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 Indice del tomo XXXII
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WHAT THIS BOOK Page. 1. Til of Gold ............... ........................................ : .. ............ ......... ......... .. :? The Raid of the Buccaneers ................................. 3. Capture:of Porto Bello ............................ '" '. '" .. ........... 4. The of Old Panama .................................................. 5. The Fall of Old Pnnama. (Poem. ) ................................ .. 6. Tb Founding of Sew Panama ............... -................. -..... 7. The I. tbmian Bubble of It>9R .................................. ......... . Trouble with Indian, 1710 .......................................... .. 9. Independence.from SpaiIl, 1821. ....... : .............................. : .. 10. The Isthmusin the Days e-f '49 ..... ; ...... ; ; ; .............................. 11. Lola "of PaL'i. and Panama." ...... o ........ .................. ]2. Ocean' Linked by Steel Ribbons, 183U ............... ' .......... .. ...... 13. Night of Horror in April, 1856 ........................................ .. 14. A ttempu to Pier :e ................................. ,' ........ 0" 15. DeLe. eps-Hi Great Scheme ........................... .............. 16. Muttering. of Separation .................. 00 17. In the of Re\olution ................................................ 18. "Ringing the 'Belles." ................................. -" ............ 19. Polyglot Panan'la ..... ......................... ........................ 20. Story of the Youngest Republic ....................................... .. :!1. The 'anal in American Hand ........................... .... ....... . 22. Not by a Dam Site ........................................ ............... 23.!Taking 0 Chanc('s ... 0 ........ .... 0., o. .. .. ... ... .... 24. How:A bout it To-day?.......... 0" 0 ............ ::.0.0 ........... 25. The King Pin of the CanaL...... ....... .... ........... .. ............ -26. Panama's Moral in the '70 s -.......... .... .. .. : .................... Z7. Beyond the ChaO'res (Poem) ; ......... : ............................ ,. 28. Uncle Sam's Isthmian Domain ................... : ........... ::. : ........ . 29. 'Teaching Canal Zone youth ...................... ; ..................... 30. The Isthmian 'Vater Supply ....... .-.. ; ....... : .. : ......... ........... 31. Revenue End of the Zone ................................................ 32. The Guardians of the Zone ....... ........................ i ..... 33. The Pearl Industry 'Of Pa-nama. ............ ; ; ..... ; .... ... ' ' ........ 4. 1. ..' 1. 17. ')'" _0. 38. 110. 116. 121. 124 125. 12 182. 133. 158. 170. 172. 204. 2(Jf 215. 221. 223. 2i6. 2 4 293. X38. 340. 343. Ui '353. 358. 362. ..


P-ilot and Guide. I Page 34. The New Palace and Theatre........... ...... ............... ...... 370. 35. 'l' ll e PanAmerican H.ailroad.......................... ...... ... ........... 373. 311. Panama's Diplomatic Corps ............................................ 375. 37. Coins from Old Panama ................................................... 378. 38. Official Band of tile 1. C U .... ................ ....... .................... 39. 'l'h e Club Houses of tbe Zone ............................................. 392. 4 0. Ronde l ( Poem. )................ ..... .... .............. .................. 395 41. Piping Oil Acr oss Isthmns.... .................................... ........ 396. 42. ru nama of the Presen t lJay. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . ... . .. . .. . .. :198. (a)-Public Land Laws...... .... ... ......... ... ........ ..... ... 414. (b)-Mining Laws.......................................... ......... 4 1 8. 41. Tourists' Department ... .............. ........... ............ .......... 44. C lu bs ...................... : ........ : ....... . . : 451. 45. Officia l s of Rep. of Panama, I. C C and P. R. R............. .......... . 467. 46. C l assUied Business Directory of Panallla. .... .......... .................. 477. 47. C la ss ified Bnsine.5. J 160.


Pilot and Guide. III Page. 22. Seen c on Pltnltmlt Iffillroad in '55........... ...... ............. ............ 164. An c on Hos pit::tl Entra n ce ............. .......... .......................... 167. 24. Goroza!..... ........... ............. ................................... ...... 174. 2-i BirdF<-eye Vi e w of Cul ehm (2)...... ........ .. .......... ......... ..... ...... I Sl. Ame rican Qlmrtcrs, C ul pbra..... ........... ........... ................. ISH. ZI. Old Atlltntic Entrance to Canal................................ .. .... .... 192. 28. Pacific Entrancc to Canal........ ......................................... 193. 29. Vie w of Gorgona.... .. ... ............. ..................................... 199. 30. I. C. C. Hospital, C olon ..... .............................................. 200. 31. B e fore thc Trenches in Panama........ .. .............. ............. ....... :llO. 132. Sinking of theLautaro ................................................... 214. 33. Gencml Alban Entering Colon....... .................................. 2li. 34. G e neml P erdomo ......................................................... :.!'.lO. 35. P. R. R. Station at Empire............ . .................. ................. 222. 36. Hcene in Colon in '56.... ...... . ...... ... ....... ............. .... ... .... .. 280' 37. Plaza BOlivar, David, Chiriqui..................... ......... ..... ..... 286. 38. P,-esidentand Mrs. AllIador ................................................ 245. 39. Jos6 Domingo de Obaldia............. ..... ......... ...................... 249. 40. Scene on tbe Fiquene RIver, Darien............ .. ............. ........ 253. 41. Map of the Isthmus.... ...................... ....... ........... .. .. ........ 267. 42. President Roos evelt and Hotel Tivuli........................... ......... 271. 43. Old Administration Building. Panama........................... ....... 278. 44. Administration BUilding, Culebra ......................... .............. 286. 45. Trains Hauling Excavations ................................. ........... 294. 46. Bas Obispo Cut. ........................................... .............. SOIl. 47. Army Engineers .......................................................... 804. 48. A Canal Dredge.................... .......... ........................ .... 311. 49. Steam Shovel Loading Train....... ...................................... 320. 00. A Scene on thc Chagres River .......... ................................. 834. 51. Inanguratlon of Water Works System, Panama......................... 356. 52. Ganal Zone Post-otnce, Cristobal............................ ............. 361. 53. Station, CristobaL ... .... .. .. .. .. .......... .. ... ................ 364. 54. New Palace and Theatre.... ...... ........ .................. ........ ........ 371. 55. Diplomatic Corps ............ ................. ........................... 378. 56. Alejandro Dutary ......................................................... 895. fi7. J. }<'. de In Ossa. ... .. .... .. ..... ...................................... ...... 400. 58. Tableau of Nations............ ......................... ................. 427. 59. Donaldo Velasco, Author, "The Wa.r on the Isthmus".................. 444. 60. Dr. Facnndo Mutts Duran.................................................. 472. 61. United States Marines at Camp Elliott ........................ ........... 519. 62. Star & Herald Building........ ........ .... ............................... 522.


TH[ PUBLlSH[R'S ANNOUNC[M[NT. In snblnitting this, the first edition of the Pilot ancl Gu ide, the publi her does so, with the firm belief that it will 111eet with the ::lpprohation of jts readers. He has departed SOUle" hat froln the beaten path of thi class of books for the express purpose of lneeting an insisteut public d0111UIH,1; that of a work that will enable people 1ntere te 1 in Panama and the Isthlnian Canal to gR.i n a, clear and adequate conception Ot what ha' occurred, and is now taking place. Book' hn,yc been published. ancl l ome of thorn yery good one; on various pba es of Ithllliall his tory and eyents but the publi her has tried und believes that he has succeeded ill 111assing mor "lneat of the Isth-111ian tha.n has eyer before becn prjnted between the co,ers of a h 01 whose title page hears the ,yell known name of Panalna." To accomplish this end ba.s l)eel1 no smFlll taslc It has been a case of book-building frOlll the ground up. Infonnatioll a.nd facts had to be hunted out of musty I


,---_. _--------TIll nook anu orners, an I a mu h of the information could be obtained nI",' fr In fpanish book UD I documents ca.re ful tran latioll '''us Rl'y. \Vhere po' iblc; the workers on this book h[1Y8 gono back to tho time when the hi t r jcal incident ,"ere in the lURking and 111 the ca e of later t :ee and talk with people who wer on the spot and kn e w p el' ollaIl) of the occurrence, related. takes nlay huy e T e l t 1n; a book COYerillg :l scope of four hundred y aI'S ",ouill h e a positiye wonder without a,ny yet the I nblish e r the authenticity in general f the i llfol'lllati ull her ein contailleJ will ,'tund the test. The workers on this YO] Ullle realized that it, l'ca, del'S will clnbracc l11an, different Ia 8es, tl erefore alle dote, and incident nIl strieth, true. hn.ye been intI' c111'ed to .., illustrate a little of the hU1llorous, and 1 0, of the trab'ic side of Isthmian hif't01T. Another earnest eff I't ,va made t to bring the book down to the year of Our Lord, 190 a nel the work in this respect peak for itself. It is the oIlly puhlicati o n HOW in print that coyer the recent and very in1portant 'hange in plan at the Pacific entl of the canal, and. of the deci iou to widen the c:lnal lock it is the ollly work that contain a 'outi nuou 11(\ rratiy of tbe great 1 thulian watcl'W y .. inco it hn b en i 11 1ner1(,<1n han 1 aud it i th" ollly book th t iyc the, t r'y of til i1' UU1,'taneC'. 1 a ling up and ullnin<. tio,o' in th) se .. i o n of Pall.llna fro111 the llcpubli 0 C lOlnbia fl' III \ ry p o i n f vi \\. The rp ha' II II : Urlllpt. to 'thl' w c lel w a t 1\" o r nrag 1 at 'l'[lth r t. Pl' llt the inform;. ti 11 n a holly lli"pn i nat I (nd lHatt'1'-f-fat wa', Th pulli .. h l' end his ( ,i ant how vcr b Ii \' that ill l' -vie winrr th e I { t three y ar { aile. 1 hi t 1'\; 'HI P rtecl ,------


llIIll --.... _.-------.. by facts and fiO'ures. (nd h)' apr onal kllowledge f th general ituati 11, tho ok will rro a purpose in dispellina-and di 'lui. 'ing ntany a doul,t and d In ,inn that U)(;LY he v I existeu. r Inay till exi"t in th ot S(lln : reO'arding th -tent and pl'ogr of tIl canal unc10rtnki 11 0'. L "work of tbi. kind nece arily i ny01 ye' con icIer;).l 1 out id assistallC. The publi her takes this occasion to thank the luauy 'wh have eontrihntec1 to the Lool -by affording all informattOll thn t I fLy ill their po,ve1'. He is especially indebted to the 111enlbers of the Istlllnian Oanal Oommi ion, Panama Railroad offici lVIr. \\T G. Tubby, 1\11'. H. G. Pre cott, Don Jose Augustin Arango, Don R ,icardo Arango, Don Ricardo Aria" DOll l\felchor Lasso de la ,-'-ega, Don E. T. Don Samuel Boyel, Senor Donaldo ,elasco and others. He is also indebted to The Star & Herald Co., l\tIr. J. Gabriel Duque, its Director, 1\1r. Oarl von Lind81nan, its lVIanagel', and its st.aff of employes for the excellent typogra.phical worl\. on the as w"e11 as to the managelnent for the opportunity for research afforded by the early files of the paper. Oordial thanks are also extended to Senor Guillenno and Senor DOllaldo Velasco for the loan of several half-tone illustrations appearing on the pages of the Pilot a ncl Gu ide. Just (1 word to the ad rertisers. 'Your confidence was invited and although you lllade it known to the publisher that you had often been fooled in the past, 1l0twiLhstanc1-iog the prospectus of the present work your attention. The publisher believes he hns kept fa.ith with yc,u In every respect. It is seldolu that a work of this kind its pages to adYertisers, ill fact had such all oppor-I I \


nw tunity been afforded in the United States, advertising agencies would have taken e very available inch of space. The publisher thanks you for your patronage and trusts that the 1909 edition will see you again represented. Jlie PUblisher. I !.


THE CASTLE OF GOLD. .. ---The faJned Cathay o f O o lumbus c1rcan1s l e d that daring hut eli appoiilted nayigator t o 111flk e a fourth and final attempt in the year ] 602 to eli c oyer a short ea route to the East. After hring buffe ted about for days hy coutrary winds in the C a ribb ean SeD his sma.ll and leaky boats threate ning to go t o tho h ottom at any moment, he at last sight e d land ill the yici nity of Cape Gracias a Dios, Nicaragua. Doubling this cape on the 14th of Septenlber, in the year abov e lnentioned he landed and explored a region to which he gave the name f't Cerabora. Here he ran acro nU111erous specilnens of gold ore and by qu e 'tioning the Indians, a scertained that the precious metal existed in large quantities in a district to the ea.st of there called \ T eragua. He secured ])um crou ore samples, and obt a ined a, rough description of the Continuing his voyag e he s aile d a.long the coa t of what is no" Costa Rica, and P anama. pa sing on hi way the famous Chiriqui Lagoon ill the Prov in c e of Bocas del


2 Pilot and GlIid Toro, called by the Indian AburClua (nd ,,,hich quite leceived OOlUDlhu for a ti111e into belieyiug th t he had at la t dis ov red the 111uch 'oubht for pa age. 'Vhile yoya ing do,, n the coa t h encoun tel' d numerous storm which ilnperilec1 hi boat Rnd on one oc a ion forc d hill1 to se k h Her at a small island. Here he found fruits, fi hand gallle in abun lance ,, 'hi(h led h1111 to give the llace the nan1e of Puerto de Basti1nento luean1ng a place of uPllie. After a few days' re t at point, Colunlbus or ganized a sll1all expedition, and on the 23rd of N o,eluber left the havep Lut obliged to put in to the eoa t again three clay later owing to a tempe. t which narl'o"ly ean19 to ",alTIping his ships. Thj place he aptly ternle 1 ill aning a place of retreat. Here he stayed until the nth of Decenlber ,, hen ho decided to turn back over hi courso. He kept a westerl) directiun for fifteen day whi h brought hin1 on the 7 th day of January, 1.-03, to the lTIouth of a. ri'fer called in the Indian tongue Quiebra "but to which Oohnnbus gave the llall1e of Belen. This riYer to-da) fOrIns the natural boundary Jille betwe n the Province of (Jolon, and that of V ragua. Toward the iuteri(Jr ould be een a broken Inountain rallO'e which Colnn1bus nalned San Oristohal. Near thi pot a hort hile later, the A lelantado D. artololne 0 1 n, found d the fir't e tablislnnent on I thlnian oi1, but it did n t endure long, Leing de troy u by tbe neliaH under a chi f ncllned }nibian. t thi poin 0 1 um bu H o 'ai n han 0'( c1 hi plan all 1 il c1 ba k t ,\yard th n ,t t pping at the PI' ell ite of l't II (1), anl goillO' a ar c. th i.lalll in the Illb tto l' hipelago which 1i in th 11 f 11 la . Aft ,1' In j urn 'ino be. I an 1 furth v r II th look-ont for ( Dc turnl opening ill the burri r b f r} ( 1 ) u ly.'p 11 1 U l't l'to B 11


((.t7c (;u7d. 3 hinl. he el cid 1 t r turn. th b( c1 tat hi nwkinO' ,neh a ti 11 lllll i t r' r Ilt olulnhn B hn.yillO fir t t f t n the s il of t i 11 W th Repulli f 11 V 11lber 2nd .. I.-O:.?; 01 1'e in tIl yic illit the Chiriqui Laao n. Thll ltayc tw inlp ortant in thlllian hi tory nearl T oin i lental a t o th ct y and mOll th; th discoy ry n n 1 th leclara ti n of i nd p nclen e of the Republic f PananHl :3rc1. 10 ;. "In the' Name of God. Accounts of the new1 T eli coyer c d ountry and the am pIes of gold hayin a in due tinl e rea h eel the court of pai 11 the fanciful naJlle of a ... tilla, c1 1 roo or Ca tle of G Id ,,'as conferred upon all that r eo-ion exte nding from Cape Gracia

4 Pilot and Gilidc. Ing pain's new pos es ions. One of these, Roch'igo de Bastidn headed an xped ition vi ited "rarious part of the panish l\f in and di overed in 1.-0 a year in ad \"ance of the arrival of COhl111bus that part of the lying behreen Cape on tho Gulf of r"'"raoa alld the port of R'2trete. The otber Alan 0 de Ojec1fl, ex plored the whole 1101'thern coast of South .A ll1erica, and gave the tOUlltr, adjacent to tho of I J raba, the Harne of Nuera 1:\nc1aluuia. He founded a town in the eastern part of the (Julf; nalning it San Seba tian. H e grew tired uf the resi tapce offered by the lleighboring tribes of Indians and very soon abandoned the colollY leayillg his lieutenant, FrRllciEcO PiZ(llTO afton\ arcls as t h e conqueror of the Inca empire, in possession of t he pl "ce. Ojeda later distinguished h1u1sel as the founder of evera l places in Venezuela. The Sto r y of Balboa. 1\IallY a child at school has fallen clown on a hard hi tory lesson, but rarely a dullard 0 gr fit as to fail in the recital of Balboa's exploit. Hi .. tory accords it but a hrief 111 ntioll, albeit it is entitled to sec nc1 place ill the New ,Vor1c1 cliscoverie. Balboa fBred forth ad, eHturing at a O1uparativcly early age. At 25 he voyno'ec1 with Ra ... ti(la to the I 'panish ::\L in, and on hi return to Hipanioln the Ha, ti of the pre nt clay, he tool" HI the pUr', uit f a ricnl tur:l. Hi bent did not fit all lio in thi directioD: an I hi. principal harvest ,va a lot of bn.c1 leot To e cape the e and an OCCUI uti on di tasteful to hilu, he on al 1 him elf one night in a aJe and brib d som f the crew of a 'hip lyino in th harbor to take the a k n h ant '] hi: hip happ 11 d to belong t an Xl editi 11 mnmanl <1 by 011(\ Be chiller 1 ,0, tIl n fitbno-nt f( r a YO (10' to the Iionth 111cri an a t. alboa wa (t thi tillle a 111an f very pI a iuo al P '[\l'an e, al1d lat r w11 11 '" t .. H hi pr, 11 0 11 b : I'd be mne kn W11 h


I Tit tory 0/ R{{lbo{(. 5 =---==----lill: Ie such an earn t ur peal to the C nllnanc1 l'. that tho latter rver. d hi: arI iel' I I i i II to thl'o"\ hi m ov lrboard. Balboa' I' PI' ute Lion of the l'ichne of the 'ount}')' (nel the fact that he h, d bee'J. there jn OlUP:111Y wi tb Be tida led Enci 0 to h (d hi COUl'. e for the (i lllf of raba and the olouy of all eba'tiaI1. B fore reaching the mainland one of his hips becaule wrecked. and through this accident lost all the horses and pi' s he had brought with hill1. till greater illi fortune awaited the expediti 11 for on its arriYal, the town of an Sebastian wps found to have been burned by the Indian, an 1 the colonist that were there scattered. Balboa, nothing daunted, prolnised Enciso that if he would accompany him, he would take him to the western shor. e of t.he gulf, where another tOWll could easily be founded, and where the Indians did not use poisoned arrows. The offer was accepted, and tog8ther with their Ine11 they marched into the territory of un Indian chief nalned Oelllaco "honl they uefeated and took prisoner. At the to" n of thj chieftain they founded Santa l\Iaria la .1\.ntfgua del Darien, in honor of the celebrated iLuage at Seville, Spain. This place js lloteu for its havillg been the site of the first Episcopal See, and the oldest church on the American continent. Enciso was at the head of this new colony, but it did not long owing in a large lneasure to an interdict received frolll the Orown of Spain pro hibiting the traffic of gold with the Indians. A bout this time, too, Balboa and Enciso had a falling out, and the fonner, gaining the ascendancy, sent his fellow-explorer back to Spain in irons. Balboa Seeks the Temple of Gold. The "hole country of the Castilla del Oro wa now in Balboa's charge, and one of the first of his acts ,,-as to despatch Pizarro to explore the intenor. About the sanle l t ime he sent out a cOll1pallY of men to collect the sur-


I vivors of the ill-fated town of Nombre de Dios. H e then took the i-i91d against the Indian, first capturing and imprisoning the chieftain Cuareca along with his falnily, and afterwards pilla.ging the lands of an Indian chief llamed Ponca. This hrought hin1 and his lllell to the territory of ::.nother Illdian chieftain nan1ed Oomagre, at that tin1e probably 1110 t powerful chief in the entire Darien region. Coma ,gre lived in a s t a te of Inagnificence, and had the mUllllni es of his ancestors enshrouded in rich cloths, adorned with pearls, precious stones, alld ornaments of gold. Although he h a d 3,OUO wetrriors at his call, he re cei, ed Balboa peaceably, an d gave him the freedo111 of his dOlnain. e ldest son nalned Panquiaco became very friendly with and besides presenting him with 4,000 ounces of gold, and 60 W0111C'1l slaves, taken prisoners in battle with neighboring tribes, gave him the i11-fonnation that back of the line of Inountains that reared their tops in the cliln distance, "as a llation very rich and powerful, having ships with sails like the Spaniards, and using ,essels of solid gold. He also told him of a templ e of gold called Dabaibe, situated forty l eague froln D arien, 011 the banks of a great eluptying IlltO the Gulf of U raba (1). In the aboriginal belief, Dabaibe ,,,as the Inother of the Deity, "hich dOI111uated the elemeut, anel created the SUll, tllOOD, star, anel all thing good. BaJboa's cu pidity was greatly arOll 'ed by these tal auu returning to Santa l\Ial'ia, PI' for an expedition in earch of tho go ld e n t lllII e It is evid nt that at thi period BalLoa place d SOlne crcdence in the nc1ian's tale of "ship with sai ls," but had Juore faith in th .xi tence of a tGlnple of go ld. t i' quit IiI ely thnt thi t0111pl had reference to tho tree nr houe f th 11 a mperor (t uz '0, ( n ac' unt f whi h, 111 l' ( l' 1 Ii. t rt d, In igh ca,"'ily h, ve pa d froLll trib o to 1'i b until it 1'0'1 -hed th anen. (1) Th Atl'aio Ri l'.


Balboa 7 Hi xpec1ition in trim alboa cntere 1 the 111 uth of the trat anI I ed up it until h e l' ache 1 th gru or u io a it i COlnnl nly all d on fiC oun t o f the color of it -water. c IH1ing thi ributary he fine 11y' arriy d at the land of an Indian chief 1 ioe iba "ithout having seen any indication of th object : hi: quest. He left here a ompany of 30 111e11 to u' lrcl the " place, and then returned to Darien, On arriving h e founel -that the Indian under Oemaco, and five othe r chiefs, with -a force of 5,000 warriors, and 100 canoes, had planned' ';, an attack 011 the colollY, which plot wn -. disclosed by 0118' : of their number named Fulvia. Balboa at once took the,;' initiatiY8, surprised and defeated the Illc1ians, and left OClnaco dead on the field. In Quest of the South Sea. About this time there were internal dissellsions in" the colony, but Balboa succeeded in pacifying all parties;< so that by the time reinforcelnents arrived fro In Spain C bringing to him the title of Oaptain-General de la' A.ntigua, he was ready to set out on an exp8c1ition : in of the South Sea. He. sailed from Santa l\Iar'ia' ou :the ':: ,lst. of September. 1513, taking with hiln 190 of his O"Tll ITlen, some I and a number of dogs. A short clis' ; t&'nce on his way, the InJian, chief, Ouaree;:!, who had been', baptized by the Spaniards, gave him guides, some Indian ;-'., auxiliaries, and on the 6th of Septelnber, after attending , n1ass to ask the blessing uf God on his D1ission, he took ,-:, the road to the mountains. ' On the 8th of September, Balboa arrived at 'the .. home of the Indian chief, Ponca, Inelltionec1 in a previous expedition. Here he was ,the recipient, of the first really credible infonnation concerning the great sea to the South. Ponca infonned him that the ocean 'would open to view after passing certa.in lllountains, "which he ToulJ' show him. He also gave, Balboa some curious, but handsomely


8 Pilot ({nd auid formed gol d ornanlent ,, -hi h the Iudian came fro 111 place on the ocean of which he poke. On 20th of September he cOJltinued his luurch. The surface of the gtound 'Was 0 r ugh and broken. and there were so llWll)' small strealllS to eros, that in four days he ollly covered thirty ll1il s. .A .t the elld of thi nlarch, he came to the t e rritor r of the bellige1' ,ut chief tain, Ouaracua who gav e hiln a hard fight. The Indian was finally and pn1'ishe d in company ,,-itb GOO of his men. town of Ouaracua where he 11 W ''IUS laid he was told at the foot of the la.st 1110untain rCmall)1])g to be surmounted before his ej es could 1'e. t on the ohject of his long and tedious march. Balboa Discovers the Pacific. On the 26th of S eptell1bel' a little aftrf t n 0 c l ock ill the the eli co\ ered froln th top of the mountain the Inighty of the Pariiie. The prie t l of the expedition, Anc1l'(\ de V tnl, intoned the 1e D eulll \ and all those in the cOll1pan) fpll on their knr arounu hil11. They afttl]'wards raj "cd at this I oint a Cl' made of the trunk of a. tree, brac e d up by rocks nnd upon which they wrot e as ,rell as on various tree in the vicinity. the names of th e rul<>l' of 'pain. On hi' de ellt to the beach, Bal boa and hi.' llle u had to pa through tb land of au ludian wrlrrior natu e d he ape: ",11 trei) ted thrill kindly and l1lade thenl fl, PI' e llt of r 0 p un f gold R ,achillO' the wat e1'-ilh alboa 'YCl led out kne -deer iJlt the sea, lllld with the bnnuer f pain waviuO' in hi' hand pr duilU cl the v u t ocean: alld tll a t adj illillO' it. th pro! erty of hi Killg. Find Pearls of Fabulous Size. h rtl T ftrl' th 1 i yr f 11 a ifi W e f l' e 1 ))) tilll (ftc'r\Ynr 1.. 0uth (11 d (,el. n th alb a et


.. _. .. -----..... --... _-_ .. --_. -. .-_ .... -_.. --------.-. EsrrABLISIIED IN 1868. 78 allG 340 Cellt1'al Wvellt1e, PANAMA. J ..' '.. t I .... _ ...... .. ... .......... __ ....... _._ ...... __ ....... ........ ----.... -----.------.. -..... ----.----..... ----" ... ... .. --..... ... -.. .. l({)


10 Pilot anrl =====, \ about making arrangements to explore the vicinity. ThE. ocean at this point on the coast forms a gulf to which Balboa gave the naUle of San in honor of his haying arrived there on the day the Oatholic church cele brates this sahlt, whieh nalne it b e ars at the present tilne. ", H e despatched one of his men named Alonso l\Iartin atf the head of a Inall company of Spaniards and to explore the coast in a c a noe while he himself embarked and went to an island inhabited by a chief named Turn aco l"I artin, leaving first has the credit of being the first European to navigate the wate rs of the P acific The:" island Balboa land e d on wa 011e 6f many, and to the group, he gave the name of the Archiepelago de la .. ,._ P erl as, or the Pear) Archipelago. To the largest island "'. in the group he gave the name of Isla Ric a, or Rich Island, on account of the quantities of pearls he found there, some of which were of size. Balboa's papers relate how that the canoes of Ohief Tumaco had their oars incrusted with pearls, so plentiful were they a t this period Some tilDe after this, an expedition under Pizarro :-:l and l\forales, two of Balboa's lieutenants, "was sentagain t the Pearl Islands. They crossed the Isthmu by a l ess .': difficult route than Balboa had doue and arrived at the islands without incident. After four different battl s with the chief whom they found in posse ion of I la Rica, the latter finally surrendered, and as pe a ce offerin Cf present 1-Pizarro and 1\101'a1e \vi i h a bask t full of \" ry fine pearl one of which weighed 2'"' carats an 1 afterward sold f r 4,000 ducats, equivalent to 1:.. 0.00 y ritablJ a prince s ransom. Origin of the "Bloody Shirt." .. "'-. fter coll c ting all the goll and p ad' could It y hand 011, ( lboa r turn cl t uri 11 th nly 11 tn hI -inci l ent f th b'l kwal'd jouI'n y being the e ution of a n tive hi f ualn cl P n fa, t g th l' with thr e f hi


II OYO A y A'"rCH REPAIRED? o YO ANT A",\ EDDIN RING? YO "'\ ANT A FI E FOB CHAIN? o YO 7VANT je,velry of any Description? ARE YO a :B'OREI .... N COIN COLLECTOR? I F S O.c.<=====--_ tl. CCt1-t-fit "t0IA-out. NUl>dEEH. 284, CENTR...A.L. A. VENUE. sociate accu ed of certain vicious practices. These men, Balboa cllused to be devoured alive by the savage dogs which be carried with him. The year following 1514: there arrived at Antiguft, a colonel of infantry nalned Pedro Arias Davila, commonly called Pedrarias "\\ ho ha d been named by the Spanish Crown as Governor of Darieu. It is related that Pedrarias was the father-in-law of Balboa but history does not ap pear to be fully clear on this point. He commanded a brilliant expedition consisting of 2,000 picked men, which had originally been raised and equipped for in Italy, under the orders of Grand Oaptain Gonzalo de Oordova, Cavalier of Spain. About this time La Antigua had been elevated to a metropolitan city of Oastilla del Oro, and Friar Juan de Quevedo was named as the first bishop wb ile Gasp3.r de Espinosa was chc,sen as the first Alcalde. Shortly after the arrival of Pedrarias, Balboa made another and last quest for the mythical temple of gold resulting in the usual failure. Then followed sev(i}ral months of Indian fighting. Tumanama, OIle of the most po" erful chiefs of the mountains had long been enmity with the Spanish invaders and securing allies in a num ber of other tribes commenced a war of extermination again t the Oonquistadores. The Indians carried a flag in their fights made out of the bloody shirts of the Spaniards they had killed, which is the first mention History


.. I ; 1 2 Pilot ({url Guid J 111ak'" of that falDou toc in. T he v i c t or i e gained by th Indian. eel T at l arm at J.Ja Anti O'U21, and til e 11lint dnc1 bui l diog ,reI' 1 0 ed H owe-ve r, afte r r de pcrate el1gi-lO' lnent Tlllllanallla an d hi ,Ya rrior'" lTC l)llt to rOll t and a pea c pact ,,'a en t ere d i u to. B alboa' s Expedition. . .; t pon the ces'sation of Il1dlan ho ti l itie,P ec1ra ria s COIl onted to an expe lition planned by B a l boa tho outh Sea. Thi involrcd the construction of the ship 11 qe. .... ,-,.ary for na Yig\ tin 0' the P acific : on t he side of ,th cliyide, and their tran portation k noc k e d-down aero I tbe Oordillera to some point on the o uth CO!l t. The 1\ \Yo. yk of cutting and preparing t h e p arts of the hip "-?v' perf6nnecl after severa l 11l0nth o f ardu o u s t o il and eOilllllel1:c' ed :the .long anI w earisome j o urn e y a cros.tIle :r thnius" The' natiYf' I ndians w ere u tilized ca rri e r I a .}IJstpry '. thn t of two tho u a nd o f ,re!'kened and uled under th I r h eay) b u r dens. In I th' I a .. age Balboa sho,Ycel p oor jud g m e nt. In t ea d f I joiirne) 'ing bY., aku01Yl1. route. h e aero. a u d I I art of rsthmu ell co enng the R l B a l a on h 1 WelY. I which ;;;tt-eam he utilized n,,, far as 11 wa ab l e R eaching : -. 'outll eoa he put hi.., hips t ther all 1 nf t e r y i itiJlg I the -Pearl Ai'c4ipol8g9 )layiO'ated a 1'0. th ulf of a n :\lil D'uel" and to a i)oiJlt a bout tw 1 agne. farther 011. H e r th ; crew o hi ships. 1 C "hI1l0 a l anll d at a ,hool f wha l i ,,,hOlll they took to l'e f.' i 'll tIl an. a nel illd n 'eel al1 ( I 0 p 'ut about. 11 achlllu tho 'on t ngain th lltil'e C'xp edit i 1\ wa,' In:ought to a held)ll top, hy rd)r re ir I fl' 111 drn : ria' the (iovernoi' rizing l-3nl a I T t and i llllri R 11-i 111 f) t unel r th lUll'o' o f Lin o a traitor t the ;1' \YD I Balbo a, a V i ctim of Jealousy and Hate. I p tIl tilll of th lClo.ct ill-p l anlle d ; f l'tunc lW. d al wa ' lllil 1 11 a l b >a' -11 rpri xp tliti )11. t


B((7bo{( (( I'ic/illl .[NI7()/I Y m/f7 flair' 13 thi' p riod of hi' lif ho\y V 1', the fickle bond 1 .,: tUl'lt ;'1 h r ha k llpOl1 11i111 f r'\ r. P('tiJ has lightly over his fault:, crlfolty were th Inost p .ro 111 i Ilent b l,l. t into nQC(;nv1t .the general Cll tOlllS of the age ill .. h\Ccl, .. difficult and exasper ating " J' CLARKE & L,A LBtest American Styles Perfect fit W a Maka a 6pacialty of CI"aansing and prBSs.ing . : '. -G-i-v-c '-1& a. Oa11. :. No. 286, Central Ave. .' I) 1/


f4 Pilot and Guide he had to contend with and overCOlne, it can:lot be gain said hut that he wa.s an exceptional mall' an intrepid, cunning and resourceful warrior whos e ultimate success and wonderful discovery conquered for him a lasting place in the world's history. Besides his latter sufferings, im prisonment and death on the on an unjust charge ; I were, no doubt, ample atonelnent for his sinr-. Founding of Old Panama. Pedrarias, incompetent, treacherous, and cruel, con tinued in high favor with the king whose coffers he kept well supplied with gold and treasure wrung froln the e11-slayed and oppressed natives who died by the thousauds on accoumt of not being physically adapted to the "ork. It was this terrible decimation of the Indians that prompt ed some time later a prominent Catholic bishop to suggest the importation of negroes froln Africa, thus saving the Indian froln complete extermination, but at the sanle tillle inaugurating the system of slavery that aftar" ards spread over the gleatest part of two continents. In 1515 Diego de Albites and Tello de Guzman formed part of an expedit.ion that erossed to the Pacific sido of the Isthmus and arrived at a hut of a poor fisher, at a point called by the Indians Panama from the abun dance of fish ancl sea shells found there. Here in 1519, Pedrarias founded the city of Old Panama giving it the Indian name. In 1521 by order of EUlperor Charles V. the title of "l\1uy noble y 111UY leal" wa be towed on ilie place, and the government, bishopri aDd loni ts of anta Maria 1:t Antigua del Darien removed th e r to. This wa only accomplished after gr at privntion ( ,nd uff ring. it being estimated that no fewer than 4 .0 0 panial'ls per ished in this tran -IsthmIan hegira durina tIl en nillg thirty years. The court-f-ann giy 1\ t the new ity con isted of a yoke, a bun h of arrow on a O'ilded field with two hips underneath, a star ca tie au I lion. The


15 Pilot ((1/d Tllid. -------../ f / .... -----NO nULL SEASON WITH US. WHY? BECAUSE: FIR T.--\Ye haye alway, t od, anI hall alwa tand with-out a illgle de"dati 11 1 hinel ur ironclad uarantee l)a ed upon RELIABLE D PRI E and GR OWX -E IX 'I'HEIR \\ RTH. E .---" con ... tantly endeayor to pro,rid our n tomer with the YERY BE T HAXDI E }'IA...."'{uFA T"CRED, u'ing pe ial 'are in the election of our tock. THIRD.---We ha, in our Laclie Departmellt, the late t be and mo t exten iye yariet of DRE... GOOD HIRT W AI T KIRT,_ "GXDER,YEAR H IERY LA E E)IBROIDERIE..., xLOYE FAX Y ARTI LE and a com p lete line of cor et -WA.RXER R YAL WOR E TER, B x and W. B. FOrRTH.---'''''e cater to the mo t correct ta te in gentlemen weal' and -we can truthfully ay that there are no better dre ed men in Panama or the Canal Zone than tho e that HA ,-E BEEX orTFITTED L-OCR GE.,:T DEPART)IEXT. They are aelyerti ing n e,ery tim they a ppear on the treet. FIFTH.---"e hay e won and now hold the mo t di criminatinO' clientel in Panama and the Canal Zon for THE E ) IER OX HOE (a 'a 'tle for the foot), the ELDRED TE 'ILEXT EWL -T HXXD FOOT E,Y!XG } and t h e HALL S.-\'FE CO' ,FIRE PRO F SAFE, fT). 1 e"'-" .L .L-"'e"'o ...t'_'-'o "" a "'-.., ('f 87' wHY? v ,,:), v ... f '" l.I J I v I t.; t" l.I ONE PRICE, AND TO ALL. H. de SOLA & Co. No. 55, Central Avenue, Opp. Ca.thedra.l


16 Pilot aHd Guide ( 0 1\1 I E ION 1.8 TIT .I Avnida Norte No. 70. Apartado de Correo No. 70, c i y becmnr th e ,C() of th fir t court o f the Rpfll Aueli whih obtain ecl in th(\ pnni:h po ,. P. 111 .l-\lnerica from I?) n?5 to 1 C ;):? In 1 :'):?8, a pri.t nalllec1 Hern[lIl(10 Luque cel bratec1 olemn ma ill the Cathedral at Old Panama taking c0!111llunion with two Spani h explorer. and mell nt arm" PiZ

]};a J'/!/ 'j'J'(fJ/ '-I.-lllIllirlll POll It' -17 ---------Dios to the 1l1O11 h of th0 1ilagl' th(\)) up tbat ;11U to Crllcr w 11('1' tIl(' C:\ l'goc wen', tra Jl. f '1'1 d to t11 I Jacks of Inulr,. Ol1lbl'(' de io:; was :tI)ltlldo ll('<1 at Ow Ild ()f the Rixt 11th celltu!'y ill fe-yoI' of Porto 13('110, h:ncH\'ll to 1) 01lC of tho be 't hay ns on the (,lltin' I.,thlllian COil. t uth of Chi riqui to whi yell tho tennlCl'S of the pl'rs(,llt day ort ,vhrrl fUl ul111.'uCllly .. trollg north l' is blowillg at 'ol n n. N0111Ll'e de Dio had 1()1)0' bpPIl kllo\\'Jl as a gra\'0yanl for th allcl its cl 'cay ,,,as of little Jl1CJ1ncllt. ,Lftl'r the (,oll(ltu ... of n1ll1 tlll:; (l(IYl'iol>lllCllt of the froid Ini lies j n the Da.rien, ()ld Pal)(una -'pran? rapid ly into pl' JlniIlC))CC All th gold III treasl1re of the' ,\ est CO;! t pOll1'ed into }lC'l' lap to be sorted .. hiplnellt Lacroisade & Regis. JEWELfRS and WATCHMAKERS, Opti al ood:,;; Gnal'n.nteNl Fancy Artie],,; 'WI." 'lXi':.' ,V A TCRE, '. ,'pecial .:\gcllt:,; of the 1. NDER\VOOD typewriter; Repairing of Fine \Yatche. a Orch-r.' for Europe and nit -d 41 Cathe(lrdl SQuare, P. O. BJX 72, PAN A '. '. '. '. , " " '. '. '. '. '. '. Lacroisade & Regis, RELOJERIA, JOYERIA Y OPTIGA. Joya:,; Garantizatla, j (1' }'an :: fa RBLOJES l "-llieos :: Ag 'llt s de las .lh1<) nilla:-; de ERcri hi!' :: t,,-Habiliu 1:1s C01l11)O.' t 1l1'U de ReJ0Je:->j :: 1) d;(los e. llecialn:; .E ul'ol)a .r lOR :: tadoH C'u!

18 Pilot and Gilido. a.nd lastly and chief of all, the sack and burning of 01r1 Panan1a, perhaps at the ti lDe the n10st opulent city in all New Spain, by Henry lVlorgan and his band of SeV{311-teellth century buccaneers, pirates and sea rovers, furnishes one of the lTIOst thrilling chapters in the early history of the Spani h Main, and some of the Inost notable events in the piratical record of the West Indies, not only from the boldness and intrepidity of the attack, but for the gallant defence as well. To-day, nearly three hundred and fifty years after, crulllblillg ruins 111ark the spots where these occurrences took place, though as the late lVlr. J al11es Stanley Gilbert has written in his famous "York, "Panalna Patchwork": Cloud-crested San Lorenzo guard The Chagres' entrance still, Tho' o'er each stone dense moss has grown, And earth his moat doth fill. His bastions, feeble with decay, Steadfastly view the sea, And sternly wait the certain fate The ages shall decree. To the l\.lnericans el11ployed on the Isthnlus and the tourists that are coming in ever increasing numb r th sites of these early Spanish centers of ,Vestern civilization have a cOllsiderable charm, as is evidenced by the numerous excursions luade thereto, especially during the elr) season. Of them all Old Panalna, perhaps, pos ess th gr atest 'attraction. It is easily a cessibl froul the pr nt city, and really interesting, although unfortunately lHan), visitors merely ride over, take a look at the to,Ycr and the old brid O'e, and then COlne back with the idea tbn t th y have een everything worth while. The tower and bridge are n ar to the b ach, alld en ily hut the den vegetati n with which th great r I art f 1<1 Panama is ov rgrowll lnak i ht-seei Il o farther in 11101'0 diffi ult. '1 her j til Id (\,th lral the r of of whi 11 hn fe lIen


'lIte R({id,' llie ]Juc('((Ju' 'J',', 1 9 ill, but tho \r <-lIs of ,\Yhih aI'''' .,till ,tund i)) 0'. This 11 nrc]} i Inentionecl ill E. qnelllC'ling lUUT< tiv of til s:1ck alld burning -f 1<1 Panalnn, writtrll in IG7t), (111<1 l'(\prillt(\d herewith, as tho only onc left tanding after tho fin), tho which ,,'as u d for a ho pital for the oundccl of tho buccane rs. The il1terior of church has b ee n u se d in renent tilnes i .till b oing u I unde r tanc1. by th natiyes living in th vicinity for a burying pIa c for tIl i1' clead. Nearby to the hurch is the Oataclunba or tonlh upon the roof of which great trees are now growing vigor ously. As one proceeds farther landward, sections of the ancient city' walls luay be seen in various directions, SOlne being only held up by the gigantic roots of trees which have b\ ined and intertwined in and about the sto n es in. such a 111<1nner that now it would b e difficult e v e n for a pry to disloclge them. Large open w e lls curbe d with stone are scattered about the place, and in these, nUlnerous relics have recently been found, such as parts of copper kettles, pieces of fireanns, lnoney, articles used in the churches, etc. If all were cleaned out, no doubt many interesting and perhaps va.luable relics could be recovered, inasmuch as the tradition has b ee n handed down, and history in a measure supports it., that the inhabitallts of the place in their fright and (?xciten1ent sought to hide their valuables, and as a last resort thre w th8111 into the wells of th3 city. ,Be, that as it may, the site of Old Panama furnishes a point of illtere8t well worth visiting. The tower at Olll Panaula, which figures so proIl11-nently among Isthmiall photographs, and which may be seen on a clear day from high elevations in the new city, fonned a part of the castle of St. J erOlne. In the p apers of a Spanish engineer or that tillle occurs the following description of it: "This fortification was an excellellt pieco of workmanship, very strong, being raised in the l11iddle of the port, of quadra ngular fonn, and of very hard stone. Its eleyution or height is 88 geometrical feet, its wnlls being fourteen, and its curtains, seyenty-five feet in diameter.


' l DELMONICO 20 Pilot and G 11 ide. GR.AN CAFE Y CAN'fINA. Plaza de la Catedral, Panama, R. de P Lic ores, Viveres, Ccrvezas, l' T ahacos de las l'1ejorcs M.arcas, importados '" Sand-vviches Varia..dos a Todas Horas SAI....ON R.ESE::B..V.MDO s. WOLFF, Propietario. DEL1MIONICO AMERICAN BAR AND GRILL ROOJ1. IVJ ,Cathedral Square, Panama, R. P. Finest and 93est Imported Liquors and S. WOLFF, Proprietor. It was built at tho expense of several private persons, the Governor of the city furnishing the principal part of the Jnoney so that it did not cost His Majesty any SUlll at a.ll. The fragmentary and often inaccurate accounts of Old PalHUn(l, has not tended to give readers a clear COllception of this and attendant eveHts. Nothing has over appeared in print more truthful and interesting concerning the cnpture of Porto Bello, and the burning of P3nalna than is to be found in John Esqu Inrling's nfllTative pub lished in 1(j78, seven years after the Y0nts actually ccUl'l'od. EsquCll1eling was a Inc'lmber of the pirate bUIld. and therefore all 8y witness of the incidents felnt('d. Although not d finit ly known, the author of thi l1Hrl'utiy i thought to hay \ be. n a Hollallder iIla I11U h (s his ac count first fI PI rarcd ill the Dnt h Lll1gungr. 1 twas aftllrWt rd trnllslntC'(l i llt pani h, (nd in r 'nt y [\1\ into f..Juglis h tho Intt l' tr:lll lat.ion :1} pcarin(T a part of tll()


--.... :::-.. Sluins of Santo !J)omi:-;go Church. Panam a .!ht.4m lan-dl",eric c N &.7?.Jl?l..A'eWI .:81J1'f!1ZU


22 Pilot aJld Guirl he r. of Alnerica' published by h in '"'10,. of IJ nel n. Tho author" unt i hoth OTllphic Hnd I icture 'qu in ",hi h he in-yariahl laur In th third person. ,Vith the exception f ( f w In. tanc where he ,-'peak of the cxtl' orc1in rj pi it f the 11oi h under n as 11latters of cour 0, 11 ha.' J1 :i Ie and i' a prone to criticize his I ad 1'. a an inc1i,idunl on the oppo ito '-ide. The war t fiti i In t 1 (l Inade of his l1arratiY8 i hi tend ncy to Illc O'nif' tb. im10rtane of certain place c nel thing. nco: froln hi,' de eril tion of Old Pananlc, one ,yould be lIt b liey it a ll1uch larger and illlportant place than it r c lly wn H ref)' to there having been f}ye thousand h u j11 th place at the tillle of its fall. This 'woull incli ate a population of 40 000, or 50,000 Bouls. E,en in a luuch 111 1'e ext 11 iy area than the ito of Old Pallama it would h( y een impo ible to comprehend so n1any al lVlercado Publico, APARTADO No. 75. AVEN IDA NORTE No. 127. Y R E 'OVAl)O URTIDO <1e AB RROTES Y LICORE ( Y YE TA DE PR DU TO"" DEL PAl. COllII EN RAL. YENT A DE SOl'I BR.ERO D P ........... ... -.............. ----............ _--_ ........ -....... _--_ ........... ................ -----... _--.. __ ... ....... _--........ -............. ... f P 1 Ii 1 arl{:e I '" C aw () ;.'O('t.'l'h'. and Li nol', 11 Iln11. .. 111 I'} P '0(\1 ('t B ugllt .n\( (;('u(,I',,1 ('(HUH,i. lOll ut ""tUt' ,soJ'tnU,'llt of' P"Ut Ilaa lInt. P O. ox: 75. PANAMA, R. P. No. 127 North Avenue.


1'11( Raid,' tlu /J1l('('(lI/((,I, 23 1m i 11 i 11 a I J a t h l' 1.' n l) t hi: I rf t -1 a" t I i II c1 i at l' i L , ba\' tIl 11' llCihh-expI l' d tIl :it, Hll(l 'al1l1 It ::ihly ",h l' mol' than 1. or 1'-), u1. cOllI(} htlY b 11 crath r 11 t th l'. \ ( 111(1111) l' f tlw I ira l)(Ulc.l of ( 1 t. hal'}. (y l1, 1'1'( tiy ) tl0ir ."P ditiOll whi h vi. it d T e,y Fa nnnul. in 1 ) that hIatt l' pIne \ then ,Y<. larer0r than Old :: llalna ev r wa The ."pe lition aernin, t lel Panamt "lYe, H l l11' T 1\1 reran' cl'owninb achi yement. and hi action t o w (ln l hi .. 111 11 after th e ir r turn to the F ort of Oha ert' a. E' u -111 liner t 1'1n' an Lorenzo mal'ke 1 th e heo inniner of th nd of hi career R. the greate t pirate of his tilne. H \\'(l.S [l luan of quick impuls e oue o'ood a t ing alIno t inyaria 1 off et b an evil on e He 'car c1 n ot for Oll-1.1 st for CODqu sf sake but he W'1 out for the coin of the r Jahn which in his tinle wa fi ullred j n lJiec0 of eight. 11e of the me s t astolli hing moyes in hi whole career was hi attitude towards pir ac y after hi Hscendanc to the lot of Go,ernor of J :ullaicH n ot 1 0llg after his return from the Panama xpe litif/ll. 'ro him, luor e than to any Olle Ulan is probably due the ridding of the pirate s from the ,Yater and i lands of the \Ve t Indies. The Panama expedition ,ya not as s ucce sfnl as 1J organ had figured on ill the Inatter of booty. Tho e cape of the Spani h galleon ,yith the plate and church ,aluable robbed hilll of the best of hi e xp ec ted tre as ure. IJocal tradition has it that he left witb a high a 1 200 111ule loads of loot, while a biography of put it at thirty-seven. Esquemeliug gi,e' it at 175 Inule loads 'which i probably about the corre t figur e \\' e are gi,illg tIl reader Esqu llleliug account of the capture of Porto Bello and the fall of Old Pauama in the \\Titer's O,Yll picture que languRge, which cannot fail but to add pice to the narrati,e-Editor.


24-rilot alld Cui(l e. Panama Panama, Colon, (mpire, Gorgona, New ----.-.--+-. ---Central Banking Business, L anR 11lud and Totes di counted. Foroio ll Exchange bougllt and sold. t ) uble transfers to alll)oints. raft issued on Ne\v Yorl{ and. Ellropo. Saving Deposits Int rest at 4% per 31111Un pajd 011 Stl\'" -jngs ac ounts, on 111ill1l11Ulll IJalancc durin a 1 111 1 tIl. ColI ction i( 1'1t l1ti 11 1)( i 1 t 11 tiOllS,O th 1 (l a I ( 11 d r l' j g } at 1 \ V r t


25 GaDtnro of Porto Ballo, 1668. apt. 1\1 rgu,n al" ay COlllllluni '1ted ,jgor with his word ( n 1 infused su h spirits into hi In n a "ere able to put very one of th ill in taDtly upon new d ign; they being all per uac1ed by hi reason that the ole execution of hi ord r ,,"ould be a certain means of obtaining great he. This persua ion had such illfiuence upon their Iniuds, that with ininlitable courage the y all re olved to follow him. The saIne like" i e did a certain pirate of Campeche who on this occa ion join e d with Capt. Morgan, to f5eek llew fortunes under his condu ct, and greater advantages than he had found before. Thus Captain 1\1organ inL, a fe,v days gathered a fleet of nine sa11, hetween ships and great boats, wherein he had four hundred and threescore military Inen. After that all thing w ere in a good posture of readines they put forth to s e a Capt. l\1organ imparting the design he had in his mind to nobody for that present. He only told them on several occasions, that he held as indubitable he should make a good fortune by that voyage, if strange occurrences altered not the course of his designs. They directed their course towards the continent, where they arrived in a few days upon the coast of Costa Rica, with all their fleet entire. No sooner had they discovered land than Capt. IHorgan d<:clared his intentions to the Captains, and presently after to all the rest of the com pany. He told thelll he intended in that expedition t.o plunder Porto B8110. and that he "ould perform it by night, being resolved to put the whole city to the sack, not. the least cornel' escaping his diligence. Moreover, to encourage them he added: This enterprise could not fail to succeed well, seeing he had kept it secret in his mind without revealing it to anybody; whereby they could not


26 Pilot ({nd Tllirle. hay OHlin' T thi proposition SOll1e Blade not a ufficien l1l11nber of lTIel1 ,,bere "ith n s( nIt 0 tr 110' ancI areat a ity. But Oaptain :\ rClli d: I.l all)' }lumuer i . mall au]' hearts (l're {II' ((t. .... JU th f eleel' per. -'o71,' tee are the morc union, and b tter ,'h((re, ICe ,'hall hatc in tll ,'poil Hereupon being :tin1ul< t c d with th mnbition of tho e vas t riches they 1 romi e 1 then1. elY 1'1'0111 their gooel Sl1cce they unani -111(>1l.'1 r )) lnded to Yelltnl' upon that ign. But flOW t th illt e nt 111 Treader nl( y b tter Olnpreh nel the in ll1par, hIe boIc1lle. s of thi eXII it. it 11lay be neces ary to a T .. olnethinO' 1 efo1' han 1 0 th city of Porto Bello. v The cit y ",hi 1 ear thi nalTIe in AlTIeri a j seated 111 tIl )L'ovin of Co tn. Rica under the Jatituele of t II degr e e.. T rth at the Ii tance of fourteen leagues from th e ('1nlf f Darien. ejo'ht we tward from the I art c( 11 c1 .... olnhre 1 io.', i judged to be the trong st lace hat he ITina of pain po e. in all the e t IllOlll' thilt '. hal I ir III hr 111 lllltain,' "talllino'. til iI' cllil.'l "<1l'-'h()ll tlrc at t g ,110. howi>('i th ir h;tbi ; ttioll b all til \' ';\1' long t t P anama. wII llCO th y I rt Jl g til!' P I a t II pOll 1; it d ). at .'ll h t i 1\1' a:' t h fa (1' IH'Clill' Hlld ,,,hell 1bl .. hip:. b longing tt th' olllpany f T (' QTO iI 1'1' i \" h \ n t Ii } n y .. , I hI' 1In ll1( gt'IH l'illl: :lppli('tl I( till' 'ilri} h an (. a that 1:1]11 :J'H;"" it Din t tIlt" Pi,' 1'.-Editol'.


9'1Ie J3e/l8 '!f' Cruce$ -:Panama . 3ImertC4lt # !P. R oR ./Yews :JIl1ellcy tI:1IdvlfrhlJn9 .7J .1},cnk o w.sk, --'-_ ..-J II


28 Pilot ((l1C7 uide GRAN FABRICA NACIDNAL DE TABACD8 Q;r --_. -+-_. --mrjor y Ja ma gramle fjllB ha t1 hor e ha r:ialJlecido en Panama. Lo' iO'al'l'o, Picadura ijO'arl'illo elal ora 10 en e ta Fabrica, on del :\IATERIAL que e 0 echa en 13 yega de Chiriqui y Bubi. Todo leben probal' el tabaco de Panama que e tan bueno como el extranjero que ,iene a 1a Repliblica. Protejer a las Industrias Nacionales, es protejerse uno a si mismo. E. l\10RRIS y Cia. AVENIDA CENTRAL7 l'iUMERO 307 fUMfN NUfSTIlOS PRODVCTOS 6 NO rUMfN. Arrival of the Buccaneers. f1apt. who knew vrr' wpll all the a.venue o ity, a al all the neio'hh r l'ipg ast arrived ill tIl ,eln k the YeniD 0' at the pIa 'e en lIed Puerto de ... Ya ,eli tnnt ten Ieaaua' to" arc1 th' -':t of Porto Bell 11,0' '0111 t thi pIa t', they mOLlllted th 1'iy l' ill their hi1 ,'. ( far n un thrl' harbour allcrl uert PontiJl; \\ 11 1'0 the T : 111 t an an h r. \1'0 tlll Y I ut then1 elyc illl111cdiat ly int h at (; n 1 J Hyillg 111,) (. f,w ]11 n t kt' P thcnl and n In th m th -day t th port \.b ut luitini< 'ht they nUl to!l (ll'tain place allc 1 JiJ' h'l'(\' I 11 a L III ",,11 r th Y

7 '. 29 up 11 the II tl -th 1 i I han I n hin1 e. n 1 apI .r-h nc1 1 hil11 ,,-ith u h unllin, th t 11 11a 1 11 tim g\-' wnn in. ,,-j h hi Inu "k t. r 111e. k c. 11.? ther hu th y l' 11 h him.' -ith hi. he n L 1 un 1. ::11 b in )1 reran. \"h a.l1 hinl: .R lC thing Ie nt in tIL city. and lcllld for e' til y h : with man -ther CirCllll1:tan e whi h he wa 1 iron t kll )\\". t r e,er u tion. th llacl him ( th U uncI 111 III kl11 him. n a e h > f lar c1 not the truth. mhn the" b cran t ad aIle towar 1 the it-, alway the aid entl' und eo1' th m . Ylllg mar hed abou ne-nalter of a le ague they callIe t th ca tle the. tin ar thn ity which pre ently the' nrr undecl. o that no per n c uld et either iu or out o the ai 1 fortr .. Bein o' thu I 0 t e d under the o the sUe Capt. )[orban com manc1ecl the sentr,) ,, hom the' h d taken pri oner to p ak t tho that WEre ,yithiu. charai11g thelU to urrenc1er. R nel giye them elves up to hi di cre tioll' otherwi e they h nil e all cut to piece. Ithont ai,ing qUe 1 t_r t an ne. But they would hEarken to none of the e thr at. begi nning ill tautly t which ern,e notic to the it -a lld thi W11 uddenly alarmed. Yet. llotwith tanc1i ng. although the overnor ani oIlier of the said a tIe HIud a reat re istan e a could be perf rUled. they were on trained to urrellc1er to the Pirate. These no .ooner had taken the ca tle. than the) 1'e oh-eu t be a go d a their ,Yord.. in putting the panianL to the ,Yord. thereb to trike a terror int the 1'e t tho cit.). Hereupoll ha,in "hut up all the olc1ier and ficer as pri oner into one roon1 they in tantly et fire to the poweler (where they founel great quantit .,. anI blew up the whol e a tl into the air. ,,-ith a ll the 1pall iard tha weI' wi thi n. This beIng lone. the) 1 ur neel the cour .. e o their yi 'tor.), falling upon the cit" \"hich a yet wa II t III order t receive them. )Ian -o the in-I habitant ca t their pre i us jewel an 1 mone rs into "ell und ci tern or hid them in other place unclercrroun 1,


30 Pilot auel )' uid e excu e, a llluch a were I 0 sibl their being totally robbed. One party of the Pirate bing ass i o ned to this purpose, ran imm di:lt ely to th e doi teL, Rnc1 took as lllal1Y religiou IneJ) alld "OInOll as the r c uhl find. The G overllor of the city Hot h lng abl e to rally the citizen through. the huge confu ion of the town retired to one of the CRStIes remaini ng, a nd thence began to fire incessantly at the Pirates. But the c w ere not III the l eas t negligent either to a. sault hiln 0r defend thenl elv8. with all the courage ilnaginable. Thus it W()S ubseryable that, amidst the horror of the a anlt, they llwcle very fe" hots in vain. For I ailning with gr at d xterity at the lllouth s of the gUll the 81 alliard were certain to 10 e one 01' t\yO Inen every tilne they charged eac h gun alle,y Assault on the Castle. The assault of this cast l o where the ovel'llor was, con tinued very fl1rious on both side fron1 break of day uutil noon. Yea, about this time of the c.1a} the ca e wa very dubious which party h oulc1 conqner or l)e conquered At last the Pirate, I erceivi:)o' th y had lost llHlny 11lcn and as yet advanced but little toward the O'ailling either thi or the other castl s remaillino ', thought to llwke use of fireballs, which th y thr. w with th ir hand d s lgnlllo if po sible, to burn the doors of the cn, tl. But going about to put this illt ex e n ion the pallial' 1 f1' 111 the wall let fall gr at quantitie f stone. (nel earth nIts full of powder a nd oth r conlon tib l lnutt r whi h forced them to desi t frolll that atten11 t. '1apt. l\I01'o'H,ll seeina this aenerou Ie nce Inac1 b) tb palliaI'd g' n to de pair f th e wh I e U c I of the llt l])ri. H reupoll man y f'1int and altn 111 ditati n int hi Inind' neith r coull h 1 t rmino "wIli h ,, to turn lun1 elf in that tl" itn s. of (. ffair'. iuo invol" d in th th uaht h (l' 'ucld nly anillc t d t c ntinue the a an1t by eeil1a the ngli. h c 1 n1' 1 u f rth at]) f tho 1 el' ca tle


! 011 tli 3 I SU RG EO N-O E NTI ST_ Li en e t l:)ra tice fr01 The of the State of New York. Ths State Boara of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The State Boara ofthe Commonwealth of New Jersey. OFFICE HOURS L) n. 111. to 11 n. In 1 p. 111. t o : ) I. lU. 44, {fle. ceq} C1110,tico 1 ft-v, ll i It

32 Pilul and Gllide. sceill religioll : women and cel ia tical persons, exposed in he front of the 'olli I' to the greatest langers. Thus the ladder' a I haye said, w eI' put int the hands of reli aiou per. 0 Il of both seJ "e. a nd th ese were forced, at the head of th compallic, to raise and app l y them to the wall ut a pt. l\lorgan was fully deceived in his jndgill nt of thi d sign. For the Goyernor, -who acted like a br ye and courageous oldier, refused not, in perfonnance of his dut) to u e hi Ut1l10 t en deavours to destroy who ever caIne near the "\y< 11. The religious 1110n and "'omen not to cry to him and to beg of hi1n by all the aints of Heayen that he would leliver the ca tle, and hereby spare both his all I their own lives. But nothing could prevail "\ ith the ob tillacy and fierceness that had pOSSvS ed the Governor s 111ind. Thus many of the religious l11e11 and nun were kill cl before they could fix th8 ladders. ,Vhich at last being done though with great loss of the said religious people, the Pirates 1l10unted them ill great numbers, and with no I e yal nur; haying fireba ll in th i1' and eartben pots full of powder All which thing being no"\ at the top of th e wall they kindled and CD st in among the Sp niards. Refused Quarter Despite Wife' s Tears. Thi ef rt f the Pirn,te ,vas very great; insomuch a the paniarcl oull 11 lon ger 1'0 i,t 11 r defend th .-tle, whi 'h wa no\\ lltered. Hereupon th y a.ll thr' down th ir anns, and r \ 'e d qUe 1't 1'. for th ir liYes Only th i y l' 'the ity would adul1 r cr' Y 11 III rcy hut rather c1 ll1an r of th Pir te "\vith his own hand, and 11 ( f, f hi own 1di 1'.' b au th y c111 not anI 1. th i1' nBS } \ n 1 altIl 11 rrh th irat n k c1 hilll j f h w ul d h n y llt 11 1 f nd d hin 01' L /uOlf/ N I ((.' (( COIl'(U'r1. 'f1h \ \llclrav 1.1r d lnu'h a th ---


33 ob tinately that they "\ ere f reI to kill him' 11 twithstand in5 all the rie' and tear of hi own wife and daughter who b gged of hi upon th ir kne he would demand quart r and aye his life. hen the Pirate had posses ed thems lve of the ca tle, which wa about night, they euelo ed therein all the pri on r they had taken; placing th women and men by thmnselve, with SO]11e guard upon theln. All the wounded were put into a certain apartment by itself, to the intent their 0'''0 cOlnplaints might he the cure of their o,vn di eases; for no other ,,,as afforded them. This being done, they fell to eating and drinking after their u ual manner; that is to say, cOlnmitting in both these things all m9nner of debauchery and excess. Mter such manner they delivered themselves up to all sort of debauchery, that if there had been found only fifty cou rageous men, they might easily have retaken the city, and killed all the Pirates. The next day, huving plundered all they could find, they began to examine some of the prison ers (who had been persuaded by their companions to say they were the richest of the town), charging them severely to discover where they had hidden their riches and goods. But not being able to extort anything out of theIn, as they were not the right persons who pos essed any wealth, they at last resolved to torture thein. This they performed with such cruelty that many of them died upon the rack, or presently after. Soon after, the President of Panama had news brought hiln of the pillage and ruin of Porto Bello. This intelligeGce caused him to employ all his care and in d ustry to raise forces, "ith design to pursue and cast out the Pirates thence. But these cared little for what extra ordinary means the President used, as having their ships near at hand, and being determined to set fire to the city, and retreat. They had now been at Porto Bello fifteen days, in which space of time they had lost Inany of their men, both by the unhealthiness of the country and the ex travagant debaucheries they had committed.


