, express oneself, to understand be under stood and react appropriately In an attempt to shed more light on the health in dustry, Caring and Sharing at Schooltime has at tempted to provide some insights into some careers in health and health related professions Director General WHO Dr. Halfdan Mahler in conference with local PAHO staff. 3 -

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GO WITH AGRICULTURE CECIL DORSETI' The colonial system, coupled with past experiences of slavery, poverty and hardships that Blacks experi enced, may be blamed for the attitude of many of to day s young people towards agriculture as a profession When agriculture is suggested, most of the responses are negative. "Brother, I have been trying to get an education to get as far away from the farm as I can get and here you want me to go to university to get a de gree in farming?" or "That' s hard work being out there in the sun doing menial tasks!" or "I don't need a de gree to grow tomatoes! Today, however, these cliches are outdated. To equate the college profession of agriculture to farming is like saying that after graduation most electrical engineers will end up wiring houses. Why should you consider a career in agriculture and related areas? Among the modern sciences agriculture and its ap plied areas are some of the most challenging areas of study. It is as complex and as interdisciplinary as Engi neering, Medicine, Law or Business On the surface it may not sound as glamorous to be a professional worker in "Ag "(agriculture) as it is to be a medical doctor, den tist, lawyer or a "space engineer", but think about it, the challenges of producing enough food and eliminat-ing hunger and malnutrition are far greater and will require much more ingenuity to solve than those of going to the moon, piggy-back or otherwise. If it were not so, we would have eliminated hunger long ago! Agriculture as a discipline of study is diverse Whatever your interests, you can find parallels for spe cialization in agriculture. If chemistry is your bag, you can be a Food Chemist or Soil Chemist; if engineering excites you, there is Agricultural Engineering; if Socia l Sciences interest you, there is Rural Sociology or Agri cultural Economics and to a lover of Botany there iE Horticulture. If you wish to teach, you can do it as a Vo-Ag (Vocational Agriculture) teacher in a high schoo l or at the College of The Bahamas. Irrespective of ethnic and cultural ongms, young people take up farming as an occupation othe1 than through inheritance, because it requires very hig} capital outlay. There is the cost of land and farm rna chinery. This is not to suggest that it is impossible, bUI simply that unless you have planned well where yow labour and capital resources will come from, full tim farming as an occupation will be quite difficult to breal into Today, less than two per cent of the population ii The Bahamas live on the farm There is also the matte:

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of possessing a farm background to be an "Ag Major". While it is helpful to have some familiarity, it is not a prerequisite for most careers in agriculture. Although the actual numbers vary, approximately 40% to 60 % of students currently enrolled in agricultural and related programs in the US do not have a farm background, in fact they come from all walks of life -urban, suburban and rural communities. What are the opportunities for young women who major in agriculture? I venture to say they range from good to excellent and are certainly not affected by sex, because agriculture encompasses such a wide variety of job opportunities and disciplines. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE? Agriculture is a vast interdisciplinary science with many areas of specialization It is an applied science which is shaped by the three basic sciences: physics chemistry and biology and is supported by mathematics. Add to these basic sciences some human aspects, some commerce and some technology and you have ag riculture! I doubt that a complete description of agricul ture can be accurately done, but is important that we look at some of the major areas that agriculture encom passes or with which it is closely affiliated. CAREER CHOICES IN AGRICULTURE The choice of a career is one of the most important decisions one makes in life so devote time, effort and study to this task. What profession would you like to have? Too often a career is chosen for its glamour or some other vaguely defined reason. You must analyse your interests and talents then examine those careers that appear to mesh with these characteristics. Infor mation on agriculture may be obtained from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, East Bay Street, telephone 21277, Ministry of Education, or universities in the West Indies or the United States which offers programs in agriculture and which will be willing to assist you. In addition, there are some government pub lications that would be most useful. CAREER LISTINGS in agriculture include chemical salesperson, broker statistics, management, business farm realtor, farm machine dealer, nursery owner / ope rator florist, feed lot manager, quality control specialist and total about twenty three. COMMUNICATIONS In view of the emphasis the Government has placed on agriculture and the steady growth in this area, I foresee many opportunities in agriculture for young men and women with an interest in and a talent for communicating. They range from reporting for a daily newspaper, radio or television, to technical writing and putting together sales literature. You will do research, consult with agricultural affairs, interior farm e rs, businessmen and scientists. You must be able to deal effectively with a wide variety of personalities, be capable of understanding complex things and translating them into layman's terms. SCIENCE If inquiry, sensitivity to detail and ability to solve problems interest you and if you are thor oughly trained, there are unparalleled opportunities for you in agricultural science. Here are some examples of areas of study : -agricultural chemistry, engineering, agronomy, animal breeding entomology, food science, food analysis, ecolo gy, fish biology, horticulture, poultry science, taxonomy, biochemistry, bacteriology, laboratory technology, parasitology rural s ociology, soil chemistry, forestry wild life science PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE If the independence of being your own boss enjoyment of work, ability to manage capital, natural re sources of soil, water and labour strike your fancy there is no reason why a career in production agriculture may not be a career for you. Do not underestimate the demand on your intelligence in such a job and/or in today's technological farming which is steadily becoming a way of life in The Bahamas. Although physical strength and hard work are necessary, it is no way compares to the old days of back breaking labour. I know of several successful high school and college graduates who are really "making it" in agricultural produc tion. They all use their own special skills and are enjoy ing the fruits of being successful business people. Some are livestock farmers, others grow fruits and vegeta bles, some grow flowers and plants or nursery crops and some are agro-consultant specialists. Many of the opera tions also adapt to part-time situations. SOME CAREERS IN PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE:Agronomy, animal breeding, cattle management, dairyman, farm management, bee-keeping fruit grow ing, poultry, vegetable/green house growing. In our Bahamas there is a ireat need for increased food self-sufficiency Each country should have access to adequate food supplies in time of shortages. In the event of an international food crisis, The Bahamas can only supply itself with food for a few weeks! The value and need for more agriculture in our own country is clear. Consequently, on a national level, the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas has committed itself to placing a higher priority on agricultural production. 5

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However, this self sufficiency will only be truly rea lised when our youths become more conscious of and committed to this struggle by taking up the challenge and going abroad to pursue careers in the various disci plines in agriculture. I urge you high school leavers and others who have a leaning in this area therefore to speak with your school counsellors or contact the Department of Agriculture. Good luck and good growing with agriculture! RADIOGRAPHY JANE TRECO Radiography is a most fascinating profession. It brings you in direct contact with patients as the Radiographer (X-ray Technologist/X-ray Technician) as they are called, takes X-rays with and without the supervi sion of the Radiologist physician specialising in Ra diography. It is one of the major aids to diagnosis. Each day some new technique is being discovered and machines are being improved. In this scientific age, Radiography continues to de velop into one of the most interesting of the professions and even greater knowledge will evolve in future years. Qualifications vary in different parts of the world. In the United Kingdom and the University of the West Indies, in order to do the membership Diploma, you need five 'O'levels and two 'A'levels, three of which must be English, Mathematics and one of the Sciences (Biology, Chemistry or Physics). In Canada, it is the equivalent. In the U.S A., if you do not have the basic entry requirements for the course, you are allowed to do the first year of a Science Degree course which will help you to then go into training as a Radiographer. Starting salary in The Bahamas if you have your membership/certification from a recognised body is ten thousand dollars per annum. Without certification, applicants may be appointed to student posts, working along with a registered/certi fied technician over a two year period until they have obtained the relevant basic entry qualifications for uni versity. CAREER LIFE PLANNING PORTIA JORDAN Because of rapid developments in science, technolo gy, governmf:nt, and international relations, our world today offers countless new careers. Consequently, an individual needs to learn about those opportunities which will neither frustrate nor waste valuable time and effort. He/she must be able not only to select a career that is suitable to his/her temperament or abili ty, but also become flexible enough to accommodate a variety of jobs, as well as prepare for inevitable changes in the future. 6 Before choosing a career, one should: 1. know oneself (i.e one's interests, abilities, feelings, attitudes and values) 2. be aware of job qualifications (i.e the skills needed to do the job) 3. know the job market (i.e which jobs are in demand and which ones already saturate the market). Persons often requesting assistance in Career Planning include: a) students leaving high school to enter the job market b) people entering college who need to clarify their career objectives before choosing their academic programme

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c) college students who have become disenchanted with their current academic programme and career goals d) women preparing to make a transition for home-maker to college student and/or sala ried employee e) people preparing for a first career f) people dissatisfied with their present type of work or career who wish to make a change for the better g) mid-life career changers seeking more satis faction in their career. Individuals in any category may successfully ac complish their goals if they are attainable. To this ex tent, it is important to understand the relationship be tween having vocational interest and having the ability to pursue that interest. For example, the medical field offers a variety of occupations for professional and skilled aspirants which include dentists, medical tech nologists (radiologists, surgical technicians), pharmacists, physical therapists, physicians, vaterinarians, dental assistants, nurses. Yet each requires specific ap titudes in order to be successful. The world of work provides many career opportuni ties for aspiring individuals. Nevertheless, relevant vocational training is essential before seeking employ-ment. A recent survery, sponsored by the National Institute of Education, US Department of Education, suggests that new employees with relevant vocational education are more productive, require less on-the-job training and receive higher wages than those new em ployees without relevant vocational training. Additio nally, employees with vocational training that was not relevant to their current jobs were no more productive than other employees in that job without any vocational training.* Contemporary career assessment programmes (similar to that expected at the College of The Bahamas in September, 1986) assist in identifying career interests and abilities crucial for success in a variety of occupa tions. Although the aptitude tests and interest inventories differ with regard to format and the information they provide, they all assist individuals in making more accurate and intelligent career decisions. Finally, the career qui dance services offered by many schools, assist students in identifying their interest and abilities, as well as provide information on the rate of growth or decline in various occupations, thus enabling them to make wise decisions as they plan a career for life. *National Center for Research in Vocationa: Education: Columbus, Ohio, 1985. 7

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Haaw:J 'Pa \ 0 z 0 0::: H w E-< w < 0::: u < ::> u p w 0 t: i 0') p .....:l 0::: "' R ()j kJ kJ J CAREER AWARENESS FAMILY 8

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COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING AN EXCITING PROFESSION PHILABERTHA CARTER Community Health Nursing is a specialized area of nursing; its basic purpose is to foster community health by applying Nursing and Public Health measures with in the framework of the total health effort. Community Health Nursing aims to enable persons to cope with barriers and threats to health in order to maximise their potential for high level wellness and also to enable them to relate to their physical and so cial environment. Community Health Nursing is prac ticed in a multiplicity of community settings: eg. clin ics, schools, homes and day care facilities. However, wherever it is practiced, Community Health Nursing is family-centered and looks at each client as a whole person with physical, spiritual and psychosocial needs. For me, as a Community Health Nurse, it is no longer just Mrs. 'B' lying in the bed with terminal breast cancer and in need of an analgesic, but rather, I must relieve her pain, help her to accept her condition and sort out her spiritual needs, make provisions for the inevitable eg. helping her to see the importance of making a family will. Her family would, quite naturally, be undergoing much stress. I must therefore, by sup portive efforts, reduce their stress and maximise their ability to cope with the situation. I must "be there" for them. Currently, the Community Health Nurse has many roles to play and if she is to play these roles effectively, she must have very good communication skills which include keen powers of observation to be able to grasp what may never be spoken; those eyes that con vey a completely different story from what the lips are speaking. Following is a brief outline of the role of the Com munity Health Nurse. The Community Health Nurse is:-a provider of Primary Health Care which is the initial service provided when an individual or a family (client) enters the health care system seeking help for illness or disability. The preventative aspects of community health nursing cannot be over emphasised and it is one of the main areas upon which the Community Health Nurse concentrates eg. immunization in early childhood as pre vention against several serious communicable dis eases. a provider of personal care to the unhospitalized sick or disabled who perfers to remain at home or in an informal community facility. a willing, knowledgeable, aggressive advocate who is mediator between the health care system and the client and seeks to effect positive actions. an approachable and concerned advisor who is committed to the persons served, beyond the boundaries of mere impersonal provision of serv ices, one who identifies with their concerns and gives them health education guidance and counsel ling. a sensitive observer who, by the extent of her training, is able to detect any deviation from normal behavioural patterns in respect of illness, growth and development, drug response and overall well being and is able to communicate these findings to the appropriate members of the health care team or deal with them effectively herself. one who is expected to influence decisions and produce change for more beneficial health care through her knowledge of community health prac tices and nursing. an organiser and manager: be it caring for the family, running a clinic or liaising between hospital and community nursing service, the community health nurse endeavours to keep everything in control. an informed participant in community planning and action and one who can provide essential points of interest to the decision making processes in a community. a contributor of knowledge either by doing research herself or aiding the research of others by supplying them with pertinent data. It is clear, then, to see that as a provider of health care, an advocate, teacher, guidance counsellor, observ er, decision-maker, manager and change agent, how we as community health nurses are practitioners in our own right and no wonder -it takes three years of basic nursing training, one year of post basic training in midwifery and one year of community health nurse training; five dynamic years of training, coupled with many years of practical experience to make us what we are some of the most important members of the health cate team. Reference: Freeman and Heinrich Community Health Nursing Practice. 9

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A VERY SPECIAL VISITOR Over the past eight or so years, Bahamians and more especially members of the Ministry of Health fam ily, have been hearing such slogans/phrases as "Health For All By The Year 2000" (HFA/2000), Primary Health Care, Community Participation (CP), latterly and some times interchangeably, Community lnvolvem ent, (CI), Intersectorallmultisectoral Approach and Appropriate Technology for Health (ATH). Health For All is the overall goal not only of and for The Bahamas but also for all the other 165 mem bers which comprise the World Health Organisation (WHO) respresentative of 99% of the world's population. The other phrases describe the strategies by which this goal is to be achieved. On Sunday June 15th, 1986, Dr. HAFDAN MAHL ER, Director General of the World Health Organisation (WHO) for the past thirteen years, arrived in The Ba hamas for an official vjsit (Was his arrival on that date of any special and/or additional significance?) Dr. Mahler was met at the Nassau International Airport by officials from the Ministry of Health and the local P AHO office. While here, the Director General visited both the Ann's Town Clinic, off Kemp Road, the DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF WHO VISITS GG -Dr. Halfdan T. Mahler, director-general of the World Health Organization, paid a visit to the Governor General, Sir Gerald Cash on Monday. Dr. Mahler was born in Vivid, Denmark on April 21, 1923. He obtained his Medical De gree from the University of Copenhagen, and has a postgraduate degree in Public Health. In September, 1970, Dr. Mahler was made assistant director-general in charge of the Division of Strenghtening of Health Serv ices and the Division of Family qealth. In May, 1973, he was appointed director-genera' of the World Health Or ganization by the Twenty-sixf.t World Health Assembly. 10 Sandilands Rehabilitation Centre and the Princess Margaret Hospital, gave a public lecture at the College of The Bahamas, paid courtesy calls on the Governor General of The Bahamas Sir Gerald Cash and the Prime Minister of The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, Sir Lynden Pindling, met the Ministry of health Staff and the local PAHO staff. The highlight of Dr. Mahler's visit for the Ministry of Health family and the public, was the public lecture he delivered at the College of The Bahamas titled "The Challenge of Health For All and Primary Health Care" on the evening of Monday 16th June, 1986. Despite the late publicity for the lecture and indeed the entire visit, public response was excellent, nor ap parently were they disappointed with what they heard The major disappointment lay in the fact that they were denied a period for questioning. Included in Dr. Mahler's hectic round of en gagements was an official welcoming dinner on Sunday evening at the Cable Beach Hotel and a reception at Buena Vista Hotel on Monday. Dr. Mahler left The Ba hamas at lunch time on Tuesday 17th June. Did he get any "sand in his shoes?" He assumed -his duties as the Organization's third direc tor-general in July 1973 and was reappointed directorgeneral of WHO by the Thirty-first and Thirty-sixth World Health Assemblies in May 1978 and May 1983 re spectively for a second and third-five year term. Dr. Mahler has received numerous honours and awards and is the author of publications relating to the epidemiology and control of tuberculosis._ Shown above in the photo from left to right are: Sam Aymer, council representa tion of the Pan American World Health Organization, Dr. Mahler, Sir Gerald, Dr. Norman Gay, Minister of Health and Luther Smith, the permanent secretary. -

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Dr. Mahler (far left) in meeting with local PAHO staff. From left to right Doug Williams DEHS consultant, Mark Crowley (hidden) Statistican Jerome Mcintosh, driver /messenger, Barbara Knowles, Achier Hall, Sam Aymer, Prog. coordinator, Dr. Mahler. The Challenge of Health For All our Primary Health Care -public response to Dr. Mahler's lecture at the College of The Bahamas was good. 11

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MEDICAL RECORDS DEPARTMENT BRENDA INGRAHAM What is the importance of the Medical Record in a health care setting? In this type of setting the medical record is so important that it stands our as the deciding factor towards a healthy life and eventual care and re covery of the patient. The Medical Records Department has become the nucleus from which many hospital activities emanate because its organization, efficient maintenance and con fidentiality are important first to the patient, the physi cian, the hospital, the community and to international agencies. It can als.-. be termed a "storehouse and cen tral cleaning house" of immediate, accurate, complete and up-to-date data which can be used for planning and disseminating statistical health information to International Agencies. THE ROLE What is a Medical Record? A medical record is a compilation of data showing documentary evidence of a patient's treatment and illness. It is as important for practicing medicine as medications are for effective treatment. The Medical Records Department is one of the most important administrative departments in any hospital and is committed to the achievement of excellence be cause of the role the medical records play. Without this record of continuity, the pahent's medical history is lost to the Doctor the quality of care cannot be assessed and teaching and research efforts which are so important to improving patient care and which should be a primary objective of any health institution, are severely impeded. Data provided today by complex technological pro cedures are too numerous and diverse to be "stored in any human mind. A patient often deals, not with one doctor but an array of .::onsultants and paramedical per sonnel who must have a medium through which they can exchange and communicate the information used in determining medical treatments. In a mobile society, the patient may move from one source of medical care to another source that is geographically in a different location within The Bahamas, as well as to services abroad. For these reasons, the medical record must be complete and accurate because it has become indispens able as an account of the patient's complete medical biography. STRUCTURE The Medical Records Department of the Princess Margaret Hospital is situated in the New Extension phase one, with close proximity to the Pharmacy, General Practice Clinic (Out-Patients Department) Accident and Emergency and other paramedical and ancillary departments. Its operating activities are done on two floors and is open on a twenty four hour basis. The Medical Records Department is responsible to the Hospital Administrator who has delegated the day to day administrative relationships to the Deputy Hospital Administrator. The Senior Records Officer is the head of the department, responsible for its overall management. Duties and responsibilities for specific func tions are delegated by the Records Officer to senior staff members who are designated supervisors. One Supervisor is responsible for Registration and Files which include activities such as Patient Registra tion, maintenance of a Master Patient Index Storage and Retrieval of Medical Records and Special Appoint ments. Further delegation of responsibility for specific activities is given within each group of key staff mem bers for day to day direction. Another Supervisor is responsible for the Medical Records Activities which start with collection of records of patients discharged from wards, preparation of Medi cal Records Classification of record content, utilization of the Medical Record and computerization of medical information. More recently, classification of diseases has begun for General Practice Clinic records. MEDICAL RECORDS SCIENCE AS A CAREER in The Bahamas, a career in Medical Re cords Science is never pursued unless persons are em in a hospital setting, but there are colleges and universities which teach Medical Records Science as a career. One can obtain an Associate Degree in Medical Records Science which takes two years and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Records Administration which will take an additional two years. Some of the colleges and universities where interested persons can pursue this career are, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus in Barbado s the College of Arts Science and Technology in Jamaica, nu merous colleges in Canada, the United States and Unit ed Kingdom The prerequisites for entry to these colleges vary, but English, Biology Typing and Mathematics at G C.E. 'O'level or equivalent with C" or above grades are compulsory subjects. To be employed in the Medical Records Depart'"

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ment, Princess Margaret Hospital the applicant is re quired to have a minimum of two G.C.E. '0' level sub jects, preferably in Biology and English. There are organized orientation and training pro grammes for staff members with two G.C.E. '0' level subjects and no work experience lasting one year before they are placed in any specific area to work. There are also organized orientation and training programmes for graduates with an Associate Degree and no work experience as well as those with an Asso ciate Degree and previous work experience UP-DATE FELICITY AYMER HEALTH EDUCATION DIVISION Welcome to Health Education Mr. DWIGHT ALLEN. 'Dwight' as he is affectionately called by most staff members, joined the Division on 5th May on transfer from the Department of Environmental Health Serv ices Mr. Allen has special skills in "camera work" and "the arts" which are already being eagerly exploited by his colleagues. He has also visited South Eleuthera where he "assisted in exploring ways" of extending health education services to the area. In addition to assuming responsibility for our Na tional Food Handler Health Education programme, Mr Allen is expected to play a leading role in preparing some of the locally produced materials so badly needed in the Division. We wish you success and happiness in our Division, Mr. Allen and hope you will rise with honour and dis tinction to the role of a Health Educator! Again, Welcome, may any future visits to Rock Sound be less arduous, but equally exciting as your first. Health Promotion 14 In response to Minister Gay's challenge in his ad dress to the annual conference of the Medical Association of The Bahamas and reiterated in his address to the nation on World Health Day, 1986, a pilot Health Promotion programme, involving staff of the Ministry of Health (seventh floor), was instituted by Senior Health Educator, Mrs. Barbara Curtis, in early May. This programme encompasses two elements, exer cise and diet and is essentially participatory in that the participants designed and are responsible for the activities; guidance and support are provided by Mrs. Curtis. The programme is, to all intents and purposes, progressing as expected and will be at the beginning of August. Extension of Health Education Services to the Family Islands Health Education Officer, Felicity Aymer visited the area of Rock Sound, South Eleuthera, 29th April -2nd May, 1986, to meet the health team with a view to extending health education services to the area. While there she met Principals of Schools in all settlements from Bannerman Town to Tarpum Bay, the Commissioner for the area and other "influential" persons. Mrs. Aymer returned to the Rock Sound district for a week beginning 16th June when she held a series of community health awareness meetings in the settlements of Tarpum Bay, Greencastle, Deep Creek and Rock Sound. She also addressed the graduating classes of the Tarpum Bay Primary and Preston H. Albury Senior High Schools and the Greencastle All Age School. Health Educator Dwight ALLEN was introduced to the community at the various meetings when he joined Mrs. Aymer on the Tuesday afternoon and accompanied her on a busy and demanding sched ule. School children were extremely well behaved and attentive. The children at the Greencastle School especially, responded enthusiastically to questions Residents in the area showed a high degree of interest in their health. Not only were most meet ings well attended, but the level of participation was very encouraging. A third visit, to complete needs assessment and possibly begin planning for future action is tentatively scheduled for later in the year.

