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Joining hands for health

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Material Information

Title:
Joining hands for health caring and sharing at Christmas time
Abbreviated Title:
Joining hands for health
Physical Description:
31 p. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ministry of Health ( Publisher )
Publisher:
Health Education Division, Ministry of Health
Place of Publication:
Nassau, Bahamas
Publication Date:
Frequency:
semiannual
completely irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Health care. -- Bahamas   ( lcsh )
Public health -- Bahamas
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Temporal Coverage:
1983 - 1988
Spatial Coverage:
Caribbean Area

Notes

Abstract:
The main thrusts in primary health care is the improvement of our maternal and child health services within the Bahamas.
General Note:
Booklet contains information regarding caring and sharing for the young child.
Statement of Responsibility:
Ministry of Health, Health Education Division

Record Information

Source Institution:
College of The Bahamas
Holding Location:
College of The Bahamas
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00013240:00005


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Full Text

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Message from The Minister of Health .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . 2 2. Message from The Chief Medical Officer. ....... ............ .......... ...... ........................ .... .... ........... 2 3. Message from The Treasurer, National Health Education (Bahamas) ....... . .. ..... ... .. . .. . .. . .. . ...... ......... .. .. .. ... ....... .. .. ............ ....... .. 3 4. Editorial........... ... ................. .............................. ......... ...... .................... ............... ..... ............. 3 5. Congratulations, Nurse Ophelia Munnings ............................................. ............................... 4 6. Eighth Triennial Meeting of Commonwealth Health Ministers .............. .......... ............................. .... ... . ........ ........ .... ............. ........ . . ........... 7 7. Up-Date ....... ... ........................... ............................. .... .... .................................. Felicity Aymer 9 8. Staff Training At the Public Analyst Laboratory .......................................................................................................... Donald Cooper 1 7 9. The Bahamas Diabetic Association .... .......... ...................... ... .... . ...... ... ... ........ Diana Pinder 17 10. Let's Make Christmas Special.. ........ ....................... ....... ..................... ... ..... Barbara Deveaux 18 11. Let's Do It Again ............. ........ ......... ......... .......... ........... ....... ........................ Anthony Roberts 19 12. Christmas Eve and My Shopping Isn't Done ..... ........ ..... ..................... ..... Barbara Deveaux 20 13. Christmas For The Children ....................................................................... Beverley Lockhart 21 14 Recipes ................... ::......... . ...... . .... ......................................................................................... .. 22 15. Know Your Limit ................................................................................ ........ Rudolph Burgzorg 23 16. Be Alert .......................... .......................................... .......... ....... ................. Catherine Wilson 24 17. Say You Care Sponsor A Child ... . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 26 18 Aids: A Lethal Mystery Story ................................ ........... ................................. .... Janet Hall 28 19. About The Contributors.... ..... .................................... ....... . ................. ........ . ............ ..... ........ ... 30 20 Editorial Committee...... ................. ..... .......................... ................................ ...... ..................... 30 21. Evaluation ... .. .... ... ........ .. ...... .. .. ... ... .. .... ... .... ..... ... .. ....... .. .... ...... .. ... .. .. ..... .. ... .. .. ... ..... ... .. ... ... ... 31 90S088

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2 MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTER OF HEALTH Once again it is my pleasant duty to extend warm Christrnas greetings to all readers of Joining Hands For Health and more especially, our family of health wo'i"kers throughout our beautiful ar c hipelago from Grand Bahama in the north to /nagu.a in the far south. For us in health the sensitivity we display to our publics always has some bearing on thir well being. I am therefore pleased with the interest and response to the further emphasis being placed on this aspect of delivery of services in the form of sensitivity sessions for staff of the Outpatients Department of the Princess Margaret Hospital. Our voluntary organisations have been a source of unending inspiration for us all, our commu nity health services are being consolidated and increasingly, community members are being actively encou r aged to become involved in their health care. Curat ive services, still the backbone of our health services, have all been further upgracled during the year as we continue our determined march to wards health for all our peopl e. Christmas is that time of year when we come togethe r as families and friends to ref7.ect on marvel at and celebrate the mystery of ou r Christ's birth In our preparations and activities may we not forget those who for whatever reason, are not able to enjoy the season of peace and goodwill, be they among us or abroad. May we also use thi.s period to review the past and l.ook forward to {he future with renewed vigour and optimism in promoting our individual and corporaf,e health. I take this opportunity to wish you all, and your families, a warm and glorious May t_he blessings of the Christ child remain with you always. NORMAN GAY A MESSAGE FROM THE CHIEF MEDICAL OFFICER It is with great pleasure that I take the opportunity to extend sincerest greetings to all members of oztr health team in New 'f\ rovidence, Grand Bahama and throughout our Family Islands. 1986 has been a challenging and sdmetimes frustrating year, but I trust that we have emerged feeling more optimistic. At Ministry level it has been a year of evaluation, consolidation and further planning. We now look forward to proceeding into 1987 with renewed vigour and enthusiasm, embarking upon much needed improvements both in our infrastructu r e and in manpower development The continued support of all members of the team will be called upon. I recognize that our health team in The Bahamas comprises many hard working and dedicated individuals of different religions and persuasions, but all professing a beli.ef in a supreme being. May the blessings and guidance of that supreme being be with you during 1987 and throughout the years to come. Greetings/ VERNEL ALLEN

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MESSAGE FROM THE TREASURER NATIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION COUNCIL (BAHAMAS) Keep Silent and Hear The Angels Sing The time in which we live may be described as one of loudness. Many people seem to have a preference for that which is loud. If they are playing music, the volume must be high. Motorcycles without adequate -mufflers speed by disturbing the peace Even talk is sometimes loud. The impres sion is that loudness make s the activity more meaningful and enjoyable. Christmas is a time of much loudness; the rush of traffic, the sounds from many shoppers and festive functions, happy children with their toys. The yard is groomed, the house is painted new furniture is bought, presents lie underneath the decorated tree, the cupboard is filled with everything delicious For many, Christmas would not be the same without the sounds which accompany these activities. On the other hand, there is that side of Christmas which speaks of peace, joy and quietness; herein lies the deeper meaning of Christmas. At this time we celebrate the birth of Christ. St. Luke says that on the night of Jesus' birth an angel proclaimed the good news, angels sang, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace goodwill toward men ." Individuals and nations, like the shepherds of old, need to hear that message, but it is sometimes difficult to hear the song of angels amid the rush and loud noises, not only around us but within our own lives. It goes without saying that we liv e in a troubled world where there is the constant threat to world peace, where increasingly, innocent people are taken hostage; where there is much greed, violence, denial of human rights; where there is the use of illegal drugs and its effects upon our family life and our christian values. Indeed, the angel's song calls for attention to the Christmas message. Here at lwme, we need to hear the angels sing, their song will help us to see life in its true perspective. It will cause us to move to action, remember God and to look upwards. Sometimes we tend to forget him and to leave him out of the picture. To do this spells chaos. However, we can rejoice that whatever problems we face, we have in Jesus the God wlw loves us and who is present with us in these trying times; therefore, in this Yuletide season be still and recognize God as God. On behalf of the National Health Education Council my family and myself, I extend to you greet ings and best wishes for a blessed Christmas and a happy New Year. HARCOURT PINDER EDITORIAL JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH is now four years old! It started as a Newsletter and seems to have graduated to a Magazine. Preparation doesn't get easier although the Editorial Committee works well together and funding is rw longer the hurdle it once was. Securing visual material remains problematic. With a little per serverance, it is lwped that this aspect will improve. Health embodies caring. It embodies sharing, for self and for others; caring and sharing throughout the year and throughout the life cycle. We invite you therefore, at this Christmas time, to show a little extra thought for your fellow traveller throughout the Commonwealth, whether it be in Grand Bahama or Inagua and drive as though your life depends on it. Police statistics indicate that, in New Providence, one accident occurs every two hours. Can each one of us possibly increase that interval to three and maybe four hours not only this Christmas but also for next year? To all readers, a happy and enjoyable holiday season. As we reflect on and rejoice in the birth of the Christchild, may we more fully appreciate the gift of life and the responsibility we each have in preserving it. 3

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CONGRATUIATIONS Nurse Ophelia MUNNINGS, Gambier Clinic, on completing Fifty Years Ophelia Theresa MUNNINGS nee Seymour, the ninth of ten children, was born to Celestina and James Seymour of Staniard Creek, Andros, on 16t h January, 1919 The family moved to Nassau about two years later and Ophelia attended St. Francis Xavier's School, from kindergarten through grade seven -the highes t grade at that time She received priv a te tuition a t hom e for the following yea r and started teaching at her alma mater at the ripe age of fifteen. This was a temporary job until she was old enough to enter nursing schoo l on October 1st, 1936, at The Bahamas General Hospi tal, now the Prince ss Margaret, where s h e traine d for the next four years receiv ing a salary of one pound ten shillings per month (equivalent to abou t $7.37) On completion of training general nursing and midwifery she assum e d responsibility for all female wards, maternity) medical, surgical, private and the children's ward all on the same floor Sal ary? Five pounds per month. (about $24.55). Later the following year, 1941 s he transferred to West End, Grand Bahama where s h e established the officia l health presence. She cov\:red the who l e island on foot later on bicycle donated b y the Duche ss of Windsor and by boat to reach the outlying settle ments. Not only did she perform the traditional health/nursing / medical function s but also some industrial fun ct ions. At that time there was the sea food factory which pRid half Nurse Munnings salary, Government paid the oth e r half (ten pound s per month). Working from her office at the factory every day, she took blood sa mples which were sent to Nassau for testing, looked after the worker s and di s charged her nursing duties to the entire population. Not surprisingl y, Nurse Munn ings g ot to know all residents in Grand Bahama very well and me t her late husband, Basil 4 Munnings there. They were married in June 1944 and the couple departed for Nassau the following year for the birth of their first c hild a son, Ruiz on 15th De cembe r 1945 Nurse Munnings bas been a pioneer all her life. She piorn:lered health services in Grand Bahama, pi oneered district nursing services in New Providence and later, in 19 79, when she retired the daily walk-in clinic in Gambier Village which was, at that time a satellite clinic of the Blue Hill Road C l inic, opened once per month. In addition to her full time duties as the Comm u nity Nurse in charge of the Gambier health district Mrs. Munnings is extremely active in her Church, Holy Family, Robjnson Road, she trains one of the choirs, plays the organ for the seven o'clock early morning mass and is a member of the Ladies Guild She i s active i n the Community Nurses' Club of which she i s a founder member She i s also the proud mother of eight chilcfren, five girls and three boys, and the proud grand mother of sixteen grandchildren Colleagues, friends, well wishers and family mem bers paid tribute to Nurse Munnings on Sunday 5th October first by worshipping with her at the Holy Family Church, midmorning service, one of her daugh ters, Lynette Munnings-Pratt, played the organ for the service, and afterwards, at a luncheon held at the Pilot House Hotel given by the Community Nursing Club. A s you can imagin e, Mrs. Munnings was very moved by the occasion, gratitude excitement, sadness, humility, wonderment, achievement, thanksgiving were some of her emotions. At lunch she was presented with a number of gifts from colleagues and church members alike and the floral decorations were simply beautiful. Joining Hands For Health along with all her other admirers, friends and well wishers extend warmest and best wishes to Nurse Munnings on reaching this mile sto ne in her nursing career. Mrs. Munnings i s still extremel y trim and fit s he doesn't look a day over forty-five! She cont i nues to help all those with whom she comes into contact and has so many stories to perhaps s h e will find the time one day to r ec ord them for posterity? We also wish you many years of health and happ i ness We know you will continue to enjoy your large print bible courtesy of the Community Nusring Serv ices not only at this Christmas time but for many years to come. Good.lu ck, w e rejoice and are g l ad with you, Mrs. Munnings. (Co n tinued on page 31 J