--.:A group of ...Halive 2elle.s in Ihe native dress";Janama. thr.71on-.:JiIlflui""" ( dgrnc!I &-.JJU/VQU


RaJ/.'om PTa d on Fri,'oJ/ /'8. Ranso m Placed on Prisoners. H r upon th r PI' 1 a l' -: 1 f r: dep<-rtllr '< rrylllg 011 b nn1 their. hi} .. nIl th I il180' th 'Y hn 1 0' t. llt brf )'(\ all. th y PI' yid cl th H et wi h uffi i nt victual. for th ,yaO'e. \ hil the e thing ,,,ere (J' ttiJ)O' rea 1 '. ( I tain :\1 '( an ent an injun tio n to th prj, on r the t tll v honlel pn' hin1 a ran 'Olll for. cit ? or e1 h e ,,"ould b y fir C 11 unJe it t n h e an 1 Llow up nIl the en tle into the a1l'. 'ithnl he 111\l1( ndecl thel11 to selld pe e lily tw p r on' to k and procurr the Stlln h e denutn led, whi h amounted t one hundred thou and pieces of eibht. To tIli eff ct. bro 11len were cnt to the Pre'ident of Panama who gave hinl an ac ount of all the e tragedie The Pre i lellt ha,illb now a body of men in r eac1illes set forth imlne diately to,Yards Porto Bello to encount r the Pirates hefore their l' treat. But these people, hearing of his cOlnillg, in tend of Hying awny went out to meet hiln at a llar1'o,," passage through which of necessity he mut pa . Her:. they placed an hundred 1118n very well anned; who, at the first enCOUIl tel'. put to fl ight a good party of those of P auall1a 'Ibis accident obliged the President to retire for thnt time as not being yet in a posture of stiellgth to proceed allY farther. .Pre ently after this ellcouuter he sent a mes age to Capt l\ Iorgan to tell hill1: That in case he departed not suddenly 'Leith all hisjorces fJ'ont P01'tV Bello, he oug h t to expect no quarter for hint -elf nor his companion, he s h ou leI t (( lee tll em, as he hoped soon to do. Captaiu Morgan ,yho feared not his threats, knowing he had a secure retreat in his ships which were near at hand, luade him answer: H e ?Could not deliver the castles, he had 'feceit'ed the contribution money he clenUtl1decl. Which in case it 'Were not paicl down ; he 1.could certain7y burn the whole cUYJ and then l eave it; cle1no7ishing beforehand the castles, kill-ing the prisoners.


36 Pilot and Guid e Opposite the P. R. R. Passenger Station. ----fJ(0 CooteI' pla.ce in the City. Large ane! We[[-cuenfitatee! 'l(ooms. FIR T S RESTAURAN'"T IN CONNECTION. Hotel electric lighted throughout. cAll 8Wodern cArrangements. c:Bagga.ge Transportee! Free to .1.nd ffom 'l(a ilroa d Station. 8Woderate. Superiof Ser?Jice. Special 'l(ates for Families. Languages Spoken. CONVE.?IENT FOR TOURISTS. lfrnprietn r. Frente a la Estaci6n Nueva del Ferrocarril. Uno de ios punlos mns venlilodos de :0 cilldod. Cumlos ESpociosos Y Bien Venlllotlos. RESTAURANTE DE PRIMER ORDEN. luz Eiselrieo en loaos los Guorlos Y Tronsporle GroliS de EQuipojes del Holel n In Eslocion y viceverso. PRECIOS MODlcas Y CONVENCIONALES PARA FAMILIAS. S e ab a n 103 Pri 1:;' p a es Idi mas.


Morgan's Threat Against Old Panama. The 0, rno1' f Panama percei\'e 1 by thi an wer that no mean rv to III llify th heart of the Pirat s DOl' reduce thenl to rea OD. Hereup n he deter mined to lea, them; a al 0 tho e of the city 'hom he came to relieve in,olved in the difficulti of makin the best agreement the coull with their enelnies. Thus in few day more th nliserable citizells gathered the contri bution wherein they were fined. and bron O'ht the entire urn of one hundred thou and piece of i 'ht to the Pirates, for a ransom of the cruel captivity they were fallen into. But the Pre ident of Pallama by these tranv actions, was brought illto an e.iirome admiration considering that four hundred men had been able to take such a great cit ,with so many strong castles especially seein that they had 110 pieces of cannon. nor other great gUllS. 'wherewith to raise batteries thenl. w'hat wa more knowing that the citizens of Porto Bello had always great repute of being good soldiers themselve aud who had never courage in their o,rn defence. This astonishtnent was so great that it occasiolled hilll for to be sati fled herein, to send a messenger to Capt. desiring him to selld him some small pattern of tho e anTIS wherewith he had taken with such violence so great a city. Capt. l\Iorgan received this messeng er ,ery kindly, and treated him 'ith civility. ,Vhich being done, he gave him a pistol and a few mall bullets of lead to carry back to the President, his l\Iaster, telling hi m withal: H e desired h inL to accept that slendpr pattern of the aT1ns he hacl taken POTtO Bello. and keep for a after 1. he pr07nised to C01ne to and fetch the1n a1.vay. The GOyerllOr of Panama returned the pres8nt very soon to Cai)t. }\lorgan giving him thanks for the favour of lending bim such weapons as he needed not and withal sent him a ring of gold "itb this me sage: That he desirpd not to gve hi1nself the 'abour of c01ning to Pana1na as he had done to Porto Bello J for


38 Pil t and Guide. h lid not to 11 i1n, he hould not speed so well 7 J' Clc. he had done ther Departure: of the Pirates. fter the'(' trall,'acti ns, Capt. l\[org:ul (having provic1 cl hi. fleet ,,-ith all nece sarie an I taken "'i\ ith him th be" t cynn of the eeL tIes, nailillg +he rest ,,-hich he uId not a W[lY) et sail from Porto Bello with all hi' hip \\"'"itb th se he arrived in few daJ s at the ,Lllld of II 1>:1. wh 1'0 he sought out a place ,,-herein ,,-ith all quiet [llld 1'0po C IH"l might n1ake the dividend of the p i l the.} had O'(It. found in ready luopey t" 0 hun. 11' 1 n 11<1 fifty thon. and pi (es 0 eight, (1) besides all (It 11 l' n IeI' hn ncl iz('" a: loth Ii Ilell silks, and other goods. 11 tlli rich hooty tlloy sailed again thence to their tOl111l101l pla 0 of },()IHl zvou Jalnaica. Being arrived, they pa .... cd JW1' Oil)) ti me ill all ort of vices and debauchery (I( 'orclil1g to their !lunon luanner of doitlg pending ,vith 1111?(: }>l'oclig:llit.T ,rhat other haa gained with no small lah out' a!ld 1'il. - .. .. <-------THE FALL OF OLD PANAMA, 1671. rpnll the oncln.'ion of a treaty of 1 ('(1 'e in 1670 l)('{wc'PIl li;llglnlld and Np< ill, ,,,hirh 'ollfirmcl the forn1 r III Iwl' po .. .-e .... ioll.' ill the"\ t llldi \ lm f)1' '1 h l' lllljC,('t' ( 1 l':1c1.) t) p< 11i ,11 r nt wi hout a ]j 'en :t pnH'\allwtl 11 ,, n,' i'-"l1 I in pnl"lliul C f arran,.;lllPllt ",hic'h gr 1;dl.\ x

Tli(' Fff77 n1r7 Fffll((lI/{f, lr:,1. 39 Venta de Pieles de Venado, de Tigre) de Culebra y de n1uchas otras clases. Carb6:n.. y Ca.::l. de Pri:R::r.l.era. EXISHRclA DE FRUTAS CONSTANHME HE. VERDURAS DE TODAS CLASES. AVENJDA NORTE, NUMERO 157 Hipolito de la Oli, 3. .000 pirate They 11lCt ill Drc Inber. 1670, Tiburon. uH of Trahcl. nIl 1 held a conn it at to Cape decide ,, hether their f l' S ",hOll lc1 be directed upon Cnrtn rren, y' era Cruz. or Pananw. The In t wa rho en a' being the riche t and ,Y

Pilot an i Guide, 40 him r new inya lon and exploit thereby to get ome thincr to n 1 an w in wine a they had already wasted t waR ,e ur cl little before. apt. .Th-lorgan being willino-t f 110w f rtune while he alled him, hereupon :t pp 1 the 111 0uth f lllany of the inhabitant of Jamaica wh were re litor to hi Inen for larg sums of money, with th hop, and promi eR he ga,e them of greater Hchicy 111ell. than \e1' by a n w expedition he "as going about. Thi b")i ng. lone, he needed not gi' e him elf much tr nblc to leyy H1 11 for thi or allY other enterprize, his nalne 1 ing nuw ,0 famous through all those island that that alone ",ould re<: dily bring him in mor men than he could ,yell ell1plo. He undertook therefore to equip a new fl p t f hi p f r ,,,hich purpose he a signed the south ide f the i 1 of Tortuga a a place of rendezvous. i h thi l'e:oIlltioll he wrote divers letter to all the an ient an 1 (,XPCl' Pirate there inhabiting, as also to the ( ov rnor If 1111 .tH; 1 11 tOll1. ,,"h ( 111 t the s: III -i (1 ) f t h i In Il 1 t (, 1 rt (ll d l' II ill) 11 () \ (1' (g c: i 11 t hi: 1 all cl FI' II 11, h illeT '\, pIa ",11i-11 h lu L t ',icY1) d t a,Ylng


-...... Street approaching Ihe .A1ar/(ef -9>anam a. $.ftlilTf IIIn .1IlIIul"m 4 !P.1lYl../4W6 d$Oncg .1J1J1VQ.U .:A.


Pilot and Guide. n gc tll r d tIl greatest part of fi(let, he called a n Ull i I t le] i berate a out the III a DS of finding provi i ns uffici nt for 0 many 1 e pIe. Here they concluded to ...,end f ur hip and one boat, lllDllned with four hundred ill \1), 0 e1' to the contin ent, to the i ltent they should rifle some c ulltry t nand vi.lag s, and in h ese get all the corn or maize tll y could gather. They set ail for the contin nt toward the riYe1', D e la Hacha with design to a :au:t a small i11age aIled La where is usually to be found the greate t uantity of maize of all these I art thereabouts. In the Iueanwhile Oapt. n sent nother party of his men to hunt in the woods, who killed thl'r a huge number of bat and salted them. The rest of his illI aniolls renlainec1 In th hips to clean, fit and rig th m out to s a, so that at the return of those who w r e nt abr au, a ll things might be in Y l'a diness to wieght anchor, and f 11 w the course of th ejr designs. The f u r ships above Inentiolled afte r they had set sai l fr m H steered their COllrse till they came i thill i ht ( f 1 i .. e1' D e In H ac ha, who e tIl y ,,ere n ttl Illy ov l'tak III with a t liou ealu1. Being thus within jaht )f land L calm d for :ome days, tIl", cpani rds in habiting (long th COCI t, who had p e r c iyed them to he en lni had snffi i Ilt ti 1 e to prep'n'e tb.:ill elv s for the a ul t at Ie a.'t tt) hide th bC:l t part their t) 0]' to IH' n thL t wi h u u t allY car Of (J' th 111 th.' 11 ight bE' in l'l'aidlle ,t r tire h 11 th\:' fonlld thC'll1-I r 1 un' hI tn l'l'. i t th f )fC f.l..h:l rate 1 y who 'e UP) th)' cn. th(y hal "f1lrady ]C'( rllt ,he t tlH' T had t cl In u h e bel' wa lJl tll riy '1' a the t PI' nt a c1. hi1. ,,-1 i h s fr 111 larta

Pirat Go A-Foraging, 43 The n xt 1110rni na ut br ak of day th y anl with th it' hip tow ard h e h I' ( nd land d th \i1 ill II alth u ab the I ( 11 iara 11)(1 Ie. hug re i t, nee fr In a (tt ry "I i e h th r had l'ili. cl 11 that id ,yhere of u e E ity tIl y hac t land' but n t ith tanding what clef nee th y could UHtkp th<'y were forc e d to retire tow n I'd a village, to which tile Pirates followed them. Here the raIl) ing a ain, fell up n th'111 r'th Teat fury and 111aintainec1 a trol1g c mbat whi c h 1 a 1 tIll night" c s come; but then, per ceiving th y had 10 t a great nUlnber of lTIen, whi h was no maIler on the Pirates : side, they retired to pI ce rn 1'e occult in the w ood. Thr next day when the Pirates saw they were all fled and the town left totally elnpty of people, they pursued them as far as they could possibly. In this pursuit they oyertook a party of Spaniards whom they made all pri 'ullers anu exerci ed the most cruel tonnents, to dis coyer where tho, T had hidden their goods' SOlne were found who by the forc of intolerable t ortures confessed' but others who would n t do tho arne were used I1101'e barbarously than the fOrnlel'. ThuR in the space of fifteen days that they reulained there, hey took ma.ny prison ers much plate and movable goods with all other things they could rob 'with which booty they resolyed to return to Hispmllola. Yet lJot eontent with what th. y had already got, they disputchcd some prisoners into the woods to seek for the rest of the inhabitants, and to demand of them a ranSOlTI for not burning the tOWll. To this they answ('red, they had no money or plate, but in case. they woul(l be satisfied with a certain quantity of Jnaize, they w o uld g've as lllucl as they c uld aff rd. The Pirates accepted this p 'offer, 3 S being more useful to them at that occasion than ready money, and agreed they shoulc1 pay four thousand hallegs, or bushels, of maize. These w re brought in three days after, the Spaniardg being desjrolls to rid theruselves as soon as possible of that inhuman sort of people. Having laded them on board their


44 Pilot ({)ul Gllitlc Comi ariato DE RAMON ARIAS F., Jr. ESQuino de lOS CO lies 13 Esle y Avenido Norle. AlmacEH1 de Mercancias en general. Ferreteria y Herralnientas para (. rtesanos. j j Comisariato del Pueblo o 0 o 0 o o : 0 o o OF RAMON ARIAS F., Jr. Corner 01 Tnirleenln Sireel ond Avenue. 00 Groceries and General : : Mer.;h3.ndise. o 0 o o 0 o o 0 All classes of Hard ware o o o 0 and Tools for artisans. hip t g ther with all the re t of their l)()(lty, tllC'y rehll"llec1 t tll In, HI of Hi 'PL nioL: ,to ive (. CCOUllt tl) their l(\ad r. \l pt. Thlorgan, of all the Thad perforJl1ec1. Preparations for Departure. They had no w 1 e n absent five entire weeks, about tIl ol111ni sion aforomeutionod, whi h long 1 lay occa ioned cIt. I rgn n al1l1ost to c1 pair of their r turn, feari Ilg l'. t th y fall n into tho hand of the C'p ially on:idoring that the place wher to they ,,'ent lId a il b I' -lievec1 froln 1'tagena and nllta l\Iarta if the inhabitant w 1'0 c t all Cc. reful to alanl1 the country' n th oth r ide h frareel 1 t th'y hould have Inade :01n err at I l'tnne in that yoyag and ,yith it e,'caped t s nl' th r phlCO. But (tt Ie t se i Ilg hi hip_ r tU1'1l and ill gr eat l' lllllnb r than they had lepartetl, h l'(' 'un d 11 \\' courag tIll siuht cau ina both in hin1 and hi. 0111-pa1lio}).' illtillit \ j y. Thi wa Inu 11 ill l' a e 1 w11 11. b illg arri\' 'el thE'T fund thrln full lad n with Innizc. wher of til .' ,'t oc1 ill gr at 11 1 1 f r tIl 11ln:nh nan) 111al1 T P "plc\ h: \\'h :l' help thoy xp -to hTent matt thl' lInh 1)( C '{)llduct [ tll ir 111BICl.ll(] \1' \ft r l\fol'c; n beu1 di\ id) 1 tll 1 1 1 ;111 \. a' f d () 1h' 11-:h "hi -11 tll \ hunt 1'. or ht ill alll Ilg all till) II i}>:: : l('c' o l'(llll b to tll llu1ll1 l'1' of III 11 th'lt W \1' in '\'cry


PI'l'jJ((}'(( liolls fo}' Df})(( 1'[ If }'(' 45 n Iud d np 11 the d partur. hayiurr vi w d r han 1 Y r' .'hi} and b. n d tIl il' h iJlfT w,1I luipp

4 6 Pilot {(]ul hi. b t f 1110 Ii ftment: nc1 y r carpente r above his 111111 n alar)" hoald lraw ne hundre d pi ec es of eight. t 1'e 0111] nce .the' T weI' reo-ut ted i n thi s yoy a e much 11101' th< 11 a. nal. Thl1 . f r the 1 of b oth legs they (1.' 'ignrtl 18 hou ( J) 1 five hunc1re'c1 pI ces o f e ight or tif 'ell ,InY :' f r ne 1 0'. whe h r tho riO'ht o r l eft six 1111 !H.1n'cl pi ( ,'of i O'h t or i -1:1 YO' or a h anel, (t nluch r a Ie()', and f r the I of tlll ye one hundre(l 1 i ight or 0118 .1nve. La t ly, unto hil n that in an, r h:l tl hould hil11 If. pither b enterinO' the fir t t any a Ie: or tkinO' c1o\yn the pani h col u r a11c1 ettino Ul th 1 ngl i h tho n ti tutec1 fi ft. T pic es o f i O'ht for a 1'( w< r 1. In the hea( l of the 8 ar i I e it \ va s tipulatecl tha II th e.' extraonli nar. r sa l ario reco mp e])ce' and re-Wi r 1. :houlc1 he 1 aiel out f th. fir t. p oil or purcbas th y ,h uld tal" a cOl'clino everyon e should the n t o cur t be ith r 'c\\"nrcl 1 or paid. I hi. ontract b i ng 810 ')) ct 1apt. l\ l o rg:u1 comu1ancled hi. \""1 c -c1m iral ana Cnptall1. t p u t a ll thin g in ord e r, t 0' and ntt 1111 t 0118 f 111'8 place, e ith e r artngcnn. ani m ing L Ii v d to b tll 1'i h est of three n otT\' ith tand-1)) 0' tlli cit T hi llg i tUi: ted at s u c h d i t a n e fron) tIl ... orth I'll ('a < they w 1 1 t \" 111 th e a YCJHl and Iltri nrc 1 ry to a t pro, h it t he.) juc1O'e 1 it n e a1' T t ITO 1 If, l' \halll to th j 1 0 of t. <. th a ril)e th 1'e t fin I (.11 1 proyic1 h 111 e l y 'wit h 1)1 p l' o n wh luight c ry tIl n for glll(l in thi ent 1'1riz(" f l' in th O'u1'ri n f that at COln n 11ly 11lpl o d n U1l1' balllitti anI lltlulli,'lw 1 t h roug l tIl w11 1'\ ntainin < that ill (':\. (\ th(\y Ill( \\'it h all: 1 p<1ni.'11 y the fir. t (,:I}lLlI11 "h WIth hi.' 111 11 b )111( 1 I1t rand i;1] -th aid ltlp. ,llC11111 11<1\ fill' hi' l' \\'ilI'd ill t nth pa r t f \\'hat -('Y( l' h()l1ld h !'onll 1 \\ it11il1 11 1'.


-. .... '--Str(!et showing entrance to !7>anama Cemeteries. dlmuicGn &-!J>..RjJ) ..;r, .. s 2Jurcou .7I...2J,_nkoK'Jlri. -----!


48 Pilot and Guide. Attack Isle of St. Catharine. iUI t. l\lorgan and hi cOlnpanioDs \\ eighecl anchor f1' 111 th J Ul e of Tiburon, th l()th clay of December in the 'ea.r ] 670. Four days after they arrived within sight of th I Ie f t. Oatharine, (1) which was now ill pos e 1 n of the paniards again and to which they commonly bani.Jl 1 the lua1 factors of the Spanish dominions in the t Indie. III this island are found hugo quantities of pig on at rtain sea ons of the year; it is watereq. con tinu( lly by four rivulets or brooks, whereof two are al" ays dry in the summer sea on. Here is llO manner of trade 11 l' Olnmerce e .. :ercised by the inhabitants, neither do they aivo thelll el e the trouble to plant more fruits than what 1S neces 'ary for the sustentation of hUlnall life; howbeit, the countr r ,yould be sufficient to make very good plantat iOD of tobacco, 'which luight render considerable profit ,yore it cultivated for that use. As soon as Capt. l\10rgun calile near the island \\rit h hi fleet, he eut before one of his best sailing vessels to yi w th ,ntry of the river and see if any other ships were ther who lllight hinder hi111 from landing; as also feari ng I t they should give intelligence of his arrival to the inhabitant of the island, and they by this Ineans prevent hi de 10'118. The next d y before sunrise, all tho fleet came to anch r near the i land, in a certain bay called Aguada (1 l' nde' upon this bay the Spaniards had lately uuilt a hatt r 1 In nnted with four piec s of can nOll. OUI talll forgn n L ntl d with a thousan I men, III r or Ie and Ii'}) so 1 th 111 111i squadron, b ginnino hi march throu h i 11 I L .. aIth ugh they had no oth l' guid than f( w r hi: \\'Jl 11 ('11 h had on th 1'e b for' ( I ) \l."c 1(1] n'Jl n: 1\ nta, rnJalinlt l' 1<.1 l' rid n ill t}\C ( 'ill'il,hl'il1l.':1) JOO mil" 11' III th" 1\1 .'qnit j lI g to Y


I.lr of I. ( '((I1'((I'IIIP. 49 lans '"Edt t )k nJ1c1 1'.11 ackec1 tIl i Inlld. The clay th J calne t <. Ertain place "'hl r th' : v rno1' at oth r tim slept hi rclinary herr tIl l,T foullel a battery alled The Flatf!>}'}}l. hut 11()ho(ly in it; th 'pallianl huyjng r til el to tho Ie .'01' i.-land, \\ 11i ,11. a WH aiel before ion H1' th great OIl that a h ort. bl'i 1 (re only lnay onjoin theln Pirates ill Serious traits. Thi Ie ,'r island a for said ,,'as 0 "\ye ll ortifi 1 "\yi th forts aud battel'i e around it as l11ight <:o.l llllpregnable. Hereupon. as soon a tho I 'pallial'lL pClrceireel the pirat s to approach they bcgnn to tire upon thelll so fur io u l y that they could adrauce nothing that day, but were con tented t o retre( t a little. aud tak np their re t upou the iu the open fields, which affordeel n strrrnge beels to these peopl e a being sufficiently l1,'ec1 to nch kind of frances81 J. B. COBROLI &: Co. . I Soueria francesa, J. B. COEROLI y Cia . We manufacture all classes :: Se fa b1'ic8,n tocla clase de Agual Ga .. eosa; y 'iropes. of Soda water" and yrup. l i ,Ve have the service of a graduate distiller for the manufacture of all cIa es of pure liq nor: Prompt attention gn'C'll to order'" from pri,atf' hOURei';. FACTORY; N + 54; WEST Ier:::: STREET. . Proximamente 11 g aul. un li<.'ori -ta graduac10 para hacer toda cla. e de licore 11e8inf ctados. PEDl1 O DO )fH JLI( Ie OESTE; NU1IERO 04.


50 Pi70t and Guide. rcpo e: what rno t afflicted thelD was hunger, having not aten the least thing the t whole day. About midnight it h cran to rain 0 he rd that those nli .. rab I e people had ll1U h ado to reslst '0 llluch hard hip the greatest part of thelu h yjug no th r clothes than a pair of seaman's trou:ers or breeche and a shirt "ithout either shoes or tockin Thu finc1ill 0' thelllsel yes in great extremity, th y began to pull clown a fe\,' thatched house s to lllake fire. withal; in a word, they were in s u c h condition that on hundre I indifferently "Tell armed might easily that night hay torn thelu all to pieces. The next morning about brenk of clay the rain ceased, at which time they began to elr, thejr anns whi h were entirely wet, and proeed on tll ir march. But not long after, the rain commen ed nnew, rather harder than before, as if the skies were m lted into waters. which cause d them to cease from aclval1 ing the forts whence the Spaniards continually fired at the Pirates, thelll to aI proach. The Pirates "were now reduc d to great a.ffliction and (1< llger f their li \'e through the hardness of the weather, their own ]1, kednes and th great hunger they sustained. or a ,ulall re1i f hereof, they happened to find in the fi lc1 an olel hors which ,,-a both lean :lnd full of scah a ncl blotch s with O'all cl back an 1 sides. This horrid aninl{ 1 they in. tautly killed anel flayed, and divided into l1l( 11 piC'C'e alnong elves a far as it would reach for lnany could not obt in one 11101'se1 which they roasted all 1 c1 youre t without elth T alt or hI' a d 11101'e lik ray nun: "'el Yf', t hn n 111 n. A Threat and the Answer. '1IJ.lrnilla Y '('H. (,In t fall,;.ncl cpt. Iran pAr l\ d tll \it lnillc1' to l' 1 llt. th 111 'ar t II \. r I ttl d l' 1 \1 r n (11 b a 1( 1 t h 11 i p '. 111 11 cr t tb e fn illIte'. 1)( ill )f Inil)(1 :1 nIh ly, 11 ill it ony nirnt o 11 (' :omp .'ueld 11 (nc1 (Inl t un pe d remed r 0 thi


Tll1'eat alld the An It 1', 51 s effect he conlmanded tt anoe t brig ed in all haste and the colours of truce to be hangeu ut of it. This can he s nt. to the pani h govern I' of the i lanel with this me sage: That if within a few hour, he deli ered not himself and all his 'nun into his h((11d ,lt did by that 1nes eng&'f S1cear to and all thos e that u;et'e in hi c01npany, he would a l1nost certainly put tlz e'J1l cdl to th e u'ord, uithottt granting quarter to any. After noon the canoe with this an er: Thctt the Gover'Ror desired two h01trs tinw to deliberate with his in a full council a bout that affa i1" 'U'hich being past, he 1,co'llld give positive ilnsu' r to the The time now being elapsed, the said Governor sent two canoes with white colours, two persons, to treat with Capt. but before they landed, they dema1lded of the Pirates two persons as hostages of their security. These were readily granted bv Oapt. l\{organ, who de livered to them two of his cap"tains for a mutual pledge of the security With this the Spaniards pro pounded to Oapt. l\lorgan, that their Governor in a fnil assembly had resolved to deliver up the island, not being provided "it.h sufficient forces to defend it against such an armada or fleet. But withal he desired that Oaptain l\1:organ would be pleased to use a certain stratagem of war, for the better saving of his own credit, and the repu tation of his officers both abroad and at home, which should be as follows: That Oapt. l\lorgan would corne with his troops by night, near the bridge that join e d the lesser island to the great one, and there attack the fort of St. ) Jerome' that at the same time all the ships of his fleet would draw near the castle of Santa Teresa alld attack it by ea. landing in the meanwhile some more troops, near the battery called St. l\fatthe,, that these troops which were newly landed should by this means intercept the Governor by the way, as he ebdeavoured to pass to St. Jerome s fort and t.hen take him prisoner, using the formality, as if they forced him fo deliver the said castle;


52 Pilot mlCl Guide = and that he ,you 1c1 lead the Engli s h into it, under the frautl of being his own troops' t hat on one side and the ther tll 1'e hould be continual fir ing a t one a l but without ull et, or at least into the air s o that no ide DliO'ht receiYe (. 11) harm b: thi Ie ice tha t thus having htaillcd two uch COIL'id rable fort s, the c hi e f of the j Ie 11 n eeel not are f l' the rest, ,,-hi 11 o f necessity mu t fall by course into hi hands. A Mock Surrender. ... e proposition everyone, ,rere g r anted by Capt. upon condition they hould see thelll ,f'aitl oh 'ervcd. for otberY; j e they s h ould b e u e d 'ii h a:t rigou1' i l n::lgillable: thi they p1'olllise d to do and h creupon took th i1' leay, and returnec1 t o g i v e a ccount of their negotiation to the Goyernor. I r es ontl y afte r, Oapt. :Thlorgan C0111111nn leel th0, who l e fleet to ente r the port, and hi lTIell to be in readines to assault tha t ni ght the castle of St. J r01l1e. Thus the fal e ah nll or batVe began Tith i11-c e : ::lut firing of great gun fro m b oth the ca tles again t the ,hip, but without bull e t s, as T n a id before. Then the irat s I an led and as ault d by night the 1 s er i.-land, whieh they took, as al 0 po ession of both the fortI' s.'e,. for ing all t b p an i arc1s, i n app arance, to fly to th church. efore thi a sault, C, pt. l\Iorgan had s nt Tienda de an J AI co tado de I n I g l e ia del n o mbre (I \ cI)ida ft., N 133 HI. lose rAnge1 P rop. Ell 1', II' I t nl,l l'I' illli l' lltll n 'dl'ni('III1'II-1" \"1'/111111:1110 1':ljll 1,1 1111111'1' tI(' 1 11111'\ () 1'1111'il' t :l1iCl. C'IlI'olltl:ll': i 1 JIl'lhlito 1111 ""ltlpll'llI Y 1 ,1. I III 111'1 idCl .II '1\ l'l'I'S, \ illll \ I il'IlI" ( '"II ('1' \ ':1 (:aJlI'I:t!', 1" '1'1'111111' LIIZ:I, ('I'i 1:i1I'ria, ( 1 ., I 'll', "San Jose" Store. Adjace nt the Church of the same name. l Iayill r 1'1'1'1 'l1t1\ n:tol'k ('11 my 'Ion', I I\(m oit"'I' to ti ll' jluhlic (,'(lmpl h ;11111 .1,11'1 t :h.'ortllll'llt o f Pro bJO)1s. \\" :11111 Liq HOI' , ( 'amll'l! j 'is"ltit::-. n l:lss"

A Jock w')'(]}ul}'. 53 ---c-------c=-word to the Y rno1' he 'ho nld keep all hi ill,,l1 t geth r in a bo] T, oth rwi e if til irate III t any tr' o 'glil)(J paniard in the tr t, th y hould c rtninly hoot them. The i la111 beillg tak n 1y this unusual stratagem, and all thine)" put in due order, the beg' n to lllake a 1l W v,rar agRin8t the poultry, C:1ttle and all ... ort of victual tlley cO'u1d find. This ,vas th i1' whole mupl y for .0111e de ys, ar e thinking of auything e1 e than to kill those anilllais roa t nel cat an 1 lTh:'tke good ch er, a'" much a they could I os ibly attain unto. If ,rood was We Dting, they I res ntly fell upon tho houses, allcl pulling thell1 lown, made fires ,yith the timb er, as had been done before in the field. The next day they nunlberecl all the prisoners they had taken upon the whole island, which ,yero found to be in all four hundred and fifty pel' ons, between men, wonleu and children, viz., one hunch ed and ninety soldiers belonging to the garrison; forty inhabitants who were nlarried; forty-three children; thirty-fonr sla.ves belonging to the King, with eight children; eight banditti; thirty-nine negroes belonging to private with twent} -seven felllale and thirty-four children. The Pirates disarmed all the Spaniards, and sent them out imIllBc1iate]y to the plantations, to seek for provisions, leaving the \\ omen in the church, there to exercise their devotions. Fortifications of St. Catheril1e. 8001 after they took a roriew of the wbo]e islanC1. and all the f rtresses belonging thereunto, \\'hicb they found to he nine in all, as follows: the fort of St. tJ orOlne, nearest to the bridge, had eight great gun of 12, 6 and 8 pound carriage together ,yith six pipes of llluskets, every pipe containing ten muskets. Here they found still s ixt y llluskets, with quantity of powder and all other sorts of amlllunition. The second fortress, called St. had three guns, of pound carriage The third andchief among all the rest, nalDed Santa had byenty


54 Eilot and Guide. OTeat (lUI): of 1 .1:2. ( aud ) POlllll c:l rriHcT(, with ten pip s of t lik0 th p we ll:)f Ol'f and ninety I nu. k S l'l'lIWillillg bp;icle. all other ,ya rlik e a mmunition '1 hi' a. tl ,nl IHI iI with t Oile and llHntn 1', with very thi(k walL (Ill all ,'ielc: n lid a Jar a cl i t c h :lrounc1 about it of tWr\f1ty fo t d('l th, ",hidl altho u gh jL w a s dry was yery h I'd til ge (1\'Pl'. He}'(' WitS 11 ell tl'Y hut through one door ,,hich to tho l10liddle O[ the castle. 'Vithi ll jt W : l ; 1l10llllt, or hill, al1n! t illnccrs sible, with fout' pic 'P. f)f CilllllOIl at tJ1r t.(lP, ",h )11('0 t be' could shoot directl illtn the p()rt. )1) thl" : e t side tlli.' (,t.'tle was im p rehllablC'; u,' l'C'a:OIl of till' rock .. ,yhic h nrr o unded it and t h ea bea ti llg flu iou: Iy 11 po Il th In. III I i k e m a nner, on the ide of thp I'-llld. it WH.' (,(lll1llodiou'l y .eated on a moulltaill that tlH'1 Wfl.' 110 to i t b ut b y a path of t h r 0 01' four ()ot hroad. fOllrth w a s named t. Augu,till ba\'ing throe gllll, ()f t'l H l lcl p o und car riagr. lh."l fifth) ll

55 all the v nue f tho e part. He a k 1 them if th e y would b hi guide, and Jl W h1111 th e cnre t way and passages to Panama-which, if they per onne d he promi .. e d them equ I share in all they should pilh.l o e and rob ill that e.:pedition ani that aft r"\, ards he would et them a.t liberty, by transIorting th m to J alnaica. The proposi tions please d the banditti very well, and they readily ac cepted hi proffer' proluisiocr to serve him ver y faithfully in all he hould desire, especially one of these thre who was the greatest rogue, thief and as assin among them, and who hau deserved for his crin1es rather to be broken alive upon the "he 1 than punished with serving in a gar rison. This wicked fellow had a great ascendancy over the other t,,o balJditti, and could dOlni1leer and command over them as he pleased, they not daring to refuse obedience to his orders. Hereupon Capt. l\forgan commanded four ships and one boat to be equipped and provided with all things necessary, to go and take the castle of Ohagre seated upon a river of that name. Neither would he go himself with his whole fleet, fearing leRs the Spaniards should be jealous of his farther designs upon Panalna. In these vessels he caused to embark four hundred men, who went to put in execution the orders of their chief commander Capt. while he himself remained behind in Island of St. Catharine, with the rest of the fleet, expecting to hear the success of their anTIs. The Cas t l e of Chagre (San Lorenzo). Capt. sending these four ships and a boat to the river of Chagre, chose for -Vice-Admiral thereof a certain person named Capt. Brodely. This man had been a long time in those quarters, and committed many IO b beries upon the Spaniards T hen took the I Ie of St. Catharine. He, being therefore T ell acquainted with those coasts, was thought a fit person for this exploit, his


100" .. .. .7l country cene in the .Panama :J;2plJblic. .:IIml!nUJlt 4: ..h'cW.f ::I#ge"9l.f..:Adw.rtiling.!8UNlDU .,7I.1Jli1l1/(OWdk/. ...... ............... .... ".l.l.l ...................... _.: ... ..... ,a" 1' .. \of 01 OJ


57 c a tion likewi' ht \'iner 1 hin1 fc 1110U am no' tll Firat and th ir nomic lpaniar 1... l, p. rod 1 boi 11 0' 11 en hi f mnlan r of the e force in thrc day ,ft r h 1 I' l' (11 f1' 111 the f a1 tai Jl 1\f 1'0[1.11. a1'1'iYe 1 witb in .j erht of th f hn O'r whi h b th n Ii h i aIled t. Lawr ncc. (1) Thi cn tl i uilt uI) Jl a hi h m o untain, a the en r of the lirer and urr un 1 c1 on (11 i 1 s ,,,itl tr ng puli a ]e or w 0 len "all b ina Y f) ,rell t rrepleinec1, and fill c1 ,,,,,ith earth. 'which ronder thenl, ecnre a the 1 e t wall. Ina 1 o'f tOll r bri k. The top of tlli lnonntaill i in a manner diyidcc1 jilt hro part . bebyeen \\'hich lie c: l1itch: of the c1 pth of thirty foot. TIl ca tie it elf has Lut one entr.' and that b' a drawbri 10' e ,yhich pa s s over the dit h a forenleutlol1ed. n the Jclnd ide it la. four ba tion. that on the ea cOlltalllillO' only two InOr(l. Tb<. t part thereof that look to,Yarc1 the outh i totally illacc e sible ani impos ible to be clinlbed. throll h the infinite a perity of the lllountain. The north ide j surrounded by the river ,,-hlCh hereabout runs yery broad. A t the foot of the aid castle or rather mountain, i eatecl a strong fort, with eight great gun ,yhich cOlllmall] and impede the entry of the ri,-er. ::N ot much low r are to be seen two other batterie whereof each hath ix piece of cannon, to defend likewi the mouth of the aid riYer. At one side of the castlo are built two great stor -hou 'es, in ,, hich are depo ited all orL of ,,'arlike anllllunition, and lllerchandize, which are brouO'ht thither froIll the inner parts of the coulltr). the e hon:l,)' i a hio'h pair of stairs, hewn out of the rock, which seryes to mount to the top of th ca tIe. Ou the ,Ye:t sid e of the :aid fortress lies a nlan port \\-hich not aboye 8yen or eio'ht fatholllS leep, being ye1'Y fit for ulall yeo e1' and of yer T good anchora o e. Be ide' this there lies before the ca tle, at the entry of (1) Engli rendition of the pani h an Lorenzo.


58 Pilot {(wl Guill the river a grc t l' ck; earce to be perceived above water, unl at 10\ tide. Attack on the Castle. o sooner had the paniards perceived the Pirate to C0111e than they b egan to fire incessantly at them Witil th biogest of their guns. They came to an anchor in a mall port, at th distance of a league mol' or less from he ca tle. The lllorning very early they went 011 h re and Inar hed through the wood to attack the castle n the t side. This Inarch continued until two o'clock in the aft rnoon. b fore they could reach the ca tIe, by reason f the difficultie of the way, and it mire and dirt. And althouo h th ir gnid.. erveu thelll xactIy, notwithstanding they c llle .0 near the castle at fir t that they lost nlany their men with the shot r0111 the auns they being in an open I lace where nothing could cov e r nor defend them. Thi much perpIe -ed the Pirates in their minds, they not knowing what to do, nor ,yhat cour;-e to take, for on that .. ic1 of nece ity they nlust 11lake the and being uneoy red fr nl head to foot, they could not advan ce one ter without great danger. Besid s that the castle both f r it situation and strength, cans e 1 thelll nluch t fear the ucce s f their enterprize. But to give it oyer they t red 110t Ie t they 'houlcl b r pro, checl and corned by th'ir ompanioJls. Doomed by a Burning Arrow. t 1 :t, aft '1' 111a11 r douht: anel (i It ic' 1110ll' tll 111.' Iy tIl, Iv '<1 to hazard tIl a ( ult anI their li\'"('.' f1 r a Ino. t <1 .'p rate lllan1l01'. Thu: th r d f "nd a th IlL Iv "l} hl'i .. kl, ('f 11 t to firc at tIlm}) wi h t.Il ir gr at ''lUI: and lUll k i t (' ntilluall)' '}' iuC)' withal: Yom on, Y


Pil t and dtid. 59 faorica ue 8aules A VLL\.POR Guillermo Leblanc HIJO) ea ere, 16 55. p Di pone de 1Jlaquinarias para todct clase de trabajos en 1naclera. Se jCtb1"ican catres . 1nesas, latado sillas, etc., etc. lG(HCIA fUNfRARIA. Entre las f alles B v 14 De te, PANAMA. GUILLERMO LEBLANC, Chijo.) ENTIERRO CO:\IPLETO A PRECIOS ELEGANTES CARROZA DE PRIMERA, SEGUNDA y TERCERA. ATAlJDE A:\1ERICAXO, ALE:\IANES, E Y DEL P AI Stt"Picio Diarno y Nodarno. Panama T Manufactory. W turn out at our factory all cIa. of )york in wood, trunk, cot, tabl wa h tand" t ., etc. We hay .. 'omplet quipment of machine for thi purpo e operated y TEAM: PO\VER. It will pay you to get pri e. from u before inve ting in r eady made article of thi kind. Guillermo La blanc, (SON.) 55 6.W.16tft-St-r-ed. PANAMA. Undertaking O)IPLETE SERVICE FOR FGXERAL AT 1foDERATE PRICES. HEARSES of the FIR T, SECOND AND THIRD CLA A1-IERICAN, GER}IlU-l, FRENCH and PAXA1.IANIAN COFFLT AND CA KET DAY AND NIGHT SERVICE. GUILLERMO LEBLANC, (son.) B etween B St. and W. 14th. PANAMA.


60 Pilot (mcl Guide. EurlU.'ll dog", en mie.' t Goel ((urI OUT liing; l et your CO'H1,]J((nion' that ((re behind come on too; ye shall not go to 1>((1l((m a tid' bout. .1 fter the irates had made some trial t lilnl up tIl ,,,all th y ,,-ere forced t retreat, which thoy c orclillgiy did, 1'0. tiIlg thon1 clyes until night. This h in (J' 0111. hoy r turned to the as unIt: to try if by the h IIp of their fixe-balls th y could oyerCOtne and pull down he pal bef r 1 the wall. Tl is they attell1pted to do, and wll11 they w I' about it there har poned a very remarkable a ident. ,,-hi 'h gaye then1 the opport unity of the yictol'Y' Olle of the in tes T as ,,,olluded ,,-ith an arrow in hi5 oark, which pierced hi body to th other ide. This iD-tantly he pulled out with great yalour at the side of :9.i8 orca. t, then taking a little cotton that b e had about hin1 he woun 1. it ahout th said (1'1'O\\', and putting it into his 111U ket, shot it into the castle But the cotton b e ing killlled by tho p 0,\"(1 er, inned two or thre hOll es that -1'c ,, ithin th eastie, being thatched with palm 1 'ayes to take fire; which the p erceiYed not so oon "Tas 11e o:::ary or this fire ll1eeting with a parcel of po,,, 1 1', hI w it up, ana thereby cau eel great ruin, and 110 Ie' COl1ste 'nation to the panit rc1s, were not able to a' 'ount for thi accident not baving s en th beginning here f. Brave Resistance by Defenders. 'J'hu.' th) l)il'aie nor oivino' the '0 cl ff ct of th J.. L' arrow and ih henil1llillg of th lni fortun e of th 1I'luiar 1 '(Il'l infillitely g'ltuld"llotl thor (t. J..\1lc1 ,, hile tIl r 'wnrc 1>tl.' i 1<1 ill (' tinglli hillg th fil'(\ ,yhich au. ed QTcat 1 11-fl: iOIl ill tlH' "holo Cel-'il: htlvinO' ])ot ufhciell Ta.t r ",II }('with:d ( do iti the] il'nt .. 111ndo H,) )f thi' opr 01'-1tlllily sottillg finl Iik t tho pali'aclc., hu the fire wa... 11 at the ,';UllC time ill .. \ )1'<11 p(l't (bout th (':1 -/1(1: wltidl ,O';\Y, thenl huo < tlnultag < gain t th I 'pallial' 1 Jlor Ill'lIly hreaehe' \\' l' llHl( at 11' by th


.. B}'((I'C R('.i.t((lI(,(' by nr7r)'s. 61 fir am nO' th [IT at 11 aps f arth fallinrr clown into the dit h. 11 11 th e the irnt s lilnhec1 np, and o t Y r into the <-,-U ,notwith 'tnllc1inO' that 01ll ipanianl' ",h 01' not bn i;) I bout the fir, a t c1 wn upon th 01 In, ny fian1ino lot full of cOlubn, tibl 11lattcr and dion In 11 whi h lled the 10: f 111al1Y of the Engli'l1. The pamarc1 ; notwith tanc1illO' the breat resistance they IDe de, could not hinder the palisades fro111 being en tirely burnt b efore Inidnight ]\[e' nwhile the Pirat s ceas d not to pel'si t in their intention of i <: king th astl. To which effect, although the fire was great, they ,yould creep upon the groun I, a.. nigh unto it a they could and shoot amid t the fiallle aO'ain t the ipallial'ds they could per-eive on the oth r ide and tL.u c u eel many to fall dead from the "alls. ,Vhen d ay was COlTIe, they observe d all the moyable earth that lay between the pales to be fallen into the ditch in huge quantity. So that no'Y those within the castle did ill a Inall11er lie equally expo 'ed to them without, a had b ee n on the contrary before. "Thereupon the Pirates continued hootinO' very furiously again t theIll, and killed great nUlllber s of Rpaniarcls. For the Governor had given thelll orders not to retire from tho e po sts which corresponded to the heaps of earth fallen iuto the ditch and caused the artillery to be transported to the breaches. Castle Surrenders-Heavy Losses. N otwithst :lndiug: the fire within the castle still con tinued, and now the Pirates frolll ,yithout u. e d what Illeans they could to hinder its progress, by shooting inc antly against it. One party of the pjrat 'was elTIployec1 only to this purpo e, an I another to ,ya.tch all the Illotions of the 1paniards, an 1 take aU oPI ortunities against then). About noon the Engli. h happened to gain a breach ,yhich the Governor hilllsel lefenc1 d with twel1ty-fiye oldier Here was performed a very courageous ani warlike 1'e-


62 Pilo t Clnd Gu i d e i tan e >: th p, nia1' ,both with Inuskets pikes stones (. nd ,, orc1. -r t notwith tanding, through all the e arms th Pirat. for eel Iou ht their till at la t they 0'( in c1 the a Ie. The paniard who ren1alnecl alive cast them h-e 0,\,\,11 fr 1n the ca tle into the sea rath l' to lie I r il itated by th ir own selves (few or none uryiying the fall) than a k any quarter for their liyes. The ove1'nor hin1 elf r treat d to the corps du garde before which wer pI,tced two piece of cannon. Here he intended till to d e fend im elf. n ither would he denland any qu rt r. ut at la' t be wa killed with a mu ket shot, which pierce 1 hi. kull into the brain. The ycrnor being dead, a d the corps dn ga1'ile urre nder d they fund till remaining in it alive to the nUll) er thirty In ), wher of scarce ten were not wound ed. The e In nned the Pirate that eight or nine of their oldier had d rted their col urs, and were gone to Panalna to 'rry new of their arrival and iln asi n. These thir y m e n alone 'Y re r maining of three hundred and urt Ll, wherewith the ca tIe W' garrisoned am ng which n un r not one officer wa found a1iye. They were all lnad pri oner and compelled to tell "h tever they knew th iI" 1 .. ign an 1 ent rpri es. Among other thing they l e L rcd that the Yel'110r of Panalna had n tice nt him 11'ee week <. IT roln Cart gena ho\\ that the Enolish w r qui P P i 11 IT a fl eta t Hip ani 0 1 cl with de i an to 0 m e (nel take th 'aid ity f P nal a. 1\1 r OY 1', th(. t thi 11 IiI' int e n i o n h 1 be 11 kn wn by apr OD who had run aWe froll tIl irat at tIl 1'i,' r la acha ,,her 11 pr vi 1 cl h e ir fire witl orn. T1utt, 111 11 this 11 ". th .. aiel (1 V I'll )1' 11a 1 .. }) 11 hundr 1 ixt -four III '1\ 1( ,t1' 1100t11 n th ( arri n f hat L U, tog th r \'i h 11l11 ] l' "i .. i 11 and w( rlik (1111 ani i 11; h r linar O [ 1'1'1 1 w11 rr f lid ()n] T Oll j' o on hU]11r d and fifty III n. I tIla in' 11 th n (1 tll IHlIUb l' af r 1l11l1ti n d r tIll I hllJ ell' 1 Hill f nrt 11 111 11 < II vel' w 11 < 1'1 n d. J i 1 : t hit h T 11 all 1 H l' lOY 1'n r


C((sll(' ,'/fJ'J'('/1(7('}'s.-IJ, ({I'.I/ Ln..r'R. 63 = Pablo JQeJ\ottf Sucesor oe Ia anligua coso Menolll H nos. Plaza de Santa Ana, PA N A M A LllirO ill1portador dl'l afamHcIo (JI]Jf'r rWit Whiskey. Impol'ta<'illll <1irl'da (1(' m jOl'!':4 man"l: (1(' Til1o:-\ y ('Oll,'p)', ell' FrmH'ia. Italia. EHpnfi:l, nia y E tad s '-nido PRECIOS SIN COMPETENCIA, Pablo JQeJ\ottf SUGBESSOR TO MENOTTI BROTHERS. No.17 Central Ave. Pananu PLAZA SANTA. ANA. I import (11 n'ct an i 11<' hl'mul. of ''\D1H'cl x oels of Fran!'!'. ,'pain, Germany and the Lllit('(1 ,'t, te' .. NO ONE CAN COMPETE with MY PRICES. of Panan1a had placed seyera l an1buscades all along the river of Ohaare, and that he waitec1 for their COIning, in the op n fields of Panama, wit.h three t11ousanc1 six hun dred men. The taking of thi castle of Ohagre cost. the Pirat s excessively dear, in Olllpnl'isOll to the slnall l)umbers they u "ed to lose at other time aud places. Yea, thejr toil and labour here far exceec1ed 'what they s ustained at the conquest of the Isle of St. Oatharine and its adjacent. For coming to nUluber the ir lllell they founu that they had lost above one hun ch'ed, besides those that were whos e number seventy They com Inallcled the 8 paniarc1s that were prisoners to cast all the dead bodies of their 0,,'11 IneD down '0111 the top of the lTIountain to the seasic1 and a fterwards to bury them. Such as were wounded 'were carried to the church belong ing to the castle, of which they Inad e a hospital, and where also they shut up the women. Morgan Starts for San Lorenzo. Capt. n relnained not lon g bIDe h ehi nd at the Isle of St. Catharine. after taking the cas tle of Chagre of which he had notice pre 8ntly sent h1m. Yet notwith- standing;. before he departed thence, he caused to be eUJbarked all the that could be found, together great quantities of malze or Indian wheat, .and


64 Pilot and Guide 8 a a ,,,her of jn like Inanner is ll1ade bread In those I ar s. H Ol1llllan I d likewis great store of prOVl IOns hould be transl orte 1 to the galTi on of the aforesa id a tIe of ha O're froln 'what parts oeyer they could be aot. At n, art a in place 011 the they ca t into the a all the crun. beIonginO' ther to, with a de ign to return and 1 ave that 1 land well garrisoned, for the perpetual po e jon of Pirates. N twithstanding, he ordered all the hOlL e and fort to be et on fire, excepting onl y the castle f St. T err. ( which be judged to he the strongest and curest wher in to sec Ire h1111 If at his return from Pan Ulna. He carried ",jth hil11 all the pri oners of the i land an I thu s t ail for the river of Chagre, where he arrived in the p ace of eight days. Her the joy of the ,, h Ie fie t ,yas so great ,,,hen they spied the English oloul's upon tIl en tle that they n1inded not their ,yay int the riYer which oce sioned them to lose four of their hip at the entry thereof, that whrf>in Capt. Morgan "relit bein (J' one 0 the four. Yet their fortune wa so good a t b abI to aye all th Inell and goods that were in the ai I ve sel Yea the likewisc had been pre erved jf a trong northerly Tinc1 had not risen ou that occa iOll, wllich ca t the hips upon the rock above mentione d that lie t the entry of the 'aiel river. apt. Iorgan 'sas br ught into the ca tIe with great ( lan1ation 0' triu]J)ph and joy of aU th Pirate b th tho thnt ,y 1'e within and <-1, thenl that were newly Ine. avino uncleI'. to I th whole tran a tion of the nqn c t he comlnan led all the I ri on l' to to ,t, (He r pair "hat wa 1 1 e ar, e p cially in e tting up l1' P < Ii 'nel". r pal rounI ab u ih fort d 1cnc1-i ll g Oil th e ('n. U. TIl r w 1'0 ill tIl 111 ) p ;tlli. h y ',' I s ralh'l h cflatten whi h .., l'V for ill 11"111. P Irtati( II or nl l'chmHliz 111 an 1 1 nrn til aid I i \ r, a : cd.. for ing to '>ort II '1111 I II In11 lll, r In un rd "jtll tw gl' all l f o u r ) 11. 1 11 all 11' f )J' a


65 ,-.--,--.... -=----=---==-==-=-====-=----,...."....,..--'il dOll, t()(T 11,-1' with foul' Ii tle .. hip.' th \ r f OHn' l tll('1'( nIl th) (';111 e:. III th e 'n I the' h,f a. ()'ul'ri: ]) of ( fir I hlll1dr '<1 III 'I), and jll til hip withill ell riy't' J1( hundred atHl fif y 111 reo h iIlC) clon. Jnp ill rO'an 1 part cl t \"ar 1 PalwlllH. at tit 11 'ad o f 011, thou, HIl(l tw hU1l11' II ]11 n. '(uTi j d YC'r' ,Ill, 11 pl')* yj i]) "'ith him, beillO' in g)od hope.' h 11 nIl I royid< him, If llfflciently am llg the k 1pnlll;u'cL \'h 1n h I nrw t 1 j in all1 bu (ale (I,t 0' -ral place b tho 'Yc\ Pirates S e t Forth for Old Panama. npt. [oro-an ,e t forth frolH tIl a tle of hac)'re. toward.: Pnllulllu, the 1 th day of JalluDl'Y ill the ,'ERr 1 6 -1. H had under his conduct oue thou and two hUI1-dred lnen, five boats with Rrtillery, and thirty-byo anoe .:. all of ,,-hich were filled ",jth the said l)eople. Thu h e teerec1 hi' conl' e up the rirer toward That clay the Tailed onI: six and came to a I lac e called De los Here a part of his 111en went on shore only to leep some fe,,,, hours and str teh their lin1b.: being aln10st crippled 'with lying too ornch cro,yc1ec1 in tho boats. After they had rested a,, hile, they went to soe if any victuals could be found in the lloighbourin' llantations. But they could find 11011e, the I paniard eing tied anel carrying "'ith tbenl all the proyi ion s the Lad. This day being the first of their journey, there 'wns amongst thenl such scarcity

66 Pilot and Guide. y lUDd. Hereupon they left SOlne companies, being in all ne hundred and ixty men, on board the boats to defend them, with intent they might serve for a place of refuge, in case of neces ity. The next nlorning, being the third day of their j urney th y all wont ashore excepting those abovemention d who were to keep the boats. To these Capt. Morgan gav Ycry trict orders, under grca t penalties, that no man, upon any pret xt whatsoever, should dare to leave the oat and go a hore. This he did, feariIlg lest they should be urpri ed alld. cut off by an ambuscade of Spaniards, that might chance to lie thereabouts ill the ueighbourillg woo 1 which appeareu so thick as to seeln almost illlI enetrabl :\. Having thi Inorning begun their Inarch they found the way s dirty and irksome, that Capt. 1forgan thought it more convenient to tran port SOI11e of the Inell in canoes (thollO'h it coulll not he dOlle without great labour) to a pt ce 'arthel' up the river called Cedro Bueno. Thus they l' -lll1hal'ked, and the canoes returned f r the rest that were left behind. 10 thut about night they found the 111-srI es alt gcthcr at th 'aid pIa c. The Pirates were ext1' Hl ly de ir us to lJlCet any Spaniards 01' Indians, hOI inato fill th i1' b Hie with wh:tt provi iOll they hould take f1' 111 thOlll. :E'or now th y were rcuucecl ahno't to the very xtrClnity of hungor. Jl the fourth day, the greate t I art of the Pirate lnc tt' hod by lanel, being led by ne of the ouiclcs. The r t went uy watrr, farth r up with tho cunoef;, being COll

I -Cathedral :Po/"k, City. 0/ .Panamo . .:7sIAmla" .:IInerican 41 R:Ii .AE!ws .:JiIgeJfCJl4' dfdl'6r/)s'"fI .:JII .fJ,en/(owsk i


68 Pilot ([J/{7 Ollid h 'g",lll to ('1'," nlon 1 h ( pfll'ceiYcd an :unbu cadC'. Hi YO;C lll.' 111fillitc\ ji). to all Pit'< tco', l,,' pCl':nhcii])O' thClll" }yes they s]lOul( find :omc prOY].' IO))S w11 rc"\\'ith to 'atiat \ tb 11n))o' r, whi 'h W:l Y ry great. irates Feast on Leather Bags. :>8111 c Inc to the pli: CC, they found nobody in it, the I pnnianl who ,y 1'e th 1'e not long before being eyery 11 fi c1 flnc1 I a ring nothing behind unless it ,rere a luaU IHllllbcr of leather bags, all empty, (ncl a few crumb' of br ad cattcrcd upon the ground where they had eaten. eing angry at this misfortune they pulled ct.nYJ1 a few littlc hut "\rhich the paniard had nUl-dc, and afterward fell to eating the leather baa a beillg desirous to affor 1 hlething to th fennent of their stolnachs which 110,\"1' was gr wn .. 0 harp that it c1 icl goa,,' their yery bowel, ha,ing nothing 81..'e to prey upon. they 111ac1e a hug banquet upon those baas of leather, which doubtless had been 11101'e grat ful unto them, if clivel' quarrel had not risen COI1-cerniocr ",yho hould ha\T the greatest sh3.1'e. By the circu1nferen e of the place, they conjectured fiye hundred pal iards, 11101'e or Ie ,had been tIl And these fiJl<.lillg no yictuaL the were 110"r infinitely desirou t lneet, intendin to devour S0111e of theln rather than p 'i h. hom they would el'tainly on that oc a ion bay 1'0 t c1 or boil d to atisfy their fanlin : had they be n a bl t take thenl. After th y had feD'ted th 111 lye. with tho e pic of 1 a her they quitt d the place and 111(.,1' he 1 farth l' OD. till th y 'rU11 about night to another p t called T rna J. fUI1111. er IH\y found all tIl r 'a 1 but a. barr 11 :lllcl d o'er a: the fOrIner. Th ,r ar hed th n j 'hbourillt; wood:, but uid not find th I a t thin' t ( t the I 'p:\IlJanl.' hayjllg b (Ill ,0 p vid n a 11 ,0 le(lv b hin 1 111('111 ;lllywhel' \ h ](\H, 't 'l'lLlnb of 'u t nan (' w11 r by th Pira1 .' 'H r )}O\ br u(rilt t) h e"\.tl' lllit af r 111 nti 11 d


Pirat R ((::Jt on L atll l' Bag . --_e-+-_e --FC> N' C> G-:Fl..A.FC> S, 69 :Et..EV::I:ST.A.S Y "LA POSTAL" ..... e ---I SELL: Phonographs and Records, Pretty Picture Postal Cards, Fine Havana Cigars, Handsomely Illustrated Periodicals and Reviews. The Best PlOce in Panama lor these Goons. No. 19t Central Avenue. Here again he was happy, that had reserved since noon any small piece of leather whereof to l11ake his sup per, drinking after it a good draught of water for his great est comfort. SOlle persons, who were never out of their mothers' kitchens may a.sk how these Pirates could eat, swallow and digest those pieces of leather, so bard and dry. To whom I only answer: That could they once ex periment what hunger, or rather famine, is, they would certainly find the lnanner by their own necessity, as the Pirates did. E'or these first took the leather, and sliced it in pieces. The n did they beat it between two stones, and rub it, often dipping it in the water of the river, to render it by this lueallS supple and tender. Lastly, they scraped off the hair, a.nd roasted or broiled it upon the fire. And beillg thus cooked they cut it into small morsels, and ate it, helping it down with frequent gulps of water, which by good fortune they had near at hand.


70 Pilot and Guide, Food Continues Scarce. They contiuued their march the fifth day, and about noon came to a place called Barbacoa (1). Here likewise th y found traces of another ambuscade, but the place totally as unprovided as the two preceding were. At a small distance were to be seen several plantations, which they searched very narrowly, but could not find allY person, animal or other thing that was capable of relieving their extreme and ravenous hunger. Finally, baving ranged up and down and searched a long time, they found a certain grotto which seemed to be but lately hewn out of a rock, in which they found two sacks of meal, wheat and like thing with two great jars of wine, and certain fruits called Platanos (2). Capt. Morgan knowing that some of hi men were now, througb bunger, reduced almost to tbe extremity of tbeir lives, and fearing lest the major part should be brought into the same condition, caused all that was found to be distributed amongst them wbo were in greatest necessity. Having refreshed themselves with these victuals, they began to march anew with greater courage than ever. Such as could not go well for weakness were put in the canoes, and those cOlnmanded to land that were in thenl before. Thus they prosecuted their journey till late at night, at which time they came to a plantation where they t ok UI their r st. But without eating anything at all for the Spanin-rd as before, had swept away all manner of pro vi. ions, not leaving behind them the least sign o vi tuals. n the ixth day they continued their march, part of th In by ] nd through the woods and part by water in the ano e wbeit they were constrained to rest themselves To day known as Barbacoa near wh 1'e the P. R. R. Chagr .'. (2). I l aut in s, n of th chi f product of the I thmu


Fo cl oHlin/(' f'arc, 71 very frequ ntl h th w} 11 f r th ru g n th l' ,nd the extr III "( kue th y w l' und r. thi they ende voured to c ur y eatincr Inc 1 aves of tr and green herbs, or grc su h a: they uld pick f r u h wa the lui rabl c nditi n th y were ill. Thi day at noon they arrived at a plantati n T h re the} found a barn full of nlaize. In1111 liat ly th y beat do\yn the oor and fell to eating of it dryas much as th y could d ,our. Afterward they di tributed great 4uantity, giving to every man a good all wance thereof. Traces of Indian Ambuscade s. Being thu provided the} prosecuted their journey which having continued for' the space of an hour or there abo u t they met ,yith an of Indians. This th ey no sooner had discovered th8) threw away their maize with the sudden they conceived of finding all things in abundance. But after all thi haste, they found themsel ves much deceived they mupbn 0' neither Indians, nor victuals nor an} thing else of what they had imagined. They saw notwith tanding on the other side of the river a troop of a hundred Indians more or less who all escaped away through thp agility of thE'ir feet. Some few Pirates there were "ho leapt into the river the sooner to reach the shore to re if they could take any of the said Indians prisoners. But all was in vain for being lnuch THE PIl.JOT AND GUIDE e -Will Be Published Annually . The 1909 Edition w ill appear i n D ecember, 1908. F-u.11 of Facts a.:n.c1. Fig-u.res. S Pl10114 L Ir E.l'UlB KS FOR ALL DETAILS ASK B 'IENKOWSKI.


Pilot and G-llide. I ====-:====== I 72 mor nimble on their feet than the Pirates, they easily baffled their endeavours. Neither did they only baffle them but killed also two or three of the Pirates with their arrows, shonting at thenl at a distance and crying: Haj perl'OS, a la savana a la savana. Haj ye dOg8, go to the plain, go to the plai1{ This day they could advance no farther, by reason they were necessitated to pass the river hereabout.s to continue their Inarch on the other side. Hereupon they took up their repose for that night. Howbeit their sleep was not heavy nor profound, for great murmurings were heard that night in the camp, many complaining of Oapt. and his conduct in that enterprize, and being desirous to return home. On the contrary, others "ouJd rather die there than go back one step from what they had undertaken. But othel's "ho had greater courage than any of these two parties did laugh and joke at all their discourses. In the nl e anwhile they had a guide who much comforted them, sayillg: It would not be long before 1 hey 1net with people, 'U they should Teap considerable ad-vuutage. Arrive at Cruces. The eV8nth day, in the morning they all made clpan th ir ann and every Gne discharged his pistol or lllusket, without bulle t to examine the security of their firelocks. Thi bing doue, they passed to the other side of the riv r in the ca.noes, leaving the post where they had rested the night b fore, called Santa Oruz. Thus they procep(] d n their journ y till noon, at which time they arrived at ( vi II ge aIled Oruz (1). Being at a great dist nce a y t f1' III th place th y perceived llluch smoke to arise out f th chilnn y ( I ) w all ,I ruer s, head f navi"atiOll on th Chagreo fur I p a l t i \l o n n d for Pallama.