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J WELCOME To the Department of Environment Health Serv ices: Mrs OLIVIA WATKINS OBE, on 19th May, 1986. Mrs Watkins retired from the Ministry of Youth, Sports, Community Affairs and Labour (Labour Department) earlier this year and has been re-em ployed with the Ministry of Health (DEHS) where she has responsibility for personnel. Mrs. Watkins seems very happy in her new "environment" and is enjoying the challenges of personnel work. To the Princess Margaret Hospital Senior House Officer CLAUDIA WALTER-CHIN and GAIL RICHARDS-NICHOLAS Dr. Walter Chin joined the Accident and Emergency Depart ment of Medicine on 14th July. To all those new Nursing Auxiliaries who recently joined the staff of the PMH. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all every success in your new positions. Welcome back Mrs. ESMERELDA RUTHERFORD of the Department of Nursing Education, Midwifery programme and sincere congratulations on having obtained a Masters of Public Health (MPH ) specialising in Maternal and Child Health from Tulane Universi ty, New Orleans. Mrs. Rutherford returned to work at the DNE in January of this year and is looking forward to sharing her "updated" k nowledge with colleagues. All the very best to you, Mrs. Rutherford, may you soon begin to realise at least some of your dreams! CONGRATULATIONS Dr. PATRICK WHITFIELD on your promotion at the relatively young age ... to the position of Consultant in Family Medicine at the Princess Margaret Hospital on 1st March 1986. Dr. Whit field is a graduate of the University of the West Indies Medical School, Mona, Jamaica. He did his internship at both the University and Princess Margaret Hospitals and has worked at the PMH -Department of and Gynaecology. During his residency -Family Medicine 1981-85 -he worked in Kemps Bay, Andros; St. Lucia and Freeport and did research in Obesity and Primary Health Care. Having graduated with a Doctor of Medicine (DM ) in Family Medicine, Dr. Whitfield is presently trying to establish a Department of Family Medicine at the PMH with a view to pro viding a more holistic approach to health care. Dr. Whitfield also had the unenviable task of provi ding/coordinating medical services for the Com-* monwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM ) held in Nassau in October of last year, a task which he completed with considerable ease. Married to the former PAULA NOTTAGE a Reg istered Nurse trained in Operating Theatre Tech niques, the Whitfields have one son JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you continuing success in your professional and private lives Dr. Whitfield. Mr. LINCOLN DAVIS formerly Senior Nursing Officer working at the SRC, on assuming duties as PNO at the same institution following the "eleva tion" of Mrs Beverly Forde to the Seventh Floor as Deputy Director of Nursing (DDON). JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you ev ery success in your new role Mr. Davis and good luck. Mrs JENNIE (JEANIE) ISAACS of the Department of Nursing Education (DNE ) on your appointment to Principal Nursing Officer, effective October, 1983 Mrs Isaacs has been at the DNE for more years no doubt than she cares to recall and it seems only fitting that she assume these onerous chores JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you co ntinuing success in this dynamic position of train ing young and not so young nurses, Mrs. Isaacs DPS VET A BROWN on your recent promotion to Acting Undersecretary, Ministry of Health, Mrs. Brown has been a tower of strength" to us in Health Education and no doubt to the Ministry of Health. Despite her consistently hectic schedule, she can always find a minute to listen and offer a word of wisdom. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you every success at this level Mrs. Brown. We know you will enjoy it as you seem to be one of those rare birds who thrives on challenge. Good Luck! Congratulations to the twenty five HEALTH AIDES who have completed the one year course. This is the fifth group to have completed this training and they will now swell the ranks of health care providers throughout the Commonwealth To date, 206 persons, mostly young women, have benefitted from the pro gramme. Their Graduation Programme ("Commence ment", to quote the Mini ster of Health) is always a memorable occasion; the evening of Monday 7th July, 1986 was no e xception. The ceremony held in the Coral Room of the Pilot House Hotel, East Bay Street, was chaired by Mr. John Thompson Admini strator of the PMH The room was barely large enough to accommo date relatives and well wishes of the group who were very fetchingly dressed in white with red corsages t5

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The Minister of Health, the Honourable Dr. Nor man Gay, delivered the address and stressed the impor tant role Health Aides play in assistir:g other health professionals in reaching the goal of The Bahamas in bringing essential health care to people in the places in which they live and work. Certificates were awarded by Mrs. Carol Gay, wife of the Minister and a physicain in her own right ( Dr. Chaney). Dr. Chaney-Gay was apparently particularly impressed by the elegance of the only male in the group! As has been custon ary also, the group entertained their quests in song which this year, stressed the "hard work and faith" which were essential elements in help ing them reach their goal. Health Aide Faye Lewis de livered a short address which "brought the house down" while Betsy Richards gave a most sincere Vote of Thanks in which she apologised for any omissions she may have made. Both Health Aides are from New Prov idence Most of these graduates (sixteen) are from and will return to the Family Islands. Residents in Matthew Town, Inagua and Harbour Island, Eleuthera, especial ly, should now benefit from having Health Aides work ing among them. Other Family Islands represented were Abaco, Andros, Cat Island, Eleuthera and Grand Bahama. Musical interludes were provided by Mr. Armbris ter of the DEHS. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all a most enjoyable period in your respective communities as you join other health providers in the struggle to bring health to all peoples in The Bahamas, we sincere ly hope you will make the opportunities to realise the promise you have shown over the past year, that your colleagues will assist you in so doing and that your consumers find your presence among them beneficial. May all your experiences be rewarding. 16 Congratulations to the Nurses who graduated on Friday night, 11th July. They included forty Reg istered Nurses, three Trained Clinical Nurses, sev en TCNs who completed the course in Maternal and Child Health Nursing, nurses who completed the course in Intensive Care Nursing. The popula tion should be served much better for your gradua tion, nurses. Unfortunately, for a variety of rea sons, there are always those who leave, so then never seems to be enough nurses to "go round". JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all challenging and rewarding career and hopes yot will continue long enough to share your experi ences with some of those who will follow in you footsteps. All the very best Nurses. *CONTINUING EDUCATION A group of nurses recently completed a course h Critical Nursing Care at the Princess Margare Hospital. An orientation programme for all Nursing Auxil iaries at the PHM began on 28th April, 1986. Dr. ERIC BROWN, Medical Officer, P1,1blic Healtl Department, attended a three week summeJ course beginning 23rd June, 1986, in general Epi demiology and Biostatistics at the Johns Hopkir Medical School, Baltimore. Community Nursing Officer ROSA MAE BAli' and Hospital Infection Control Nurse PAMRIG/ FERGUSON recently attended a three day cours in Hospital Acquired Infection at the Caribbea1 Epidemiological Centre (CAREC) The Coral Room of the Pilot House Hotel, Nassau was the venue for a two week sub-regiona Workshop on the International Classification o Diseases 9 (ICD 9) and Vital Statistics 2nd-13tl June, 1986.

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Participants of the lCD 9 Workshop from 12 Caricom countries. The only Male is from Suriname. Dr. Miriam Gazinovitch PAHO's staff member, Washing ton officer, as she addressed the Workshop. This workshop, sponsored in the main by the Pan American Health Organisation ( PAHO), was the first regional activity in which Medical Records Officers from the CARICOM region came together to clarify and standardise the processing, analys ing and classification of morbidity and mortality data. Under the very able guidance of PAHO staff member, Dr. MIRIAM GAZINOVITCH Senior Re gional Adviser on Statistics based in the PAHO office in Washington DC, with assistance from Mark Crowley PAHO's resident Statistician in The Bahamas, the workshop proved extremely en lightening to all participants of the twelve territo-ries -Antigua, Bahamas (New Providence and Grand Bahama), Barbados, Bermuda, British Vir gin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Montser rat, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Suriname. As Minister Gay said in his opening remarks, the workshop will enable Ministries of Health to more intelligently process raw facts and figures and this should add a new dimension to their ability to quantify the health status of their populations and ultimately, improve the quality of life -the goal of Health For All. To all intents and purposes, the "visitors" enjoyed not only the worshop but also their stay. On completion of the course Participants were awarded Certificates. Because the biggest contingent was from home we expect incremental improvements in quality of data that will become available. However, these improvements will only be as good as the data which these staff members are given, by us in the field, physicians and nurses. We are all aware of the dearth of "hard data" on the local scene, data which are accurate and definitive reflections of the "quality of life". Not only is such data critical to the Ministry of Health in planning for and guiding the nation, but they are also vital to specific com munities if we seriously desire to invite and allow for effective community participation and attain that goal of Health For All by 2000. Completing forms and submitting accurate infor mation regularly, tedious though it may be, is more than a necessary evil invented by idle ad ministrators, it unlocks doors to quality of life for our people, allows us to plan more effectively and compare our performance at the national, regional

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* and international levels. To stress the importance of the role of the physi cian in the submission of data, a special session was scheduled for this group of health profession al. A show of Bahamian hospitality. Mr. Saunders, Medica) Records Dept. PMH says thank you for a job well done to Dr. Miriam Gazinovitch while Dr. Gay and Sam Aymer Jook on. Congratulations to Nursing Officer 1 IRENE COAKLEY of the PMH on successfully completing a three year course in Christian Education at The Bahamas Bible Institute, Jean Street, Gleniston Gardens and on receiving your Diploma. Mrs. Coakley is a member of the Mission Baptist Church, Hay Street, Nassau. All the very best in your new career Mrs. Coak ley. The PMH was the site for a special visit by ninety visitors of the cruise ship Carnival Cruise, on Fri day 2nd May, 1986. Why was this a special visit? It happened to be part of a learning exercise in deed, the entire cruise was a seminar cruise. What a pleasant way to learn! Patients at the PMH were treated to a musical performance by the Morningside High School Chamber Singers on 25th June, courtesy of the Ministry of Tourism The singers were very well received and the PMH wishes to extend sincere thanks to both the Ministry of Tourism for arrang ing the entertainment and to the Morningside Singers for their very good performance. Please come again. CHANGE AND ??? On Wednesday, 25th June, colleagues and friends met to wish First Assistant Secretary (F AS) ASTRID BROOKES, Godspeed and blessings as she moves to wards another goal in her career in the Civil Service. Mrs. Brookes has spent the last nine years moving up the ladder in the Ministry of Health and will be missed 18 especially at the annual Family Island Health Confer ences where she has played such a quiet but dominant role JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all the very best in your new role at the Ministry of Educa tion Mrs Brookes. Mrs. ROSE MAE THOMPSON, Acting Deputy Permanent Secretary at the PMH Administration has been transferred to the Ministry of Transport with effect 1st June, 1986. Community Health Nurse VIVIAN BRAITH WAITE, Eight Mile Rock Clinic, Grand Bahama, has resigned from the service effective mid-May. Nurse Braithwaite has enbarked on a new and exciting career in Occupational Nursing. The em ployees at Franklin Chemicals should benefit enor mously from her wealth of experience in promotive and preventive health. All the very best Nurse Braithwaite, please keep in touch. Mrs. ORLENE LIGHTBOURNE, Secretary to the Principal Nursing Officer (PNO) Sandilands Reha bilitation Centre, has been transferred to secre tarial duties in the Chief Psychiatrist's Office Mrs. RODGERS has been transferred from general administration, SRC to the PNO's office. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH hopes that you all will continue to find your jobs stimulating and health stressful. The following Senior House Officers PMH, re signed on 30th June, 1986: Dr. JULIAN STEWART Department of Obst e t ric s and Gynaecology Dr. DAVID BARRETT Department of Surgery Dr. HOMER BLOOMFIELD Department of Ob stetrics and Gynaecology We wish you every success Doctors. STAFF NURSE SHELDON BOWE-PRATT NINA THOMPSON-MAJOR and ERVINE STUBBS transferred from the Communit y Nursing Services to the Princess Margaret Hospital where you are warmly welcomed. TCN Paula MAJOR transferred from the SRC to the PMH. TCN Julia WILLIAMS transferred from Operating Theatre PMH to the SRC The following nurses have resigned from the PMH:-Sheila CARROLL, Cheryl CAMPBELL Kathleen

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FUZZELL, Mary GOULDING, Elsie HEPBURN, Marva LONGLEY, Maureen SEYMOUR, Christi na SMITH. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you ev ery success in your new "area of endeavour", may you continue to move forward and upward The National Health Education Council (Baha mas) The "Health Education Council" is planning its annual exhibition for September. Mr. Barry Rassin, Hospital Administrator of the Rassin Hospital and the first elected President of the Council has once again agreed to serve in that capacity. Currently other officers are Mrs. Elvia Rolle Secre tary and a founding member of the Council while Bishop Harcourt Pinder continues as Treasurer. CoHeagues at the PMH take this opportunity to wish NO II Hanna GRANT, presently residing (at the time of going to press) on the Private Surgical Ward (PMH) and "Muffins" all the very best for a safe and confortable delivery and a happy period of bonding Good luck Nurse Grant. In February of every year, following the death of Mrs Eloise PENN, former Principal Nursing Offi cer of the SRC, a walkathon is held to raise funds for the Eloise Penn Memorial Scholarship Fund. This year six nurses at the SRC were beneficiaries of this fund. They were able to complete a Drug Awareness Programme conducted by the Social Sciences Department of the College of The Baha mas. This programme was the first to be offered by the Social Workers in that department. It was run over a period of fourteen weeks or two semesters JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH hopes that not only you benefit from attendance at this course. COMING EVENTS The Caribbean Nurses' Organization Conference scheduled for October 12-17, 1986, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, will explore the many issues asso ciated with the health and welfare of the elderly under the theme "Care of the Elderly in the Carib bean". Registration is currently in progress and details may be obtained from the 1st Vice President of the Nurses' Association, Mrs. Gloria Ferguson, at the DNE, telephone 325-5551. The Holiday Inn, Paradise Island, will be the ve nue of a special conference coordinated by Educa tional Excursions, Atlanta, Georgia, November 5 9 on Contemporary Approaches to Cancer Nurses. The Conference, designed for nurses who are re-* sponsible for the care of cancer patients, should present the state of the art in respect of practice and research in Cancer nursing. Topics include: Health Care trends and Cancer Nursing New Models in breast cancer Oncologic emergencies Cancer and the elderly Cancer, coping and caring The faculty consists of nurses who are recognized in the US in the field of cancer nursing; attendance qualifies for 17 contact hours by the Georgia Nurses Association. Further details may be obtained from the President of the Nurses Association of The Bahamas, Mr. Andil LaRoda, Department of Nursing Educa tion, telephone 325-5551. Both the Blue Hill Road and Coconut Grove Clin ics are being extended and should be ready for use by early August. Mothers and children, not to mention staff, should be considerably more com fortable. FROM THE COMMUNITY NURSING SERVICES The Community Nursing Services extends congrat ulations to those five Registered Nurses and three Trained Clinical Nurses who graduated/completed the MCH Course on Friday 11th July. Congratulations also to Mrs. Shirley SAUNDERS formerly of the Ann's Town Clinic and now doing sterling work with the Bahamas Planned Paren thood Association (BPPA) who was recognized for having completed thirty years of nursing at the above graduating ceremony held this year at the Sheraton Grand Hotel (former Grand Hotel) on Paradise Island. Congratulations to TCN Evangelist Catherine CHISHOLM on her ordination to the ministry on 15th June 1986. The CNS wishes to say a sincere "thank you" to those staff nurses who "rotated through" their department over the past year and provided such sterling service to their patients and who have now returned to their original postings : Staff Nurses Melva DELEVEAUX, Nina MA JOR, Sheldon PRA'IT, Irvine STUBBS all of the PMH and Cynthia JOHNSON of the SRC. Once again Thank You Nurses. TCN Nelia DAMES, Andros, recently attended a six week Refresher Course in New Providence as did: TCN Coralie TURNER of Cat Island. We hope you found the course truly "refreshing'' and that your communities benefit from your re19

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cently acquired additional knowledge. TCN Eloise HANNA of the Post Natal services retired at the end of April. We wish Nurse Hanna many years of active and enjoyable retirement. New Premises The Department of Nursing Education is looking forward with eager anticipation to moving into more spacious and custom built premises on the other side of the Princess Margaret Hospital and nect door to the Ministry of Education Building. If you have driven up GROSVENOR Close recent ly, you will have noticed construction underway. The quarry has been "hewn into" to accommodate the building -the school will be in the brow of the rock. Intakes of future student's, from 1987, should be able to look forward to studying in relative quiet without the constant roar of passing traffic and feel safe in getting to and from classes. Faculty also must be breathing many sighs of re lief that they will no longer have to climb al1 those stair to get to classes You will miss the exercise! We in Health Education will no longer arrive for Sessions hot and bothered not only from trying to find a parking space but also from climbing those stairs. Perhaps now we'll walk to the sessions and arrive the epitome of good health! area -has recently donated the following items to the Clinic at Rock Sound:-One refrigerator for the storage of vaccines One washing machine for laundering clinic linen One X-ray machine. The Ministry of Health and more especially the staff to the clinic at Rock Sound is grateful to and appreciative to the generosity of the Cotton Bay Foundation. The Doctor's residence is to be given a "face lift" Supplies have been delivered and Dr. Guina and the community look forward to a bright, cheerful residence which will add to the charm and beauty of King Street, Rock Sound. FROM GRAND BAHAMA Congratulations Dr. Komaragin NEHRU, District Medical Officer, Hawksbill Clinic, Grand Bahama, on receiving the Distinguished Citizen Award for work in the government from the Grand Bahama Chamber of Commerce This award was bestowed at their annual banquet held on 30th April 1986 Community Health Education is continuing with talks given by Dr. Chutkan on Foot problems in the Newborn and Dr. Nehru on Urethritis. FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES HELP FOR THE YOUTH The Department of Social Services ( DSS ) started the year on a most positive note when they moved offices from the Clarence A. Bain Building (ground and first floors) Thompson Boulevard, to more spa cious accommodation on the second floor of the Boulevard Building Complex, nearer to the Oakes Field Shopping Centre, Thompson Boulevard. The Youth Division of the Ministry of Youth, Sports, Community Affairs and Labour has recently in troduced a "Call-in Counselling Service" which is de signed to help young people deal with their dayto-day concerns. Parents/Guardians are invited to use the serv ice. Further information may be obtained by calling Mr. Leroy Hanna or Ms. Debbi Dillet. Telephone 22549 or 68519 or writing to them at P O Box N-10114. NEWS FROM ROCK SOUND, SOUTH ELEUTHERA 20 Congratulations to Trained Clinical Nurse/Midwife Gloria STRACHAN on being recently honoured by the Child Care Division of the Department of So cial Services for services to children, during Child Care Week 7-13 April, 1986. Despite her numer ous duties at the Rock Sound Clinic, Nurse Stra chan has always found time for activities and has been a reliable foster mother in her community for a number of years. Keep up the good work Nurse Strachan. THE COTION BAY FOUNDATION-a group of home owners interested in the welfare of the Not only are staff members all together on the same floor but also the department itself is now in much closer proximity to their Ministry, less than the proverbial "stone's throw" This must be ad ministratively and mutually beneficial. Their new telephone number are 60526 60255 60457, 60525 and 65560 Family Island residents in Abaco Andros and El euthera should now be experiencing improvements in the quality of their services with the addition of an officer to each of the first two islands and a replacement in the third. There are now therefore:-two trained workers in Abaco one at Cooper's Town and one at Marsh Harbour two trained workers in Andros -one at Nicholls Town and one at Fresh Creek one trained worker in Governor's Harbour, Eleu thera and one in Exuma in addition to the staff in Grand Bahama.