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Ms. Sheila Butler, delivered by Ms Munnings in West End, Grand Bahama, 42 years ago. ,,.., la ,. ,_. . ... > : r ./ Left to right: Mrs. Levi Gibson, Mr. Gibson, Mrs. Gwen Brennen and Mr. Brennen, and Dr. Cora Davis. Both Mrs. Gibson and Mrs. Brennen are N. Munnings predecessors in nursing. Dr. C Davis, former Medical Offi cer of Health (N. P ) -J I > Extreme right: N Myrtle Hanna, Hardecker Clinic who dressed N. Munnings when she entered nurse training in 1936. N. Munnings at work in the walk-in Clinic, Gambier Village. A large gathering of friends and colleagues joined to honour N. Munnings at Luncheon. How many do you tecognize? Mrs. Munnings approaching the podium to say Thank You! Left to right: Celeste Lockhart (CNS), Bettie Serrett (choir member), Pearl Cooper, Rosalyn Johnson, Brenda Simms, N Ferguson (DNE) seated, Dorothy Philips. 5

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6 MIRACLES DO HAPPEN! Some months ago an old woman toiled up to a health centre in Kenya carrying her l ast granddaughter The child's mother aged about 30, had died in chi l dbirth and it looked as though her last off-spring would soon follow her The centre took care of the old lady and her self-imposed responsibility, but the grandmother went further and brought to life an ancient legend of the Luo people After three months of hope, trust and effort, she who had last s uckled a child 30 years earlier, brought forth her own milk and fed her granddaughter from her breast. (Source: Contact, No. 88, Dec ember 1985.) Reproduced from: Cajanus Vol. 19 No. 3 1986 Quote: \ Make good habits and they will make you. Parks Cousins The worst bankrupt in the world is the person who has lost his enthusiasm H. W. Arnold

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EIGHTH TRIENNIAL MEETING of COMMONWEALTH HEALTH MINISTERS Commonwealth Health Ministers and their dele gates from 36 countries within the British Common wealth met in Nassau's Cable Beach Hotel from Sunday evening 12th to Friday 17th October, 1986 for their eighth triennial Meeting. Long before the Meeting got underway, a team of hard working persons, mainly from the Ministry of Health, prepared relentlessly for the Meeting In mid-August, a full time team of three, led by Miss Cleopatra Ferguson, the Committee's Administra tive Officer, manned the local Secretariat which, initial ly was situated in the Conference Room of the Health Education Division, but later moved to the Cable Beach Hotel, where they prepared conference material, busi ness and social, and made all necessary arrangements for the arrival of the distinguished visitors from all around the world. A substantial part of the typing had to be done after official working hours when secretaries from the Ministry of Health became available For many weeks therefore, the group worked well into the night. Shortly before D Day, employees from throughout the Ministry were seconded to the Hotel, some to com plete the finishing touches others to receive briefing about their duties as liasion officers By the time the Conference Officer arrived from the Commonwealth Secretariat in London, all the preparatory work had been done. Health Ministers, some with spouses and their del egations, began arriving on Friday evening. They were all greeted with traditional Bahamian hospitality. A Reception, given by the Manager of the Cable Beach Hotel for delegates and their spouses, an informal gath ering by the poolside, followed the meeting of senior officials on the Sunday evening. On Monday morning the Meeting got underway with great pomp and ceremony with the arrival of dele gates and their subsequent seating on the rostrum. Wives, along with other invited guests were already seated in The Bahama Rhythm Theatre. Welcome was extended by Dr. Gay, chairman of the week-long meet ing Addresses from H. E. Mr. Shridath Ramphal, Com monwealth Secretary General and the Deputy Prime Minister of The Bahamas, Hon Clement Maynard who declared the meeting open, followed. Thanks were said by the Health Ministers of Canada, Hon. Jake EPP and Sri Lanka, Dr. Ranjith ATTAPATTU. Music was pro vided by the Royal Bahamas Police Band At the close of this official ceremony, refreshments were served and the business meeting began. This was closed to the public. It consisted of numer ous plenary sessions and committee discussion groups. Chairmen and Vice Chairmen for the three working committees, Committees A, B, C, were elected during the first session. The committees addressed various aspects of the theme, Financing Health Services, in greater detail namely: Financing Health Care (Committee A) Eco nomic Management of Health Services Resources (Com mittee B) Technical Cooperation and Development As sistance in the Health Field (Committee C). As bases for their discussions, Committees used pa pers submitted by the various countries as well as in puts from lead speakers from among others, the United Kingdom and Canada. Our Permanent Secretary, Mr. Emerson Smith, was among those presenting lead papers his subject -Financing Health Care in Small Islands. The key note address was given by Professor Brian Abel-Smith of the London School of Economics and a past advisor to the WHO on costs of medical care. By lunch time on Tues day all the lead speakers had presented and the rest of the time was spent in Committees Commonwealth Health Ministers and their dele gations were kept extremely busy not only in the Con vention Hall, but also with a round of social en gagements, while their wives were entertained with a busy schedule of social engagements including a lun cheon, given by Dr. Carol Chaney-Gay, wife of the Min ister of H_ealth. During this luncheon Dr. Chaney-Gay took the opportunity to remind her guests that 500,000 women worldwide die annually from the effects of re production. She invited them all to do whatever they could to stop this unnecessary loss of life. On a lighter note, guests were treated to a fashion show of Andro sian prints and a demonstration of how these colourful patterns were made Sightseeing tours were a part of their schedule. The week's activities went well. Clearly delegates were impressed with the organisation of the meeting and the hospitality of the host nation to the extent that spontaneous words of deep appreciation were given by the Minister of Health for Antigua and Barbuda imme diately after the official closing of the meeting. Other Commonwealth Health Ministers also expressed their thanks. 7

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Not only Commonwealth Health Ministers but also delegate s from Regional Organisations, for example the Caribbean Common Market ( CARICOM ) and the Pan American Health Organisation (P AHO, Washington ) attended. Joining Hands For Health extends hearty congratu lations to the arm y of persons who worked in every area, press, hospitality security, secretarial, docu mentation, to make the Meeting the obvious undoubted success i t was. Congratulations to the local coordinating Commit tee. More on the Meeting in s ubsequent editions. A ROUND OF SOCIAL ENGAGEMENTS Well you see Lord Glenarthur, that's how it is here. How is it done in Great Britain? Financing Health Services is a problem whether in the Gambier or ... Dr. Malhoutri Asst. Secretary-General and I know too weU. May I introduce the Minister of Health in Swaziland? Welcome back to The Bahamas your Excellency, Mr. Ramphal. "',"',k I .,, # , .. . I t t t a '. . . . I ... ....... ""JJ .. So good to have the representative of the InterDevel opment Bank. 8