'Iarda ..;Ana :J'ark..-Ilmerican Oxchange lIolel in tbe tJackgrotmd-fAmama, :1Im"riNU',J 'fJ:R.1l $gonctj & ddVl1rll4(1/g.JJurJau dI .JJiat/kowJki :.-._------_._-----------_. 1'-1 I W


Pi70t (l/ul G /{irle, 'Ihc ,irrht bereof afforded them O'ren,t joy and hopes of finding peoplo in J.he town: an d after"ard 'what they 110 .... t dt:..,ir d. 'which ,\ n. plenty of good cheer, Thus they w nt on ,Ylth a Inuch ha. t a they cOlllc1 making se-reral arrrl.llnents to on n. l10ther npon tho 8 extern al ign though all 111\:0 castle uuilt in the air, Fo}' . ai d the -, there is I 'Jlloke oJninq ()1[f of eL'eJ'lj hall el therefoTe they are nl 070'17 [I (/0 'Jd /f I'e '>. to 1'0(( S t Ct n cl bo illCh Cl t lce are to ea t, "Tith othol' thing;-to thi"' pnrpo e. At Ienoth they n.lri,ed there III grea t haste all "on tin IT and but found no person jn the town, nor llything tlwt wa"' to refre h theln-L e..:. 1 n!o:'"' it -ere aood fire' to warm then) elyes ,,-hieh l they "\n ntcd not. For 1pa niarc1s befor8 th e ir departure. 11 cl cyery (1I1C :et fire to his 0 Y11 h Oll e excepting only the st roll u c:' rnc1 sblble. belonging to the KinO'. Tll y h:1d not left Lehinc1 them any bea t ,, -hat oe,er, ither aliye ell' dead. This oc a lone d lunch onf usioll ill their l11ind they nut findi ng the least thin IT to lay hold unles it ,yerc Olne fc,,n t. an d dog , which they inJluectiatel killed Hnd d"tOllrec1 VI'ith great apI etite . At IHst in tho J"ring',-stable they fOlln I 1 good f rtunc fifteen or si.-teen jai'.' of eru ,, -in. alld a 1 ather ,i.l I'ull of hro< d. But no sooner hRd they egull to lrink of thc ai(l ,yill) "\"hen the," fell ...,ick. alma. t every 111[111. 11(l<1cn d i, a:--trr nUld thelll that the "ino ras }>ni. Oiled. \\"hih can 'c d a ne,Y 'on t rnation ill the "\ 'hrd callI, ( -\ judging thenl ch... JIOW to be jrre Oy(ll'al)l.-l.-t. nut t1. truc 1'0:'1 OIl ,Yas. their huo want f t( 11111 ., ill Ilat \\'hole y( y

75 The Star e c pany Has the Largest and Best Equipped Plant on the Isthmus for D OING ALL KINDS OF JOE "V'V"ORK. Letter Heads, Bill Heads, Receipt Blanks, Stock Certificates, CirOpen Letters. Snipes, Hand Biffs, Posters, Placard', Visit ing and Business Cards, Wedding and Reception Invitations, Obitua-ry Announcements, Etc .. Etc., Printed Neatly and Expeditiously. Chagre twenty-six palli ... h leagues 1) and eight froin Panama. 101'eo\'e1', thi i'" the la:t place t whi h boats or canoe can corne' for ,,,hich reasoll they uuilt here stOl' -houses wherein to k eep a ll ort: f lllerchaudize, 'hich hence to and from Panama arc trn1kporte 1 upon the back of mules. Here, therefore, apt. :JIorgan ,,-as constrained to lea\e hi canoe and l anel all hi 111e11 though never 50 weak in their bodie. But lest thp canoes should be surpl ized or take up too nlan. 11101\ for defence he resolved to send thelll a ll back to the place ,yhpre the boats were excepting one, "'hich he can to be hiduen, to the intent it rnight serye to carry intelligence according to the exigence of affair. ::\Ianv of the 'paniarc1s and Indians belonging to this yilbge ,yere Hcd to the plantations thereabouts. Hereupon Capt. gaye express orders that none cahould dare to go (lut of the \illage, except in "'hole companies of a hundred together. The occasion hereof was his fear lest the enen1ies should tnk? an acl\'antage upon hi men by any sudden as ault. Not-withstanding, one party of English soldier stickled not to C'ontruYene these comn1ands being t C lllpted with the de ire of fi nd i ng victuals. But these were soon glad to fly ill to the to wn (1) Evidently refer to di tance from mouth of liver.


Pilot alld Guide. n ,lin GInO' a anIted ,yith great fury by some Spaniards ,l1d n lian .. wh natchec1 IIp one of the Pirates, and arriec1 11in1 a,,-ay 1 ri oner. Thus the yigilance and rare f apt. rgan not snffi ient to prevent etery a cident that 111 i o 'ht h( ppen. Resistance Offered by Indians. On the ei O'hth day, in the l110rning Oa pte l\lorgall ent two hundred lllon be' 1'e the body of his army to li s cov th ,,a -to PanaDIa and see if they had laid allY (Ill u .. cael. th r in. e pecially con ideri n 0' that the places by ""iyhih they ""iyere to pa "were yery fit for that purpose, the path beillg 0 narrow that onl ten or twelre per on could nutl'll ill a fi1 and oftentiln not so ulany. Having In r he 1 about tLI") pa e of ten hours they calne t a pL cc nlled Que r, da b 'cura Here all Oll the suc1d n three or I' our thou and arrows ,, -ere shot at thOll), ""iyithont bcillO' able to percei-re whence they came, or w11 'hot thelll. he place ,,-hence it ""i-ras pre umed they wrre shot "as a high 1'0 k' 1l10ul1tail1 excavated fro111 one ide to the other, wherein ""in n. (frotto that went throu h it, only apaule of ac1mittiJ)O' ne hol' e, or other bea t lad ed. This 111ulti uc1e a1T ""iYS U ed a huge alarm .1l1lOllg th e >irate p cinlly e an e they could Dot eli '-. y r the place wh nee they ,,"ere di cbaro'ed. ... Ll. t 01 J) 0' no 11101'C <: ITO,," to all ear )):11' -he d H farthcr 1\(1 nt l'ed into a w 1. the', T ])( }'(pj\"( \ d SOll1e Inclinll.' t) fl r n.' fa. t H th ]>()s. ihl./ })t for' tht'))) to tn]-tll} f anoth r po't. till 1 til Jl b:cl'Y tIl 1 march of the Pil'at 'Ih l' 1 (lllliljll d n on tro p of ncliall upon th p 1 t<' (, W j ill r nil d .... j g 1) t 0 fi () 11 tan d h f c II (1 t h c: III l\' ... Chi' Illllat i h }w)"fol'ln tl "jtll 11u HI'nO'. till n h f i III a 111 j r ;a}l t n ill f t t Ii \ QTO U 11 1 "1111 1 d w h ;1 thOllf,.jl h "i, nnw in I spail' lii' Y hi ,a1 nr 1 'ing "l'rnt l' flwl1 hi. "trcngtll. 11hl 1 mand 11 quarter,


otlc}' d 7)// !Jlflu(JI . . 7 7 but. nc1eay urin him elf. ,,,ith undaunted lllind L ic1 h ld j( velin aDd truck at ne f the irat. u t r u i d 'c ond th 11 "", he wa b t t d (tb ,, i t h n. I i 1. T hi ,y(' aI the fat f Ulan of hi 1 n l (. n i n who li k e (Y od and urao e u oldier 10 t the i r live ,,jth their captain the d f nce of th ir countr' A la Savana, Perros Inglese s Th8 Pira t e endea ,oured, a 111uch a po ible. to lay hoI 1 on o n le of the nelian and take thClll pri ( lle r But th r beiua' infinit I y ,yifte r than the Pirates, every on e e c a p e d l eayino eight Pirate dead upon the place and ten wound e d. Y ea had t he I ndian been more d x trous in lnilit a r y affai rs they might ha,e defended that pa age and not-1 tone o ] e luan to pn.. "Vjthiu a little while after they ca m e to a larO'e caillpaio' n (champaign) field open a nd full o f va riegatec1 l lleado,Ys Froin here they could p e rc e iYe a t a di t ance b efore th8111 a parcel of Indians ,,ho sto o d 011 t o p of a mountain very near the "ay by "hich the Pira t es were t o pa. They sent a troop of fifty m e n the nilu b l e t they cou lcl pick out. to ee if they could catc h any of the I n, and afterward force them to declare whereab o uts their companions had their mansions. But a ll their indus try wa in vain, for they escaped throll h their ni m bl e ness, and presently afterwards sho,,-ec1 e l ves i n another place h allo.oing to the English anc1 cry i])g: i t Z a SCl1.YlJUl A l a sarana cornud08, 1) t4ros Ingle s es; that is, T o the plain, to the plain, ye cuck. olds} y e English d o gs. Vhi l e the e things pa ed, the ten Pirates that ,, -ere ",youndecl a l ittle before ",yere dressed and plastered up. At this pl a ce there was a wooel anel on each side thereof a. mountain. The Indian s had inlmec1iate]y possessed themselves of one and the P i rates took posse ion of the other that ,,-as 01 pos i t e t o i t. Capt. l\ Iorgan ""as per uaded


78 Pilul (mel Guide. = VE .No. 14, FRONT STREET, COLON. Ladies' and Gel1.ts' FU1:-nish.ings. and Household Goods. Glass"rare, Crockery,\vare and Enamelvvare. "Vater Filters and Cooler$. Carpenters' Tools. Paints and Varnisl'les. Coffil1. Trimmings, Etc., Etc., Etc. that in the wood the Sl)aniard had placed an as lying so conveniently for that purpose Hereupon he s0nt before two hundred ln e n to 'e arch it. Th Spaniards RIlU Indians perceiving the Pirate to de cen d the InOUIldiel so t0o, as if the' de'ignecl t aHa k thenl. But being got into the wood ont o f i O'ht of the Pirate. they disappear (1, and ,yere ell no 11101' ,leayin g the pa Rage opeu to thein. About night there fell a gre.at rain, which caus d the Pirat, to Inurch th e f(.L tel' and seek ev rywh 1'e for hue.' wh r in to pre.' 1', their arms froln bing w t. ut the Jlldinl1: had et fire to Y l' r n th rabout alld tlHl1 port 1 aU t ll'ir a tl t 1'en10t pIa e to the end thnt the pirate' s finding ncith r bou 8 11 r vi tuaI n1i ht IJP )1\ 'trained to r'turn 11 In We rd twith. tc lleling aft l' diligt: Ilt Sl"\Hl'ch t11 'Y found n, few littl hut belon<;-illg t .. h ph e!' Ie Ill! ill tit Ul n thing t at. Tit I h illg cupabl [It l lllallY III II ill Y pll d in


ut f er r y mpnny a lllall flH'l b el" who kept th arm.' f all the rc.'t of th e r ho'o ,\'ho l'cnw,iJI <1 in tho op n fi 11 ndur c1 lnn c h h< I'd -hip that lli g ht: the rHIll. nut cea illg to fall uutil th 11lorllIllg. The End of t h e March. . The n e xt p10rning brc.ak :of .heing thcf lliuth of thi t edio u jOlu11ey, Cnpt. contlnued his Inarch \"bile th e .fr e h a i r thE.. 11lOl'ning lasted. For the cloud then hangiug a s yet oyer their head.> ,yere much more favourabl e to th en l t h an the scorc;hing rays of the sun by rea on the wa y w as DOW lllore difficult and labor. iOllS than all th e pre c ec1i])g. After two hours' Inarch they discovered a troop of a b o u t t wenty 'Spaniards, who oh-; served the Illotions of th e Pirates. They ll.deavoured to. catch some of bu t could lay h ILl Oll none, they suddenly disappearing, a nd absc o ndin)' thenlselves in caves among the rocks tot a lly un known to the Pirates. At last they c anle to a high mountain, which, wh81{ they ascended, they discove red fron1 the top thereof the : South Sea. This happy sight, as if it were the ellcl of their labours, caused infini te j O) n-mong all the Pirat s Renee they could des c r y also ODe ship and six boat", ,yhich were set forth fr:01l1 P a nalll a a n d saj l ed to,yards the island . of Tovago :tnd Tovagill a ( T a b uga and Tu,boguilla). Having descended this mountain, the y c ame -to a ,ale (the Sabanas' of the present day), in which t hey found great quantity of ; cattle, whereof the y killed good tore Here ,, 'hi1e some : were employed in killing a ud flayi ng of cows. horses, Lulls I and chiefly asses, of whic h th ere was a yery large others busied themsely e s in kin dling of fires and gefting wood wherewith to roa s t th em. Thus cutting the flesh of these animals into cOllv eni ent p ie ces, or gobbets, they threw them into the fire, and half carLonac1oed or ron,steel, they devoured them with incrediblo h as t e an d appe ti te For such was their hunger that they more res embl e d ... cannibalSi j ..


II _ L Jsf/t mill n -.:;tfm.,.,cGlt'" ,Ai..,s .7IJ'enc.,V -I-Jldv('rf,sing.$ursou .::7l.Jj/enkDw.sk i OJ o ""j -. -... -+-:,"") ::::: -. C":>


Til 81 L' than Eurol ean at thi ban u t th bl d many tilDe 1'unnin d wn f1' In their bear 1 to the middle of th ir bodi Ha in atifi u their hunger "ith these d Ii iou meat' Oal t. :ThIorgan ordered them to continue the march. Here auin he sent before the main body fifty men, with intent to take some prisoners, jf pos ibly they could. For he seemed now to be lnuch concerned that in nine day' ii he could not meet one person who luight inform him of the condition and forces of the Spani4irds. About e\ening they discovered a troop of two hundred paniards lllore or less, who hallooed to the Pirates, but the e could not understand what they said. A little while after they came the first tilne within sight of the highest steeple of Panama. This steeple they no sooner had dis covered than they began to show signs of extreme joy, casting up their hats into the air, lraping for mirth, and shouting even just as if they had already obtained the victory and entire accomplishment of their designs. All the trumpets were sounded and every drum beaten, in token of this uni,ersal acclamation and huge alacrity of their minds. Thus they pitched their camp for that night with general contellt of the whole army, waiting with impatience for the morning, at which time they intended to attaek the city This e, ening there appeared fifty horses, who came out of the city, hearing the noise of the drums and trulupet of the Pirates, to observe, as it was thought, their motions. They came within musket-shot of the army, being preceded by a trumpet that sounded marvellously well. Those on horseback hallooed aloud to the Pirates and threatened them, aying: Perros! nos veremos: that is, Ye dogs! shall1neet yeo Having made this menace, they returned into the city, excepting only seven or eight horsemen "Tho remained hovering thereabout to watch what motions the Pirates made.


82 Pilot and Guiel Imulediately after the city began to fire and ceased not to lla ,,-itb tbeir biggest guns a ll ni ght long against the camI: but with little or no harm to the Pirates, whom they could 11 t con eniontly reach. About this time also the t 0 hundred fl)aniards whom the Pirat es had een in the afternoon a1.= I eare 1 llc-ain within ig h t, m a king 1'e-emblance a if they would block up the pa a ges to the intent no Pirate nlight escape the hands of t h e ir forces . ut the Pirate : ,,-ho were now in a manner besieged in teac1 of '0 cei '" ing any fear of their blocka d e s as soon the' had placed sentnes about their camp b e g a n el'ery ne to open their satchels and without any preparation of napkin or plate. fell to eating verJ heart i l y the remaining piece of bull an 1 horses' flesh which they had reserved 'inc noon. Thi beillo done they l aid them el ve s down to leer UpOll the grass with great reI ose and huge satisfac tion expecting only with Impatience t h e daw ning o f the liext day. Preparations for Attack. On the tenth day betiine in the morning the y put all their Inell in cOlrrenient order. all I with drums and trulllpet ouuding continued their lllar h lirectl y towards the it -. ut Olle of the guides de ired Capt. nlorga n not t take the COlumOli hi ahway that I e 1 thither. fearing Ie t they houll find in it luuch re i tanc and m a n y anlbu-Relojeria, Joyeria, Plateria OPTICA. l3!:LA11:D] 'N C l' O"N OL (L !venida Central, No. 252, PANAMA. Orao urtido de Joya de fod a cia e Articulo do Faota fa, Taller de G r abados en In ml rna ca a Se Cornpooell arlfculo cooceroloote a1 ramo. DEA L E R I N Watches, J e w elry, Silverware, and Optical Goods. Fine Assortment of All C lasse s o f Jewels and Fancy Articles. W e do our own Engrav. ing. Repairs t v Watches Etc., G iven Prompt and Careful Attenti on. NO. 262 CENTRAL. AVENUE.

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PI' Y)((J'uti Il' fo}' Alta k. 83 ades. He preselltl y took his a Ivice anI ho e another "ay that w nt thl' ugh th W od although very irksome and liffiult. Thu the I aniard.. per eiviDg the Pirate had taken an ther W' y, hich they car e had thought on or belieyed 'were mpelled to lea e their tops and bat terie and COlne out to meet them. The Governor f Panama put his f rces in order consi ting of two quad rons, four regilnent of foot, and a huge Huml er of wild bulls -hich were driven by a great number of Indians, with S0111e negroo and other8 to help them. The Pirates, being now upon their march, came to the top of a little hill, whence they had a large prospect of the city and campaign (champaign) country underneath. Here they discovered the forces of the people of Panama, extended in battle array and when they perceived theul to be so numerou they were uddenly surprized with great fear, much doubting the fortune of the day. Yea, few or none there were but wished themselves at home, or at least free from the obligation of that 'engagement, wherein thijY per ceived their lives must be so narrowly concerned. Having been orne time at a stand, in a wavering condition of they at last reflected upon the straits they had brought theluselves into, and that now they ought of necessity either to fight resolutely or die, for no quarter could be expected from an enemy aga inst whom they had cOlnmitted so luany cruelties 011 all occasions. Hereupon they encouraged one' another, and resolved either to con quer, or spend the yery last drop of blood in their bodies. Afterwards they divided themselves into three battalions, or troop sending before theIU one or two hundred buccaneers, which SOl t of people are illfinitely dextrous at shooting with gUllS. Thus the Pirates left the hill and descended marching directly towards the Spaniards, who were posted in a spacious field, waiting for their coming. As soon as they drew near them the Spaniards. began to shout, and cry, Viva el Rey God save the' King! and ilnmediateiy their horse began to move against

PAGE 101

84 Pilot and Guide. = the Pirate But the fie l d being f ull of quags and very s it un leI' foot: they cou l d not p l y to and fro and wheel about, as they desired. The two hundred buccaneers who went before everyone putting one kne e to the ground, gave thenl a full volley of shot, w h erewith the battle was in tautly kindl e d yery hot. Wild Bul l s Used in Battle. The Spaniards defended t h emse lves very courageously acting all they could possib l y perform, to disorder the Pirates. The ir foot, in li ke manner, endeavoured to secoud the horse but were constrained b y the Pirates to separate froln them. Thus find i n g the ms e lves frustrated of their designs, they attempted t o d r i ve the bulls against thelU at the ir backs, and by this lneans put them into disorder, but the greatest part of t h e wild cattle ran away, being iri htened with the no i e o f the battle, and some few tha t broke through the Engli s h cOlnpanies did no other hann than to tear the co l o u r s in pie c e s whereas the buccan ers shooti ng them dead l eft not one to trouble them thereabou ts. The having n ow enntinued for the spar.e of two hours, at the end thereof the g reatest part of the pani h hor wa ruined and a lluost all killed. The re t fie 1 awa T, which being per ceive d b y the foot, and that they ould not pos ib l y p revail, the y dis charged the shot they had in tbeir rou kets, and throwing them on the gr und h t ok theJ11Sel v s to flig ht, e v eryone" hich "ay he c u1d run. The Pirate ould not po s .. ibly follow them, as 1 ing to luuch harn. eel a n I "eari e d with the long j urn y the y had lately Inad c l\ l a n y of thmu, not beillg < hI t fly whith er th y d ir e d hid th 111 .. e lve for that PI' Ht <1n1 11:' the hrub f t h e a s id e But very unfo}'tull: t \ l y f o r n1o:t of t h enl b in und out by the Pin t \" \\ l' in tantly kill d "\ itll Jut iving quarte r to any. I t 111C l' I i g i U )11 n l' hI' u g h t 1 ri o n e r s b e f o r apt.ain

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'eel ill Battl 85. = THE LEADERS OF LOW PRlCES. M. KAPLAN & Co. Gor.8th 81. and RUB. B. PANAMA._ THE ONLY AMERICAN DEPARTMENT STORE ON THE ISTHMUS. Morgan, but he being deaf to their cries and lalnentations,. cOl1llnanded them all to be iunnediately pistoled 'hich was immediately done. Soon after they brought a capt:'l in to his pl;e. ence,: wholn he examined very strictly about s8yeral things, particularly wherein con isted the forces of tho. e of Panan1a. To which he ctl1S" ered: Their 'hole strength did consist in foul' hundred horse, twenty-four C0111pallies of foot eaeh being of one hundred men conlpletc, sixty Indians and Ollle negroes, who "ere to driv e two thou 'and ,, ild Lulls and cau e them to run over the Engli h camp, and tll1.ls. by breaki.ng their les put thcln into a total disorder and confusion. He discoyerec1 1110re that in the city they had Inade trenches and raised batteries in seYel'al place, jn "hieh they had placed mnny Ul1S, that at the ntry of the highway which led to the city they had built a fort, "hich was mounted with great guns o hras and defended by fifty n1eu.

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86 PUo t an d Guide. --Capta.in MOlgan baving beard tbi inforrnatiop, gave orders instantly they should march way. But before setting forth, he made a review of all his men wheroof he found both killed and wounded a considerable nUDlber. and much greater than had been believed. Of the Spaniards were found six hundred dead upon the place, besides the ,vounJed a.nd prisoners. The Pirates were nothing discouraged, seeing their nlllnber so lnuch dimin ished, but rather filled with grp,ater pride than beforE', perceiving what huge advantage they had obtained against their enemies. Thus having rested themselyes S0111e while, they to Inarch courageously towards the city, plighting their oaths to one another in genera.l they would fight till never a man was left alive. With this courage they recommenced their march, either to conquer or be conquered, carryiTlg with them all the prisoners. They found much difficulty in their approach to the city. For within the town the Spaniards had placed nlany great gnns, at several quarters thereof, SOlne of which were charged with small pieces of iron, and others with musket-bullets. \Vith all these they saluted the Pirate' at their drawing nigh to the place, and gave them full and frequent broadsides, fi-ring at them incessilntly. 'Vhence it caBle to pass that unavoidably they lost, at every step they advanced great numbers (J Inen. But Le tber the e Inanifest dangers to their lives, nor tie sight of so many of their own Inell dropping down continually at their side:, ould deter thelTI froln advancing farther and gaining gr und every 11l0lnent ulon the enelny. Thus alth ugh the Spaniards never cea ed to fire and act the be t they ould for th ir defenc yet n twith:tanding they wer e forced to de1iv r the city after the spa' of three 11 ur' olnha!. The irat having 11 W P e eel th 111 lves ther of, kill e d an 1 d troy d a luany a (tt lnI t I to lllu:k the ] a. ppo ition a( ail). t th m. Th hud cau ed th be. f th lr go d t b tran p rtf I to -lnore remote

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Trild Bull. ,'d ill Ratfl,. 87 and ul pIc yet ev ral w( r h II merclv'ndiz a w II ( f con ider bl yalu. wb th y f un ithin tIl i ty a' W 11 'ked ith all rt f 1 t h 1 inn. Il d tIl r th in s n a th first fur} of their entrance int the cit) was 0, r pt. l\I rgan Inbled all hi III n at a cert in plac whi h he jgued an I there c 1l11nanded them und('r ,ery O'reat penaltie that none of them hould dare to drink r ta . to any wine. The reason he gaye for this injunction wa ; be au e he had re eived privat intelli gence that it h <1 b n (II pois(Jl1ed by the paniards. Howbeit it wa the opinil)l1 of ID311Y that he ga,e these prudent order to prevent the debauchery of his people, which he foresaw would be very great at the beginning after so much hunger u tained by the way feariJ1g ,,ithal lest the Spaniard. eeing them in wine should rally their force and fall upon the city and use them as inhumanly as they had u ed th inhabitant before. Morga n Sets Fire to the City. Capt. l\forgal1, as oon a he haa placed guard at several quarter where he thought llecessary both within and without the city of Panama immediately comluanded twenty-five men to seize a great boat, which had stuck in the port for want of water at a low tide, so that he could not put out to The same da T about nOOD, he ca.used certain Jn811 priyately to set fire to severa.l great edifices of the citYi nobody knowing whence the fire pro ceeded nor who wet' the Ruthor thereof Inu h less ,,-hat motives persuaded apt. l\Iorgan thereto hich are aH yet unknown to thi day. The fire increa ed so fa t that oJ hefore night the greatest part of the city was in flame. Capt. endeavoured to make the public believe the paniard had been the cause thereof, which su picions be alnong his own people perceiving they jl npon him for that action. ]\IailY of the Spaniards, as also ---------. --. ---

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88 Pilot anel Guide. IDe of the Pirates u ed all the Inean possible either to xtingui h the fianle, or by blowillg up houses "\, ith gun po" der, and pulling d wn others, to stop its progress. But all wa ill yuin for in les than half au hour it consulDecl a whole treet. The Wealth of O l d Panama. All the houses of thi cit y were built with cedar, being of very curious and lllugnificent structure, and richly adorned withi 11 esppcia lly wjth haJlgings and pal Iltings whereof part was already transpodeJ out of the Pirates' 'way, and another great part was consulned by the VOl acity of the fire. There belonged to this city (which is also the head of a h shopric), e i ght 1110nasteries, whereof seven were for IDen and one for WOluen, two stat \ ] y churches and one hospital. The (' hurclles and 111011n ,yere all richly adorned ",yith a ltar-pi cos and p2l.intings, and hug q ll[1ntity of gold and iIver,' ith ot h er precious things all of which the ecclesia tics had hidc1 11 and concealed. Be ides the a hove ornalne nts h ere were to be seen two thousand houses of magnificent and prodigio'l Luildj ng bei])' all or the greate t part inha.bited by 111erchants f that country "ho are vastly rich. For th re t of the inhabitant. of 1 ser quality and trad luen this ity con-tained five thou (nd house more. Here ,, 'ere a 1 a gr at nUlnb r of table which clTe d for the horse an 1 Inules that nrl'y all the pI lte celon (ri I1g as \\' c 11 t th l(i J)h )f I 'pc ill n: t }l'i\'at 11) 11 toward the ><1 -t of tIl orth rrIle 11 iO'hh ul'ing fi IcL h 10110'inO' t thi it r :11' all 'ulti\'f> t d with f rtile plantati 11, and pI fl. c. Ilt '1' 1 11., ,\ hich c ff rcl d Ii i u pro pc ,t t the illhdbit:1Jlt th ,,11 )1) ar lOll IT, ( J h (1 J} (). all 1 111 n ( r 11 i fi 11' h had in thi. it) 0 nll
PAGE 106

The 89 t th v 1'y 0'1' undo id s which ile of bu ihli 11 (T. ther re con umed to the numb r f b hundr d l'ehou e and a gr at number of laves, ho ha hid tIl Ins lye therein t0 5ether with an infinite nUlltitude of ('k of nleal. The fire of all the hous and bnildincr wa seen to cOlltinue fonr ,,-eek after th day it began. 'Ill Pirates in the Ineanwhile, at lea t th greRtest part of theIn, ( mp d some time without the city, fearing find expecting tb t the paniards would come and fight thelll (new. For it waR known that they had an incomparable lltllnber of ]ne11 1110re than the Pirate hatl. This occa. ioned them to keep the field thereby to preserve their f)1' 'C'R unite 1, which now" ere very rnnch dimini hed by the losses of the preceding battles, as also because they had a great nUlllY wound d, all of which they had put into one of the churches "hich alone remained tanding, the rest being con lllned by the fire. l\Ioreover, be ides these decreases of their ]nell Oapt. 1Iorgan had sent a convoy of on hundred and fifty men to the Oastle of Ohagre to carry the news of his victory obtained against Panalna. They saw many times whole troops of Spaniards cruize to and fro in the campaign (champaign) fields which O"lve thmn occasion to suspect their rallyi ng anew. Yet they never had the COlI rage to attenlpt anything against the Pirates. In the afternoon of this fatal clay Oaptain G ran Hotel Milan. CIvenida Central Nos. 2lB-2BO PANAMA. Dep3rtamentos Amueblados y Bi n V ntiJado para Familia; Explendidos Bafios; A i. tencia E merada; Gran a16n para omedor; La Uniea ea a n Panama que haee 1a yerdad ra Cocina rtaliauu France ayE pauola. PRECIOS MODICOS. GIUSEPPE CAPOZUCCHI, Prop. Gran Hotel Milanl Nos. 2lB-2BO, CeI)tral CIvenue. PANAMA. Furni hed Rooms Well Ventilated for Fami1i s Fine Baths pial er-yic ; Spa iou Dining Room. PRICES MODERATE. GIUSEPPE CAPOZUCCHI, Prop.

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90 Pilot wul G lIille. l\IorO'an re-cnterec1 again the city "ith hi8 troops, to the intent that eyery one 11light take up his lodgings, which now they could hardly find, very few houses ha,ing e ape 1 the de olation of the fire. Soon after they fell to c king rcry carefully anlong the ruins an d ashes for uten II of 11ate or gold which peradventure "ere not quite wasteel by the flames A n<1 of suc h things they found no small nUlllbel' ill soveral places, especially in w e lls and. ci terns "There the Spaniards had hi<.l thOln from the covetous search of the Pirates. The next day Capt. ]\Iorgnll despatched away byo troops of Pirates, of 011e hundred antl fifty men each, being all Y
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. --(Panama CiW./r.Jm the Sivoli r/'lote/, .:Pacific Ocean i n d ista,z.:c .. 5stltmlD15 -..:Amt!. ri&an 1fJ:? R.R .A'ews ':;;!llIncy ./f.:Adv2r/i,stn g .:ilurcuu .::If 'Bler. k:>wskl ------_ --.---------------------------------------------'

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92 Pilot and Guide. AI 0 TSEUNG CHAN. J:r.c.l.po:rts:r of G The strength of this galleon was nothing considerable as having only seven guns and ten or twelve muskets for its whole defence, being on the other side very ill-providod of victuals and other necessaries, with great want of fre h wat f, and having no more sails than the upp rmost sails of the lnain mast. This description of the sai 1 hip, the irates rec ived from c rtain persons "ho had sp ken "ith ven mariner belollging to the galleon, at such ti me a thry caIne re in the cock-boc t t btke ill fI sh \ a t r. Hen e th y concluded for c rtain th y mi 'ht a ily ha h k e n the saiu ve. sel had they gi n hor ch e an I 1 ur 1 1 h r, as th y ought to ha, c aOlle, e prcially 11-. icl 1'inO" th said allr 11 could not 1 ng ub i t < t .. a. ut th y \Y 1'8 imp de 1 f1' In followina this v( tly rich lriz hy Iutt ny (' nd ]ruJl} ell]) ; ha, inO" pI n ifully 1 1 a n h a th 111.' 1 0 with 8 Tal .,ort f ri h wi no they f 1111<1 th r l' ad to th i1' hand '1 that th 'y h l'itth r t a iat ih i1' :11 P tit wit.h th thing aboy'l-

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93 ----=.---=.=::..:;;m::= m -'uti Il d. th:ln t lay h ld on th CH i 11 f u h a huge nd,-anblOP. nlthouah thi Ie prize 'W uld c .rtainJy have b n of far gr atel' yalue and c ns luence t theln than all th y e llrt'd at Panamn Hnd ther lla e th r about The next day. r(lpentino of their llecrligen e, and b iog totally weari d of the vices aJld debauch ries afore-id they set forth to ea another boa t well anned1 to pur ue with nll speed imaginabl the :lid O'fllleon. But their pr ellt car and diligence was ill vain the I aniards who wer Oll bard the aid hip huyilla rcceived intelli gence of the dn nger they were in ne or two before while the Pirates were ruizing so Ilcar them, whereupon they tied to places more remote and unkllown to their nelllle . Take Prizes at Taboga .... otwith tallding 1 the Pirat found ill the ports of the i of Tavoga and Tarogilla (Taboga and Tabo guiJIa. sereral boats that "ere with IDany sorts of yer) g od lnerchandize all of wh:ch they took and brought to where being al'ri\-ed, they Inade an exact re lation of all that had passed while they were abroHd to Capt. l\Iorgall. The prisoners confinned whHt the Pirates had said, adding thereto that they undoubtedly kne\\ whereauouts tho aid galleon In ight be at that present1 but that it was yery probable they had been r lieyed before 110W fro In other places. The e relatione;; stirred up Ca pt. :\Iorgall anew to send forth all the boats that were ill the port of Panalna, with design to seek and pursue the said galleon till they could find her. The boats a.foresaid, being ill all four, set ail frolll Panama and having spent eight days in c111izing to and fro and searching several ports alid creeks, they lost all their hopes of finding what they so earnestly sought for.

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r ..9abogo Villa!1e, 9Obo.9a.Qs/and, :PclJoma..5i3ag. .ll.'ll.AZW.< .'11 .!3Jen!tow.r./lI eo '., I I ((). I' I I -. _______________________________ -..-____ ---J

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95 _:t: _______ Heren}) n th y r(' olvp.d to rrturn to th i -Irs of TavoO'a, and Tavorrilla. I-Irre they found n rr< (1)[l hly good hip that WR newly com"l fro III l)ayta, (P'l'U) b inO' I drn wi th I th sonp ug, l' and bi:Clli t find wi t h twenty thou and pieces of eicrht in ready 1110 npy This v el they instantly eizp d, not findil g thp, re istunc e frOln any per.:on "'ithin hrr. ear to the 'aid -hip was a1. a boat, whereof in like Inanner they pos.... ed them selv 1 pon the boat they laded great part of the nlerhandize they had found in the ship, together with some lave they had taken in the said islands. 'Vith this pureha. e they returned to Panalna, sOlnething better sati fied of their voyage, yet withal much discontented they could not Ineet with the galleon. The convoy which Capt. l\forgan bad sent to the ea tIe of Chagre returned much about the Salne time, bringing with thenl very good news. For while Ca.ptain lVforgan was upon his journey to Panalna, tho e he had left j n the castle of Chagre h a d sent forth to sea two boats to exercise piracy. These happened to Ineet with a Spanish ship, which they bega.n to c hase within sight of the castle. This being perceiv e d by the Pirates that were in the castle, they put forth Spani. h colours, thereby to allure and deceive the ship that fled before the boats. Thus the poor Spaniards thinking to find refuge for theol selves under the castle and the gun the reof, hy fl) in g into the port, were caught in a snare and ll1ad e prison ers where they thought to find defence. The cargo which was found on board the said vessel consisted of victuals and provisions that were all eatable things. Nothing could be more opportune than this prize for the castle, whero they bRd begun already to experience great scarcity ot things of this kind. Torture of Prisoners. This good fortune of the garrison of Chagre gave occasion to Capt. to remain longer time than he

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I I I ---=====l __ and G Ili d e 96 --=== had de ennill d at ..... an:l1na. And hereupon he order d yera} 11e\ ex Ul' iOllS to h e Ina 1 e iuto the "'hole Coutltn tI ronntl about the cit '. 1'0 that while the Pirates at Pa.nama wero C1DploJec1 in ih se ex)) ei])O' Lrong-ht into the cit.y, \"ere pres e ntly put to the lllOst exqui'ite torture' imaginaLlc to llIake thelll onfess both other p eo ple'" 0'00<.1' and the ir o ,, n. H ere it happ 'Iled that one poor and luisel':lLlc 'W teh wa foulld ill t1:.l h ouse of a geutlenuul of gr at quality, who had put o n Hlllidst the confusion of things, a pair f taffety breeches belollo'ing to hi Inastcr with a. ] i ttIe silver 1<0' ha l1gi ng at th o tt ing th \reof. '!"'his bei ng 1 erceiyecl by tho Pirate' they inll11edintel.) asked hi111 where \\"n. tho cabinet of the aid k y. Hi 3nSW01' He kilt\\' not what was LeC0111 0 of it but only that finding those Lree h e ill his 1nast house. h e had lllade bold to W Hr thenl. X t being abl to extort any other c nfe", i n out of 11inl th y fir t put him npOll tho 1':1 k herewith th) inlnlll1Hlll y disjointed hie. ann. After thi they twisted ft c )]'<1 about hi for h ea d which they wrull' so, hard that hi cy s appeared a' Lig a' egg and w re r ad) to f
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"-1 IE Tur (Il I'C 1'r i f)JI '1'.'. 97 F ASt--1 .... 11 C )N T(lILOI{ING E Tr\BLI fll1ENT Of Te et: ::1= o .... cc. The Only House in Panama that GUARANTEES Strictly American Styles. Prompt Attention. Correct Fit. Prices Mode ra. te a hich put an elld to his and peri d to their cruel an 1 inl1l11uan tortures. Aft l' thi: exe rn ble Inanner lid ulany other f tho. C lui pri on 1'" hili 11 their lay the 111mOn sport and recreation of tbe .. Pirate being the e and other tragedie not inferior. They ill these their crueltie', no ex or condition ,rhatsoe\ er. 'For as to religious per OilS and pri t. they granted them Jess quarter than to other, unlc s they could produce a considerable lUll of lllolley 'apablc of being a ufficient ransou!. 'V Olnen tbetnselyes \yere no b tter u ed, and Oapt. l\lol'g a n their lead rand 0111-nlanc1er, gate thelll no good example OD thi point. For a soon as any beautiful woman was brought a' a pri oner to his presence, he used all the means he could both f rigour and 11lildness : to bend h \1' to his plea ure, for a confirmation of which as erti on I shall h ero o 'jy my rea.der a short history of a la.dy, 'hose virtue and constancy ought to be tranSlllitted to po terity as a Inemornhl e example of her sex. Morgan and the Constant Lady .4.t\lnong the prisoners that ,reI' brought by the Pirate fr011l the islands of Tavoga and Tasogilla, there was fOllnd a gentlewolna.n of good quality as also no l ess virtue antI hastity who was wife to one of the richest Iller h a llt s in all of those countries. Her J ears were but few a.nd her

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98 Pilot and Guide. .-""===......-::==-c==== ori.,<-uty err at as pe1'adYenture I Inay doubt ,,-hether in nIl }. ur pe one could be found to surpass her perfections eitb l' f cOlllelille s o r h uesty. Her husba,lld at that I l' ellt wa ao eilt from home being gOlle as far a th killgdom of aLout great concerns of COlllmerce and trade, wherein his eJnploylncnts did lie. 1'his virtuous lady, likewi se, hearillg that Pirate were cOIning to a:sault IJHllamu, had absented herself thence in the "'ompany of OtlH'l' friends and relatio1ls th ereby to pre erve her life c :HUld t the danger' which the cruelties and tyn nni s of tho 'e harel-he a rted enenli es did eom t In nace to -'vcry citizell. But no soon r had she appeared in the presence of Oapt. l\lorgan than he c01l1nHlllded they hould lodge her in a, corti. ill aparilnent by givillg h r a 11 gress, or black ,,"O]l1a11 to wait upon her, and that she 'hOll d be trf\ated with all the respect regale clue to her quality. The poor affiicteu lady did beg with llluititude of soLs and tears she nlight Le suffered to lod ere lITIOng the other pri Ollers, h e r r e lations, feari ng Jf\ tho uncxI ect d kindness of tho cOllll11under might p1'v,e to Le a desi Jl upon h er c h astity But C:'tPt. l\lorgan uld b,. 11 IneallS hearken t 11 11' peti tion, a lld all he 'orumHnded, in answer thereto, wa she sh uld be treated with 11101'0 palti ular care than before and have h l' YlCtuals CtllTiecl fr In his own taLle. This lady bad f I'm rly hard ver y tranrre reI 1't on ernlng th iratcH b efor their arl'iYal at Panama intima ing t h 1', a jf th y ere n o t 111e n but, c th y aid h l' ti wh did 11 ith rill\' ke th 1. d 11'illit r Jl r b Ii vo ill II hri t. ut now 8h b('O'an to he1\: l)ctt r tIl 11 (fIlt f them th never bf\f re hurill rr xp 'l'i Jl) 'd th lllHllif lel i, iliti of pt. 1\JO},O'H11 P 1 inlly h ea ring him 11l:l1l'y tiln t war y tll llatH )f ( I, ar'l d J ,'U: .lIn i.. in WhOlll, :11) ,ya pCl"undC'd th y d d not J lll V. j hc1' liJ -11 HOW thillk h 111 to b .. ) \W(1. (lr () h y. h' .. hap': flu t. .. a fr III the 1'In iUlI' r l'V rill pI lpl :h t1 ft'lltiul heard. r

PAGE 116

.J' ryall and tll n t t h 11 ( m ) f }' b b ) r J l' t Iii r .', \y 11 i h W 1 1m 11 I i\' 11 h In J y h r W 11 1 1 1 III t nn1 'll at it I' eino n he 1\ id. that am 110 11 )wti II of tl w Hllir')}':' th e r ,,-rob fund 'om wi 'ked I)1C)) wh o natl1n I] -0 d p o : th cr 01" of others. 110 t tIl peruu i )11 o f thi-' tach -\ rtls th' lpllliOll 0 another lllnD of w e lk 1!11. r tanclillg. at a llama \rho n ell to ,(1\-.. b a fore t h Pi ra te, cc un tIt'tll r . ..:h 1<.\' il'e 1 very lluch a!;d a OT at nri o '"it)' t s oue of th o.2 lllPIl ('all c1 Pirate.' f r luuch 'a: 11e1' hu.':" oallcl ha 1 en t ld h e r tha t the T \\"ere n t 111e n, 1 ike other but rathe r irrati H1a1 1 ea:'t', TlJi i]l" yoman ( la:t bnppene 1 to c the fir t ot th em; alld on aloud . ll,YilJO : J{' 'u. bl. J1lP.' the s e thier'),' are lik ) us Rp({nici}'(l., ..... Thi [ d c i\'ility Capt. \yp.erewith he 11 eel tl i Ltdy \rilS soon elfte r chnuO'ed into Larba}'oLl" : For threo o r four c1ays b e ing pa t, he )lll1e to e e her and tbe yirtllouS ladr repul ed hilll .'with all the ciyilit) and lldll1y "huU1lJI and i119de. t ::(lYpr s ion of bel' ]nind. But Capt. ::\[ofnan .till p e rsi in., hi c1i Ol'c1t'l'l\T r eqne pre. ellti ng h e r : ithal \yith Inn h' pearl, gold antl ull ,tha t h e b<.d got that y,as prcciou-' and ynll1-able ill tha'" y
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100 Pilot and Guide. Here he h;:<1 allowed hrr an extrelllely ,mall quantity of ll1eat and drillk, wherewith she had llluch ado to sustain life for a f{'w days. Under this hardship the constant alld yirtuolls lady ceased llOt to pray daily to God Aln1ighty for constancy find patience against the cruelties of Capt. But he being 110 \' thoroughly of hpr chaste resolu-as alHf > desirous to cOllcenl the cause of htlr COI1-finelnellt and hard usage, since many of the Pirates, his cOlnpaniolls ; did c0111passi01lRtf1 her bid l1Ul.llY false to her charge giyillg to ullder. tand :he held intelligence with the Spaniards nnd corresponded with thenl by leiters thereby his fonner lenity and kindness. 1 111yself was a It eye 'witness to tlwse t.hi ngs hpre related. and could ue,er have judged such constancy of lllind and virtuous chastity to be found in the worlel, if Iny own eyes and e(l1'S had Hot iuformed llle thereof. Rut of this incomparable lady I shnll say sOln(tthing I110re hereafter ill its proper plac0, "h01'enpOn J shall lea YO her at present to continue lll'y history. Preparations for Departtlre. Capt. 11orga.n bating now been at Palltllua. the full spa of three weeks coullnnnded all thing to be put in order fol' hi"' depH rtUl'e. this eff he ga YO on.1 I'S to ever) cOlnpallY of his Inel1 to eek out for 0 nlallY of carriage as Illio"ht suffic.e to convey the wholo 'poil of the 'ity to the l'iv l' where his canoe lay. About tbis time a great rtuuOur "a spread ill th ity of c 11 iJernulc number of Pirates who intended to 1 ve I rgan and that, by taking a hip whi h was in til port, th detennined to 5 and r b HI n the I uth 1 a till they had got a Inn h h S they th u ht fit (. n 1 tll H return h III ward. hy th way f th Eu t nli s illt Ellr p. F r whi h I lll'l ( e, th.y had alt'ead)

PAGE 118

Prc}JaratioJl' for n 'l){IJ'tllJ", 101 -------l}U( ntity I rOYI 1 11 ",hi 11 th y had hi 11 n in I riyc: t pI. ; ",ith uffici nt t re f p wdel', th er. rt of aUllllulliti 11 likewi orne Jreat O'un th t \Yll, luusk t a.nd other thill wh re with they dian 1 110t only to equip the said ve I ut aI, to f rtify them elv alld rai e be tt rie in om i lanel r th l', whih might erye theln f r a plae f refu e. d ioll had eert illly taken effect as th) iute}) l ed: had Il t al t. rO'an had till1 ly c Iviee there f aiyen hiul by Oll f their olllrades Hereulon he in tautly co Ll1lnUll Ie 1 th lnainlllc: st of th said. .. hip should be ut d W11 aDd hUl'lIt; together \yith all the other boats that W 1'e in the port. H reLy, the i I1teJltioll of a 11 or III st of hi companiou were t tall' fru tl'utrd. After this -'aptain ellt f 1'th llUtllY f the paniurds into the adjoin ing fields and countrv to seek for ll1011ey wherewith to t1 VI.?-J 1 i a lll'-Cl f, ... ,iio. 934, 'Xa Hal J to'. DOLORES S. de GUTIERREZ, Propietaria. OFREC SUS SERVICIOS EN EL RAMO DE DULCERIA y PIEZAS DE MATRIMONIO. The Large t Cake and Confectioner} Store ill the City. Fresh Stock of Toothsome Sweets C:>.:staatly on Hand. WEDDING CAKES A SPECIALTY. ALL ORDERS PROM PT A I ENTION. No. 254 Central Avenue, PANAMA. DOLORES S. de GUTIERREZ, Prop.

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1 0 If\) .71 chinese I.!(!.getable garden in t/1e vicinil!J if $."",""", ulmUIM I, P:!l:Jl ./1'_8,,(gancll '" .:AtI".rti.s i"!1 .7)," .. 01.1 .:/I

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PI' n,' for]) prtrilfl' 103 __ ,..,.._ :=-"""'""" __ ""'1::. = __ c=.-.= =-----rans m n t nly ill III (,he Int ai. ail tb r t f he pl'i' n 1", a: lik e ,, j tIl e" 1 -ia' i I th 'ul<: r c:llld r lIar. ?\ l' Y r h e ll1111(ullc(1 all tll artill l'Y the t WJl to b P il d : ih n i .. t Y 1lail ><1 and .. t( pp 'u up. t th sam time h .11 ut a .t1' II '111,I1Y f ill 11 t eek f r th i y enHll' f I ( name f ",h 111 ill-teliiaen e ,, : a br u ght that 11 11a 1 l aid -'y -'rat cade ill the w y y ",hi h htl he 1 t pa .. -' on hi return. ut tho e who were llt ul on thi c1t,. jall r C lurn c d 011 after a J 1 11 a tll e y IH d 11 t f u 11 d a 11 y i 2 11 r (p p ea rail c f u c h alnbu -ade f l' (. ollfirmat i o n ,, her e f the' hI' u o-ht with th In llle pr1 oner. th y had tal-J), ,, ho d 'larc 1 that the aid 0\ rHor had h ad an intelltion of 111: kine,. 111e pposition by the WR but the t th 11len wholn h e le ign d to effect it were ulnyilling to uIH. l el'take any u h enterprize so tbn t for ,Yant of Ineall h:l could not put hi de ign in ex ec utioll. .' Frisoners Held :or Ransom. n the 24-th o f Febru::tr of the year 1 )71, aptain l\lorgall departe I frolll the city of Panan111, or rathe1' frotn the place wh e r e tIl .. ail l cit of Panama di 1 tUlld' of the spoils whereof he 'arl'i d ,rit11 hiln 11e h l111ured a nd eyenty-fiye hat of arl'iage laden with 11\-C1', gold and other precious thing, uC'"'ic1c. six hut dr ecl 1110re or le ,', between men WOll ell, children UJHl layc . Tha t du) they carne t a l'ircr tIn sc, throug h a deli i o ns canlpaigll (chulllpaign) fie Ill. n t the di t a nce of a 10[1 uue frolll Panama. H ere n pt. pH t all hi t; forces i uto good order of 111artial array in lH h ma Inler that the prl ner in the middle of the can l p surrounded n n11 siues WIth Pirates. At whic h pre CII onjuncture nothing el e was to be heard but lamellt tiOD erie. shriek. and d o le-I ful vf the mallY won1Cll and children ,, b w ere persuaded apt. desjgllec1 to traIl port then1 all alld carry them into hi own country for lay es B e id e that,

PAGE 121

104 rilot (( Jld Guide. <.111101) IT all tho e miserable prisoners was extreme hUllo' rand thir t endured t that titHe, which hardship anI n1i ery ( J apt. 1\lorgan d es ign e dly caused theln to sns ta i with j ntent to exc ite then1 l110re earnestly to seek for Inolley where"'ith to ranson1 themselyes according to the tax he had et npOB eyery one. l\fany of the women begged of Capt. l\forgan upon their knees, with infinite siO'hs and t ears he would permit then1 to return to Panalna, there to live in cOlllpany with th i1' dear hu hUllc1s and chi ldr en, in their little huts of straw whi ch the r would erect, seeing they had no houses until the rebui ldin g of the city. But his answer was: He can1e ]Iot hither to hear lalnentations and cries, but rather to s ck Inoney. Therefore they ought to seek out for that in the fir t place, wherever it were to be had and bring it to bin1, otherw i se he would ass uredly transport th III all to such place ,,hither they cared not to go. 1'he next day when the 11larch b egau those lament able cries and hri k were renev{ed in so much it would hayc caused compassio n in the hardest heart to hear them. But Oapt. a luan little given to Ine r y, \ya not moyed therewith in the least. They marched in the same order as was said before; Olle party of the Pirate s proceeding ill the vau, the pri oners in the Dlicldle, and th e 1'e t of the Pirates i u the rea l'-guard by WhOITI th lui e rabl ipaniard were at eve r,)' step punched and thrll t in their Lak. nnll ide itll the blunt end of their ann to 111ake then1 Inarc h th faster. Morgan Punishes Treachery. b autiful alld yirtu u lady of WhOlll we nlade 111 n i n h e r t f ro l' h r unp arall] d const.ancy and 'h ( tit)' 'W< sId 1 1'1 11 l' OJ' h r If bet 11 two Pirates who guanl d h 1'. H r l aIn .nt, tion n w di I I iere the ,'ki .' inb h r: If (l'l'ie d ,lway lilt f l' i n flptivity, ft II rying t the i1' .. te ,lld te llin thelll: That she had

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I'fl(J1 PUll; lies 7'r('((c71 T!I. 105 giten ord : r to fifO r 7i[liOI(; p }' 'Oll,', in whom "he h({d r li r7, to flO to (( C jtain pl((ce andlett 0 JJluch })Ioney a8 h r r((ll_ 801n did amount to. 11h((f til .'I had Vfomi, cd jllitltfully to do it but hariug obtain )rl th e snid 1)1 Jl .II in.'t ad ()/ brin.qiHfI it to he." the,lf had employed it anotlt >}' /t((Y to T(U1S01n .-om of theil' ()1Cn ((nil pa]'ti c ula}' Thi ill a t.iOll f their \YC\ c1 i e a .' la ,r, who brought a, letter t th .. aid l ady. 1" Inpl iut. and th e c au Let her fbi Il 0' b r no' h t t th en l' 0 f H pt. l\iorgan, ho thou ht tit t ell }lllro th reint. Hayil1O' found the thing to h e true. pr inlly hearing it utiI'm cl by the conf s ion f the said r 1igi u III n, thOl1ah under some friv lous e.-ell 'es f 11a\'il1 liycl'tec1 the 1l10lley hut for a un y or t" o. withi 11 "hi 'h tinle th y expe t d In l sums to repay it, h e gayo libert -t the aid lad). \\'h In otherwise he de igllec1 to trall l ort tt Jalnai a. But 111 the he detained the ')id reliai n Inell a pri oners ill her plaer, 11 'j ng tbenl He or 1 i ng to th de 'ert' of their incompa lonat illtrigne . ..As SOOll a' Capt. :\Iorgan ar1'iyec1 llPon hi Inar h at tho town calle 1 Cruz situat ed 011 the b( llks of the l'I\'e1' Chagre as was lnelltioned before. he command d all order to be published among the pri onel" tho t within tho 'pa of three claJ eyel'Y on of them shou ld brillo in hi rallSOlD, under the penalty afol'el1lE'ntiOl18d of being trans ported to Jamaica. Tjenda d Li 01'f'o Y lIer 'anda. : PI')visiones del Pais: Frllta d e Tod:u; (: la ses: Cal y Caruon d CaHdad SUVt'l'ior. SE YENDEN St S DE PUAMA. Call e 14 Este, N\. s. 290.292.294, Panama, JOSE M. ESTE' E &: Co., Prop. (j{ npraJ bancli e :mc1 Li (ll lOT:": Prodnct.: Hc'adqnartpl':-for Frnit. of all kind' ",Ye l1au(ll(' a periol' quality of Lime and Chanoal. PANAMA HATS AT ALL PRICES. Call and ee rs. JOSE M. ESTEVES & Co., Prop. l. 29 ...... 292-294 E, 14h St.

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106 Pilot (mil Guide. In the he ga,ye order for so muc h erie and Inaize to be colle ted thereabouts as "wa necessary for the victualling of all his ships. At this place some of the pri. ners wer ran 'omed hut luany o.ther 'eoul d llot bring in their moneys in so short a tillle. tlereupori he continue 1 hi voyage 1eaying the 'illage on the 5th day of March next following, and cal'l'yinO' "ith hiln all the poil that eyer he could tran port. From this yillage he likewi se l e d away som e : new pri oners who werc of tbe said place. So that these llew priS01JerS were added to th o e of Pa!lalna who had not a yet paid their ranson1, and all transported. But the t" 0 rcligiou lllell \"ho had div erted the money belon O'ing to the lady, were ransOlne d three days after their ilnprisOlllnent hy other perSOll who had luore cODJpas, sion for their COllc1ition than they had shown for hers. Pirates Searched for V aluables.' -L bout th lllic1dle of tIl vay to the castle ot Chagre, CHPt. l\iorg n COlll111nllded theln to be placed in clue, order :1C rding t their Cll .. tOll) and can eel e",ery one to be worn they had re eryed ]101' conceal d nothii1g : 'Privat ly to thenlselv s eycn not 0 lUllCh a the ,aIue of a ixp nc. b ino clone, Capt. l\Iorgun -havin' h?cl '0111 xperi nce that tho e I wc1 f llow' ","ould not 111uch' .. ti 'kle t ,,'" n1' f( l 1,. jn poi lltS f i nt re t h e cOlulnanded v ry Oil r be rehed yery stri b ot h in th ir clotJle and ,'utC'h 1 and v rywhere it. ll1ight be pr 'urn d the) had r .'rfved [lnythill, en, to th intent this order mi rht Il h ill t c k 11 L, hi 'OlllP'llliol), he permitted him If to arb v n to th v l'y 01 of hi s. To thi ff ot, by c mm n (' n ent th 1'0 wn. a 10'ned n ut f \' 1',' llll [lIlY to be th ar h r t all the r t. ,]h ,thn. ''" lit 11 tlli ext edition i w r ]lot rill .', i fi cl wi h thi I "\ j h

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Pi}'ate,' (()' 7, 'd f v r r{(lll(l7J7c,'. 107 u'tOll) f.' Hl' hillr-' T \ th i1' numh r bing] thfln that f tb h. the .'-w e I' fc r d t :111 mit jt a \\ 11 ( th loth r had 1 011 b f t th m. Th ar 11 b illg y( 1'. th c'r 1'c-cmhnl'k c1 ill th ) ir cnn c nnd hon: ",hi h att nde d th III n th o rir r, and arrire d nt the n tl of hao,!, \ 11 th $)th c1e1 'tIl n i 1 lnollth of :\lar h. H 1", the y f Blld all t11ino .. ill C T c.l nle1', : c pt-in th ,, -onl1cIE 1 111(:11, \\'hOl11 they ]u c.l l e f th r at the tin) f their dC) ]1Hl'tlll' '. 1\n' of the th e OT(\at t 11nmh I' W re d nt!. the \10' h th \Younl they hall 1'e i\ d. Division of Spoils. } 1'0111 'hngl'E'; ( ; npt. :\Iorgan 8nt pre e lltl. aft r hi .. ar!'iy (I a. rY1'el1 b()[1 t to Porto Bello whel'ci 11 W 1'e a 11 the pri. 11 l' h had dt the I 'Ie of t11a1'i])(\, deluandillO' 17 them a C ll,' i 1 )1'ah]o ran ... Olll f r th a tlc of hngr8, wher he then \\' n 'j threate ning 0th erwi e to ruin anI den1 Ii h it CY 11 to tIle gronn(l. To this 111eS nge those of Plrto B 110 111ad an ,, -e1': They would not aive one farthing towanls the r a n 0111 uf th e u aid ca tIe Hnd that th Engli h c10 with it a plea d. This H 1eill0 eonlP. tJ18 d i yideud ,,-a Inad e of all the .'poil they had obtained ill that YOyC1o'e. 'lhu-eyery eOlllpan,Y, and cyery parti uInt' therein jnclud rc1; received their portion of what ra got, or ratller what part Capt.1\Iorgan wa plea eel to o-i\' th em. For 0 it \\' a that the re,'t of his COlnp(t1) iOll ; eye n of hi "'n nation c0111plained of hi proceec1i11rY. ill thi plrticula r and feared 11 t to tell him open!} to his faco tIwt he had re el'ved the best je\rcls f r him elf. ] or they judcred it ible that no gnlater share should belong to th enl than two hundred piece of eight per capito, f 0 111[111)" yaluable bootie.' and rob beries as the,Y had obtain e d. ,Vhich mall tun the-r thought too 1 i ttl r \yr I'd for so n1uch labour and ,such huge and InUllifcst c1nngers as they had 0 often their liye to. But \lpt. l\Io1'gan deaf to all the e r n

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lOB Pilot (furl Gui( 7 e and lnallY other cOlllpl aints of this kind, having designed in his lnind to chea.t thenl of as 111uch ns he could. Morgan Takes French Leave. At. last Oapt. l\10rgan finding hi111sol obnoxious by many obl oquies anel detractions :unong his people. began to fear the consequences thereof and hereupon thinking it unsafe to reInain allY l onger tiln e a Ohagre, h e c()mmallcled the ordllance of the snid cast l e to be carried on board his ship AJtt:'r\\ ,1l'ds he Ctl U ed the greate t part of the wall to be delTIolishcd, an<1 the eel ifices to be bnrnt. and as 111<1ny oth e r thi ngs spoiled a ncl I'ui H eel could COllycui ntly be clone in a short ,,,hile. These orc1 1'S bring pel'fonnec1, ho went sec retly on board hi' own ship, giyina an notice of hi departure to hi' ]}Or callillg all) onllci l as he t do. Thu he et sa il aDd put out to sea not ---....... ---:h'l'st <3lass : aundl'9 }VoI'R. -""{odel'n 0quipments. Pl'onzpt flJespateh. Pl'iees -Afodel'ate. (OLLAHS, rrFFS AND SHUtT Ol It PECIALTY, Cleansing and Pressing Done. o R AT 0 AGE LI ITE Laundry Oalled lor and Delivered Free. OIlice and PiOn! NO. 31 west 161n Sireel, D. 6. MORDECAI Prop.

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.71114:011. sl.em:.'! palm trc4!.5 pkmf4!d 1'!I1I1t? -ar. 01110 .. h'/'mlo n -7Im .. .. ,.,,'g n .r. :i'l.flll ?ff\oy..-y4-.7fd ,..f ,.!IJ.!' A"r,-J'j ."/J: '',}{GlAd : L -t I I I -, -'::::: -. ..... ........ o (()

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110 Pilot and G /lide. bid ling anybody adieu, being only followed oy tllre e or f ur ye els of the whole fleet. These were such (as the rench Pirat s believed) as went shares with Oapt. J\,Iorgan towards the best and greate t part of the spoil w.hich had been concealed froln them in the dividend. The Frenchmen could very willingly have revellged this affront upon Capt. and those that followe<1 him, had th y found then)selves with sufficient lneans to ncounter him at sen. But they were destitute of most things necessary thereto. Yea, they had luuch ado to find sufficient victuals and provisions for their voyage to J anlaica, he ha vi ng left them totally unproyicled of all thing ---.... ...... ---(Wl'ltten by the late Mr. James Stanley Gilbert of Colon, and lJ1lbli 'hed by him in "Panama Patchwork. (( RejJrinted throllgh the kind permission gi en the publisher of this book, by the author, p)' io1' to his dea th. ) His Catholic ty, Philip of Spain, uled o'er the West Coast, the Indies and J\1ain; Hi ships heavy laden with pesos and plate, 'ail do' er the South Sea with tribute of stat 1 rom Lima and Quito his galleys pulled forth r Panama pearl and gold of the North; An 1 cargo of treasure were sent ovorland ,\Vhile hi. oldie!' kep guard from the O'ulf to the h'alld. rom anama Bay to he port" N alne of God L ng fr i ht i.'< in of lay thro the d n, fore t trod' Th 11, om throuO'h tIl trait and om from the luain, inCl )hilil'. 0'001 hir -ught h ir owner again.