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* The Social Services Coordinating Committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Hubert Dean, Deputy Governor of the Central Bank, was officially formed in March to support and encourage pro grammes and activities concerned with the welfare of children and families and to enlist the support of community members in efforts designed to strengthen existing foster care and adoptive pro grammes. Members of this committee are all lead ers in their individual right and include:-Messrs Calsey Johnson, Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas, Roy Davis, Eastern Airlines, Mrs. Ver nice Symonette, Patricia Bethel and Carol Hanna and the Lyford Cay Foundation This committee will assist the department in spe cial projects. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH adds its con gratulations to the following staff members who graduated from the College of The Bahamas, Ad vanced Certificate in Social Work on Friday 11th July: Beryl ARMBRISTER, Jennifer CASH, Zenovia COAKLEY, Charlemay FERNANDER, Patricia JONES, Lilian QUANT, Deva ROBERTS. This is the first graduating group in this course. The course lasted fourteen months. An "exciting experiment" is soon to be instituted. The depardment, in collaboration with The Baha mas Red Cross Society has recently acquired a house on the Fox Hill Road in which six senior citizens (three men and three women) will be ac commodated. These premises should help to reduce the pressure on the Princess Margaret Hospital and at the same time help these individuals to regain/maintain some degree of independence. VITAL STATISTICS Christopher Johnson age three months. BIRTHS Congratulations to Mrs. Shiela JOHNSON, Chief Clerk, Purchasing, in the Supplies Section of the Princess Margaret Hospital on the birth of your first grandson, Christopher, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on 24th September last. Christopher it seems is already a member of the "jet set" group as he visited his grandparents in Nassau earlier this year. Of course Mrs. Johsnon is still exuding the pleasure of grandmothership! Lucky for Christopher that you won't be around to "spoil him rotten" Mrs. Johnson! MARRIAGES Wedding Bells rang our for:-* NA Daphne Idena STRACHAN of the PMH and Cornell Norris FERGUSON on 1st March. SN Arneta Doralee SANDS of the PMH and Philip Charles CLARK on 29th March. NA Paula Mae BRICE of the PHM and John Firtzgerald HALL on 26th April. Congratulations and best wishes for many years of happy marriage. DEATHS JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH together with the staff of the Community Nursing Services, extend condo lences to Ms. Iclyn PRATI of the District Nursing Serv ice on the death of her mother on Friday 20th June, 1986. Funeral service was held at St. Agnes Church, Blue Hill Road on Sunday 29th June, 1986. May God grant you strength in your time of loss Nurse Pratt. Sincere condolences to Ms. Janice THOMPSON, Case Aide, Department of Social Services, Rock Sound, South Eleuthera on the tragic death of your baby daughter through fire at the age of five months in Deep Creek on Friday 20th June. Little Miquel was asleep in her bedroom at the time the fire started and her grandaunt who was at home, was unable to rescure her. 21

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r 22 WHAT NURSES ARE MADE FOR Enid Ruddock Nurses are made to care When nobody else cares Nurses are made to be doctors wives Nurses are made of rock-stone heart and iron flesh Nurses are not paid seroants but nurses, Nurses are not born nurses, Nurses evolve as God's merciful people. Nurses, dressed in white, Must always wear a half round smile, Nurses must not wear make-up at all. Nurses must always be ready With pen, watch and scissors, Nurses must always speak, Softly politely and friendly To patients and their visitors Nurses must never say no To questions asked, Nurses must only stop to rest, When the task is finished, At the end of the day. Nurses must always meet the needs Of the sick before meeting theirs, Nurses must always be ready To oblige without regarding Whom they oblige.

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DIETETICS -A CARING PROFESSION ROSALIE FOULKES One of the most respected professions is that of caring for the sick. A person who contributes to that care can take pride in his/her work. The patient or cli ent is the most important person in any health care institution. Today, health care includes the concept of continu ity of care meaning the transfer of care of the patient from the hospital to the home setting. To ensure conti nuity of care with respect to the nutritional needs of the patient requires conscientious assistance and effort of the administrators, physicians, surgeons, nurses, di etitians andd social workers. Dietitians play an integral and significant role in providing optimal nutritional care. They devote a great deal of time to counselling individuals and families emphasizing the importance of avoiding excessive calories, saturated fats, simple sug ars, refined foods, alcoholic beverages and salt. Over the course of a/lifetime, these excesses can lead to obesi ty and dental caries and are considered to be risk fac tors in heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and gastro intestinal disorders. A dietitian's job is not just another profession, it is a dedication to human welfare. Dietetics can be technically defined as the com bined science and art regulating the planning, prepara tion and serving of meals to individuals or groups un der various conditions of health. The objective is to motivate individuals at all economic levels, be they well or ill, to adopt sound nutritional habits. Individuals therefore, who are considering a career in dietetics must be interested in the personal as well as the profes sional characteristics deemed necessary in executing their responsibilities. At the very beginning of any course of study, it is advisable for the student to set some specific objectives. Regardless of one's future professional career in dietet ics, the study of nutrition should first be directed to oneself. In other words, those who expect and desire to help other people achieve better health through nutri tion must be enthusiastic and living examples of the benefits of the application of nutrition knowledge. To gain this knowledge, students must prepare themselves by following and completing a curriculum that will assure a sound and liberal education. High school students should have a good feel for the sciences, namely, Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physiology. The college entrance requirement in the United States nor mally states a 'C' average or better in all subjects. Credits obtained from a two year science oriented pro gramme at The College of The Bahamas, Nassau, Baha mas, are transferable to accredited Colleges in the United States. Students who will be selecting this area of speciality should become familiar and eventually involve them selves with various professional organizations which would afford them the opportunity for professional and personal development. To name a few, the American Dietetic Association (A.D.A.) is the largest professional organization of dietitians and dietetics technicians. Founded in 1917, A.D.A. has grown to include more than 52,000 nutrition professionals. Closer to home, we have the Caribbean Association of Nutritionists and Di etitians (CANDI) which consists of approximately 150 members. Presently, there is a Bahamian dietitian pur suing a one year post-graduate intership in Trinidad, West Indies, sponsored and organized by CANDI. Interested and aspiring students are advised to obtain a copy of the 'Directory of Dietetic Pro grammes'. This booklet can be most beneficial to you in the course of determning a College of your choice. It also includes the following information: a. general information pertaining to A.D.A.; b. accredited coordinated undergraduate pro-grammes; c. post baccalaureate dietetic internships; d. approved dietetic technician programmes; and e. advanced degree programmes. Keeping in mind the difficulty that confronts most undergraduates in gaining acceptance into dietetic in ternships, it is highly recommended that you select a college that offers the coordinated undergraduate pro gramme. This type of coordinated experience gives the student the opportunity to put into practice the theory aspects of the classroom teaching. Copies of the above mentioned 'Directory of Di-etetic Programmes' are available from: The American Dietetic Association Sales Order Department P.O. Box 10960 Chicago, Illinois 60610-0960 Catalogue Number: 0401 The following definitions, acadamic qualifications and responsibilities at the various functioning levels are set out below to help readers understand the termi nology related to the profession. A.D.A. Dietitian: a specialist, educated to take respon sibility for the nutritional care of individuals and groups. This is a person who has earned a bachelor's or higher degree in one of the following areas: Dietetics, Food and Nutrition, Nutrition and Food/service Systems Management. 23

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Registered Dietitian (R.D.): This is a person who meets all the requirements for membership in the American Dietetic Association, who has successfully completed the examination for registration, and who maintains continuing education requirements. This cer tification process encourages high standards of perfor mance to protest the health, safety and welfare of the public. On the job, LJ. Registered Dietitian (R.D.) has the same responsibilities as the A.D.A. Dietitian. Food Service Manager; The Food Service Manager assumes the responsibility for the administration of the Food Service Department. The duties are very similar to those of an Administrative Dietitian. The profession is encouraging this specialist not only to pursue an as sociate degree or equivalent, but also to undertake a four year degree course in Institutional Management. The main reason for this is that the Food/service Man ager needs to be cognizant of techniques for the prepa ration of foods, as well as important principles in such areas as Mathematics, Psychology, Chemistry, Micro biology, Cost Control and Supervision. Supportive Personnel: The Dietetic Technician programme is a two year programme leading to an associate degree. This pro gramme is a combination of dietetics and clinical expe rience. The technician works under the guidance of a fully qualified dietitian and has responsibilities in as signed areas in Food service Management, teaching Food and Nutrition Principles and Dietary Counselling. Dietetic Assistant: A skilled person who has success fully completed a high school education or equivalent and a dietetic assistant's programme which meets the standards established by the American Dietetics Asso ciation. The dietetic assistant, working under the guidance of a fully qualified dietitian, or a technician, has responsibility in assigned areas for food service to individuals and groups. Many of the responsibilities mentioned above have to do with teaching or training. Much of the dietitian's working day is devoted to this activity, either formally or informally, therefore anyone wishing to enter dietet-24 ics must be prepared to teach, an activity which should prove challenging and rewarding. Today in The Bahamas, there are approximately ten academically qualified dietitians. Apart from a very small number who serve in the school system as Home Economics Teachers, the majority of the dietitians are dispersed throughout the three main hospitals. The lo cal clinics and Family Island clinics are yet to be serv iced by dietitians. Nutrition education must become an essential component of the curriculum in all Elementary and Secondary Schools. In developed countries, there are many opportunities for dietitians in private industries. They find employment in airlines compa nies, hotels and restaurants, food manufacturers, phar maceutical companies and as private consultants. Other major employers are correctional institutions, day care centres, nursing homes and business firms that provide food for their employees. Thinking ahead; future dietitians will be returning home from their studies and will be seeking opportuni ties to put their talents and skills to use. We must bear in mind that most of these graduates may not have undergone an approved internship and so will need to be placed under the guidance and supervision of a pra tising dietitian. It is hoped that opportunities will be provided to allow for career progression and diversifica tion. Having a consultant dietitian with a supportive team function as an adjunct to the Ministry of Health can only be viewed as beneficial and progressive. This appointed group would be specifically responsible for developing and evaluating informational materials and equally important, provide direction and leadership for quality dietetic practice and education. The foregoing is only and introduction. As readers are aware, education means changes in behaviour. It moves the individual from lack of interest and igno rance to increasing appreciation and knowledge and fi nally, to action. Nutrition education offers a great op portunity for individuals to learn about the essentials of nutrition for health and to take steps to improve the quality of their diets and thus the well-being of the population.

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PHYSIOTHERAPY VELMA BURROWS Physiotherapy, as dehned m the curriculum of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP), 1976, is the treatment of disease and injury by physical means. HISTORY Physiotherapy is the oldest branch of the medical profession. It is that prehistoric branch of medicine where people touched, stroked and helped each other by manual therapy and dates back to the ancient Greeks, Chinese and Egyptians. In ancient Greece, the gymnasia were the places where one went for help and advice with problems for pain and function. There were directors who were ex perts in massage and exercises eg. PRODITUS who was described in the literature predating HIPPOCRATES. According to the Royal Charter, Physiotherapy has three components: 1. Massage 2. Medical Gymnastics 3. Medical Electricity. To date then, Physiotherapists are carrying on a tradition thousands of years old. Physiotherapy is a mo bile profession in health care and is, by its very nature of development, a service-oriented profession. MASSAGE: this is a hands on profession-it uti lises the areas of tissue manipulation, mobilisa tion, stretching and joint manipulation. To be an effective Therapist therefore, one must love people. One must love to touch and be touched because it is through touch that the healing process becomes effective. MEDICAL GYMN.A.STICS has led Therapists to become experts in normal and abnormal human movements The Therapist is well qualified in the biomechanics of the physiology of performance and to teaching and exercise theory Because Physiotherapists are experts in teaching and in dealing with the motivational basis of problems of disability and function, they handle patients both physically and mentally. MEDICAL ELECTRICITY: this modality uses the natural agencies which affect cellular activities, pain and function and is the difference between medicine and physiotherapy. In the medical model one deals with pathology (illness), one labels it and looks for treatment and cure. It is a model which puts a high priority on saving life. The physiotherapy model on the other hand, is about disorders and problems of function and disability rather than pathology diagnosis, although much time is spent learning about pathological diagnosis. Physiotherapy is a competent and independent pro fession. The Therapist works WITH and not FOR the Physician. Physiotherapists are capable of assessing, evaluating and planning treatment programmes inde pendently, without physician referrals. Physiotherapists are MANUAL therapists, they use their hands. It is a profession which uses touch for sensory the rapeutic input and healing, one which uses manual skills for manipulation. As in the medical profession there are many spe cialty areas so it is in physiotherapy, for example Paediatrics, Gynaecology & Obstetrics, Gerontology, Or thopaedics, Neurology, Respiratory and Hydrotherapy to name a few. ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS The minimum entry requirements for a physiothe rapy programme depend on location and are as follows: 1. JAMAICA: five G.C.E. "0" Levels 2. UNITED KINGDOM and CANADA: five G.C.E. "0" Levels and two "A" Levels -an associate degree in the sciences may be substituted for the two "A" Levels. 3. U.S.A: This will depend on the University. You may gain entry with five G.C.E. "0" Levels, an associate degree or a first degree in the sci ences. The training period in Jamaica is three academic school years and four years in the United Kingdom, Canada and U.S.A.

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THE FIELD OF SOCIAL WORK LORENE CLARKE "Social Work and Social Welfare activities constitutes one of the most important functions in terms of financial expenditure and human efforts." SOCIAL WORK DEFINED A Classic Definition One theorist, Mary Richmond, sees Social Work as "those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously effected, individual by individual, between men and their social environment." Another sees it as "the art of bringing various resources to bear on individual, group and community needs and the ap plication of a scientific method of helping people to help themselves." While some .theorists see Social Work from the pys cho-social point of view and others see it from a pure soci
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myth. Professional training in the area of Social Work, requires maturity, sensitivity and a genuine concern for coupled with empathy is all that is needed. the well-being of others. Social Work can be a very rewarding profession. It ON BECOMING A PHARMACIST SY PIERRE What is Pharmacy? Pharmacy has been defined as that profession which is concerned with the art and science of prepar ing from natural and synthetic sources, suitable and convenient materials for distribution and use in the treatment and prevention of disease. It embraces a knowledge of the identification, selection, pharmacologic action, preservation, combination, analysis and stan dardization of drugs and medicines. Pharmacy also in cludes proper and safe distribution and use of drugs. The word "pharmacy" is derived from the Greek work "pharmakon", meaning medicine or drug. A phar macist is therefore 'the expert on drugs'. Training At present, there are two grades of pharmacist in The Bahamas, Grade I and Grade II. The minimum re quirements necessary to qualify as a Grade I Pharma cist is a Bachelor is a Science degree in Pharmacy from an approved or recognised College of Pharmacy. All pharmacy programmes last five years. The first two years (of the pharmacy school curriculum) (called pre pharmacy) consist of courses which provide a firm foun dation in the physical and biological sciences, eg. chem istry, physics and biology and mathematics. Over the next three years, the curriculum consists primarily of professional pharmacy courses. These courses, basic to all pharmacy schools, include pharmacognosy, biology, biochemistry and commerce of natural products; phar macology, the study of the action and use of drugs; pharmaceutical chemistry, the application of basic or ganic and inorganic chemistry, pharmaceuticals and the relation of these principles to drug use ; pharmacy phar maceuticals, this includes calculations, preparations, dispensing pharmacy and physical pharmacy; clinical pharmacy, which is that division of pharmacy which deals with patient care with particular emphasis on drug therapy; and pharmacy administration, which deals with the principles and practice of business and law as they apply to pharmacy practice Generally, af ter completing the degree course, a Pharmacy Board examination is taken and the successful student is then a licensed or registered pharmacist which grants him/ her the legal right to "independently engage in the practice of pharmacy''_ In order to become a Grade II Pharmacist, the individual must have obtained a minimum of five general certificate of education (GCE) subjects (with a mini mum of C-Grade), which must include Mathematics, English and one science subject. He/she must then undergo at least four years of inservice training or apprenticeship in a pharmacy under the direction/supervision of a licensed pharmacist. The final step in obtaining grade II licensure is to take classes (given by a licensed pharmacist) in order to sit the pharmacy examination administered by the PHAR MACY BOARD. One can also become a Pharmacy Technician, which involves less intense training but allows the per son to participate in the technical aspects of pharmacy under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist. A degree which is fast becoming popular in the United States is the degree of "Doctor of Pharmacy'' (Pharm. D), not to be confused with the Doctor of Phi losophy (PhD) degree. The Pharm. D. is a clinical de gree (as opposed to research) and requires a minimum of six years study. The degree is similar to the Bachelor of Science degree in pharmacy, but the additional year involves extensive training in clinical pharmacy and may also involve specialization in areas such as oncolo gy, psychiatry, paediatrics, general medicine, ambulato ry care, clinical (pharmacokinetics) nutritional support, drug toxicology. It should be noted that there are also research oriented degrees which may be obtained in specific areas encompassed by pharmacy. These are the Master of Science (M.S ) and the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD.) degrees. The M.S. and PhD. degrees are post-graduate degrees which can be obtained in two and four years after completion of the Bachelor of Science or Doctor of Pharmacy degree. These post-graduate degrees are in specialty areas such as pharmacology, medicinal chem-27

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istry and biopharmaceutics. Careers in Pharmacy Finally, I would like to touch upon the different careers in which one can engage. First there is the Community Pharmacist more pharmacists are involved in community practice than in any other area of p.;.armacy This is the pharmacist most often seen by the public who practices in an independently owned or chain pharmacy store. Another career in pharmacy is that of Hospital Pharmacist. These pharmacists practice in private and government-owned hospitals. There is also the Wholesale Pharmacist. This Pharmacist as with other wholesalers) acts a "middleman" between the manufacturer and the community pharmacist. Because of the special nature and legal restrictions of the products handled, most wholesale drug firms em ploy a licensed pharmacist in a supervisory capacity. Industrial pharmacy is another career which offers opportunities to pharmacists of all educational levels. This includes careers such as the Medical Service Representative (or detail man) who is in contact with both physician and pharmacist regarding his company's products. Pharmacists are also employed in supervisory and administrative positions in industry. Industry also offers opportunities to those with research oriented de grees in such areas as product development, quality control, testing and the discovery of new drugs and other therapeutic agents. In conclusion -pharmacy encompasses a broad area of knowledge in both the basic and clinical sci ences with special emphasis on drug information A career in pharmacy can be rewarding and fulfilling if only because a pharmacist is an essential member of any health care team. IMMUNIZATION AWARDS CEREMONY IN PICTURES / ?.R.

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Our men are so SPECIAL!!! t 30

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lJ I r .. HEALTH EDUCATION IN MOTION FELICITY A YMER Although the art and practice of health education dates back to antiquity, the phrase is relatively new having only been coined and adopted early this century. The practice and acceptance of health education has had a very chequered life, nearly falling into oblivion at one point and owes is revitalisation to epidemics occur ring mid last century and the turn of this. Since then Health Education has gained steady credence over the last eighty or so years and is now being hailed as the panacea for all the modern day health problems. But what is it, what does the "health education" do? Surely all health and indeed allied health professionals/providers are health educators? Of course they are. The mother/guardian who teaches her young child healthful habits, the community nurse who helps her clients to nurture her family or suggests alternative ways of housekeeping to accommodate a sick child, dis abled or elderly relative, the Environmental Health Officer who persuades his/her constituents to "catch" their plants in soil/sand rather than water, the physician, bedside nurse, the teacher, are all functioning as health educators. What then does the health educator/Health Educa-31

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tion Specialist do? The answer to that lies essentially in understanding what health education is about. The essence of health education lies in "voluntary adaptations of behaviour conducive to healthful living". The WHO's Expert Committee on Health Education of the public (Technical Report Series No. 89) states the aim of health education is to help people to achieve health by their own actions and efforts The general purposes 1. to make health a valued community asset 2. to help individuals to become competent in and to carry on those activities they must undertake for themselves as individuals or in small groups in order to realise fully the state of health ... 3. to promote the development and proper use of health services. Health education is a "people-centred" activity The trained health educator's function is to plan, conduct and evaluate health education programmes whether they are institutionally. community. school or occupa tionally based. The health education specialist as she/he is internationally known is trained in the biological, physical and social sciences; in education and educational psychology; in hygiene and public health; in public administra tion; and in the special skills required in the discipline. < I A planning meeting for a programme of health education in the General Practice, PMH. Left to right: Dr. Gray, (GPC), Dwight Allen, Cheryl Thompson, Dr. Whitfield, Dr. King Chung and Mrs. Ferguson. 32 7 The Health Education Division of the Ministry of Health is a small service area of the Ministry, strug gling it seems often, against all odds, but we are grad ually and inexorably moving from the position in which we were perceived as "showing a film or giving a lec ture" to the planning implementation and evaluation of health education programmes status. Health education employs any number and or com bination of education/communication strategies to effect "voluntary behaviour change". One of these methods is the use of the electronic media. For a number of years the Division has had sole responsibility for coordinating and producing the Ministry of Health's weekly half hour radio programme heard over Radio Bahamas ZNS 1 on Sunday at 1 p.m. The practice of health education is an interesting, challenging and even at times, rewarding one. It de mands conviction, determination and the ability to "laugh at oneself'. It also demands that we listen to and hear our publics and are able to communicate effective ly not only with them but also with our leaders in the Ministry of Health if we are not to lose sight of the raison d'etre of our existance, effecting behaviour change. With the challenge of Health For All By the Year 2000 (HF A/2000) health education is enjoying and un precedented resurgence, the opportunities for playing a vital role in the "quest for health" presently exist and will exist for some time to come. Health Education Officer FELICITY A YMER, enjoys a lighthearted moment following a recording of the weekly Ministry of Health's Radio programme with her guest Dr. Herbert Orlander.