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UP-DATE FELIC ITY AYMER Health Education Division The corridors of the Health Education Division are a little quieter since the departure of our young, e n ergetic colleague Mi ss Cheryl THOMPSON at the end of A ugust to con t inu e studies in the field of Health Education. We miss your quick footsteps, ready, winning smile, your thirst for knowl e d ge and truth, C h eryl. W e hope you find so m e of the latter over the next year and that yo u will return to add your unique fla vour and zest to t h e Divi sion. Very best wishes for your success. Merry Christmas and a bright N e w Year. WELCOME To the Ministry of Health Mrs. Valerie LOCKHART Acting First Assistant Secretary, o n transfer from the Ministry o f Educa tion. Those educators among us w ill k n ow Mrs Lockhart as a colleague for many years and a former principal of the Stephen Dillette Primary School. Mr. Ant h ony M cKINNEY, First Assistant Secretary, on transfer from the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Department of Agriculture where h e worked for many years, in early October To the Princess Margaret Hospital:-* Dr. Joyo u s P l C KSTOCK who recently joined the staff o f the dental department. * * M s. Pick stoc k worked in the laboratory for a short whi l e before com pl eting denta l studi es at Mahar ry Medi ca l Co ll ege, Tenne ssee and returning to work at Princess Margaret Ho sp ital. Dr. Donald ASTWOOD who joined our heal t h fam il y as a District Medic a l Officer on 5th Octobe r Dr. Astwood a native of Turks Island, has worked in Jamaica and i s stati o ned at Kemp s Bay, South Andro s. J oirung Hands For Health wishes the Ast wood family, wife and_two so n s, a most enjoyable and successful tour of duty in K emps Bay. Dr. Uttarn CHA VAN formerly of the Princess Margaret Ho spital who bas returned from England to the Rand M emorial Ho s pital as Registrar i n the Emergency Room Staff Nurses Charles ANDERSON, Angeller BROWN, Helen BOYLE. Dr. James M cCARTNEY, Seruor Registrar, Sur gery at the Princess M a rgaret Ho s pital on 8th Septemb e r 1986. M s. Janet HALL to the Ministry of Health Sandi land s Rehabilitation Centre. Ms Hall, a re<:ent graduate of Ball State Univers i ty, Muncie Indiana ( MA Health Science ) initially joined the staff of t h e Ministry of Health as an Administrative Assistant to t h e Commonwealt h Healtb Ministers Me eting (CHMM ) in August. We know you enjoyed the challenges inherent i n preparing for a large international m eeting Miss H all and s i nce rel y ho pe you will also e n joy those within our Ministry. Very best wi s hes for your health and happiness. WELCOME To the staff o f Sandiland s R ehabilitation Centre Dr. KIS H OR E fr o m Community P sychiatry, PMH. Nurse Ruby PEET who has c hanged professions and is now a Social Work er. Wrensworth BUTLER, Sharon MORTIMER and Erica SANDS a ll Soc ial Workers CONGRATULATIONS, Welcome Back: Mrs. Maggi e TURNER on success ful c ompleti o n of a Masters in Public Health (MP H ) Industrial Hea l t h Education at Tennessee State University. Mrs. Turner, a trained nurse / midwife having o b tained a B S in nursing at t h e West Ind ies College in M andevi lle J amaica, who worked for a s hort time in t h e Eight Mile Rock Clinic, G rand Bahama, is now e mploy e d with the Community Nurs ing Services in Nassau. Mr Michael EDWARD TURNER formerly Health Inspector in Grand Bahama and now re spo n si ble for the So lid Waste Disposal Pogramm e in New Providence Departmen t of Environmental Health, on s u ccess fully completing a four year b acca ule rate programme at t h e East Tenne ssee State Uni versity. Mr Turner r elocate d to Nassau on 9th May and has been kept exceptionally busy on the Department's Impact Proje<:t CONGRA TULA TIO NS:-* Mrs Theda G ODET on your appointment to Prin cipal Nursing Offi cer, Princess Margaret Hospital. Mrs. Castella BOWLEG (DNE), Co nstance COMERY Irene COAKLEY, Faith ENE Juliet MINNIS, Annette OKPUNO all of the PMH on your p r omotions to Senior Nursing Officer (S NO). Dr. Grego ry BETHEL, Senior Registrar, Paediatric Department, PMH on 1st October 19 86. Mrs Nathalie BONIMY (CNS), L eona M cCAR T NEY, Lucind a FORBES (CNS ), Lilyma e MAJOR, 9

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Emily OSADEBAY Veronica POITIER CCNS -Grand Bahama) on your p romotions lo Nursing Officer Grade I ( NO I). Mrs. Ruth ALBURY Gwendolyn BRICE Philabertha CARTER
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* * * SN Winifred ELSON has been transferred from Mastic Point, Andros. SN Ruth BASTIAN has been tr an sf erred from the PMH to Community Nursing Services AN Rowena RILEY has been transferred to the CNS HA Betsy Mae PATTON has been transferred from Black Point, Exuma. Mr. Alvin EDGECOMBE, DEHS has left the DEHS on transfer to the Ministry of Labour, Youth, Sports and Community Affairs Depart ment of Youth effective 6th October Mr. Mark WILLIAMS, Health Inspector, DEHS, has left the Department on transfer to the Min istry of Works as a trainee B1.1ilding Inspector. Resignations * Nurse Andrea PEART formerly m San Salvador has resigned from the service Nurse Edith MILLER left the service in February of this year. EVENTS September was a busy month for the Health Fami ly. It was declared Health Education month by the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas the Hon Sir Lynden Pindling and a number of volun tary organizations held awareness week activities The week of 14-20 September was used by The Bahamas Council on Alcoholism to once again re mind the public of the continuing and insidious threat of alcohol in our country. Highlights of the week's activities were: a public address by Dr. Mi chael Beaubrum, Psychiatrist from the UWI, now working in Trinidad, on Monday evening 15th, at The Bahamas Red Cross Building, John F Kenne dy Drive and a dinner on Saturday evening at the Pilot House Hotel during which the Minister of Health, Dr. Norman Gay took the opportunity to speak to the Current Status of Alcoholism in The Bahamas:-Alcohol, he said is like a thief mas querading as a friend; the incidence of alcohol re lated problems presenting at the Community Psy chiatry Clinic, PMH for the first six months of 1986 has more than doubled that for the same period in 1982; admissions for alcoholism to both the PMH and SRC have increased over the period July 1985 -June 1986 the opposite of admissions for cocaine abuse ; 75% of new cases admitted with psychoses were males between the ages of 18 and 60 years; 12.6% of adults living on New Provi dence are estimated to be alcoholic; cost to the * * government for inpatient treatment for the year 1984? a little over nine hundred thousand dollars. Alcohol is a "legal" substance. The week 21-26 September was proclaimed Blood Bank Awareness Week by the Prime Minister of The Bahamas. The objc:etive of the week s activ ities was to encourage a significant increase in the number of regular blood donors. For the year 1985 the Blood Bank collected a total of 3,689 units of blood using 3,456; however, the number of units requested was 10,303, quite a sizeable shortfall, this is not healthy banking prac tice and the bank would welcome more donors. The theme for their week: Lend a Hand For Life, give blood. During the week, the Committee took the opportu nity to honour nineteen outstanding donors who had each given between twenty and sixty pints of blood. The week 21-26 September also was observed as Keep The Bahamas Beautiful Week by the Asso ciation for a Beautiful Bahamas. The ABB is al ways soliciting individuals / groups willing to work with them in their seemingly mammoth task. The week 28 September -6th October was ob served as Rehabilitation Week by The Bahamas Council for the Handicapped Mothers Against Drugs MAD sponsored a march against drugs on Sunday 21st September, 1986. Participants met at Christie Park, Nassau Street and marched through various areas con verging in Rawson Square. All of New Providence seemed to have turned out that afternoon police estimate that 30,000 persons took part in the march; various denominations, youth groups wom en's groups, business houses, school groups, civic groups and voluntary organizations, young men, old women, young women, old men; some march ing to the beat of their own voices, some to bands, some merely to the beat of their own footsteps. For some it was a means of entertainment, for others a very serious affair a determination to conquer the present scourge of the nation. It was a sponta neous community effort, spearheaded by a group of determined (MAD) women Not only New Provi dence residents took part, there was also a Family Island presence. Drug Council and Drug Action Service members were in the vanguard, marching, directing, sup porting, addressing the rally, the culmination of the march. Pastor Hugh Roach, Seventh Day Adventist Pastor and a member of the Drug Council chaired the rally which got off to an exciting start with the singing of Onward Christian Soldiers to a rousing 11

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rhythm. Speakers included Mrs Ruth Pinder, President of MAD, Mr. Moree, Solicitor, Rev Dr. Charles Saunders who delivered the main address and Dr. David Allen. Musical interlude s were pro vided by a choir from Bimini. Fairs were also a feature of September. On Saturday 27th the Princess Margaret Hospital held its first fair on its grounds. This was an over whelming success and heralded Hospital month. * * 12 The Drug Action Service held its first Fitness Fair at the Cable Beach Hotel also on 27 September. The purpose of this Fair rather Exhib ition, was to demonstrate viable alternatives to substance use This also was well patronised. October was Hospital Month at the PMH Among the activities held during the month were a Nutrition Exhibit in the Outpatient waiting area titled Nutrition Now And Then and depicting in digenou s, inexpensive nutritious foods and the methods of cooking used by parents, grandparents great grandparents, v ery educational. The exhibition was officially opened on 3rd Octo ber by Acting Under Secretary, Mrs. Veta Brown Other activities included: a Variety Show in Valentine's Rebel Room on Sun day 12th; a church service on Friday 17th in St. Luke 's Chapel and the launching of a booklet on the Life of St. Luke and Sports Day on the 25th at the Thomas Robinson Sports Stadium. On Wednesday 8th October, certificates were pre sented to all participants in a s ix week course in Human Relations, Motivation and Profe ss ionalism conducted by Mr. Berkley Pilgrim of the Mayflower Management Institute, at the Mayfair Hotel. The Diabetic Assosciation held its first major fund rasing event, a cook-out, on Discovery Day 13th October at Montagu Bay. It was an overwhelming success! \ The National Health Education Council ( Baha-mas) held its annual exhibition (fifth) in the audi torium of the College of The Bahamas ( Oaksfield campus) on Friday 31st, October and Saturday 1st November. Once again those attending the official opening w ere treated to the melodious sounds of the Royal Bahamas Police Band and a host of information relative to Healthy Living Everyone a Winner the them e of the exhibition, was made available. Th e numerou s attractions included something spe cial for young children school children, youth women and men ( more on this m the n ext edi tion ). The SRC hel d its annual fair on its grounds on Saturday 1st November As has become tradition al, it was very well supported. From the Community Nursing Services Mrs. Carlotta KLASS NO I had a harrowin g expe rience on Sunday 31st August, 1986, when her car spill ed over on J.F. Kennedy Drive just past the Gladstone Road junction. Mrs. Kla ss escaped with m i nor physical injurie s, her mother though sustained a broken right arm. Her car was a complete write off. Community Nurses Rosemae BAIN Fredricka SANDS and Kathleen JOHNSON have all been off sick for varying periods. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH is pleased that they have recovered and have returned to work. From the SRC Sandilands said goodbye to its last summer stu dents at the end of August. They returned to High School, College of The Bahamas and Universitie s abroad. It must have been pleasant having them, SRC looks forward to their return next summer. All the very best to all those students. From the Family Islands INAGUA The community of Matthew Town, lnagua hosted officials from the Ministry of Health on Friday 29 August, when Permanent Secretary Emerson Smith and Medical Officer of Health, Family Islands, Carlos Mulrain visited to formally accept equipment donated by residents for use in their clinic; an ECG machine donated by the Com munity and an X-ray machine donated by the local Kiwanis. The acquisition of these diagnostic tools is tremendously helpful to Dr. Mwaisela (D.M.0.) in helping his community to better health as well as tangible manifestations of community involvement and movement towards greater self reliance. Dr. Carlos Mulrain and Permanent Secretary, Emerson Smith.