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r tll ir 1i\I u h r titl KirlO' hilip ld 1)({J/({Ola. 10'n 1 W l' maintain d' l' tll nLl "elv l-lad Don u t th ir loy -nO' a ili T battl th EnO'li 'h, n 1 ,yin wayan till In many and mortal affray th en UO' d, \.nd ray 1 and fi r el -th truO'O'I th y waO' d, y mali WHy But th m 11 fold D yon----tho e tou h art of oak--A oft n u ce fully pani d each. hoke. 'The Drak and the ilbert, the '1' nvil and LeiO'h. The ----the prop anI the tay. f England fir t gT atne' ----were the h roes of 0] 1 ,Yho help d Britain queen mth the pani h king' g ld. They robbed th arch-robber of ill-gotten gain, And brought England the glOl'y they \\Te ted from pain. Hi galleons they captured, hi trea ure train ...,eized----utfought him abroad and with zeal unappea ed. At home they defeated the Armada' great fleet And laid a world's poil at Elizabeth' feet. Alas, that uch deed hould grow dim with the year Alas, that uch men hould ha e trained bu caneer That from such exarnples ----0 noble, true---A race vf marauder and ruffian grm That friends sueh as should follow the wake Of men like John Oxman and -Sir Francis Drake, Who \\ore by the oak, by the ash and the thorn God helping them alway ,to ail round the Horn 'ro fair Panama and the placid outh Sea, Which they aw one day from the top of ,1, tree. For old England glory their tandard to rai e, '1'0 rui e the Pacific and it i Ie-dotted Four miles from where Ancon look down on tnr X w Stood Old Panama, whence Pizarro once drew III

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112 Pi! t and Guide. __ i __________ _=_ ____ ___ . ______ i_o_ ......... ===z: Th brave t of follower .. Peru to obtain And h r Incas subjeet to the powel' f Spain; r on tood eath dralS! and palace fair, 'Yh altar' and v L and tapestries tare 'Vel' the pride of th people whoR opulence then Was the envy of kings, a.nd the longing of men; 1\here once tately. tl'eets to the plains stretched a way, And warehouses skirted the ve sel-lined bay; Where plantations and garden and flowering trees Once perfumed the tropical evening breeze--Stands naught but a ruin half hidden from view, A pirate's fir t gift to hi blood-thirsty crew From sacked Porto Bello redhanded they -arne, All bloodstained from conquest unworthy the name, To the mouth of the Chagres, where, high ou the hill, :-:san Lorenzo kept guard, to plunder and kill Its devoted defender who courageously fough t For homes, wive and children, accounting as naught Their liyes held so 0 cherished before, Could they drive th fier e pirates away from their. hore. Three days they repulsed them, but to find every night The foe till upon them in ne'er-ending fight. Their arm ould not conquer the power of hell an Lorenz;o surrendered----ingloriously fell Burned, fami he 1 and bi eding from many a wound, '].1h y lay while their ,tronghold wa razed to the ground. n on, up to ru the bue an r d, But to find jt in a .'h "it. inhabitants fie Y t nand, till on, with Morgan ah ad, Th ) PI' d d W11 the road that t Panama I d. Nill day. through the f r st unbrok n th y tramp d, And at 11 a m 1111t 11<' r th ity en amped. f l' them the 0 'an f l' 1 ann .. away rolled: B 1 w th m th i land. .. ln., 1 uthe 1 in the cr Id f th un thn. jn.-t ,'f'ttinO' 1 k 1m nrnfulJy do Il n th hl.'t lay f Iif of tht: ill-fat d t Wll;

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I I P il o t ((11(7 Gu ick 113 \rr iJ v -I nCJo , \Ve are the Onl) Agents on the I thll1U for tllis Celebrated Sterilized Wille Illade by :r_ Eatalle & 00-OF SPAll This vVine 11as been ReC0l1l1nended by oyer 1,400 Pllysicians in Ellrope ancl Alllerica for tIle especial lIse of fal11ilies and persons Convalescel1t fronl FEVER. TRY ITI Unexcelleu for the Stomach, TRY IT! TR Y IT! We also keep a complete assortment of the very best brands of imported wines and liquors constantly in stock. I !-Auejo I & Frenca Oruz OpP3site ,----Front Street. ifw ational Palace. __ ---------------------_._--

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114 Pilot and Guide. While around them the plains wjth groves of bright trees Sheltered cattle and fountains their wants to appease. The famed tr golden cup' lay filled at their hand, And to drain it at sunrise the buccaneers planned. H Oh ho, for the morrow! quoth Morgan the bold. t Oh ho, for the day and the tale to be told! The dawn's faint purple had scarce 'gan to light The peak of Ancon, erst hid in the night, When the blare of the trumpet and beat of the drum Made known that the day of the struggle had come. In the camp of the pirates tt To arms !" is the cry; tt Press forward, my hearties, our treasure is nigh! Avoid the main road----there are ambuscades there--Pu h on through the forest, your firearms prepare! Now out on the hill, still called the H Advance," The buccaneers over their enemy glance. Before them they see in the full light of day The Spaniards drawn up in battle array. Two squadrons of horse, four thousand of line, With bullocks and peons their forces combine, And then, were it safer f or them to retreat, Would Morgan have ord ered the signal to beat. Too late it is now----it is triumph or die! Though desperate to battle, 'twere folly to fly 'Ti us less to falter! On, onward my men! \Ve have won again" t odds, we shall win once again! And" On!' cry the Spaniards, shouting tt Vil'a 7 Rey! Our numb r8 are greater! UI'S, our' i the day! ur bullocks will rout them! Huzza for old pain! Th gor of th thi ve.. hall enrich the plain. Ala, for th hope... c dly mi pIa c d, .F r n' er for, 11 h 3 fo had th y fa 1 "' 0 Tuliall 11 W but train d ill n of Inight, \\Tho lmd 1 aru d in ,_ t rn s ho01 t eli anI t fight. '1 wo hour.' th y f ugh 'n ath th tr pi al ... un '1'11(>11 thl' 'W clown th ir musk 110----f rg, n h d W 11.

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Tit of l1 P mama. ----=-=-== Th v rdan a yanna lik a r at river run ith the bloo of ix thou and of anama on "Ou, on to th crie Morgan l.he bold. h, ho 'ti th day and th tal loon tol ( Fire, pillage and. laughter!' the ord r goes round Till palac and cottaO' are bill'ned to the ground; Till oathedral and warehou..,e no trea ure contain, Ane in th whole city no gold doth remain; Till mother and daughter are captured and chained With father and brother, or ran om obtained. :Monasterie" and hospitals----down with them all Leave not a stone standing on yon city wall t Oh, ho, 'ti the day! quoth :\forgan the bold! tt Oh, ho, 'tis the day, and the tale is now told! o demon in en ate! 0 off pring of hell. What pen may thine awful enormitie tell! How pictill'e the cruelties, useless and vain Upon the march back through the fore t again. Old men tottering feebly 'neath Time' s hoary croWll, Frail women in chain and with burdens borne down, Fresh youth and grown man and the child but just born, Sconrged pitilessly on with the la h and the thorn: \vhile obs, lamentations and shrieks of despair ucea ingly freighted the soft summer air! The ink till'ns to tear and corrodes the sad pen O 'er the torture at Cruce repeated again. There, under the shade of the broad mango trees---anguish that nothing may ever appease----Are parents and children and husbands and wives, Condemned without mercy to horrible live Then back down the hagre the buccaneers hie 'Io where ship near the ea tIe awaitiuO' them liE'; And embarked with his laves, his treasure and gold, Onee again for Port Ro. Tal ails :Morgan the bold! 115

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116 -=----==---=---=-:=-=====-= = =====.:=== THE FOUNDING OF NEW PANAMA. "\Vhell the nCWR of the de"trl1ction of Old PH 11:1 ma. reached the ear' of the Conde de Lemo then \Ticeroy of Peru, he W ,l. 0 deeply l)[1grilled o,er the affair, that he imnlccliat ly took steps l'csulting in the rell10val of the defeated O'overnor, DOll Juan P rcz dc Guzm{n. A t the RaHle tilll he repl'e elltecl to the Queen Regent of pain J\f aria .L\l1n of AUu tria, the necessity of is uing a decree pro,ldine)' for th rcbuilliJlg of the city Oil a 1IGW ite. R brcrJ) the burning of the Id city and the builc1-in of the nc,Y, n [11'1), bro Y0ars obI sed. Dnring this tim th urvlyors had cl'rcted ternporn,ry h01nos on and nroll1Hl th old itc, ,yhich "\Yere thrice "i ited and (lestl'o:yrd h.' 'onfiagration hrf 1'e the rrll10nll to the DC'" trnnl took pIn. e, L p to the ycar 190:--, the exact oat') of tho fou ndn ion of tll pre Cllt 'ity had he ell lost sight of all the Spanish hi. torl(.', heing Ht fnllit on thi iU1portant point. On J\ln 1 ell 2 l 100.-, the Prrsic1cl1 t of tJw l\Il11l1ci pnI Counci 1 of ananlfl Oiro IJ. Urriolfl. actii,O' ullder official in trnctiOllC; of that hocl addl'e sed lett 1'8 to the Director f the r hi\' R of 1imall a ; to the Director of the Archi,e of th 11lr1ias at c\'i11r, and t th Director of the ational Llhnuy nt Iadrid r 'que ting il1fonnatiol1 a to the c'xact <1nt0 t11 11 'Y city was C'OllllnencC'c1. After all exchange 0 C 'n1l1nnlni('at iO]H' covering son1 th c rtificd COPl('S (d' ty," O docunwnt -C)l'C subnlittr
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Tllf' F Ollndi1lg (f PWWnlrr. 117 TIl j ni11 1) the ueen f the d ree auth-rizillO' th ) han jll y tll it f Pan, ma on tob r : J 1 hn b II a] ltd and i now ol"e rv e d a the alJlli,el' ary f th f un lin of the new although th e d um 1l reh tinO" t the pI n and line of the town how that the inaugur ti II eremoni -in connection "jth the tahlislllllellt f the 11 ew it w re actually held 011 the :!lst of J( nuary 1 The lmportant ta T of upervising the building and f rtif 'il1O' f the 11e,,' town ,vas confided to Don Antoni Fernandez de 6rdoba, a Spanish cavalier of high rank ",ho the I thnlu in 1672, with the title of Goyern r of the Pro,ince of Tierra Finne, and President of the Real.A .uclienci. Cordoba only saw the" ork of reconstruction C Bllnence ; hi de ath occurring the year following his arriya1. The Queeu' cedula or decree on the fortifications of the ne,Y cit) refer to the site of Ancon, as 'Lancon", evidently an error or illi print} as the correct spelling appears in d 'unl llt f a littl later period. III this cedula i et forth the necessity of first pro viding the it y with adequate defenses makillg them as strong as po il1e 1 ut not to start the general work until the plans had been ubmitted to the Crown for consideration ana approval. As to the luestion of means, the Queen "Advi e tbe "' iceroy of Peru, with an estimate of the cost, that he may ",jth this notice get the means in confonnity witb this orde r Continuing the document reads, "1 charge you Cordoba with much care that I have sent you to thi place to apply the means furnished for this work, "ith out diverting jt to other things. To this end form in the city a Council in which you will be present, with two judges, a t.reasurer two of the oldest secular representatives, and the attorney general of the city who with the help of the officials of the Royal Treasury, will al10w the expense and employ the rents remitted you by the Viceroy of Peru, 1

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-----------------------------------------------------------, 118 Pilut (lw7 Gilide ---==-=-).. "C q >n:: lil h 't :?; oq: Q I.t. -en Q :::. 0 en (f) ....J ll.J a o 0 --l UJ -l (f) UJ C!) o III ....... a \J oI! (" ::.. t" a :::: oq: G ll. (j :.. V) ill ..... il:: ::-a \J >-willl ,,,l101n T on ,,,ill C )ll1nlull:cat Y lry fr qu ntl T on th, poillL"........ r hOi)c tllilt }our ,' p -rlcJ) l'. Pl'11 I nce a ti\ i1y ( lid faithfnln ,dlich 'on hayo nl\\'(\), .. :h \\'n. ,rill (,()Ildil t ill '(' l'\'ic of ih \ king lny L OJ1 : n 1 to th .'111).1(' t that yon W ll-l: ill fl. it ought t 1 clOll .... I I I I

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The F undillg of .. x /I' Panama. 119 -Avenida Central Nos. 138 y 140. ; E RE 'IUE'X PE."'1 '1'. \ (' DIlDA. ('.H'E, } ; T '., A TODA nORA' DBL DLL .. H\!L ';'lOJ QlQ. :PEEC:r:03 Sf "\BU Y C \STEU\NO. JUAN FARRE, Prop. P \RI 1 Nos. 138-140 Central Avenue. f'rr, ''1' CLA AR OFFEE E'f ., AT ALL H IC' OF THE DAY. -: :?:rices. ENGliSH AND SPANISH SPOKEN. JUAN FARRE, Prop. III a d cr e dr.n\Yll up by attorney gClle ra I of the city and in-Iled l\[arch ] Oth: 1673, it appearr-; ome oppositioll had deYcloped on the part of tho c ",11 had alrcady commellc(-ld to rehuild their ruined homes at Old P(lllama, to the challge to the n w site at AncoJl. He wrote rc questing that S01ne one be sent to the Isthmus without delay with plenary po,,-el's to execute the change, uIld to comp 1 the inhabitants fOld l"lanama and vic;J}jty "without ex ception" to 1110ve to tl e new site. He as nIl ind llcemellt to of standillrl' an exelnptioJl fron1 taxes: lIpon their agre cl1Jent to 'OlUlllellce buikling their hou es and offi es on the ne'", site within two Inollths froln the date of this lle cree and to occupy thClll "ithin the year. He urged forced compliallce as to l'e rno, al ill ord e r as the document reacL, "That the point which is now pop uh.ted (Old Panama) lllay be razed to the gro ulld 01) nc-. C OUllt of the risk vf Pllen1i(\s cOll1illg in the Ineantime and hlkil1g thereby putting U stop to cODllnercinl tntffic . This denJolition will 116t c:niy l le1p ill thfl llC fOlludations, but will fllnlish cOJ1YE'niellt luat rial with ,,hich to bu ilel the ncw houses allfl 3t the same tim e will pu t a top to all points of dUll bt that might delay the exe c u tion of the decree". The decree also prohibited the use of lalllps, or r a ther ccnscrlS) as were then known, in the houses at

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120 Pilot (f'J/(7 Guid(' )1<1 thereby avoiding danger of futllr conflagrati01l fc 111 "hich they had suffered frequeutlv si nce 110rgan's raid. It further provided that just rents should be paid np to the time f the change, and that the people could not b depriyed of their hOlnes until four 11l01lths succeeding the alll10UllCelnent of the decree. The original of this rare do U111ellt bear the signature of Cordoba, the attorney g ne1'a1. Don de IJossada Quinones, Don Andres lYJal'tillez de AUlileto, and the Secretar). Don Diego Juan A-randa 1'i maldo. The ignatures were attested by Augustin de l;rrutia, ,,,ith hi rubica, and his signature and identity attested in turn b' three others. caeh with hi l'ubica. I The cerenlonies in C0111lection with the inaugura.tion ,york on the new city, held January :?l, 1673, were particip( ted in by Governor Oordoba, and all the notable, <..:iy11. 111ilitary and secular. the as'istance of the Ini1-itar ngine r, the (jovernor indicated the line on which the pril cipal plaza should be laid thB location of the ; athedral, and the celnetery alongside. The cemetery" as al and ned many yea.rs ago: but the old Oathedra.l till rears its twiu towers skyward :1.nd i c-. as olid an edifi.e toda} a,' when it was first built. In cOllnection with the c it 11lioht be interesting to note that while the wa er work force was excavating on Sosa Street in 1905. th T ra 11 acros and unearthed a great ma.ny bones f the early ttler. The i )jauo'ural cel' mOllles re ('ond uet d with all th P( lUP and ritual COlnnlon to th Catholic Chur h at ha tim Til BiHhop and hi tant pr nounced a. hI I ina on th' atl! 1ral and c. lueter\ ite and put one blrg) alll two lnall Cl' .e in the nt r of th plaza. rl h (I Y I'll r I'd wi'8 inoi atcd the 'ite f r tIl IJVent JI()W )('('upi d h) tll .'tore 0 J al'doz and th o' Yenllnent hI IYrH ph ffi on.j. y nne apt. J nan Hi L I (J' Hal' 1'(, 1Ia. or 101110 of the llV Ilt took cca i II t all aU i 1l t) tIl fa th r W:l. a uantity f building tinl-,. L S

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Til lOLli/dillY I t' P((I/(Wlff, 121 h raIl' (dv vail' I 1 n (11' th -it, (]lcl h e t furth )1'11101'0 ( hi1 had ju tenter d th bay with a 1 ael f nil lillO' m a -t .rial, urain that it w ull b a tl thin t 111111 n c w rk n the ony nt fir t th t thi 11 titut d th fir:t buil lillO' f c n cluen to be r t 1 in th n e w it,)'. Th injun .ti n t nilcl th e TIe\\" ih" f l' i-fi ti n tr no' alld w II w r h ded n yiden by tb hllO'e wall f rna nry that t day ext nel.' around ( s ti n f th "'hoI' f1' ut f the cih. The e walL' 111-Inenceel in ord ba' till) were not Inpl t c1 until In a n y year aft rward under the go,ernment f .... Ion ?\Icl' a d o Ie \Tillac rta, Th., f rtific, tions are tiruated t h a y o t upw rd of ten million d llar ill In uey, prin cipally furni h d froln Peru. Thi c1 e not take lLlt a o unt th e forc d lab l' emp1 yed in their COll tructi n. The t o r y ha be n halldccl down how a 0, reign of p a i 11 \ya seen standillg at a window of hi I a1ace 011 day l o okillo toward the we t with a di.:turbed expre i n on hi f e a ture.. ....-\. courtier lnade Lold to inquire ,vhat h e wa, l o ok ing at. I am looking':: revIied the Kino his ac r l axing int a grim mile, ':' those co tly wall of Panalna. Th y ought to he visible e,-en from here THE ISTHMIAN BUBBLE OF 1698, The Darien reglOn wa the scelle of th.'l fir t atte mpt b\1 European other than subjects of pain: t rbtain a cOlnmercial foothold on the Spanish For. 0111 tim e pri r to 160,-Willianl Patter on one of the f under of tho Bank of England had been DOUr]. hing a pro ject f corn1ner ial expan iou of considerable magllitud. It wa his idea to e tablish colonie in various part of the

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122 Pilot and Guide. No. 194 Central Avenue, PAN AMA. The .A.:rn.erican Photographers \.x.Tork a. Spec:ialtv. OPEN' .A.Lx:.. TX::LVJ:E. Orient a well as the Occitlellt, to build up a trade be tween the e points and his country Rcotlan 1. Tnder royal charter, a ('olupany was fonned, and in the J ear 169) fi ve ye 'sels wi tIt more than a thousand cotti h on board 'ct sail for the Isthlllus. From returning buc caneers Patterson learned what a key to the tra]e of the 'outh ea the Isthnlus really was, and indue a him to send first colony to that poillt. The colonists landrd [It a place nn the north coast of Dariell, known to clay a Puerto Escoce. Here n a nl, II bay which they alec10nia th ilnnligrallt f Ulld d the ettlement f.J.. w Edinburgh, located abont 7 r 111il to the north,rest from Cape Tibur'n on the Gulf f raLa. They built some f rtincati II e tabli h-ing hro batteries of 02 cannon each. On l y a few 111 nth. el:'1 eel however, befol' the effect of th trnI i a l l imat (.111 it., f vel'. became apparent 11 the bUl:dy nl II of th IH l'th nnd before th end of the fir t 'ea.r arriv d n]y a. r mnnnt of th oriUlllal olony l'elnain d. In the 111 antime nth ,1' micrrallt had be n ent nt fr In tlanl hn th('y fe. reel Y 11 W r. ethan th fir t b nt this tilTI h c1 of the full pe f p( t-t \1'.' 11'.' nth ea tra 1(', all d-11 xp liti n ,yn llt (g'ain t w lJdinbn!,crh <. 111 III t with lut li tl 1'1 .unjv r w r th r HI n II rt d.

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(Y) C\J --.... ::: ... ....... .... ::::: -. -'-.., II t'iew if part (}/the ,shippin!.? Ii'] Colcn-.'j.)anama :hfltlrllan -:JIJm /"lean! ff>.R.Je. .ff'ews .A!l."ncp 4 .:Adveri'istng JJlJrvalJ .. j .13ltn frow.llr ,

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124 Pilot and Guide. Pattersoll did not give up his plan without a further ef fort, and endeavored to plant another colony, this time on the PRcific Ocean and a.way from Pan31na, but ar.t.ing rllder orders from Spain, IJleut. General D. Juan Diaz Pimiento, Captain-General of the province. took the necess ary to prevent it. TROUBLE WITH INDIANS, 1710-90. The period fronl 1710 to 1790 ,ras principally nlarkeu by frequent hattles between the Spaniards and the Indian tribes of the Darien. Early in the century, Catholic Inissionarie froln Spain fouuded several places in this rEgion, but in 1719 the savages 1'0 e and destroyed the111 fill. In 1740, Lieut. General D. Dion isio J.\;Iartinez de la ega entered into a treHty of peace with the Iudia.n: and soon after the Viceroy of Santa, Fe, Don Sebastian de Eslava, and the (}overllOl' of Panama, acting in conjunction sent out four ,J esuit priests, two to the north all I two t.o the .outh, ill the Darien regi n aud the. founded Ta\'i_ za, a to' ,vn located on the (" )hucunaque River, the large t affluent of the Tuira, 01' Tuyra, the prin ipal riYer ill the Darien elnptying into the Pacific. -Yavi:ta to-day i an outpost OLl the forbidden fronti r of the Darien T udians. To this point travel r. can '0 with afety hut a further jOlll'l1 y in}( nd would be exceedingly Although Ta_ viza is 1 ate 1 fifty nlile' or '0 f1'0l11 the 1 a t tid Wc1t l' d s n t en I for ev ral lui 1 p' t th town. T 01\\ ith tanding the eff rt. of th J :uit I riC' t t )bta i n < f thold ill t.hi regi 11, it wn 11 t 10 ng after b f l' I tl ndian 11a,nn d an upl'i'ing a.nd th In1. ionari had L l f l' th it' live JII 17 '.1 f 1'(..' "'(>1' ,t, Ii h I

PAGE 142

------------TJ'oublr /Citli jll(liull. 1,'jO-DO. 125 ----:1:"' __ -":;: on the c bann 'hn nnnqn all I Tuil':l I iv rS' a1.o on th COc t f the nlf of .( 11 l\lign J but ix y ar. lat r uIon c 11 In i 11 an th l' tr aty with the J Ildiun chiefs, th ,e w r abc nd ne 1. inr,e then the udian tribes of that )' f>ion hay b 11 1110re r I ,.' inde} cnc1ent the OYernJU nt of I mbia haviu o ercis d ol1ly a 1) lnillal rule over theIne The epuhli f anh.rna to date has also b en ontent t Ia vc th Tn t th e ir wn devic e . n on oc a iOll the ololnbian G v 1'I1lnent eut a f r e of ;-00 1ncn (bail] t thelD 1 ut thi dition ,,,n. defeated. The only ther in id nt ill I thnjian during the ficrhte nth c lltury worth r latina wa, the landing of a band f de perac10es and utthroa ts n the aribbean coast n ar Porto e lla made up of th SCUln of several nation 'fhe e at once omnlenced assaulting and rohbing w herever po sible r nd finall y cros e d the Isthmus to the P acific where they weI' hunted down and scattered. 10me were taken t o Oartagena and executed' others died at the 11 nels f the lndi<. 11' and. till others ought refuge in the caves f San RIa. ,,h e r e they subsisted by fishing. A few of these later tartecl plantatiolls, but they ",-ere a lot ever ke e n desperat e de e d and they soon got illto trouhle with tbc Incli ans who rose against them in 175 and killed uin ety of them. rest left the country imtnccliately after. .. .. INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN, 182}. The provinces of and \r eragua that cOIn-p osed the fraln 1 71 0 to ] 21 a ncl which formed a part of the Vh'reina te of Fe were anlong the L:to be emancipated from the power of ,pain, despite

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126 Pilot aneZ Guide. F. P. PETERSEN, Proprietor. Nos, 178-174 CENTRAL AVENUE, S A NTA ANA PARK. F R_ F. NEWLY FUR NISHED. BATHS. ELECTRIC LIGHTS:-li01I lE iP.lJLt J! 1r Ik Ikt IHI@ UJ SEE. V-rCE, IrlPORTED GEI\l1dN DR(lUGIiT BcEI\ (lL ON T t\P. Hote l Centrally Located and convenient for the traveling public the fctct that the d ,ei ire 1 attle of Boyac;'l, ,, hieh 11lB Ie nll ncl for yei' to Rpani .. h clOlnillion in h a d bee n fou(J'ht .a1ld 'won hy Sinlon oliy< l' oyer two years b fore, 11 In \ l y .L ugu, t. 7 lIn. Thi ,y ( c1u. to tho large annecl force Ill, i lltni !loll b T P i J) 011 th e I thll1u:. The f rt f I \\,11 IJo l'cl1l0 and POl t B llo \\. r e '" 11 O'[lrrj, 'ollo] ",h i l the it f l)'llHll1Ul, ,y<, at all tilllC k pt 111 a tat f pcrf(\ t I fellcc. 'J'o the little tOWI1 of IJ()' i nt.', enpital of th p1' vi Ilce hra 1'i llg the (un) ]) anl b 1 Ilg.. the h nor f nw k i 11 g i 11 r {i r top 11 II Hl n i f 0, L i II f l' li b 1't Y a II d t hi. \\'c\.' lnollgh ahout ill th e ll(nril1g 'ray: In H10 a ula ll 'luI> 'ra' fonnrd ill Palle ll1(1. l1:i. tillt"'l' f infiu Iltin l iti-Z(lll:. for tl1<' pnrpo, e f carr'inl)' n a :p ret l' 'Y ,Int.i 11( r r pI' )pag;IIHla. \O '(\llh \y 1'(\ (lilt t th Jllt 1'io1' t WIl, t ol'galliz )111 l' .'0 -ioti .' for ill fOln 11 iU,rT of a l' yol uti \1-e )' r !-\ 'IltinH'1l :l1n Ilg tIl L populi ti{ 11. '] h littI i ty nt I JO,' ';1111): IJ :( 'Ilthn.'in:tic that it h il d y 1'. t 111

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1'27 = s n cL' th In 111 r. tnrnc 1 U ell lna c (nel 'lll, de : c publi 1 111 n trat i 11 ill fayor f frc rdom p . E, rl T in '1:..1. 11. ,} nail 1 \ L jl'llZ:J Ul'O'c()n riv d at unulU. hayinO' b) 11 nppoinf'(l th \'ernlllent t th p t .'c Il0ral HIl.d uit. He wn fnrih r promi.' (1 tbe 1 0, t I ante C if he nla re 'olltrrd ()' tw l -tIlir 1. of of the it)' 1naf. lli 11 ()('ll saw W;\.' 11ll} O. i Jr. anel 011 t b r :?:?Ild f llL YPal' Inbnrk d for Quit t x I' i e hi. t'tl r i lellt. 11;l in 0111-Inalld of th PI' yin e 11 1 thll1U . _.J:eHt.-101. .' 0.'<5 c1 wh In he tl n Pl'Olllot. d to t 10 0 f ";01 .. ne I.-001. :Eabrega ""'1 I.tbmi':lll 1> I'll. alld "hell he 'lW that he wa to be the arbiter f the fn.tc of tho J -J1111t1,'. he re (lh -c1 t thr \Y in hi' 10(. ,,-ith h;s 1ib('l'b -i1. pi. rinrr countrynleil. a g neral 111l'l,tino' of nil clnc orporatioll', military nIH] church or;rallizatiol1 111 Panama wa c lled. anll 011 OY0 llliJt'r ] :? 1. 1 ef l' a large and enthu in ti (To,,,d, th inc1ellilden \. of the I. thmu from pani.'h IJL':1 me \) n' nlpli'hc(] fact. Fclbrega binl elf wa. ;Ul ini 1'( tel 'p tttOl' or thi eyent. orne of th e Spuni '11 tl'CJ lp' till l'Cll1nillil1CY loyal to the Orown. debated am0l10" t thenl elyc' tIl it' future COtH C l....' cf procedure. but real izi the 1121 pI ... of their p si:-tiol) "ithou l-a commn ncl el' "'ith ('11em ies (.11 c,cry h and and without hop e ot reil1forCC1l1el1Ls . Lbey c1 cicled prucl n the better part of yalor. aud Ltid down their ann. Tbu was iudept;llc.1ence !Juiu d ,,-ithont 1 ne f a drop of blood. Istlnniall hi tor.'-Call1 nO(ll' to it. elf eighty-two years later ",h n the iuc1cpellclcllcc of the public of Pananla "a. attaillcd. the 1o,:' of hu : QUe. life, that of a CbinaUlaIl. : The nnle year that the ..L thnllL' thro,,' off the yok of Spain, imoll B o li,(lr .. Thc' Lihcl'ator" ellt 0' er a force 11I1Uer en. :Jlontilla fl'OlU nrtagena to the local patriots but upo.u their arrlyal foun 1 tha

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128 Pilot and Guid e Isthmian people had already ecured their independence through favoring circumstances. ---THE ISTHMUS IN THE DAYS OF '49. The di co,ery of gold in alifol'nia, and the lack of a safe and rapid transcontinental means of getting to the desired goal, induced many thou ands of treasure hunter to eek the Isthmian transit. During the se,ell 01' eight year succeeding the first find of gold on utter's ireek: it is estimated that not less than in o lcl, 812,-000,000 in silver, and 2 ,000 passellgers "ere ann uaJIy across the Isthmus on pack-mule train. By 1 5' the rush was on in earnest and according to offi ial figures the output of gold ill OaJifornia for that y ear r 2achec1 the highest mark in its hi tory llanlely 6 000 00 The sudden de elopment of the pack-n1ule train busine s on the I thmus by reasOl of the eli co,erJ attracted to the country a large number of hilean Peruvian 1udians and mixed hreeds, many of whom caIne not t engng in an honest business but to llunder, 1"01> and Inurd r. .....\. ri h fi ld wa at once opened to them 11 ( ount 0' tIl d mand for pack-mule train a bn ine in th Inaj rity of thetn e ppert. The Panan1a n e w I aper. f th e I J are filled with tirring ac ount. a unIt and robb ry and luany path ti incid ent 0' p e lIe h
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:1'11 .r '49 129 111 th f I a. ng r' wh tru t d nob dy but th 111' Y 11 the hip tr ng box. none occa-i 11 Y n 1 f g 11 arrj" 1 at w rk, app rently inta t, 1 ut wh 11 lJ n 1 it wa eli' over d that from fort t fift r }J l' nt. ha 1 becn t 1011. The riflillg "as aCCOffiIii h } d h the (lj f a, .)l'tain haped bring app ratus that W ul bri Il ut as mu h u. de. ired of the contentH th h _' . a lltl fill ill c. crain with and until the original wight "Ta l' a c he 1. The holcs ill the b xes were then pluo'g 1 alld HI d n e atly that the) ould not be det ted: xcel t up 11 close x<11nination. A a 11-ltal thing how vel' this method was too lauori Hl (11 1 b. lid of anned 111e11 made open attacks on pH k c Lsisted by confederates acting as guards 01' tlriy In January 1 51. the S. ortherner arI'Ot11 \Ul } ranci co with ':2 GO 000 in gold dust L ud tre ure 011 U( and carr y ing 500 pa sengers. l\tlany of tho latter had their no\"l y gained wealth concealed in th e ir Lag '(1 'e Ilnruediatcly aft r the stealner 's arrival, pre parati 11' b gall for th e pack across. The start was Inac1e; and at <. placo 'aIled Cardenas, al out one day's journey ll1 PallanHl b ,: lnttle back the passengers were attack 11 jn bl'oa 1 c1a) light by a large body of anned melle In the fight th a t followed few o the passengers su c Ac1ed in ithdrawing with their pack trains unobserved, but the robl ers Inanaged to capture two mule loads of tl'ea ure alllounting to about $120,000. Durillg the fight: the leader of the band, a Chilean, ,,-a shot and killed. The a.ffair haa hardly terminated when reiuforcelnellts arri, ed to the aid of the passengers. Tho robben; thereupon fled into the woods, but were prOlllptl y pur. ued. Some were killed, others taken prison ers ,yhile se, era 1 boxes o gold were recovered in the nick of tilDe the thieves being come upon just as they were about to bury the treasure in the ground. One of the pathetic incidents of the period was the case o seven men returning from California who started

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0 1 I [ 9hru :Policeman if .9>ol1ama $,urrrl"" ;t#wwri' ..... .&/VS _."'.

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IIf' L tlWl/l< i J1 tll Day, of' 4.."). 131 LEBIt\. EJIPIRE. Gon 1 COL X Panama News Agency. Newspapers Magazines Stationery Powell's Candies C igc r3 Tobaccos Souvenirs Kodaks Smokers' articles Kodak supplies The Waterman Ideal Fountain Pen . acros the Istlll11uS in to take. hip on the other side. They ,y 1'0 n ot heard of agai n uutil 011e day a 11 caU1e across SOlne Lodies balf-devoured by the buzzard ... A 1 1 in\estignti on ,ra tarted alld it ,rns eonclusivcly that the se,ell ID II had been waylaid and nlurc1erec.l. 111en w e re artisan -011 their ,yay h0111e and had ,,,itll tlH:lll a chest of tool. This che t from it. ,,,eight and appearance led OBe of the 11lnnerOllS gangs of robbers to beliey that it containe d tr'lasure. They offered theul. elv e s H InC]), ,y ero accepted, find at a certain point on the rond the trayelers ,,;ere set upon and kill ed. 0 Anlong the effects of tll clea d Inen were fou nd n 11laf'ter Ina Oll' apron, and other cmLlelns of +he order, "hich jncrcasecl< the .desire to run th e g uilty partie to This ,,-a shortly acccIIlplished. The I ack-trai 11 111cn ,,,er e arre .. tr(l c011fr0nted with the e\""id e nce and confessed they an tak e n to P a nmna and hot. These s in1ilar OCCUlT llces arou.'ecl the authol'it ie.' to take SODle deci "iye action toward c10"'1l the .. ou:.t, . (,... .." I I I I I I . -----. _--.... _ . _ .-._!

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----------------------132 Pilot and Guide = rageH. All that were caught in l'ohbel'ie were giyen hort hrift. if found guilt they were imlneuiately shot. Th n t the returnll)O' Oalif rnian, beillg previously aclvi ed of the in curity of tho transit, proyjcled then1 elves Rgai nst these f'lnergencie:; ns the robber bands foulld out to their co t. In one ca 0, a pack-train carrying British bul1ion froln South An1erica was attacked 11 the trail. The party put up so tiff a defen e that 'ev raj f the thieves were killed, ana the remainder put trout. Tho record of tho e ti 1110' go to show that 11laJl a returning treasure seeker never reached home and loved all s again, but left his bones t o hleach on the Oruces trail. A couple of yeRrs ago a native living ncar the trail ran across a of coin discolored with age. He brought thelTI tlltO PRll,una alld showed thelll at a local ba nk. lVIany of the coius were gold, and all bore dates of the period wh 11 tLe Oruces trail ,,n)"' the Inain traveled road of the gold hunters of Oalifornia. They had eyid ntly formed a part of sorno robber' hORl'd. Lola Montoz o f Paris and Panama," Anlong the man v of p r on' that p'tssed v r th lsthnlus from all part. of th ,\Y 1'11 in the lund ru h f >1' \ dif Irnia, Il Ill: attr:lcted greater att nti 11 on the str) .It of Panama thall Lola ill th z nith (f h r world-wide fanH' Ilcl oWlling t th eli.till ti 11 of b ill r tll nlo t ,,'on Ie l'ful dancer f 11 l' del -' fair L ola known in priYato life a<' til t.Jan lHfi ld left ari.' in l)e 111 h 'I'. 1 R ; ) 1 11 an tour. n th vo of h r d pctl'tur thr Pari PI' of her: ... 1'1 an aid

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Lola ...lIull!: of P((ri and Pml{flllll ", Lola ont z i 1 id lillO' n fen ". 11 and l e e Y" U f r Am {'iea. ;Yh Yr' 1 r )1 rih rp l', i } Imp ibl f l' U not t hay h. (1'1 f mt.... Lan 1 .. 1i 111 th butt rfl -kno, n a Lola..c [ nt z. Th lau1''']. won 1 Ii Hni EI .. I ranI J nn r Lin 1 ha' 1ri,r n lC0p from h l' h t 0 wi h ... t onqu r, Far w ell th n }'Im. mt .. b pr pitiou' to OlL. If a handful of a Iv ntur l' eff ct d the on<]u t of }'1 rico, why houl n t triumph oyer the Tew'Vorld. The wriler ill the P (. ri press in adell her peculiar an I fa cillating beaut,) id that da,l'Gi ng wa not an art ,vith her hut natural, like the illgillg of a bird. In' iouring the United tate Loa c aught the gold feyer and arriyed on the I thmus on her way t9 Cahforllia in l\lay 1 .'-3. 11 appeared on the treet of Pananla: in men s clothe. and anllec1 ,,,ith a riding whip, presente 1 : a picture qu and triking figurc . On one ,ucr-:asion a ; young 111an of the to 'wn hnd the temerity to I uH the tail of her coat. uhe turlled upon .hin1.iil t e rrible anger and raising her whip truck the offend 'er a harp blow ill the face which -left its l11nrk for 111any a day. Love Me, Love My Dog. 'Vhile at Gorgolla on her r ay acro s' the l' thU1US, she ordered the hotel keeper to fit up a cot jn the .. l' 0111 bhe had ngag e d for the l1iaht for her doo ,yhi ch her insepar[l hIe c o mpanion. Tho hos t ren10n h'at ec1 fating th a t 2Jl of his cot were occupi rc1 an t ll1any o f hJs gue..,ts had to cont nt J 0n1S hc ,,-ith hWplllg QIi tbe floor. I think -;\.Iac1allle he S L id. .. du..t your d o C H n sleep ye1'y 'well for one 1 19ht t he -Anol" ir rel)lic 'cl the Countcs 1'rn : \y!:.g (t. : .. I .t'll); n 1)1 \ {-Y lips,. I do llOt care wh .ll'e or h J \ you r -' t : s r liut .r would h:1 ve you t.n 1-f)W tL .. t t III 1 clog i1Cl. slept ill: pttlaces. Get Ine the cot immediately and T. uo Jl10re abr.ut it. The now frightened hotel keeper obey e d -the nexf morning _ ..... _ _ __ ........... 4 ... ___ ___ J -......

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1 134 Pilot and Guide. charged five dollars in the hill for the dog's beet To this the Countess objected, aud 011 the landlord iuslstiug that the bill should be paid, she pulled out her pisto1, and threatelled to not only the bill) but the hotel keeper as well, for extortion. There ,vas no further argument. A represelltative of tho Star' interviewed the artiste on 9, 1853, at the Cocoa Grove Hotel and wrote an account of it as follows: t'lnstead of meeting a giantess in appearance, and a persoll of masculine manners as was expected, we were most agreeably urprised when on presentation to the Countess, to find her a lady of ordinary stat.ure, and of rather delicate frame, possessing the most regular and handsome features, with a pair of brilliant and expressive eyes, and withal an exceedingly winning addres We were st, ill more surpri8ed when on extending he1' hand, to find it so dimillutive. tt During an hour's with the Countess we .. could observe no peculia.rity about her, beyond whitt we would desire to see in any well educated woman, possessing a degree of assuran 'e peculiar to people who have traveled much, thu enabling her to give expre ion to her thought wi tllOu t any of that simpering mock mouesty which makes many people appear ridiculous. t! It was not until after dark, and as we were n,bout to take our leave, that we had a fail' opportunity to judge of the courageou daring of thi remarkable woman. One of the of the hotel who had been takinO' a walk about the ground' wa, attacked and an attempt maue to shoot him. Lola :Uontez imm diately went to where it was going on anc1rendel' d what aid ible, returning with th gue t to the house. In all the x -it m nt t.here was llO de 'ire to fa.int, 01' expl' sion of fear ou h r part. She ero s-que ,tion d tIl guest thoroughly, but the affair r -mained a my tel'y .. The sta, of l\lontez on the 1. tbnlu wa not f long dur tion, but she expre ed great pleasure over her vi it, and it was rnany a day b fore the InelllOl'Y of her and her queer attire was forgotten . .. ...

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135 Oeoans Linkod by Stool Ribbons, 1855. The po 'ibilitie incident to the con truction f a railroad aero s the I thmus early attracted the attenti n capitali ts and others. The first move in thi direction was made in 1 35 when: pursuant to are. oiuti n offer cl in the tate 'enate by Henry Clay, Pre ident Andrew .1 ack on appointed Charles Biddle a eommisRioner to visit the different routes on the continent of .A meriea be t adapted for intero eanic comlnuuicatioD and to rport thereon with reference to their yalue to th eom Inercial illterest of the United tate. 1\1r. Biddle came to the Isthmus and aecomp9uied by Don tJ 0 e Obaldia at tbat time a of the Cololnbiall Congress, la'ter visited Bogota where, after repeated delay: he secured from the government a decree giving him the right to build a railroad across the Isthmus. He returned to the l llited States in 1 37, but died before he wa able to make a report. In 1847, a French syndicate headed by l\lateo Kline obtai1l8d an option on the proposed undertaking from the Government of New Gra nada which howeyer "as permitted to lapse the following year. The rush of the goldseeker Santiago Rozo LA\NYER. Diploma. of the Nationa.l University of Bogota, Colombia.. Offers his Professional Services to the Publlc. REFERENCES: raaa.a Bank', Co., Int. Bank',. eo.. Office No. 36, Fifth StTeet, _ *_.4!_ Santiago Razo ABOGADO. Con Diploma. de la. Universidad Nacio. nal de Bogota, Colombia.. Ofrece BUS Servlclos Profeslonales-REFERENCIAS: Panama Bank'g. Co tint. : Bank'g. Co. Oficina Calle 5a. Yo. 36, Panama.

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136 Pi70t ({ml Cllirlc. -=----=---------=-==-===-=--======== t ialif )l'nia in and thc 1clCk Ot n afe and rapi1 ic of ... ew (3 nlllillla J1 0' it the excl11 i ye pri i1eO'e of OJ) trncting a railroad 011 tIl L th1l111s in 'which \\ a in -corporated n proyi.'ion thai 110 llegoti .a,tiol1s looking to the nillino all I operation of a hip oulcl be concluded without th(\ con. Cllt If 1'h, railroad. The conce sion "was made f >1' a pcriod of forty-nine ye, l';:; dati]) 0'. froln the COlllpl tioll of the 1'0:1(1. T'hc tiule giYen for con1pletiQl1 wu ix 'caL fron1 the datc f signi llg the cOlltract In 1 ) .... when the nanlO of the I cpnhl:c of e,\y Granada "Ta chunO' c1 i th. t of Colomhia tho conce sion 'was ex tended for a pcri od of n i llctY-Jl JllG Y(?' 1' ... : thn lllakill 0' the e1ltire tenn of the t .11 ycar' fronl tho of DIll"' pI tion. t the c.-piratiOl) of t111. tinlc, the COllce -ion I r -yid c1 that the l'ailro, cl m ,d npptll tcnances .houlcl be turned OY r to thr ) 1010111hiall UOYCrlHllellt in e ilnple '\"ith 110 right f j' c ,v th( (\,JII)uhi:111 : lIthol'ilil': ........ \ ft r. r 11 '1t c1 0.Hort, th(oy fillalI ill t \ ( KI: 'C nrc 1 1 o._,(' ,,' i 11 f i t -i: f It t .. \ \' (\ 111 i l' 11 (l f tIl t n (' k; }> a.J i n g \ :? ;) 0 p r h a r alld ill it Iditi III }H'l'I111tt('(l til \ j, nwri n.1l. t o kh 1c1' r t trip 111 \ m ill r )' ( 11 tIt eH h : ilt1 a \ 111l1uL t d 'Ul'-I ----=---,------" -----=::.:....:::=:.:==:..:.:...:=-=.::.:..:.::====-.:::.:-::.-.:...:. ..:..-" :"':'="'=-' .... ---'

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dincon 7/ospital and the Capitol of/he Canal Zone .9"lIunfan .:IIrnuicon ..A; .. .., dJ1U7cJI &ddvl'rfuil!.fl.2JurcQu .7I .2]it:llkcw.skf .

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138 Pilot and Guide. plu ,0 that the actual aillount received by the Alnerican har e holders was about $291 per share for stock the com lnercial value of whi 'h at that time was onl y a little above par. 'Vhen the United Rtates bought the property of the French canal company, an1011g its asse t s were the sixty ight seventieths of the stock of the Panama R ailroad. Road Pays $250,000 Indemnity Yearly. The railroad ha.s been bonded various amounts since 1;-1. In 1897 however, all bonds were retired and a new i S'le of 4,000 first mortgage 4 1 / 2 per cent. twent.y ) ear gold bouds of $1,000 each was made. Of these bonds ,R74 were sold and 626 were retained in the treasury of the company. At the time the property was acquired by the United States Government 1,002 of the out tandi1lg bonds had been redeemed {nder the terms of the concession the rai l road "as compelled to pay to the COlolubian Govenunent an annual indemnity of $250,000. The railroad has not only been required to pay frolu its earnings interest on it bonded illdebtedness, and its operating expen e., but also the annual indenlnity of Dlore than $; :000 per nlile. In 1 0 the l'ailroad company at the request of the Colomhian overnment converted this indelunity into bonds for a. period of twenty e,en and one-h[llf yeaTS. These bond were aftel sold hy the olornbian 0 efllluent to pri vat apita Oli, t so that this indelullity i now' beiney, and will continue to be until 1 0, paid to the pur cbas r of the e bond. Aft r that or til IfllR as the tr aty und r "hi h the a.nal i b iug con tru 'ted tipulc t R, that III unt will h p id by the T nited tat GoveruIncllt t th H public f Panama. In pr parino f r the work, th COlnpallY engaged tll 'VIC of two 1Hin nt AUH:l'i 'an ngin"\ xs xe rge H. rj t 11 and h11 t. 'Ire ntwille, h th of wh Hll had b en pr .vi t v ] r emp] d II inlI l'tlnt no-in ring un 1 rtakillO',

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139"1 b th at 11 111 und abroad. One of the e was the on-tructi n of .. canal from Jartagena to th l\fagdalena Riv r in ; 1 mbia by whi h they acquired me knowledge of the pa.ni. h language, a.nd an in ight into the manner of working the nati, e laborers. ctive work on the road began in the fall of 1 49. The first three month were devoted to establishing a depot at orgona for material and supplies, it having been the original intelltion to build the section of the road froln Gorgoua to Panama first. This plan necessitated the transfer of all material from ocean teamers to slnaller crafts and the voyaging of the latter around Point Toro to the mouth of tbe Chagres and up this stream to Gorg na. So many difficulties at onee developed to this method that it was shortly abandoned and Aspinwall (1) made the northern terminus of the line. One Way of Getting a Job. The laborers employed in the con trnction of the road came from eyery part of the world. There were natives, East Indians, "Test Indians, Chinese, and Americans, as motley 3. crowd as ever assembled under the SUllo The trial given the Chinese proved a dismal failure. One of the leading spirit of the time was J all1eS L. Baldwin, a civi l engineer to whom, by comlllon consent, the early cOlnp l etion of the road "as largely due. B aldwin was a good judge of Inen, and he knew as jf by intuition just what he could do with the worse than Falstaffian luob "ith "hich he was surrounded. His tact was seconded by an off-hand manner of utter fearlessness and personal daring. One day be had a difficu lty at Frijoles with an im mense Irishman wholn he bad previously placed in charge (1). Former name of Colon. Named after Y\". H. Aspinwall, on of the founders of the P. R. R.

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., . a 140" Pilot anrl Guide. PANAMA. EMPIRE. COLON. ::13 -u.. 11 e"t i:n.s. / Commercial Sign" Painting." of that 'tatioll ill ,,,hieh langlwgo fr '(]llC'lltly 1 n ill f tlIl y f1' e""'VH used. subordillat.) 'Yll \y)ll ,"kill \(1 i j th e Hlt\)""self-d.f uce HIHl "'no' l'Pc (ly to come to t h e cni t ,11. The i /',ite ell i f th o n g 11 110,1(1 tro II?' rna heel th l y FIrs of di sc l'rLiull, Hlltl tJC l1lH Up!, pa,\'C'tl np f r t h e ti 111" uei ng. ] \\"()Ill t Cololl th e I1l 1'Ilill0' follnwillo' to ill-.pet a, t1 tnC hl1lf>llt (.f 0 '1I1plo C,' 1)(,,,,1: arriv('d. li.-' q n i 'k ),'.) pil']'c d Gut a mall of H. thick-s<,t SLI tUl'0, da ;r]'" om-II and bull-t)g I o k [llld l lim tH f "( hilU Jiaf (Tll n .. tH 1d:" " an yon H IHI \l,Tit ? I (n. 1) y u want a 0 d ('( T j >1> ",ith 0 0<1 pay? 1 d p v" -y () II "r hen ) Il a p 1'1 Z \ fi (r 11 l? ()n(, (ll' tW). \VPl> '>l1 whipp d? t 111 11 h .

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1/(' Ira.'! nf ;UliJl[/ ({ .Juu. 141 o -on hink ther 1 (IlY 11 in tll part that can do it? Ijet tb Jl1 tl" j t. Then all,,-ill aiel.;' I W;lllt YOll t ()' ic FI'ijol '. tati n g till n row '\"ith tIl Ina, t-'l" o '/\' hilll a r ugh berl illg an 1 kick hilll ut. Yon C;lIl t})01l hay Iii. j b.' Th fier ,\"a
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142 Pilot and Guide. -===--=-= --= The Black Swamp. Probably the lal'g st ob tacle 111et with in the eOH. truction of th road was tho tretch through the betw:l n Colon [lnd G 8 tlln and particularly over the faluou, "Black Sw::nnp". This swalnp is located between Lion Hill and Ahorca J.Jagarto and has been giving trouble at intervals ever since the opening of the roa(L The COll tructor: (hllnped thou ands of tons of rock, ,rood and other ll1aterial i uto the ,\ r amp before a foundation was se cur d finn enough to be used for the passage of train During the period of the Fr81lCh canal cOlnpanies train orri 0 was frequent l y interrupted at this point and on each 0 easion tons of 111achinery and 'crap were dUlllped into the I lace. The Istlunian Canal Conunission bas twice experienced trouble during the p as t yea r froln the 'bottom falling out' in this lo ca lit y The Jast occurrence was in eptelnber ] 907, hen sixty feet of track sank out of sight ,'oon after a passenger train had passed. The Commi. sion has adopted the lllethod of driving piles as a supI ort to the track and where thi ha h en dOlle no further trouhle has resulted. It i the int on.. f.' uth In 1'I:t. r 'h n'l' at nn ting

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1/i1"l Train Into Pau a m a 143 -ARTURO KGHPCKE . 73 Central Avenue, Panama. -THE OLDE -, T Dnu STORE IN THE CrI'Y. Importer of Chemicals, Patent l1edicines al)d Perfumcrr. Prescriptions Prepared by Skilled and Competent German Pharmacists. ErJglish, French, @erITJElIJ and link of the Atlantic and Pacific i the Panama Railroad i finished and the first train has Inade its appearance amongst u opening up a ney" era of prosperity for the people of the Isthmus of PanalnaH On 1unday afternoon about half past three o'clock thou ands of people gathered along the Jine to ",itne s for the first time the appearance of the iron horse as it rattled o,er the tracks to the ta tion and many were the expres ion of surpri e and wonder at its appearance, and the facility ,,-ith which the wild creature was Inanaged. l\lules and pack saddles are now forever supplanted by the steam ellgiue, and the mud of the Cruces trail is ex changed for a comfortable seat in a railroad coach. The twenty-five cent per pound charged for transporting freight across the Isthmus is now reduced to a mere Dominal co t, and the long tedious journey over the Isthmus has been transformed into a pleasure trip of a couple of I hours'.

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Shipping .!i3ananas from .Y]ohio-.!JJanama. .1l..fl.ACIV.s .::1fJTenCllct.:Adverfr$ing.73un!au .:A .2J,enkowskl. I+'>

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Fo' 'f TJ'((ill III If) j'flJ/({/I/((. 145 "'Yhat \yill foll o w tIl Op '))in(f OJ' th"\ l'ailro(l(l it i.' he n1 t f r e t II. lnlt c i U}. (( g'l'(lnt lo01l1illg up ill ill li .. tal1' f U' ) ;lll:l11Ul. J)onht l(, .. th l' a tho.' thnt \Yill uffcr n t lllP0l'aeifi thr ope)) i I1g (If t 11 )a nama ailroad will b e hail e d \ \'itll cl()light. E rOlll north to .0I1t11' fr 111 ea t to "'c t o f 1'11 i l ui ()'h 0 en 11 wi II its bcncficent , influell s b e f e l t. } 1\'O l11 (l pt; H()rn to ()l'C'gOJ1, frolll I :un hatl c to J ap all, the anHlua }nilronc1 \riB tcnd to -arJ e l111U rein1 (1 v e l o p lll 11t. Au,ttalir\. anc1 all the i.-Ics f the en, are brouO'ht 1> i t i llto 11l1l11cdiat 'onta{t "ith tho ( oh1 'orld, alld the 0 1 011 i c \\'ill 1lO\Y looly npon 1)(111<-m<-a a hridg e vel' ,,,hi e h the trtfti w i th th 11' 1110tber ountry must pa .". ('But ,,,hat Briti 11 llloney flnd Frellch ingc1Iuity coula not ae ompli h jn l.lp,rn rc1. of a, qual tel' of a, cnh.ry, -Yankee ent rpris e h as ulld rtaken and carried thr ugh in fisc year' and ha s g i \'en to tho ,,"odd an 11101lU nlent of what a f e w d etcnnincd pirits of the tates can do' -. :The lHuue s o f "' "'"jIlianl H. spinw{lll and his oei-ate' who heac1-ecl thi.. g reat schemo 0 f Col. Totte1l, an d thQ e who with hi1l1 carried out the' are to bo 11umol'tnlizec1. and it j s t o b hoped that su'll 111ell 11);), lono be pared to itnc:s tll whi 11 tll ly 1 (lYC conferred on tho ,yo rld hy the ir illdef. iigahlc t flnc1 unflinchin g (1 t c rminati o n ill l Hlilding th Pau:l111a J{ailroad". In r lS()G t h e Lrgi: lati,YA of P n -11[\,ln<1 ad pted a r e soluti o 11 h 0110l'iug the h1lihlcl's of tho railroad, and auth orized th e placinn of a portrait of eaeh ill the reception 1'00111 of th e go venllncnt pab,cc ill Panalna the expense th o r eof to be pai d out )f the pt hI.ie t1'ea -, Ul'y. . .. ____ __ J ."'_ ... . _ '-_. _.'"-4' __ . .. _ --_ .. --.... ---------____

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4 146 Pilot and Guide, "ith the opninO' of the road a heavy traffic soon dereloped, which "ith the extrelTI ly high rates charged for pas engel' and fr ight. hauls, nlaue larue profits for the stockholder.. After a tilne these excessi,e charge becalne the ubject of conlplaints which came to the notice of the Colombian }o, ertnnent. A head tax 011 each pa senger c a rried over the road wa thereupon ordered, and in addition a large number of goyernment en111 0yes politicians and influential citizens "ere instructed to be placed on the free list. This resulted in an exchal1O'e of Botes between the Alnerican Minister resident at Bogota, and the Oolombian Governnlent, and a compromise wa finally effected by which the head tax to be removed upon the railroad company inaugurating a lower pa engel' tariff. The steamship cOJnbinatioLls COIl tituting in ee t a 11101l0poly were not changed until after the purchase o th e road by the United tates G-orernlnent. Panama Not What it Used To Be. That the railroad would benefit the Isthmus wa' not imnlediately apparent. ix l110nths after the 01 ening of traffic the Star d'; Herald prints tile wing article signed 'Traveler' : "Panama IS not "hat it u ed to b it i. 11 t th Panama f 1 49-;")4. Th n the California trayel afforded a large bu ine.' to the storekeeper ll1ul t r., tran p rta-ti H ag nt' hotel bankers, baggage mash r alnbl r nd thi ve.'. The' 111 pI ti011 o the Panalna R ailr 'ld enables I a senger and freight to I a through f1' TIl alii 1'-1l ia witbou t d lay. w all is chall 0 d. The
PAGE 164

HflilJ'()({d ( '()Jl(I ( .'. lOll E I f( lIr/u7. 147 DRE. E --OF--c. c. S. Du Bois & C o No 338 Cen.tral Avenue, . arlie ... u;hn hae S l1:in to ue don, 1', n1 -ork . in Olll' ]ill trill dn tn nll It WORK PROMPTLY AND CAREFULLY EXECUTED AT REASONABLE PRiCES, Railroad Concessio n Extende d. ith the cxtCll i Oll f tinl e o 'j,en by th 01 Inbiall OY rllment in 1 ) -an agreeluent wa nt red jllt where-by the railroa.d cOlnpany llsellte 1 to ext end it lill to 11 of the j la.ud .. ill th e lwrb or, r to a point ",her the wharves conI I 1 e reached at a1l times by l arge ea -O'ui llg yes eL. The ompally took 11 teps to c n11n nce tbi work and in 1 '177 the matter ,,'as made the ubject of 'ollsid rable orl'espollc1enc b etween it and tho OolombiLll b overnm 1lt. The railroad company took the talld that the agreemcut c uid be conl pli ed \\'ith at any time during the years of ext 11 while the' Bogota authol'itie lllaill tained that it nleallt '0111 tIl uate of the extensioll The pint howeyel' ,, as 1 t siuht of or a1lowed to pa' s ill th luore impOl'tallt callal negotiation' that Cal1le up abo ut thi time. -".Investigating Traf f i c Complaints. The traffic arrangement fomerly in yogue between the Panama Railroad team hip Company, and the Pa ific ail Steam hip Company whereby the latter h a d th exclusive privilege of issuing through bil1s of lading on f reigh t from Sun Francisco to ew Yark becanle the ____ I __ .... b _ __ ___ ---";:"-_____ ______

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148 Pilot and GI/ide. subject 0 offici, 1 action i 11 90?) a nd on JUDe 12th of that year the C011tl'Hct with P.l\I.S. .Co. was aboli heel. Previou to this it was the practice of the Pana111a Rail road COll11 any to r cognize no throu h bills of lading except those issued f1'o111 its O,Yll office in N ew York. Thus goods brought to the Isthmus by competing st amship lines ,,,ere subjected to the current local freight rates in shipping across COlnplalllts regarding thi 'it uatiOll becanle so nnnlerous that in 1905 Joseph 'V. Bri tow wa C01111nissioned to illYCstigate th e entire which he cljd by yisirng the I thlnn and going over the route to an Francisco. His r port which followed con tained In allY imp orta nt rccoD11nenclations among them being: -Cancellation of the xi ting ex In iv ontract with the Pacific l\t[ail S. S. Co., and the Pa-:!iIi tealll Navigation Com -pany. Continued maintenance of th Panama Railro:1d Steam-hip liue by the United. 'tate. ov l'Dment. E tabli. hment b the Government of a lin e be ,ve 11 ports on the Gulf and olon in ca e priYato capitalrefu::; d to take it up. E. tabli 'hment b the Go' r11m nt of a lin betwe 11 Panama and San :F ranci' 0, in the Pacific. l\fail t amhip o. deci lIto eli contiuu it el'yi B, and no other ompany nt red the field. Double-tra king th Pallama Railroad. Th ontracts with the ther teanlship conlpanl S ere call lIed ,June 1:2 1905. T h allt Inn. Rai 1 road tran1 hip 10111pn 1) y i till b i I1g TIll i Jl tai ned by tIl \ TOY nllncn t a part f th op l'-ti 11. of the Hll:una ailroa 1 ( Inpal1.'. It p s fiv .. tC:l1l1 r 'iz. tho anatnn. i )}Oll. d\'nl1 1 11l1H llC (Ill ]linll 'a. r 11 In t nall1 d ,,';t: III dry d ocl-unng tll ]n' t half f J 0 .... etHel ha been iliaI" cl tab at the (H( 1l1< In .. The In( illt nal1r(l f ,\'(I kly ,[\.1]111 11 rnit 111P, lly fr 111 T W ( 1'1 to 1 tt r 'CrYI than f nn 1'1 T (Ill 0\ )1' h the (init d 01 11 furn1 . he a III 1 art -th third

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r In 'e tigating Tra1}lc 071l1laint 149 rec mmendation mentioned ahov. The boat c vel' the di tance of 1400 Inile in five day, u t the pa engel' ac commodations are limited. The Pacific l\Iail teamship olnpullY at the present time is again the subject of official investigation. Oharg s are reported to have been made by the Panama Railroad. Oompany and the Isthmian Oanal Oommissioll that the Pacific l\lail 8.8.00. has been rendering inadequate and unsati factory service between Panama and 8an Francisco, thus proving all injury to business. Mr. Bristow has once luore been selected to investigate the situation and make a report, which will be ready early in 1 908. The double tracking of the Panalna Railroad is prac tically an accomplished fact. At the PalJama end the double track begins at the L!1 Boca "Y", about one half lnile from the city passenger station and continues to P edro l\tligue1. From here to Oulebra but one track is used From Oulebra to Gatun there is an uninterrupted stretch of double track. From (tatun to J\lIount Hope but OIle track "ill be used, and from Mount Hope to Cristobal there is a network of tracks, con1pnslng the Oristobal yards. The New Main Line. Work on the Hew main line of the Panama Railroad, as it will be when the canal is completed was begun in J une, 1907 The new li11e was made necessary on account of the low level of the old track, a great part of which will be submerged when the Gatun lake is filled. By the end of October, 1907, over three and one-half miles of this new t.rack had been laid One of the largest railroad embankments in the \\ orlrt, and probabl'y the largest in point of aVefitge height to length, will be located at (tatun on the new line. It crosses the valLey of the Gatuncillo river at an average height of about eighty-two feet, is one aud a quarter miles lJng, and will contain over 2,600 000 -------------------_.