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A BRIEF ON THE HEALTH INSPECfORATE MELONY McKENZIE Environmental Health Science is the control of all those factors in man's physical environment which exert or may exert a deleterious effect on his physical development, health and survival. The Department of Environmental Health Services (DEHS), a department of the Ministry of Health, is headed by a Director who is ultimately, responsible for the coordination and performance of all divisions. The Director's office is located in the Mosko Building, "Haw kins Hill" Mount Royal Avenue, Nassau. Administra tive responsibilities are shared by a Deputy Director The Department is comprised of six units. These are:-1. The Health Inspectorate 2. Solid Waste Collection & Disposal Division 3. The Public Analyst Laboratory 4. Vector Control 5. Roads & Parks 6. Garage. THE HEALTH INSPECTORATE The Health Inspectorate Division, located in prem ises on School Lane, is headed by a Chief Health In spector, who is assisted by a Deputy Chief Health In spector. This Division is responsible for food and water quality control, building control, port health, meat in spection, licensing food inspections, general inspec tions, investigation of environmental complaints, house and yard inspections and epidemiological investiga tions. To facilitate coverage of this island, New Provi dence is divided into twelve districts each of which is the responsibility of a Health Officer. Each officer is responsible for the entire environmental status of his/h er district. The maintenance of an efficient system of supervis ing and controlling the production, presentation stor age and distribution of the nation's food supply is an important function of the department. The recently es tablished food unit has responsibility for 1) licensing of business houses ; 2) Sampling of food and water; 3) In spection of premises for school food vendors and tempo rary food vendors. Port Health Port Health includes inspection at all ports of entry of all imported meats, inspection of all international vessels and inspection for deratization certificates. Strict attention is paid to the importation of used cloth ing and all imported used clothing must be accompa nied by a Certificate of Fumigation from the point of shipping. The clothes are subject to inspection by a Health Officer. Building Control All building applications must be submitted to the department. to obtain approval, all enviromental health requirements must be met. At present, the island is divided into east and west and inspection of all build ings and building plans in these areas is the responsibi lity of two Officers. Epidemiological Investigations Epidemiological investigations and meat inspection are also responsibilities of the department. Meat inspec tion is performed by all qualified Health InspectOrs on a rotation basis. They are assisted by a Health Assistant or Health Aide. At present one officer is responsible for all emidemiological investigations. Staffing Staff of the Inspectorate in New Providence consist of:-ten Health Inspectors, five Health Assistants, five Health Aides. VECTOR CONTROL The coordination of the Vector Control Unit is di vided into Insect and Rodent Control headed by two foremen, one for Insect and one for Rodents. The unit is responsible for the identification and control of all vectors eg. mosquitoes, rodents. The Aedes aegypti control programme consists of Vector Control Officers who make systematic visits to all premises. All receptacles holding water are treated with insecticides and breeding sites are inspected to determine the effec tiveness of the treatment. All ports of entry in New Providence are under surveillance for Aedes aegypti and must be free of this mosquito to prevent disease transmission. Surveillance encompasses placement of (ovi) traps for egg laying mosquitoes in strategic locations. These traps are serviced on a weekly basis, ''paddles" are taken to the mosquito indentification laboratory to determine whether or not there is breeding. Positive ovi paddles are placed in pans and incubated. The resultant larvae are then killed, indentified and preserved. In addition to the two foremen, staff of Vector Con trol unit comprise twenty Vector Control Officers. 33

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FELICITY A YMER VELMA BURROWS PlllLABERTHA CARTER LORENE CLARKE DONALD COOPER CECIL DORSETT ROSALIE FOULKES BRENDA INGRAHAM PORTIA JORDAN MELONY McKENZIE KA YLA MUSGROVE SY PIERRE ENID RUDDOCK JANE TRECO Photographs: Courtesy: 34 ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS Health Education Officer, Ministry of Health and Editor is the Deputy Chief Physiotherapist at the Princess Margaret Hospital. is a Community Nurse, Nursing Officer at the Coconut Grove Clinic, Acklins Street, Nassau. is the Chief Welfare Officer in the Department of Social Services. is an Assistant Director in the Department of Environmental Health Services and the Public Analyst. Dr. Cooper holds a PhD in Microbiology. is a Senior Agricultural Extension Officer in the Department of Agriculture's Rock Sound, Eleuthera Office, Ministry of Economic Affairs. is Registered Dietitian and the Officer in charge of Food Services at the Sandilands Rehabilitation Centre. is the Senior Records Officer Medical Records Department and officer in charge of the Department. is the Coordinator of Counselling Services at the College of The Bahamas and holds a PhD in Counselling. is an Officer of the Department of Environmental Health Services, Health Inspectorate Division is a recent graduate of the Acadia University, Nova Scotia and has worked as a summer student in the Cytology Section of the Laboratory, PMH. is a medical student at Maharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee and a trained Pharmacist. is a Community Nurse in Fresh Creek, Andros. is a Radiographer Grade 1 at the Princess Margaret Hospital. Mr. Anthony Brown, Audio Visual Unit, Princess Margaret Hospital and Mr. Ken Barko of the Editorial Committee.

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EDITORIAL COMMITIEE FELICITY A YMER Health Education Division STEPHANIE CARROLL Bahamas Association of Life Insurers AUDREY DEVEAUX National Insurance Board ASHW ARD FERGUSON Architect, Ministry of Works KEN OFOSU-BARKO Medical Officer, Public Health Department HARCOURT PINDER National Health Education Council (Bahamas) CARLTON SMITH The Counsellors DONNA SMITHDIAL Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas CHERYL THOMPSON Health Education Division. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------EVALUAllON Help us to make the newsletter as interesting and informative as possible. Please complete, detach and return this short evaluation form to the Health Educ:ation Division. Public Health Department, Nassau, Bahamas. Tick the most appropriate response 1. How did you find the newsletter? a) very interesting b) interesting c) somewhat interesting d) uninteresting e) did DOt read 2. Was there any article of particular interest to you? Yes o No o If yes, please give title ....... ........ .. .... ....... .... ...... ...... ........ .... ......... ... .. ............................................................ .. ........ .. 3. What changes, if any, would you like to see? ------------------4. What topics would you like in future issues? .......................................................................................................... .. 5 Would you like to contribute to this newsletter? YesDNoo If yes, please give name and address. Name : ............... ......... .... ........ ... ....... ...... ........ .... ........ .. .. .. ...... ... .................. ..... .. ..... .................................................. Address: ....... .......... ........... ........ ... ........ ... .. ... .... ...... ....... ..... ......... .. ....... ........... .. ............ .. ..................................... Thank you for your co-operation! 35

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HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS THE WORD FOR 86? SELF-CARE THE WAY TO BETT ER HEALTH Cover Design by: THEOPHILUS THOMPSON LESLIE JOHNSON ASHWARD FERGUSON NASSAU, BAHAMAS PRINTED IN THE BAHAMAS BY THE NASSAU GUARDIAN (1844 ) l TO



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Volume 3No. 4 1985/86,.

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TABLE OF CONTENTSPage1.Immunisation ProtectstheNation12.Life Abroad Kayla Musgrove. 23.Employment OpportunitieswithinthePublic Analyst Laboratory Donald Cooper 24.Editorial................................................................................................ 35.GowithAgriculture Cecil Dorsett 46.RadiographyJane Treco.......................... 67.Career LifePlanningPortiaJordan68.CommunityHealthNursingAn ExcitingCareerPhilaberthaCarter............ 99.A very Special Visitor 1010.Overview oftheMedical Records Department.. BrendaIngraham1311. Up-Date Felicity Aymer1412.WhatNursesareMade For (Poem) Enid Ruddock.....................2213.Dietetics -ACaringProfession Rosalie Foulkes..................2314.Physiotherapy Velma Burrows2515. The Field of Social Work LoreneClarke26 More on Immunisation......... 2816.On Becoming aPharmacistByPierre2717.Health Education in Motion Felicity Aymer3118.A Brief ontheHealthInspectorate Melony McKenzie....... 3319.Editorial Committee 3520.Evaluation...........3521. About the Contributors .Inside Back Cover

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IMMUNISATIONPROTECfSTHENATION.MinisterGayaddressingthegroupattheAwardsCeremony,AnnsTownClinic.TheMinisterisexpecting100%coveragebyyear'send!!Theweek ofJune1st -7thwas observedinNew ProvidenceasImmunisation Week. The focus was to create agreaterpublic awareness oftheimportance of basic immunisation coverage forthenation's children. The media, radioanddaily newspaper focused on va rious aspects of immunisationandcontributors tothemedia effort weredrawnfrom alltheclinicsaswellasthe CommunityNursingServices, ClarenceA.BainBuilding. Althoughthethrustfortheactivities occurred dur ingthatweek, all children completingtheirbasic cover age on schedule triple DPTandpolio by age seven months and DPTlPolioandMMR by age twelve months in the month ofJune,were awarded certificatesandgifts.Light refreshments toparents(predominantly mothers) were served after each ceremony heldattheBlue Hill Road Clinic on Monday,30thJuneat1pmAudiencewaitingforthestartoftheAwardCeremony,Blue HillRoadClinic.Certificates were awarded by Mr.L.Emerson Smith,PermanentSecretary, Ministry of Health. Fox Hill Clinic on Wednesday, 2ndJuly4pm Cer tificates were awarded by Dr.KenBarko, PublicHealthDepartment. Ann's Town Clinic on Thursday,3rdJuly3pm Certificates were awarded bytheMinister ofHealthHonourable Dr. Norman Gay. Coconut Grove Clinic on Thursday, 3rd July at4:30pm Certificates were awarded by Mr.L.Emerson Smith,PermanentSecretary, Ministry of Health. The Number of children qualifying forCertificates:-Blue Hill Road Clinic 78 DPTlPolio 78MMR Fox Hill Clinic 7 DPTlPolio 5 MMR Ann's Town Clinic 33 DPI'lPolio 33 MMR Coconut Grove 43 DPI'lPolio 44 MMRDr.F.Mahmood,ActingMedicalOfficerofHealthIN.P.awardingcerficatesandgiftsattheBlueHillRoadClin ic.

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LIFE ABROADKA YLA MUSGROVEStudying abroad can be bothanenrichinganden lightening experience. On myarrivalinNova Scotia, Canada, where Ipursueda Bachelor of Science degree, I was greeted by veryunpleasantweather.Noamountof reading about a far away country could have preparedme for such a drastic changeinclimate. Acclimi tisation though, which wasatfirst difficult, was quickly surmountedasI developed a new lifestyle, especiallyintheway I dressedandI soonbeganto appreciatetheweatherasI got involvedina variety ofwintersports. These included suchthingsascross-country skiing, ice skating, tobogganingandsleigh riding.Makingsnow men wastheparamountfeature. Studying abroad, one obtains a multifaceted educa tion. One doesnotonly obtain book knowledgebutalso livesinandisexposed to a different culture; onelearnsto acceptandrespectotherpeople's beliefsandvaluesandtheylearnto respect yours. The Nova Scotiansarea friendly, mild-spiritedandeasy going people, there foreadjustmentwas effortless.Infact, to help foreignstudentsadjust,theInternationalStudentAdvisor im plemented a programme whereby eachstudentwas given a 'host parent'. Theseparentsfunctionedinas sisting students, where possible, byhavingthemattheirhomesduringweek-endsandinvitingthemto nu merous social gatherings. The hostparentsrepresented'ahome away from home'.Therewas alsoanInternational Students' Club wherefurtherculturalexchange took place. I was a very active member. The university consisted ofabout 3,000studentswhichisquite small. This is advantageousasrapportcanbe more easily de veloped betweenstudentsandprofessors. Acadia Unilight refreshmentsbeingservedonahotafternoonfollowingtheawardceremony.versityanditsenvironsarevery picturesque, especiallyduringwinterwhenthesurroundingmountainsare snow-capped.Tobe successfulinstudying abroad,theindividualmustnever forget hislher purposeinbeing there. Youmustrealizethatyour firstdutyis to yourselfandyour familyandthatyouareanambassador for your coun try. Toattainsetgoals requires prayers, discipline and perseverance. Youmustbe very carefulnotto become side trackedwiththeseemingly easy lifeandvarious choices afforded by campus life such asdrugsandother immoralities.Studyingandliving abroadhasbeen ben eficial -ithasnotonly madememore "learned"inmy fieldofstudy,butalsoithashelpedinmy development of self, exposedmeto a countryatfirst-handandithas helped me to appreciate home, especiallythesun,thatmanyof us so oftentakefor granted.EMPLOYMENTOPPORTUNITIESWITHINTHEPUBLICANALYSTLABORATORYDONALDCOOPERWithinthepasttwoyearstheportfolio ofthePub licAnalystLaboratory (PAL)hasbeen expanded to in corporate environmental monitoring,riskassessmentandwaste disposal evaluation.Inaddition,thePublicHealthcomponents of water,foodanddairy products analysishadbeen moretightlystructed to allow foranincrease inthemonitoringrate.Thishasresultedina 75% increase inthework load.Tomeetthese increased commitments,thesectionhashadto be restructured. Most senioradministrativepositionshavebeen filledandnew techniciansandjunior technicians hired. TheDepartmentof EnvironmentalHealthhasalso revisedthehierarchicalstructurewithintheLabdelineatinga clear promotion ladder whichmakesthepost of technician acareerorientated one. At presenttherearevacancieswithinthePALforjunior technicians (trainee), technicians (usuallywithaB.Sc.degree)andtechnologists (technician who has acquired a speciality area).Plansalso envisagethehir ing of senior technologists (to coordinate technicians inanarea)andanAssistantAnalyst (to supervise a sec-

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tion). The picture thereforeappearsvery favourable for skilled people contemplating acareerinscience. WiththerestructuringoftheLab, techniciansarenowbeing soughttofillparticularneeds. Thismeansthata person with a degreeinBiology maynotfind a position,butonewitha B.ScinChemistrywill. Techni cians inthefollowingareasarecurrentlyindemandatthe PAL: Chemistry,EnvironmentalChemistry, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Food Science.Ofthedisciplines named, Chemistry isthemost re quired oneandthistrendis likely to continue forthenextthreeto five years. .Insummary,thefutureappearsbrightfor techni CIansatthePAL. Thepresentemphasis, however is basedprimarilyaroundChemistry. 'EDITORIALFor many teenagers, choosingacareer is not easy. Veryfewofus know fromanearly age in what areawewishtospend our lives. Additionally, the choices aresomany andsovaried that, rather than making it easier, career choices seemtobegetting more difficultandwhat many school leavers really are interested in is finding paid employment. Criticaltoemploymentandliving a reasonablyre-warding existence for the individualandhis family though, is a basic sound education the abilitytoread, write, express oneself,tounderstand,beunder stoodandreact appropriately.Inanattempttoshed more light on the health in dustry, CaringandSharingatSchooltime has at temptedtoprovide some insights into some careers in healthandhealth related professions.DirectorGeneralWHODr.HalfdanMahlerinconferencewithlocalPAHOstaff.3-

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GOWITHAGRICULTURECECIL DORSETTThecolonial system, coupledwithpastexperiences of slavery, povertyandhardshipsthatBlacks experi enced,maybeblamedfortheattitudeofmanyof to day'syoungpeople towardsagricultureasa profession.Whenagricultureis suggested,mostoftheresponsesarenegative. "Brother, Ihavebeentryingtogetaneducation togetasfarawayfromthefarmasIcangetandhereyouwantmeto go touniversitytogeta de greeinfarming?" or"That'shardworkbeingoutthereinthesundoingmenialtasks!" or, "I don't need a de gree to grow tomatoes!". Today, however,theseclichesareoutdated. Toequatethecollege profession of agriculturetofarmingislikesayingthataftergraduationmost electricalengineerswillendupwiringhouses. Why should you consider acareerinagricultureandrelatedareas?Amongthemodernsciences,agricultureanditsap pliedareasaresome ofthemostchallengingareasofstudy.ItisascomplexandasinterdisciplinaryasEngi neering, Medicine,LaworBusiness.Onthesurfaceitmaynot soundasglamorous tobea professionalworkerin"Ag."(agriculture)asitis to be a medical doctor, den tist,lawyeror a "space engineer",butthinkaboutit,thechallengesofproducingenoughfoodandeliminat-inghungerandmalnutritionarefargreaterandwillrequiremuch moreingenuityto solvethanthoseofgoing tothemoon, piggy-backorotherwise.Ifitwerenotso, we wouldhaveeliminatedhungerlong ago!Agricultureasa disciplineofstudyis diverse.Whateveryourinterests,youcanfindparallelsforspecializationinagriculture.Ifchemistryisyourbag,youcanbe a FoodChemistor Soil Chemist;ifengineering excites you,thereisAgriculturalEngineering;ifSocial Sciencesinterestyou,thereisRuralSociology or AgriculturalEconomicsandto a loverofBotanythere Horticulture.Ifyou wish to teach, you candoitas a Vo-Ag (Vocational Agriculture)teacherinahighschoo!orattheCollege ofTheBahamas.Irrespective ofethnicandculturalongms, fe" young peopletakeupfarmingasanoccupation otheJthanthroughinheritance,becauseitrequiresvery higr capital outlay.Thereisthecost oflandandfarmrnachinery.Thisisnottosuggestthatit is impossible,bwsimplythatunlessyouhaveplannedwellwhereyowlabourandcapitalresources will come from, full tim. farmingasanoccupation will bequitedifficult to breal into. Today, lessthantwopercentofthepopulation it TheBahamaslive onthefarm.Thereis alsothematte:

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of possessing a farm background to bean'lAg Major". Whileitis helpful tohavesome familiarity,itisnota prerequisite for mostcareersinagriculture.Although the actualnumbersvary, approximately 40% to 60% of studentscurrentlyenrolled inagriculturalandrelatedprogramsintheUSdonothavea farm background,infact they come from allwalksof life -urban,suburbanandrural communities. Whataretheopportunities for young women who majorinagriculture? Iventuretosaytheyrangefromgoodtoexcellentandarecertainlynot affected by sex, becauseagricultureencompasses such a widevarietyof job opportunitiesanddisciplines.WHATISAGRICULTURE?Agriculture is avastinterdisciplinarysciencewithmanyareasof specialization.Itisanapplied science which is shaped bythethreebasic sciences: physics, chemistryandbiologyandis supported bymathematics.Add tothesebasic sciences somehumanaspects, some commerceandsome technologyandyou have ag riculture! I doubtthata complete description of agricul ture can be accurately done,butitisimportantthatwelookatsome ofthemajorareasthatagricultureencom passes or with whichitis closely affiliated.CAREERCHOICESINAGRICULTUREThe choice of acareerisone ofthemostimportantdecisions onemakesinlife, so devote time, effortandstudy tothistask.Whatprofession would you like to have?Toooften acareeris chosen foritsglamouror someothervaguely defined reason. Youmustanalyseyourinterestsandtalentsthenexaminethosecareersthatappear tomeshwiththesecharacteristics. Infor mation onagriculturemaybe obtained fromtheDepartmentofAgricultureandFisheries,EastBayStreet,telephone 21277,Ministryof Education, oruniversitiesin the West Indies ortheUnitedStateswhich offers programsinagricultureandwhich will be willing to assist you.Inaddition,therearesomegovernmentpub licationsthatwould be most useful. CAREER LISTINGSinagricultureinclude chemical salesperson,brokerstatistics,management,business, farm realtor,farmmachinedealer,nurseryowner/ope rator, florist, feed lotmanager,qualitycontrol specialist and total abouttwentythree.COMMUNICATIONSIn view oftheemphasistheGovernmenthasplaced onagricultureandthesteadygrowthinthisarea,I foreseemanyopportunitiesinagriculturefor young menandwomenwithaninterestinandatalentfor communicating. Theyrangefromreportingfor adailynewspaper, radio or television, to technicalwritingandputtingtogethersalesliterature.You willdoresearch, consultwithagriculturalaffairs,interiorfarmers,businessmenandscientists. Youmustbe able to deal effectivelywitha widevarietyof personalities, be capableofunderstandingcomplexthingsandtranslatingtheminto layman'sterms.SCIENCEIf inquiry,sensitivitytodetailandabilityto solve problems interestyouandifyouarethor oughlytrained,thereareunparalleledopportunities for you inagriculturalscience.Herearesomeexamplesofareasofstudy:-agriculturalchemistry, engineering, agronomy,animalbreeding,entomology,foodscience,foodanalysis, ecolo gy, fish biology,horticulture,poultryscience, taxonomy, biochemistry, bacteriology,laboratorytechnology,parasitology,ruralsociology, soil chemistry, forestry, wild life science.PRODUCTIONAGRICULTUREIftheindependence of being your own boss, enjoymentof work, ability tomanagecapital,naturalre sources of soil,waterandlabourstrikeyour fancy,thereis no reason why acareerin production agriculturemaynotbe acareerfor you.Donotunderestimatethedemandonyourintelligenceinsuch a job and/orintoday's technologicalfarmingwhich is steadily becominga wayoflife inTheBahamas.Althoughphysicalstrengthandhardworkarenecessary,itis no way compares totheold days ofbackbreakinglabour. I know of several successfulhighschoolandcollege graduateswhoarereally"makingit"inagriculturalproduc tion. They all usetheirown special skillsandareenjoyingthefruits ofbeingsuccessful business people. Somearelivestock farmers,othersgrow fruitsandvegeta bles, some grow flowersandplantsornurserycropsandsomeareagro-consultant specialists. Many oftheopera tions alsoadapttopart-timesituations.SOMECAREERSINPRODUCTIONAGRICULTURE:-Agronomy,animalbreeding,cattlemanagement,dairyman,farmmanagement,bee-keeping,fruitgrow ing, poultry, vegetable/green house growing.InourBahamasthereis a great need for increasedfoodself-sufficiency.Eachcountry shouldhaveaccess toadequatefood suppliesintimeof shortages.Intheeventofaninternationalfoodcrisis,TheBahamascanonly supplyitselfwithfoodfor a few weeks!Thevalueandneed for moreagricultureinourowncountryis clear. Consequently, on anationallevel,theGovernmentoftheCommonwealth ofTheBahamashascommitteditselfto placing ahigherpriorityonagriculturalproduction.5