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Official ''Handing Over" of equipment to the Ministry of Health by the Matthew Town community. GRAND BAHAMA Medical Interns are now being trained at the Rand. Two second year interns, Haywood Cooper and McKinney Bain have already rotated thro ugh its ward s and presently Frumentus Leon and Har old Munnings (Junior) are passing through. Mr. Cbeddy Cox, President local Kiwanis receives a special honour from Permanent Secretary, Emerson Smith for his role while Ms. Ethelyn Cartwight, President, Kiwaniennes looks on. Dr. Mwaisela as be proudly demonstrates his new X-ray machine. From left to right front:N. Pratt Daniels, Dr. Francis Mwaisela, Mrs. Bloneva Malcobn. Back row: Bloneva Balfour and Leonie Ferguson -Health team, Inagua. Continuing Education: Nursing Officers Anna HALL ( West End Clinic ) and Paula NEYMOUR ( Operating Theatre RMH) joined other Bahamians travelli n g to the UW1, Mona Campus, J amaica, in early October to enter the Department of Medicine's Nursing Administration pro gramme. RN Lorraine JOHNSON bas also travelled to Jamaica to attend a course in Theatre Techniques at the Unive r sity Hospital Kingston. JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes you all every success in your student roles. TCN Yvonne CLARKE of the Rand has recently s tarted the three year Registered N urse training pro gramme at the DNE. Very best wishes Nurse Clarke Congratulations to Mrs. Jewel FLOWERS, Higher Executive Officer Rand Memorial Hospital on success fully completing a three month Advanced Management course with the University of Miami in Freeport Mr s. Flowers A ssistant to the Hospital Admini strator is, among her other functions responsible for the administration of the Community Clinics in Grand Ba hama. Congratulations also to tho s e twenty four Trained Clinical Nurses, twenty three female and one male who completed the TCN course and graduated on 8th August Thi s is the first group of Clinical Nurses who have trai ned exclusively in Grand Bahama. The Rand welcome s the following staff members and hopes you will not only be very happy but that you will make appropriate and significant contributions to their efficiency:-* * Mildred BUTLER Typist D eborah KNOWLES ECG Technici a n Clarence MOXEY, John PINDER Charles ROLLE and Brian SMITH Ambulance Attendants Arthur TAYLOR Vector Control Assistant ( DEHS ) has moved to Grand Bah a ma to strength en their team. To facilitate the public1 t he Environmental Health Offices have been relocated fr o m the Hawksbill Clinic to the Kipling Building

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WORLD HEALTH DAY IN GRAND BAHAMA In Grand Bahama the occasion of the World Health Day is used not only to observe a specific area of health, the opportunity to raise funds to be used in improving health services for children is also taken. A week of activities b eginning on Monday 7th with a radjo interview of health persons included "Button Day sales at scho ol s "B utton Day" and Fun evening at the Rand including a popularity contest and a Fair on Saturday 12th in the parking lot of the hospital. Talent show which preceeded the Fair Float parade participants: Float before Talent Show, Althea Roberts, ECG Techni-Radiographer, Deta Soman in Float Parade before Tal-cian. ent Show, part of the Fair. Fashion at any age. 14 Wbat's a fair without cotton candy, pop corn and lots to rummage through!

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Funds raised since the inception of the idea in 1984 total about $30,000 Equipment to further enhance services at the Eight Mile Rock, Hawksbill and West End Clinics and the Obstetric and Paediatric Departments have been provided. M f I ... : ... .. After spending many years in The Bahamas, the Setis said goodbye to the Rand. Left to right: Dr. F. Brath wiate MSC Dr. Seti (Surgeon), Ms M. Storr (Hospital Administrator), Dr. K. Seti (Obst.etrician/Gynaecologist), Mrs. L. Knowles (PNO), Mr. H. Brown (Asst. Hospital Administrator). Opening of Accident and Emergency Unit and General Practice Clinic at Rand Memorial Hospital. Monday, 7th October, 1985 at 10 a.m. Dr. Gay, Minist.er of Health and Mr Smith arriving for the ceremony. They are being escort.ed by Mr. Brown, Assistant Hospital Administrator. Mr. Mohamed Shame er, Financial Consultant, Ministry of Health looks on. Proceedings underway. Now is the time. Minister Gay is happy to officiate. Mrs. Storr, Mrs. Knowles ... Mr. Smith happy that he is. From the DEHS In accordance with the Prime Minister's budgetary communication of 1986, an Impact Project was intro duced by the Ministry of Health (DEHS) in June. The boundaries for this project are Wulff Road/ Poinciana Drive and Robinson Road to Minnie Street on the South, Nassau Street and Blu e Hill Road ( W est) Collins Avenue and Wall, (east) Delancey Street, School Lane, Gaol Alley, Sands Road (north). The total project area include s the communities of Grants Town St. Agnes, Bain Town, St. Michael's, St. Barnabas, Englerston a portion of Pinedale and Fort Fincastle including Majors Subdivision. This programme i s an extension of "Operatio n Na tional Civic Pride" which started last year and focuses on five areas: removal of derelict vehicles; cleaning of rubbish and bu l k refuse; clearing of vacant lot s and dilapidated buildings; provision of garbage containers to all households; street weeding and verge maintenance Mr. Michael Turner i s responsible for the Proj ect. 15

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* The Permanent Secretary and Director (DEHS) were among those travelling to Exuma over the weekend of 4th October for the purpose of assistDr. Gloria SANDS (Private Practice) on the birth of your first grand child, a grand daughter, Dan ielle, 8 lb. 11 ounces, in Washington on 25th Sep tember, 1986. Dr. Sands was ecstatic about the event, enthusing and rejoicing about the joys and advantages of grandparenting. Danielle is, of course, breast fed. ing the community in implementing a clean-up programme Establishment of an Accounts Section within the DEHS. Mrs Elizabeth (Betty) Sweeting Accounts Section, Ministry of Health, has been the driving spirit in the establishment of an Accounts Section within the Department. Other key actors are Ms. Stepha nie Rolle formerly of the Treasury and Mr. Kendal Johnson. The section, designed to provide the de partment with an accurate financial data base rel ative to its operations and to further improve its efficiency and effectiveness is yet in its fledging stage. Rapid growth is expected with the recruit ment of more staff. The Aedes ALBOPICTUS is a new and exotic mos quito around the Region. It was found breeding in tyre dumps in Houston, Texas in August, 1985 and is an established vector of dengue in Asia. Not only is the Albopictus an efficient vector of dengue viruses, it breeds in artificial containers in and around human dwellings in both urban and rural envi ronments and natural containers in, for example, tree holes; it has the capacity for withstanding cold weather and the infected female mosquito transmits the virus to her offspring. Albopictus aggressively bites humans and has considerable nuisance value. Albopictus has the potential for transmitting deng ue fever, yellow fever and California encephalitis; it can invade and become prevalent in certain parts of the US and the Caribbean. The DEHS is presently exerting greater vigilance for this mosquito bearing in mind its ability to survive and thrive in both friendly and hos tile environments. VITAL STATISTICS Births: Congratulations to \ CN Dorothy MILLER of the School Health Serv* * 16 ices on the birth of a son. Mrs. Marie McDONALD, Secretary, Ministry of Health on the birth of a daughter in September Mrs. Nora DAVIS, Ministry of Health, on the birth of a daughter in September. Dr. George SMITH, Senior House Officer, General Practice Clinic, PMH and Mrs. Smith on the birth of their son on 6th October. Marriages Wedding Bells rang out for Miss Terrylene THURSTON (Registry) Ministry of Health and Mr. Syr il DEAN on 9th August, 1986. Miss Donneth BUTLER Cashier at the Cable Beach Hotel and Mr. Michael MOSS, a supervisor at the same hotel. The couple were joined in holy matrimony by Rev. Dr. J. Emette Weir on Satur day 30th August. Donneth is the daughter of Nurse Eloise BUTLER who worked for a number of years in the School Health Service and is now on night duty in the Accident and Emergency De partment (PMH). JOINING HANDS FOR HEALTH wishes both couples a long and happy married life. Congratulations to: Mrs. Katherine Demeritte-HILTON and Mrs. So nia Carey-GIBSON (personnel section Ministry headquarters) on the occasion of your first wed ding anniversary, 17th August and 28th Septem ber, respectively. Deaths Our sympathy to Dr. Ken Ofuso-BARKO on the death of his mother in early September in Ghana, West Africa. Mrs. Ofuso-BARKO, a diabetic, had been ailing for some time and finally succumbed at the age of 7 4 years. Dr. Barko travelled to Ghana for the funeral and was away for three weeks. The Editorial Committee extends deepest sympathy to you Ken. We join with you in giving thanks for the life and influence of this kind, strong old lady. Our deepest sympathy to Nurse Thirza DEAN (District Nusring Service) on the sudden loss of her husband Basil under tragic circumstances on Sunday evening 2nd November. At this time words cannot express our deep sense of shock. We support you with our presence and our pray ers Thirza. May God grant you the strength to cope in this hour of great need.