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CENTF\.AL AVENUE, FRONTING ANCON BOULEVAF\.D. --_ ......... --.. STRICTLY FIRST CLASS AMERICAN RESTAURANT FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. MEALS., 'rABLE D'HOTE: $1.50 SILVER. A la Carte Service at All Hours of the Day or Night. Steaks, Chops, Oysters, Chicken, Squabs, lobsters, Game, and EVERYTHING IN SEASON. SFECIAL. E..-A TES TO. .PER.])oIl:ANENT GUESTS. -___ F -=:-= ....... C. S. BUTTRICK, Proprieto.r. cubic yardi of material. Owing to the great height and of this fill it will be necessary to build it in three sections. A trestle, thirty feet high and running the entire length of the fill, will first be built, from which material will be dumped by the construction trains. When the dirt reaches the top of the trestle another 30-foot trestle will be built on the dump thus formed, and the operation will be repeated until the final grade of the railroad is reached. The fill crosses an arm of the lake that will be formed by the Gatun dam and an opening will be left at the bottom of th fill in case it ever becom s n cessary to I drain the lake. In order to allow passage for boats a drawbridge of the Bascule type, about 100 feet long, i h ing COIl idel'ed. The new bridge over the hagres river n ar Ganlbo will be l' 20 f et long, con i tin(r of f urt nO-foot tl r ugh-girder I an. (nd ne 200-foot through-tru spall. r'h ntre ct for th t I w rk has b nIt to th P nn

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The or l Main Lin 151 Bridge OOlnpany and will cost 60,000. The fifteen span. will rest on fourteen piers and two abutments all of which will be built of concrete on pile foundations. It is esti mated that the masonry work "ill be fini hed about July, ] 90 There will he a tunnel at the first on the Isthmus, about 600 feet long. It will be a single track tunnel and will be lined its entire length with con crete. It is estimated that before the new Jine is completed 10,000,000 cubic yards of fill must be made. All these fills are being made with excav:1ted material from the canal cuttings. Plans have been prepared for a modern terminal yard at Panama of nine tracks, The terminal at Oolon has already been brought up to date. A new 50,000 IDodern passenger station 18 all that Panama now lacks in the matter of railroad facilities. Some Comparisons as to Rates. It is interesting to note the difference between the first passenger ana freight tariff of the Panama Railroad "hich went into effect February 15th, ] 855, and that of the present day. The following table will give some idea of the changes that have taken place:-1855. 1903. 1907. Fare Panama to Colon, 1st, class, $25. OJ $5.00 $2.40 Fare Panama, to Colon, 2d. class, Not quoted. 2.25 1.45 Cbarge for baggage, .10 p rIb. .02 per lb. .02 per lb Fr ight Rate, 1st. class, 3.00 per cwt. .40 per cu. ft. .50 per cwt. Freight Rate, 2<1. class, 2.00 per cwt. 1.20 per cwt. .44 per cwt. Freight Rate, 3d. cIa s, 1.00 per cwt. 0 per cwt. .32 p r cwt. All the rates mentioned ill the above table were payable in gold. vVhile the fare from Oolon to Panama was at the rate of over 50 cents gold per mile, it.! those days it was not ('A)nsidered excessive, in fact, travelers

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152 PUot and Guide. congratulated themselves upon getting over the Isthmus so easily and cheaply. Children under twelve years of age were charged half fare, or $12.50, while the rate to residents on the IsthlTIUS was commuted to the flat amount of $50.00 per lllonth. A large number of articles at that time dId Hot come under the gelleral classifieation, and carried special rates. Olle quarter of one per cent. of its value was charged for the transportation of gold across the Isthmus. Silver ,vas charged one-half of one per cent.; jewelry and precious stones one-quarter of one per cent.; indigo and cochineal, 2 cellts per pound; coffee and cocoa 1 cent per pound; coal in bulk $9.00 per ton of 22-10 pounds; coal in hags $7.00 pel' tOll of 2240 pounds, iron in pigs $7.50 per ton; rolJ8d iron $10.00 per ton; white pine lumber $18.00 per thousand feet; yellow pine lumber $20.00 per thousand feet, and oak at $22.00 per thousand feet. Horses, mules a nd cattle were transported at owners' risk. The rate on horsfls was $40.00 each, lllules $20.00, and cattle $7.00. All bills for freight had to be paid in advance, but the Inanageulont in its first schedule luade tho consoling allnOUnCIUent that as soon as tho business of the road would warrant, SOlno of the above rates might be materially rednc{Ic1. The baggage charge was a feature the traveling public did not like, especially inasilluch a the 111UnagClnent rnted overcoats, umbrellas and the like unn r this head. So lTIuch kicking" resulted that about three mon1 hs after the fir t rates were put into effect, the cOlllpany p nnlttcd passengerR fifty pounds of baggage free. The first-clns' passenger rate between Oolon and Panama at the titne the United tates took the railroad over was $5.00 gold. On the fir t of Augu. 1904, the rate wu. reduc(?d to $4.00. I. .. at r it carne down t 0 c III c gain to 2.40 where it sta.nd <: t th pre cnt time. Passeno'cr trafti over th) railr ad during th r a. t y ar or 0 has showl} n enonnou increase. Thi i in pc. rt due t tho e lIsta nt acc') i 11 ill th rank th,

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to' II -----C C. Sanitarium at Saboga 9s/and --4-.7Idverlfsinll -A .i3ienf. .. owski. ---------------,

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154 Pilot ancl Guicle. rwee@ (ill (ffi t (ffi IWE> (]) (]) Q) (]) (]) (j) (l) (]) -..-.-.0+--(]) (l) (I) A Varied A ssortlnent of (J) (]) Q) (J) U (]) (]) (j) (]) (]) DEY GOODS (]) (J) (]) $ (]) Q) (]) (D A lways on Hand. (j) (j) Q) (]) :j) (I) <11' to bay) ha I allY apl IE' i:l le' ('ff( t Oil ill in ll.'-L Ul1l1ian bu.'ille, t date, whit t:w local LIl'ille i . Jl talltly in '1' in v lUIlH'. ho fr 'jnht trtf ].' h Jl raIl lH'avi .. t dnrill';" th u 111 ) llth of JannaI" and

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-------, A' me ('UllljJ({J 1'011 ((' II) Palt 155 =----rue. r T "\"h 11 th ff l 1.-) f 'un 1 r e nl I Iltnd ar In Yll1g'. '-Some Railroad Earnings. 1 I era i 1 r alp e i cl d i \ i 1(' 11l1. 0 11 i t Y r r fro III 1 t 1 \. .2. T 11 In n 11 .-thi en iro peri (1 We.' two I cr lit ]arae t ..tP r c nt. in IJ \. In 'va. iller a:e
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156 Pilot ana Guide. the last year that the railroad was owned by American capitalists, a dividend of 52 1/2 per cent. was declared. This however, not only represented the earnings of that year, but included the assets on hand at the tiIne the road was sold to the French canal cODlpany. The avera O'e a.nnual dividend paid from earnings of the company fro 111 1853 to 1 1,,, as a fraction less than fi ve per cell t The road had always been a financial success, and while under the control of the American stockholders, exceed ingly profitable. The original cost of the Pallanla Railroad was a little over $8,000,000. During the first tcn years of its operation it transported over $700,000,000 worth of speeie and 300,000 bags of mail, and it is said that not a dollar of the specie nor a bag of mail was ever lost during this period. Future o f t h e Railr oad. In the investigation o the Panama Railroad Oompany made by a comlnittee of the United Stat s Hou c of Repr s ntatiy s in 1905, the follo\\ ing question "as a -ked by lVlr. J ohn Esch, Repl' tive ron1 'Vi con, i 11:---Wh 11 the canal is finally COrDI I t 8 d, the railway line win h devoted almo 't wholl T 0 local traffic, will it not ,Villianl Nel Oll Oronnv 11, the railroad s coun d then under cxalnination, rpplied:-" That. is a v ry inter tlng q ueRtion 1\'[1'. aud on 111 011 whi h traffi 1 ill n diff l' ... .. I do 11 t 'har t.h plLn 11 that th Panctma Raill' ad will becomo vaIn les. ftt that. tim man an jtHIO'(' what, ill b th 11 itioll t n ,'P 1',' IH'llCf' with th 110" ffic le111 "'ut (th 'a ,nnl) :t 1 ra ,ti<.:i ll thing h for iL-ll( t '1 tIl l'Y n.: t -<1,1,:. ,]'11(' l',lill' n l will pl'uha Illy t11l'1) b (P l'nt'd hy l'hdl'l' P W 01' g DU', ('ll ............ at OIl \ >f U (> gl'('< L wat('1'-p W I' P Elt"\l'i('it: -ill ill 'Xlll.iv'ly pl'lln"(l nth line of (lw -all. 1 1)." wat l'-P WU' and t 11 1':1111'0<1 1 11

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. : Futur 157 b op rated in that way thu -'at]y l' Iu -inrr 111" ,t f op ration. At that tim 1 to w' will ha," pai 1 IT th, fir mortgage out f < ruinO' an 1 In-fix ,1 -hal'g' will tllU -1 rduced; th local u -in' will 1 e a -tiy' all 1 Panama an I '01 11 will be far m l' iml IHtant than th y nl" t -la", .... arly Y ry pas -eng r approa hiug th -anal })\' t 'alller ill eli -mbal'k a one or the oth r tf:'l'lniui and takiJl(f th' lui t railr i:l 1 tran -it a 1'08 the I thmus will vi 'it th Cl -iti .. ani oU.' 'l'V' t11 intere ting ights dW'illg th da.y, whil th t "am r i .. pa ing t.hrough the can'd, Th :t am r ,ill ent r th canal at unri e at Colon, 'ay and will mak it l'xit at Punan: a at unset, and the pa sellger in the m('an tim> "\ ill hay' pn.: dover the electric railroa 1 and b amu -iug him.'elf in eitlt r city while the steamer i .. m viug through th awl!. Th 10 al traffic will have growll to important' th ouu tl' will haye developed, alld bu.'iIle' v. ill hav ... :pnmg up along til lin of road, thereby furni -hing local traffic .. Dock Facilities. At Colon, the PHlWnUt l{ailro:td C< Illp:lIl_' bas thr e wooden wharves and olle fine llew dock '(IJllplt'ted ill 1 06 (Dock 11), at whic11 all of te:llncr' ]I()W lalld. There are two other whan'l-'s at this poiJlt (lIlC WII d hy the Royal 1\f::til Co. alld th} other, ))0\\ out of repair, by the Pacific ail S. Co. Th port all 1 terminal at La Boca was c(:ll1plrteu alld op(,lled to COlluner e on SPLENDID LINE OF' CHINESE AND JAPANESE SILKS. Toorlsls and visJIOrS 10 Ihe ISlhmus ore COrdially invileO TO Inspecl Our GooOS. WE ALSO ATTENTION TO Our Coznplete Stook. of" Fine Liquors

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158 Pilot ({}ul G llide, t il,lHlcUY ]', 1001, at 0 t of ft .. 148j30:L Thi' in'Iud 1 the teel 1 ier which cost th o Innjor portio1l of his .'um. The pier i .. .' 960 fo t Ion IT, and tho depth of ",n t r alollg'ic1 is 26 feet nt l o w tide. In 1 <)0:-it 'Ira. foulld 11ece.: 'ary to Inake a 'onsid rable extensio n for the unloading f hllnber anI hea".) Inaterial de tined for the Isth) 'l1ian anal 01111111S51 011. pier i' equipped with l e 'ctri' Talles an 1 other apparDtus for 1'(11 ic1 ullloUtlillg the \V oden lumber do 'k was so bnilt th a t it Ilable th \ 1.111-loac1iug of as llHlCh as _00.000 feet of lumber ill a ingle day. .. NIGHT O F HORROR IN APRIL'56. ,Vhen the ,'lnent c1 by the idle pack-train men wh finclillO' llothillo' pl' fitall to do turned to way dark and devi U H. addition l1Ht1l. \\"er open l y ulltngoui ti .. t '}"aill' whih had taken froln th ttl th ir In<:'an f Ii\' liho d ... All f thi ] c1 up to the 0 "CUl'ren e h e r ei n relat d It. -bonll h unclel':tood that the b Unr In.'' of eitiz Ll' ha l ]} ) part ill the affair. al hough th authol'itie' w t1 with woful l a ,'it '. fl'l'witnl tll \ 1)) p) pIc o th tUWJl t ok tIle illi iativl' CllHl help <1 rid it of the lawI) lell) )out. E
PAGE 176

159 ria f that 111 nlioht \'ellillO' wa' Ll'uk 11 ly li' an Ti' all 1 th 11 i' f mall) f t I'u hing thr uah th : l' ct, 'Ih 'hurch b 11, out ide the wall, t II d th 'i nal f Dr. ut un 11 'i u J) th y rang an alU!'Ill of a Jll t l'rille nll ur thfln all (Ie-I'm that :pelled 1'00-h ry alld murdcr and llt mol' tho n adz non unkn ,,-n OT( yeo f"'!' th 1j IHlb(:' ,,,ere h a 1'(1 Oll eyery nd the rll h cOllcentrated it elf ill that elire tion. The ienaga W1I .. a
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()) t 0 I t l s J , y J j 2 e I I I I 1 1 I .CD CD .1J,'rdS e!le view if and vlcinilv-!A::mama 1 ... ",,_ -.J!I_rl " :l!J! JI..Ait_ .&"-"

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-)-=r A of IlorJ'ol' ill Ipril l(.J). 161 Som brerer a de M. ENDARA. Colle 90. Numero 69, Henle 0 ModurO-lupl Go PAN AMA. E :MER EL TRABAJ E p ciati .. t. I'll ntn df' Sombreros de Panama. =---ENDARft, The Hatter. No. 69 Ninln 81. Fron! 01 MotlurO-lupl Co. PANAMA. )IY W RK T' TRY'TLY FIR T 'LA ALL ORDERS GIVEN PROMPT ATrENTION, If Y -ar ThjnkinO' of Bn iog PANAMA HAT :'EE :liE FIR. T. I A SPE lA Ll:T L'" TEL' LL E Nelson of the railr ad company ,, ere not far away when the outbreak 0 cUrl' eu Rnd quickly ellt for Col. Garrido, and the police. l\Ieanwhile Ollle of the pas eogers had talted down to the wharf to embark hile other cluluored for gun and anlmunition to go to the re cue of the women and children in the hotel. .A.ll the arms in the railroad office at 1ho till10 COIl. i ted of a double-barreled gun brace of pistoL a ahre and fourteen old flintlock musket. After some delay th s gnn' were given ont and loaded for defence, but a 'entry was tationed at the door to prevent any froln going ont and joining in the fight. While this was going on 1\11'. Oentel, another of ficial of the railroa 1 succeeded in getting the women and children removed from the Ocean Rote 1. Col. 'Vard the Alnericall consul: and SabIa, his secretary arrived on the scene at this juncture, and endeavoured with other cooler heads to restrain the" nlaIe passengers from mixing in the fray. .L<\ n old cannon be longing to the railroad cOlnpallY wa dug out of the sand and loaded with rivets. but 001. Ward and 11r. Center gave positive orders that it ,,-a not to be fired unless an ad vance was made by the mob. The consul then sent his secretary to see if the police were cOIning, but as he did not return, (having been shot in the leg) the con ul and 1\1r. Nelson went forward to ee how nlatters tood. They had not advanced beyond the Pacific House wh n a crowd of natives came froll1 alTIOng the cane huts. 1\1r.

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162 Pilut ((lid Gllid ... e l n raIled to tll"lll not t o firc. uut tho)' cli'=1'pgnrd 1'( 1 l' alld ] r .. t off ;1 Ilumbpl' of shots. SOll18 f which 01. 'YHl'tl' hOI". 1\11' Trlsoll ,' p tubtf\d with peopl hut the' r t(lkl him to keep ont of tll WHy c1 tll hit Il () t to go h (\ (' k to t llu tnt i 0 1) : II nl .:;; 11 C \y j 11) t (l <1 t 0 alld b tllr kill (1. :\Ir .... 1('1.'011 1 ersis t ,d in his cour r t) ynnl bltinn Clud final!. 1','aehpl1 there in nfety. In the mefll1til1e 1110s t If the pn:, :11:1 lKl. at th e .'tn tioll hnd g()t 111'ide the compnlly" ft'l!cr and .. hdtel'()d them 'cl\'p wpl] [IS poc: .. ibl i1'OI11 111c hl1llrt. 1 hn t llOW flew thick [llld fn 1'he IHO}) hnd Ill:d Iltl i llr<1 a }'fHTular Oil tilt' huildill(T killing sev_l'nl : 1lc1 WOl1J.(lillo' n th '1'. l'E)})0.l't \vas th<-'Il pl' en d thHt til llfltir(' W _1' C'bnlloillg their p()siti I\,' :1I}(1 ('r el' '01)1' felt :1, little (';1 'Irl" h Ii illg that whel1 ,)1. :tnl'l'ido :1rri\'rd with the pnli 'e, thl) nffa ir "'ould be J)el'dily ttl'lllin:lt(vl. Oil after th' bu I e of the polico was lwnrd: but 1llstpnc1 f Ch:1I'gill( Il ih riote}'., tht)y joined i .. He with thPlll. nllu ('0 III 111 II .1111(1 til l1:tti\, .. ,till p:1l111( rin til (t'( all 1 t'1. nd ,:\1 -.. \lIi.'t }", .. t }(. \"hil H niHil oJ) tIl lW:l h 11:1<1 a (':)11-I1flll Ifl; :<1 .I and poillt 1 :It tit : t :l1ll!'r T((/)()lJ(( I" Il 'ar 1\. It \\':\,' \\ ith ,'( Ill r difti('ulh that. 11 il.(ll1c( 1 ]lot . to fjl llll'( t) tit 1 1(\ I'll d that \01. ';Il'l'ilo of 111)

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Xi!l},t l/o)'}'(J)' III .1;)1';1 J.\.;r; 163 ------, "The Best Bread in Panama" P DE IA DE J05 E G I 8 : E R -r [!lire /OS Calles B y 12 O Ie, Eo. 81. / Fanar.rla Verdict of the American Colony. r o JOSE 81 W.121n Sl.,one bloCK lrom SID. AnD PorK Panar:n.a. 0< .1 ............................................................................................... ........................... 0<'" ... ............................ ... ......... ................. ..... ......... ... -... . I.>ANADEI,-I' I E ; : .... ,BALBINA. GetanJe. 2 1-') 3 all" I:fEstc; Fanam'a. SUCURSAl, Avenida No. 200. , ... ... ... T res Panaderias en P .ahama de, Jos&: 6Iaert . ; I AI<: RY Jose Gibert & Co. j BALBINA CASIS, Manager. [' 201-2 .) E 13th St. PanaIl\a. : BIUNtH at No. 200 Central Avenue. '. R(';)r in llIin(l YOIl can gt't C;' [BEnT',' : D nt filly of th1'( '(, phH'P::;, , La Decision de T odo el police hnc1 gQn oh bORn.! the T(lb 'oga. di nnlled th e pc. s f'ngrr and rO}110Ycd,: tho .. \\ hile th '"other official ,,,ere J"O ent Oll th e aboro er1'fI lid, 1\f r::'.Cel1ter 'who remained behin<.1 tart c1 to take a look itboutthc depot. He fund the freight 1'00111 filled ,yi th 'Y0111ell a.lid children f\ 11 try} 11 0 to .'creen J'" J : I U th mRe he, frOl11 the fi ri ng; the 1)' Ycr, T' h1'i 'k. H nd } Il a state of th ",il(l t cxc item pt. :E'l'Qlll hero h e ellteretl officr ",here he fnulla a al'011p' of 1n n t r y 'lnn' to keep t110, outer doo!' closed. H c p1'ocecc1r 1 to as '1st and 'rhi1c\ (lnillg so '" a 111(1)) killed bcfore hi, c.yc, On the floor of th offico 1:1.' four or fi \'e of fle -dead fI nd wou Ilcled. l.ra \' i ng tlw ccn of laughter he next 111 a 11ft aeel to g{t, n. pbllk oYer the '-0 the fl'<:,ight cloor nnd lookin g out UpOIl the Ciell:lga. he eli tinctl} R'" tb o p olic outsido the depot fi1'ino (leli crut el), iuto it, Col. jarrido ,, ith hi sword dnnrn cheering :lad uro illg theln on. Proc0rdillg from he1'o to 11) of tho 1'oo, n in th UlpCl' tory

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164 Pilot and Guide. f the tatioll 1\J1'. Center discovered two of the passengers tr\' i 11 to hold a door hut. Even as he approached them, they were both hot, one dying instantly an d the other in a few hours. The natives finally forced a passnge i n to th fr ight rOOln, and comnlenced to rifle and p l under ral] et bag, find trunks, while the frightened passengers c ngr gat d here1 cried for Inercy. Ili .. Q: Cl Lci G LQ "-0 ...... ).. V) 2: ill '" Q: ;::, 0 Q t> 0 Q: ....J ....... , I, I .. .::!!'P ",' t, : I I / .. n.. ll.l 0 Ul l> V) ___

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nJ Horror in April, 1 5 165 -N tlf, .. I-a <:e11-be 1J .be a. te -P0't-6)) a C,H -pa.'t.a 1;t REPRESEIUCIOMES Y COMSIONACIONES. A venida Norte No. 129 Bajada del l1ercado, Pal\aIl\a, IGNACIO RUIZ GARCIA. QtitlO" We beg to call thp, att ntion of the READER of thi B OK to OUR PLENDID AND OMPLETE LINE OF NOvEL-TIE AND Y ARTICLE. Every Incoming Steamer Brings Us SOMETHING NEW. See onr SPECIALTIE in CLOTHES FOR LADlE AND MEN. 1Ne sent Companies and Handle their Consignements. NO. 129 Morin Avenue, nem the Morket. IGNACIO RUIZ GARCIA. \Vhen Mr. Nelson and Capt. reached the station after leaving the (iovernor, they found th e police outside in a very excited state. They claimed they had been fired upon from the upper story of the depot, and were desirous of retaliating in the sa.me Inanner. Upon Capt. McLaue prolnising Col. Garrido ordered further delDonstrations upon the palt of the poli ce to eease, and together they went to the rOOlU upstairs in the depot from which the Rhots were alleged to ha ye come. This room they found filled with women and childrelJ, the few men there declaring they ha.d never fired a shot. About this time the authoritie had obtained the as cendancy over the Inob1 and as soon as possible the re11lainiug WOluen and children were cOllyeyed on board th e steamer. SOlne of the passeng ers had taken to the bushes in the outskirts of town, and a search party wa.s sent out to round them up. ()Ile was Inet who said he had beell robbed by lllen calling themselve s policeluell.

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1 6 6 Pilot and Quid l\n e nlllinat i ( i l of the railroad office afte r riot I a t e rl'ihl lO'ilt. T h e dea d a nd woulH,led lay about t h e ti )fI r o f th e f onner horril> 1 mu ti I::. ted. 11 th e h ooks.1>:lp('1', :llHl flll'llitul'c (Jf t h e COlllP[JIl Y <.'1'e (lc tl'o ycd. 11 n ttp1l1p had hepp Blade to brea k o p e n the l a rg e iro n ,:,ft" t l h o lt) J w ring t1 tn ( llly h 11 l 11u d e thro ugh the cxteri o r p la t 0 ()l1t.'idc; SOInG of the car he. d b ee n d a llwg e d, r ail t:,k 11 IIp. [ 1)(1 thC' tC'l rO'raph wi l' S c ut. The a ttem pt to ti \'(' t h e d \: p ot pro\'ide ntla 11) fai l ed. street s a pproa hinn' tlw \\'e r c h'eWll ,,, i t h ('ut o pen trnnk : a nd eli -C'Hnh'c1 llln t ria l fro m the sacket l builc1illg s., 'rlw l i\'rs of ... ixteen Ame ricHn are kn own, t o h()xe hC'e 11 l( I:t i It th e [tIl btl t two p assenge r o f. th e s tea [1/ i lIois fro m X w ork Of th ese 0111v f OUl' "or fiye w e r e J idl lltitit,c1. r J b e ,yollncle<1 lIl11nlJe r ecl a b ol:1t fift y Atno n g t h e o f the trng ccly '''fl, Nath a q a d esc, e nd n lIt of .;Olll1110c1ore Pre b l e the ]lotrd A mrri 'an ]la val' offi 01' ( 1 ) 1. Ii. hip, t. arrived ill P a n e Ina B < y on t110 f ollc nrill() tJ C OCCUl'1'CnC'. and t11 ; Pallall1ft t:tr <. HC'l'.l l (If \pril 1 Hi)(). !ltni n f o llowin g cor' fr,'pollc h I I 'C' b ( Il,W('CI1 its Cap t. T. 'Bnih'y a li Faln' (P:n ()\'(,l 'll l' o f 1>:111<1 lllfi. cU'blll' of' I ;U1R.lIHl, ',:, A Il' il L 5G. : ",: ()1l 111{' ].")111 illst" s ,y t 'al (itiz 11,' f Ih( "'ll, it({ l tnt s, ).'I'llll((', illld : j'( a t Bl'ilaill \V( : l P .1; otll 1'(,, r i : I .... t . '. ( I ), Till' ()('('IlI'l'(,I1('(',' hPl'pil1 l '('htc (1 :11'(1 hn. t ( 1 1l IlIllth 11, \ :\r l', ( ( 1)1(' 1 .md :\11' \\'111 .,T('i:-;()11 or tlH P;lll
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r ,. "'I lO, -------6.-z/ranc(! to .:I/ncon 'flospilal-:Panoma .1sf/uiJi tln 4 :P.1l.:N../nw. .J-oftl."rliliy.!1Jureau ..:A.

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168 P ilot and Guide. 1, r woun led and outraged, and a large amount of American property was plundered by the police and inhabitants of Panama and vieinity. The e outrages, robberies and murders were for the most part committed upon innocent and unarmed men, women and children, who were peacefully endeavoring t.o pass this great highway of nations. It is my chief duty to employ force under my command for the prompt protection of the lives and property of American citizens. An early explanation therefore, of the cause of t.his catastrophe, as well as some evidence of your Ex ellency". inclination and ability to prevent such occurrences, i desired by me in determining the necessity of my immediate interfer nce for the protection of the persons and property of the citizen of the United States, until specific orders from my Government shall be received. I am Sir, Your Obedient Servant, T. BAILEY, Commander, U.S.N. The Governor replied in a lengthy statenlent reciting the origin of the affair, setting forth that he had sufficient f rce at his disposal to preyeut a repetition of such occu 1'r a lId enclosing depositions from Jose Manuel Luna who was concerned in the row with the American, and two froln natives of the U nitecl one T. B. ,Villi anls, years old, a native of Georgia and an em ploye f th railroad company, who gave te timony against th pa ng 1' The tatem nt evidently did not afford satisfa tion to th A1l1erican offic r for two days later on th 2 r th of Al ril a ond r presentation was Inade to the OY rno1', as f llow il': I lu vr th hon l' t a know] .dge re ipt of your r }Ill K to l'uy (' mmlmieatioll. f th ad. cl,n<1 in t. Apt: rt 1',' m tIl' lwnoune m .nt f th l' .. t ra.tion t th wn r, f th 'amI( 11 allcl arlll. ill J'ally 1. k n from th t am l' 1'aboga J llln t Ill' 't-) th y afro!' 1m littl .'ntit'fa ti n. I had exp t d

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Xiyllt Hor,."r ;11 April 18iil i I SAlVADOR ClARAMUNT, SAlVADOR ClARAMUNT, No. 260, C entra l Ave., P a n a m a Fine Lin of ,rat -ltf:'. .Jetc 'lr!J lind '. WE HANDLE THE WALI'DAM CALL and INSPECT our GOODS. AVENIOA CENTRAL, NUMERO 260, PANAMA. 'urlido compl cio d R c loj c "lra 'ulo de JO!Jcda y Solicit amos Que i n s p ectio n e Nuestro Establecimlento, when adking for illformation as to the cau e of th frightful OCCUlT Dces of the 15th in t., that apart from the immediate origin of the tumult, you would have deemed it due to yourself a the Chief l\1:agi hat.e of thi 'ommunity to state why and wherefore you undertook th fearfulre pOll ibility of ordering your police to fire UpOll my <.'ountrymen, women and 'hildren, and to state what step you ha e taken to punish the guilty and restore the plunder. " Ten day have elap, .. ed ince the cata trophe, and I have yet to learn that a ingle hl:\' been arre ted) 01' that any portion of the immense amount of valuables taken from the passengers and railroad company has been re tored. I have yet to learn that your" Concien ia de mis deberes y la inteligen ia d e l os grande intereses que e ligan a la conservacion de e ta linea tntnsito universal, extends any farther than to order an i ndisc riminate massacre of the passengers over thi tran it. I have yet to lear n that when a riot or a colli ion hall take place here between foreigners on one side, and natiyes on th other, t hat yo u recognize any higher obligation on your part than to p rotect and a:sist the latter, and
PAGE 187

---,.-------------170 ])il(1/ ((JI(I r; /lidf'. rupture'. l)ut \\ iscl' 11 IH(l-prcyailetl and se ttl e nlell or 'u$ht ahout through tlw 'lllCJ)t by (\liolll hia of tho st u n of I UO.l1{ lnt1l1111llity for propcl't destl'o 'eel, and the ;i 'lIrHII('(' Oil ll{)r part that IlO further (I 'ClllTCil of the kil}(l would tako pIa 'c. -.. --ATTEMPTS TO PIERCE ISTHMUS 'rho fil':t l'cl'onlcd rccogllition gi\"CH the p ossii>iiity of a ':1\)(\1 through tho J:thlllU' ClPPCL1l'S 011 all old Hlnp ill lhe lil)l'(ll',)' at XUl'(IJ1l1)Pl'g: (ll'a"\\'11 hy Sc1WIlCl'. rplds Inap is dated L)l;) l'i 'e. III I .. J. L LI()yd flt'tillf .. ; \lIlt! '1' tl (' tlllthorit.y f il 11))1 Pl'(', id(lllt. of' ill, (ll_' tl_li l_li_II_' __ llf'J ra

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.IIIrJlljJf. fo P u}'('(' J lIuJlII . 171 --------I IC )'E:'I_' AS C _, I -.2 I e It t t: :l r t1 LeI ttl C ;! l 11 a. 111 (1.. S FR.E,EDEER.G, Proprietor, American Bar and Restaurant, Dining Saloon. Furnished Rooms, First Class Service, ( 'ui inc Oll the EUI'OPCftll nll(l Anl ri 'an Ian. El .... u 111 nO'. H Oltl "'l'lI' Yl!lItilatl'd aud L'ght'lt tl1l'
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172 Pilot and G ltide. by Adlniral Chas. H. Davis the following year, the latter decried the idea of constructing a canal at this point owing to 11atural By using the Atrato R iver, the artificial part of the route would be materially shortened, but it would be uecessary to tunnel through the Cordillera. Tn 1875, t.he Isthlnian route was again surveyed, this time by Connoallder Edward P. Lull and A. G. }lenocal. Their line ran fronl Litnon Bay to the Ohagres R iver, and along its valley to high land, and from thence follow ing the valley of the Rio Grande to the Pacific, practically the route a.s subsequently adopted by the French company. About this tinle OOIDlnander Selfridge was also making additional explorations in the Darien region. 'Vhile the various Isthmian routes were being con sidered rOln differellt points of view, the scheme constructing a canal across Nicaragua was also commanding a good deal of attcntion, a.nd a number of surveys were nlade. These have however but little bearing on the main point at issue-the Panalna Canal. DE LESSEPS--HIS GREAT SCHEME. Two powerful influences w()rked to interest the p pIe of 'e j n th idea of cutting through the I thInus OJlC' as the u ssful c(Jlnpletion of the Suez allal and th th r wa the per' nal popularity and tn( gncti 'In f its prom ter, Oount Ferdinand de Lessep. Th u z anal wa begun in 1 59, aud conlplcted without n ount ring any u cb tacles, ten years later. This a hi ycn n gav IJ el a reputation as a canal build r, nd lnad it sy for him a f w years afterward I r

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e (liu l IIi rf (It 7 1 IJl 173 -==-====== t tel 11 fi ] 1 '( 1)( 1 I ra tiol1 al1d he ll-fid n 11. e ya 11 t an 11 illccring I ert lefiniti n ut h e had a ya t int llect a hi c mIlle: n 1 an 1 an unu ual (-ci]it y f r 1'-ganiz L ti ll. Tha 11 ,e1' (l1O'uille canu t b e 1 ul t d an 1 that this fault led t hi.. lllakin eri u 1111 take none leny. n the oth l' han 1 he T a in arne. t i 11 h i nthu i tn for the ucce. f the project and funcl anle ntall y hon tin hi purp) e. Thi a not be said of all tho e he ha 1 under hiln . one of his countrylne n once r -m( rked.: f all th lllen hiO'h in authority l1O'agec. with De Le p all th he' ,, a a ut the n]y one wh e hie endeavor was not to feather hi n e t:' Can it be w n 1 red that a fabric built upon a f oundation 80 fault,) houli be cloolned to failure? At the inception of canal operation ani for several years afterward De Le eps wa I ractically idolized both in France a nd on the I 'tllll)U . Hi advent at Panalna was heralde d a a greater ev nt than that of a onquenng ene1'al 1'eLu1'ning houle. Agitation in France in favor of cOILtructing the I thmian waterway was begun in 1 -,-and r esulte d In the fonnation of a company under the direction f Gen. Turr for th pln-pose of entering upon negotiations with Colombia to obtain the nece sary conce sion. In l\Iay, 1 -,LucIen T B \ Vy E' a lieutenant of engineer in the French ann and a br therin law :xe n. ':Purr wa delegate 1 to yj i the I thnul conclude n e goti a tions and 11lap out a feasible route. The right of We y w ( s ecure d, 'with the proyi 0 that nothing in the contract houll 1 c nstruec1 to interfer in any wa with the grant' i,en th Panama Railroad under a conce ion to an a 0 iation of .A1l1erican capital1 t
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11-II f'> Cor030/, an .71merican suburb if .7>al1ama. -','''m, n 4 51 ./Yews :lJp.n< dI -------------------------_._-----

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,------------------D c E IE L\LID.\D EX D_\L Z<' P -UL 13 YE Y 'OLEhA '. U \ICO co su CLASE eo PAN.HtA, }.sp<'ciali:-;ta p. rn }<'abricnr > iu. tala 'ion '" d ruaquinaria nO' n OC'llrra e ala Botica d(' Barafiano, Avenida entral, Nu. 116. Francisco Escamilla, L rQuitecto-Construct'r. 1-:-/5 TIt' t Bri'k Tanl ill Panam< tuHl th 111' 11 of It. la. Specialty Made of Tiles aod Material fer Concrete Roof COD truction Ex ('ptlon
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176 Pilot and Guide. the Government of Colombia was to be entitled to a share in the gro s income of the canal from all sources on an increasing scale of from five to eight per cent. dating from the seventy-sixth year after its opening to the termination f the concession, four-fifths of which was to go to the epublic of Oolombia, and one-fifth to the State of Panama the company controlling the enterprise to guarantee ho,,ever, that the Governlnent's share should not be less than "2,-0,000 ea ch year. The right to transfer these pri,ileges to other capitali ts or c0111panies was conceded, but an bsolute prohibition wa made against ce iOll or mortgaO'ing to any f reign government. The international commission of individuals and engineers, known as the International Scientific Oongress 111 t in Pari on l\lay 15, IS-n. There were present delegate roo t of whom were French. N early all European countries were repre ented however, the eontingellt from the nitecI State numbering eleven. The conference wa. r re ided over by Count De Lesseps, aud continued in sion f r two weeks. The net result was the reaching of a cIeci ion that a sea-level canal should be constructed froln Lilnon Bay to the Bay of Panan1a. This ilnportant point settle 1, the canal eonces lOll 'Y( tran ferred to La Oon1pagnie niver elle in Oanal Inter ec niqe de Panalna commonly kno\\in a the Panan1a n{ 1 ..Iompany n organization chartered under the law rance. e Le sel a gir n control ani n of hi fir t t p t ken wa t I tlIcha c a c ntrollino int r t 11\ h analllD. a ilr )ad 1111 any' hi h ill\' 1" cl tho han til g nel. O. Arrival of De Lesseps. h tIt
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__ -r--.-y----------------, / i.,. i I'fr/ J)(l [ rSSf ) 177 --th' n of tll'lt day tll' Ft' 'lwh ,t(laln.r Laj((yette ,, i h CC'Ullt F-'u.lillan 1 de Ijes fI>' ,,' n :igllnlled ( t C 1011, nlld soc II a f crwal' I.. 11 t(1 n'el 1 hr. ha 1'1> r. Th te:llner ("alH illllue-dial I nlolll id, the wlptrf ,vh ,}'e the r ceptioll ('DIn 1111 tt 0 (1 ppoi ted I),Y the GOY 1'n the delegation fronl the tate ssembly. antl a large number of illviteo 'itiz(,II,' wet' 'ollectrd t w(-'I '0111e the illu trion llgltl er allel th other luember of his party. ... lit tl I [lst -t p. 111., the land i ng stage was 1 u t on board :lnc1 nll l't' lJair cl t the sp;lcioll. saloon of the whcre' a formal of welf-olue wa lllade by A. ie pedes, Chairman of the reception c0111mittee, which ,,,as responded to ill a hrirf but hearty lnanner by 1\1. de Les rp Then fcllowec1 short and appropriate d re ,es bv 1\Ie An Ire, e and Prestan of the State ,A,s, v ,emhly, l\Jr. con ul for Dplllnal'k, and S. ,v. D. a kSOll 011 behalf of the English-speaking residents of the Isthl11ll.. rro all of these the distinguished guest replied" ith great nrLanity and conlialitY1 and in all hi utterances conveyed the u lIn pressIon of his earllest ness in rpgard to the projecteu canal. An hour or 11101'8 was spent in cOl1yivialities appropriate to the occasion, after which the crowel dispersed. During the reception the fine band f1'0111 Panalna played seyeral soul-stirring airs. In the eYenillg l1Htny houses in town were illulninated, a lid there was a fine display of fire" orks at the ice .. house, the usual hea lquarters for such fe 3tiyities. Later, M. de Lcsseps cUIne O'll :hore and tnok a. walk ill the beautiful 1110011ligbt, attended by a few friend and surrounded by an enthusia ti crowd of people. On the )11or11i ng of the 31 st., 1\1 de Lesseps and the distillgui hed e11ginee rs of his party made an examination of the harhor front, and inquired int.o the direction and : force of tI10 nort.hers. By the aid of a carefully pn;pared cha.rt he rnarked the location of the necessary breakwater, as well as the probable entrance to the great Isthnlian Canal. In all and on every point l\tJ. de Lesseps declared

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(78 Pilot and Guilk. ---------=--=.------------------------.:----....:..-=----=--=-.:.-...--==-= AFTER THE OPERA GO TO THE Car-ti:na '''La Opexa"" THEATRE SQURRE, No. 1 9 CENTRAL AVENUE, NEAR NEW NATIONAL THEATRE. STYLI H rCA E IN A 'l'YLISH J.OCATION, On(> of t.lH' X ate. t. 'oolt'st n1t(l, ml):..;t ulra 'tin: Rt'{re hment Place!'; in All Panama, Ft:1'st-Cla.<;s Trines, Diquol's! alld EO(/(l8 Dispensed, Light Lunches I 'el'l ed. Light FrC:' h Pa. try :lIadl' l)y an Experil'uc .1 13akf'r hn(\8 on Haud. A CO I 'dia l I l u -itatioll i s Gh'Cll the Public To Visit lJ s hi great satisfaction a.t the apparent practicabi l ity of the great undertaking, and lTIOre than once bfcal ne ent h usia tie I jn speaking of the prospect. :, 1'here are/' he said . ,: Oll l y two great to be overCOllle, the.Ohagres I{ivel' a1ld the deep cutting at the sU111111it. 1 'he first can be SUfInounted by turning the headwaters of the rjYel' illtO another channel, anu the second will disappear before the wells which will be suuk and charged w i th exp l o ives of sufficient force to ren10ve vast quanti ties at each c1i scharo c The existence of the rai l road will greatly faci l itate the work on the callRl, a.nd unless cl ser exaluinatiol) for which the present visit ha been l11ade, hon l d prove UIlfavorable, a result that is in nowise nnticipatecL there is 1) d ubt but the work '\ ill be heo' un in earne t and without luaterial delay." The nttnost good order wa Inailltai n d and the 1110 t profound respe twas h wn to I. de Le ps by nll d c "hile the enthu'in. 111 kn \ )lO blInd. 'I he of nIl nation were eli. played with the l1otau ](\ ex' ptiolJ uf the t of the United tat' and th 1'8 'option lua' t have heen a. de 'id d HC e On the :31 t.. at 11 (. 111., the pnrt.y left Oul 11 f l' Pane Ina. The train was Ill)t at al'ba o( l1'idg' h the Pre. ident of th Ita ,and th I ( r. wet: af l y t.raIl ferr d 10 (11 tll l' train by whi h it arriy 1 in thi. ity at. p. In. fin lUll'h \ as pl'ovi d
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.J rrieul of D r Lf'8' 'j)- 179 --' -===-=== n an Incl. II i r hI r .pan ti n had been m de t d fitting h 11 r th \ great i1111 re ari t the t ti n (ll open tent wa pI ce 1 in which the repre ntative f the tat II'. -:\Ianu 1 ,J. Di z, acco111panied by Lieut.-01. ntnfar: 11. C nzalez. the cretarie of the Oy nun nt. and ther prOluinen lllilitary and civil official exten 1e 1 hilll ( hearty gre ting in the name of the sov ereign Itate of Panama. The party wa conveyed in arriage t the b-rand Hotel, the b ttalions of the 3 1. and 11th n Guard fornling -guard of honor the en tire 1i tance. The house in the Calle Real (the former nalne of Central venue), and other leading street were profusely decorated "ith flag in which the French and oIombian color predominated. Flag taff had been erected at convenient intervals along the line displaying the flag of the two Republics. Each taff bore a hield with the name of one or the other of the promoters and engineers of the different ex plorations and proje ts for the canalization of the Isthmus. They were of every country and every walk of lif e' the bold discoverer, the hardy bu naval officers of various nations and civil engineers following the peaceful routine of ordinary duty. 1he1'e were the naines of Balboa,-1513; Dampier-154:9' Patterson-169 ; Donozo-1761 Ariza-1783; 1\I. 'Vagner date not shown; Lloyd-l 29; N. Ga.rclIa and Coul'tine -184:3; Totten-l 49-'l'rautwine and Hug-hes-l 53; Harrison-l ")67; IllllI and Selfridge-II. 70; and the \Vyse Rec1u -'0 aVel'hrucrghe-Bixio-Lacharme-lVlusso and Brooks expedition of 1 77 -S. 'l'hese n:uues were principalIy dis played in the Plaza. a notable group to wholn the world is larg ly illdeuted. AUlOllg the several arches was one at Plaza, Santa A .. na r ac1ing .: 101olnbia salutes Fenlinanu de Lesseps, and on oue other "Panalna congratulates her illustrious guest, Ferdinand de Lesseps." A banquet ter Ininatec1 the day' doiugs, which passed off pleasantly. Among the De IJc ",eps party was hi, "ife and three of is children. '}\ l. Dc Les eps i llOW 77 years of age", says

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180 Pilof (o/(l (il!irlc, a curr ent article [l1)c1 his ,'c('olld ,\'ife Wil.' im :2l wheJl he nut rried her. The\" ha \ e ,eyp I) ell i I d I' ) Jl. 'he ;\Iadamc is of creole orinilL 1\(\1' heauty bcill:" ill Y1H' (If tllat dass. 'Ilhanced hy a pail' of magnificent yo,. Her fortn i thc ad1l1irnt.ioJ) of the drc..: mal{Cl'.' of tiI( }1'rellch 'api aI an<.1 a tight-fittillg <1l'C:S .'ct, uff lwl' figut' I i) }> .ll'fectioll. There i .. a t t 011 tho part of tll(\ di .'tiIlO'uishc\(1 engillcer to\yHnl hi,' l ittlc an' IJf!nnittc(l to do pr :>tty Jlluch :1.' they ellO( 'C (ithcl' i II tIl or out of it. "It 'WHS this ort of 1'lln 1 11l<11l1H)(I( l t.bat prOlllpted 1)(; IJ ,-,.'ep to e: 'ort the Enl}ll' \ S Ellg 'Ill \ nnd hcr ill-fated 'Oil from the 1110U that thl'('ut lll'd tll Tuilerjes cIo e on to t\\' nty year: ;lgO:: Other ill the C lllllf: ptllt} \\"ero IJiC'llt. \\ .... r:-3; .T. l)irke, EJlgilleer-inhief of tho 'lni-,<::. and the b t )f .1'aJllWr r het.' \\'itn ')(1 th formal in<.tllguraliull )f 1 h work 0 f ('omp} ti liP; a lld p rfecti Ilg-the .'ll rn f )l' thr Pananl ,l rt Y (If } a d i (' .' n Il d g \. 'll (\ 'Il}( '11 W(lllt Oil tll \ .'t \jllll<'l' "'ra\)()gniILl, t.o til Ill< nth or 1h(\ {io Ul'Hlld :lhollt illl' 'l lnil(' \\ .. t (If PilllalllH. IL('re it \\':)" illt('ll I \d to 1(\1\<1 :\1](1 ,, -it 11 ',' tlH' (lll'lling (If th (il',,1 ')(1, it til.'k "hi('h "i'" ,,' igIH'(l t.o .:\Ii" ... I"Cl'llilllda <1(' L:, p", "hidl \\HS tn In ark th \ I>rgill11 illh of tll(' \\'(ll'k t]lat \\:1' to 1)(1 III the UIlI()11 uf tlH an 1 tll --.----------_.

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co '--..... -.1 ....., .... --.:J3ird'.S eye view of Culehra -.!Panama .!Isfhmlan -1merlCon;J P:R..:Jl ./Yews :J1gl2ncg .p :Advuti.smg .x;ureau. ;;t( .73ienl
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.. 182 Pilot and Guide. Pacific Ocean. Oil accoullt of the lateness of the hour at whi h the steamer left the wharf, it was impo sihle to. carry out the program in its entirety without delaying the return to the city. 'Vith the entrance of the' Taboguil1a" into the lllOUth of the 1'irer (the first occasion jn which a stealnel' had ever been seen in that placp) it was considered as a beginning of the (lnark the fai lure at the start), and the remainder of the progra 111 was then proceeded with. An addreEs was made by 1\1. de T J('sseps in which he announced the fulfilhnent of his prolnise to begin pra.ctical work on the great canal euterpri e on Jnnuary 1. 1 O. He further l'eIllarked that his labors had now brgun un der the authority of the United States of COlol11oia, ,, jth the belledictlOn of lVIonseignor, the Bishop of Pananla, and with the assistance of the 111emhers of the Technical 00111-mission charged wjth the definite studies for the niver al Interoceanic Maritill1e Canal. He expressed his entire confidence in the entcrpri p, and its success, to which, he said, he consecrated the cIo -ing years of bis life, and had no hesitation in cvulltillg upon the assistance of the financial world for l11ea11 to open another highway to the COLnlnerCe of the worlel. Hi Grace, the Bishop then formally bestowed his benediction upon the enterprise, and the blessinO'f:; of the ni\'er al Church upon the labor of science for the benefit of 0111-merce. Other addresses were delivered a.fter which th tealner proceeded to the i land and then return d to t.he wharf. Ie neling its di tingui hed pn eng l' "ho ,, 'e r unanim us in their d light oyer th trip. Grand Banqu e t t o De Lesseps. 1 h puLli dun n tr( ti n ill honor f : P t rrivc: 1 canl t (cl n \llllay January e 1J -. I t 0 nt mi witl :111 lah rnt, hc, nqn t t nd 1'e hinl b FPtTO th l' pl' ,'ntati\ {h '1 1 nlhian v 1'nn1 nt.

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I'()/Id B lIlfJllCt to D Lf::), 183 ----=-= ----=-PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLIES. l'lItllal A \ 'rnll 0IIlJO itc HOlel Central ana 'nf'ae Cathellral Plaza. ... 9 ,PA N AMA. 2 ... e C arry a Full A o r trnen Drugs. Paints. Postal Cards. Chemicals. Varnishes. Bonbons. --Patent Medicines. Artists' Materials. Chocolates. :: Perfumery. English Novels. Caramels. Only Age nts for the C eiebrate d CEYLON TEAS and AMERIGAN TYPfWRITERS, = BENEDETTI HERMANOS, STATIONERY. Our Branch Store is L0cated at No. 326 Central Avenue. One hundred and forty invitations were issued, and aillong tho e pre cnt ,, 'ere ])otabl 111e11 from the United tate and every part of Europe. 1\1. de I..;es eps proposed a toa ... t to "The .Pre statillg That it wa the representa tiy of public opinion, and the greate t force of the epoch. \ \ ith it a i tance the greatest cOlulnercia I jnteroceanic hi o 'lnray of the world would be made on Colombian territ l'y under the protection of the Oolombian Governlnent and ill great power of the ,,'orld." Later he again took the floor and announced that' th"l International Comlni'sion had been c0111pletely organized, alld that it "'ou ILl be diVIded into fiye section. Lieut. ,\ y e afterward propo ed a toast t o the health Df the humhle laborer \Vithout distinction of race or natiofl';; ( lity who in th fnturo Inay IJe the usefu l and modest iostruinent to carl' r to completion the greatest "ork of the age First Blast at Culebra. A numerous party accolnpanied M . de Lesseps 011 the 1110l'nluO' train of t January 10, 1 HO, to

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-184 Pilot all(? Guide. witne the of the fir t blast on the Cf'rro Cu lebra. de was aCC01np:lllied by [1 1l11lllbfl' of (\ugi titers of the 811 I'veyi Ilg party; Dr. Fel'ro, to n Delegate His Gntce, Bishop Panl; D on DamH () Cel'Yern, President of Pallallla; :NI. Bru!), tho Erc'ncb Con. nl,_ and rarious residents of the cit\'. 'Vith Lim (llso W. en'nti)ll of h'iJillc\cl and rOIllp Jl r jlHlge. If hr ('ollC'lude.. tha Hono of thrnl fl n') UIl, 1l1'l1lOuntahic t.h world will llnhu'( II} put faith ill his Opllli 11. H h f with him Fr. I)il'k0. h famolls Dutch llgill r ",h .'. pl'adical :l('hiE\ )mrnt ill (':tJlal Ill; killg n x t til If tll(1 iw )\I.'t c('kbr:li('
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------.-'--.dllil f/('({JI Po ,',' (}II 1 c L,,', ( j)'" 185 lik hT t hay no lone 11 UO' h t 'nl'lli h he 111 (111-for .-th unu l'b killt-. f tIl 1 liflf )f L ,rp. III th., fpH ibilitr (It fhi: route 11 II <1 llot hl"l hake!). hi '111'\' nnn ;11 rtll 'rill hil\ II hilll i dp('i(lc(l III a 1\,:111(' .If th(1 :ldr C;lt" f tht 'i 'j\rngll:l 1'IIuh'''' Orgallization of Finances. 111c fir. :1n:11 ('(ll1lpnllY '''it ('; pitclliz (1 ,'!l().n n.oo ; 1iyid :l(1 illto :11:11' (f t lOO (';1(.'h, ;llIcl (), O() 'Ol til )f )ck wa .. di .. p (1 ()f ,,,ith ut if Ft. ]) L es'P ll.' W lilt t the l "-Ilit d tat iUlm
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186 Pilo t and Guide. [I NCORPORATEO.J Eighth Str88t and N o rth A V8nUB, .A.:t:.::r..A. .A. .. --2" 0.11 'J)e pen: hl1 e nt re e)n H\e.. eL tfL Httl Telephones Nos. 75 and 78. benefit of the organizers of SOl1W 1300 block or' fOllllder part ", alnounting to 5,000 francs each a.nd n titnt d I . peculation pure and ilnple. These blocks later Id all the way froln 0,000 to ;300,000 franc, the pr fit th r -on a ruing to the original hold 1's. Cost of Canal. Th e ientific on r s e tilnated the t (f th0 ani 1 at r 214,000 000, whil the T hni (1 Oil ",hi h w e re two AID rican 1l1elUb r '. 'Vl'ight aft r per onally o oing f rnltllat d a report on bl'uary 14, 1 R t tc 1 ubi Iuet net he ex ( vat c1 at. th t eloin it 0 tll .: 111 ear in I w r d th 11 over t.h l' ut tin1, tino th and ruar' :' of n th llbje t r u1l1 thflt _____ __ c1 _____________________ __ tl_ l ___________ n _\,_ l __ J

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= h. ut '{),'( ((no7. 187 f he whi .} ] an Le t ai ]:hal d ti llf l' a I k 'enal I::::;h uld hay IU 11 my hat and 0' n h m. Lo 'k' al' Y l'y U' od.f l' mall y 1. ut they woulunot do for 1<:1.1' J hip:. Th I' e i a. hip n w n th .. t k' -:..0 f in I n2ih, anI it ll](l tak a v ry I nO'tim to ake a hi thl'ollO'h a anal of thi .. 1 n tIl with a in0'1e 10 k and with a syt 111 f double 10k o it woulll b fiuh more e r p nsiv than an de p 'utting on th r ute.' t i. int r tin to note in this c n llecti n that the hip De IAe er poke of i omething of a pigmy COIllI arcl "'ith the floatillg I alace LusitaHia and JlauJ'ctalli(( of the pre ent lay who e I ])oth ex d the It \) v . I by 11'1 r than:. 00 f :It. The Era of Activity. Durin the rst three years the cOlnpan T c1 '\ ted it ellergie principally to the. work of preparation and getti1!g luateria l t the IsthluU although by the end of February 1 :)00 9 G:2 cubic meters of arth had been exca vat d. and a workillO' force of about 3 000 men establi hed. At t he very beg1l111ing the laborer trn k for higher wage They ,rent to work for 90 cent il,er pel day hut Inude a demand f r 1.20 per day, c1aiulino that the ost f living had increa ed, and that the cla' laborer in PanaDIa wa getting'il 1.00 per day 1. The d81nand \'\a granted

PAGE 205

di new section Qithe .:American in Culehra-$>anama. :J'ake.n from the .'!leservoir. .!I.sf h tn ian-dlmerlcun oF.?' Je Yl JI ..BienK(1wski . -/: ., Ii II .. OJ OJ -c .,..... .-.....j '"'" .... -. .-.....j

PAGE 206

----, -----------, ---------189 -------,-; II l( 1 i a I' t 11 ( 1': It) f \ Y a g) l'f,' \ t I .. i I \' 1 1 H' r a.)' rIt pnl'cha' of 1l1:li('l'ial \ra' n()t 'OIIl11l0(l to France, lJllt t',lIll frollt YlJIT illdll.'tl'ial llil ion. III 1 1 thr drc']g I' ,r '1' \ 1111'(:Ii:1. ('d (If it Philad'lphic firm f r o.O( ( 111 }vhl'llill'YJ } .,. :1. I)illgl11' [\,"lllll,(l "Iltrc 1 ()f tIll' \rol'k a: Dil"ct')l' Gell rnl. Fr III tlli 11 pl'Clximately the of the Cbagl'e to Ba' Obi "pcI. tlL'll e(l th e onlillera. throno h Cu lei)l'a }[( untai II. alld de ccllded thro ngh the ,al1ey of the 1> iu 1rallclc to it 111()Uth; the Iill} Ilding two llliles out ill I clllc.una Bny. 1'h) "'(Iter depth of the canal was t o he feet. cll1d tho lJo ttolll ,\'idth ahout 72 feeL 'Ihe prol lenl () f i Ig the (fl'C' W,1 to be c h 'e d by the COIl:tl'UCti { 1\ of a great (1;1111 (It or 1lei.ll' r-i-aluh a. fr III which the L ._lll'plu ,rater ,,'ould (\'c ape in :tllotilel' direction by llleans of L.:ioll chanllols. tIle illCl'pti Il )f lperatioll. all era v ya t expcllditure lH-'gall. \yere pIa 'ed ,,,jth ut <.Iu \ regard to (' 'Ul1 llly. by 1 I S it was (ll)pclreJlt tb
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190 Pilot and Guide. PRENSA" GRAN DlARiO DE INFORMACION Puolicooo por 10 TIPOGRAFIA MODERNA, Avenioo Cenlrol No 37, EN INGLES Y ESPANOL. EL M EJOR PA RA AVISOS. Extensa Circulacion en la Zona del Canal. rara infol'1nP8!J condicione., de.de ell!.' de EneJ'o de 190 1 (U,.igitse iT, I I I I c::r::ta::. PRESS" A SPLENDID DAILY OF INfORMATION PUDlisneo by T1POGRAFIA MODERN A NO, 37, Centrol Avenue PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH.-BEST ADVERT!SING MEDIUM. Large circulation in the Canal Zone. For ilL/ormation a lid terms. 011 and after January 1, 190 address Cable: "MODERNA", r GUILLERMO ANDREVE, 1 1 Box: Telephone No, 178, I :\IA.'AGER AND PROPRIETOR. tid OPlo: itioll entin1cnt and in 1 H -appli 1 to the 11 h COY rtllnellt for pern1i'sion to e...,tn,blJ. h c. I( ttery brc nell by whi h h hoped thl'ough the j. suance f to ]>1' viae ftln ls for carrying on the w rk. The Jlulnb r of I puti vuted the desired p e nni i 11, but the prop iti 11 "'1' later h Ic1 up pcndino a report n a tual c llditi Il, To thi.' e nd he Fr}) h patch d .... nll< lleI 0.' '('( U, n luin nt ngin r t th t1unu,-, to 0 0 OY l' ill( .'itllati 11 in detail. l (lU' )' P l' "'n Ii, uraO'illO' e <.1 Inrd that ;l .' ':t I 'I (ula l uld 1) b e 'arri d till' UO' h t 'mplet iOIl \\ ith the mean in :ight and r -1)1111 nd ([ th 'ha})() illg of tIll plan.' fl'mH a .a] y 1 annl t a aDal with Ioc k a ; II i llUll ic t ':q)d it Il (th ll" JlJ\ 'ted wi th th e J It t'l ]> l' i (' ill' i ('1 I d with th i y i w. anI 1 .' P 11 1 the '}l(1 rnill<'i;llltly ; Y hi. }).' nt to th hnll This 1 1(\ 11 n w (1 (' 11 0 (' 11 (11) gill t h I i II () f h' 'i. 11 ( I, hut the \lrfil 'c of til, 'ann l a t it. nmmi w( t 1 '\ f lty-11ill 111 { 1". or H h nd l' fed) \ ( ] \' 1.

PAGE 208

T 71 Era of Activity. 191 ==== '1'h 1 nw line of a.cti n decided upon, th lottery Lond '" l' \ j ,' U ] til linlit being put at 160,000 000. Ea h bond l' pre' llt d a value of $ 0 but were put n the lnark \t at -They were to bear 4 per ent. illt re t and be red III db' alDortizatioll. The iove tillg publi', although the bait was attractiv:1, refu ed to do III 1'0 thau nibble and a econd at.tempt ise pr ved a.bortive. All the Good Things of Life. E onomy wa. an unknown factor in the admillistra tion of affair of the first cOlnpany, and extrmnc generosity chara terized its treatInent of its white employes ill the lllain ,vere froln France. The average pay of a clerk ,y< S 5 per Inonth, and of a chief of division from $200 to ;->00 per Inonth. rrwo years' service entitled the empIo.) e to ," 1110nths leave of absence, and travelling ex pen es both ways. Quarters were furnished free as wen a everything llece sary to fit them up, furniture, bedding, lanlps utensils, etc. All the head offices Tere ill Panalna and the officials all resided there. The section of the c ity surrounding San Francisco Park was the headquarter' of the colony in those days. There was 110 ystem of accounting in vogue, and employes were per-111itted to draw household articles upon requisition about whenever they liked. In a Inultitude of cases this laxity was advantage of and quite a business in the buying and ellillg of cOlnpally's furniture, etc., was secretly carried OIl. After pay days llloney Howed like wine, and it \ a Hot an unCOnlmOJl occurrence to see the street around Cathedral Park filled with seats for the accorn1110datioll of officials and ell1p'loyes bent upon having a good time. In the office :t day's work consisted of seven hours, from 7 a. 111. to 11 [to In. and from 2 p. m. to 5 p. m. Convalescents at the Taboga Sanitarium were cheered back to health with truffles, mushroom!?, !?pillach, wines

PAGE 209

" --. -----------r dlt/a:die ontrancetofhc Canal afCn"stoha/:::::g.>anamo. JJ 111m ,Qn -.A m(!rIC(1n 4-.:Jl J] .AWw.J :A,!1'fMc!l4-:Ad"ertuing J3ur4'au .7;JI
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-.... --1 57,;! .Y->ac{fic entrance 10 tbe Cal1al-:Panama .:J.,I1",,,on :;f/Jm,,.,con,f Pll.ll .:111M'" y Ii !iJlIf'tCQU ..;II .1Jitlll/(OltlSkl ._---------. --------

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194 Pilot and Guide. a nd all the delicacies of the French lllarkets. In four years the items of pillows, bolsters, and other bed linen pur chased froln Olle Paris firm aggregated $30,0(}0, aud this was only one of several firms furnishing this class of Inaterial. The purchases of stationery in six months froln one firm alone amounted to $] per lllonth. In 1904, the writer saw more than a ton of pen points that had become rusted and useless, thrown away. Verily the ma terial contraets were a good thing for the dealers, but what of the poor peasant who invested his savings in canal shares on a rising market? "Dingler's Folly" (Folie Dingler." ) Standing on a handsome terrace OIl the western slope of Ancon Hill is a building that readily cOlnmands attention from passersby via. either the old or new La Boca roads. It was the prospective home of M. Dingler, one of the foremost Director Generals of the French conlpany, but he never occupied it. Work on the mansion was started shortly after he came to the Isthmus in ]'ebruary, 18 3, and the cost including the grounds is estilnated to have been nearly $50,000. For many years it has been known alnong the French people of as Folie Diugler," or "Diugler's Folly." At the time the Alnerican Government took possession the place had fallen greatly into decay, but needed repairs were Inade, and for the pa t three years it has been used by the Department of allitation a a quarantine detention station. The experience of M. Dingler n th perhaps th rno t pathetic in canal hi,t ry. th fatal effect the clilnate of th Isthnlus wa I of to 11, n for igner 1'0 h d Fran ,hut in 1 l' at tl1(\ r port." aUl ing t h \v th 1)1 h i r p rted hav aid "that nly drun r I'd' and he Ii ip tl I take th y J] \ f v r and eli tb r hI' u ht with hil11 lli.' wif .' n and a t llhht l'. Hi 'n wa Ill' d

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'Dill!!l '/"< Poll.'! (' Folie ) 195 "(l 1 RIA NGtllO 80JO" E ist('Jlcia <1t' rth'nlu. l)ara 'efiol'us. l'u t'()illplt'\o dt' Encajc. Lt'tiIlPS lillo:'l; PasamalH'rlasj Lindo n1'ti(lo d ( Pcillt'ta, y Adorno,' para l'1 p'lo; 'illtLU'OlH'. d' Todas 'lao :'It>. y '0101' Z", 'p pn'. ta K Iwcial At<'n 'ion al B ,no x MIRE.S. Avenida Norte No. 80, MaduroLupf Co. y F. C. Herbruger PA NAMA. THE H[O TRIANGlE" The ollly st01' ill PanUJIlfl ( 'xI'ln in-I,)" dt'\' oft'(l t() ladip u()\ 'cltip. \\'(' caJ'ry a lar(}'(' nlld \.'0111111 t as:ortlllPnt of l :u'(' . hail' 01'llalll('nt.' and helt. of 0)( lut<'st III dl'. \Y<, in dtt' tilt' Ameritan Ladit'. t 'all :md Look o\' ( r our lill No. 80 North A venue, Near Madllrolupi Co. .PANAIUA. Ohief of Posts hortly cOlltracted yello, f ever and died. Diugler ub equently returned to France on leave of abnce anu upon the reappearance of himself a nd faluily on the Isthmus, hi daughter fell victim to Yellow Jack. On the return froln a second vacation his ife also ick ened and died from the same fatal disease. Dingler afterwards went back to France a broken-hea.rted Ulan. Later he became insane and died jn a mad house. The Collapse and its Results. The closing days of 1888 Inarked the end of the De I.Jesseps regime. In December of that year the company went into liquidation, and 011 February 4, 1889, a receiver of its affairs waf; appointed by the Oivil Tribulle of the Seine, with authority to transfer all, or any portion of its assets, to a new corporation. On the IsthIllUS the work was ])ot definitely suspended until 1\tlarch If), although but little work had been accomplished for three months prior to this evellt. The suspension of operations threw a small anny of laborers out of a job, and an inullense :unount of suffer ing resulted. Nine-tenths of the men employed on the canal works were from the West Indirtn islands. Liying only "'pon what they earned day by day the stoppage of work brought t.hem at Ollce to the verge of destitution. The J arnaican Governmeut however took cognizance of

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196 Pilot alld Guide. ====-th ir condition, and through their l\lilli tel' Resident appointed thirteen agencie at different poiuts on the line to carry 011 the work of repatriation. '1'be.o agencies had up to l\lay 7th, 1 ) 9 sent back over G,OOO 'bile 4 000 more went back on their own account. Of tho balance of the 20,000 laborerR at work o n the canal wholl the crash eame, sOlne relnainerl on the I thmu and the re t lnigrated to the other \Vest India islands. The ,york of repatriation cost the J alnaican Govern111eut $5.00 per h ea d or a total of about $30,000. The Ohilean GOV81'1llUellt seeing an opp rtunity at this tilue t o secure irumigrallts granted 40 000 free pas ages frOll1 Panalna to V alparaiso to all classes except color d people and Ohinese and for seyeral nlonths every mail steamer south took a" ay from 400 to GOO. The report of the receiver showed that the total exp nditul'eH made by the canal C0111pany 011 th lsthmu. anlounted to 156 G54-,6 ) 7, and the total expellditure ill Pari '7 \ 1 JO,330, a grand total of :2 3J, 7 D5 017. Of the item of disbursem ntR at Panama and expenses of Inanagell1ent footed up : 'lG,. ,tO. '; rellts and Inaintenance f leased property, : ,301,070; Inaierial a nd sUPI lie, 29,722, )'"'6, builc1illgS, Ifl,3972 _; COil tru tiol1 Hnd ell gineering xpen 9,.134 lanel purchn... 950 Gf).-, and l11edic( 1 nuLl r ligious att 11 l ane I -s. "Coming Events Cast Shadows Before. It i time that we th :ouLh pl'1l IIHtion a ... Ell)( 1'1'eni,. of art O'!), in an alticl \ puhlish d in 1 riJ '0 III 111 llLincf 011 1,h 1 ollap r .. hOl Id r I 11 Jl nth 'r a:.i:t( n for tll 1 ret d )' Ul' iJ)(ll1 tl'ir.' and t n .. tn ill th t Ilel II i I nn :rOY{ 'l'llllH ilL :av thnt "hih <111 b O 'i\ 11 b nr h1' 11 1'. f tll "Torth ,,,he HI' . illt l' t d \\ i h no' ill .. 'ill' that olll,' \.m( ri ';111 lilt H\ t. ,,11 HdJ. pl"vail till' HIgh llli ih 1 J)o" tll nll(t bl'u Ith f th lalld. . . . . 11.' 1Illdv(' 'lire' h S. If til IlCt ion: f I I Hlth \111 'ri 'n, t r '{FIiI'
PAGE 214

'('Oll/il'!/ Rl'fll/s ('ffSt j '/"Ido//'s [h/o]'(''', 197 --S0111brcrcria bc Avenida Central, N,-,. 143 PANAMA, )f A DE ('lEX DIFEHEXTE,' DE BUEHO.' llE FIELTHO, DE Y DE C .UL\LLEhO .. y IUlp01tadon. Din-eta de a I Uejoi.'{'s Fabl:icR (Ie Eluolla. 0NICA CASA SE C....,UPA C'" T LISA DE ESTE T:B:E :B:_6. T NO. 143 CENTRAL AVENUE. I-=> ANA 1\1 A. C AMADEO lUP\, proprietor. )10RE TILLY
PAGE 215

PAGE 216

c ""-Gorgona, dJ "general view if the dlmerican Setllement-flanamp.} 4&lIlIniQ,,..lImU7&WI.f .PJi J .&ws n&J/4:19dll,rlIJ/I1J1.:!J!'l"e1f1J "".:.'J1e(,kDW6/CI. ----

PAGE 217

200 Pilut and Guide. Cantral A vanUE, in front of PassEngEr Station, )F> 'ffi! JZ. 1\1[( 'ffiS. 0 6'--.......... Good He taurant. Ouick Meal "'" Fir t CIa' Bar. CI rlost and Convenient Place To \V ait for the Train. Billard Parlor and Barber Shop in Connection. OUR PRIOES ARE REASON ABLE. l ,JENES M., Proc. ill 1'0'(Ul]Zlng the new company 111ac1cl it in11 racticabl to comply "'ith the aboyo tinl limit and neg tiatioll ",ith )lolnbia were 1'00P 1)( d. 011 April J, 1 '0;1 another xt 11 ion was granted ",hi('l) pl'oyided for the r UInI ti 11 of work 011 a pennallell 1m. i.' h ()etober n L 1 (lid the OlnpletioJl of th (1.11<11 ithin tt)1l ) art f1' In hat elate. T "'IV, n1 tll of tho nill tie. it 'Yll In: lIif<,t tha th .on iOIl 'Y 111d xpir befor the work oull be filli. o in ,April, 1 a hinl ,'ten.'ioJl wa arl'ang 1 ",hi h ipnla d that th canDI .. h nid hi, H1p11 1 1)' 0 t 1 r lHl. III pn. .. il1g i i.' jut t b 'rl" Y that th ,1-lubiall 1) x l' i ptl a r 11l[ll'knhl d( OTC \ f II C e in th i CO)) 11 t i 0 11. A Stupendous Undertaking. 1. hl' ol'gnlli/(dioll of th 11 W I mpctJ) r wa. tnp 11-(I( II 1l1l<1 ))'i
PAGE 218

rJlrlcrla/,'/ J/fl. 201 agan e float o vel' brf 1'e hi Inilltl. Ho\yrycr, III Octo1 r. 1 '9-1, the ..... wan, ma all; I (\mpan-" wa .. fin, lly laun h cl up Il the tr llble. om n )'. of callal with n apital t ck f ),-(j 1'1'
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202 PUot anrl Guide. t h e conditions "ould not have of any o th er gOYel'llll1ent e xerci s i 11 0' its rights of in co nn ect i o n ,, i t h the cons tru c tion of th o C[l])al. The r e c e iver acc ord ing to the t ern1S of t rml. for w as clot h e d with author i ty t.o appoi nt n COllll}} i s sioll of ll g i H eers to rec tif y preyio u s SUfyeys, inspect progr e ss ll1a(l e and t o sUIo1'\'i8 0 e xp enditure s a.nd on e of tho first ste p t a k e n wa t o o rganize th e OOlnite T e chnique con s i sti Ilg o f seve n Fren c h e n gineer s Thi s C O lnll1itt e e Inac1e in all t h r e e d ifr e port s firs t pro p ose d a l oc k c all a l at au impracticabl e h e ight th 3 s ec ond provid e d for a l ock ca n a l t h e b ottonl o f whi e h should b \ 20.7 i) l1le t e r,:. or nbou t 08 fee t a b o\'e S ell, le,el. 'J'h e locks ac c ordi ng to thi s plnn wo uld b e fiye i n numb er, one carh at Bohio 3,11<1 Bas Obispo o n th e Atl a n t i c s id e of the divide a nt I ODe each a t l)arai so and l\[irafio r es, with a tida l l ock n ear 1 1 irafior s o n th e Pacific side The third pIau olnprch e ndec1 n, canal th e botto n l of lxhic h woul d bo ah out '2 feet above a l e y e l allcl with but thre e lo c ks, 0110 a t B o hio another at or near P e d ro l\ligu el, a nd th third Ht Net Results. Tho C01l11uittee' s plan for l'('gulhting the O h agres Rir er, aud t o obt ain therefron1 th 1 reql1i. ito an1 H ilt f wat e r to 0 1 ('r ate th e C fUlfll at all ti nWI, COIL i s t e d in th o nstru c t ion f a d a m nt o hio of 50 0,000 ubic I n t r ca p a e i t H nd of a noth r cL 111 farther 11 p th l'i \,('1' at 11w j 11(' I n c, pahl o f torino Ii) ,000000 ul i Ine t(,l' 1 of wat r \ V ith th e Ink a t B ohio, a nd th e rei .1'\' it' < t lhajuel
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203 Do Yotl Want the Late t e\\T from Home? TU[ nnll V IIIL UMIL I "r'TftD J I Mil o U[Dftl n" II nLllHlU TIYE TIlE E. TLL H-.'PEAKL'" 1 RE o_Y THE J. TH:'I[ l T,' TITE XEW, F THE WORLD D AILY T T(' 'IX T FOR:\I. OLDEST, LARGEST BEST NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED on the ISTHMUS, ,.. . r ..... -... ,... w __ "' .. -.. __ / \00/. Publbhed Daily Except Monday. Hates: 2.00 P. C., per month ..1])])EE >..;' TO No. 16 Soutl'1 Ave., Panama. Tho OOlnito Technique kft:L. a hrritnge a yast mlloullt of yaluable paper ng 11 pon UrY8YS a nc1 charti I1gs 'which hayo been u.o<1 to ()' ood purpose by tho 1. thlllian Canal OOlnmi ion. A part froin these, thA results of the efforts of tho ne,Y cOlnpa,n" were sinall. '1'11e actual construction work was c'onfined principally to exca,yati ng in CnIebra cut, and "Tork at the .Pacific entrance to the canfll. Not to exceod 3,000 llleLl ,yere on tho con1pany's pay rolls at allY ono tin1c: a compared with the l1wximulll nUlnb('f of :?8;OOO in the be, t clays of the old COUlpn.ny. The of excaratioll dono by the two Frelleh C01np:lllios during the active period of their oxi. tonce i ShO,\\Tll by the lollo\yillg data: TIiglw.'t plf-'Yatioll at ('nlf'hra bC'forp work lwgan .,' ... ,.,... ft. plpyation at Bas OlJi:po lwfo1'l' work l)Pgan . ... ,',. 2 : 1:1 ft. GreatpRt 0 ]4 ft. Total excanltioll by the }t'rt'll 11 iucludillg <1h' r s ioll cbannel 70 00 000 Cu. Yd.