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However,thisselfsufficiency will only betrulyrea lised whenouryouths become more consciousofandcommitted tothisstrugglebytakingupthechallengeandgoing abroad topursuecareersinthevariousdisci plines in agriculture. Iurgeyouhighschool leaversandotherswhohavealeaninginthisareatherefore to speak withyourschool counsellorsorcontacttheDepartmentofAgriculture. Good luckandgood growingwithagriculture!RADIOGRAPHYJANE TRECORadiography is a most fascinating profession.ItbringsyouindirectcontactwithpatientsastheRadiographer(X-ray TechnologistlX-ray Technician)astheyarecalled,takesX-rayswithandwithoutthesupervi sion oftheRadiologist physician specialisinginRa diography.Itis one of themajor aids to diagnosis.Eachday some new technique is being discoveredandmachinesarebeing improved.Inthisscientific age, Radiography continues to de velopintoone ofthemostinterestingoftheprofessionsandevengreaterknowledge will evolveinfutureyears. Qualificationsvaryin differentpartsoftheworld.IntheUnitedKingdomandtheUniversity oftheWest Indies,inorder to dothemembership Diploma, you need five 'O'levelsandtwo 'A'levels, three of whichmustbe English,Mathematicsandone oftheSciences (Biology,ChemistryorPhysics).InCanada,itistheequivalent.IntheU.s.A., if youdonothavethebasicentryrequirementsfor the course, youareallowed to dothefirstyearofa Science Degree course which will help you tothengointotrainingasa Radiographer.StartingsalaryinTheBahamasifyouhaveyour membership/certification from a recognised body istenthousanddollarsperannum.Without certification, applicantsmaybe appointed tostudentposts,workingalongwitha registered/certi fied technician over a twoyearperioduntiltheyhaveobtainedtherelevantbasicentryqualifications for uni versity.CAREER LIFE PLANNINGPORTIA JORDANBecause ofrapiddevelopmentsinscience, technolo gy, governmf::nt, andinternationalrelations,ourworld today offers countless new careers. Consequently,anindividual needs tolearnaboutthose opportunities which willneitherfrustratenorwastevaluabletimeandeffort. He/shemustbe ablenotonly to select a careerthatissuitableto his/hertemperamentor abili ty,butalso become flexible enough to accommodate a variety of jobs, as wellaspreparefor inevitable changes inthefuture. Before choosing a career, one should:1.know oneself (i.e one's interests, abilities, feelings,attitudesandvalues)62.beawareofjob qualifications (i.etheskills needed todothejob) 3. knowthejobmarket(i.e which jobsareindemandandwhich onesalreadysaturatethe market). Persons oftenrequestingassistanceinCareerPlanninginclude: a)studentsleavinghighschool toenterthejobmarketb)peopleenteringcollege who need to clarifytheircareerobjectives before choosingtheiracademicprogramme

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c)collegestudentswhohavebecome disenchantedwiththeircurrentacademic programmeandcareergoalsd)womenpreparingtomakeatransitionforhome-makerto collegestudentand/orsala ried employeee)peoplepreparingfor a firstcareerf)people dissatisfiedwiththeirpresenttypeofwork orcareerwho wish tomakeachangeforthebetterg)mid-lifecareerchangersseeking more satis factionintheircareer. Individualsinanycategorymaysuccessfully ac complishtheirgoalsiftheyareattainable.Tothisex tent,itisimportanttounderstandtherelationshipbe tweenhavingvocationalinterestandhavingtheabilitytopursuethatinterest.Forexample,themedical field offers avarietyofoccupations for professionalandskilledaspirantswhich include dentists, medical tech nologists (radiologists, surgical technicians),pharmacists, physicaltherapists,physicians,vaterinarians,dentalassistants,nurses.Yeteachrequiresspecific ap titudes in order to be successful. The world of work providesmanycareeropportuni ties foraspiringindividuals. Nevertheless,relevantvocationaltrainingisessentialbeforeseekingemploy-ment.Arecentsurvery,sponsored bytheNationalInstituteofEducation,USDepartmentofEducation, suggeststhatnew employeeswithrelevantvocational educationaremore productive,requireless on-the-jobtrainingandreceivehigherwagesthanthose new em ployeeswithoutrelevantvocationaltraining.Additio nally, employeeswithvocationaltrainingthatwasnotrelevanttotheircurrentjobs were no more productivethanotheremployeesinthatjobwithoutanyvocationaltraining.* Contemporarycareerassessmentprogrammes(similartothatexpectedattheCollege ofTheBahamasinSeptember, 1986)assistinidentifyingcareerinterestsandabilitiescrucial for success in avarietyofoccupa tions.Althoughtheaptitudetestsandinterestinventoriesdifferwithregardto formatandtheinformationtheyprovide,theyallassistindividualsinmakingmoreaccurateandintelligentcareerdecisions.Finally,thecareerquidance services offered bymanyschools,assiststudentsinidentifyingtheirinterestandabilities,aswellasprovide information ontherateof growth or declineinvariousoccupations,thusenablingthemtomakewise decisionsastheyplanacareerfor life.*NationalCenterfor Researchin Education: Columbus, Ohio, 1985.7

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FAMILYAWARENESS H:i:iWJ16 \ vt.z 0 0:: H >JJE-t>JJ<0:: U <:=> u p>JJi0) 0 '"pfJ.....:l()j0::4:J4:J CAREER8

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COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING AN EXCITING PROFESSIONPHILABERTHA CARTERCommunityHealthNursingis a specializedareaof nursing; its basic purpose is to foster communityhealthbyapplyingNursingandPublicHealthmeasureswith in the framework ofthetotalhealtheffort. CommunityHealthNursingaimstoenablepersonstocopewithbarriersandthreatstohealthinordertomaximisetheirpotentialforhighlevel wellnessandalso to enablethemtorelatetotheirphysicalandso cial environment.CommunityHealthNursingis prac ticed in amultiplicityofcommunitysettings:egoclinics,schools, homesanddaycarefacilities. However,whereveritis practiced,CommunityHealthNursingis family-centeredandlooksateach clientasa wholepersonwithphysical,spiritualandpsychosocial needs. For me,asaCommunityHealthNurse,itis no longerjustMrs. 'B'lyinginthebedwithterminalbreast cancerandinneed ofananalgesic,butrather,I must relieveherpain,helpherto accepthercondition andsortoutherspiritualneeds,makeprovisions for the inevitableegohelpingherto seetheimportanceofmaking a family will.Herfamily would,quitenaturally, beundergoingmuchstress. Imusttherefore, by sup portive efforts, reducetheirstressandmaximisetheirability to copewiththesituation.Imust"bethere"for them.Currently,theCommunityHealthNursehasmanyroles to playandifsheis toplaythese roles effectively, shemusthavevery good communication skills which includekeenpowersofobservation to be able to graspwhatmayneverbe spoken; those eyesthatcon vey a completelydifferentstoryfromwhatthelipsarespeaking. Following is abriefoutlineoftherole oftheCom munityHealthNurse.TheCommunityHealthNurseis:-a provider ofPrimaryHealthCarewhich istheinitialservice providedwhenanindividual or a family (client)entersthehealthcaresystemseekinghelpfor illnessordisability.Thepreventativeaspects ofcommunityhealthnursingcannotbe overemphasisedanditis one ofthemainareasupon whichtheCommunityHealthNurseconcentratesegoimmunizationinearlychildhoodaspre ventionagainstseveralserious communicable dis eases. a provider ofpersonalcaretotheunhospitalized sick or disabled who perfers toremainathome orinaninformalcommunityfacility. a willing, knowledgeable, aggressive advocate who ismediatorbetweenthehealthcaresystemandtheclientandseeksto effect positive actions.anapproachableandconcerned advisor who is committed tothepersons served, beyondtheboundariesofmereimpersonal provision of serv ices, one who identifieswiththeirconcernsandgivesthemhealtheducationguidanceandcounsel ling. asensitiveobserver who, bytheextentofhertraining,isabletodetectanydeviation from normalbehaviouralpatternsinrespect of illness, growthanddevelopment,drugresponseandoverallwellbeingandis able to communicatethesefindingstotheappropriatemembersofthehealthcareteamordealwiththemeffectively herself. one who is expected to influence decisionsandproducechangeformorebeneficialhealthcarethroughherknowledge ofcommunityhealthprac ticesandnursing.anorganiserandmanager:beitcaringforthefamily,runninga clinic orliaisingbetweenhospitalandcommunitynursingservice,thecommunityhealthnurseendeavoursto keepeverythingincontrol.aninformedparticipantincommunityplanningandactionandone whocanprovideessentialpointsofinteresttothedecisionmakingprocessesina community. acontributorof knowledgeeitherby doing researchherselforaidingtheresearchofothersby supplyingthemwithpertinentdata.Itis clear,then,to seethatasa provider ofhealthcare,anadvocate,teacher,guidancecounsellor, observ er, decision-maker,managerandchangeagent,how weascommunityhealthnurses-arepractitionersinourownrightandno wonder -ittakesthreeyearsof basicnursingtraining,oneyearof post basictraininginmidwiferyandoneyearofcommunityhealthnursetraining;fivedynamicyearsoftraining,coupledwithmanyyearsofpracticalexperience tomakeuswhatweare... someofthemostimportantmembersofthehealthcateteam.Reference:FreemanandHeinrich...CommunityHealthNursingPractice.9

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A VERY SPECIALVISITOROverthepasteightor so years,Bahamiansandmore especiallymembersoftheMinistryofHealthfam ily,havebeenhearingsuchslogans/phrasesas"HealthForAll By TheYear2000" (HFAl2000),PrimaryHealthCare,CommunityParticipation(CP),latterlyandsometimesinterchangeably,CommunityInvolvem'ent, (Cn,IntersectorallmultisectoralApproachandAppropriate Technology forHealth(ATH).HealthForAll istheoverall goalnotonly ofandforTheBahamasbutalso for alltheother165 memberswhich comprisetheWorldHealthOrganisation(WHO)respresentativeof 99% oftheworld's population.Theotherphrasesdescribethestrategiesby whichthisgoal is to be achieved.OnSundayJune15th, 1986, Dr. HAFDAN MAHL ER, DirectorGeneraloftheWorldHealthOrganisation(WHO) forthepastthirteenyears,arrivedinTheBahamasforanofficial vjsit. (Washisarrivalonthatdateofanyspecialand/or additional significance?) Dr.MahlerwasmetattheNassauInternationalAirport by officials fromtheMinistryofHealthandthelocal P AHO office. While here,theDirectorGeneralvisitedboththeAnn'sTown Clinic, offKempRoad,theDIRECTOR-GENERALOFWHOVISITSGGDr. HalfdanT.Mahler, director-generaloftheWorld Health Organization,paida visit to the Governor General, Sir Gerald CashonMonday. Dr. Mahlerwasbornin Vivid,DenmarkonApril21,1923.Heobtainedhis MedicalDegree fromtheUniversityofCopenhagen,andhasa postgraduatedegreeinPublicHealth.InSeptember,1970,Dr. Mahlerwasmadeassistantdirector-general inchargeoftheDivisionofStrenghteningofHealthServ icesandtheDivisionofFamilyqealth.InMay,1973,hewasappointeddirector-genera'oftheWorldHealthOr ganization bytheTwenty-sixfiWorldHealthAssembly. 10SandilandsRehabilitationCentreandthePrincessMargaretHospital,gavea publiclectureattheCollege ofTheBahamas,paidcourtesy calls ontheGovernorGeneralofTheBahamasSirGeraldCashandthePrimeMinisterofTheCommonwealthofTheBahamas,SirLyndenPindling,mettheMinistryofhealthStaffandthelocalPAHOstaff.ThehighlightofDr.Mahler'svisitfortheMinistryofHealthfamilyandthepublic,wasthepublic lecturehedeliveredattheCollegeofTheBahamastitled"TheChallengeofHealthForAllandPrimaryHealthCare" ontheeveningofMonday16thJune,1986. Despitethelatepublicityforthelectureandindeedtheentirevisit, public responsewasexcellent,norapparentlyweretheydisappointedwithwhattheyheard.Themajordisappointmentlayinthefactthatthey'were denied a period for questioning. IncludedinDr.Mahler'shecticroundof engagementswasanofficial welcomingdinneronSundayeveningattheCableBeachHotelanda receptionatBuenaVistaHotel on Monday. Dr.MahlerleftTheBahamasatlunchtimeonTuesday17thJune.Didhegetany"sandinhisshoes?" Heassumed-hisdutiesastheOrganization'sthirddirec tor-general inJuly1973andwasreappointeddirector generalofWHObytheThirty-firstandThirty-sixth WorldHealthAssembliesinMay1978andMay1983respectively for asecondandthird-fiveyearterm.Dr.Mahlerhasreceivednumeroushonours and. awardsand is theauthorofpublicationsrelatingto the epidemiologyandcontroloftuberculosis .. Shownabove in the photo from left torightare:SamAymer, council representa tionofthePanAmerican WorldHealthOrganization, Dr. Mahler,SirGerald,Dr.NormanGay, MinisterofHealthandLutherSmith,thepermanentsecretary.

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.A Dr. Mahler (farleft)inmeetingwithlocalP AHO staff.FromlefttorightDougWilliamsDEHSconsultant,MarkCrowley(hidden)StatisticanJeromeMcintosh,driver/messenger,BarbaraKnowles,AchierHall,SamAymer,Prog.coordinator,Dr.Mahler.TheChallengeofHealthForAllourPrimaryHealthCare-publicresponsetoDr.Mahler'slectureattheCollegeofTheBahamaswasgood.11

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ANOVERVIEWOFTHE MEDICALRECORDSDEPARTMENTBRENDAINGRAHAMWhat istheimportanceoftheMedical Recordina health care setting?Inthistypeofsettingthemedical record issoimportantthatitstandsourasthedeciding factor towards ahealthylifeandeventualcareandre covery ofthepatient. The Medical RecordsDepartmenthasbecomethenucleus from whichmanyhospital activitiesemanatebecauseitsorganization, efficientmaintenanceandcon fidentialityareimportantfirsttothepatient,thephysi cian, the hospital,thecommunityandtointernationalagencies.Itcanals'"betermeda "storehouseandcen tral cleaning house" ofimmediate,accurate, complete and up-to-datedatawhichcanbeusedforplanninganddisseminatingstatisticalhealthinformation toInternational Agencies.THEROLEWhat is a Medical Record? A medical record is a compilation ofdatashowingdocumentaryevidence of a patient'streatmentandillness.Itisasimportantfor practicing medicineasmedicationsarefor effective treatment. The Medical RecordsDepartmentis one ofthemost importantadministrativedepartmentsinanyhospital and is committedtotheachievementof excellence be cause oftherolethemedical records play.Withoutthisrecord of continuity,the patient's medical history is losttothe Doctor,thequalityofcarecannotbe assessed and teachingandresearchefforts whicharesoimportantto improvingpatientcareandwhich should be a primary objectiveofanyhealthinstitution,areseverely impeded.Dataprovidedtodayby complex technological pro ceduresaretoonumerousanddiverse to be "stored"inanyhumanmind. Apatientoften deals,notwithone doctorbutanarrayof Consultants andparamedicalper sonnel whomusthaveamediumthroughwhichtheycan exchangeandcommunicatetheinformationusedindetermining medicaltreatments.Ina mobile society, thepatientmaymove from one source of medicalcaretoanothersourcethatis geographicallyina different locationwithinTheBahamas,aswellasto services abroad.Forthesereasons,themedical recordmustbe completeandaccuratebecauseithasbecome indispens ableasanaccount ofthepatient'scomplete medical biography.STRUCTUREThe Medical RecordsDepartmentofthePrincessMargaretHospitalissituatedintheNew Extension,phaseone,withcloseproximitytothePharmacy,GeneralPracticeClinic(Out-PatientsDepartment)AccidentandEmergencyandotherparamedicalandancillarydepartments.Itsoperatingactivitiesaredone on two floorsandis open on atwentyfourhourbasis.TheMedical RecordsDepartmentis responsible totheHospitalAdministratorwhohasdelegatedtheday todayadministrativerelationshipstotheDeputy HospitalAdministrator.TheSeniorRecords Officer isthehead ofthedepartment,responsible foritsoverall man agement.Dutiesandresponsibilities for specific func tionsaredelegatedbytheRecords Officer to seniorstaffmembers whoaredesignatedsupervisors. OneSupervisoris responsible forRegistrationandFiles which include activitiessuchasPatientRegistra tion,maintenanceofaMasterPatientIndex,StorageandRetrievalofMedical RecordsandSpecial Appoint ments.Furtherdelegation of responsibility for specific activities is givenwithineachgroup of keystaffmem bers fordaytodaydirection.AnotherSupervisoris responsible fortheMedical Records Activities whichstartwithcollection of records ofpatientsdischarged from wards,preparationof Medi cal Records Classificationofrecord content, utilization oftheMedical Recordandcomputerization of medical information. More recently, classification of diseaseshasbegun forGeneralPracticeClinic records.MEDICAL RECORDS SCIENCEASA CAREER Usually inTheBahamas,acareerinMedical Re cords Science isneverpursuedunlesspersonsareem ina hospitalsetting,buttherearecollegesanduniversitieswhichteachMedical Records Scienceasa career. OnecanobtainanAssociate DegreeinMedical Records Science whichtakestwoyearsanda Bachelor of Science DegreeinMedical RecordsAdministrationwhich willtakeanadditionaltwo years. Someofthecollegesanduniversitieswhereinterested persons canpursuethiscareerare,theUniversityoftheWest Indies,CaveHillCampusinBarbados,theCollege ofArtsScienceandTechnologyinJamaica,nu merous colleges inCanada,theUnitedStatesandUnited Kingdom.Theprerequisitesforentrytothesecolleges vary,butEnglish,Biology, TypingandMathematicsatG.C.E. 'O'level orequivalentwith"C" or abovegradesarecompulsory subjects, To be employedintheMedical Records Depart-