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STAFF TRAINING AT THE PUBLIC ANALYST LABORATORY DONALD COOPER The Public Analyst Laboratory has been undergoing extensive upgrading since 1984. This has meant modernising techniques, improvements of equipment and working c ondition s as well as staff training both locally and abroad. The most recent course of staff training wa s com pleted by Mr. Leroy Thompson, Assis tant Analyst, when he returned to The Bahama s on 14th October, 1 986, following a three month training seminar in Britain. The course which Mr. Thompson completed wa s spo nsored by the British Consulate operating through the British High Co mmission in Nassau. Spec ial thanks are extended to the British High Commission, especia l ly Mr. Peter Johnson, Deputy High Commissioner, for their generous assistance. Mr. Thompson participated in a tailor made course o n Environmental Monit.oring and Analysis techniques. He was also expo se d to the latest teaching techniques so that he would be better able to p ass his knowledge on to his fellow technicians Attendance at this course wa s designed to provide Mr. Thompson with specific information necessary t.o launch an Environmental Monit.oring and Risk Assess ment Programme for The Bahamas. The first phase of th.is programme was launched in Oct.ober, 1986, with the establi shment of four ambient air monitoring stations around the industrial park in Freeport, Grand Bahama. This programme i s being co-ordinated by Mr. Thompson who is simultaneous l y organizing a series of lectures and seminars to train technicians on the rele vant procedures. As the Environmenta l Monitoring and Risk Assess ment programme develops, it will be necessary to fur ther upgrade the facilities available as well as the training of the technicians To this end, the Department of Environmental Health has committed themselves to securing people and equipment to develop this field There will be training during 1987 in areas such as Industrial Ris k Assessment, Plant Inspections and Epi demiology All these activities are making the position of a technician at the Public Analyst Lab an exciting and challenging one. There are also vacancies for trained people in Chemistry, Biochemistry, Microbi o logy and the Environmental Sciences THE BAHAMAS DIABETIC ASSOCIATION The First Six Months DIANA PINDER I have alway s felt that life could be compa red to a jigsaw puzzl e with various large and small incidents eventually fitting t.ogether to form an almost complete picture ( although at the time, you are usually unaware how the various piece s can ever come together!). When I was t.old that my se v e n year old daught.er Etoile, had diabetes in March 1985, I was certainly unaware, in m y shocked state, that that disease could ever fit into m y life's jigsaw puzzle! But one year later, because of Etoile's d iabet.es and with the help of many people including friends, doctors nurses, dietician s, health educators and other diabetic s, The Bahamas Diabetic Association came into being To gether, we have found that there is an alarming i gno rance about the control of this prev a lent and often dev astating di sease a nd so, educating diabetics, their families and the general public has become one of our main aims. To this end, we have held monthly m eetings and have all learned from the v arious speakers di s cussing differen t aspects of diabete s and its complica tions We have a lso been able to form a Diabetic Youth Group that meets every month. Membership has gradually risen from six t.o twelve Three of the younger children were able to attend a Diabetic Children's Camp near Gainesville, Florida for ten days in July of this year. In our short life we have h el d two fund raising events for needy Diabetics We hope t.o eventually have a base where inexpensive blood testing could be carried out, where a library of books and magazines about diabetes could be avai lable and where someone could be on hand t.o giv e encouragement and a ready ear for those with this sometimes very depressing disease. Even though our association is less than a year old, we have an enthusiastic and harworking membership, much will be accomp lished in the months and years ahead. Best of all, we all know The Bahamas Diabetic Association is a very worthwhile piece in all our jigsaws of life! 17

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LETS MAKE THIS CHRISTMAS SPECIAL BARBARA DEVEAUX Christmas this year should truly be a delight! In past years Christmas has been filled with the aroma of Christmas cakes, Christmas decorations and the delightful experiences of Christmas present and Christmas past. This year, let us concentrate on the special qualities needed in our community to make Christmas joy last all year round. Let Christmas last all year round? What a dream! What a preposterous idea you say? What an optimist you are! How can we possibly do that with the world economy in turmoil . with the internal battle our country has begun to wage against illegal drug usage and trafficking. Not to mention the increasingly awkward and unsightly mowids of litter and the ever present issues of unemployment and poverty, how can you speak of Christmas? Let us examine the spirit of Christmas before we too hastily conclude that there is no future in Christmas. To me, the joy of Christmas is the joy of believing in God, the warm expression of caring and sharing and of course, the overwhelming expression of love of self and love of others. To me, Christmas is the endearing quality of love exemplified in the day to day lives of individuals, families, communities, islands and ultimately the country on the whole. If you bear with me then, with one individual making every effort to practise the Christmas spirit all year round, it will spread through the family, on to the community and across the nation. It only takes a spark ... If you can accept my premise that Christmas spirit is the spirit of love and further, that love of self is the basis of a mentally and emotionally healthy person then, you must also agree that self love as a foundation is the most positive ingredient that each one of us can contribute all year tound. Self love? You mean those people who walk around looking cute and combing their hair all the time? No, not those,people. A person who I 18 understands the love of self is a person who knows him self. Who can look inward, see both the faults and the positive qualities and establish a balance A means of looking at oneself in the mirror and being able to say "I am not perfect, I have my faults, but I like myself, I know I can improve on the lesser aspects of myself and still enjoy and celebrate my positive self." Such a person cannot commit a crime of violence against another because that person respects himself too much to so shame himself. A person, who loves himself cannot litter because littering will soil the community in which he lives, works and plays. A person who has experienced self love cannot sell cocaine, marijuana or heroin to anyone in our country or elsewhere for that matter because he knows that such an act will place him in contempt of self. Frankly, a person who practises self love could never sell a drug to another because in that act he would be selling himself to those that hate themselves. To a person who knows who he is, who likes himself, who respects himself, the thought of using a drug would be a death sentence. How could anyone who loves himself willfully inject, snort, sniff, base or smoke any substance that would do harm to that self? This then, is the individual that we should be cultivating. This is the individual that we should train in our families, our churches, our schools, our communities and our nation. Such an individual will speak out on issues of concern and express strength and compas sion in his actions. He will be an advocate of tough love, of self love, of the joy of Christmas. I suggest therefore that we instill this spirit in our selves, our family our children and our day to day life. I think we should all celebrate happier, safer and joy filled Christmas holidays as a result. May the memories of Christmas past, the joy of Christmas present and the anticipation of love filled Christmases to come be yours.

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LET'S DO IT AGAIN A Story on Cleaning up at Christmas ANTHONY ROBERTS As a boy sometime before I attained the age of ten, I can recall hearing the term Spring Cleaning For some reason it was catchy During early December when my family ( like most families at that time ) was about to embark on "cl eaning for Chri stmas I made some reference to spring cleaning and was promptly informed by my Aunt Ellen that the chore s or cleaning I had to do could hardly be referred to as s pring clean ing s ince it was still autumn and we had to go through winter before we got to s pring. It was at that time that I grasped the meaning of seasonal changes Raking the yard and pulling weeds were regular weekend chores for me and most children but Christmas cleaning was definitely the most massive cleaning exercise of the year. This was e vident not only in my neighbourhood but also downtown -the build ings were nearly always painted just before Chri stmas. As I saw it then and now, cleaning at Christma s was a tradition just like dressing up, extravagant food pur chases and junkanoo. Although Chris tmas clean ups still exist, during the past two decades or so there has been a noticeable decline in the scale of this activi t y and in the general s anitary conditions of mo s t of our old neighbourhoods and communities Frankly, we have seen an overall de cline in citizens concern for envir o nmental sanitation and beautification. Cans, bo t tles and other cont ainers, along with paper and discarded furniture and hom e ap pliances adorn our street s and yards Derelict vehicles, car repair operation s and other trades that detract from the beauty of our environment are problems in both old and new s ubdivisions What has happened to that good old Bahamian civic pride? As a price for development could it be that we have lost that sense of community togetherness? Have we lost the appreciation of one's existence? Heaven forbid Prior to the commencement o f t h e 1985 Common wealth Heads of Governm ent Conferenc e and the arri val of Her Maje s ty Queen Elizabe t h II, the government and s everal civic minded group s launched a clean up / paint up/beautification programme in New Providence From all account s it was s u c cessful and apprecia ted by re s ident s. Though countless people were i nvolved and many responded po s itively to t h e call to clean up, the message intended by this exerc is e lik e all the previous clean up exerci s e s, never really sank in. The learning that is why cleaning up is necessary, i s s till not taking place as it should. Individuals, families, communities are still not making cleaning up an every day affair. Most, if not all, siill wait for that auspicious occasion, whether it be Christmas or the visit of some dignitary or other, to clean and beautify This should not be. Within the parameters of my responsibilities during the time I was Chief Health Inspector, I saw it as my official duty to enforce clean up exercises even though I came to see in time, that a vast pi-oportion of the people affected were not overly concerned about dirt and rubbish. They became so accustomed to the sight of dirt and rubbish that they missed it when it was moved and therefore promptly replaced it with larger amounts. Y es, there was concern about the front of the house, but cans, bottles, trash, used broken household items at the back, and their removal, was lower on the priority list than clothes and personal appeaxance, cars, a television set and a good social life Additionally, there was the attitude of plain indifference and laziness The hue and cry raised about clean up campaigns is not merely to psychologically improve the impact such an environment would make, but rather, to reduce the disease potential of a filthy environment. Open cans, bottles or other containers, along with refuse and derelict cars are potential breeding places for germs, ins ects and other vermin all of which may spread dis ease s Diseases that will harm not only the owners of these dirty premises but may also harm the entire community. Along with good and adequate health care facili ties, all governments are obliged to create for their citi zens an environm ent that is disease free and one that will make a positive contribution to the nation's health. Such an inve stment greatly promotes national economic stability. But this is all a government can do Commu nities, families and at the basic level, individuals, are responsible for their own health. It would do well for all of us to remember that. To the non-government organizations and all other individuals advocating the clean up/beautification con cept, I salute you. Though the end you seek and the reward you deserve is slow in coming, you must remain undaunted. I know you act out of a sense of concern not on l y for yourself but for your brothers, your sisters and your country. Let us continue to encourage such self motivated activities and make cleaning up not just a seasonal exercise but an all year affair. 19