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204 Pilot -aud Guide. ===========-=_=-=-=-=-=_---,== __ =-_ ==-0 -.:====-_===== MUTTERINGS OF SEPARATION. Talk of separation bohhed to thr s tll'fa' r r prn.t dly during the interva l of eight,' or 1 1101'0 l wtwrrll Panama1s i ndep'cnclellee from in. and 1 hr :r:cc,'. i o n 1110 Y 0 -111 nt of 100B. The tie tllnt h o und hrr to th e (-}r n n tHlille Confederation and Iatrr to Cohl1lhi;l ha(l ahrny .. brrn a galling nr. It was cOlltil1nall,' a gflll1C' of g i ,'c [till b,kr. "with Pa))[una ill the rharit role . 'Ihe peopl e of the I :thlllll wrre not lon,(f in i z ing UI the, an d a carly (t,' 1..):2-stu' etl ( 1110yelnent which had f)1' its ai m U 1111ex(Jioll 'ith G r rn t Britain. '1'he pl'illle lDOyer, of set fort h the fnc t th a t the C0l111nerClal re l atioll PalwlHa with the inter i o r d e p;lrbnent of Oololnbia anloullted to hut littl e : 1 1atnra l b arl'i 'l'S free nncl ('omp laill(l(l th a t th e illhabltant: of the south\. 1'1\ pai'l of the repuh li' t rea t e d the people of the 1 -thli.1U a : f()l'('it-,Ilf'l',., j I('t or dis('Otll'agillg thr J))()\( IlWIlt. alld to )'('iIH'ol'j)()l'a{(' thc l. thl1lu: illlo thcl Ul'nllillil)(' \)Ilf tioll. (llC' C' 1l11111".'IOIH'l',' }>l'Ollll. d a mil 'h hett(ll' a dlllilli -

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.Vu{fu ilifF '(jl(lJ'(/luJII. 205 =--. =-------=--'ti'; f f Ko,", 52 and :-! Eio'llth tnet, (lorm fly Calle de :u.'a). c CS? PAN AlV1A.\!Sr) I . ... 'g'lie ONLY LADIES' GOODS IN First C1ass Goods at R8asonab18 Pric8sr P. (LO. tl'ation of affairs in hleh Panama \\"as C Ilccrl1c(l. il1!c1 full alnnesty for tho.0 cOllnected with the e pet ratir)]) plot. III view of the fa. t that the o promi.'0. ,yere 1 ark d hy gnarf1'OIn Dr. 'neno, G 11. tJ llan .Tn e and the Presl3.ent of Ecululol'. the people' of the 1. tl11HlL' (\lltered into a new treaty on December 1 \-.11. llY which Pr,naIna ollce 1110ro b ecame a, lu en luer of the .... T ew Cranac1ian League. In 1 '-4-:2, T), ming o ln i ceclo, t.hc'll ''''ie e-Pl'e ident of New Granada. t11i, trr( ty. claiming that Dr. Ouervo and Dr. Pn l'l'il had excceded tlwil' po \yrrs, in the _RUle year the ljl'[l l1[1d iH!1 Congrc. s rrpLHl t(ld thp law granting :unnr, ty to the P;UHlIl1C 'fio . ::\L1I1'y of the latter to aroid per ecuti "1 ,yor e forcecl to 0Xpi1trintc thrIll-ol,es . A.llot her agitatioll for independence wn. ..1arted ill 1 GO fo tercel h,' Joe de 0 bal(l in. thrll (j OYCl'n()r. A t this period X c,,, lrnnada wa InuIl y di, orgalliz(l(1. lun illcr j u.'t been racke d b e i \ 'il \YLU't ,,-11 ich ul ted ill til I

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9'he 8. C c +lcspdo/ in C%n --..1.s1 bmlan .A can
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claiulil)g f loma ip1'iano l\J C}ll n dictator. haldlH th u ht th PI' piti u (nc1 an)) Ull cd hi.' iJ tention. to the (\-)ob ; Y('rnmcllt: ad\'i illg tllClt i ",as prol n.'ctl to t rp an (\ ul1(le1' the protc 'tort tf' 0 'ithel' thf' .... nited -tat::. :B nUl (1 l' FJI1,Ola11d. junctnre'. Obalrli i-l',ct. 'llccerc1 cl h: i;t])tiag de la(lnanli n ft.' (lorerno1' al:c1 th latter t f llow up the nc1Yllntag. l\Io .qncl'a b T thi time haLl g'ottcn hi political affair str:, i oh tc 11 eel Gut so Ine", 11n t fl 1 c1 tu rIle d 11 i ,l He' Il tio n to tho I.-tl lUll. In L_'(j]. ho Cllt a c1 'pnt,y t o Colo)} to lnl'ct th, I thm i n 11, H 11 1 a rrange a new trl'a ty "\,"11 iell proyic1ed f r 1l1()t'C prclU1isc. and guarantee', but 111 ]0," than a ycar :Jlosqu('l'a ,'a,y fit to relJucliate the aOT eUl('IIt. Oil '27 L 6'-, the GOYGrIllncnt of cOllfen\ d Oil the Isthmus, the title of ;;State f Pallalllfl." and the right. and pri ,i lege of a 'oyrrC'i?ll state a c1 i .. ti 11 ction H ot 'h:u'cd in by tho other proyinces of thl} R(\puhlic. It is d llbtflll if thi act eYE'r resulted 11l auy 1>l'11-dire ct or luLlirect. to the I eople of Panama. IN THE THROES OF REVOLUTION. The political histol" of thE' Itillnu,' is marked b T llwny R ,YO llHl and 111:111)' n. SC':lr but it. troublccl watrl'S has been stirred, 0 oft e n ill titHes pa, t that t1l0 hreaking out of a reYvlutioll ceased to C'xcite more thall pH .'ing COlument ahroad. l\[any of thE'. e il1tcl'llecilH' \\-P1'O in igllificHnt ill their nature ntHl of .. bort (lnrntioll, hut the ,,-al' of 1900 to wa of all entirely different clwrncter and COl: htnted the 11108t sanguinary epocll in the a.nnals of the Isth ll1U The trouble fir t started in the 1nterior of Oolombia, and before ho. tilities were finrtlly th laule of

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20B Pilot and Guide. reyolt had prcad the l e llgtlt and bre rlth of the c.ountr). For 11101' the n fifteell years 1he ruling party in Oolc)lnbia had h ell the COll e ryatiyc' or clerical party as it wa .. S0111etin10 rall('d In IHDS thi party loct th rein of go, ernIncllt through a ueflection fl'01n its ranks of a group of 111('11 calling theulsc ]" es Nationalist,. The Natiollnlists fayol'('d a mi Ide. r course to,,'ard th e Lil)oraIs an<1 elr. ted Dr. l\[ pCI'm itt 'd HO l'C'prc 'c ntati 11 ill 10 H l or fC'(l()l'
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] Ji. (t.(rC(,/ifJJl 1:(,(1(,;'('.' 1'" Ilfl )Jlfl. 209 IF ,\r HE. .;\. N EXCURSION I t Tnl ga I r tl r I ints in 1'11 111' y, '\ 'Trite or r 11 01 J?J:J::'rEL EEOrr:a::EES., No. 111 North Avenue, Fanama. TtR ,41S REASONABLE AND SERVICE GilT EDGE. fUl'ni,'hrd h) the dcposino of ianclelncllt. rplw .'tl'ifr tlwt follow 1 b. te l tll1' (-l .r 1',' and accordillO'to official r -,port. e t the liYe of 'ret'.-.0 0 Blen. The informatioll that I had bell c01l1ing to nllallUl, . 00netinlC' fal.e,.' 11lctil11CS true: ha 1 the ffl\t of ,tirring up R bitter l)(Jlit icai f(-l liug ,,hi h allle out opelll UpOI1 the lall(liJ)(T of a l'cYClluti(l]l,u,), cxp frOll1 XiCal'agllct 011 the Con,t of Chiri(lUi ill AI riL IDO. Thi.' expedition cClJLi, tecl f 110 111011 ulldei' the c ll1111nllc1 of :,ond: EmiltallO Herrcl'a n11el Reli tll'io Porra. ,Tith thi: __ mall force they attacked and cnptule 1 the gnrri,oll at Darid the i:tpital of Chiriqui Proyillc(' and th n ommen e d a march Oil Pc1lld/lllH. i 11. Herrera hHyillg a per ollal of tho COUIltry and people thl'r)ngh which he \Va passi Ilg nccec
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210 Pilot ((lid Gllid ... ... --, 4 .. BEFOR TH TRENCHES NEAR CALEDONIA BRIDGE. (cOURT A Lr.O'" VE LASCO.)

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nil Po II ((}J/((. 211 f ann ma. e the 11 <1{,H);111cl <1 th rongh th 1 f r i Til I tIll cap!tllbltioll f tho t wn wi hout fightilld ill tty 'rt )0 ... of Ii f. 1'ho l'cpr" ntnti\' lS 'l :'11 .' tl' to 111 to 'on10 ulHlen.,tall (11 Ilg, hut th 1l(0)ticti))' \\,bih 'cupid two
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ril(d ({lid G Ilirl fA IGAde 0 AI 0 DE E. BADILLO. Avenida Centralj No.3. "" P \ :x ; \ III A -.. Factory of Mosaics. E. BADI LLO, Proprietor. No. 3. PANAMA. r ie. of t 11(' lH'st (Trades and hmH1-:-:Oll\(':->t color,' for hon, ( finishing. til(' Thing for Hall!; :111(1 nOO)ll:';, rl1Px('( ,lIpc1 in '0)01' am1 Quality and Beauty of The al-()\-e ne w coupl c d with the determined istance offe1'ctl by the O'OYCnnH(;llt force'S: an d a h o rtago 0 f H.lnnlUllltioll rli" C U!'clO it the rcY(>Iutiolli:t.', ancl :-It the t c rminati()Jt of tI10 thrce days fightmg. n truce w.t.: arrnllgcd. Thi rc.'ult c1 ill the acccpting the offer uf ... -\lhall. the lllilitary c.lnc1 civil chief of Panan u l. to SUl'-" render ",'itb hOllo!' aut l lJ OJ) parol(l. The trr-'Ilchc = an(l 0 ut k i 1'1.' of the ci t pr (\Jltcd a tC:'l'l'i l)k i o b t a Hcl' the ha The strcets 1:1!let NeIll wcr tl' '\\ 1\ \\'ith the ulllmriccl lead an10l\g them beil)g Su1l1e f the be. t of P'U);Ullrt', YOUll g n1C11 ",11 b ad e pOil eLl the ':ttl ... 011 holh idl' thi' date ulltil the l" ntiol1 of th ('I of )iIIIHUlfI, lJ (lillg u:c(l <1.' tho h ad lllilitnry p o t f tl,p CujulltlJiall gOY(,l'llll1 'I) 011 tIl l 1 for t1' po' and llppli(' kl'p ill '()ll1pnl'all ama. The lilit '<.1 tat. y-'],IIII)('llt a th' l't'q!l l,t of tbe '1.utlwl'itic': at Hog )tn hllall 1:tlld(l(l it Co]'C(' of 11::tl'ill .' t() k<.' p 11 t\'(ul'it op lll . Fi(Tht-illl) \\';1 tll('}' UJlOIJ top!> I alll1ll' th lin f th l'nill'oa 1 illH1 1/j ill.'ll\'(' furthl'l' til J PI' '" l'\'Htioll uf )1'(1 1'. fr 111 thl' (0 f Ullr II" a I hip rlld a .11('11 I' ill til l1'l'b 1'.

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T7Ir inkill{j tli La/([al'o' 213 --==-The Sinking of the "Lautaro". 'rh nn,ya,l battl ill thl' b 'lY of Pn IHLmc 11 Janu< 1'Y 20, 1002 ,, hi 11 r ultrcl ill th illkillg of th ()loml iall O'llllooat Lalltaro, and tho d nth of (1(\11. arlo. lball, tho govenlll1(,llt hi('f 1n11 itary l'epre 'ellta ti \' on th \ I thmu affor led one of the 1110 t ill t re ti llg pectacl conll ted with the r volntion. A few da) previou to thi ellgage-111cnt the Lautaro a boat belouging to the Chilean stealllline, had been inlpressec1 into sorice by the governInent authorities without waiting for the consent of the head of affairs at Bogota. Gum, were Inounted and the boat otherwise put ill readiness to go in senrch of the rev olutionary vessel Padilla, and to relieve the garrison at Aguadulce which at that ti111e was being hard pressed by the Liberals. On the night before the Lautaro Inet her fate, Gen. Al ban "ith several of his officers "ent on board and dis coYered the Chilean crew had broken illto the Hpirit rOOln and were comnlitting drunken excesses, one being the letting of all the fresh water out of the tanks. Finding it useless to try and disciplino them, the general retired and was n wakened ill the rnorning with the infonnatioll that a vesse l was steaming into the harbor showing llO distinctive colors .. A.fter passing inside of where the Alnerican cruiser, Philadelphia lay at anchor, the boat which proved to be the Padilla" opened a well-directed fire on the Lautaro dismounting one of its gUllS at the first shot, and killing Gen. Alban and several other men at the second fire. In the l11eantiu18 the small Oolombian gun boat Ola(;cuito with Gen. Esteban Huertas and Gen. H. O. Jeffries on board came up frOln La. Boca and steamed to within five hundred yards of the Pa dilla. The inlmediately opened up with a light rapid-fire aut.omatic gun which however, made no impression on the revolutionary stealuer. The latter continued to hammer away at the Lautaro UIltil the vessel caught fire and sank slowly out of sight

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0 l> VI oq: ...J bJ :::. 0 c ...J oq: <: 0 0 0 l<. 0 >- VI bJ ... Q: :, 0 / ..... -/ ..... C!) -..4 l1J .... ..... h 0 ....., 1l, ...... A..t 0 .. D ........ tr)

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1'It(' ,,"illkinlj til L((ulm'o. 215 Wholesale Dealer in V i ews Picture Postal Cards, Souvenir Albums Panoramic Views of the Isthmus. WRITE M E FOR PRICES. {Pan a m a beneath the waters of the bay. The noise of discharging cannon and the bloy ing up of the powder magazine J on t he d oolned boat as the fire reached it, performed a fitting requiem over the dead body of the Inilitary chief, Gen. A l ban, which went do", n at the same tilne. The upper part of the masts of the Lautaro may be readi l y seen to day at low tide sticking out of the water. A 'year or so since there was some talk of dynamiting the cleari n g away the spot, but no action in regard to it has yet been taken. The Padilla remained in hands of the revo l utionists until peace was declared. It was then turned over to the Colombian Government and renamed t he 21 de "RINGING THE BELLES."" \"Thy should girls that wish to get married come to Panama? Because it is the greatest place in the world for ringing t.he (belles) bells.

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216 Pilot and Guide. The Siege of Aguadulce. In January, 1902 Gen. Herrera the Liberal l ea der with his Indian allies under Victoriano L orenzo appeared before the town of Aguadulce in the province of Oocle. The town wa ga rrisoued by a goverulllen t force o f abo u t 1 300 men under the cOluulalld of Gen. Oastro T he Liberal general demanded the unconditiona l surrender of the garri 'on, at the same time conveying the informa t ion o f the loss of the upon which the government troops had depended for suppl i es. The den1and was refused, and on January 23d, the Liberals commenced the attack. After twenty-four hours' fighting the government forces we r e defeated, Gen. Oastro and 350 of his men escaping to Panama. In this engagement some 750 lllell "Tere ki lled and wounded on both sides, while the Liberal lead ers reported the capture of 7 oq prisoners. In June, 1902, the government despatched a force of 1,200 men to retake Aguadulce. The troops arrived at the town on June 20th and were imluediate l y surrounded by a superior force of Liberals. The latter ill' ested the place so closely as to cut off the besieged entirely from obtaining supplies. The go ernment had provided the gnr ri on with five hundred cattle, but these were Jl)ysteri usly fun off one night leaving the besieged practically wi thout food. Such straits were they in that they were conlpelled to kill and eat their horses, and later on other animal including the dogs. Decayed fruit and piec of palIn and shru were al 0 utilized to su tain life. The gc. 1'1'i n olltinued to hold out until Augu t 21, 19 2 when it ar itulat cl, over 1,000 prisoners and a Ie rg allloullt of ,1 munition alling into the eneluy hand '. uri1l0 the 'ieD' the arri on uff r 1 the I of 0111 iw hundl' d 111 n tl r u h ickn and ra O'u t ptnl r III anal a, on a out III n

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.-----------_. -----TIl of Aglladulce. 2 17 ixty f "h Il1 W r rxprri 11 r 1 y t ralls, ( Il
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218 P ilot and G1lide. The Panama Government has given them the right of suffrage, but they have never evinced much of a desire to take a hand in matters political, and are content to till their fields and to carryon their small trading operation8. In the revolution of 1900-'02 however, they C01l8tituted quite a factor in the warring elements, but it is doubtful if they would have taken a part in it, but for the personality of their Governor and leader, Victoriano Lorenzo, who, nloved by a spirit of revenge joined issues with the Liberal for ces, was made a general and afterward8 a.ssisted greatly in the victories of that side. One of the comlnodities in which these Indians deal largely i8 salt, and in securing their support to the revolutionary moveluent, they were led to believe that if the Liberals were successful, they would he permitted a free trade in it. About the time the revolution broke out, Victoriano Lorenzo had a large farm and was attending strictly to his own affairs. He had one annoyance and that was the constant nagging of a petty official. Lorenzo finally gave the latter to understand that if he was troubled any further he would take steps to stop it. The official paying no attention to this warning, I..lorenzo abducted him and took him into the mountains. The government hearing of this summary action sent troops to I.Jorenzo'8 home they committed various sorts of depredat.ions. This COOling to the knowledge of Lorenzo, and believing himself au out law, he proceeded to revenge himself in Indian style by per forming savage atrocities on the prisoners he captured. On one occasion he killed a Spanish priest. By this time ho had enlisted quite a folJowing and tiring of the outlawed existence which he led, he joined the Liberal forces and carried on a guerrilla warfare. On joining the revolutionists he ceased committing acts outside the pale of civilization, and conducted himself more in accordance with the usageR of war. \Vhen hostilities ceased, a general amnesty was declared whereby the adherents f the Liberal cause without exception were allowed to

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c T h e tory of Vi cto r ia n o Loren z o 219 either leave the country, or return to their homes unmo lested. Lorenzo believing himself secure under this proc lamation made no effort to hide, or flee tho coun try. By the authorities however, he was regarded as an uns afe man and later through the effort.s of Gen. Benjamin Herrera he was apprehended and turned over to the Oolombian officials. He was held a prisoner for some months during which time on one occasion he made his escape onl y to be reca.ptured the same day. It is believed by some that the escape was "arranged" in order that an additional charge might be secured against hinl. In 1903 after the country had become tranquil again, a cOJnmission was des patched from Bogota with orders to execute Lorenzo. On May 14, 1903 he was condemned to be shot for commit ting robberies and assassinations, and performing acts contrary to civilized warfare. Moved probably by a spirit of

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22.0 Pilot and Guide, fair play, the Governor, foreign con u ls and. prOlnincnt cit izens endeavorad to secure a lllitigution of the sentence, but the Bogota cOlumis ion declared. they were acting un der specific orders to have hiln executed, and he was accord ingly shot in the Plaza de Arn1as on lVIay 15, 1903 Sign Treaty of Peace on Wisconsin". In April, 1902, tbe Archbishop of Bogota issued an encyclical under the authority of the Catholic Church of .' GEN. PERDOMO, THE COLOMBIAN PEACE ENVOY. (cOURTESY OF DONALDO VELASCO,) .., lombia in "hich it was tatec1 th'lt in 01'<1 r to how a chri ti n pirit, av id furth r hI d. h0<1, and to end the bitter b'uggle that was ruining the country, the I.Jibe.rals would

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221 -------be granted inlll111nlty :. 11c1 forgi v n \' provid d they w uld Jay d n th ir ( nns :.)) 1 agree to peace. rrIley ,y re aLo prOlni c1 lqual right, represclltati 11 and p ronal fr cclOln without prejudice to their opinions. This letter did not haye il111Uediate effect ill bringing hostilities to a closo but later in the year after an of nUIllCl'OUS COl1llllUJlicati 11 bet" en the and Govermnent leaders, a sati factory und rstandil1O' was arrived at, and on the 21st of NOYeInber, ] D02 a treaty of was siglled on board of the nited tates battleship .,\,T isconsin", Capt. Casey 00l111nanc1er, jn Pallalna harbor. In bringing these nego tiations to a conclusion, (ien. B. H : errcra ropreselltecl the 1J1boral ,while ell. Vici(,r 1\1. Salazar, then Governor of Panalna, Gen. Alfredo Vasquez Cobo, and (i en. Nicolas PerdOl110, the latter being the special envoy froin Bogota, represented the side of the GoV(\,rnulent. Applied for Annexation. Under date of Novenlber 28th, 1890, l)Cfore the rev olution had broken out on the IstlllTIus, tho Star & Herald print d the following ,Vashingtol1 c1ispatch:-"Panamn, lJ.a applied for annexation, but in view of t.he fact that Panama is not an independent l' publiC', the (tutho1'itie deem it adyisable not to jeopa.rdize the friendl, r elations of the Bogota Government with thi' country, and the application has been filed.' POLYGLOT PANAMA. Frolll th8 day of discovery until now the Isthn) us has 011 ly been a. landing place and porterage for those that canle and went, and ,,,ho "'ishec1 Inost heartily jt had been a.n open sea instead. Oaptains 0f s hips a.ll the way froln the dinky old galleons to the floating palaces of the present clay have found it an interposition of Divine Providence, in their opinion uncalled for. Panama hav ..

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-------------------------------------------------------------.. ------::::: !JJ. :R Stat/on af 6mpire -:7>anama '1. fhmlDn-.;I#mcrlcon JYews.:li!lellc!I ,f.:lldVllrlillng Jjureau ..:A .ienkow-sk/.

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,'Iu}'y 1/1( ) '(JlIl/fI{, I Rr jl/tld,," --..:=.....:::-==-=-STORY O F THE YOUNGEST REPUBLIC W ith S ome Side Lights on the Historic Drama of 903, in which the Interests of three C Were Invo l ved. lthough -Fe til' Y}(11': llav, lnp:ed ill the R puhli of Pall<11na tl k it. pIa c ill thl ralllr )[ the ,,'orld' s frc., an<1 indcp IItlOllt !lati o l!. th I (1r:unati l cYcnt' tha l e d 'up to aJlll 'tllT nne] d th ,'C ::iOllCll'V hase 11 Y r v (? n (' I \ a 1'1 1111 d (' r t 0 U I i 11 k J w \' -, b l' II 111 i : : i 11 0" a 1) c1 s ) 111 perb:lp: :11'C :till mi: 'illg. in th e -!lain If 'irCn111 tall -., th fnrgillh of which l)(H ra ll witl the IH ITotiatioll: for a allal tr)aty hetwecll h ""nitc i and olOlnbin: rca h cl v tho ,,,hite-heat .:tao 'l' ill the l'C \ 'O]lltion[tl" ill idcllt of i v u Inli nati ng in the t mpcl'('d a Ild fill i 'heel p e rio 1 f the iner o:nlololitan popula io]) p o nliar to it. e lf i 110 trictly '11 nkillo' fl il-fal'illg C 111ll1Ullit,', The lil1gui tic a 'COl11-pli hmcllt f it pe pIc ha' ftell heoll rrnutrk d. It i 1'a1' t fin:l the '(lucateo cIa e fl persoll w11.lnenll f ('Xl r ),' 'iOll i ntlncd t 011 \ t o ngu r ]anITu.10 Ii' n t llllll. unl tr h ea r hnH a. d oze n languag e llsed at 011 0 ill
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224 Pilot and Guide. IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS. DOORS, BLINDS, SASHES, .A .TLAS HARD"\YARE, ET ., ET ., ETC. WE MAKE A SPECIALTY OF COFFINS AND COFFIN TRIMMINGS. P. O. Box: 294. Upper Bolivar Street, CoJon, R. P. present, as represented by the impending treaty with Colombia, in ,,,hich al111cable relations between Panalnc. and the mother country bid fair to be restored. 1\11'. F. L. Rockwood who has furnished rrhe Pilot and Guide ,,jth luuch inforn1ation in connection with this article, ,,'as a resident of the Colon1bian Capital ,,,hi 1 these events were taking place, and speaks of the situation there fronl I ersonal knowledge. The plot ftnd the cast been at hand. The dramatization only ha been lacking. -Editor. Why the Colombian Treaty Failed. It i nece ary to talc a di, pas ionate view fr0111 both ides tu 11]1<.10)' talld th e, ont that put in acti 11 th ') epRratioll fl'01Yl (l,l1d 111ac1e the R l ubli' f anmua a, reality. \\hen th J)itcc1 b t 1llld rtook t Ilea tint a canal tr aty ,,,i 11 I )1< lllbia ill th arli r part t 19 :3, on f th llllpOl'tallt and 1 aelino fignI' f tb latt l' ) UIltry of \\'h In th r i Y)l'Y Ii tIl ]-110\\'11 ut 1(1, "'<1 1'. () '(\ 1\L l\Iarroqnill. a 111H11 th(\J) about )-.' ar of of x 11 11 hara t r alld n.\putati l), an 1 h, Pl\ fr:. i 1) a d( t r f Ie W .' 'l"hc .'ndden retil' ,11 nt f Pr .. ill nt '111-clc lln 11 1 n Huh :\[a1'1' qui)) into th pI' 'id Jl Y a (1'0P-r .'('uta iv f h 11 'ery< iv I art. T tb l'wi e kn wn a

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-----II y tit e oZ 0 mui UI Tl' r a 1,1/ F({ il r7. 225 the 1 rical part r froll1 jt 1 f ren to the hur h in affair of tate and adnlinistratiOll of law:. rrh O'OY rnment at the capital at the till1e of a elldan y wa dominated by an unprincirled politi al faction wh e r lic} wa rule or ruin, and pav 1 th, way for the long and wa teful three years "ar. "\ ith the return of peace and the as embling of CongresR, the gO\ enllllent fonnd it. elf still dOlninated b thi faction in both branches, "hich was ,yorse than the open reyolutions of the Liberal party. It is but ju t to state thnt the Colotnbian Congress contained many patriotic and high-nlinc1ecl ]l1en who endea,ored to act for their country' gooel, but the factional elenlent ,va for getting the governnlent into their hands at any cost and incidentally the control of the $20 000 000 national annual inC0111e compared to which the Isthmus and the canal cut but a secondarJ figure. They had as their leader Gen. -r elez, ,,,ho was slnted for the presidency if a change could be effected. At the titne ,,,hen the war of the revolut.ion was in full swing on the Isthmus, President :JIa.rroquin appealed for help frol11 the United States Governnlent tr) proserye order there in fa,or of his government, especially along the 1i ne of rai lroad, proJ11isi ng in return that when the revolution ,yas 0' er, he would sign a canal treaty, thereby pledging the word of his country as its president. The United States landed troops and thereafter until tho ces bon of hostilities kept the transit clear. Then caDle the asselllbling of the Colombian Congress for the discussion of the proposed canal treat.r. and Pre iclent l\Iarroquin was inonlled that ho ,,-ould not be allowed to comply with his 'YOI'd u111e s authorized by it, despite the special pO"'8rs that had previously been conferred upon hinl for this purpose, in which the honor of hi country was c01nproll1ised. The Colombian Congress ,, 'as c1nly put on notice concerning action on the treaty as eyidellced by the following

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226 Pilot and Guide. memorandum pre nted by the United States ]\Iinister nt Bogota to the Oolond)ian (j-oVel'lllnent, June 1 Bth, Sil':----I have received in 'tru tion. from my government by ('able to the effect tha.t the Goyerument of Colombia, b. T all a ppearances, does not fully appreciate t.he gravity of the, ituatioll. The negotiat.jons fol' the ale of the canal at Panama were initiated by Colonlbia and were urO'ently solicited frOlu my O'O\'ernment for many years. The prolositions pre'ente i b r Colonlbia, with a f e w ul:odifieatioll. were finally adopted by th United States. In virtue of this agreement OU1' ongl'E' S revoked its previous de -isio11, and decided for the Panama route. If Colombia llOW reject.s the treaty, or unduly d lays its ratificati n, the amicable relation, existhw b we n th two countries will b so seriously comI romi 'ed that our ong!'e, in its next ession may adopt mea 'urC', that may be I' gr tt d by all friend of Colombia. This evidently had ])0 inlp"ession on tho d0111inftllt faction ill the Oololnbian Congress as 11ld icatcu in th follo,ving calles to the Star & Jler((ld: Bogota, .Tn]: i, ] 903. Gen. V ]ez, leader of the op1 o .. ition said count l'. 'In n ar oPlo e d to the treat.y a,' it now ta n<..L, as thr : do not. think that th Ulliteu States has 1.> 01 b e n llgh ill til terms off e r <1. DO()'ota J n]y ( 1903. About i'll. ident IV[arroquin ignill&, tll ( t lln.l tl'ent. th :1fini,'t,C'l' of }'or .inn A frail's ill n, much npplan( 1 all of al' ',, al'g'1l1l1 nt:=;, finally 'ollYiL1<:illg tlJ .-, 11at t.1J:l'j 'l'HEY mus appro\' ih \
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227 l WATCHMAKER, JE ELE T OP1 ClAN. C I TO AL, CA ... L Z01. TE. ---.----DIAMONDS \.\. ,'PE('I \l:l'Y :\f.\llE en TIH.\!. _______________________________ I .I.TO.-E Bl' l' /oJ TOYI'; OLD. SILVER GOODS.-}TLL 1.L;1-: TO ( 'Il()O,"E }l{O:\I. 'W A TCHES. \ All (If J.'AILH{)..lD If.LTCflES. \Yalt________________________________ I ham, BalL llliuoi., Ha'lIi/tc>1l. Er(' CHIEF WATCH INSPECTOR, Isthmian Canal Commiss:on, p, R, R, Co, After two 1110 nth. or J110r I of dehate ill both house the treaty canle to a vote in the lower tnanch of Oongre.s all I ,,,as enc10r eel Ly that Lody. It then \yont to the SenDte where T e l ez and hi.' f lIowill o had ulnde H 11 preparation. to fight it to the l a t ditch. 'I he result appears in the cable herewith:-DogotH; Allgn.'t 1:2, 190:)' The H ay-Herl'an ('anal was (lC'f atec1 in the Coloml)ian nate to-clay, Inl111cdiatcly the r(lsult beCD.lne 1-no\n), 1'0 iclent roquin adopted a cour:e which had for object the placing of the c10lllin nt political faction jn Oololnhian Senate in a corner at allY cost. He luaclc up his 11lind that as president of the country his ,yord \yould be cOlllplied if i t could ]lot he dire tly, and accordingl y appointed Don Ol111ng-o ('e ()Lalc1ia. who was pronounced and Qutspol-ell III tho interests

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228 Pilot a nd Guide. l of Panalna, to be its governor. Thi raised a storm of protest, and showed that a, political 1110re was on the board that had not been thought of, but with all the criticislllS of the Cohnnbiall press on this appointlllcnt, nODe denied but that Obalc1ia was a luau of high character and ability. It was this: fact that stirred thelu up the nlost. ]'r01n the Ool01nbian at ,Vashington and froln individuals and c0111panies in the United States and Europe, having cOlulllercial jnterests in OOlolllbia, cam cable after cable concern iug the movenlents and purported plans of the revolutionary agents of Pananla. rrhese cables ,yere sent principally over the lines touching Venezuela, and from there t.ranslllittec1 by telegraph to Bogota it being considered un" ise at this jUllcture to send thCln in the usual manner through Panalna. l\lany of the cables urg d the nlassing of troops on the Isthl11US in order to forestall the rumored change in political ties. So well informed wa. the OOloll1bian Govenllllent :ind even private partie at Bogota, that it was a. lnatter of public COlll111ent on the streets at this period why no action was taken looking h, the despatch of troops to the Isthmus. In the ll1eantime the faction who had defeated the canal treaty o'a,r e pen expres ion to the belief that this turn of events 'would bring its adherents permanently to the front and it, leader into the I residential chair. There were at that tilne in Bogota eycn thou and troops of the Oolombian Line and another ten th u. an I within r ach, all well-drilled and ann d, and offi e1' d by 1 en on ,yholTI the govcnnnellt could d -1 ell] yet no 111 ye wa lnacle to Inohilize th 111 ill allY WD' or any indi ation gi on th e t th y 'v r t h d 1 at h '<1 t tIl n t. d nt I rroquin ha 1 an11 1 tin) t p]c all th 11 d d n th tlllnn, and whun an an.". 11 In a .. k 1 hint why 11 did 11 t de so nft r 0 lUll 11 Wal'nillO' th o ->1' .. ill Ht r pli d '\\ hat f 'I'll \ 111 l' hall th \11

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went on t eiv d ther rk and "\ troubl at ing that Trll!! III ('oloJllui((}/ TJ' ({{.II Failuf, st. to th t a '01' lin to ad vi e. 11 hau re-wa' a rey Iuti ))nr ? junta working III \Y a hingt Il, and i \va ; pp( ront 11 r wonll b r'h I re.-id nt ropli d t tIti. III a .. ayInctilnc tIl un xpo ted hapIJoll:: It was tho general b lief f tho e who knew Prc\ i-lent l\larl' CIuin jntimately a \yell a th ir umstan c surroundinO' th analna affail', that h all 0 '" d tho s c sionary In Y 111Cllt t proc cl with ut tL king any deci iye top to stave it ff, not altoO'cthcl' to revengo hi111se1 for the slight put up II him b) the Y c1ez faction but a: ( le-son f r the bettenllent of hi country. and to a,oid a re-v peti t.iOll of the OCCUITeIH..:es the t characterized th reyolu tion of 1 9 to 1902. The manner in ,,hich event haped theln selves is now accepted in Cololnbia a Olle or the be t thing that could have h ppeDec1 for the reason that the affairs of Panalna haye always proyed a fruitful source f eli en ion in OOlolubian politics while it: soce 'sion has operated to re moye thi discordant factor, therehy turning the thoughts of its people into wiser a.nd broader-lninc1ed channels. ExPre ic1ellt l\Iarroquin to-day ha the re pect of all ill the Colombian capital \,hcreas if it "'as thought that he had perpetrated a gri vou wrong on his country, his presence "ould not ba,e been tolerated for a In01l1ent. The c18feating of th canal treaty does not nppear to have met the will or the "i. hes of tho people of Oolon1bia as a whole, but ,yas brought ahout through tho schmning of a political clique that had hecn drawn together I)y thr po sibility of getting the r(\iIlS of goYCrnnlellt into its hand. rrhe excuse u cd by Velez alHl his ChallJpion in blocki}) j favorable action on th treaty III the COloluhiall I len ate wa that the United States (lid not ffer enough for the pri,ileges sought for and that it would be prejndicial to the integrity of the Repubhc to pern1it the all G vernluent to exercise supr81l1o control oyer the canal trip, this despite the fact the ]o,, 'e1' n tificu the trea-

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Pilot and Guide. t y ,, ith out que tion. 1Iol' e over the anlount of .'10,000,000_ tha t w ould haye r.hang e d hands upon the sllccesHful i "sue of th treaty was far 11101'0 liboral than any proposition tJ III n: Q "I; II. 0 :>. II) III h n: 16 ;::, 0 It.) -..... ""-; 0 --l 0 l) ""-; l) V) 1 l I.

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1rh!l the oloJJlui(lJl l'}'(((f! 1 P((iir' rI. 231 ther tofor Ina the 1 1 Inbi( Il (I rerllll10 n ill C'onncctioJ with the anal un lert, km 0 Th II too r lez W:t. nn a y W c1 enetny of I r g1'c (nu hi <1ntipnth' to for 1,o-lIl '1" an 1 f 1'e10'11 entcrpri T a not riou Aft r 11 l' ( d j urncLl thC' a tion f th )010111-bian en te in turning dO'\Yll th '( 11( I tn', tr r ,,talliz d public elltim nt tl era] n t ,..,. e lez, and it is rtr 111 ly I 1'01 -able that could the 111a tel' bn, yc c )]l1C np again a f w lTIOllth 1 [lter: th re o ult ould hayo he n d i lC'(lly differ nt. Pre ident Rooseyelt reference t tIl defeat f the treat r in hi TIle age to ongress tate:--, During all the of negotiation and di:cn: .. ion that preceded the con In ion of the Hay-Henan treaty, Coloml)ia. n vel' intimated that the requirement by the 1:nit cl tatC'o' of control OY l' th anal 'trip wonld render nnattainable the '011-truction of a canal b wa" of th I .. thmu ... of Panama; nor were we advi ed luring the month when legi:latio11 of 1902 wa pending before the Ollgrp s tbat the t I'm which it embodied woulJ ren leI' negotiatiou' ,yith olombia iml raeticable. It i plabl that no nation could con truct amI gnarantee the neutrality of the canal 'with a I e.' degre e of control than was tipulated in tb Ray-Henan treaty. A refusal to grant uch degree of control wa nece' arily a r fusal to make any pra ticable treaty at all. uch refu .. al therefore .'qwU'ely rai ed the lue tiou whether Colombia \ya entitled to bar the tran it of the world' traffh a ero: the I .. thmu ... Colom bia after having rejedec1 th treaty in :pite of our protest and warnings when it wa, in her po T pr to accept it ha.' .'in hown the utmost eag rne to tllo amc treaty if only tlw tatus fJltO coulu be re 'tored. On(:' ot the men tanding highe. t in the official circle of Colombia on N oyember 6, 1903, a 1 dre ed the American at Bogota, ,aying that if the Government of th United States would land troop: to pl'e,'Pl've Colombian 'overeignty and the tl'iLll it, the olombia11 Govel'nment would d clare marti::Ll law, an 1 by yil'tue of ve t cl COll-titutional authodt when public ortlf'l' i <1i tUl'b cl. (would) approve b T decree the ratifieation of the cann I treaty a.' igu d; or, if the Goyernment of th Uniteu State prefer,' (\ oull)

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232 Pilot arul Guide . THE lARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT O N THE ISTHMUS. @Hlpotl'er-of eCl.t1'\e.:JC 'Cll1-b il't Cll lS11tf,,;oi-(),z,zic:J. en,al'll1\-G.1Vo-zfl' @uot.1j, GtVa'z;c, aub A Splend.id. Stock. To Select Fror.n. fane!, drticles and Novelt i es Constan tl t' f r oIl) Ghina and Japan gnU and See 'Lsts l\ 1 t 111 Silt g m IJ 0 11 9 flj 011 9 Ii c e &-\1t 0 posl Ollice BOX, NO.7. I PAN A lVl A 1\ Nos. 197199 EoSl131n SI., Gar. Av. B. call an extra se. 'sion of the ong1'Ps -with new and f1'i ncl1y mcmh 1's --next May to appl'oye th treat.. HavinO' the fact in view, ther i no hadow of a lIue tion that the ov-rnment of tll nitec1 tate. pl'OpO ed a treat that wa n t. only jn:t, bnt g nerou to Colombia, which our p opl l' garrl-d as l'l'ing, if at all; on the, 'ide of ov rg nero it 0; which wa ... hail t 1 ho,' \\'h hn v ,'11o\\'n th 111,' 1 C,' nnl'1'1 ndly, t h P \Y '1' to nnd wllat they (li(l. I pasH b, 1h .. qu as to wha a: m'nue' \\(' h:ty' that III would ]lOW kepI> thpil' pl (lgl and 11 t again l'<'i'Il,"1oJ'alif, 1li('11' nl.'iftlit','hn(llll(\l()WL')" f l' f' r \\ ill nol fo1' 011 'lll 111 n (li:-,('uHS 1 II 1 ()Hsihility f il1<' nil (1 Hlat(.s l'Ollllllitting nil n('1 )fS\l('h a .. to ab:llHl n th<> l\('W 1 ( l llUlJlic of' >amlllltl.

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Trli!l tile ()lOIJl7Ji({}l TI'('((tll /<'r(il('(l. 233 11 1 H 1 en.' p] z tho I <'1(lor of tho all i-calla I fa tioll was a an for th (Jo]olnl)ian pl'f'.'i(l \11CY
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234 P i lot and Glli d e -0-= =---=-__ = .. =.=_ = __ __ _ ==== BISHOP & SEALY. UP-TO-DATE TAILORS AND CU1TERS, No. 1 BOT'l'J .. E ALLEY, E d 7th allt. 8th fjtreet" COLON: R P .... WE GUARANTEE T O GIVE SATISFACTION TO OUR CUSTOMERS AND WITH DISPATCH_ ONE TRIAL W ILL COf',.:VINC E YOU THAT W E W ILL DO ALL WE CLAIM. Prices within reac h of all.W e extend you a cordial invitat ion to visit LIS, the sev erance of p o liti ca l tics ,,-ith'! Colon1hia. The rcsllit was the Jlan1ing of a juntn consi tillg of 1\1 ssr. J ose A .. ngn s till Ara ngo, F edrrico Bo),(l, Ri c ardo r ia:, 1 Tir( 1)('>1' A. d e barrio 1\[ nDue l E pino a H., a nd Dr. Amad o r u r r el'O th e now Preside nt of the R e p n b lic. Pl a n s w e r e 1 aic1, a n 1 t() Dr. A mad or wa: ntrustec1 t h e ( l e I i cate rnis'i o n t o yis it t h e ( T nit ecl to as rertain uy J11r:t ll S o f i ntcl'ri e w h o w t h e nlOV0111CJ t "ould be looke d npon t here. III thi s C01lllcctio n Dr. m ar l o r wa, t o h a tb o :1bl o n o f apt. 13ccl"s, f ormerly fr i gbt for t h o P:1nalna a j J r ondo Durin g la:t clays ) f Al.lO'u.'t a n1cctillg ,,'n' h e ld i ll Tew -rod e Cit.y attend d Dl'. AlllCl(10r A lnadc 1'0 -S 111(lna: r rac r B o h i n.'on f 01'1n rly .. ith tho I);1I1nm a R a ilrond A)Jl1pallY a t ,1. G n ll'i e l Dnqu of thr Pit n a Ina "Star ( r H crall alltl 1 L \Vi'. al 0 of IJ')ll:l11I ( Th e e \ Y Ul'k ,\ odd said o f thi s Jne tiuo and it, l' ult : -., rl'lH'Y \ \ '(,111. 0\'('1' t h o w holt' t iOll ill ( 1 tail ('od a1 Cnloll 1111(1 Pallama, :\11(1 (l:-; 111(' Ht hotli l'h\('('" \\,('1'(' i'lll
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Til ,'ee( ",;,""ioJl Pol 1:((/11/,' To Uot!. ====-==-==-...0= 235 intHr halld ill H by at O1H' JHwlillg' k '{'l> the I tlul)l1 ,' 0l)(:'n for It'affi<: awl \\ onlll lj('L'mit ]JO ('lrl1 t iJl(r aloll!! n h the Ji 1 Ot' at 'ith '1' ultl of it, Till l'eyolnt iOJJi:d:.; Cll'pl'l'eialecl that tIlL Httitnl.> would be of illlm('u:.; il' 11 l '()' i)' itt the" pain .. 'I ".T. G;tln-i'l DlLqU<:> 'ludt,a to vi,'lL ,r11:.;ltillgtoll ::IllIl Hc<)nnint thp atlll1iu i:"\trn (iOIl'Oll fid/'ll( ia H,v wi (h (]Il' 11!HIlS, fI(' went at Oll' Hwl 011 ,'tph-'ml,('L':; I1:-Hl cL long' talk "'Hit 'i 't' tary Ha.y ill w11irh hf> llnfo]( l (,tl 01' wholt' P,-11lillll<1 ,'()!emf'. Ha: had 111.liuc1 of jr bofol' ) (l, ll(l Wil.' i nl Pl'P;..;te(l (' hidl,\-in th <.lat 'ct fol' tIt l'C\'Ollltioll, alHl thE (,X(lct l1at-ul" of thp vIan. HelY dill not offi. L1.11y tlH' I' 'OIUtiOll. Hi l' 'mark WE're' p'l'ft-'dly }ll'Op<:'l" it waH what 11 dill HOt' sClY 1'<1.1h r than what h e tlitl that PIl('ollJ'agc(l the: l'cvoJ u and c<.l,llsc d tIl 'JD to change t11 it, plau:-5. w You arc lUll h too ll(l,,' y .' .. lid ::'Ill'. Bn\" whpll \nl,' t :]el . of thE' de: tf> ,'(-It f l' the r('Yolt, ,. ('o)olllhi: ::;holll(l 1)(> given :-t c han' e t n'I )('Jlt. H :-;hl' S!l ttill ]1(1 of l'eprlltuure ,yithill i te;l.'ona 1)1(' I illJ(' yO\l \\'o lt!tl of e )Ul':.;e l>e fr to til ,le all r aClioll yon saw you ,\,1'(:, 110W hllt it ,'('E'tll.' to me it woultllook mil c h b ,ttCI' to wait i-x. \\ -eek .. or .'0. ()f ('OlU'!:,C you that if tllel'c i.' a 1',,\'{)11ltiolt tit Unite(l \\'ill keep th I opelt Clllcl allow no fighting' HE'llI' the railway. If th l'e i to h :-tll)-it will to bl.:' l lOll 1 dol" OUi' ill<-rine: get the1'(, .. Dllque' l'(,tul'I)('d to or};, to ld of the r c nIt of 11 is vi .. i t. wlw I'{'U pon it ,, 'ns t h:1t th) Ill)\\, ::rnyfll'llllleJlt : .. dlOuld not u e 'ct np Ol' prOclalll1cd lllltil the -ltll of N ovem 1 81'. Colombia Gets The News. ,Vithin a. few (lav, after th o confc},(:llce with ,:\11'. Hay, Dr. ReiTan the Oo1olllbiall :\Jilli.'[cr (::lhlcd his go\' erlllnent full illfonn ation con crlling the f8 'olutiollft1',Y nlove nlent, setting forth that it W3,S SClIOU.', and that the gar-

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236 Pilot and Gilide. ri '011 at Pananla. and C Ion should bo trengtheJlPcl at once. R \"a informed that hi' adyicc ha<1 been followed and that the r ,, 'ere 2,000 picked Inen at Pananla, whereas the g ( 1 ri on 11111nbered ahont JOO. ,\ hen it too late 1 Inbia acted upon Dr. Hel'n n's uggestion for it was not until Xoyeluher the c1a' the n w republic was proclainl d tha t a Cololnbian gUll boat and a chartered tealner arriyec1 at Oolon '0111 Oartagena ,,,ith BOO troop on board of OIle. and 200 on the other. I The l etting of tho cnt out of th bag creat.ed SOlne C01l11TIotion j n the reYolutionary canlp; and lea them to be extremel,) cautiou jn their fnture 1110Vements. Dr. Hen'an "Tote the repre. entati-yc of the French canal C0111pany to the effect th9.t he "'ouIl hold thenl responsible for what PLAZA BOLIVAR. (DAVID R. OF?,) ( OURTE5Y 0 G AN ORE E,) =.... i _.

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-------------------------, 237 trH I}. pir din thi.' a. fter thi.. c .urr Il C the a13l 111y wa used for the trall mi ion of in trll tiOllS. No Coal for Colombian Boats. 'We thought it best," writes Don Al'ango in his Not s 'to let 001. J. R. Shaler, Superintendent of the Panama Railroad OOlnpany, know of our plane through Capt. Beers, so one day when both were in 111y office Oapt. Beers explained what we intended doing. Alllong the things that came up '" as the supplying the Oomlnallding (j-eneral of the Colombian military forces with 200 tons of coal, which the General asked through the Governor at first, then directly of the railrond company. It was explained that this coal was urgently needed for the Oolombian gunboats Parlilla and Bogota, which were under hurry orders to go to BU"811aventura, alld bring the troops that were there ready to embark for Panama. As this would have been fatal to our plans, 001. Shaler consulte(l with me as to the best way of evading delivery of the coal. rrhe only way we could see was to put off the request frolH day to day by tpI1ing the General that the coal was ill OOlOll, although there We: S a great quantity ill Pananla, alld some of it had already been sold to the different steaTnship companies." "Supt. Shaler gave Ine authority to look after this matter, and I was able to put off the OOlnmanding General in spite of the notes which he sent me to supply the two vessels nalued. I had talked with Gen. Varon, COIUmallding the Padilla, and ascertained that he was in sylupathy with our cause, and afterwards Dr. Amador had a clearer understanding with him. We then advised that the Padilla could receive coal, and after a talk with 001. Shaler over the telephone about it, the supply was furnished. 'Ve also offered to supply the Bogota, but mentally had no illtention of following up the offer. I advised 001. Shaler to take the matter in hand directly in case the Oommanding General was not satisfied with my promises,

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238 Pilot and Guide. but he replied that this W8S nnder nly charge entirely as was the one that attended to tho upplyillg of the government by the company.' Gen. Huertas Casts in his Lot On the returll of Dr. Arnador frolu Now York preparations were at once set under way for the crucial period. It was deemed advisable to inform the people of the impending event, and G-en. Domingo Dlaz,I)1'. Eusebio A. l\Iorales Don Oarlos OlOlnont, and DOll Pedro A. Diaz were selected for this mission. Gen. Diaz "was appointed in charge of the day fixed for the breaking of relations. The date set was November 4, hut as has been previou ly stated, the news of the despatch of troops from Oartagena induced the junta to advance it a day. "Before we kue"w that it was necessary to prepare at all points," writes Don Arango, ,: we foulld oceasiOll to t lk with Gen. Huertas, chief of the troops of the garri ODe Re expressed hims61 that whether in the position he oc cupied, or out of it, he was a Panaluanian at heart and was \\ ith us. ,Ve told bilu that we did not \\Tant t ee him separated frolll the command of the 'lttalion t but knew that the many year be had been among us had gained for hi1l1 our con in ration and affection. Aft rwar] w had many confidential cOllversations relative as to "hat was best to do in executing the seces i n 1110venlent.' "Owing to the foresight of 001. Shaler, the troop compri ing the Oolombian battalion 'Tirador s" from Cartagena were left at Oolon, and that he c uld not ay th day he ould furni h a I ecial train t brincr th In v r t antuna. Th offic r f the b( tali n 11 Tov < rand J.. In' ya, caIne ov r n the for n n of the d. t tako 111m' lld f the an( Ule. crarri on. Ve had iL cd tlie hour f h p. In.' "Tit n l'c. ])0', a the tinle t iUlpri on th f but 11 1 ta thoucrht it L tt t P tp IlC thi t I until ) I. Ill.,

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o 1/. J-Ill rta (t,t in His Lot. 239 = ... ::::<::::::'::::::::<:. --=:.a::i ::::<::::::.::::::::<::.: >-::::.:::.:::: -------;::< I'::' The Colon Electric an d Ice Supply Co. SUPPlIES THE PROVINCE Of COlON AND ON THE RAILROAD AS fAR AS SAN PABlO. I Rates to Steamships and other large Users. .:. ,,:-., .. OUR ICE IS UNEXCELLED IN Q,UALITY-CLEAR, SPARK- LING AN 0 FREE FROIU ALL URITIES ADDRESS ALL TO l"he Colon Electric and Ice Supply Co., Colon, Republic of Panama. .. I : ':'" ...... "'---.................... --= -=: ........ ............... s::::: --=-" ....... "'",,' ;:;::: ... :.: ...... :.: ... ---.................. ............................ ... :.: ...... :.: ... :,.:,.:. at which time a serenade would be given in front of where they were lodged. Dr. Amador sent Iny son to ad vise Gen. DOlllingo Diaz that the hour had been changed, and found him at the head of the people in Sallta Ana Plaza. This chief answered through his brother Pedro Di az that by no means ought we to postpone the arrest, and advising that he would put hilllself at the head of the populace and march to the UuarteI. With great foresight General Huertas who knew that the affability "hich the officer had shown him since their arrival" as but covering a tem pest that lTIight at any mOlneut burst over his head, re solved to end the suspense, and ordered Capt. 11arcos A. Salazar to put himself at the head of thirty U1en and im prison t.he general. This was quickly accomplisbed in the presence of Gen. Huertas bilnself." Later Goyernor Obaldia wa also arrested and con ducted to the police station. From there, accompanied by

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240 Pilot and Guide. OOIDlTIander Valdes, and 001. J. A. Arango, he "as e corted to the hOl11e of Dr. Amador Guerrero, his friend, and left there a a prisoner." Gen. Tovar's Arrival in Panama. \Vriting of Gen. Tovar's reception in Panama, the Oolon Starlet of Decelnber 17, 1903, said:-tt He was received by the O'arrison with the Colombian standard, the military band, and the populace. A the General dro\ e through the streets, there was not lacking allY evidence of the best of intentions on the part of the people. But the separati t plot had. reached a very striking point by the very presence of the General. It was to nip in the bud, if possible, the secession, that the General had been hurried to the Isthmus, with the fir t contingent of troops. It was supposed that the Republic would have been declared on the 28th of November amidst the festivi ties, so the General thought kimself in the enemy's camp, and that any attempt at a revolution could be easily crushed. But before the sun had gone down that evening behind the silent sentinel of Mount Ancon, Colombia's rule on the Isthmus ha i forever ceased. Tovar who had been welcomed that morning und r the Colombian .:flag amid strains of the national hymn of his count.ry, was in the evening a pri oner under th .:flag of Panama. No wonder that bitter remorse filled his brea t a h reflected. on the 500 troops he had left behind hiln at Colon. But whether he had gone overto Panama or not, or whether h had had hi troops with him, Colombia ron t have had to 1 Panama, ev 11 though th re was a sacrifice of blood The "Bogota" Pays Its Compliments. At p. m., about three hour aftc r the ilnr ri onn1 nt f the gen I 1., the Yillastel' of the ,h h< d (,'SUln 1 t [porary Ollllllc.lld of tIl t boat y Hi i< 1 n t (d i cd th 11 i e f f ] i e th at U 1) ] th 0' 11 n I w r lih \1" yin, id f iw 11 nr, f1' ]n he t tinl } w uid p1' C \ 1 to ,,11 II th it.y. aU llt.i 11 cino-I [lid t the

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Tlif' 1'((.'1,' 11,' oJJllJ!III/f /ll, 241 cl mallei at th f h till) 111 ntioJl cl, he 111-d firino" h batt r. Ii th "ed' r IIi 1 at Jl an 1 the ]) [Jot l r til' c1 hu. ti Iy (ftel' firi 11 0 but two hot l illil1 ':: '1hillaman. the olll y c naIty in the entil' The IhinaH.1c 11 wa truck ,,,hile ,,,ulking along (. I 'il uec1e treet and imlllec1iately cea ed to take an inter t ill earthly thing T he ball that killed hilTI i ]lOW in the posse sion of 1\11'. H. Prescott, haying been pr ented to him y the )Iiui tor of 'Val' of the Pro, isi nal :rOY rtnuent. "Without Hatred and Without Joy. he man ife ... to issued t h e ye of s I al'atioll 1'e ite followi llg languag : b the pl'oyisiollal junta on the for the act in the '1 he transcenuelltal a ,t \\"hidl by a, 'pontaneou movement th iuhabitallt:; of the r -,thmu of Pana.ma have jll,t executed i the COllSf'quenc of a situatiOll which ha become gl'a e1' dl,ily. Long i the l'edtal of the grievance' tlu1t the inha.bitants of the L. .. thmus hav suffered from theil' Colombian brothel'::l ,but the e gri eYance::; would hay b en with. 'tood with re'ignation for the ake of harmony u,nd national union, had it separation been po il)le, and if we could. have elltertaineu well founded hope' of impl'ovemeut alld of effective progre" under the ytell to whith we were SUbjected by that Republic. \-ve have to 'olemnly declare we have the 'illcere and profound COllv iction that all hope: were futile and all the 'acrifice on our part u 'ele The r thmu' of Panama ha been gov rned by the Republic of Colombia with the nalTow-lllindedue S that in tran pore wa applied to their coJOJlies by th European nation; the I thmian people and territory wa a source of ft. '<.'al re ource, and nothillg more. The eonh'aeis .. nd negotiation. reO'aruing the railroad and the Panama CaJllall and the national taxe collected on the Isth-

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242 Pilot ({II(? (;ui(]p, mu.' haye n etted to Colom bin tremendous umR whieh 1\' will no letail not wishiug to appeal' in thi exposition whi('h will 0'0 lown to it,' 1 eing moyed 1 y ill r 'enary whi h never 11a be 11 J nor i -. no"; OUt pnrpo:e. Of the e laro-e urn,' the I ,thmu.' ha: not receiy d the benefit of a 1 l'id'f for 1:1 any of it. nmnerou,' ri\'eL' nor the truc:tion a : 'i11O'le road between it. town ... or a pnllie 1 uilding, or a ino-l college and has neither "een any iutere t eli played in advau iug it indu nor the most infinite part of tho. e eyer been applied tovvanls pro",p<."rity. A very 1'e c llt example of what We' have related aboye i what ha, oecurred with the of the Panama Canal whi h, "yhen taken nnder consil1e l'utioll h.r Cong1'es wa .... rejected in a 'ummary manner. 'Ilwr were a few public men who expre e d their adVer2E' opini(ln on the o-ronncl that the 1. tlllnu f Panama alone "a. to be fayor l hy th opening of tIl ('ana} bJr virtue of a treaty with the enited ,'tat s, and that th l' t of 01 Inbia would not l 'ei \' an: diret b enefits of any ort b: that work, a-' if that w. r of ren 'oning eve n though it 1\ 1'e corre't: "\\oulclju. tify the irreparahle and perpetual damao'e whih woull b cau.-e(l to the I thmus th rejection of th treaty in th maDDer jn \vhich it \,as c1 ne, 1\'hich \,a:::; eqni'l,'al "nt t the c1oor.-' to fnt.ure llf'O'otiutioD . Tbe people of the Isthmu" in view of .:u<:h}l( torion::; a.u,_'e hay -' d ide 1 to r eCOVC'l' their :>riglJty an I heO'jn t form a pal' of th oriet,)' of tIl ire and inc1 pelll nt ]1( tion:. in nlel' to york out it::; 0\\)1 <1e .. tiny t in'lu' its futur in a .::-tn hI mauU l' and li charo-th c1ntic .. vili.h it is rall <.l to do by 11 1 uation of it. t rritol'y aJHl its 101lll w ,tIth. T that}w th illitiut r f th 111 yemeut eff ,t (1 Rwl1 (lye olJtaine( l an 1l)1<'lllim Hl <1111'oYal. H. __ pil'c to the f( 1'IlW tiOlt of a trltP l'CJ ul,lil' whel' I t 1'>1'an' I ,vill pl'>YHil wh n" t11 law :-.hou]<1l> tll innll'iall1 guid of t ho.:.> gOY raing, <111<1 I tIt :-:(' gOY I'll ('(l-\\'11 l'P iTt" t i \" P tlla] ,Iahility. At Ill( (. mm 11(' ( 111 nt fill, lift (f (11 ilHl( P llHl 'nt nati n. w fully r1IIH'l(:jal tllP l ... pon.jhilili that tat 111 ,tIl:, ul =

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1 ri tllO /I { 11({ t J' ({ (l II
PAGE 261

244 Pilut aJld G uid the -!tli. Ho inll11 diatelv notified l : llite(l 'tate.' Con ni v Oscar through the CoioIl local wac-. to npprise C0111n1alidel' HuLbard of "lOt. thl' ;.lllcl the Cll:tioll th o COlnmanlcl' took i '0\'01' ,(} ill hi .. nffi'i .. d r port of tho ill as follc)\\,s:-"U, S. B, Na: ... dl\,jlJ(', rl'hit'l Hate. C010ll, U, S. (jololllhin, NO'''''>l11U '1';) 100;'. f' -('wl111O' /1\'( that if th,} ('( h)llIbiall o f'Ii('(' I'" ;('11. To\ al' -If 'k 1 ,111. 1w," 01'-. :

PAGE 262

P il t {(11rl (,'Il/d('. ---She 91ruident and.A1r.sJJ1am:eldlmador Gu(!rl"o. &.P.:IUl./f'ew.s d$cnt:!/ :i3l1rcau::A --.... 245

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r 1 246 Pilot and Guide. wOlu(l opeu fire nn the tmrn of olon all I kill every Lnited I:5tat c itizen in the au 1 my ad-dee Rud action WE're 1'eque ted. I advised that all the Lnit d itizflns :-;ho lld take refuge in the J of thfl Panama Raih'oad Jmpany. a tone building n "el'lille of heing put in a good tate for defence, and that I wonld llllrn l liately land uch body of men, with extrrl arms for arming the citize n a th omp1E'mE'nt of the ship would permit. 'l .. Thi wa ag1'e d t ,awl I illime liately returned Oll board, ulTiying at 1:15 p. m. ThE: order fnr lan/ling imnwdiately O'i ven, and at 1 : 30 p. m., the 110ats left the ship with a party of forty-two meu uude r th ;ommand of Lieutenant--tommander H. 7\I. Wi zel, with J, P. Jack.' o n a ,econd iu omma-nd. Time being p1' :-> ... ing. I gay ,e1'l)a10rdE'I'. to )'lr. ,Yit",el to take the huildj] g l'ffern d to abo\'e. to put it into tbe be...,t of defence pos.' jblfl and protect tllP li.,e. of the citizen, asseml>iecl there not o1'ino unle._ fir d upon. 'l'be women anI children took refuo'e on the German t a mel' :\larcomallia aud the Panam;.'\. Railroatl steamer Cjh-of 'Ya .. hingtoll. both read \" to haul out from do k 1f ne e ,'an" . . :. The X a "hdlle got uuler \yay ancl patrolled along tIl water-front clo f: in ana rea( l, -to u e ei hel' ,mall arm or hrapnel fire. The olombian "d tllE' buil Ii ng of the ntilroad compan almost imIDe d i i.ltely c1 t'tPl' w had ta kell po, ,e SjOll and for about one and a h;t1l' h Ul':--the il attitudE' Wll::; rno:-;t threateniug it 1 eing fl til i1' t pl'o"okc all atta k. Happily our 111 11 \\"toll' : 01 nUt tf'ad.\ alld whil t n .. ioll wa..: ,"er. 0'1' 11t n h fh'(:d ... .. At about 3:1:") p. m., (ul. 'J'll'1'0 V.IIll iut) tit l1il ll1g fran iut 1'\"i \y an 1 ('xV!' 1 11ilO:---I1' a . mo. t fl'ientlly t( th An1f'ri an. 'lllimiu thn the> wh }, nff .. i,' w,. rl h(' n" ""iOll aud that lu-' woulel like > to ( lItl I h(' Id f ('ol! n t() Panama to. ,.> } n. T Y(), and ]:;\\(> him dil( d th cIii'('{)ntinu<1lll' ofth .. 11 w ff \ 'l'v'i,tl tl" ill '\ell' and .af c' lHlnct gum'Hut ell. t ahOll{ ,")::JlI p. 111 ('01. 'J' ma t I '\ tIl(' 11' 10. Hion f withlll't1wllIg hi:--11' p tl ... 1 nk ) Hill if J w n1(1 withchaw 111 Til. h"ill" 1'01' '('. t1lHIl .. th t ",n in p'" ... ion of th 1 li<'f 111 til III l'('llll')1 r I he' k:thl 01l !ll lllOl'Jl11l!,! t 1 ,")th ...