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UP-DATEment, PrincessMargaretHospitaltheapplicant is re quired tohaveaminimumof two G.C.E.'0'level sub jects, preferablyinBiologyandEnglish.Thereareorganizedorientationandtrainingpro grammes forstaffmemberswithtwo G.C.E.'0'level subjectsandno work experiencelastingoneyearbefore theyareplacedinanyspecificareato work.Therearealso organizedorientationandtrainingprogrammes forgraduateswithanAssociate Degreeandno work experienceaswellasthosewithanAsso ciate Degreeandprevious work experience. FELICITYAYMERHealthPromotionHEALTHEDUCATION DIVISIONAgain, Welcome,mayanyfuture visits to Rock Sound be less arduous,butequally excitingasyour first.HealthEducation Officer, Felicity Aymer visitedtheareaofRock Sound, SouthEleuthera,29th April -2ndMay, 1986, tomeetthehealthteamwitha view toextendinghealtheducation services tothearea.WhilethereshemetPrincipalsofSchoolsinallsettlementsfromBannermanTown toTarpumBay,theCommissioner fortheareaandother"influential" persons. Mrs. AymerreturnedtotheRock Sound district for a weekbeginning16thJunewhen she held a series of communityhealthawarenessmeetings inthesettlementsofTarpumBay, Greencastle, Deep CreekandRock Sound. She also addressed thegraduatingclasses oftheTarpumBay PrimaryandPrestonH. Albury Senior High Schools andtheGreencastle All Age School. Residentsintheareashowed ahighdegree ofinterestintheirhealth.Not only were most meet ings well attended,butthelevel of participation was very encouraging. Athirdvisit, to complete needsassessmentandpossibly begin planningforfuture action istentativelyscheduled forlaterintheyear. School children were extremely well behaved andattentive.ThechildrenattheGreencastleSchoolespecially, respondedenthusiasticallyto questions.HealthEducatorDwight ALLEN was introduced tothecommunityatthevarious meetings when he joined Mrs. Aymer ontheTuesday afternoon and accompaniedheron a busyanddemanding sched ule. vided by Mrs. Curtis.Theprogramme is, to allintentsandpurposes, progressingasexpected and will be atthebeginningof August.ExtensionofHealthEducationServicestotheFamilyIslandsThis programme encompasses two elements, exer ciseanddietandis essentially participatory inthattheparticipantsdesignedandareresponsible fortheactivities; guidanceandsupportareproIn response toMinisterGay's challenge inhisad dress totheannualconference oftheMedicalAssociation of TheBahamasandreiteratedinhis address tothenationon WorldHealthDay, 1986, a pilotHealthPromotion programme, involvingstaffoftheMinistry ofHealth(seventh floor), wasinstitutedby SeniorHealthEducator, Mrs. BarbaraCurtis,inearlyMay.*We wish you successandhappinessinour Division, Mr. Allenandhope you will risewithhonouranddis tinction totherole of aHealthEducator!Inaddition toassumingresponsibility for our Na tional FoodHandlerHealthEducation programme, Mr. Allenisexpected to play a leading roleinpreparing some ofthelocally producedmaterialssobadly needed intheDivision. Welcome toHealthEducation Mr. DWIGHT ALLEN. 'Dwight'asheisaffectionately called by moststaffmembers, joinedtheDivision on5thMay ontransferfromtheDepartmentofEnvironmentalHealthServ ices. Mr. Allenhasspecial skillsin"camera work"and"thearts"whicharealreadybeing eagerly exploited byhiscolleagues. Hehasalso visited SouthEleutherawherehe"assistedinexploring ways" of extendinghealtheducation services tothearea.14

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WELCOME** **TotheDepartmentofEnvironmentHealthServices:Mrs.OLIVIA WATKINS OBE, on19thMay, 1986.Mrs.WatkinsretiredfromtheMinistry of Youth, Sports, Community AffairsandLabour (Labour Department)earlierthisyearandhasbeen re-em ployedwiththeMinistry ofHealth(DEHS) where she has responsibility for personnel. Mrs.Watkinsseems very happyinhernew "environment"andis*enjoyingthechallenges of personnel work.Tothe PrincessMargaretHospital Senior House Officer CLAUDIA WALTER-CHIN and GAIL RICHARDS-NICHOLAS Dr. Walter Chin joinedtheAccidentandEmergency Depart ment of Medicine on14thJuly.monwealthHeadsofGovernmentMeeting(CHOGM) heldinNassauinOctober oflastyear, ataskwhichhecompleted with considerable ease.Marriedtotheformer PAULA NOTTAGE, a Reg isteredNursetrainedinOperatingTheatreTech niques,theWhitfieldshaveone son.JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you continuing successinyour professionalandprivate lives Dr. Whitfield. Mr. LINCOLN DAVIS formerly SeniorNursingOfficer workingattheSRC, onassumingdutiesasPNOatthesameinstitutionfollowingthe"eleva tion" of Mrs Beverly Forde totheSeventh Floor as Deputy Director ofNursing(DDON).JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you ev ery successinyour new role Mr. Davisandgood luck.CONGRATULATIONSWelcomeback*Mrs. ESMERELDA RUTHERFORD oftheDepartmentofNursingEducation, Midwifery programme and sincere congratulations onhavingobtained a Masters of PublicHealth(MPH) specialisinginMaternalandChildHealthfromTulaneUniversi ty, New Orleans. Mrs. Rutherfordreturnedto workattheDNEinJanuaryofthisyearandis looking forward tosharingher"updated"knowledgewithcolleagues. Alltheverybestto you, Mrs. Rutherford, may you soon begin to realiseatleastsome of your dreams! ) *Toall those newNursingAuxiliaries who recently joinedthestaffofthePMH.JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes youallevery successin your new positions. Dr. PATRICK WHITFIELD on your promotionatthe relatively young age...totheposition ofConsultantinFamilyMedicineatthePrincessMargaretHospital on1stMarch 1986. Dr. Whit field is agraduateoftheUniversity oftheWest Indies Medical School, Mona,Jamaica.He didhisinternshipatboththeUniversityandPrincessMargaretHospitalsandhasworkedatthePMH -Departmentof andGynaecology.Duringhis residency -FamilyMedicine 1981-85 he workedinKemps Bay, Andros; St. LuciaandFreeportanddidresearchin ObesityandPrimaryHealthCare.Havinggraduatedwith a Doctor of Medicine(DM)inFamilyMedicine, Dr. Whitfield is presentlytryingto establish aDepartmentofFamilyMedicineatthePMHwitha view to pro viding a more holistic approach tohealthcare. Dr. Whitfield alsohadtheunenviabletaskof provi ding/coordinating medical services fortheCom-**Mrs.JENNIE(JEANIE) ISAACS oftheDepartmentofNursingEducation (DNE) on your appointmentto PrincipalNursingOfficer, effective October, 1983. Mrs. IsaacshasbeenattheDNE for more years no doubtthanshecares to recallanditseems only fittingthatshe assumethese onerous chores.JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes youcontinuingsuccessinthisdynamic position oftraining youngandnotsoyoung nurses, Mrs. Isaacs. DPS VETA BROWN on your recent promotion to Acting Undersecretary, Ministry of Health, Mrs. Brownhasbeen a "tower ofstrength"to us inHealthEducationandno doubt totheMinistry of Health. Despiteherconsistently hectic schedule, she can always find aminuteto listenandoffer a word of wisdom.JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you every successatthislevel Mrs. Brown. We know you will enjoyitas you seem to be one of thoserarebirds whothriveson challenge. Good Luck!Congratulationstothetwentyfive HEALTH AIDES whohavecompletedtheoneyearcourse. This isthefifth group tohavecompletedthistrainingandtheywill now swelltheranksofhealthcare providers throughouttheCommonwealth. To date, 206 persons, mostly young women,havebenefitted fromthepro gramme.TheirGraduationProgramme ("Commence ment", to quotetheMinisterof Health) is always a memorable occasion;theevening of Monday 7thJuly,1986, was no exception. The ceremony, heldintheCoralRoom ofthePilotHouse Hotel,EastBay Street, was chaired by Mr.JohnThompson, Administrator of the PMH. The room wasbarelylarge enough to accommo date relativesandwell wishes ofthe group who were very fetchingly dressedinwhitewithred corsages. t5

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*CONTINUING EDUCATIONTheMinisterofHealth,theHonourable Dr. NormanGay, deliveredtheaddressandstressedtheimportantroleHealthAides playin assistir:g otherhealthprofessionalsinreachingthegoal of TheBahamasinbringingessentialhealthcaretopeople intheplacesinwhichtheyliveandwork. Certificates were awarded by Mrs. Carol Gay, wife oftheMinisteranda physicaininherownright(Dr. Chaney). Dr. Chaney-Gay wasapparentlyparticularly impressed bytheelegance oftheonly maleinthegroup! Ashasbeen custon ary also,thegroupentertainedtheirquestsinsong whichthisyear, stressedthe"hardworkandfaith" which were essential elementsinhelp ingthemreachtheirgoal.HealthAideFayeLewis de livered ashortaddress which "broughtthehouse down" while Betsy Richards gave a most sincere Vote ofThanksinwhich she apologised foranyomissions she may have made. BothHealthAidesarefrom New Prov idence .. Mostofthesegraduates(sixteen)arefromandwillreturntotheFamilyIslands. ResidentsinMatthewTown,InaguaandHarbourIsland,Eleuthera,especial ly, should now benefit fromhavingHealthAides work ing among them.OtherFamilyIslands represented were Abaco, Andros,CatIsland,EleutheraandGrandBahama.Musicalinterludeswere provided by Mr. ArmbristeroftheDEHS.JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all a most enjoyable periodinyour respective communitiesasyou joinotherhealthprovidersinthestruggle to bringhealthtoallpeoplesinTheBahamas,we sincere ly hope you willmaketheopportunities to realisethepromise youhaveshown overthepastyear,thatyour colleagues willassistyouinsodoingandthatyour consumers find your presence amongthembeneficial.Mayallyour experiences be rewarding. 16 *****CongratulationstotheNurseswhograduatedonFridaynight,11thJuly.They included fortyRegistered Nurses,threeTrainedClinical Nurses, sevenTCNs who completedthecourseinMaternalandChildHealthNursing,nurseswho completedthecourseinIntensiveCareNursing. The popula tion should be servedmuchbetterfor your gradua tion, nurses.Unfortunately,for avarietyof rea sons,therearealways those who leave,so then neverseemstobe enoughnursesto"go round".JOININGHANDSFORHEALTH wishes you all challengingandrewardingcareerandhopesyOlwill continue long enough toshareyour experi enceswithsomeofthose who will followinyou footsteps. AlltheverybestNurses. A group ofnursesrecently completed a course h CriticalNursingCareatthePrincess Margare Hospital.Anorientationprogrammefor allNursingAuxiliariesatthePHMbegan on28thApril, 1986. Dr. ERIC BROWN, Medical Officer, P\lblic HealtlDepartment,attendedathreeweeksummel coursebeginning23rdJune,1986,ingeneral Epi demiologyandBiostatisticsattheJohnsHopkil Medical School, Baltimore. CommunityNursingOfficer ROSA MAE BAIl' andHospital Infection ControlNursePAMRICi FERGUSON recentlyattendedathreeday cours,inHospital Acquired InfectionattheCaribbeal EpidemiologicalCentre(CAREC). The Coral Room ofthePilot House Hotel, Nassauwasthevenuefor a twoweeksub-regiona Workshop ontheInternationalClassification0Diseases 9 (lCD9)andVital Statistics 2nd-13tlJune,1986.

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ParticipantsoftheICD9Workshopfrom12Caricomcountries.TheonlyMaleisfromSuriname.Dr.MiriamGazinovitchPAHO'sstaffmember,Washingtonofficer,assheaddressedtheWorkshop.This workshop, sponsored inthemainbythePanAmericanHealthOrganisation(PAHO),wasthefirstregionalactivityinwhich Medical Records Officers fromtheCARICOM region cametogethertoclarifyandstandardisetheprocessing, analys ingandclassificationofmorbidityandmortalitydata.Undertheveryableguidance of PAHOstaffmember, Dr. MIRIAM GAZINOVITCH, Senior Re gionalAdviseronStatisticsbasedinthePAHO officeinWashingtonDC,withassistance fromMarkCrowley,PAHO'sresidentStatisticianinTheBahamas,theworkshop provedextremelyenlighteningtoallparticipantsofthetwelve territo-ries-Antigua,Bahamas(New ProvidenceandGrandBahama),Barbados,Bermuda,BritishVir gin Islands, Dominica,Grenada,Guyana,Montserrat,St. Lucia, St.VincentandSuriname.AsMinisterGay said inhisopeningremarks,theworkshop willenableMinistriesofHealthtomoreintelligentlyprocessrawfactsandfiguresandthisshould add a new dimension totheirability toquantifythehealthstatusoftheirpopulationsandultimately,improvethequalityof life -thegoal ofHealthForAll. To allintentsandpurposes,the"visitors" enjoyednotonlytheworshop,butalsotheirstay. On completion ofthecourseParticipantswereawardedCertificates. Becausethebiggestcontingentwas from home, we expectincrementalimprovementsinqualityofdatathatwillbecome available. However, theseimprovementswill only beasgoodasthedatawhichthesestaffmembersaregiven, byusinthefield, physiciansandnurses. Weareallawareofthedearthof"harddata"onthelocal scene,datawhichareaccurateanddefinitive reflections ofthe"qualityof life". Not only is suchdatacritical totheMinistryofHealthinplanningforandguidingthenation,buttheyarealsovitalto specific communitiesifwe seriously desire toinviteandallow for effectivecommunityparticipationandattainthatgoal ofHealthForAll by 2000. Completing formsandsubmittingaccurateinformationregularly,tediousthoughitmaybe, is morethana necessary evilinventedby idle administrators,itunlocks doors toqualityof life forourpeople, allowsustoplanmore effectivelyandcompareourperformanceatthenational, regional

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andinternationallevels.Tostresstheimportance oftherole ofthephysi cian inthesubmission ofdata,a special session was scheduled forthisgroup ofhealthprofession al.AshowofBahamianhospitality.Mr.Saunders,MedicalRecordsDept.PMHsaysthankyouforajobwelldonetoDr.MiriamGazinovitchwhileDr.GayandSamAymerlookon.*CongratulationstoNursingOfficer 1IRENECOAKLEYofthePMH on successfully completing athreeyearcourseinChristianEducationatTheBahamasBible Institute,JeanStreet, Gleniston Gardensandon receiving your Diploma. Mrs. Coakley is a member oftheMission Baptist Church,HayStreet, Nassau. Alltheverybestinyour new career, Mrs. Coak ley. especiallyattheannualFamilyIslandHealthConfer ences where shehasplayed such aquietbutdominant role. The following Senior House Officers PMH, re signed on30thJune,1986: TCNPaulaMAJOR transferred fromtheSRC tothePMH. Mrs. ROSE MAE THOMPSON, Acting DeputyPermanentSecretaryatthePMH, Administration,hasbeentransferredtotheMinistry of Transport with effect1stJune,1986. Mrs. RODGERShasbeen transferred from general administration, SRC tothePNO's office. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH hopesthatyou all will continue to find your jobsstimulatingandhealthstressful. STAFF NURSE SHELDON BOWE-PRATT NINATHOMPSON-MAJORandERVINESTUBBS transferred fromtheCommunity Nursing Services tothePrincessMargaretHospital where you are warmly welcomed. Mrs. ORLENE LIGHTBOURNE, Secretary to the PrincipalNursingOfficer (PNO) Sandilands Reha bilitationCentre,hasbeen transferred to secretarialduties intheChief Psychiatrist's Office.CommunityHealthNurseVIVIAN BRAITH WAITE,EightMile Rock Clinic, Grand Bahama,hasresigned fromtheservice effective mid-May. NurseBraithwaitehasenbarkedon a new and excitingcareerin Occupational Nursing. The em ployeesatFranklinChemicals should benefit enor mously fromherwealthof experienceinpromotive and preventive health. Allthevery best Nurse Braithwaite, please keep in touch. Dr.JULIANSTEWARTDepartmentof Obstet ricsandGynaecology Dr. DAVID BARRETTDepartmentof Surgery Dr. HOMER BLOOMFIELDDepartmentofObstetricsandGynaecology.Wewish you every success Doctors.** **JOININGHANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all the very best in your new roleattheMinistry of Educa tion, Mrs Brookes.PatientsatthePMH weretreatedto a musical performance by the Morningside High School Chamber Singers on 25thJune,courtesy oftheMinistry of Tourism. The singers were very well receivedandthePMH wishes to extend sincerethanksto boththeMinistry of Tourism for arrang ingtheentertainmentand totheMorningside Singers fortheirvery good performance. Please come again. The PMH wasthesite for a special visit by ninety visitors ofthecruise shipCarnivalCruise, on Fri day 2nd May, 1986. Why wasthisa special visit?Ithappened to bepartof alearningexercise, in deed,theentirecruise was aseminarcruise.Whatapleasantway to learn!* *CHANGE AND??? On Wednesday, 25thJune,colleaguesandfriends met to wishFirstAssistantSecretary (FAS)ASTRID BROOKES, Godspeedandblessingsasshe moves to wardsanothergoalinhercareerintheCivil Service. Mrs. Brookeshasspentthelastnine years moving up the ladderintheMinistry ofHealthandwill be missed*TCNJuliaWILLIAMS transferred from OperatingTheatrePMH totheSRC. The followingnurseshave resigned from thePMH:-Sheila CARROLL, Cheryl CAMPBELL, Kathleen 187

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COMINGEVENTSThe"HealthEducation Council" isplanningits annual exhibition for September.*The NationalHealthEducation Council (Baha mas) TCNNeliaDAMES, Andros, recentlyattendeda six week Refresher CourseinNew Providence as did: TCN CoralieTURNERofCatIsland. We hope you foundthecoursetruly"refreshing"andthatyourcommunities benefit fromyourreThe CNS wishestosaya sincere"thankyou" to thosestaffnurseswho"rotatedthrough"theirdepartmentoverthepastyearandprovided suchsterlingservicetotheirpatientsandwho have nowreturnedtotheiroriginalpostings:-StaffNurses-Melva'DELEVEAUX,NinaMAJOR, Sheldon PRA'IT, IrvineSTUBBS all ofthePMHandCynthiaJOHNSONoftheSRC. OnceagainThankYou Nurses.Congratulationsto TCNEvangelistCatherineCHISHOLM onherordination totheministryon15thJune1986. Congratulations alsotoMrs. Shirley SAUNDERS formerly oftheAnn'sTown Clinicandnow doingsterlingworkwiththeBahamasPlannedParenthood Association (BPPA) who was recognized forhavingcompletedthirtyyearsofnursingattheabovegraduatingceremony heldthisyearattheSheratonGrandHotel (formerGrandHoteD onParadiseIsland. The CommunityNursingServices extends congrat ulations to those five Registered NursesandthreeTrainedClinicalNurseswho graduated/completedtheMCH Course onFriday11thJuly.BoththeBlue Hill RoadandCoconut Grove Clin icsarebeing extendedandshould be ready for use byearlyAugust. Mothersandchildren, not to mention staff, should be considerably more com fortable. sponsible forthecareofcancer patients, shouldpresentthestateoftheartinrespectofpracticeandresearchinCancernursing. Topics include:HealthCaretrendsandCancerNursingNew Modelsinbreastcancer Oncologic emergenciesCancerandtheelderly Cancer, copingandcaringThe faculty consistsofnurseswhoarerecognizedintheUSinthefieldofcancer nursing;attendance qualifies for 17 contacthoursbytheGeorgiaNursesAssociation.Furtherdetailsmaybe obtained fromthePresidentoftheNursesAssociation of TheBahamas,Mr. Andil LaRoda,DepartmentofNursingEduca tion,. telephone 325-5551.*** *FROMTHECOMMUNITYNURSINGSERVICES*The Holiday Inn,ParadiseIsland, will betheve nue of a special conference coordinated by Educa tional Excursions,Atlanta,Georgia, November 5 9 on Contemporary Approaches to Cancer Nurses. The Conference, designed fornurseswhoarereInFebruaryof every year, followingthedeathof Mrs. EloisePENN,former PrincipalNursingOffi cer oftheSRC, awalkathonisheld to raise funds for the EloisePennMemorial Scholarship Fund. ThisyearsixnursesattheSRC were beneficiaries of this fund. They were able to complete aDrugAwarenessProgrammeconducted bytheSocial SciencesDepartmentoftheCollege of The Baha mas. This programmewasthefirst to be offered bytheSocial Workersinthatdepartment.Itwasrunover a period of fourteen weeks or two semesters. JOINING HANDSFORHEALTH hopesthatnotonly you benefit fromattendanceatthiscourse. CoUeaguesatthePMHtakethisopportunity to wish NO IIHannaGRANT, presently residing(atthetimeof going to press) onthePrivateSurgical Ward (PMH)and"Muffins" allthevery best for a safeandconfortable deliveryanda happy period of bonding. Good luckNurseGrant.TheCaribbeanNurses' Organization Conference scheduled for October 12-17, 1986, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, will explorethemanyissues asso ciatedwiththehealthandwelfare oftheelderlyunderthetheme"Care oftheElderly intheCarib bean". Registration iscurrentlyinprogressanddetails may be obtained fromthe1stVicePresidentoftheNurses' Association, Mrs. Gloria Ferguson,attheDNE, telephone 325-5551. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you ev ery successinyour new"areaof endeavour", may you continue to move forwardandupward. FUZZELL,MaryGOULDING, Elsie HEPBURN, Marva LONGLEY,MaureenSEYMOUR, ChristinaSMITH. Mr.BarryRassin, Hospital Administrator oftheRassin Hospitalandthefirst elected President oftheCouncil has onceagainagreed to serveinthatcapacity. CurrentlyotherofficersareMrs. Elvia Rolle Secre tary and a founding member oftheCouncil while BishopHarcourtPindercontinuesasTreasurer.***19