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CHRISTMAS EVE AND MY SHOPPING ISN'T DONE BARBARA DEVEAUX Every year we make the same new year's resolu tion without fail. I will begin my Christmas shopping early. I will not wait witil the Christmas advertise ments start. I will finish it all before the summer vaca tion is over. How many times have you made that promise to yourself? Well my friend, as I write this article, I can hear the Christmas advertisements on my daughter's radio together with the television commercials that are played with increasing regularity. Let us face it, we both messed up for Christmas of 1986. There is no need to panic, however, no need to chew the old fingers to the bone. No need to catch the next flight to Miami. Although I must admit that alter native seems very attractive! Let us take a quiet, se rene look at the alternatives available here in Nassau and then relax in a comfortable easy chair, sing a few carols and enjoy this Christmas more than any other. Think about it. If you go to Miami, you have to pay air fare, car rental or taxi fares, hotel accommodation or sleep on Awit Bertha's couch, not to mention the rear of pick pockets, the horror of the Miami crowds and the concerns over the long, tedious lines at the Customs and Immigration cowiters . that translates into a total exhaustion that hits you as well as the fact that you spent all your hard earned dollars outside of The Bahamas. Why bother? This year, I have decided that that trip is not for me. I am going to walk through Batelco's yellow pages, browse down Bay Street, along the Ridgeland Mall, in and around Palmdale, take a quick loop to Golden Gates and of course, the new centre on Prince Charles Drive. I am going to purchase items that are either not available in the States, or, are more expensive over there. Impossible? Well, here goes. Let us take a walk along the shopping byeways of Nassau and see what we can find. The Art Gallery \'fill featuring the 1986 Bahamas Plate which is truly beat\tiful and a collector's item to boot. The Perfume Shops are offering the new est and most exotic fragrances available anywhere and many are costing less than in the United States. Sweat ers, linen, scarves and special fabrics and garments by 20 Androsia, Bahama Hand Prints, Chiciquitas and Isis are musts for any Christmas list, not to mention the designer clothes that are just minutes away in the many internationally classed boutiques in and around Nassau. For the children on your list, there are dolls, com pliments of the women's co-operative; note paper and greeting cards by one of the Ministry of Youth's new entrepreneurs; ceramic banks that sing, created by Miss Lightbourne or Bahamas Ceramics; designer jewellery, shell craft accessories, a special portrait or an excursion on board one of Nassau's numerous day and evening short cruising vessels. Of course, we must not leave out the over seven hundred straw vendors who produce and sell so many excellent Bahamian products. Perhaps if we purchased more of their products and gave them more support they would be more inclined to produce truly Bahamian straw goods as well as the foreign product line ... but that is another story. Now what about the businessman on your list? A suit from a designer boutique? A set of luggage or a handcrafted brief case made in The Bahamas? An hon orary life membership in The Bahamas Chamber of Commerce? A prepaid trip for you and your husband to a quiet Family Island for a weekend? A fishing trip? A dinner for two? Some fruit drinks made in The Baha mas? A camera, flash, video, or maybe even a portrait? Need I say more? From a kitchen face lift to a suana -it is all right here in The Bahamas. Let us not rush around and forget that the best Christmases are spent at home. This Christmas, let us give our local manufacturers a chance to make our Christmas bright. Water to drink, a spice or a home baked good, compli ments of Tiffany's or Sweetums, a fine Bahamian Bird, a vegetable dish and of course a cornucopia of local fruit will complete our Christmas feast Remember, friend, all those tourists who visit our Bahamas can't all be crazy. They pay their hard earned dollars to visit while we have the benefit of living here all year round. Why shouldn't we take full advantage of those special Bahamian things this Christmas? What better way to say "Merry Christmas" to our loved ones and our na tion?

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CHRISTMAS FOR THE CHILDREN BEVERLEY LOCKHART Each year, the annual feast commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ is celebrated on December 25. We all look forward to this festive occasion and children look forward to this day, not only to celebrate the birth of Our Lord Jesus Christ, but also to help parents prepare for the celebrations. In recent times, the spirit of Christmas has been lost as we have been caught up in spending and preparation and have forgotten the caring and sharing aspect. Children look forward to receiving gifts and to them, it is a time to buy all those nice things they have been waiting for all year long. At Christmas time, we all get a little more excited and there is a tendency to be not as careful as we would normally be. Because of this, it is extremely important that parents see that their small children are usefully and safely occupied while they are busy with their Christmas preparations. One of the things we have to remember when thinking about young children's playtime activities, is that to them play is a very different thing from the adult form of play Playtime, or recreation to the adult, means some form of activity which is undertaken as relaxation or a change from work To the young child it is all his activity and so corresponds to the work of the adult; in fact, apart from sleeping and eating, the bulk of the child's day is spent in some form of "play" How he plays, where he plays and what he plays with are of the greatest importance to the child's safety and also to his development. Parents, therefore must be very concerned about providing a safe play area for their children. For in stance, they must ensure that all electrical sockets are closed, that there are no matches left in low cupboards and that all medicines are locked away in high places. These are just a few of the dangers to the young child in the home. Parents must also be certain that their young children are supervised at all times. While they should create an environment conducive to play activ ities they must always bear in mind that play is not merely something to keep the child safely and usefully occupied, but more importantly it is an indication of a child's mental state and stage of development. Children need to play. It is their work, their form of self-expression. They need to play as much as they need food and air. Play teaches children about themselves, it develops their imagination, their motor and mental skills and it develops their ability to concentrate and preservere Play is the child's method of understanding; it is the building block of education and the foundation of a child s emotions. Play is essential for the child's psycho-social development. As parents, it is our responsibility to contribute to our children's play and to see that they have interesting things to use and talk about. Children do not need expensive toys There is any amount of suitable play material right in our homes. For example, old plastic pans, used egg cartons, a plal3tic washing-up bowl a broom (cut down to size) a doll's bed (cardboard box with covers) a book shelf, can quickly become a shop. A grocer's shop can be made with items from your own cupboard or with empty containers and will provide your child with many hours of safe creative play. Encourage your child to help with chores, for example, putting away the groceries, fetching items for the meal, cleaning the bathroom, tidying the kitch en, putting out the garbage. During this Christmas season we can ensure that our children play safely and healthily while we are busy with our preparations. W can also strengthen our efforts to reinforce those values that will make our chil dren good citizens by introducing them to the real world of work through their play. Let us demonstrate the importance of their contribution to household chores from an early age. I am listing some ideas for children's playtime: IMMAGINATIVE PLAY: a) Playing house -Girls and boys love to play house An area, size is not important, can be provided with some articles for playing, for example a) child's tea set, b) dolls, doll's bed, (cardboard box with covers and c) a broom (cut down to size). b ) Dressing up games -These are popular with boys and girls. Keep a box with odds and ends of clothing, such as dresses, shirts, hats, shoes, football gear. c) Hospital games -Games with dolls or other children as patients are popular. Bandage can be made from tom sheets. Clean, empty plastic jars can be used for pretend ointment. I have only mentioned a few of the types of activities which are meaningful and enjoyable while at the same time encourage development of the mind and body and which are extremely important in the early development of the child. These activities are intended for both younger and older pre-school children and are ideal for brothers and sisters working together or a sitter joining in the play activity. We should always bear in mind that a child is the sum total of all around him; let us therefore make his environment a healthy and a safe one This Christmas time we can start by providing the guidance and emotional support to prepare him for life 21

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RECIPES GINGER"BEER Ingredients: 8 oz. root ginger 2 oz. cream of tartar 4 gallons boiling water Juice and rind of 2 small limes 11/2 lb. sugar cloves Method: Wash and grate ginger. Add boiling water, juice and rind of limes then cream of tartar. Cover and leave for 24 hours. Strain and sweeten to taste. Bottle and add three or four cloves. SORREL Ingredients: 3 cups sorrel (heaped) without seeds ::J pt. (6 glasses) boiling water A few grains rice or barley Piece of ginger (112 inch square) Piece of dried orange peel (11/2in. by 1f2 in.) 6 cloves 1 lb. (2 cups) sugar Method: Wash sorrel, cut away seeds. Pl&.ce in jar with ginger, orange peel, and cloves. Pour on boiling water, and al low to remain for 24 hrs. Strain and sweeten. Pour into bottles, adding a few grains of barley or rice (this helps fermentation), and allow to remain for at least another day. Serve with ice. I 22 MINCED PIES Ingredients: 12 oz. short crust or flaky pastry 1 jar Robertson's mincemeat (available in food store) Milk or egg to glaze. Using Shortcrust Pastry Oven temperature: hot (425F mark 7) Roll out the pastry to about 1/s inch in thickness Cut into about 20 rounds with a 3-inch fluted cutter and 20 smaller rounds with a 2%-inch fluted cutter. Line 2112inch patty tins with the larger rounds and fill with mincemeat. Damp the edges of the small rounds and place in posi tion. Make a small slit in the top of each pie and bake towards the top of the oven for 15-20 minutes, until light golden-brown. Cool on a wire rack. Serve warm or cold, dusted with sugar. If preferred, the tops of the pies may be brushed with a little milk before baking. Using Flaky Pastry Oven temperature: very hot (450F., mark 8) Roll out the pastry to 1/s inch in thickness. Stamp out 16 rounds with a 2%-inch plain cutter. Re-roll the scraps, cut another 16 rounds to use for the bases and place the bases on a damp baking tray. Put a heaped tsp of mincemeat on each, damp the edges of the pastry, cover with the remaining pastry rounds and press the edges lightly together; brush with egg glaze. Bake towards the top of the oven for about 20 minutes, until well risen and golden-brown. Cool on a wire rack. Serve warm, dusted with icing sugar.

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KNOW YOU LIMIT RUDOLPH BURGZORG Merry Christmas, peace and goodwill! This greeting will be heard repeatedly throughout the yuletide sea son, yet, supposedly good motorists will be involved in the worst kinds of accidents because they cannot resist the temptation to consume more liquor than they can handle. Is it possible that motorists and others go out and get "stoned" because they have not really given a sec ond thought to the sublimity of the occasion? Jesus said "I have come that you might have life and have it more abundantly". Notice, he did not say more drunkingly, however, if your must drink on Jesus' birthday would it not be wise to follow St. Paul's advice and take only a little for the stomach sake? During the period, January to March this year, police in New Providence advised that there were ten hundred and ninety four traffic accidents eight of which were fatal, six of these deaths occurred in one month. Can we as road users exert our influence to stop such wasteful destruction? If you must drink then do not drive. Study the drinker's barometer carefully, it will help to deepen your understanding not only of St. Paul's advice but also of the effect of alcohol on your body. The drinker's barometer was prepared by traffic safety experts who agree that driving while under the_ influence of alcohol or other drugs is a major factor in traffic accidents. Have you then the will to drink responsibly or better still, not to drink at all? If by chance you allow alcohol to control your life, then please, please stay at home and get stoned drunk because by so doing you will save yourself and others from turning this Christmas period into a bizarre trail of death, suffering and destruction. Remember Jesus did not come to give us death but abundant life, that is the crux of the celebration of His birth. Merry Christmas to all motorists of goodwill! DRINKER'S BAROMETER Mild effects -slight change in feeling. Existing mood (anger, elation, etc.) may be 50-------.;.......i heightened. Gross intoxication Unmistakable impairment of all physical activity and mental faculties. RISKY WHEN Serious impairment of physical and mental functions; loss of judgment and inhibitions -clumsy, uncoordinated INTOXICATED: IRRESPONSIBLE RESPONSIBLE DRINKING DRINKING ::i:: DRINKING COMBINED PARTICULARLY Exaggerated emotion and behaviour -less concern, mental relaxation. Decrease in finer skills of coordination. '.;'.J WITH DRIVING WHEN DRIVING 0 10 BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVEL 0 0.05% 0.10% 0.15% o.20% 23