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-----------------, ShOLl' FiUlt t {( I N 247 -= HAMBUR6= AMER CA VIA JA]XLA.ICA, the ed LINE. PRINZ EITEL FRIEDRICH PRINZ AUGUST WILHELM PRINZ SIGISMUND PRINZ JOACHIM ABOVE STEAMERS APPROXIMATELY 5500 TONS REGISTER. Intermediate Steame)'s to New York: ALTAI VEt-lETIA SAILING TWICE A MONTH. r-A-RA TES OF PASSAGE:r--PRIXZ $70 and $ 0 first de{ '",; $:1:0 :'econd ALTAI & Y ENErrIA, $,")0. 1l1y fir ,:t la ',' 01<.1 Oll the, boats Sailings from Colon to Port Limon, Cartagena, SabaDilla, St. 1 homas aod Europe twice a month. Fo)' full pal'ticlllnr /'ega rding pas age Cll/d /I'( igltt apply t o HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE, Colon Republic 01 Panama or M. FIDANOUE SONS, Panama . After an interview with the United State,' con ul and Col. haler a to the probability of good faith ill the run-UP1', I fleeided to ac '(?pt the propo ition aud hl'ough t my men on board the cli, I 111'ity in number bet-w-eell my for(' and that of th 101om bLlll -nearly ten to one making m e d ','iron' of a,oiclillO' a co ufli t 0 long a' the object in view the protection o f citizen, was not imperiled. t'I am po itiYe that the determined attitude of our lllen th i1' coolne and evident intention of tanding theil' O'l'ollnd, had a 1110 t and decisiv,effect on the immediate itttation, and wa the initial tep in the ultimatE' aLawloning of ColOll by the e troop and their return to Cartagena the following day. \ ,ritzel i entitled to much pl' tise for his aumira hIe ,york in command on the pot. :, :'1 feel that I 'annot l'ell'e ent tu the Df'p
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248 Pi70t and Guide. Col. Torres made a 1111111hC'r of eHorts to ge t ill t r l e graph or telephone GOlnlllllnicatioll with the inlpri:onct l grllat Panama, b u t fail('cl, the onl'y a nswer that was p(rlnittecl to his lnessngo being that h0. would be exptc t d to comply ith his d u ty. Follo\\'i is a copy of n t I c gram sent by 001. J' orres nskillg foi' instructiolls, \Vhil e the 5th, t h o l'llferellce to 11'PP;:;' ration for hosti l i t ies ould 111fer that it was filetl at Oolon befor!' the occnrrellces of the 4:th:-'(lIon, '1';), 1 903. Generals H3,illOn G. AIllH.ya R ,ad Juan B. TontI', Pan.lm have to advise yon t1t:1,t the C]'niSf'l Cartagena If'ft ves-< tel'da,yagain t my orders. I .tm awaitillg your instl'lwtiollS lit re pect to what ought to b done. The ,,,hich has bee n sent will not. give any knowlf'Llge ill pal'ti('nlm', .L gain and for t.he last time I desire your or13f'l's in order to with them. I havo obtained pennis iOll to bp allow tion with Gen. Tovar by telBphollO to l'eceiy yOIll' ht. t instl'll'tions. The enemy's and mine eLl'e 1)]' paring f01':1n 3tta k. The Al11(;rican b'oop al'e throwillg np df'fen.'(:'s aud Ht' L1 ploying hat. ought to be (lon e ? J YOlll: i ;mnediat answer. TORRES G. ,. E mbargo Placed on Carry il1g Troops. In conne tion with thr attitude of tIll PallH1l1;. TI. i l road )mpallY ill tho 1l1nttrl' of troops or r its line tll following te l (lgrnlll will ('XpLlill:--II, (J. Pl' srot t A Rt, -'111 t, i ]011 T \ l)lb l f ] -:t u. rrh f 11 Willg' 1111111111 i('at i 11 fl' 1ll C'OllllH:1lHl(\l' . .Ie < .. 11\'111(' ['01 yOll1' illf'Ol'lllnt inn Hl}(110 b o 'oY('l'llhl:1(,' 1'(ling1\ ':-\------_._-------------_._-----

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i'flO Phl(" r1 Oil 'a J'J'!liJ/[1 TroojJ .. 2 4 9 =:----== ----5-fl)otningQ de GOY mol' of Panama llt Ill(' till1\' f 1iIP of Panama at \Va. hillgioll IIp to a fp\\' 1I101ltli:, ngo .. P1'I'",illl'lIt of 1', llama durillg-ah. enc of Pn'. ill('llt .\ ill EnrOl!!'. :uIIl a pI'('. i
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250 Pilot and Guide. party, 01' in either direction by your railroad, and hereby notify that I 10 .. 0 prohibit it. 1 j f Yours very respedfully, .J HrBBARD Command 1', t. S, Navy, Comma.nding Col. Sha.ler, leneral Supt., p, R R., Colon, , .j .; More U. S. Vessels Arrive. reolon Starlet:--The United States stealner Dixie on the 5th at 7 p. m. A fC)l'ce of between throe nnd our hundred 1118n wa in1111ediately landed. The Dixio i is a practice and troop hip attached to the Oarib bean i fieet with headquarters at Culehra Island, Porto Rico . Colon Starlet, N OYCID bol' 12:---TheL. S. 1 Atlanta left Jamaica at IOn. Ill. the 5th lUSt., and arri at Oolon on the Inol'lling of the Gth a record rUll, and ijt chance for a crack ship to displaj her stealning powets. The Atlanta was oyc1ered to Guant::tllaJ110, Cuba, 011 (} tober 18th. Thi. brings th cOlnhined Alnericau force h a.t Colon to three Y8ssels and oyer ] ,000 Inell. ,Vashingtoll lespatch dated Noven1ber 7 :-The b<1ttil. hip l\fhlne has been ordered to Oolon. (Froln .Oolon Starlet N overnher 10 1903). \ira hinO'ton, Noyeml )' 6:-To the Ameri -an Na.n1.1 ])1-In,1Hlpl's on the I "thmu : Fol" '. will 1 e in(-l'eased 1f n e ( 1'." i 0 PI' yen onfliet b t e 11 th ogota GO\' rnmC'llt and thr :-; ef'l-vioni.'t.. Colombi, Jl111,'t, t tle th qnm-rel with it uhj ('(. pra fully if at all. It 1: the o lll.-way t tOI th Y arly n th nil r lit '-e tlip Tllit tl ; tnt s of 111(' 111l1'dt 11 of polit:illg a. t. J'1'itol',Y thnl i .. llOt iis W1L Colombian Troops Re-embark. rJ h0 10111hic\1l tl')( p. (1m] l'L 'lng the 'rr i1'acl l' h:d ltd i 01\, which ,y 1'. I ft ill 'hargl' f (i 1. T 1'1' S (1 uri /1,

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------_. ------------, Col(Jmbian Troop J."-f'lJI/)flrl,', 251 '7\THISKY! '7\TH I SKY! '7\THISKYI \VAT 0.";:, 3 STAR, GLE!1LIVET AND No, 10, TO THE These Brands are the Stanhrd fJr values and at All Times a Joy b the most fastidious '.to lJE 1r.1 J.) O .VLr FIlOJl MAXIMILIAN JONAS,. OL N, REI L LI OF I :\IA. SOLE .A..GENT for the ISTH1X[US of th eDf ll'ccd fih nc e f '\ e ll rrOyar find Ina \,fl 111 Pa-v IHlll1H .'U tT lld 1'('(1 th if a 1'111. 01l the Otll. by o day after the a t of I e i01l. alld filTl1lo'enl nt: ,, or' :t t oncc mad) for their 1'( turn to \trtagcna, It was til' t tl tided that Gens Toya1' and ... l1Hl.ya honld the l. thllHL' Oil tho teanl r Cr rryillg th e tro o ps; bnt later it wn' 011 iJel' e d that thi:' Jllirrht Jj all u]}wi '0 lllOYC. for 'whell the oftieer le join ('1 til('ir Jl1CJl the lllight try to illcit e thE'In to ,-'Olno f urther -ff ol't. Th y were h eltl pl'i:ollt'l" in Pn 11<1111:1 U II til the ail ing of the ne.rt Ro. al l\[ail tC'n.Jner fol' artagellH, a Illfltter of ten da', o r o and w e r e th ell tako)) t Cololl u nder n, military e cort C0111PO, eel e ntirc'ly of .roung 111e11 fro l n tho cn pitaJ ulld e r tho lead e rship of 0 UiI101'1110 And rcH ', aide-dc-,,1111P to ({ 11. DOlnillgo Diaz. In conn ection with the departure of the troops the Colon ) 'ta ,'let of 7th h :ts the f o llo,, 'ing:-. Th sailing of th Cc l)attalioll .. Tiradore on th nio 'ht of the ;,th 011 thp .'t nme!' Orinoco took away all
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252 Pilot and Guide. W\:,\7'e 11lH1er 'tand that Col. Torrrs ,"'-t, not .'hot .. wa repm t and that the mon from a ,namfl, $. ,00 in golt1 ,wlrie h wa::; pI' ,Pllte.l 1 0 himself and 11(' hu'n d o\'e1' to hi.' o'ovrrn1ll0nt on his arl'i\'nl at C,"!rtug'enH." Again 011 tho the St((rlet "Y".. (tJ 6 Anpnt the paragraph in Tn i.:SHr of the hfll1djng m'er bv C 1. Tones to the olomuiull allthoritir.' at C\lrtag;rnll, < the mOlley he rec'eiYell aL a prl'. ent lJl'f )1'(' 1 ;lving Col 11 ()ll K Y lllbf'l' ;")th. '" h<1Y0. incp lJPrll llllthOl'it:lti., 1,\ l11f 1'111 that Gell. Rpye . 011 H ,lTiyillO' at '01011 brought the 1ll0lWY 'ith him and n t 11']1 (1 it, Junta Defines Status of P. R. R Refore affair. roached a critical pn. offl('in Is of tho Pannma Hnilro:vl CompallY :1l'l'i\'(\(l nt aJ) 111Hlcl'.'tnll i('8.1' Pt'f'scott:-I yon IH'l' with mE'm of poillts that sllOul(l hr (. (,1'C'(1 ill allY ('01l1JlHmieatioll ll,ll(ll'l}ss(\ll 10 )f' (.( 1II'S(. 111p1'0 arC' llHllly oth r., ana :nm hi-u1 1)('1 t('1' S{ {Dr, a blo \ l' S(\lll('ll:1 a..; SOOlI HS YOI1 'Hll (10.'0 ('oll.'i:--tPlllly pnd l('f him H(l"i:-;(' \()II , flllly, rrh hj(l(j i .. to hay' 111(.';. -,.-'W UOYt'l'IlIlH. l1t :p}H1IIS .'ll<,h ('OllllllUlIi('n,ti n n.' will 1'1"<' ns from linhility ill <:a:--( Ih('I" I'aillll'{', J)()ll't fnil to g'!'t full nchi(, ilnd hI> gO"Pl'lH'(l it. I '('lId thi 1), 0 . ") 1 )-1ll0l'l'()\\ thai. ,\ )l1 lll:ly lIay if p:ll'l," Y Olll'.' II'nl,\ .1,1 Nil \f.lo,P, (; 11'1. ,.

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,1111/1([ ]}(jiJlf', 1(/111, r. R. n 253 .. H y< n llll.l t ha w' will uot ,pp1 any l' -pI t f1' III tIl PI' pos (1 ..... T 'W '( \. 1'1 lllH'Ut, mll". tll'Y al" 1 a k '(1 up hy milibu',\-fol" '. 'ut I Hth-i. e you r thi .. fully ill <:al' )'J1'. P1':--' tt:----Hay jn.'t ,,-ire 1 you that ha .. been. ight l1. I pre,'nUl ttIe; th qu 'tiOll. I hay to 'uO'O'e .. t that Xew Go,-e1'1lll1 lit a tIll l' S,' a c:onlllluni ation to the n'l upt, ..:tating the filet that hay tran pir d up to the time "hen SCENE ON THE FIQUENE, DARIE'N. CcCURTESY OF G. ANLREVE,) I. j i

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Pilot ({I: d G /lid th )' may want to UllY requ(l t.' f 1}.'. They 'tel t l the fad: a .. to tbeir a :::umption of auth01'ity of H \'ETllll1 lJt. 'rhey shollid that 11 )" will l'emlEl' a1) lut 1H'0-t the R. R. ill pl'opedl(" a 11(1 l'ilrht th ame a' e 'uret1 t R. R. hy lL'50 and 1 GT Article :JO. and elsew'lwl' with o"\'ernmellt. In con i, era t' on of thi, adion on pal't of (OY f'I'llilleut they ''' 'ill expee:t the R. R., Co. to 'olll}>ly with t11 PI' \'is10n. of .l\ rt. 19 all 1 to furni:h promptl:' all 'ar' lIe' "','ary for ('omp1yiug "'it11 the 11' of 'aid artl l e ( 19 ), to the 11 W 'oyernment. They mw,t notify the R. H. iO t]\at the lle\y oyermnent (by whatever jt, D of Ih 'lJl'p
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.TIII/!ff ]):1;11(,' .'I((t/l, r. B. R. 255 PENNSYLVANIA HOTEL. EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE_ L\. )'opl'i t l". ---ONLY HOHl in Empire WnHe TRAVELERS CAN OBTAIN STRICTLY fiRST,ClASS ACCOMMODATIONS, WlTHLE ,:Y D!.'T_\X .'g OF (',\X.\L JIE),l)(g'.\HTEH,. THE N" ..A..::BLE. 1 0 anI 1 6 i. In cOD:'eqn '11' W hope the t you on Y 111' part will omp1) with Arti ,1 ] 9. alld other analog u p inL' in tho '3 me \\ ... e hav a1 0 to iufol'111 you that the Dew OY rum "nt. jn addition to th pI' tig 'with which it ha 1 een jllYI?:tetl by a] L th,:, citiz ns ha,' thp milihuy pow r snffici nt for the prot rti n of th pr 1 erty of the Raiiroc1(1 ompally at any timt' that yon may find it n 'e:s,',uy to all UI on 11 '. We hope that the tl'affi between thi-' city awl tll (:ity of C lOll 'nIl 1 mailltaiued without any <:hnllgE', a jUllormal timE'S. and the xOY rUlllent whi(:h w repr, en t ,dll ill II 'a: permit out::..:i I} illt rf l'E'll' tIl< r "ill illterrupt tb traffiC' 01' th regulari y f the traill'-;. n a1'(', Your 1 E'tb lit S l'vant.] . J. A. AR.lliGO. FEDER!' BOYD T )IA::; RL',"

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256 Pilot awl (} Hide. Flag of the Republic Hoisted. ; Y esterc1ay 1110rning, .x ovelllLer th (t ten lock, the very interesting Cerel1l0ny of hoi tillg the tla a of the new Republic was perfonDed at the Pl'cf turf''' say.. the Colon Starlet of Noyember 7th. the foreign repre entative., of the Panal1ul, Railroad several officers of the lnitec1 Stnte forces, Inerchallts, and a large llulnh r of oth l' p rson.. both Cololn bians and foreigners were present to ",itno the exercises.' C Before the ftn o' wa' c1 'efio' (calla, 'ice-President of the last Cololnbiall :)1 nlli i pc I 10unciJ, read a resolution which was p'l' d at fl 1110 tillg of the board on Thursday, signifyillg the ac1he'i)11 of Colon to the Republic of Panama. ieiior l\Iclelldez then (1(1<11'e eel the lneeti ng stating that the object that had bronght thenl aIt together was of 0 tran.'cenclental a natur tlwt 110 COlnnlel1t ,, 'as necessHry. He then proc()cc1ed to 1"(',1(1 a Pl'illtcd peech ad( l re spd to tho I thmian 010111<11' nlld itiz ll:rc,pecti\-e1). ':).1he acld re clo (,(1 1 th .. ho l1 j' of ,\Tjylica' \\'e r \ rni: cl:' Just a Little Too Late. (lIl, ))!i 't(()' l(' l/l'I'((lrl: POlllpili 1 U i 1'1'ez an'iv(f] t 10IoJl (lll 11 .")th 11 th e 1-. I'cllch h)mll l' (()lad((. He h d b II Il lllillat d t o\' l'llOr )f the J (\1 (l'hnellt of (. llama 1)(1 am t ak ('hn l'(rc () f tll a Dl-i 1 IJY H. lal'g 1 b ff of (f1i \ 1':. H the

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Ju t a L itt l e T o La t 257 THE BEST REMEDY IN THE WORLD FOR Ringworm OR Dhoby Itch IS FOUND IN .&:.. .. For sa1e a't No. ISO Cen.tra.l A.ven.ue. Fa.n.a.=a.. ngeuts of the revolutionary junta afld shown that it was for hin1 to take allY action as the independence of Panalna had becOJne an assured fact. 'Vhen offered the comnland of the battalion "Tiradores," as its sup e rior officer, he refused and staY(ld on board the steamer, re turning with his staff to Colombia. It was rmnored here that the revolutionary agents were fighting with a weapon of more potentiai force tha.n the most Inodern arms, and that Gen. Gutierrez went a.wa.y convinced of the useless ness of making a.ny effort against then1. Sta f & Herald of November 19th:-Yesterday the French stealner Canada arrived at Colon with the Colom bian commissioners on board, and with Gen. Reyes at their head. They ,vere en route for the United States. A con ference was held on board without results. Gen. Reyes, who had been delegated full presidential powers to represent the Government of Colombia, asked Admiral Coghlan, the commander of the American naval forces on the Isthmus, to cable President Roosevelt that Colon1bia would llot resort to any act of hostility towards the llew Republic of Panama. In the evening the commissioners took a ride about Colon in company with the Panama Government delegation that had come over to meet them. They sailed for the States the next day. How the News was Received a t B ogota. Bogota is one of the Inost isolated cities in aJl South ... L\.merica, and it was not ulltil the Hth of the month that the news of the secession reached there. The I was augmented by the report that the American fleet

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258 Pilot and Gu ide at Panama and COIOT1' and that tho Oololnbian forces were not allowed to land there. The news:,was. not unexpected to thos(# current with the situation, but, it created intense among the Iniddlo and lower chu,ses who thronged the streets crying,/'DoWll wit.h Government, down wjth--Marroquin."-Others shouted, "Why didn't the Alner-ica-ns take us in also." .... '. In. B9gota .. at that' {iiue there was a -floating, irresponsible whQ. p reerred revolution and ro bbery, to ws>rk. This eleJllent was attracted into tho public of the. qity by bands of nHlsic and eloquont ,J who they sav e their count.ry .:!l,nd to PaIl:.ama,.,. ,-. They; had. morepatriotisln poured il1t o PJl that" than. they had. ever h 'eard i ,rl' their Jives were presented; a.'.: ,banquet in figure4 ; largely was with voluntary .. and, s u1>scriptions .. for about one started fot" th; e ; co.ast, equipped ,,:ith an .old qf worn-out :;t, oficJal afterwards it, c wahls them out, 0' here they "ill come th.ey did nair" This the 6f : expeditio n -to. Paiiama overland by w :ay 6,' Darien. L Dqring an excitemellt at the (Jolombian capital I i!o qemostratiOlls or threats Inade Hgaillst the '!. merica.l1 Legatioll, ,as reported ill the newspaperR at the time; nor were the resid ,ent AUlcricalls molested. When. :W,e:re reports of A 'luericans being ai ld prqpe' rty. destroyed, a cable toU President MarrQquin brought an answer tliat the American Legation aHd the American colony had been guaranteed ab protection . 'Railroad l1fficials Complimerited. I. Don rango in hi 1ittl st ry of the seces ion take oc a. ion to c mpliln nt hi hly th railroad offi ial, 01. JI' hal r and hi at 1 a i taut Mr. \ Pre c.tt for

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Railroad o,{lif;((l. C{)111})/illlrl1/ul. 259 h if lart ill th e affair. in tIl dCt I kll \\' f th 1)1 n 11t I. lud('l' :howc d ill 'Y 'ry a c t IIi "YIl1-latby f l' U an(I th
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I 260 Pilot and Guide. THE ISTHMIAN NEWS DEPOTu 9 g}Z011-t Str,c,c,t, m. of
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R cognize(7. 261 b. tc: rail u tri( -Hungnr,)', hina ., 'i'mc lly u Sta, D Jlmal'k B !O-illln, r (t Britain, taly tJap an HIHI w cl n witzeriantl P ru Cuba. Co'ta Ri 'il I 'ar gua in the rder named. In Eehrnary 111( Ie Persia Holland and Venezuela follow e d uit; in l\Iarch l\fexico, Ohile, BrazIl, Honduras, Argelltina and 'aJyador; ill l\Iay, the Holy See and Spain; in J Ulle, Servia; in July, Paraguay and Roumania. Portugal, Greece and Uruguay have never tendereu their formal recognition, but a tacit understanding exist. As regards Ecuador, fonner President Li ardo Garcia sent an autograph letter to President Alnador setting forth that it was the wish of his govertnnent alld people to lnailltain the friendliest relations with Panama. 'rhose relations have been cultivated ullder govennnent of Gen. Elo)' Alfaro, the present ruler. The tardiuess in makillg formal recognition is said to be due to a desire on the part of Ecuador not to disturb the amicable relations be tweell it and Uolombia. THE CANAL IN A M ERICAN HANnS. During the Spauish-American war the importance of an isthmian canal was realized on lllore than one occasion. Had a waterway connecting the two great oceans been in operation at that period, the long and record-breaking run of the battleship Oregon around the Horn would have been reduced to a tri p of a few days only. It is a matter for wonderrnent then that the canal question came up in the first Oongress asselubled after the return of peace. In Decelnber, 1898, the United States Se late: acted 011 a bill pledging government support to the

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262 Pilot and Guide. Nicaragua route, but it came to grief in the lower house. During the argument on the lneasure in committee, the representatives of the New Panama Oanal Oompany were allowed a hearing on their proposition to reorganize the concern under the laws of the United States, 111 yiew of r e ceiving national aid. '.I he agitation of the question had some result for ill 1899, President l\fcKinley was authorized by Oon gress to i In ,ario11s canal routes with the object of determining the practicability of each, and the possibility of obtaining sole control over them. Pursuant to these instructions the President organized the first Isthmian Oanal Oommission consisting of Rear-Admiral tJ ohn G. Walker, now deceased), Samuel Pasco, George S. l\10risotJ, I .. ieut.-Col. Oswald H. EIJ1St and 001. P. O. Hains, U. S. Oorps of Engineers; Lewis 1\1. Haupt, Alfred Noble and W i lliam H. Burr, civil engineers, and Prof. Emory R. J ohnso11. To this commission "as delegated the work of ex amining the plans of the French canal company and to ascertain the best terms for which its property could be secur ed. commissioners took up the subject in detail, and had several conference with the canal COllll any s offi cials. In a report submitted to the Pre ident in N 1901, the announced that the anal COD1-d Inullued the sum of $109,141,500 for its holdings. uring th e progress of negotiatiollS the commi lOllers had fixed upon the price of 40,000 a a rea onable valu ation of th pr 1 e rty, but the r nch director beld th t thi am unt wa much too low p inting out tb t the a et t the time of the failure f the old 01111 any a-gr gat dover nin ty luillion of dollar and th t th dpre i ati 11 the pr p rty inc th n ,\ u ld b in a m n. ur ff t y ctdditional pIc nt equi 111 nt ur ha c1 b th 11 W omllli ion. r I l't 111 d with the o re tion of th ua r ut : a gain t he anam 111m 11 ant rpri

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Til a 1/(( 1 in .A JIl 1'i an Hand.'. 263 th f nn r being III 1'8 f a ible, all thilla' nsic1 r U. 'I h publi atioll f the r I whi h pru ti helv c1 th ir hop elc trifi d the ]\' nch tockholJ r illt imlneliate a tion, and before the year 1901 had r ( hed th clo e, word "a rcceiv d frOln Paris that all ff r f 40 000 000 for the company' plaut would ue nt "\rtained. pOll receipt of this infonnation, the commi",sion appended a rider to its previous report, tting forth that in vi w of the 'changed conditions that now exist," the Panalna route would be the lnost practicable and fea ible for an isthmian canal under the control, lnanagement anu ownership of the 1 nit d States. Cong ress Moves in the Ma tter. \ Vhile the negotiations between the commission and the French stockholders were under the Hepburl'l bill favoring the Nicaragua route was passed by the House of Representa tives. In the Senate the bill met with determined opposition, and was warmly debated. It was shown that the preponderance of opinion, not only from an engineering standpoint, but froln those engaged il1 ocean commerce, favored the Panalna route. At this juncture what is known as the Spooner bill (fathered by Hon. John O. Spooner, the little statesman froln Wisconsin), came to the rescue, and was finally passed by both houses. This measure, under which operations are now going forward, provides "for the construction of a canal connecting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans," and contains alllong its authorizations the following:-1. acquire the property, rights and privileges of the New Panalna Oana.l Oompany, including the Panama Railroad, at a cost not to exceed $4-0,000,000. 2. T o acquire fronl Oolombia perpetual control of a strip of land not l ess than six miles wide extending from the Oaribbean Sea. to the Pac)fic Ocean, and the right to govern it. ---... -.. -...

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264 Pilot and Guide. 3. To proceed with the excavation of a ship canal upon payment to the French company of the amount agreed upon. 4. In case negotiations ,,,ith the French company, or the Republic of Colombia should prove unsuccessful, to ac quire control Dver the necessary territory in Nicaragua or Costa Rica for the construction of a canal. 5. Appropriating 10,000,000 for prelimin.ary ex penses, and providing for appropriations froln tilne to time of amounts which shall not exceed in the aggregate the additional sum of $135,000,000, in case of the adoption of the Panama route. n. Guaranteeing the republic whose territory is crossed, the use of canals and harbors coming witlfn the six-mile jurisdiction aforesaid. 7. Creating an isthmian canal cOlnlniRsion of seven menlbers, four of whom shall be persons learned and skilled in the science of engineering, one of the four to be an officer of the United States Anny, and one to be an of ficer of the United Stat.es Navy. 8. Providing for the issuance of bonds for canal expenditures. This bill was approved by the President on June 28, 1902. The Treaty With P anama. The history of the secession 11lovelnent and the fail ure of the United tates in negotiating a canal treaty ,vith the ReI ublic of Cololnbia is fully over d in an ther article. No time was lost in carrying through a treaty with the Hew R epub lic of Panalna, as the following record ho,,:-paration of Panama from Colombia, N v mb r ", 190". N w r public r ogniz d by th Unit d tat ,N, mb r 6, 1903. an 1 tr aty ig d at Wa hillO't n N v mb r 1 190". tift d by an" rna, mb r 2, 1 0"'. H ti i .. ti n advi d y th U. nat F bt'uary 23, 19 4.

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Tltr TJ' atll ll'il" P((//(IJ}f(t. 265 Corner 9th Street and Bott:e Alley, Colon, R. P, ---P. A. B njamilJ :.\If,l'. Co's :,\1 ditinal and Ton t Pl'l:'l'aratioll .. .Augnt I l'ellerin' "Omuibus'" "LNlen. k". alld Coloniall3l'alld of Oleomargarine, The nglo-'axun 'Ol1t1l'l1 (>(1 .J. J ilk 0'::; '11<'ph 'rd Braud f Coudensed )fUlL Pop(> ::lIanufacturino 'o's R BLEl' BICYCLE,'_ The. tan<1anl Brand H( d '1'0:" Tt-'a, Sir Edw
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266 P ilot and Guide. Yarilla an 1 :Mi n ister Plenjpotentim: of th l\epuhlic of Panama, th rennto pe cially empo" l' 1 1 J Y ,'ai 1 OY l'llm ellt, who aft r ommuni 'ating ,nth each )th r their rE'spective full pow 1', found to be i n g ood and due f orm hay e aOTeecl upon and roncluc1 d h fo ll ow ing artic lE' ':-ART. 1. DEKCE OF The -United Sf [tt g narant e' and wilJ maintain the in 1ependE'nce of the Republic of Panama. ANAL The (f Panama OTant,' to the rnil ( 1 'tate. jn A RT,:? perpetuity thf' n:-;e,occnpation a1)(1 contr o l o f a zon e o f land and land uncleI' \\ ater for th c o u t r uc t i o n maintenanc e, operation, 'allitatinll and prole eti H of ai d -'a n a l o f t hE' wi lth of t ell m il e xt ll1(.ling to tle 'f' of ti 'e mHe, on each Hide o f the enter line of the route of the all,tl to he e)n tl'llCt U' the 'aid z o n e h eginnillg in the al'ibbean S e a tb1'(, mile .. from m .ean ln w water mark and xtenc1ing to anI 3e]'0 . the I ,tl111111:) f Panama into tll 1 Pa,cifi c O cean to a Ii tallce of thre e marine m i l e s 1'OlTI meau l o w \,atel' m afk "'ith the p r o v i 0 that the eiti l-i of Pfl]l .. umt and Colon Hull t h e Jla1'bor.' a lja 'ent t .'aid citieA, ,vhi c h are iurlull II ,yithin t h e of t1w z u e ab \' de crib cl .. baUuot b e illC'ln all t 11 AHT ,:L rights. 1> we]' tll}(l aid lawl-::: amI wat '1':-:; ill'" 1 (:<1t-'d 'xelll:-inlt(fllw(':\ I) 1nb11(, f allL\I? Y H I Tll'l'.', r;gbt" !"lIh.,idia l'y ( I II \ al 0," th R 'publi f 'I' I. Pallama gTtlllts ill 1>('1'1' tni!)' t t ll-' '111 1 t'ta.t :-; th rio-h( t o 11,'( lll\' l'jy ( )'S, :-.II'P;1I1 I:-', la k ,: a ,ntl t h r h <1i s f wat \ 1 w i t J Jin it .. 1imi 1 f01' lJHv igation, III :-'llppl,' f \ ate '!' o r wat 1'1 W '1' l'

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P ilot and Tllid. CARIBBEA N II C) f( ,Iv SEA ISTHMUS OF PANAMA. .:; 267 I ___

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268 Pilot mul Guide. ---=-=-=.-=-=-=-=-=--=-----=-=---other purpo-'es 0 far as the of aid liver:, lakc:-; an i bodie" of water and th waters thereof lnay be 11 '(' ",ar and ('01lyell1eJlL for the construction, Inaintenance, operation, 8an1tati n and pI' ti 11 of the aid anal. l\:IOKOPOLY F H C T TR'GCTI N, ETC. The Republic of Panama Tc"Ul to the United State:o; in p -'1'ART. -. petuitJ a monopoly for th con. truction maintenfl,u '(' anI operation of an y:tem of ommunlr-ation by meau: of canal or railroad across it t erritory b tween the aribbean Sea and th Pa 'i-fie Ocean. PBI? TE PROPERT] The gran s h erein contain 1 hall in no mann r iUYH 1 il1at ART. 6. the title 01' right of priY8t land holder' 01' o"U 1\' f l)}'i-vate property in tbe ,aid zone l' in. or to any of the land' or water granted to the G nit c1 'tate by the proyision of any \ rti 'le of thi treaty, nor ball they intel'fel'e with the right of ,yay 0\' l' tll public roads pas -ing throu;h the :aid zone or over auy of the .. or waters unless aid l'ights of wa, or private right. 'hall ufli t ,,'ith rights herehl granted to the T nit d I (tat in which a e the 1'1 'ht, f the United States hall be npf'rior. All damag to th own r' of private land. or priva,te prop rty of a ny kin 1 by l' a. 'on of the gl'alltR contained in treaty 01' by 1'0fl.on of the op ration. f th Lnit d ate. it", agent 01' employe or hy rea. on of the .11 ... trn ti 1) llliliutenanee, operation, 'anitation and Il'Ot ti n f the. aid anal l' f the work. of .. anitatioll and prot (tion h r in provided f l' hall h alprai eel and ..,ettlecl lJy a joint onnui ... ion appoint (1 by the ," rnmenL' of the United Hlld th R public of Panrlm.. ,h se de L'ion a to 11 (lamagf\' .'lU1U b final lluLl ,,11... a ',1' i:l' to .'u h dame: ge hall b pall. 1 y the nit (1 tat... part of th work on aiel Canal or th an;l mn I aiJr ad l' n H n a ; 1 'iliarv work' relating thereto and anth l'ized ) th t ) m f tl' .. hail b prey nt d, d la, 'eel or imp d d 1 l' I n lin '-U 11 1)1') ding' to rtain u h darnag ':->. r.l'h H} prai. al of "Hi 1 privat lawl .... pl'ivat prop l't' c TItl th .L S ml 1\t of limit.' of tIl, (,jtit ':O; (If 1 Hnama i.llH1 Cd It ;:nd tll i.H1-ja' llt hRl'l)(H'.' nlHl \\'i{hin th e t lTitol'ynlia' ntth r (otlH' right to a 'quir h)' pnr('ha. (' ())' hy 111) '\:l'l' i:e of tll rig'ltt of 'mill III 1 malJJ, any la1Hls. huilclil]1' 1 l'ti '.')l 'I.' '''.-il)Y an 1 ouv ni nt f( l tll(' (.' I1'\\(,ti )11, mnilll 'll, 11('(', )1 rHti Jl and 1)' t ti Jl f thp CHllCtl HI](l ){' Hll\' \ l'ks r HlIitati)Jl (tH}} a;' the )Ilt'ti n ( 111 di"po.-it ioll () H '\\ ag; Hllil 111 111:-.11'ihutl 11 ( f ",ntp!, in ill) sai (lis]' ti n r III l'T"llltpd 't. 'S ma 1 (. n (P .... :l1'y HllIl ('Oll\ ('llit'llt 1'01' tIl(' llst )'U ti 11 lllHl11t.-lla1w(', l'l'atjoJl xClnitilti 11 Hu(11)]'oll <:( ion of' tIl(' sai 1 \lllrll Hnl l'Hil-

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TIl Tr('aty Ifitl! rW(((} J/((. 269 ------MME. E. FASHIONABLE road. All uch "ork r anitation eoll e diol1 and eli po. ition of ewage and
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, - ::270 Pilot arul Guide. zone de el'ibed ill Article of thi.' tl'eat. y now in01uded in the conces,'ions t.o both said enterpl'ises awl not required in the eonstruction 01' operation of t.he Canal .. h dl revert, to the Republic of Panama, except any property now owned by or in the pos, es. ion of said companies within Panama or Colon, 01' the ports or terminals thereof. PORTS AT OF The United agr es that the ports at either entrance ART, 9. of t.he Canal iLUJ the watpl'f:) thereof, and the Hepublic of Panama agree' t.hat the tOWllf:) of Panama and Colon shall be free for all time so t1101'e shall not. hp impo. ell or co lleded ustom house tolls, tonnage, anchorage, wharf, pilot, 01' quarantine aues 01' any other charges or taxef:) of any kina upon C1ny ve., el usiug or passing through the CC1nal 01' brlollging t.o 01' employed by the Uuit.ed \. States, directly or indirec.tly, in connection with the eOl1struction, main-I tenu.nee, op ration, sanitation an(l Pl:ott' ,ction of th0 main Canal, or auxiliary works, or upon the cargo, crew, 01' of any I uch ve .ois, except. ueh tolls awl charges a,' luay be impo:cu 1>, the United St.ate. for th use of thf> C;tnal :-!tllti othC'l' v 'ork, au 1 (:' -'ept tolls and ehal'ges impo eel by the Hepnblic ()r Pa'la ll..t. npoll destined to be introduced fortk o f l'c '-t of t.11A Repub-lic of Panal a, and UpOll ve, 'sels touc11iJJg at tne POl'llS of olon and Pa.nama awl which 10 not th Cc1ual. The Government of th0 Hl'P!ll)lie (.If P..t.:,;t/W1J h:.,ll have the right to e:ta1>lish in 'uch port.s alld in tlw tOWII. of nd Colon such houses a .nd guard:5 as it m :-t .. 0 l'ollp(", (11 tie . on importatiou" l'ight to make use of the own of Panama and Colon a. plareR of (LllcllOrage lu1 j l' making r'p air fol' 10a<1ing, d ( positiuD', or traw:;:'hipping <'9 1'goes ei her iu transit or destino(l fot' the, el'vi '0 of the and fot' other work .. l Lt'taining to the Cc"Lnal. ErC. 'J 11 R. plll Ii of Pil.l}( ma a.ge th' t ther hel11 Hot, lw imARrl'. 10. pos d any tax s nat} II 1 lllUlIi ipn l 'lc.,'pf\.l'tm ntal (11' anu oth r 'la, : upon the anal, the l'Hilwa,y::; 01' a lvllic:u'y work', ana othe r y L mpto." tl ill th f t It Canal tor hOll "'e '" work. hI p.. fti 'e.', quart f()l' but ten;, fad 01 (It a,ll kiud war -hon: \ hal'\'Gf:), }})' hinery :md nth work. lH'lP l'ty ;:\ Hl ff app to the -'a.lH1.l, l' ]': l ill'nn 1 awl I' ;lwl tlwf i1l(-1ivi hULls ill Lht' 'Pl' j., of tIl \ (: nd l';\ ill'o:\. alH1 ( lviliHl'y wOl'k'. IAL DTNl A Tel n ,,",. 'rh Uuit '<1 ag'l'l'(' .' thnt U l' of1it inl
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r:: II C\L I ..... Q) ..., .,... C ....... "'" j l I I II I , I Ii I '\ I, 'I ; I I ( CC I Jted ,)r-!s;dent dlJl :11. ;.):ol,lrn u('t t.Le Isthmus .) (;.rnbCf' 1906. e J J j ; j ..

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272 Pil'J[ ({nd Guide. than those required from officiaL in the r ice of the rnited Srate,. ACCESS OF rES. The GOY rnment of tbe Republic permit ARrf. 12. the immiO'l'ati on and free to the la.nds awl ,"York hop of the Canal and i.ts auxili:uy work.-of all employe, and workmen of whateyPl' nationality umler cOlltrH.ct to work upon iug employment upon, or in any wi.'e connerted wi.th the said Canal and its auxiliary works, "ith their re"" pectiye familie an(1 all uch per",on hall be free and exempt from the military el'yice of the Republic of Panama. L\IPORTA''Ero .. T I TTO ZO.TE. The TInitell Rtafes may import nt any fime hI t o the ,aid ART. ] 3. Zone and auxilial'Y laud, free of cn -tOln dlltie', impo .. t ', taxes, or other cJlal'ges, a11(l ,yithout any re, friction,,, an and all yes el ,dredges. engine" rat's, machiuery, tool explo -i",e8, material., 'lpplie and other article lll.'Ce Ral'Y and convenient in the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the Canal and auxiliary works, an 111editine c]othiug, upplies and other things and eOllYeuientfor the officers, employes, workmen and laborer,. in the tif'l'vieo and pffiploy of the: United States and for their families. If any 11(' h al'ticles are (Ij po 'ee l of for use outside of the Zone and auxilial'y land granted to the 1. uitc-' d States and within the territory 01 the RepubliC', tilf'Y sball 1 e ubjet to the same import or other dutie:-:; a,' like al'tiC'le imported under the Jaw of the R public of Panama. Ol\IPEr' S ... \.rr lOX .... ;' the price or for the right .. pow l'ti and lwiART. 1-1. vileges granted in thL' convention by the Republic of Pana-ma to the I nited :::>tatf':::1, the GOY rlllUelJt of the 1: nited State. agl'ee to pay to the RelJublic of Panam" the ... 11m oC ten million dollar ($10,000,000) in gO]ll coin of the Lilltf.d tat<'. 011 the xchang of the ratification of onv 'ntion, a11cl an annual pa,yment during the life of thi:-; 'onv' ntioll f two huu hed awl fift thOll, and dollar::; 0) ill lik o'olc1 ('Oill lJ ,ginning y:'fll':'i aft I' the :late afo1' -.. aiu. Th J 1 ro\'i .. of .Al'til'le .. hall 1 'ill cu](litiou to all oth l' b n fit .. a f"l11' d to th H publi 0 f Pana m.l UlHl l' 11 \ -nti 11_ ut no d lay l' c1itfpl' 'lH:e of opinioH n11<1 '1' thi' Art l' an,' oth r pl'ovi .. i 1 of tn'at,\' aff(l(t 01' illt( l'l'up l1w full op ration awl >ff<:"t. f thi::: l' 11\'\ lltion 111 all othPl' l' T TrL' CO .. ')11 joint i II l'dpl'l'l t1 l ill YI :-;11<111 be \.1"1'. 1.), tnlli .. h d iollo" : The' Pl'(','i(ltJul r 11H' 1:lIitt (1 Niat( 11()lllillni(' 1\,0 p 1','0) a})c1 th' PI' ','id<:llt 0 1la' Pl ptl1)li(' (If' ] H1J:l11Ja :--hallllnminn,le two PPl'. ()n .. and tll{': .. ]1<111 11'1W('(,11 to :t hut in f -In nl ur th, ( 11l1lli (11)' l' 'n;-, 11 or till'll' 1 1 'ing (ptal): tliyid d in j

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Tlte TJ'{;({i!l lI'ith .P(lJlflllt({. 273 Colon Constructlo Co any. \V AL TER HENRIKSON, Manager. 131) lJ8timat Giren on All ?((,'S) of nark. All KiJlcb; of Bui1l7ing COHtracts Tak n. CEMENT "'\i'VORK A SPECIALTY. j3UILDI TG foATERIALS A T O PEMENT FOP\..}3ALE. FOR PAINTS AND GI.JAISS 'J.Te 'J.Tould be Glad t.o Figure on. Your 'J.Tork :E3eore You Close a IJeal E..lsev.:rhere. ADDRESS ALL INQUIRIES TO OLOIr C01iIIJ TOBAL, CANAL ZONE. c n h1._ ion), an umpil'e f;hall be appointed by the two lOyernruent'" who hall r nder the de<:iRioll. In the e,'ent of the cleaH1, al): 'encE' or ineapa i(r of a Commi..ioner 01' rmpire, or of hi omitting, (le 'liuinO' 01' a;"illO' to act, hi place 'ball bE' fill d hy the appointlllent of anoth l' person in the maUll r aboy illdicatE'd All by a majol'ity of th 1 lllmi.'sion or by the umpire :::;hclll be final. EX1.'RADITION. The b 0 Goyernment. .'hall makp adequate P1'O\']:-;lOll l)y ART, 16. flltUl'e c1O'l'f'emeut for the pur 'nit capbll'e impri onmellt dt'te11ti Jl i:tnd ddiYel'V ,yithiu the :a.id 7.one and a nxi lian" lallll ... to the authol'itle. of the R e'pul lic of Panama of pE'r. l1S with th ('olllmitll ut of (,1'imt'::;, felollie" or mi -c1emeano1's without ,'aid zone, clnLl fOl' the pur:'uit, ('apture, impri onment., detention and deli\' ry withouL "aid 7.one to the autlloritie of the United 'tate of per (IllS charg('(l ,yitlt the commitment of crill 1:', f 10llies or mi, d mean 1'S within aid ZOlle and auxiliary lands. POR'rS OF The Republic of Panama l'clnts to the "nit 18tate,' the u.-e ART. 17. of all the port of the I public op u to (:0111111 ree, <1.' place. of l'E'fnge fol' any vessels elnplo.ved in the ('anal nterpri,' and for all yesseb pas, iUd 01' bound to pass th1'ono' h tll Canal, 'wbich rna r bE' in eli a11(l b (lriYen to eek refucJ'e in ai(l port:;. Sah

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274 Pilot ancl Guide. "e .... e1: shall l)e exempt from an horao-e and tonnage due.' on th par of the Repllbli of Panama. NE"CTRALITY I ULES. 1.'lle Canal ,vhen oll "tru't d, and tll .ntranre th rpt AnT It' be n utral in perpetllit,\', nnu hall be opene 1 upon th term. provided for b. I of Artil 3 of and jll ('onfor1llity v;ith all the ,tipulatioll. of the treaty euter d into lly the Government: of the United State and Creat Britaiu on Noyemb 1'19 1901. FREE TRi'\'N, 'P RT. Thp Government of the R public of Panama hall he y the ART. ] 9. right to trHn.'port oypr the Canal, it', Y "el:. and it" troop, :nHl munition. f ,\YlU' ill nth y '-at all time: without I ayil1g charge .. : of any kind.. Th e remption i .. to ue extended to the anxilial'. railway for the tean portn,tion of per. 011S in the eryice of th Republic of Pallama,or of the police force charged with the pre .. el'vation of puhlic order out i Ie of aid fl W 11 a to their bao-O'ag munition. of 'war and supplie" c .. ;.,rCELLATION OF EXI, ,'TING TREATIE If by virtue of any e.'i tinO' treaty in relation to th territ ry ART. 20. of the L tlnl1u" of Panama, wh reof the ohli atioll ,hall ue.'Cf'lHl aI' he a., ull1e to the, aiel thinl pow r the r qui. it n tin C1ti II wjthin th term f f 111' Inonth,' f1'0111 the l'{':-it'lll 'Oil '('SSiOH.' ,lll
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Tit Tn'at!! Inth j'({I/(lJIlfI. 275 ====-=-=---=--==-= ==-=--=-----F J rUII'j\ '. The R publi(' of anama I'll Hill' '" awl grant--to til(' lTuit,d A T. 2:.. tat.:. the parti 'il atloll t ,,-hi<:h it might 1) ('Iltitl'(l ill til, fntnre earning -or th cUlUl1llHl l' \rtil'h'].) of the <:01]('(', JOnal"), lItl'C1Ct with Ln('i n X. ) \\" ll('11-niarv naturp ari -inO' uul r 01' l' latin!! trill ('011<'(", iOIl. Ol' cl1l;l.lll'l Haill'oad ( 11l1',11lY or any n rllloc1ificati 11 thrn'of; all 1 it likf'wi 1('1I01111C(' .... ,(I)11-firm and grant t o th Vnit (1 f _'tatl'.' 11 W a11 y al" of the concr...;. ion' ?,1'anted to or held 1)," the < lJo,-r-l1wnti lIe(l party alld companie.", an i all right. an(l int('1'(-,:t ,..-hich it now ha::.or hen'aft r hay in and to the land . callal work:-:::, propf'rty al1(l riO'ht helJ 1 y the .-ai( l C mpanie,' nnder :--ilid ( 011 (;(.l.-:-.ku,' (II' oth l'wj" and ac luil'ed or to b a "llll1't'cllJY the LnHe,1 f'hl (,>;-; from O}' thl'ongh the New Panama Callal Compau:-. in In<1ing: r\11, -pl'opt-'rry awl right.which might or may ill the fntnl'e pith l' hy lap f' f tilllP. f( lf itlln' or otherwi 'e rey rt to the Republit of PalHlllH. nll'll'r ' fill 1 In its diseretion to u e it poliee and it, lanrl and na,-al force:' 01' to tabli 'h fortifi :1tion for the 'E: CHAXGE IX G LA ,Y-', ETC. No change in the .!oYel'nment or ill th 1<1'>1:' and ART. treatie, of the liepuhlic of Pauama "hall ,yitholLt th <:011-ent of the Lnited affe t any right of th Tnit a State unde r the pre ent cOll,-elltioli 01' under all:-treat .... :--tipnlatioll between the two c.ountrie,-,' that now or may hereafter e.ri.,,:t tOll(:hjng the ubject matter of tbi conYentiol1 If the Republic of Panama hall hel'eafter ellt l' a. a 'OIL tit-uent into any other goYernmellt. 01' into any ullioll or <:onfe,lel'ation of state. 0 a to merge her :Oy l' or intlepcllirn 'e in n h GOYf-'l'lllnent, union or confederation thr right of tlle Lllited tat' uwlel' thi conyeniion 'hall not be in any l'e pect Ie .. .'enetl 01' impailetl.

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276 Pilot aJl(l Gllh7e I PAN A M A HAT S -----------------------------------I No.9 Front St., near p, It R. Depot, Colon, R. P. ----.>-'4\>-0----THE LARGEST DEALERS IN PA AMA HATS, & Retail. \111 Glasses and Size for lien, WOJ1)en and Child reno WE IMPORT DIRECT FROM MANUFACTURERS. PAN A M A HATS iOALI TG STATIONB. For the better performance of the engagement of thi con ART. yention al)(l to the end of the effi'ient 11'otection of tb ('anal and t11 pre,'C'rYation of its lleuh'ality,the "Oyermllent of th Repuhli' of Panama ,yjll ,'ell 01' lea to the "Cnited tate..; ]aml ltlHlne('es ary for nayal or coaling tation,' on the Pari {)e coast. awl on the Wp tern Caribhean eoa't of the ReputE at 'ertuin to 1J agr e
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277 The Deal Go e s Through. h a 1 \ f the cana l pr pertip, \Y 1'0 fluth ll'il d h r th h a l' hIt el' of the .Now Pa 11 clln a all al 0ll1 1',tIlY )l \ p ril :...: ) ] 90 : t h e i nstrulllent of cOln'cyal1ce h ino a' f 1-1 o,,' : I \y th l'l"fol' W ,the 0l ,.'W Panama .. lnal Company, J'C'Pl' -H nt 1 by:JI S, 'l'H l'.Iariu Bo awl Albtrt Hi:dnuann j Il '011-'1<1 rclti n of th paym nt of f()rty 1ui11i H 1 llnl''' in gohl ('oin of th cl State. of to saill 11 it -1'<.lel' or llemand -ontempormoleou,l,v with the d li\' ry of thi .. pl'e .. -ellt un'. "111 Cl to th two repl'e lltativ of the rnitetl 'tat of Am rica fir,t a hove lllf'ution c1, an 1 the d liYl'ry to tll 1U of PI' p rty in Pari.' and the eel'tifi -ate of Pauanut Railroad hal' (the propert,v of the c ompany not h illg nu-l r ... tood t ill lmle the tl'ea Ul'ya .. et. ... of the Hny includill lepo .. itR of money, out taw1ing ClC'l1it:::. HlHl illYeHtm ut in hond ), awl the d->]iYE'l',Y npon th IHthmn .... of Panama to an a;ent of tIl -> rnited State.' of ___ lllel'i('a (le.-'jO'nateu tll llJ r by the AttOl"lH')'-of the 'Cllite I:thmn of Palla ma, and mal' and ul'thiYe" at Plui .... Those a (lllalllte d '\yith the 11 gotintioll for the cn I1n1. pro p e r ty.1 1uYe uh'ra' credited Adm iral ,Valleer ,\Ylth n 11cce. fnt combination of tate man hip fll)(] un ines ability in thi matter b T first reporting to ConOT ., ill f a Y01' of th e 1\ ica rfl ()'u::t rOll te which report 0 1111 11 l:\'e d th e FreJ) h COlll l all T that a 1'o<1n tion of CY811ty \va a t once 111ade frOlll their prc\'ion figure O f th o f o r ty millions paid to the Frenel th e c a n a l r p re.8 nt ed 827 --1:74-,00: Panmna t,"G; G 000 111ap records O. 1'h elud e d abo ut 3 0 00 acres of lanel that ,"cnt I 'oDlpany Railroad, 'nl 111-" with th

PAGE 295

---------_. ---.Panama Canal Offices -.:Panama. s. '"m Ion .:1ImcricQn of-. .HfUlJrWl'Jkl.

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Th Dut! r: e Th I'01(U1l 279 -=-----------L THE BEST ROOMS in COLON. FeRNI HED AND U F RNI lIED Electric Lights and Pine Eaths. Only One Block from P. R. R. Depot .Apply at HThe:. Casket"1 COLON STATIONERY AND SUPPLY COrv1PANY, -l -0. ra:ll'ond G2,-;000 :1cre of land under the ,V.y e conee ... lon, :?265 buildillg' ill Pnuama, Colon, and alollg tile line of the calla], Ulld three tean1ers of about tOllS each. T -he Great Scrap Heap. Haying completed the purchase of the properties, Lieut. ::\lark Brooke ,,-as eUlpowered to take po s es sion o-f the plant 011 the I thl11us, with the re 'ult n announced in the follo wi ng cable:-Panama. :Jlay -t. 1 901-. I tllmialJ, a -hillgloll Property taken over at ...,eyen thhty thi mOl'Jliu g BR OKE. There were at this tinle. aU told, 11;) storeholl es or Inagazines: fi-fteen larger warehouse an 1 forty-one park

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280 Pilot and G liidc. or yards scntterec1 at different loint aloDO' the ort -ix 111iles of canal route. r he COJltents of th e e huilding' and 'arc1 ,\-ould coyer, if pl'cac1 ont 111 ono place, a 0 u 1'e fanl), three feet deep. and leaye enough oyer f r a fence ",ice a h10'h to enclo. e it. Accol'c1ino t the la t in 11-tory of the l ? rench; this ,3, t anlount of 111nterial repre sented a book ,alne of In the purchase f the canal thi stuff llOt counted but Admiral 'Valker i Ilj 'te d that it all be thrown ill a,_ P< 1't of the c1 al. In e the AUlel'icans took hold. 111uch of tlli nUl tcrial hn' 1 ecn chsposed of. In 1906, a dealcr j n old lro n in th e tate ontractec1 for byo sh1pl oa(1., repre.811ting GO,OO ill "nIlle while tOllS and tOll hayo been going to K ew T rk a: bi:l, l1ast on .tho Pannln[\, RaiIro(lc1 boats. Hundrcds of llHchincs, e])gi])Ps, etc . ,yere fou]1(l ill fair conditio n ,11 1 lun'e been l1lade oyer and put ill sen'ice. Thi. work 1 i:" Ino. tl T been done at the Gorgona hops In 1 flO.J-, llluch of thi 1l1aterial was coyerec1 hy den e jnn '10 growth and \' n at this day. survey partics frequently run ( r S:' in th i1' x p]orations hitherto Ullcl i coyerec1 cache of In, hillel''' There '\. a] 0 OD hand h 7 barce . y< \,,1 and'?l I team l aunches. '1'he1'e ,, 'ere 7 3 il' 11 1'<1 nc ',8 bi 0-pumps of "a1'101.1. killd', 1'0 drilL. and 1-10 tE'DIl1 Will'll There ,,,as a tiontino' h'ill appnratu yulne I at S : 000 H b 0 1'i t) g ll) (J (' bin 0 n t 1 0: 0 a.: U (ti 11 d l' 1 \yolth ,,7.00 and oth . ell' dg<:: \rho' ynIn run illt the hundre d tlion 'alld. A : to (1' (nd 1 C 111 tiy :. til r' \y )1'C .. m 1'1C(1.11 lu Olllnti Y<' YH I n d H t :? 0 a Ild :..l:? 1) lcrinll rnlL1C'd at l1])\Y<11'<1 .. of t l.0 .0 III (dditi n til '1') \\'C1' a lot of ,' l11l11 ])0 ',un ilIe' 'llO'lllC'.' alld narl' \ ,CfaII0' I)ccilu\ ill trHck: en.'1' foot of th) In: ha\ incr In \ }H'CIl put 0 good t1.'(', '11w}''' \\ er cd: ,). dlllllp a\ld:) () troll"y: for IT 'illg dirt a\\HV 1'1' In th' 'a llal. 'j 11 .'nI (11. 0 in :lu<1l' 1 ill l1wglliti n. \1\ n ]> it, I (' () .. till g tIt (\ F]' i Ill' 11 II Jl \ ':1t'( 1.' () r .), 0)'( tIt L .... ( p.' hflll. c: Ht \i.,tohnl. tIl \ {lmilli "tr;lti )11 J)an(llll:t lit fol' \\ hJ('h h 1 l'cllch pai(1

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Tho G 'feat crap 17irtr 281 re irlence of thp -h Jil'e t 1'-6 neral ast Panflmn, (now kn wn as the In'rie flll L a( tioo whi c h cost $60,0 ; the gronncls ann build :0',' nf the Tab( )ga Sanitariu n 011 Tbog-a Island, on il 11 ,-,0 0 "as pent, and the D il1gIer rpsidenre on the La Boca road, co tillg about $50,000. It is the pinion o t ',1110 haye been con tantly in touch ith the properf.l-: ill l '}',,(l fl"Olll the French company, that the price the [niteu States paid for them was "ay below their actual value at the time of the transfer. \Vhen the 1 uited States calne i IltO po session, the sole control of canal affairs on the Isthmus was vested in the the delegate of the Board of Directors of the French company in Pari. Reporting to this Director-General \\ ere chiefs of departments, or bureaus having to do with engineering and plans, accounts and cash, material and supplies, health, and lands. There ,vas but one set of files, or place of deposit of records and this at canal headquarters in Panama. As the French company was operating under a franchise, and was dependent for protection upon the sovereign police protection came of, and all judicial proceedings were, of necessity, conducted in the courts of said government. For cases of emergency the chiefs of sectioll, or departments, were each provided with a stand of arms. The Sanitary Department was such only in name. There was no attempt to institute any hygienic measures, save Ruch as the laws of the o v.., ereign required, that is, none at all. If the employes were injured or sickened, they were cared for by the Company's ph) sicialls, in or out of the h08pital. The medical officers had no independent di cretil)1l of illly kitH. : a.nd the ciallS were not obliged to atLellcl fatuil it: of employes, although they usually did 0, First on the Ground. The first party to arrive on the IsthluUS in connection with the prC8ent undertaking consisted of Major William

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282 Pilot aud i1llrir (t IT. C()LON. PANA.MA. largest and Best Stocked liquor Store on the Isthmus. PROVISIONS, BAR SUPPLIES AND TOBACCOS. Jigen,ts for Anhe1l8 C r-13usch Bre wing, Asso c iatioJl St. LOllis, Mo ,:l[oet & Chandon's White S e al Champagne. anadian Club Wilson's, Hunter's Green River, and Mt. V ernon Fine Whiskies.Dufiy's Pure Malt Whi 'ky .... D C. L. Old Tom Gin and Scotch Whisky.. T ennent's XXX Stout and Pale Ale.Ross'. Roval B elfas t Ginge r Ale, and Kola.-Marie Brizard & RogerBordeauxFin est VLiquenrs .. McCray R efrigerator Co. WasbburnCrosby Co's Gold Medah, Flour. CALL for BUDWEISER "I{ING OF ALL BEERS". Address: Post Office Box 5 3, COl.ON, or Post Office Box 97, PANAM.4. M. Black and Lieut. Mark Brooke, U. S. Oorps of Engineers. Mr. A. O. Harper as civil engineer, and Mr. Harry D. Reed as clerk and stenographer. The party reached Panarna on April 16, 1903, over six rnonths before the seceRsion, and nearly a year before the proclamation of the canal treaty. Their mission was to keep tab on the work and methods of the New Panama Oanal OOlnpany. Messrs Harper and Reed have been with the canal enter pri e ev r since. The former is now Resident Engineer with headquarte rs at Oorozal, while the latter has filled the position of Executive Secretary for over three year past. Dr. Olaude O. Pier e has the honor of being the first sanitary representativo Oll the ground, a well a the firRt to arriv in an official capacity after it ,va known that a tr aty would be neg tiated with Panama. Dr. ierce wa detached fronl the JVIarine Hospital s 1'-vi e a t K y 'V t, L" and nt t the I thmns to III ke

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r o und. 283 a pecial r 1 rt n (nitary can liti 11. H arriv e d at 1 n Dc mb r -1 1 H ; and f r the f II will IX r jcrht lnollth n1ade hi. hal u art r at Pc Il c Ina Dr. rc e i 11 W uaraL,til1 ) fi er at 1011. The n ex t in rel r 'a Dr. tJ. P. P erry alRo uetachecl fro III 1\la rin H pital dutie for t llnporary service n the Istlnnu'. Dr. P rry arrive I Feby. () 1 04 and was statioll d a t C lOll for e, eral month. J1 the orgauization of th e D partment of anitation he became connected "\ ith it and now hold the pORition of .;hi f Quarantine Officer, with headquarters at Pauama. The first large pennanent party to arrive was headed by l\lajor-General eorge W. Davis and consisted besides of l\lajor Black Erne t Ijagarde jr., the fir t Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone; Eugene C. Tobey, Payma ster, U. S. Navy' Richard L. Sutton, M. D., U. S. Nav,) '1\laso11 E. l\litchell stenographer; George Reynolds hanton, Oharles L. Stockelberg, and J eromiah Corcoran. 'l'he party arrived 1\lay 17, 1904, and its appearance constituted the initial step ill the organization of the work under Alnerican management. PaYlnaster Tobey not only assumed the duties of Disbursing Officer, but at one time" as ill charge of the Material division, Revenues, and Posts. In fact, he and 1\1::tjor-Gencral Davis had practically the running of things for a lIlonth or so. There were a lot of ragged ends to draw together when the canal was taken over from the French, and "ith lack of sufficient and adequate help, it was nip and tuck "\\ith these two men for one while, to keep matters running smoothly. The l\fajorGeneral acted as l\lanaging Representative" until Chief Engineer ,Vallace arrived, while Tobey continued in the performance of his multifarious duties until Paymaster George C. Schafer canle to relieve hiln of the disbursing end, aud Col. Tom. Cooke arrived to take charge of rev enues and posts. Owing to the pressure of work, pay days at that period "ere long deferred, the longest Oll record for the gold men, if the memory of the "riter <

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'=:> c:=> 4 C_(-J-P,:lot and Guide. -COIT0Ctl. bei ng in Augu:-t, 1904 Whf il t here WHS H' Ithing doing" ulltil the 17th of t he month. However, accep ted th e go(,d-l1atul'ed ./ en') 19h, tll0, lUI ell of pPlluiless r3cru 'ts" up at 'Ya rd D ill the h s-1 ib,l w0rking llr excitement 0' ,-U} ; 11,:) t.h?se waits on a ten -Ce!l t Ii luit, anu that ill d J)aSe(l cur;ellcy E C. Toh8Y was Inade Chief of the I)c' )artmel t of 1fL-.t rial & Suppli:.ls, and continued in that apt c'ty, with Victor S .. T ackson as his .. A.ssistant until 1T overnber, 1905, when he 'was su cceeded by Mr. W. G. Tubby, the present head of that department. l\lason Mitchell served under Mr. Tobey, and later under Pay master Sch a fer. He is still on the Isthrnus, though not wlth the Commission. Oapt. Shanton was appointed Ohief vf Pollce, an office be sti 11 holds, while lVIr. Stockelberg has bpen Supervisor of Plumbing frolu first to last. 001. vVIn. C. Gorgas was another of the early arrivals. Reach ing here in t1 une, he with the able assistance of Major H. R. Carter commenced at once the work of building up the mighty structure that has Inade Pananla, Oo]on and tho Callal Zone one of the healthiest spots in the tropical belt. Others followed in the wake of these pioneers, List, Ehle, Nichols, Dose, Major Lagarde, Dr. Ross, and many others, the most of whom have long since departed for other fields of labor. TAKING NO CHANCES \Vho says t hat stru;)gers in Pallan la c re n t reverent all 1 respectful. Ypster liiy while the auc iO!l r's be 1 was ring ing bout the a g(\lltl Inan who thou g It it lni j.t b om r \ligiouH 'erelnollY, took off hi hat (utl : (0<1 uncovered ill the hot un U Ilti I the r <. flag had pa '\sr.d. He cvi<1 utl'y thought it h e t to be on th safe nide.-C1rama. & c'uld in 1

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... r IV 'ommi..ioJl in J[({}'I/ . 285 JOHN CHONG WI. G & Co., CULEBRA, CANAL ZONE. CJ)ea[ers in Chinese and Japanese Fancy cArttcles, Etc. Etc. HDEll' 'r"" KEX F R '3PE r L ('TIL E E AN J P \ ,:fE :' E 1 O D COMPLETE STOCK OF PROVISIONS. FINE WINES AND LlQUDRS' THE BEST STORE OF ITS IN C LEBR . ,REASONABLE. WE SOLlCIT YOUP,-PATRONAGE, New Commission in Harness. On 1Iarch ( 1904 President Roosevelt i ued the lett er appointing the melllbers of the first cOlumission to be COlnpo ed of Real'-Adlniral John G. ,Valkel', United tate Navy, Chairrnan. J\Iaj or-General George 'V. Davis, United State Army; ,Villialn Barclay Par on ,Villialn H. Bnrr, Benjamin 1\1. Harrod Carl Ewald Gruu __ ky, ci il engineers, and 1\Ir. Frank J. Hecker. The President's charge to this commission reads in part as follows:-rr I have appointed you as the Commi sion which is to undertake the most important and al 0 the most formidable engineering feat thn.t has hit.herto b een attempted. You are to do a work the doing of which, if well done, will reflect high honor upon his nation, and, when done, will be of incalculable benefit, not only to this nation, bnt to ci vHized mankind. You have been cho 'en purely becau e of your per onal and profesreputation for integrity and ability. You repre ent the whole country. You represent neither section nor party. .. .. The plan are to be carefully made with a view of the need not only of the mom nt, but of the future. The expenditure are to be supervi ed as rigorou ly a if they w ere being made for a private cOl'pora,tion dependent for it.. profits upon the return. You are to secure the be t talent this country can afford to meet the conditions created by every need which may ari e, I The method for achieving the result mu t be yours. this nation will in i t upon i that re ults be achieved. ---... -----

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9Juilding-Culebra. Anama. S#fIr_; "'.Ii Ii AIN 4f" .. ,..:1Ithcrlf4l,., :If 3Ji_lfII ....