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NewPremises*TCNEloiseHANNAofthePostNatalservicesretiredattheendofApril. WewishNurseHannamanyyearsofactiveandenjoyableretirement.*centlyacquiredadditionalknowledge.TheDepartmentofNursingEducationis looking forwardwitheageranticipationtomovingintomore spaciousandcustombuiltpremisesontheothersideofthePrincessMargaretHospitalandnectdoortotheMinistryofEducationBuilding.IfyouhavedrivenupGROSVENOR Close recent ly,youwillhavenoticedconstructionunderway.Thequarryhasbeen"hewninto" to accommodatethebuilding-theschool will beinthebrow oftherock.Intakesoffuturestudent's,from 1987, should beabletolook forward tostudyinginrelativequietwithouttheconstantroarofpassingtrafficandfeelsafeingettingtoandfrom classes.Facultyalsomustbebreathingmanysighsofreliefthattheywillnolongerhaveto climballthosestairtogetto classes. You willmisstheexercise! WeinHealthEducationwillnolongerarrivefor Sessions hotandbotherednotonly fromtryingtofind aparkingspacebutalso from climbing thosestairs.Perhapsnow we'llwalktothesessionsandarrivetheepitomeofgoodhealth!area-hasrecentlydonatedthefollowingitemstotheClinicatRockSound:-OnerefrigeratorforthestorageofvaccinesOnewashingmachineforlaunderingcliniclinenOneX-raymachine.TheMinistryofHealthandmoreespeciallythestafftotheclinicatRockSoundisgratefultoandappreciativetothegenerosityoftheCottonBayFoundation.*TheDoctor'sresidenceis to be given a "face lift". SupplieshavebeendeliveredandDr.Guinaandthecommunitylook forward to abright,cheerful residencewhichwilladdtothecharmandbeautyofKingStreet,Rock Sound.FROMGRANDBAHAMA*CongratulationsDr.KomaraginNEHRU,DistrictMedical Officer,HawksbillClinic,GrandBahama,onreceivingtheDistinguishedCitizenAwardfor workinthegovernmentfromtheGrandBahamaChamberofCommerce.Thisawardwasbestowedattheirannualbanquetheldon30thApril, 1986.*CommunityHealthEducationiscontinuingwithtalksgivenby Dr.Chutkanon Foot problems intheNewbornandDr.NehruonUrethritis.FROMTHEDEPARTMENTOFSOCIALSERVICESHELPFORTHEYOUTH*TheYouthDivisionoftheMinistryof Youth, Sports,CommunityAffairsandLabourhasrecentlyin troduced a"Call-inCounsellingService" which is de signed tohelpyoungpeopledealwiththeirday-to-day concerns.Parents/Guardiansareinvitedtousetheserv ice.FurtherinformationmaybeobtainedbycallingMr.LeroyHannaorMs. Debbi Dillet. Telephone 22549or68519orwritingtothematP.O. Box N-10114.NEWSFROMROCKSOUND,SOUTHELEUTHERATheDepartmentof Social Services (DSS)startedtheyearon amostpositivenotewhentheymoved offices fromtheClarenceA.BainBuilding(groundandfirstfloors)ThompsonBoulevard, tomorespa cious accommodation onthesecond floor oftheBoulevardBuildingComplex,nearertotheOakesFieldShoppingCentre,Thompson Boulevard.Notonlyarestaffmembersalltogetheronthesamefloorbutalsothedepartmentitselfis now inmuchcloserproximitytotheirMinistry,lessthantheproverbial"stone'sthrow".Thismustbe administrativelyandmutuallybeneficial.Theirnewtelephonenumberare60526, 60255,60457,60525and65560.* *20CongratulationstoTrainedClinical NurselMidwifeGloriaSTRACHANonbeingrecentlyhonouredbytheChildCareDivisionoftheDepartmentofSo cial Services for services to children,duringChildCareWeek713 April, 1986. DespitehernumerousdutiesattheRockSoundClinic,NurseStrachanhasalwaysfoundtimefor activitiesandhasbeenareliablefostermotherinhercommunityfor anumberofyears.KeepupthegoodworkNurseStrachan.THECOTTONBAYFOUNDATION-a groupofhomeownersinterestedinthewelfareoftheFamilyIslandresidentsinAbaco,AndrosandEIeutherashouldnow beexperiencingimprovementsinthequalityoftheirserviceswiththeaddition ofanofficer toeachofthefirsttwoislandsandareplacementinthethird.Therearenowtherefore:-twotrainedworkersinAbaco oneatCooper's TownandoneatMarshHarbourtwotrainedworkersinAndrosoneatNicholls TownandoneatFreshCreekonetrainedworkerinGovernor'sHarbour,EleutheraandoneinExumainadditiontothestaffinGrandBahama.

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BIRTHSMARRIAGES*The Social Services Coordinating Committeeunderthechairmanshipof Mr.HubertDean, Deputy QQvernor oftheCentralBank, was officially formedinMarch to supportandencourage pro grammesandactivities concernedwiththewelfare of childrenandfamiliesandtoenlistthesupport of community membersinefforts designedtostrengthen existing foster careandadoptive pro grammes. Members ofthiscommitteearealllead ersintheirindividualrightandinclude:-MessrsCalsey Johnson, Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas, Roy Davis,EasternAirlines, Mrs. Ver nice Symonette,PatriciaBethelandCarolHannaandtheLyford Cay Foundation. This committee willassistthedepartmentinspe cial projects.*CongratulationstoMrs.ShielaJOHNSON,ChiefClerk,Purchasing,intheSupplies SectionofthePrincessMargaretHospital onthebirthofyour first grandson, Christopher,inBatonRouge,Louisiana,on24thSeptemberlast. Christopheritseems isalreadyamemberofthe''jet set" groupashevisitedhisgrandparentsinNassauearlierthisyear.OfcourseMrs.Johsnonisstillexudingthepleasureofgrandmothership! Lucky forChristopherthatyou won't bearoundto "spoilhimrotten"Mrs.Johnson!**JOINING HANDSFORHEALTH addsitscon gratulations tothefollowingstaffmembers whograduatedfromtheCollege of The Bahamas, Ad vanced CertificateinSocial Work onFriday11th July: Beryl ARMBRISTER,JenniferCASH, Zenovia COAKLEY,CharlemayFERNANDER,PatriciaJONES,LilianQUANT, Deva ROBERTS. This isthefirstgraduatinggroupinthiscourse. The course lasted fourteen months. An "exciting experiment" is soontobeinstituted. The depardment,incollaborationwithTheBaha mas Red Cross Societyhasrecently acquired a house ontheFox Hill Roadinwhich six senior citizens (threemenandthreewomen) will be ac commodated. These premises should helptoreducethepressureonthePrincessMargaretHospitalandatthesametimehelp these individualstoregain/maintainsome degreeofindependence. Wedding Bellsrangourfor:-*NADaphneIdenaSTRACHANofthePMHandCornell Norris FERGUSON on1stMarch.*SNArnetaDoralee SANDSofthePMHandPhilipCharlesCLARKon29thMarch.*NAPaulaMaeBRICEofthePHMandJohnFirtzgeraldHALLon26thApril.Congratulationsandbestwishes formanyyearsofhappymarriage.DEATHSJOININGHANDSFORHEALTHtogetherwiththestaffoftheCommunityNursingServices,extendcondo lences to Ms. IclynPRATToftheDistrictNursingServ ice onthedeathofhermotheronFriday20thJune,1986.FuneralservicewasheldatSt. Agnes Church, Blue Hill Road onSunday29thJune,1986. MayGodgrantyoustrengthinyourtimeoflossNursePratt.VITALSTATISTICSChristopherJohnsonagethreemonths.*Sincere condolencestoMs.JaniceTHOMPSON, Case Aide,DepartmentofSocial Services, Rock Sound,SouthEleutheraonthetragicdeathof your babydaughterthroughfireattheage of fivemonthsinDeepCreekonFriday20thJune.LittleMiquelwasasleepinherbedroomatthetimethefirestartedandhergrandauntwho wasathome, wasunableto rescure her. 21

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r 22WHATNURSESAREMADEFOREnidRuddock Nursesare made tocare, When nobody else cares Nurses are made tobedoctors' wives Nurses are made ofrock-stone heartandiron flesh Nurses are notpaidseroants but nurses, Nurses are not born nurses,NursesevolveasGod's merciful people. Nurses, dressedinwhite, Must always wear ahalfround smile, Nursesmustnot wear make-upatall.Nursesmustalways be ready, With pen, watchandscissors,Nursesmustalways speak, Softly, politelyandfriendly To patientsandtheir visitors NursesmustneversaynoToquestions asked, Nursesmustonly stoptorest, When the task is finished,Attheendofthe day. Nursesmustalways meet the needsOfthe sick, before meeting theirs, Nursesmustalwaysbeready To oblige without regarding Whom they oblige.

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DIETETICS-ACARINGPROFESSIONROSALIEFOULKESOne ofthemost respected professions isthatof caring forthesick. A person who contributes tothatcare cantakeprideinhislher work. Thepatientor cli entisthe mostimportantpersoninanyhealthcare institution. Today,healthcareincludestheconcept of continu ity of caremeaningthetransferof care ofthepatientfromthe hospital tothehome setting. Toensureconti nuity of carewithrespect tothenutritionalneeds of the patientrequiresconscientious assistanceandeffortofthe administrators, physicians, surgeons, nurses, di etitians andd social workers.Dietitiansplayanintegraland significant roleinproviding optimalnutritionalcare. They devote agreatdeal oftimeto counselling individualsandfamilies emphasizingtheimportance of avoiding excessive calories,saturatedfats, simple sug ars, refined foods, alcoholic beveragesandsalt. Over the course of aIlifetime,theseexcesses can lead to obesi ty and dental cariesandareconsideredtoberiskfac tors inheartdisease, hypertension, diabetesandgastro intestinal disorders. Adietitian'sjob isnotjustanotherprofession,itis a dedicationtohumanwelfare. Dieteticscanbe technically definedasthecom bined scienceandartregulatingtheplanning, prepara tion and serving ofmealsto individualsorgroups un der various conditionsofhealth.The objective is to motivate individualsatalleconomic levels, betheywell orill,to adopt soundnutritionalhabits. Individuals therefore, whoareconsidering acareerindietetics must beinterestedinthepersonalaswellastheprofes sional characteristics deemed necessaryinexecuting their responsibilities. Attheverybeginningofanycourse of study,itisadvisable forthestudenttosetsome specific objectives. Regardless of one'sfuture "professional careerindietet ics,thestudy ofnutritionshould first be directedtooneself.Inotherwords, those who expectanddesire to helpotherpeople achievebetterhealththroughnutritionmustbeenthusiasticandliving examples ofthebenefits oftheapplicationofnutritionknowledge.Togainthisknowledge,studentsmustprepare themselves by followingandcompleting a curriculumthatwillassurea soundandliberaleducation. High schoolstudentsshouldhavea good feel forthesciences, namely, Chemistry, Biochemistry,andPhysiology.ThecollegeentrancerequirementintheUnitedStatesnor mallystatesa 'C'averageorbetterinall subjects. Credits obtained from a twoyearscience oriented programmeatTheCollege ofTheBahamas,Nassau, Baha mas,aretransferableto accredited CollegesintheUnited States.Studentswho willbeselectingthisareaofspecialityshould becomefamiliarandeventuallyinvolve them selveswithvariousprofessional organizations which would affordthemtheopportunity for professionalandpersonal development.Tonamea few,theAmerican Dietetic Association (A.D.A.)isthelargestprofessional organizationofdietitiansanddietetics technicians. Foundedin1917, A.D.A.hasgrown to include morethan52,000nutritionprofessionals. Closer to home, wehavetheCaribbeanAssociationofNutritionistsandDietitians(CANDI) which consists of approximately 150 members.Presently,thereisaBahamiandietitianpursuinga oneyearpost-graduateintershipinTrinidad, West Indies, sponsoredandorganizedbyCANDI.Interestedandaspiringstudentsareadvisedtoobtaina copyofthe'DirectoryofDieteticProgrammes'.Thisbookletcanbe most beneficial to youinthecourse ofdetennninga Collegeofyourchoice.Italso includesthefollowing information: a.generalinformationpertainingtoA.D.A.;b.accreditedcoordinatedundergraduatepro-grammes;c.postbaccalaureatedietetic internships;d.approved dietetic technician programmes;ande.advanced degree programmes. Keepinginmindthedifficultythatconfronts mostundergraduatesingainingacceptance into dietetic in ternships,itishighlyrecommendedthatyou select a collegethatoffersthecoordinatedundergraduatepro gramme.Thistypeofcoordinated experience givesthestudenttheopportunitytoputintopracticethetheoryaspects oftheclassroom teaching. Copiesoftheabove mentioned'DirectoryofDi-eteticProgrammes'areavailablefrom:TheAmerican Dietetic AssociationSalesOrderDepartmentP.O. Box 10960 Chicago, Illinois 60610 0960CatalogueNumber: 0401 The following definitions, acadamic qualificationsandresponsibilitiesatthevariousfunctioning levelsaresetoutbelow tohelpreadersunderstandthetermi nologyrelatedtotheprofession. A.D.A.Dietitian:a specialist, educated totakerespon sibility forthenutritionalcareofindividualsandgroups.Thisis a person whohasearneda bachelor's orhigherdegreeinoneofthefollowing areas: Dietetics, FoodandNutrition,NutritionandFood/service Systems Management.23

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,RegisteredDietitian(R.D.): This is a person who meetsalltherequirementsfor membershipintheAmerican Dietetic Association, whohassuccessfully completedtheexaminationfor registration,andwhomaintainscontinuingeducation requirements.Thiscer tification process encourageshighstandardsofperfor mancetoprotestthehealth,safetyandwelfareofthepublic.Onthejob, ... RegisteredDietitian(R.D.)hasthesame responsibilitiesastheA.D.A. Dietitian.FoodServiceManager;TheFood ServiceManagerassumestheresponsibility fortheadministrationoftheFood ServiceDepartment.ThedutiesareverysimilartothoseofanAdministrativeDietitian. The profession is encouragingthisspecialistnotonlytopursueanas sociate degreeorequivalent,butalsotoundertakea fouryeardegree courseinInstitutionalManagement. Themainreason forthisisthattheFood/service Managerneedstobecognizantoftechniques forthepreparationoffoods,aswellasimportantprinciplesinsuchareasasMathematics, Psychology, Chemistry, Micro biology, Cost ControlandSupervision.SupportivePersonnel:TheDieteticTechnicianprogramme is a twoyearprogrammeleadingtoanassociate degree. This programmeisa combination of dieteticsandclinical expe rience.The technician worksundertheguidance of a fully qualifieddietitianandhasresponsibilitiesinas signedareasinFood service Management,teachingFoodandNutritionPrinciplesandDietaryCounselling.DieteticAssistant:A skilled person whohassuccess fully completed ahighschool education orequivalentanda dieteticassistant'sprogramme which meetsthestandardsestablishedbytheAmerican Dietetics Asso ciation.Thedieteticassistant,workingundertheguidanceofa fully qualifieddietitian,or a technician,hasresponsibilityinassignedareasforfoodservicetoindividualsandgroups. Many oftheresponsibilities mentioned abovehavetodowithteachingortraining.Much ofthedietitian's workingdayisdevotedtothisactivity,eitherformally or informally, therefore anyone wishingtoenterdietet-24icsmustbepreparedto teach,anactivity which should prove challengingandrewarding. TodayinTheBahamas,thereareapproximatelytenacademically qualified dietitians.Apartfrom a very smallnumberwho serveintheschool systemasHome Economics Teachers,themajority ofthedietitiansare dispersedthroughoutthethreemainhospitals. Thelocal clinicsandFamilyIslandclinicsareyettobe serv iced by dietitians.Nutritioneducationmustbecomeanessential component ofthecurriculum inallElementaryandSecondary Schools.Indeveloped countries,therearemanyopportunities fordietitiansinprivate industries. They find employmentinairlines compa nies, hotelsandrestaurants,foodmanufacturers, phar maceutical companiesandasprivateconsultants. Other major employersarecorrectional institutions, day care centres,nursinghomesandbusiness firmsthatprovidefoodfortheiremployees.Thinkingahead;futuredietitianswill bereturninghome fromtheirstudiesandwill be seeking opportuni ties toputtheirtalentsandskills to use.Wemustbearinmindthatmost ofthesegraduatesmay not have undergoneanapprovedinternshipandso will need to be placedundertheguidanceandsupervision of a pra tising dietitian.Itis hopedthatopportunities will be providedtoallow forcareerprogressionanddiversifica tion.Havingaconsultantdietitianwitha supportiveteamfunctionasanadjunct totheMinistry ofHealthcan only be viewedasbeneficialandprogressive. This appointed group would be specifically responsible for developingandevaluatinginformationalmaterialsand equallyimportant,provide directionandleadership for quality dietetic practiceandeducation. The foregoing is onlyandintroduction. As readersareaware, educationmeanschanges in behaviour.Itmovestheindividual from lack ofinterestandigno rancetoincreasing appreciationandknowledgeandfinally,toaction.Nutritioneducation offers agreatopportunity for individuals tolearnabouttheessentials ofnutritionforhealthandtotakesteps to improve the quality oftheirdietsandthusthewell-being of the population.

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PHYSIOTHERAPYVELMABURROWSPhysiotherapy,asdehnedInthecurriculum oftheChartered Society of Physiotherapy (CSP), 1976, isthetreatment of diseaseandinjury by physical means. HISTORY Physiotherapy istheoldestbranchofthemedical profession.Itisthatprehistoricbranchof medicine where people touched, strokedandhelped eachotherby manual therapyanddatesback totheancient Greeks, ChineseandEgyptians.Inancient Greece,thegymnasiaweretheplaces where onewentfor helpandadvicewithproblems for pain and function.Therewere directors who were ex pertsinmassageandexercisesegoPRODITUS who was describedintheliteraturepredatingHIPPOCRATES. According totheRoyalCharter,Physiotherapyhasthree components:1.Massage2.Medical Gymnastics3.Medical Electricity.Todatethen,Physiotherapistsarecarryingon a tradition thousands ofyearsold. Physiotherapy is a mo bile professioninhealthcareandis, byitsverynatureofdevelopment, a service-oriented profession. MASSAGE:thisis ahandson profession -ituti lisestheareasoftissuemanipulation, mobilisa tion,stretchingandjointmanipulation. To beaneffectiveTherapisttherefore, onemustlove people. Onemustlove to touchandbe touched becauseitisthroughtouchthatthehealingprocess becomes effective. MEDICAL GYMN.A.8TICS hasledTherapiststo becomeexpertsinnormalandabnormalhumanmovements.TheTherapistis well qualifiedinthebiomechanicsofthephysiology of performanceandtoteachingandexercise theory. BecausePhysiotherapistsareexpertsinteaching andindealingwiththemotivational basis of problemsofdisabilityandfunction,theyhandlepatientsboth physicallyandmentally.MEDICAL ELECTRICITY:thismodality usesthenaturalagencies which affect cellular activities,painandfunctionandisthedifference between medicineandphysiotherapy.Inthemedical model one dealswithpathology (ill ness), one labelsitandlooks fortreatmentandcure.Itis a model whichputsahighpriority on saving life. The physiotherapy model ontheotherhand,isaboutdisordersandproblemsoffunctionanddisabilityratherthanpathology diagnosis,althoughmuchtimeisspentlearningaboutpathological diagnosis. Physiotherapyisa competentandindependent pro fession.TheTherapistworks WITHandnotFORthePhysician.Physiotherapistsarecapable of assessing,evaluatingandplanningtreatmentprogrammes inde pendently,withoutphysician referrals. PhysiotherapistsareMANUALtherapists,theyusetheirhands.Itisa profession which uses touch for sensory the rapeuticinputandhealing, one which usesmanualskills for manipulation. Asinthemedical professiontherearemanyspe cialtyareassoitisinphysiotherapy, for example Paediatrics, Gynaecology&Obstetrics, Gerontology, Or thopaedics, Neurology, RespiratoryandHydrotherapy tonamea few.ACADEMICREQUIREMENTSTheminimumentryrequirementsfor a physiothe rapy programme depend on locationandareasfollows:1.JAMAICA: five G.C.E."0"Levels 2. UNITED KINGDOMandCANADA: five G.C.E."0"Levelsandtwo "A" Levels -anassociate degreeinthesciencesmaybesubstitutedforthetwo "A" Levels. 3. U.S.A:Thiswill dependontheUniversity. Youmaygainentrywithfive G.C.E."0"Levels,anassociate degreeor firstdegreeinthesci ences. ThetrainingperiodinJamaicaisthreeacademic schoolyearsandfouryearsintheUnitedKingdom,CanadaandU.S.A.