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' BE ALERT. CATHERINE WILSON How often do we see adults who have been scarre d or maimed for life, the result of an accident, at home or on the streets? As Community Nurses, a great deal of our time is spent in educating "our families" about home safety and accident prevention, a s ubject which is of partic ular significance especially at certain times of the year, for exampl e Christmas. For ease of reference, here are a number of potential hazards wit h for prevention. r._o A Home Safe Home? 1 Ingestion: poisons chemicals, pill s. Prevention: keep out of the reach of children hy storing in a locked cabinet. 2. Burns: electrical, fires, chemicals hot wa ter, tea, soup. a) electrical outlets should be prop erly fixed and covered when no t in use b ) keep matches out of the reach of children c) turn pot bandles to t h e back of the stove d) keep small children away from playing near o r under table cloths on which hot food and drinks have been placed e) apply safety covers to chemical containers and lock them away. . 3 FalJs: beds, chairs, tfuow rugs, ext.ension c ords, toys and spills. 24 Prevention: a) when infants are able to ro ll and creep they should be placed in a crib, play pen or on the floor to prevent falls b) teach your small children to get on and off a chair. c) throw rugs contribute to t rippin g and falling ; they are much more dangerous for older pers ons and when they have l ost their grip 4. Drowning : A Prevention: d ) do not run exte n sion cords across footpaths. Where there are rugs, run the cord (s) under them, otherwise secure with strong ad h esj ve tape e) clean up s pills quickl y O teach and insist that your chil dren put away their toys after use a nd before going to bed at night; toys scattered over the floor are dangerous es peci a lly for an older person bath tubs containing water and oth er containers with water for example toilet bowls, mop buckets, ope n wells and pits. a ) empty au buckets and tubs immediately after using b ) keep toilet lid down c) keep the toilet door closed d ) cover aJJ open pits and wells. 5 Asphyxiation : foreign bodies for example marbles small plastic objects, seeds, balloon s, small toys, meat. Preventio n: a) encourage your children to chew their food properly b ) discourage the practic e of put ting things jn their mouth c) keep small objects out of the reach of small children -if s wallowed and they cannot be readily dislodged t h e child may have difficulty in breathing, choke and possible
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t) turn off the lights and disconnect from the mains when the house is unattended and before settling in for the night. With regard to Christmas tree lights, blinker lights tend to spread the heat load and are therefore safer. They are also more pleasing to the eye. 6. Electrical injuries: fires, burns, shocks. Causes: Prevention: 7. Suffocation : x Prevention: overloading, exposed wires, damaged outlets. Toddlers are attracted to electrical outlets, for example, they stick their fingers in sockets and play with electrical cords. a) repair all damaged outlets speedily b) discourage small children from playing with and around outlets c) do not overload outlets. old refrigerators and dryers with doors, cupboards, closets and other sizeable containers in which children can play, plastic bags, pillows. a) dispose of any unused appliance as soon as possible b) remove door(s) before putting outside c) place appliance with front facing a solid wall d) tear up plastic bags before throwing them out e) do not use a plastic apron for your small child b) cross the street at a point where both ends can be seen clearly:-look both ways to make sure it is safe to cross then walk briskly across c) never pass between cars with the motors running d) do not attempt to cross the street from behind a bus or truck without first looking to see that it is safe to do so e) dispose of your litter safely, in the container provided. If you have difficulty finding a garbage bin then take your garbage home with you. DON'T DROP IT, BAG or CAN IT! For the motorist, there are inex pensive disposable plastic bags OR more durable but slightly more expensive ones which you can hang m your car. They make a useful Christmas gift! t) give yourself enough time to get from point A to point B, anxiety about being late increases your chances of an accident at a time when the streets are already crowded g) as a motorist, concentrate on your driving. Be courteous, deci sive, patient h) DO NOT drink and/or take drugs and then drive. Other hazards on the streets include: 1. Purse snatching in crowded streets and shopping areas. t) your small child is safe without 2. The rapist in lonely and dark areas. a pillow On the Streets 1. Drivers under the influence of alcohol, drugs and stress. 2 Blind corners, potholes, litter. Prevention: a) teach your small children to use pedestrian crossings, use them yourself whenever possible Prevention: a) secure your wallet, purse, bag b) when shopping with small children keep them together to prevent losing them c) lock your car when you leave it unattended; secure any shopping in the trunk or where it is not highly visible d) DO NOT take short cuts through deserted corners and track roads 25

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Summary These hazards are relevant to us all. However, the most susceptible age groups are those under .eight and those over seventy years. The young are very unsettled, their physical growth is erratic, their appetite often capricious; the toddler learns to get about -to crawl then walk. Psy chologically, he discovers himself as an independent person and is always exploring. He gets carried away and with rash enthusiams, and without the watchful eye of an adult, often finds himself in difficulty. At the other end of the age scale deterioration in sight, hearing and balance contribute to accidents in the elderly. During this Christmas time, with the hustle and bustle of all the preparations, it is imperative that we take every precaution to prevent disasters, both in our homes and away from our homes Safe holidays!!! SAY YOU CARE SPONSOR A CHILD The Department of Social Services in its continuing efforts to meet the needs of those children who for any number of reasons cannot be cared for in their own families invites us all to commit ourselves to actively caring and sharing, not only at Christmas time, the traditional season of goodwill, but throughout the year and possibly our lives by sponsoring one or more chil dren. What is sponsorship? Sponsorship is the opportunity for the community to contribute to the lives of underprivileged children in foster care homes, (that is living with a private fami ly or in one of the children's institutions) Sponsorship says that you are committed to making a difference in the care and development of a child who does not have a family environment to provide for his/ her needs. The Sponsorship Programme is therefore designed for a community of people who wi"\J choose to give out of their financial resources in order to benefit the lives of children who have lost the love and security of their own families. The objective of the programme is to stimulate serious applicants in the community to make a financial commitment to aid children who are in foster care homes. Reason for Sponsorship? The Department estimates that 45% of our children will remain in foster care homes for the rest of their lives. We would wish to provide adequately for them 26 and invite you as sponsors to share in providing this care. The cost of care for one child in an institution is approximately $2 500 to $3,500 annually. Who can be Sponsors? The sponsorship programme is available to individ uals, families, organizations clubs, civic groups lodges church groups, schools fraternities, sororieties, any other voluntary group. Benefits of Sponsorship to you? Your role as a sponsor shows you care about chil ,dren in need and are willing to make a significant dif ference in the life of a child The extent of your involvement as a Sponsor? You will have no direct responsibility for your child, but will receive correspondence relative to his/her progress on a quarterly basis. Opportunities for a more personal relationship through the exchange of letters or weekend visiting may be available in special cases How will your gift be used? Your contribution will be paid over to the foster care home in which your child is placed to provide for his/her general and special needs. Categories for Sponsorship? In our foster care homes, there are numerous chil dren who are available for sponsorship For example, we have found from past experience that children who are handicapped mentally retarded,

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ten years or older are less like ly to be accepted by per sons who are seeking to adopt. Below is an application form to expedite your in volvement, please complete and return to: Many of these children have needs for specia l edu cation and medical attention. Will/can you sponsor a child? The Department of Social Services Boulevard BUilding Thompson Boulevard P. 0. Box N-1545 Nassau, Bahamas. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------"SPONSORSHIP SAYS YOU CARE" D Yes, I wish to sponsor a child for the D I cannot sponsor a child at this time, following amount $ .............. but wish to make a contribution of$ ....... (Please indicate) How do you wish to send your contribution for your child? monthly D annually D (*cheques should be made payable to the Department of Social Services) Please assign m e a Boy D Girl D either of the above D Age: ........ years Would you like a pictur e and personal history of your sponsored c hild ? YesD No O D Plea se send me information on the sponsorship program. If you can sponsor a child, you will be contributing to a great need. You will be sent periodic progre ss report s so you can be assured that your gifts are making a difference. If you wish, you may also receive a photograph and background information on your child. I n the case of a group application, please state name of company, club or organization. NAME ................................................................................................................... ... .. ... ................. ADDRESS ........................................................................................ ....... .... ... .............................. TE LE PHONE ( WORK ) .................... ........................... ... HOME .... .......................... ............. ........ 27

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AIDS: A LETHAL MYSTERY STORY JANET HALL INTRODUCTION AIDS is an acronym; a word formed by combining the first letters of the medical term: ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME. AIDS is a fatal condition which involves a malfunctioning of the body's immune system, the part of the body that protects an otherwise healthy person from a wide variety of dis eases. Persons having AIDS are vulnerable to serious illnesses which normally would not be a threat to any one whose immune system is functioning normally. Fifty percent of all AIDS patients have already died. Approximately 94% of AIDS cases have occurred in the following groups: 73% sexually active homosexual/bisexual with multiple partners. 17% intravenous drug abusers. 2% persons who have had transfusions blood or blood products. men with 1 % persons with haemophilia or other coagula tion disorders. 1 % heterosexual contacts of someone with AIDS or at risk for AIDS. The remaining 6% of AIDS patients do not fall into any of these groups since infants and children devel oping AIDS may have been exposed to HTLV-111 before or during birth, or shortly thereafter, or may have had a history of transfusions. Furthermore, some patients may die before complete histories are taken and others may refuse to give background information about them selves. AIDS was detected in New York City and then in San Francisco. Now there are AIDS victims in 45 states in the United States and at least 35 countries, (including Africa, South America, Canada, Europe and the Caribbean). AETIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY AIDS is caused by a virus called T-lymphotropic virus, type ill (HTLV-III); lympli'a(lenopathy associated virus (LAV); or AIDS related (ARV). AIDS does not always result when persons become infected with the virus. Most infected persons remain in good health; others may develop illnesses varying in severity from mild to extremely serious. In all AIDS patients there is a significant impairment of the body's immune system. Within the system there are so called helper T cells which martial the defenses against infection. There are also suppressor T cells, which prevent the formation of antibodies. An individual with normal immune system will generally have about twice as many helper as suppressor T cells. !n AIDS patients this ratio is often reversed. 28 MODES OF TRANSMISSION AIDS is spread by sexual contact, needle sharing, or less commonly, through blood or its components. Of these, blood and semen are considered most highly con tagious. The risk of getting AIDS is increased by hav ing multiple sexual partners; either homosexual or het erosexual and sharing of needles of those using illicit drugs. Haemophilia patients and persons receiving transfusions give evidence for the transmission of AIDS through blood. However, it should be noted that it not possible to contract AIDS from donating blood since blood banks and other blood collection centres use ster ile equipment and disposable needles. AIDS may also be transmitted from infected mother to infant before, during or shortly after birth. AIDS is NOT spread by casual contact. No conclu sive evidence has yet been found where AIDS is transmitted by shaking hands, sitting_ next to someone, eating in restaurants, coughing, sneezing or using public swimming pools and restrooms. Ambulance drivers, firefighters, police, nurses, doctors and health care per sonnel have not developed AIDS from caring for AIDS patients. However, health care personnel and laboratory workers are urged to follow strict hygiene and safety procedures carefully when handling any blood and tissue samples from patients with AIDS. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The majority of persons infected with AIDS virus have no symptoms and feel well. The symptoms may be similar to those of a cold or flu, however, they may last longer. The symptoms of AIDS include swollen glands (lymph nodes) usually in the neck, armpits or groin; high fever, unexplained weight loss of ten pounds or more; diarrhoea; tiredness; dry cough (not from smok ing) and small blue or purplish spots on the skin (which may become hardened). The time between infection with the HTLV-111 virus and the onset of symptoms (the incubation period) ranges from about six months to five years and possibly longer. AIDS patients commonly develop Pneumocystis car inii pneumonia (PCP), a parasitic infection of the lungs, producing shortness of breath, a persistent dry cough, sharp chest pains and in severe cases, difficulty in breathing. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is another problem common among AIDS patients. This is a form of cancer that produces purple brownish lesions that resemble bruises. The lesions are painless but do not heal. KS usually occurs anywhere on the surface of the skin or in the mouth, nose or rectum. TREATMENTS At this time there is no test which can diagnose AIDS. However, there is a test for antibodies (substances produced in the blood to fight disease orga nisms) to the HTLV-111 virus which causes AIDS. The

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test detects antibodies. Not all of the people that have HTLV-Ill antibodies will deve l op AIDS. 10% develop AIDS 20% develop AIDS Related Conditions (ARC, a milder form) 70% l ead normal healthy lives Many forms of treatment have been tried, but none have successfully reversed the suppressed immune con dition. There has been some success in using drugs, radiation and surgery t.o treat the various illnesse s of AIDS patients. Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia, can be treated with antibodies Interferon, a virus-fighting pro tein produced naturally by the body has been used with some success against Kaposi 's sarcoma. Natural and recombinant interleukin preparations are being used in an attempt to repair the immunologic deficiencies in AIDS patients. PREVENTION Sexually active persons, with heterosexual or ho mosexual partners, should be concerned about possib l e exposure to the AIDS virus. Persons having multiple sex partners increase their risk -act accordingly! Per s ons can reduce their risk of contracting AIDS by following existing recommendations Limit the number of sex partners Do not have sexual contact with persons known or suspected of having AIDS Know you partner (name, telephone number of other partners) Use condoms correctly and consistently Do not insert objects into the rectum Shower before and after sex *Avoid contact with b l ood and semen Never share hypodermic needles or syringes; boiling does not guarantee sterility *Do not have sex with people who abuse IV drugs *If you are a drug-addict, enter a treatment program Do not donate blood if you are a person at high risk for having AIDS Do not use inhalant nitrates ( popper s) Their ro l e as a cofactor for KS is being investigated. For persons wjth positive HTLV -lll, special recom mendatio71s have been made to prevent the spread of AIDS Regular medical evaluation and follow-up is ad vised for persons with positive tests Persons having positive b lood tests s hould not donate blood, plasma, body organs, other tissue or sperm. They should take precautions against ex changing body fluids during sexual activity. There is a r isk of infecting others through sexual intercourse sharing needles and possibly expo-sure of others to saliva through <>ral-genital contact or intimate kissing. Toothbrus h es, razors or other implements that could become contaminated with blood should not be shared. Women whose sexua l partner is antibody posi tive are at increased risk of acquiring AIDS In addition, if the women become pregnant their children are at increased risk of acquiring _AIDS. Remember that all persons can reduce their risk of contracting AIDS by taking care of their general health. Eat a well-balanced diet, exercise regularly, get adequate rest and try to reduce daily stress. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH EDUCATORS An approach to the AIDS situation includes dealing with the general public. Currently, AIDS has produced a widespread feeling of panic and misunderstanding Health educators have a responsibility to put the situation into perspective This could include interpreting new statistics, di spelling myths and functioning as a resource for inf onnation and referral. Positive ap proache s toward behaviour change are necessary for peop l e to continue t.o adopt safe and healthy practices. Education must be the cornerstone in preventing the spread of AIDS particularly for the highest-risk group ( i .e. sexually active homosexual/bisexual men with multiple partners), in which AIDS is spread through sexual contact. Both this group and intrave nous drug abusers must modify their behavior until a cure for this dreaded disease is discovered. Other health professionals are the focu s of another approach. Nurses, doctors, dentists, laboratory technicians and other health workers must be informed of correct procedures in dealing with an AIDS victim. Many health professionals are reluctant to deal with AIDS patients foaring the spread of disease to themselves or to other patients. Inservice programs on using i so l ation procedures, disposing of needles and syringes correctly and handling specimens from AIDS patients can be a means to decrease their anxiety and reassure staff of their decreased risk. Information about symptoms may also assist in early detection Another approach lies in dealing with AIDS victims and their families. This includes psychological needs that way occur from feeling isolated from society and the physiol ogical needs that may develop from the disease process. Financial arrangements should also be addressed. WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? For the immediate future there will continue to be an increase in the number of new AIDS cases Because of the long incubation period of AIDS it is unlikely that preventive actions thus far taken will be reflected in falling rates in AIDS cases. With continued research on the cause of AIDS, and on a cure and vaccine for the disease along with comprehensive educational pro grams, by the end of the decade1 we may be able to look back on AIDS as a historical albeit tragic, phenome non. 29

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Felicity AYMER Ken OfosuBARKO Lyall BETHEL Audrey DEVEAUX Ashwood FERGUSON Stephanie CARROLL Harcourt PINDER Donna SMITH-DIAL EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Health Education Division (Editor) Public Health Department The Counsellors National Insurance Board Architect Bahamas Association of Life & Health Insurer s -Health Education Council Broadcasting Corporation of The Bahamas ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS Felicity AYMER is a Health Education Officer, Ministry of Health and Editor. Rudolph BURGZORG is a former Executive Director of The Bahamas Automobile Club. Donald COOPER is the Public Analyst and an Assistant Director in the Department of Environmental Health Services. He holds a Ph.D in Microbiology. Barbara DEVEAUX is the Executive Director of The Bahamas Chamber of Commerce. Janet HALL is an Administrative Assistant at Sandilands Rehabilitation Centre. She is a graduate of Ball Sta\e University, Muncie, Indiana, (MA Health Sciences). Beverley LOCKHART is a trained Monte ssori teacher and the Head of the Centre for Early Education, Alba tross Road, Stapledon Gardens. Diana PINDER is the President of the Diabetic Association. Anthony ROBERTS is the Director of Sanitation Services, Resorts International, Paradi se I sland. Catherine WILSON is the Community Nurse in charge of the Carmichael Road Clinic. 30

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I Continued from page 4) Please note the prices prevailing at that time Source Mr. Ed. Dorsette, Central Bank, Bahamas. Convers ion table a s of 25 May, 19 66 5 = 4 d ( pence) Tribune 3d. (three p e n ce) B a r Soap 3d. 50 = 316 (three shillings and six pence) Grapefruit 4d. 2 lb rib roast 2/-Pork c ho ps Steak Sugar $1.00 = $5.00 = .10 = .00 = $10 .00 = 7 / -(shillings) 1.15 (one pound fifteen shillings) $4.29 $14.29 $28.57 White grapes Cabbage Cucumbers App les 112 per lb. 119 per lb. lOd for 5lb. 9d. per lb. 6d. per lb. 9d. per lb. 2d. each. Substantial devaluation of the English pound had alread y occurred or was the dollar over-valued? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------EVALUATION Help u s to make the ne w slette r as interesting and informative as possible. Please comp lete, detach and return this short evaluation form to the Health Education Division, Public Health Departmen:., Nassau Bahamas Tick the most appropriate res pon s e l. How did you find the newsletter? a ) very interesting b ) interesti ng c) somewha t interesting d) uninteresting e) did not read 2. Wa s t h ere any article o f p articula r interest to you? YesO N o O If yes please give title ..... . . ..... ............................................ ...................... ....... ... . .. ..... . .. .. .... . . .... ........ . ...... 3 What changes, if any, would you like to see? ........... . ...................... ........ ................... . ........... . ............. ....... .... .............. . .......................... . .... . ............ .... .... .......... 4. What top ics w o u ld you like in future issues? .... ...... ......... . .. . .... .. .......... . ... ............... .. . . ..... ................. ............... . 5. W o uld yo u like to contribute to this newslette r ? Yes D No o I f yes, p l ease give name and address Name : . . ... . . . .................... . ..... ........ ...... ... .... ... ... .... ... . .......... ... ..... ..... . .... . .... ....... ... .. .. ....... .. ....... .. . .. ... . . . Addr e ss : ......... . .......... . . .... . .... ....... ....... ............ ........ .... . .... . ...... . ... ... ..... .... . . .............. ...... ..... ........ ... . .............. 'rhank you for you r co-operation! Merry Christmas and a happy New Y ear. 31

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3 2 HEALTH EDUCATION DIVISION PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT, \ I MINISTRY OF HEALTH P O BOX N-3729 NASSAU BAHAMAS.

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HEAL TH CARE PROVIDERS LET'S BLAZE A TRAIL GO FOR SAFETY \ I Cover Design by: -THEOPHILUS THOMPSON LESLIE JOHNSON ASHWARD FERGUSON IN 1987 I ..... .. -)----*"'* .., -, \ NASSAU, BAHAMAS


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