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THE FIELDOFSOCIALWORKLORENECLARKE"SocialWorkandSocialWelfareactivitiesconstitutesoneofthemostimportantfunctionsintermsoffinancialexpenditureandhumanefforts."SOCIALWORKDEFINEDA Classic DefinitionOnetheorist,MaryRichmond, sees SocialWorkas"those processeswhichdeveloppersonalitythroughadjustmentsconsciously effected,individualbyindividual,betweenmenandtheirsocialenvironment."Another sees itas"theartofbringingvariousresourcestobearonindividual,groupandcommunityneedsandtheap plicationofa scientificmethodofhelpingpeopletohelpthemselves."Whilesome.theorists see SocialWorkfromthepys cho-socialpointofviewandothersseeitfrom a pure pointofview,therole -theproblemandtheinstitutions,inanutshellSocial Work, is seen asahelpingprocess,wheretheworkerhelpstheindividualtohelphimlherself,asanindividual,inthefamilyandinthelargerenvironment.Thishelpingiseffectedmainlythroughthefollow-ingprocesses:-1.theCaseWorkProcess 2.theGroupWorkProcessor3.theCommunityOrganizationProcess.TheCaseWorkProcessisa onetoonerelationshipinwhichtheworkerworkswiththeindividualand/orthefamilyasa whole.TheGroupWorkProcessisagroupingofseveralindividualswithsimilarproblems,meetingonaregularbasistodiscusstheirproblemandtheircoping mech anism.Inthisprocesstheworkeris involvedasa facilitator.TheCommunityOrganizationProcess occurs on amuchwiderbasisanddealswithmarshallingcommunityresources soastoconductprojectsthatwillbenefitthecommunityasa whole.Heretheworker'srole isthatofanenabler.ThereareanumberofspecialtyareasinSocial Work, forexample:-1.PsychiatricSocialWork2. Medical SocialWork3.ChildCare4. SocialWorkerswhoworkwithSenior Citizens 5.MaritalCounselling6.AttachedtoCorrectionalInstitutionsTRAININGSocialWorktrainingdrawsonmanydisciplinessuchaspsychology, sociologyandeconomics.Thereare, however, core subjectsrelatedtotheprofession of Social Work alone. SocialWorkisthereforea disciplineinitself.Trainingcanbeattainedlocallyandabroad.Locally,theCollegeofTheBahamasoffers two programmes1)thetwo-yearDiplomainSocial Work,gearedtopersonswiththreeG.C.E."0"Levelsandespecially forthoseinvolvedinthefieldofSocial WorkbutwithnoformaltraininginSocialWorkand2)theAdvancedCertificateinSocial Work,gearedtowardsequippingthoseindividuals-graduatesorpost graduateswhoareinvolvedorinterestedinthefield of Social Work,butwho donotpossessthenecessaryformaltraininginthearea.TrainingcanbepursuedattheUniversityoftheWestIndies-a twoyearCertificateCourseora Bach elor of ScienceinSocialWork(threeyearcourse). ProfessionaltrainingcanbeobtainedatschoolsintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,CanadaandtheUnitedKingdomandcanrangefromtheCertificateto Doctoratelevels.CAREERPOSSIBILITIESANDENTRYQUALIFICATIONThebasicqualificationneededforthejobasaSocialWorkeris aDiplomainSocial Workandis obtaina bleattheCollegeofTheBahamas.Amatureindividualwithagenuineinterestinalleviatinghumansuffering is desirable. Possibilities forcareerdevelopmentinSocial Workareverygoodatthistimeasourcountryis developingrapidlyandthesociety is becoming moreawareofthismostvitalrole. So far, wehavetwoDepartmentseachheadedby a Director,withAssistantDirectorsandtwootherareaswithHeadsoftheirDepartmentinanequivalentposition to Directors.Expansionsoccur on aregularbasis.Thereisattimes,a misconceptionthata "reli gious"personwould be amoreeffective Social Worker.Thisisnotnecessarilythecase. Acaringperson who feelstheneedtobecome involvedwithanotherpersoninahelpingway; one whogainstheconfidence and respectofhis/herclientandis willing to gothatextrastepforhisfellowhumanbeing, would be effective as a Social Worker.Thesearethebasichumanrequirementsforthefield of Social Work.Anothermisconception isthatonemustbe marriedwitha familyandhavehadthesameexperience if he/she is tomakeeffectiveintervention.Thisalso is a

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myth.ProfessionaltrainingintheareaofSocial Work, coupledwithempathyisallthatisneeded. SocialWorkcanbeaveryrewardingprofession.Itrequiresmaturity,sensitivityandagenuineconcernforthewell-beingofothers.ONBECOMINGA PHARMACIST SYPIERREWhatisPharmacy?Pharmacyhasbeendefinedasthatprofession which isconcernedwiththeartandscienceofpreparing fromnaturalandsyntheticsources,suitableandconvenientmaterialsfordistributionanduseinthetreatmentandpreventionofdisease.Itembracesa knowledgeoftheidentification,selection, pharmacologicaction,preservation,combination,analysisandstandardizationof drugs andmedicines.Pharmacyalsoin cludesproperandsafedistributionanduseofdrugs.Theword"pharmacy"isderivedfromtheGreekwork"pharmakon",meaningmedicineordrug.Apharmacististherefore'theexpertondrugs'.TrainingAtpresent,therearetwogradesofpharmacistinTheBahamas,GradeIandGradeII.TheminimumrequirementsnecessarytoqualifyasaGradeIPharmacist is aBachelorisa SciencedegreeinPharmacyfromanapprovedorrecognisedCollegeofPharmacy.Allpharmacyprogrammeslastfiveyears.Thefirsttwo years (ofthepharmacyschoolcurriculum)(called pre pharmacy)consistofcourseswhichprovideafirmfoun dationinthephysicalandbiological sciences,egochem istry, physicsandbiologyandmathematics.Overthenextthreeyears,thecurriculumconsistsprimarilyofprofessionalpharmacycourses.Thesecourses, basic to allpharmacyschools,includepharmacognosy,biology, biochemistryandcommerceofnaturalproducts;pharmacology,thestudyoftheactionanduseofdrugs;pharmaceuticalchemistry,theapplicationofbasicor ganicandinorganicchemistry,pharmaceuticalsandtherelationoftheseprinciplestodruguse;pharmacypharmaceuticals,thisincludescalculations,preparations,dispensingpharmacyandphysicalpharmacy;clinical pharmacy,whichisthatdivisionofpharmacywhichdealswithpatientcarewithparticularemphasison drugtherapy;andpharmacyadministration,whichdealswiththeprinciplesandpracticeofbusinessandlawastheyapplytopharmacypractice.Generally,aftercompletingthedegreecourse, aPharmacyBoardexaminationistakenandthesuccessfulstudentisthena licensedorregisteredpharmacistwhichgrantshimIherthelegalrightto"independentlyengageinthepracticeofpharmacy".InordertobecomeaGradeIIPharmacist,theindividualmusthaveobtainedaminimumoffivegeneralcertificateofeducation(GeE)subjects(withaminimumofC-Grade),whichmustincludeMathematics,Englishandonesciencesubject.He/shemustthenundergoatleastfouryearsofinservicetrainingorapprenticeshipinapharmacyunderthedirection/supervisionofalicensedpharmacist.ThefinalstepinobtaininggradeIIlicensureistotakeclasses(givenbyalicensedpharmacist)inordertositthepharmacyexaminationadministeredbythePHARMACYBOARD.OnecanalsobecomeaPharmacyTechnician,whichinvolveslessintensetrainingbutallowsthepersontoparticipateinthetechnicalaspectsofpharmacyunderthesupervisionofalicensedpharmacist.AdegreewhichisfastbecomingpopularintheUnitedStatesisthedegreeof"DoctorofPharmacy"(Pharm.D),nottobe confused withtheDoctorofPhilosophy (PhD)degree.ThePharm.D.isaclinicaldegree(as opposedtoresearch)andrequiresaminimumofsixyearsstudy.ThedegreeissimilartotheBachelorofSciencedegreeinpharmacy,buttheadditionalyearinvolvesextensivetraininginclinicalpharmacyandmayalsoinvolvespecializationinareassuchasoncolo gy,psychiatry,paediatrics,generalmedicine,ambulatorycare,clinical(pharmacokinetics)nutritionalsupport,drugtoxicology.Itshouldbenotedthattherearealsoresearchorienteddegreeswhichmaybeobtainedinspecificareasencompassedbypharmacy.ThesearetheMasterof Science (M.S.)andtheDoctorofPhilosophy(PhD.) degrees.TheM.S.andPhD.degreesarepost-graduatedegreeswhichcanbeobtainedintwoandfouryearsaftercompletionoftheBachelorofScienceorDoctorofPharmacydegree.Thesepost-graduatedegreesareinspecialtyareassuchaspharmacology,medicinalchem-27

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istryandbiopharrnaceutics.CareersinPharmacyFinally,I wouldliketotouchuponthedifferentcareersinwhichonecanengage.FirstthereistheCommunityPharmacistmorepharmacistsareinvolvedincommunitypracticethaninanyotherareaof Thisisthepharmacistmost oftenseenbythepublic who practicesinanindependentlyownedorchainpharmacystore.Anothercareerinpharmacyisthatof HospitalPharmacist.Thesepharmacistspracticeinprivateandgovernment-owned hospitals.Thereis alsotheWholesalePharmacist.ThisPharmacistaswithotherwholesalers)actsa "middleman" betweenthemanufacturerandthecommunitypharmacist. Becauseofthespecialnatureand legal restrictions oftheproductshandled,mostwholesale drug firms em ploy a licensedpharmacistina supervisory capacity.Industrialpharmacyisanothercareerwhich offers opportunities topharmacistsof all educational levels. ThisincludescareerssuchastheMedical Service Representative(ordetailman)who isincontactwithboth physicianandpharmacistregardinghiscompany's products.Pharmacistsarealso employedinsupervisoryandadministrativepositionsinindustry.Industryalso offersopportunitiesto thosewithresearchoriented de greesinsuchareasasproductdevelopment,qualitycontrol,testingandthediscoveryofnewdrugsandothertherapeuticagents.Inconclusion -pharmacyencompasses a broadareaofknowledgeinboththebasicandclinical sci enceswithspecialemphasisondruginformation. A careerinpharmacycanberewardingandfulfillingifonly because apharmacistisanessentialmemberofanyhealthcareteam.IMMUNIZATIONAWARDSCEREMONYINPICTURES/ ?'R.

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30Our men aresoSPECIAL!!!

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U\ I I'" HEALTHEDUCATIONINMOTIONFELICITY AYMERAlthoughtheartandpractice ofhealtheducation dates back toantiquity,thephraseisrelativelynew having onlybeencoinedandadoptedearlythiscentury.The practiceandacceptance ofhealtheducationhashad a very chequeredlife,nearlyfalling into oblivionatone pointandowes is revitalisationto epidemics occur ring midlastcenturyandtheturnof this. SincethenHealthEducationhasgainedsteadycredence overthelasteightyorsoyearsandis nowbeinghailedasthepanacea for allthemoderndayhealthproblems.Butwhatis it,whatdoesthe"healtheducation" do? Surely allhealthandindeed alliedhealthprofessionals/providersarehealtheducators?Ofcoursetheyare.Themother/guardianwho-teachesheryoungchildhealthfulhabits,thecommunitynursewhohelpsherclients tonurtureherfamilyorsuggestsalternativewaysofhousekeepingto accommodate a sick child, dis abledorelderlyrelative,theEnvironmentalHealthOfficer whopersuadeshislherconstituentsto "catch"theirplantsinsoil/sandratherthanwater,thephysician, bedsidenurse,theteacher,areallfunctioningashealtheducators.WhatthendoesthehealtheducatorlHealthEduca31

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tion Specialist do?Theanswertothatlies essentiallyinunderstandingwhathealtheducation is about. The essence ofhealtheducation liesin"voluntaryadaptationsofbehaviourconducive to healthful living".TheWHO'sExpertCommittee onHealthEducation ofthepublic (Technical Report Series No. 89)statestheaim ofhealtheducationisto help people to achievehealthbytheirown actionsandefforts ... Thegeneralpurposes1.tomakehealtha valued communityasset2.tohelp individuals to become competentinandtocarryon those activitiestheymustundertakefor themselvesasindividuals orinsmall groupsinordertorealise fullythestateofhealth...3.topromotethedevelopmentandproper use ofhealthservices.Healtheducation is a "people-centred" activity. Thetrainedhealtheducator's function is to plan, conductandevaluatehealtheducation programmeswhetherthey are institutionally,community. school or occupa tionally based. Thehealtheducation specialistasshelhe isinternationally known istrainedinthebiological, physicalandsocial sciences;ineducationandeducational psychology;inhygieneandpublichealth;inpublic administra tion;andinthespecial skillsrequiredinthediscipline.6 AplanningmeetingforaprogrammeofhealtheducationintheGeneralPractice,PMH.Lefttoright:Dr.Gray,(GPC),DwightAllen,CherylThompson,Dr.Whitfield,Dr.KingChungandMrs.Ferguson.32TheHealthEducationDivision oftheMinistry ofHealthis asmallserviceareaoftheMinistry, strug glingitseems often,againstall odds,butwearegrad uallyandinexorably moving fromthepositioninwhich we were perceivedas"showing a film or giving a lecture"totheplanningimplementationandevaluationofhealtheducation programmesstatus.Healtheducation employsanynumberandor com bination of education/communicationstrategiesto effect "voluntarybehaviourchange". One ofthesemethods istheuse oftheelectronic media. For anumberof yearstheDivisionhashadsole responsibility for coordinatingandproducingtheMinistry ofHealth'sweeklyhalfhourradioprogrammeheardover RadioBahamasZNS 1 onSundayat1 p.m. The practice ofhealtheducation isaninteresting, challengingandevenattimes,rewardingone.Itdemandsconviction,determinationandtheability to "laughatoneself'.Italso demandsthatwelistentoandhearourpublicsandareable to communicate effective ly not onlywiththembutalsowithourleadersintheMinistry ofHealthifwearenotto losesightoftheraisond'etreofourexistance, effecting behaviour change. WiththechallengeofHealthFor All BytheYear 2000 (HFAJ2000)healtheducation is enjoyingandun precedented resurgence,theopportunities for playing avitalroleinthe"questforhealth"presently existandwill exist for sometimeto come.HealthEducationOfficerFELICITYAYMER,enjoysalightheartedmomentfollowingarecordingoftheweeklyMinistryofHealth'sRadioprogrammewithherguestDr.HerbertOrlander. ._

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A BRIEFONTHE HEALTH INSPECfORATEMELONYMcKENZIEEnvironmentalHealthScience isthecontrol of all those factorsinman'sphysical environment which exert or may exert a deleterious effect on his physical development,healthandsurvival. The Department ofEnvironmentalHealthServices(DEHS),adepartmentoftheMinistry of Health, is headed by a Director who is ultimately, responsible for the coordinationandperformance of all divisions. The Director's office is locatedintheMosko Building, "Haw kins Hill" Mount Royal Avenue, Nassau. Administra tive responsibilitiesaresharedby a Deputy Director. The Department is comprisedofsix units. Theseare:-1.TheHealthInspectorate2.Solid Waste Collection&Disposal Division3.The PublicAnalystLaboratory4.Vector Control5.Roads&Parks6.Garage. THEHEALTHINSPECTORATETheHealthInspectorate Division, located in prem isesonSchool Lane, is headed by aChiefHealthIn spector, who is assisted by a DeputyChiefHealthIn spector. This Division is responsible forfoodandwaterquality control, building control, porthealth,meatin spection, licensing,foodinspections, general inspec tions, investigation of environmental complaints, house and yard inspectionsandepidemiological investiga tions.Tofacilitate coverage ofthisisland, New Provi dence is divided into twelve districts each of which is the responsibilityofaHealthOfficer. Each officer is responsible fortheentireenvironmentalstatusof hislh er district. The maintenance ofanefficient system of supervis ing and controllingtheproduction, presentation, stor age and distribution ofthenation'sfoodsupply isanimportant function ofthedepartment. The recently es tablishedfoodunithasresponsibility for1)licensing of business houses;2)Sampling offoodand water;3)In spection of premises for schoolfoodvendors and tempo raryfoodvendors.PortHealthPortHealthincludes inspectionatall ports ofentryof all imported meats, inspection of allinternationalvessels and inspection for deratization certificates. Strict attention ispaidtotheimportation of used cloth ing and all imported used clothingmustbe accompa nied by a Certificate of Fumigation fromthepoint of shipping.Theclothesaresubject to inspection by aHealthOfficer.BuildingControlAll building applicationsmustbesubmitted tothedepartment. toobtainapproval,allenviromentalhealthrequirementsmustbe met.Atpresent,theislandisdivided intoeastandwestandinspectionofall build ingsandbuildingplansintheseareasistheresponsibi lity of two Officers.EpidemiologicalInvestigationsEpidemiological investigationsandmeatinspection are also responsibilitiesofthedepartment.Meatinspec tion is performed by all qualifiedHealth InspectOrs onarotation basis. TheyareassistedbyaHealthAssistantorHealthAide.Atpresent one officer is responsible for all emidemiological investigations.StaffingStaffoftheInspectorateinNew Providence consistof:-tenHealthInspectors, fiveHealthAssistants, fiveHealthAides.VECTORCONTROLThe coordination oftheVector ControlUnitis di vided into InsectandRodent Control headed by two foremen, one for Insectandone for Rodents. Theunitis responsible fortheidentificationandcontrol of all vectorsegomosquitoes, rodents.TheAedes aegypti control programme consistsofVector Control Officers whomakesystematic visits toallpremises. All receptacles holdingwateraretreatedwithinsecticides and breeding sitesareinspected to determinetheeffec tiveness ofthetreatment.All ports ofentryinNew Providenceareundersurveillance for Aedes aegyptiandmustbefreeofthismosquito topreventdisease transmission. Surveillance encompasses placement of (ovi)trapsfor egg laying mosquitoesinstrategic locations. Thesetrapsareserviced on a weekly basis, ''paddles''aretakentothemosquito indentification laboratory to determine whetherornotthereis breeding. Positive ovi paddlesareplacedinpansandincubated.Theresultantlarvaearethenkilled, indentifiedandpreserved.Inadditiontothetwo foremen,staffofVector Con trolunitcomprisetwentyVector Control Officers. 33

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FELICITY AYMERVELMA BURROWS PHILABERTHACARTERLORENECLARKEDONALDCOOPERCECIL DORSETT ROSALIEFOULKESBRENDA INGRAHAM PORTIAJORDANMELONY McKENZIEKAYLAMUSGROVESYPIERREENIDRUDDOCKJANETRECO Photographs: Courtesy:34ABOUTTHECONTRIBUTORSHealthEducationOfficer,MinistryofHealthandEditoristheDeputyChiefPhysiotherapistatthePrincessMargaretHospital. is aCommunityNurse,NursingOfficerattheCoconut Grove Clinic, AcklinsStreet,Nassau.istheChiefWelfare OfficerintheDepartmentof Social Services. isanAssistantDirectorintheDepartmentofEnvironmentalHealthServicesandthePublic Analyst. Dr. Cooper holds aPhDinMicrobiology. is a SeniorAgriculturalExtensionOfficerintheDepartmentofAgriculture'sRock Sound,EleutheraOffice,Ministryof Economic Affairs. is RegisteredDietitianandtheOfficerinchargeof Food ServicesattheSandilandsRehabilitationCentre. istheSenior Records Officer Medical RecordsDepartmentandofficerinchargeoftheDepartment.istheCoordinatorofCounselling ServicesattheCollege ofTheBahamasandholds aPhDinCounselling. isanOfficer oftheDepartmentofEnvironmentalHealthServices,HealthInspectorateDivision. is arecentgraduateoftheAcadiaUniversity,Nova ScotiaandhasworkedasasummerstudentintheCytology SectionoftheLaboratory,PMH.is a medicalstudentatMaharryMedical College, Nashville,TennesseeandatrainedPharmacist.is aCommunityNurseinFreshCreek, Andros. is aRadiographerGrade 1atthePrincessMargaretHospital. Mr.AnthonyBrown, Audio VisualUnit,PrincessMargaretHospitalandMr.KenBarkooftheEditorial Committee.

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FELICITY A YMEREDITORIAL COMMITfEEHealthEducation Division STEPHANIE CARROLL AUDREY DEVEAUX ASHWARDFERGUSON KEN OFOSU-BARKO HARCOURT PINDER CARLTON SMITH DONNA SMITH-DIAL CHERYL THOMPSONBahamasAssociation of LifeInsurersNational Insurance Board Architect, Ministry of Works Medical Officer, PublicHealthDepartment NationalHealthEducation Council (Bahamas) The Counsellors Broadcasting Corporation of TheBahamasHealthEducation Division.-----._.------------------------------------------------------------.---------------EVALUAll0NHelpustomakethenewsletterasinterestingand informative as possible. Please complete, detachandreturnthisshortevaluationformtotheHealth Educ:ationDivision. PublicHealthDepartment, Nassau, Bahamas.Tickthemost appropriate response.1.How did you findthenewsletter? a) veryinterestingb)interestingc)somewhat interesting d) uninteresting e)did DOt read2.Wasthereanyarticle ofparticularinteresttoyou? Yes0No0Ifyes, please givetitle. 3.Whatchanges,ifany,would youliketosee?...........................................................................................................................................................................................-4.Whattopics would youlikeinfuture issues? .5.Would you like to contribute tothisnewsletter?YesoNooIfyes, please givenameandaddress. Name:__. Address: __ _.Thankyoufor your co-operation!35

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36 ill P.O.BOX N-3729NASSAU,BAHAMAS.

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HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS THE WORD FOR86?SELF-CARETHE WAYTOBETToERHEALTHNASSAU,BAHAMASCover Designby:-THEOPHILUS THOMPSON LESLIE JOHNSON ASHWARD FERGUSONPRINTED IN THE BAHAMAS BYTHE NASSAU GUARDIAN (1844) LTOo