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New Oommis ion in Harness 287 The Commission held its first meeting at 'Vashington on l\farch 22, 1904 and immediately planned for a trip to the Isthmus to study the conditions on the spot. It arrived at Colon on April 5, 1904 and established pro visional headquarters in the old De L osseps mansion on Cristobal Point. During its visit the Oommission occupied itself with a study of the plans and methods of work, as then carried on by the New Panama Oanal Oompany and with an examination of the physical conditions of the pro posed canal route. At the time of the Commission's visit, the only work in progress was the excavation of Oulebra cut. The outfit here consisted of a few French steam ex cavators and dump trains, and a force of about 700 men engaged on the work. Although small progress was being made, the Commission deemed it advisable to continue the employment of the existing force until a better organIza tion could be effected. The Comlnission's investigations developed the fact that while under M. de Lessops and the New Panama Oanal Oonlpany a large amount of study was done of an accurate and scientific kind, new and extended surveys would have to be made by reason of the difference of the standpoints froln which the work was approached twenty. five years ago with to-day. This, to a large extent is uuo to the immense increase of dimensions of the waterway de manded by the ships of to-day and the llear future. The Oommission returned to the States on April 29, having decided that the first step in field operations should be the organization of survey parties to examine further into certain problems of canal construction with which it was confronted. The Oommission was received very cordially by ths Panama Go,ernment officials and several functions were held. To provide against contingencies the party brnught along a large stock of mineral waters and also, it is reo ported, a number of zinc caskets The latter, however were not called into requisition

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288 Pilot and G'lticle. i __ Ideal Spot to Spend your Sundays and Holidays. WRITE OR SEE aI\d a G enera l G ood T ime No 1 1 1 North Aven.ue, Panama. Getting Down to Work. The engineering work of the COlTIlnission had its beginning ill the organization of five engineerillg parties each in charge of a resident engineer. The fir t of these engineering parties sailed for the Isthmus about the midd l e of May, 1904, and the remainder foll owed soon after. O n e party W'tS assigned to luaking surveys for proposed harbor inlprovCluents at Oolon, another to making investiga t ions and borings in the vicinity of Gatun, a third to cond u c ti ng silnilar investigations at Rohio, the fourth and oue of t h e largest parties put in the field, to mak i ng surveys f or a possihle dam at Gamhoa, and the fifth and la, t for de signing of a waterworks and sewer syste ll1 for the cities of Panama and Oolon. On lYray 5, 1904, Mr. John F. \Vallace was ap poin t d '1hief Engineer at a salary of $25,000 per a n num to take ffect nile L }vfr. Wallace arrived 011 the f:,thnlU June 24, reli ving l\Iajoreneral Davi of all ". rk in nn-tion ith eUITin ring operation. t that tiln ther wet' very w uit ble r id nces available and during th gr at r part f hi. 11n ti n with the 1111111 ,1 n he upi c.1 the thro ry buildillo' in an:unn now t h hom of the .A.Jn ri an gati 11. 1h attention f th hi f EllITinc during th 1'0 -In( ind l' (tho y ar wa prill ipally nfin d t ,'u-P x i .'inO' tho 'v rl' f the fi hl_p
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289 the Fren h con1pany had left of value, and conducting ex perilnellts in Cui bra cut with a view of arriving at the cost of excavatioll per cubic yard. The work f thi period lnay be 'aid to have been wholly preparatory. A start was made on the Panama watrrworks project, a nd work wa. comnlenced on a few llew buildings for elnployes. It at once becalne necessary to place large orders for material, and the slowneRs wit.h which these were fille
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.--------------------------290 Pilot and Guide. 2.500,' PAGES THIS IS WHAT THIS EDITION OF The PI10t and CUI-de. AMOUNTS TO. CIRCULATION OF ANY BOOK EVER PUBLISHED ON PANAMA. Advertisers Should Tumble To These on the ide were not prepared to be pleased ,,,ith the seven 0 clock coffee of that beverage and bread, with an egg if you asked for it and in. isted upon it, and sometimes fruit. The rnonotony of the cooking routine in time too palled upon the appetite. It was siulply a matter -of Inathematical calculation to figure the ahead. Ice at five cents gold per pounp, a .nd only a. lilnited s uppl y at that, was too costly an article to be supplied by the boarding-house keeper at every meal. It is true, the latter had his or h e r troubles, and these were not al" ays gi\ en proper considern.tioll. E, ery American housewife on the IsthlDus knows the servant-girl probleln in the States_is not a marker to what it is here. These and kindred drawbacks, together with the "quiet" life created in the employes a longing for a return to the "flesh pot of Egypt", and durin (j the fir t ) car of the canal in A111erican b nds, about every boat that brouaht a batc h f llC\V eIDlloye took an tbor load ba k E. peci lly was thi .'0' hen the fe tive stegoulyia began to get bu, J. uri)) the year 1 04, there weI' illl al'atiy Iy' f.-w ea' of yellow {ever; not 11 ugh t Cc u e ale rm. Th 1'e a, m 11 out r ak ill C m x f that y (r luriJl,' ,,-hi h :1\Ir, J !tn. g 1', wif tl hi f noill r,' I riynt ry f llvi I (feelin f gI III Y l' In ri an w r but f, a Iditi 11't! 11 unlu au (1. 11 I ril anel 1 ,., and n III that) c1' th nditi n

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I'/l/chack .' 291 --==-.----a l n llg the ... 111 ri (11 nlpl 'C had all tIl j( o f i1 panic. 11 f th prill i[ ,1 ur of infp -ti Il dU1'inO' th e t p Ti 1 ", th ltnlni tra ion uildincl' ill , and afterward reduced again to I 20 ,,,here it .:tunds at pre eHt. Old Commission for Sea-Level Canal. The engineering committee of the ,Valker on11ni sion consisting of ::\1 es rs. Burr and Parsons vi ited the Isthmu,

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292 Pilnt and Guide. La Mejor para l os EMP E I J..:ES D e venta en l a FARMACIA CENTRAL, Avenida Central No. 130. en rly in 1 g05. l n(ler a rrsolution of the Commissioll Maj. G ell. Davis, then Governor of tho Callal Z one, was made a n18mber of the committee during its s t ay on the Isthmus. After holding sessions alnlost daily for several weeks, the C01TIIYlittre met and presented a report in favor of a sea-level callal which is summed up in the following:-RESOLVED, That this committeo approvo and recommend for adoption by the Commission a plan for a sea-level canal with a bottom width of 150 feet, and a minimum depth of water of 35 feet, and with twin tidal locks at Mirafiores,whose usable dimensions hall be 1,000 feet long and 100 feet wide at a total estimated cost of $230,500,000. Such estimate includes an allowance for administration, engineering, sanitation, and COl1 -tingencie amounting to $38,450,000, but without allow nee for interest during construction, expense of Zone Government, or collatera.l costs, a.nd wateI supply, sewers, 01' paving of Panama or Colon, which last items are to he repaid by the inhabitants of those cities. To facilitate the cOlnmiitee's conclusions, an estimate on three type of canal was submitted by Chief Engi n (lflr \Vallace, one being for a canal with a summit leve l at 60 feet elevation to cost $17 ,013,406; another with U 111-mit level at 30 feet elevation to co t 1 13 4-0 and the third, the sea level type to co t 2H :,,00 000. J1Jach of the above estimates in luded probable o. t f Oll truc ting a br akwat r at olon figure 1 at ,5 0 00 The c mmittee ,t f rth that a (-lev I anal would furni h ( ,va rway with 11 r triction to na igc tiOll and hich could ily be nlar d by "iden ing and d p nin (1 at any till) in th futur t Inn10dat an in r a ed traf-fic with ut any ill n \111 n t th hipping u 111

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293 whereas a 1 canal w uId he a pennan nt r tricti n to the volunle f traffi and iz of hip that u e it. The ad ditional cost of a sea-l Y 1 canal over that of a canal with 10 ks with a summit I y 1 f GO feet above m an tid w 02,462 000, or n 7. 7 0 l110re than the estimated co t of a lock canal with a ullllnit level ) 5 feet above mean tide, proposed by the f rIPer Istlll11ian Canal Commi sion. Referring to the proposed dam at Gatun, the om mittee reported that, "Tho surveys and examinations which \ have been made in regard to a possible dam site across the Chagres River at Gatun show that such a structure is not feasible. The" idth of the floor of the valley at that point is about 5,000 feet, and two borings made at what appears to be the most favorable section penetrated to a depth of 172.7 feet and 139.2 feet belo-w sea-Iovel, respectively, without finding bed rock. Other examinations and borings have also been made at other sections of the Chagres valley where a dam site seemed between Gatun and Bohio, but with equally unfavorable result. It is elear, therefore, that it is not feasible to construct a dam across the Cha.gres River at any point lower down in its course than at Bohio." "The borings along the sites proposed for the dam across the Chagres near Bohio hase shown that bed rock is deeper than has been supposed at all the sites con templated. The greatest depth to rock, both at the French site and on that tentatively proposed by the fornler Isthmian Canal COlnmission, is about 168 feet below sea level. . . These results indica.te greatly increased difficulties in the construction of any dam in the vicinity of Bohio." HOW ABOUT IT TODAV? '. The Panama market is now abundantly supplied with fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, string beef, almejas, old women, naked children, John Chinamen, bad odors and hungry dogs. The Colombian Eagle rejOICeS outside. -Panama Star & Hera.ld in 1875.

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:Trains haulri19 the excavations fi.om J Culebra Cut-::Panama) $s(lmlian...:Amerit:DII .. w.s M .::1fdvutllin. .J6/JI"I""u .;If .ft:Mkowski : .. .t ...... -.... c-;. ::::: "" ;::: .... ........

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II OJ/ Ifill th e B t it 295 ----Importer? and Wf;o[esa[e and CJ?..dail CfJea[er in Groceries. Commis sion 8r!erchant. Exporter of Produds. Agent f r the Cuban and Pan American Expres' Companj. P. D. Box. No 71. Opposite Market, Colon, R. P. Ancon Hill the Best Site. 'Vhile Cd) the IstllllluS cOlnmittee also cOll,'ider ld the lllatter of quurter ... for Emplo, -0,' find ac1opte(l are, olation Huthorizill()' the 'ihiet EllgillE'er to proceed ith the work at once. A r \\'as also p'l c eel c1eclnring that Allcon Hill Hnd adjacent territory afforded tho best site for erecting permallent quart rs for tho Commis iou Zone officer, () llc1 certai n cIa .'(:'. of en1 pI o)'es together with office and 110 pitals, al1cl that tho o1111nissiol1 b e r e C OllllUCllded to despatch n lancbcapo archi tect to th e J thrrrllS to clcvi 0 a plan for artisticnl1,Y developing thi site. Thi resolution "-a the fir.::-t step to\rard building the ... -\UCOll of tocla -.. ..:1.t that time ther8 lwillot beena build-c ing put up at this poillt, ouL ide of tho }\llCOll Hospital ground alld corral 'nrcl. '1'he Hotel rriyoli 11ac1 n o t b ee n drean1ed of the Ilfl'" 7;ono uc\mini .. tratiye buildil1g lwd not been planned, and the it e no,\, dotted ,,,ith cottages and apflrtment houses ,\,H' thell olllya pa ture. Goat bro\yscd cOLltentec1lv on Gobbler s Kno b and ';EI 1."1jyoli." oj Old Commission Disbanded. I t becalne HI parollt/ say s Secretary Taft In h i annual report for 1903, th e ,ix month: s ucc ee din g the appointinent of the first COlumissioll that the b o d y of seven n1en as organized was not an effective fOlce for doing

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296 Pilot an(l Guide. the "ork required in the cons ruction of the callal. The Inembers of the OOJnnlission themsel es agreed that as constituted, good results could not be eXI ected fr01n it. X .OU (President Rooseyelt) had sublnitted to Congrc s during the winter of 1904-5 a recolllmendation for an an1Cnchnent to the la\v by which you should be given a free hand in the number of agents to be selected by you for the, orle "hich the act of Congress 11lacle it mandatory upon you to per fonn, and infonned Congress that luethod of construc tion by a COIDrn i s 'lon of scyen was chunsy and. jneffcctive. The House of Repre entatiyes the reque ted power in a bill which it ent to the Sellate. There the hill luet detennined oppo .. itioll, and in the short scssjon it 'was en tirely possible for its enen1ies to defeat it. It bcccune yerj apparent that radical actioll was necessary if better work to be secured. By your direction, in ]\lar h, 1905 1 requested the resignation of th then canal C0U11Uissiollers which were at once tendere
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=-===== 297 charge of th n cYineerin 0" all 1 con. tru tion work on the thmu ' hile rn r :\ agoon ,,,11 u cde 1 ( n. aVl luned c lltrol th Z n etd lnini tra ti ve fun ti n an th e nitation ,, -rk ,,-ith 01. OfO'a. in dire t harg of the latter. )11'. h Jl drafted into l'v-ice to a .. ist him in the r organization f t.he ,Va hingtoll office 0 1. Edward" fOrIll rly hi f of tho Bureau of In. ular ff( ir. David "\ Ro eneral Purcha ing gent at e salar.) of 10 000 I er annUlil and E. Ben on as .... at the arne ala.ry. Wallace Quits the Canal. The 1'e ignatioll of hiof Engineer ,Vall ace caIne like a clap of thunder out of a clear sky. It was relllote t from the thought of anyone in allY ,ray conne ted with the undertaking frolll the Presiden t clown. \Vhile it was genorally kHown that he was cii sati .. fied 'jth the ,yorking methods of the fir t OOlnmis.'ion the reorganization by which he was delegated alnlo t plenary power.' in the field of construction and engineering tended to the belief that he ,,-ould put his shoulder to t he wheel ,,,itll renewed vigor. H e had been Ulllnlonec1 to the ita te hortly before this to di cuss plans for the future and had been back on the I thmu but six days, "hen on June :2 \ he forwarded a cablegrall1 to Secretary Taft an noullcillg his de ire to leave the er-vice. I ,,'as greatly taken aback,' the Secretary of VaI', for I heard indirectl fron1 reliable source that he had received an ffer of a lunch higher alary and that he "'U c1etenllined to accept the offer and give up this job. 11r. ,Vallace caIne north and at an appointed interview tated to Inc that he had received an offer of G.-,000 and had accepted it, that he was anxious to H S1. tIne and the Dlenlber of the Comilli sion, as far as po. ible, I "'ith his a lvice, and would be glad t continue as a member of the Comrnissioll but that he could not and I ,--------

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I 29B Pilo t alld Gll i de. FOREMOST PHf{RIJkCY IN T}IE REPUBLI of -y: & Co .. -Aven.ue :S., COI:"n.er of E.ighth Street, Pa..n.a..rn.a... ----....----WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. garBfully and Promptly gompouna@d by graduate Pharmacists.-<-S OR S: P 'or. Axe. B. (\: t a11ama i :ant n na Pla7.ft. D .. T1' d i (nlle H e al. -Post Orfice Box: No, 71. Telephone No 44 would not go back to th e I thmu 3 at all. I gaye )11'. ;V allnce a full opportuuit to tate all thfl r a on thnt a tuated him in ,\ ithdrawing: but thi i the only l1e h 111 ntioned. It i quit probable tbat tb' ql1 ,tiol) f 11(\( lth ent r 1 n idel'ably int l\fr. \\ aIh ',' <1 'i i n. t tb tin1P he r'turll c1 froln the at(' y 11 w f yer had hE' 11 Oll1g a prctt. bri k u i 11 f r Yer, I 111(1) b an 1 th 1 r -p t. for it. ( 1 (d. lTICl1t di 1 ]lot look 1 nI' ienlarl: () (d \ "'1 ilp n tIl r. tLnlll., fl'. \ alia o ntinunll. gUt 1'led (
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lr((ll(l('(' Quits flir {(I/ftl. 299 -----the' (1 \"CI'I1111 lit. :\Jr. I yell. (l'ri 'eel on th .. thU1l1. 11 .lnly :... 7 . 1 J .) nnd immC'cliately ook up he work where hi pre lccc .' l' had I 't ff. Engineering Ope ration s Suspended . After tll' ,i. iL of the C 1nm1., ion to th T tlnnn: in Jnl T and L nrrll. t. InO:> it caIne ('"iel nt that t,ro thincr.' nln.' h 1 11e h fore re o nIts in an ello'in way ould be e_-pcctecl. ne ft the propcl' h u ing of enlpl yc llll 1 th other the inl})l'OYe1l1ent of health onc1i iOll t 1l)iah be 'aid that at thi juncture, the fonner ,,-a the 11l0rCl inlportnnt. a it in l'Clalit lo,ctailed. into the other it heill el-yidel1t that anitary onditions v;oulcl improve iml11 eli, tely 1l1oclern. ,yell yentile t0d quarter were fur-111 ... h d The Olllilli .. ion rc ognizec1 that this prepara tf ry We the fir. t e sential, and ordered a. partial .'u,'pen. ion of C'ngineel'iuo operatio]).. Quito a llulnl e1' of Ine11 "er eut be ck with the inforIllution that c S soon as i 0 "\YH decided to reCOll1111ence worly on a large scale they would be notified. It \Va. at thi tilne that plan were lna]e for a larae llu1l1ber of quarter anc1 the ,York ill this depar n1ent increa ed (lpac(l, while Col. 10rga and his uad: continued their dnily battles ,yith the little 1e-lllO 11. f the air. To Decide Type of Canal. On June 190.5 th P resic1eut 1 y Executire orclel' (. ppoi ntecl the f 1l0Wlllg 1 oard of cOllsulting engineers for the pH rpo e f reporting on the type of canal to be ac1optec1: Gen. G-eorge \\. Davi. OhairnlUl1, Alfred T oble one of the constructing engineers of the. 00 canal, \\ iIlianl Barclay P arsons, eng i neer of the New ork under ... grouncl s .. t 'VjIliuln H. Burr, profc or of en crinecri llg in ol"tllnbia college; :tell. Henry L. Ahbott army en -

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300 Pilot and Guide. gineer, whose obseryations on the topography and charac teristics of the canal territory, now in book fonn, valuable; :Frederic p, SteD.1'IlS hydraulic engineer of Roston; Joseph Ripley, at olle tillle chief engineer of the 800 Callal, and afterwards employed by the Isthmian Canal Com mission as lock expert; Herman Schussler, Isham Randolph of Chicago Drainage canal fame; 'tV. Henry HUlller, chief engineer of the l\lallchester ship canal, the British Govenllnent; Eugen Tincauzer, chief engineer of the canal at Riel, representing the Gernlan Govennnent; Adolphe Guerard, civil engineer, representing the ]'rench Government; Edouanl Quellennec, consulting engineer of the Suez Canal, and J. W. 'Velcker, engineer and constructor of the North Sea canal, representing the Holland Govern ment. The Board failed to reach an unanimous agreement, and on January 10, 1906 presented two reports, the first a majority report, signed hy eight 111elnbers, of whom five were the representatives of foreign governments, favoring a ea-Ievel and the second, or Ininority report signed by five melnbers, all Alnericans, in favor of a lock canal at an elevation of 5 feet. The Isthn1ian Oanal COlnluission, to ",hOl11 these report were submitted for consideration made a report to the ecretal'Y of War on February ;', 1 0', one ]uember di enting in favor of the 10 k canal recolnmended by the Iniu rity reIort of the d Y1 ry Board. The dis lltin melnbel' ivil Ellgineer Endicott ublnitted a Ininority report in fav r of the ea.-level Ilall. Accoml allying the i )Jl' rep 1't We a tat .111ent fronl Ohi f llgil1 l' '!tev 11 r c 111111 llding the (. d ptiOll 0 the I k-anal plan. Congress Decides for a Loc Canal. Til l' port: w l' be f l' .J llgr fr III F 1 runr r 1, until 11 < r th la t f Ij n1'l1111 llt u Jun 0, I

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1uJla7. 301 1906. On June 21, the Senate by a vote of 36 ayes to 31 noes passed the act decreeing the construction of a lock canal of the general type proposed by the minority of the Advisory Board. The House of Representatives concurred, without division, on June 27, and on June 29, 1906, the act becalne a law through the approval of the President. While the passage of the act set at rest the uncertainties that to orne extent had existed hitherto, and enabled the engineering forces to proceed on a definite basis, it is doubtful that lnuch headway could ha ye be e n made up to this tilne, outside of Oulebra cut, for lack of preparedness in other directions. By the middle of 1 06 the clouds surrounding the sallitary horizon had. ,,,ell nigh disappeared, and considerable advancement had been made toward furnishing qu:ui,ers for employes, both gold and :il ver. U nuer Stevens the rather chaotic state of affairs that marked the end of the first OOIDlnission had been re duced to a well-defined systenl, and thing had begun to

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:Bus 06ispo Cut. Canal Zone. flonama .!M'IomItIN .:IIm
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('OJ/llf(,S,' 1 cci( 7cs fo)' LOr'k '(()lnl. 303 \\' l'k 1l111Ch InOre. llloothly. l\[(lt erin l and ,nI plio, were b lillO' hillHllu d with c of pl' ompble, ',' !lot kIIOW!I ill Tho.e n 'i' 011 th' )"lill'ocld al.o i>(g':tll 0 illl-... ( pl'(nc. At dIe timo in 100.) it took all the \y; y fl' 111 three wf\(k to t,,'o 1l10llth, to get a ollsigll1l1ellt tIl I sthJnllS frolll )0101l, which cnu. c d it .'torm of Pl' ot{lst.' I'On1 th'l loc;ll m e r hClllt 'Iho (lelay n F. Steyens cnnw about ,,-jth a. degreo of snddcnllcs ollly rqun lle d 111 th o ca. e of 1\11'. 'Yall ace 1J1'. Sto\Tens' h owcwr r d ic1 not ber.o m e vo U Jl til April 1. 1\l(ln Il \yhile the resigna tion of Chf11nnfl11 Shonts took rffect l\fal'ch -1-, alld tho 1'e lnai Ildpr of tho COlllll! i 'sion OJ} IV1 :l1'c1) 1 G to :1 ,VashillgtOI1 dispntch, 1\Ir. \ BtcYPI1S beCa1118 alann2 d O\'Cl' the pos.'i hi I ity of u'wardi Ilg tl w C ) Jltract of COllstl'llcting the callal to thR Oli, er-Bano s c ombin(ltion all(l wr o te a lpttcr to tho Presiucnt forth thnt tho cnllal organization had hee II pretty ,yell th nt 11101'0 dirt had breu takell Ollt d!lriJlg th e pnst thirty dn,Ys than ,,,as e\,('1' tnkell out b efol'() ill tlH: Silllie tbat h e did n o t caro to share tho work of lmildillg the aHal "ith an,'one, 1101' he harnpercd with mell Irss familial' with the subject than hilllSC'lf. He illtirnat d that if his

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e .9la n a a YV/.// Canal. dIg .6:cul Col George 11'. Goethal$ .Alc!/ Wrn. -E .51 f'ed U.S.cA. dl5.tt. Chief onyr. U.S .?I. .7I5.5t Chic/6nflr Chie f t;ngr .i3:C!nl(C'IV.skl fl.R fl .A,,"s .:AgcncV .:Ancon. Conol Zone Q ::: ,. ...... \J} "'t::::r CD O"'\J} Cj o =::: ro CD --..,.J o.J CD -' Cj 0 O'Cj -0 ...-s ...... --M-. Pot ....., CD -. C"1'" 0'" a CD CD p::;-oo -.::::: o -H-. (!) CD -Cj o 8 o I I CD Pot C"+o leu o -. ....... C <:"io .... .,... .,..,.

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,,1 rmy EngincC1's in the addle. 305 FA 10 RIVERA, Proprietor. CAN.A..L ZONE. ----+ .... The Most Popular Saloon in Empire. CLEAN, COMFORTABLE, COSY. COMPlETE AND SPLENOID ASSORTMENT Of LIQUORS CONSTANTLY IN STOCK. Residents of Empire and Visitors Cordially I nvited To Call. The letter is reported to have been omething of a hock to the Pre . idellt who after deliberation cabled acceptance of his resignation. ,Vith the retirement of the Shonts Commission, the plan of carrying on the work under "'hat Inight be termed civilian direction was abandoned and steps were at once taken toward putting the project in charge of the anny organization. This end was effected by the appointment of a commission consist ing of the follo" ing:-Lieut.-Col. Geo. VV. Goethal U.S.A. ,Chairman and Chief Engineer. 1\1aj. D. D. Gaillaru., D. S. \.., 1\1aj. Wm. L. Sibert, U.S.A., 1\11'. H. H. Rou seau, U.S.N., 1\1r. Jo. C. S. Blackburn, Col. W. C. Gorga U.S. A., Mr. J acksou Smi th, Mr . Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary. Unaer the new itrrangmncllt the positions of ChairnU1l1 and Chief Engineer were combined, and it was re quired that all the COlnmissioners take station pennanelltly on the Isthnlus. Later the work wa.s divided as follows:Col. Goethals to ha\ e general charge; Maj. Gaillard to ha\ e charge of the Department of Excavation and Dredging' lYlaj. Sibert, Department of Locks and Dam Construc tion; l\rfr. Rousseau, Departments of }\IIunicipal Engineering Motive Power and 1Iachinery, and Building-Construction; lVIr. Blackburll, Head of the Department of Civil Admin-

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306 Pilot ancl G Ilide. istration and. Governor of the Canal Zone' Col. ';-orga, Chief Sanitary Officer, Hend of the Departnlellt of Sanitation' 1\lr .. J a kson Smith I\Ialulger of the DepariIneut of Labor, Quarters & Subsistence, and ::'\1r. Joseph Bucklin Bishop, as Secretary of the Commission. anel in charge of The Canal Recore1, the official I. C. C. orgall. nder the Executive order of November 17, 1906 tho judiciar} a nd canal zone government was combin c1 under the llaUle of IJuW and Government ,,,ith 1\11'. Ri hur 1 Reid Roger \ hE'lleral Coun e1. ill charge. The civil goyennnent W3 later tran ferreu to tho TsthnlU and now COlue' under the head of Department of Civil A cltninistration. _A. t th0 ti me Col. Goethal took ch rge there ,ya l1Hl It talk auont mil1tarism. hortly c. fter his arrival, a l' ('option ,ras given hin1 at tho Uorozal Hotel. On thi. Ilhj ct h8 [lid, : I ,yilL say that I e::-q_ e v t to be th Cl irf of th cl i visio II of engi IlOC1": ,,,hile the head of the Y<11'i u d -1 arttllcnt:.1r o oing to be colo11els, the fOrelllE?ll arc II 0' to be tho 'aptai IlS. a Ild the men \"ho do the tl or nrc ()'oillg to be the 1 riYc1tG. There "\Yill be no 11)01'0 lnilittl 1'i:."\111 ill the futuro than th ere has heen in tho pH t. J anl J) lOllO'er ,1, onlllHuH.ler 111 the -nit cl tate nny. I oj ]lOW )1} ider ::un C011lman linO' the r. 1'111Y of Panam ,and tba th 11('ln r \r aro (r i110 t ('ofubat i--the ul bra 'nt, :lnd tll luck mHl dnln at hoth l1tl f tll"\ 1. Y '1' T 1n:111 h('l" \\'ho do hi. duty will 11 Y r har an 'aU..:e to c 111pIaill 11 a" nllt )f luilital'i lll.' The Canal ROllte -Plans Amended. ( 11 I)' '.l\l)h r ,1 f) 7, t pc -in1 r purt W<1 lna 1 hy 11) hairlll
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Tli 307 ito of old La 0 a and save lllany legal I relimin' rie in c nn ction wit.h the 'erurillg of private land in th u luerg 1 area conternllated by Lake 0 a. brief sketch 0 the canal by e ti 11S and the rork that is being done i giYen here"'ith:-HARBOR OR T TEL.-The harbor han-11 I f the cant 1 at the Atlantic end begin at a. point in I.1imoll Bay about half a lllile outside of a, ] i ne ell' wn aero froln Ilzanillo Point, to Point Toro. The ,,"idtll f the chanllel s ll10uth ,, ill 1e apI roxilnately ]; 00 feet and the openiug will be protected by converging jettie.'. The chan nel froln this point to the mouth of t.he 1\Iin<1i Ri\ er a of four anu on -half lniles, "ill haye n, bottom width of 800 feet, and 'rill be dredged to a depth of 40 feet. A .:\Iillc1i ,,"here the canal proper I tart. the ground is only a little aboye ea level, but rises until at Gatull 2.6 11liies :\\ya '. the eleyatioll i' 8-feet. is the site of the greatc1alU destined to impound the ,,-ater of the Chagres. 'lhe dalu 'rill be of earth riprapped in the portions most expo ed to wear. The top of the danl is to be 100 feet ,,ide and its erc .. t \rill be 50 fect aboye the normal lake ]c\'el. The ,,-idth of the d:Ull at water leyel will be 37 feet and at sea leyel 2,625 feet. Its total length will be in the neighborhood of 1700 feet, and its height 13: feet. The eros cctiOll of the dalu has been slightly changed frOl11 the original plan, the upstream slope is to 1e 1110re gradual .A.. pillway ,,ill he nonstructed through the dan1 and ,\,ork 011 this ,,-a (lO'un in April 1907. LOCKS.-Gatull j' al 0 the 'ite of a triple fliuht of locks. The orio illal plans called for lock \\ 'ith usable leJlgths of 1 000 feet, and \yidths of 100 fe e t. During 190-. the question ,ya rai ed a.s to whether the \yidth as plalllH'd "would be sufficient for future requirements. It is now propo cel to increa e their "width to 110 or 1_ 0 feet. The President in his me sage to Congress in Decem-

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308 Pilot and Guide. LUIS F. ESTEN OZ. Comerciante en General y Constructor. _'\'VENID A P A E Z No. 53, C O J.jO N R P LUIS F. ESTENOZ. General Merchant and Constructo r N o. A VENUE PAEZ, COLON I ? P bel", 1907, favored locks of the latter width. The gates a.re to be in duplicate and of the nliter type, except that the rolling gate silnilar to that now in use on the Ohio River will be substituted for the duplicate set at the 1 0\\ e1" end of each sUlnmit-Ie,el lock. In addition there will be pro vided an auxiliary pair of gates at the lo\\'er end of each flight for use as coffer dams in case it may be neeessary to punlp out the locks, and it has been determined tentatiyely to adopt a wing-bridge type of dalll for emergency u e. G TUN LOOK 'iITE.-There has been a ol1sid-er bie clivi ion of opinion \ ith reference to the uitability the (}atun lock site. Former Chi f Engineer Valla e wellt on record as opposed to dam and locks at this p iut 011 account of ",he t h e clailued to be la 1 of proper foundati Il. To actually devel p the charact r f the f undati n on whi 'h the locks are to rest fivo te t pits each six f t hy eight WCl' unk arly ill 1907 to the del th f the 10 'k wall at atuu an 118 at th ntuIl I,-1l1l'1 ill-\' [t Y 0 Jl ill) i l' n 1 pIt ion 1)) g i 11 ) e 1'S 1 f l' d L I 1 r d -}I'iJ I. I It ( I'll.' all 1 J hl1 I. 'r nUl.ll 111;.u10 a. ] r nal 'xcunillati II f lllat rial tnl'l1 tIl l' f1' 111 (nel nIl I r dn e f I a y 2 1. 7, l' P l't d a f II w ,:-VV b g t l' '01'(1 that w(' fund that 11 'th th \ dim l)l j n, )lOW pl' P ,'J 1 will l' 111 n r 'k "juna' l' that It ull flu'niHh 'af ul ta ] fOUlldati n.

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The {(J/al ROIl{c--Pl (JIS lm em7 d. ince thL t ti 111 car ful boring ba,' been conti nu c1 over th entire drea in order to secure a contour d plat of the l' k 111'fn e "With a viow to the 1no,' rcon 111ic{ I adjn, tmE.nt of tl e lock to the site. Soft and tones of a dn ty gr enish-gl ay 0101', derived from igneous rocks ,yith a calcar QUS and clay Y CClnellt, are tho B10st abundant rocks of the Gatun formation. The rocks nre all w e ll COll,01ic1at c1 though in a few rar \ case.' n ncly Ifty(')'s are found which crumble on exposure t.o the ftir. These arc th beds that ha,e been referre(l to frequently a "indurated c1ays." The tann is a one :';111C8 truo ch-ys luake up but rl Slllall part of the formation. The beds are all ,; rock", though in SOln8 instances soft enough to be loosened with n pick. It is evident thn,t at ono tillle this section was entirely under water, as seFt. shelh; have been pieke.d up 011 top of sOlDe of the hill.s. Recently a :.;teanl hovel clipper dug up at Gatun an ancient bomb at a depth of fourteen fe.et below the surface of the ground. How it came there is luystery. An extensive erecting plant, eable ways, etc. will be installed at this point, for tho carrying and COIn ers10n of material required for use in the locks and danl. GATUN LAKE.-As soon [\S the portions of the daln ahutting Spillway Hill are high enough to stand 50 to 55 feet of water in tho lake, it is proposed to build across tho channel through Spillway Hill, a concrete daln high enough to hold the lake at the aforementioned level. During the dry seHRon following, the dam across the channel t.hrough Spillway Hill will be brought to itR full height, and a permanent spillway constructed, including the necessary regulating works by llleans of which the surplus "ater of the lake will be passed down to the sea. It is probable the lake will not be allowed to fill to the height of 50 to 55 feet until the upper end of the Gatun locks has been erected, a nel the upper gates built. The area of the lake will be 164.23 square Dllles. It:.; eubical capacity is not yet The lake will extend all the

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310 Pilot and G /(ide. wa) from atun t Obi po, and the to,, 'I}" of Lion Hill, Frij les Tabernilla an Pablo GorgolHl. and hill will hn Oil l:,J::Uld IlLin,J .'urroullcl II 11 water. B -b\ een Gatun and Bas th Ohagres RiYer the enter lille of the ca ned no less thfl11 23 time . O'TER THE DIVIDE.-The Chngre will (lnter thv lake near Bas Obispo and at this point thu canal begin to cro 's th(l divide by ,ray of Qnlebra Cllt. ancl th(ll)ce t Pedro -:\li gnel near where the 10\\ le,el i again reached il, distance of about ten lnile During the past year the work excavation in the Cut ha be n progr L ati fa torily. The ... 1907 excanttioll fl'()ll th anal pri III lllade all excellent showing as to all forth the fol lowing congratulatory cable fr0111 the Pre' idellt:-Goethals, Culebra. Oy t r Ba -X. 'Y" Sept. 5, 19Ui'. I heartily congratulate yon and all th men on the canal for extraordinary howing you lUlye mad during the mouth of Aug u t. .A this is the height of the rainy ea: 'on I had n t for a monlent suppo ell you would be .abl to keep up your aJread big record of work done and I am urpri' d a. I am pI a ed that. ou hould hay ul'pa .. d it. 'l'uEOD RE R() The r cor 1 for th 111011th f II U t \Y:l 4.:' cuI ic yar 1. tho highest up to that tillle th c. Ilnl ha, been in 111flri an han and this n 1'a i nfnIl of 11. inches during th III nth. the rk f c.' ava i 11 PI' tIl ut ing. of th .All bra T iyi. i n. th of drt inn\. 1 111 111 r nd Inor imp rt nt. north 11 1 f th LuI lH' H I)i i.-i Il wh r 1h 'he gr }'() .. th lin f h can t L thr 1 \'t. ti n of tll w, t l' urfn of th 'i\" r {. t 1 all w wat r j _( b u lIn ..t, t nc1 dllrincr th rainy (' on un 1 r nornJ( 1 n liti 11' :1.1 nut pIn. + pIll' ,")(

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--00 __ -__ 0 ______________ __ dI Canal9Jredge. $>anama &.JP..R.$/.K_ .:Ag.neJlo( .:Adlur/{.slng ""

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,---""""----------312 Pilot an(l Guide. M. S. P. Co.102S2S2-S 25?52501 QLh.c :lnnal mail '-' rJ Head Office, 18 Moorgate Street, London, E, C. gj TOURS TO P..LL PARTS OF THE WORLD. To the "est.1ndi e Y"ork, Europe, Brazil, rugnay. Arg ntiua, Cnba I Q. Mexico, Central AllWric:1, ... pain Portugal. Franc EO"ypt, the:M diter- Tunean, ilu:;tralia, Ch illn ana Japan. (J) (J) FORT.l..TIGHTLY SAILINGS from COLON TO SAVANILTJ ,LA UA. y -:0 RA, TnINTDA 0, BARBADO ,CHERBO RG A 'OUTHAMP1'O_. 0 0: CO::SNECTIOX at BARBADOS FOR TRY. WE",T INDIA ISLANDS AND ? 01 Ul DE.IERARA. (lJ rt.l FOUT.tJI(}HTLY A.ILINGS from CuLON io JAM l O A and .J.:-;-EW YORK. lSI rn (j I For fnll information apply at tl COnlP ANY'S OFFICE, Co-lon, or to ISAAC BRANDON e .>ROS., Agel}ts at Panama. K! M. S. P. but during the great flood of Deccluber, 1906, the rat r surface th 1'e reached a height of plus 79.9. "1 t i therefore evident," states the report of he Oonllnl si n for 1 "that when the canal is apJ roaching completion, a barri r or dalu must be placed at the northern elld of tIl Oul bra near the river, to keep ont the "raters of the hagres, and that the larger part of the drainage the can a l Inn t be carried t the outh, whel e toward the Pacific, the lanel I pe more ral i Hy. It rill how yer be 11 ce ary t in, tall centrifugal pUll1pS in ordrr to elil p ) f the We t r whi h will OlD d wn int the ut au I :111-not b e onv"i n] ntly arri I off by natural lrainucr to th sout} t i .. v ry im10rtant t dtv t 111 the ( na1 r -11. tl'U -Lion 1 nrl a Ii < f r 011 111 T in lnaint-nan ft r th en( 1 h, b 11 on11 1 to 1. nIl p ibl "atrr \,hi h wOltlc1 Cf tint i fr In the a Ija nt w( r h 1. It i: th r for pr I 1 (lurincr tIl ne," 1 nl r r t r 1 air an 1 put ill P l', t1 11 tIl 1<1 11 r Il h div r .. ion 1 ann 1 r

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Tlt 313 t n ling roln ui hn 'ill elnpt r ing jnt th gr.. Oil tho w t, icl th al) al b 1 r all 1 Oc Ul''' r I arty rk 1 (tinrr (. cliver i o n h e Hn I l' th iy r (11 I hr. tr n the a t id e of the 'anal hi h will 4rt nc1 ro1n nI l)l';l nnd ,yill rUll ( pI r xilnately I arall 1 to the anal, di. char inb its water: into th hagres near Gall) uoa. ) CRA E AT PA lITlC E D.-'1he change s nt the Pacific end are the ll10 t important Iuade since the adoption of the ori ai nal plans. Tho Chainnan s report to the ecretary f "Tar states:-, The adopted pIal} for tho building of the Pananla Canal contelllplated the formation of a lake 011 the Pacifi c ide by the con...,tructioll of throe earth dan1s ( osa-Corozal osa-Juan and Corozal-Diablo), the differences of level betweell the lake and the Pacific being overCOllle b y a flight of two 1 ck s projecting into the Pa ific 011 th west side of osa Hill.' "Tho Board of Con LIlting Engineers that accompanied you to the I. thmus in April last, illspected the ites of the daIns, as finally located, with a vie\v to on lilling a detailed de cription of the preparation of the foundatioll for the structure to be erGcted reporting thereou as follows:-(( Thp boring. howed o-called mud in the wampy portion, having a depth of 8 01' 10 fe t. Thjs material is firmer than we had expected, and at the time of our vi it, about two days after it had beell1iooded by spring could be walkpd on in most places ...... For the dam con truction ..... we do not think it will be llec at'y to remove the soft material at any of these place ( 0 a-Corozal, Juan). The v ry softe t material will eithpl' be di .. plaeetl or con"olidat d by the material dispo ed on it. 'Ve do not think the amount di pIa e 1 beneath the imperviou portion of the embankment will b great, and if compre eel in place the material will be imperviollR.

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314 Pilot and Guide. As regards the character of the lua.terial that should compose the body of the the saIne Board reported:-tt For the Sosa-Corozal and La Boca dams the bottom width of the impervious port.ion should not be less than would result from a top width of 80 to 100 feet at 15 to 20 feet above the water level in the lake, with slopes not steeper than 1 on 4 to 1 on 5. The resulting width at sea level would be 640 feet, or more. The comparatively small cross-section suggested for the impervious portion of each of the Pacific dams is permissible only if it is reinforced by wide and heavy rock embankments on both sides ...... On account of the nature of the bottom on which this rock fill will be deposited for the dams on the Pacific side, it should extend a long distance outside of the impervious portioll in aceordance with the principle adopted for the La Boca dam by the minority of the Board of Consulting Engineer in 1905-1906, of spreading the base on soft bottoms so that the change in weight imposed on the foundations from the toe towards the crown will be gradual This protection at the Sosa Corozal and La Boca dams may be given great width with economy since they will afford conveN.ient dumps for the ulebra material. To construct tho dams in aecordance with these view trestles were built along the toes of the Sosa-Corozal dam frOln which to dUIUP material from the Oulebra cut. The tre, tIes failed after the dUIuping of Inaterial fro1l1 the 111 began and the Inaterial overlying the rock moved laterall y carrying the sup rimposed nla s with it, the dump fl.ntten ing out until the side Rlopes W 1'0 about 1 on 12 and ev 11 les. In places, this lat ral motion ontinued for two w ks after c1urnping ha 1 t pp d The gro 111<1 on ither .. id f and at. om di t llC froin the dump wa f rc d up f rmillO' Inound. of Jund th 1'estR of which grc dually c ppr a h a tho I v 1 f the t p of th dll1l1p prop 1'. ft l' an equilibriutll We tabli:h d b tw n the dn111p ( nd th (djac nt 1110und th hump r av w uld again III ut wh n the h't ck wa shift cl 1. wards it, a compc ni d by a sudden v rti I

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Tile C((llal ROI/ (,,-P/a1l s onw( fl. 315 THE SUMMER HOUSE. In front of the Market, Empire, Canal Zone. C. D. KI"I EA ,Prol riet r . SALOON AND T AILORING ESTABLISHMENT. ttlil);:, of the tra k of six to tOil feet when loaded traill wer, nppli'd. It" as thought that if the tre. tlc wa 1 \\ e1', b tt r re uIts might be obtained but 'with the we.t tre tIe nl) ight feet above the surfac of the
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316 P'ilot and Guide. is excessive, all examination of the canal route from Pedro l\figuel to the Pacific was undertaken to if 11)01'e suitable places for the locks and dams couid be found. In lnaking these examinations care was taken to secure s of the luaterials to be e!lcountered at various depth.', anll cores procured of the rock. A careful study was lnade f all data obtained and four possible projects present thenl selv s for constructing that portion of the canal ox.tendi 11 0-fronl the south end of Oulebra cut to deep water in the Pacific Ocean. First Project.-This is the present project and. con sists of one lock at Pedro .l\tliguel and two nt La Boca wi th dall1s of suitable Inater ial on rock. The sti mates submitted by the Board of Con ulting Engineers are COl'rected to conform to Inethoc1s, quantities and unit pri c. that additional infornla.tion and experience show will giv more nearly the actual cost of the \york, The project 11'0-vides a 500 foot channel from Pedro 2\1 iguel to l\Iiratlorc a 1,000 foot channel through Sosa Lake to La Boc, and a 500 foot challnel from La Boca locks to deel water. Second. Project.-Two locks at Pedro l\ligu 1 all 1 one at lVliraflores, with a f 00 foot ch( nnel throngh th lake from Pedro 11iguel to l\Iiratiore and a -00 hallDel from :IYIirafiores locks to de p water in the (.)cific eau, Third Project.-One lock at P dro l\Iigu] '1111 two at Mirafiores with a 500 foot channel throu ()1<1 a 500 foot hft IInel f1' 111 1\li raft ore loclr to leep w,t )' in th 1 Dcifi cenn In thi ,11<1 r j t o. 2, provi i 11 i llHU] '01'
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III 317 F nith' Projt t.'11e at lr 1\I.iO"Hel one at l\Iiraflore aud olle at.. -a B6 a with 500 fo t ch:1.nncls I between 1 ks an 1 to p \\'( r in the Pacific. 0... ... .? In each case lOCks all(l dl:nn are on rock foundations. Assunlin that i IlYerts a 1'e used, the total cost of the various projer-ts are as follow :-Project No.1. Projet No Project No 3 Project No. 4. '4o .4o,.404o4o ,. ......... ,. ......... ..... $5 305,5-10. 5 ,467,04: 8 "'0 9()-()6 o _I 66,690 61 From the foregoing it i seen that Project No.3, olle lock at Pedro l\figuel [lnd two n t Miraflores is the nlost economi9al. r.t the advantage over the present in 'that the dams of lower height, less length and re!'t.i ng on rock cOlnparatively l1ear the surface can be more :lsiiy constrncted, and completed at an carlier date. It if' to be pn\f(,l'rcd to Project N n. 1 by reason of the fact that tht' loC'aLifl11 of the locks secures them against all possihility of (li.-tant bombardment and affords them greater security against gunboat or torpedo attack. The Commission unanimonsly reC0111lnends the adopti<;>n 0 f Project o. 3 and its sub. titu tion for the existing project. The President appro, eel Project .N o. 3 on Decelnber 20, 1907.-The two new locks at 1\firrtflores will bo built diago nally the Gta nde valley, connceting on the east with the hilL nt l\IirafloT'es and on tho west witli Cocoli Rill h, .. short: dan1 fou ndc'(] on rock. Recent invcstiga. tioils showll thtit thcl'e exi t., a foundation at the new location for thc : lock: and dams r-onteu1platecl. Tho Jocks lir direct!, acros. tho yalley aJlc.1 ahnost eliminate the question of d ams, : the upper t'uc1 of the locks beiJlg so close: to the l\Iira:flores hills gnd the lower end RO close to Cocoli Hill that the can be closed by V(lry short darns fouilded on rock. Under this plan there will be VIr-_______ ________ ___ -"0 o-. r .. .

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318 Pilot and Guide. "V'Then in Colon Corne a.nd See Us. Hop American T Go. D I RECi' IMPORi'ERS OF Chinese and Japanese Silks, Fancy Arti-. eles, Dry Goods, Provisions and Hardware. Corne in and Look over Our Stocl<. Nos. 334, 336 and 338 Fro"t St., COLON, R. P. P. O. Box: 182. Oue block from Cristobal PORt. Office. '"V'\Te Ca.n P1ease YOU. --tuany no Sosa lake, as it provides for only about a mile of lake navigation between Pedro Miguel and MirdJlores From Oocoli Hill to deep water in the Pacific a sea level canal is contemplated 500 feet wide. The locks find dalTIs will lie immediately behind high hills, thus being effectively protected from hostile operations from the bay. The Contract Phase of Canal Work. On January L ... 1907, bids were opened for the 'on tructioll of the Ct. nal by contract. The proposal of the Oliver-)allg' yndi ate was th lowest but on the ground that the '1)(' iticati)} w r not fu11y cOlnpliod with thi and all other bids were r('j ted. The report of the Comlni .. ion for 1 U07 me out fiat-f oted again t letting any f the "ork out by 'ontra t, and advances a number argument "hy the nit d I..: tate. hould continue the undertaking in the am U1H.llJ) r as at pre ent. "\Vhen 01. G ethal first to k harge of th work he "a l' -I.

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-----------------------------, 319 que ted by the Pro i lent to make a report relative to COlltract work after he had been on the I. thruu a suffi cient time to form an opinion. The report ays in part:-, The Panama canal presents a piece of w rk unpre cedented in magnitude which must be done under condi tions entirely different fr m similar classes of work in the nited tates. The work naturally divjde itself into drerlging dry excavation, the con truction of the locI and dams. and the constrnction of the new Panama Railroad. There i. no contractor, or syndicate of contractors that by any combination could brIng t.o thp-I thmu an organization ready for team work on any of these units. From the nited States the upply of labor is the sa me whether the work be clone by contract 01' by the Government, and the character of the labor must be the arne. So long as "Work is plentiful the dread of the tropics will deter men from seeking work here in preference and this equally ap plicable to the contractor and the 10yernment. .A n ade quate supply of labor fro111 the 1 nited States is llOt possi ble. The records here show that no con1:ractor can even attempt to recruit labor in the 'Vest Indies, and that great opposition will develop to an) recruiting by authorized agents of the Oommi ion if the labor procured is turned over to the contract ors. These island goyernments cannot be blamed for their hostility toward the latter, because of their experience under the French which left an indelible impression throughout the islands. 'Oondition on the I thmus are peculiar. It icon-tendec1 apparently on reasonable grounds that ervice in tlla t1'0pics sap the energy and that a man is incapable after a time, of perfonning the arne amount of work tha t he wonld be able to accoll1plish had he spent the same period in a l' Thi s creates a desire to ac cumulate sufficient means to avoid the nece sity of relati,ely hard0r work on the return 1 0 the United States and it is a question tuat the would be obliged to face, a 11 the Tnited tates. The wage scale on the

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,'':0/; .j:,.','d l odr:"f a trait. fcars;1 Cu/cbra CI.JI.-$)O/;omo $. rhr.tlq",:If,,,."It:.;n" :Pj'; J,"I /i:',r( d :Jfd"l'r l.sl/;!! .JJ,.Jr,oau :A ,JJ/Cllk . mJk, -------------------------w r\) o --. :

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Tit 321 thmu 1 r racti loll r ad pted [1.1) 1 a ontractor would he obliged to luaintain it.' -The excayation of the ulel n d i \ i ,ion he e Iready bc en undertal""en by hired lahor; practically all of tho plant requir e 1 for thi ,York ha: b }Cll ",ccurec1 and 1 ai d for' R COlullct e and thoroughly efficiellt organization for the anle has Leen built up, anl1 the GOyernnl nt i not haluper d in an r n T in I rocuriug tho llece:sary l abor for filling vacancie s thl. t arise. The 1 0 \ enllllent hns OIl han I, or und er contract, all the dredge. that \\'ill Le nee d d for excavating uch part' of the callal 1)1'1 '111 a can be Inost economi r 'ally Vl' I'fortned hy tlli. cia:" of luachineI'Y' The success of lock con truction depends largely upon the quality of Cell1ent used; and there is no C]uesLioll but that the Governmen t should furni h all the C C luellt. J.. TO contracto r, or association of pos s esses the uece sary plant for handlin g th e enonuous qnHlltitic of concrete require d for tbe"e structure Sub to the cOll.'tructio n of the locks the outractor conld hay no further use for the rnachin ery in taIled even if the p(lynlent f freight for its retuI'n to the tate ,YHS The gates and oper ating lnachin ery it. i bclieycd, 11 best b e con tructed by contract at the prop er tilne.' account has been taken of the qnestion of sani tation, one ,ery important to the snccc'ssful prosecution and completion of th work on the canal. Proper sanita tion can be lllalntaiuec1 11101' ea ily and satisfactori l y with the GovenHn ent in suprellle control of the work, than 'with the contractor. The relatiye adyantHgc of the cont ract y .tem vel' us hir e<1 l abor under GOYl'rlllllent snper,1S1011 are vel': differ e nt to-day from what they were two years ago. To OIle fauliliar 'with conditioJls on the Ithmus there can h e no doubt at this hlO'e of the ,,-ork a to the ad visability of continuillg it with hired labor." l It is estimated that per celit. of the entire plant If need ed for the construction of the canal hu. been purchased or contracted for :\Iac.biue shops have been erected \ '-----_._----

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322 Pilot Guide. AMERICAN FRONT OF THE P. R. R. STA TION. c. z. FIRST CLASS Bi-\R and DINING SALOON. Billia.rd R..oor.n. in Con.ne:c:tion, Best Place of Its Kind in Culebra To Spend Your leisure Hours, McFARLANE [( Proprietors. and equipped for luaking all needed repairs to machinery now on hand or still required for the ,york. 0 far. ther foro a the plant, its care and repair aro concerned the Government is better equipped to carryon the "ork a advantageou ly and economically a any contract.or. l\Iany thou. and of employes have been seCllr d and an effe tive ,vorking orgauization has been p rfcctec1. The cmpl ye are well sheltered and in cneral ,ell-fed' thn alaries paid are ati fact ry and the ,york i 1 r gre ina 111 othlv. hallge froin these f orable conditi n ill th Hl th d of I ro e uting the r rk w uld di org' nize all xi tina c nditions Ild would uncl ubt dly increa e the tilnat U st and tinle ll1pl ting th nal. The c 11 In i n that the w rl c. n be done b tter, heap l' and 1110re quickly by the 1 VGrtl1nent ha n re( h 1 Illy aft r free (nd full i 'ell, i 11 by the varinu 111 1111 er f the 1111111 I 11 nd the hirrh r ffi ial 1111e t 1 with th n trllcti n w rk, and (fter ar ful 011 id rati n f 11 f the pr p iti n.

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Recorcl of Excavation to Jan. 1,1908. 323 = Record of Excavation to Jan. 1,1 908. The following table will show an1CJUnt of excavation done since the canal has been i 11 Arnol ican hands; also, amount yet remnining to be excavated, as of January 1, 190 :-Amount excavated under American control: unrc YAhDS In ulebra Division (canal prism) to Jannul'Y 1, I90R....... . Total excavation at all points under American control to Jan. 1, 1908 22,7,)5,291 Total excavation by the French 11 all points and including diversion channel ........................................ ahout 81,548,000 Total estimated excavation required Aprill, 1907 for:111 5-foot It'vel canal: In Canal prism........ ........................... 101,050,000 On lock sites .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ,965,000 For regulating works and diversion chnnnel. . . . . . .. . 2 ,150,000 Dredging in old Channel; Cristobal to Gatun, to open construction channel; and at Panama, to keep channel open to La Boca 3 ,350,000 Total. .. .... ... _. ............. 114,515 ,000 Canal Finances to July 1 1907. EXPENDITURES. Constl11ction of Canal. .... .... ...................... Buildings . 0 o 5 ,862, 384.90 Panama waterworks, sewers and paving........ ...... 1,217,445.52 Colon waterworks, 8ewers and paving ................ 763,302.30 Pa..nama Railroad advances....... .... ... .. .... ..... .. 1,826 ,683.50 Tot.al coBstl'uction and engineering ......... Government of the Canal Zone ............... o . . 0 ... .. $iH), 452,498.82 1 43],151. 71 Buildings. . ..... ............ .)... . ................... Zone high,,'ays ... ............................. Total civil government ........... .. ........... Sanitation and hospital s .. _. .... . . .. . ... ... ...... BllildiJ lgS . . . . . . . ... ......... 4o .. 404o.4o4o.4o. 4o 4o Total eani t ation ... 4o. 4o." 404o4o4o.. ..4o 404o 4o4o4o4o .. 4o4o4o Loans to Panalna Railroad .................. ........ Purchase of I'anama Bailroad stock ..................... PurchaRe of Santa Rosa and Tivoli Hill propertie3 ...... Balance due by laborers for their transportation ..... 388, 101.40 499,023.70 4,79H,ti42.04 750,565.96 J 631,257.34 157,118.24 56,882.96 210,694.4 5 i?,:UR,276.81

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: '!--324 Pilot and Guide. Bills rendered against Panama nailroa 1 oth r8 but nncollected ......... -.......................... '" Collections from individuals :Uld companies remitted to United States Treasurer ,IS miscell ,an. receipts .. Labor fnrnished and material, old to Panama Railroad, the :1' Republic of Panama, Commission employ and oth r allied interests............... ..................... Cash and uncollected bilh; at yariou 110. pi tal ........... . Less-Total miscellaneous ...... .Amount dne individuals ancI cOlllpallies for claims allowed but not llaid 011 this date.. $ Amounts unpaid on pay-rolls. . . .. .. 1 ,431,746,21 June rolls .......... $],290.419.14 Prior monthA...... .. 14', 327.07 Total amount of collection mad and bills rendered and inclucled hl xpenditures which have IH'f'n. or will b deposited in the L. S. Treasury as mi cellaneous re 'eiptA 2 .. 63 Value of French material harg<, d to the work or sold to incli victuals !UHt com panies which has been cred i ted 465 ,98 .52 1 949,699.91 1 950.952 28 2 312.71 6 422.906.41 to purchase price of Canal ...... 64 511. 65 5.43.779.67 ----------------Net miscellaneous ........... Total expenditure. ...... ........ ... Balance available .ruly 1, 1907 .......... Total ............... ..... 964, 126. 'i 4 4 ,2 .-110 .37 .21 $7960 .j ',' ;) In Au u t, 1907, the Ohief Engineer advis d the S cretary of "\Var OIl tru ti n w r]r f l' the fi al y ar ending tune :30 190 \H pr ce::.d i llg fa tel' than c n tern plated, resulting in iner ( c1 ej"p nditur for labor and lllaterinl. He tilnat r1 thai additi J1() fund to the alTIOunt of <. 000,0 0 w uld 1 l' uir d in rd(ll' t Ii: p up th saIne l' n1 I)f \Vorl f l' th 1'rl1Hti nd l' f the period. n u u t .2 >, th Pl' id nt ap})r \ d tIl H'qur t. An appr I ric ti n of 1 { ha 1 11 (::k d f 1 the fi 'cal y ar ndillg ( Ull 1,)

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Labor on tll e C ana l. /lOW ABOUT IT? WIIAT? WilY, IlENG/FO IT'S TIlE GI{E7\TEST BLOOD l1EDICINE fOE RflEUL\7\TISl1 (lND SI\IN DISE7\SES Of TflE (lGE. T 0 be had at gENTRAL PHARMAgy of M. EgPINOgA B., No. 130 gent. Ave. Labor on the Canal. Up to June 30, 1906 Inost of the la ,bor all the canal Was dra \\ 11 fr01u the 'Vest Indian people. The Oommisreport for t.hat year states: "Allother year's expe rience frOlu nearby tropical islands and countries has C011-villced the Oomlnission of the impossibility of doing satis factory work with thmn. Not only do they to be disqualified by lack of a.ctual vitality, but their dis position to labor seelns to be as frail as their bodily strength. Ifew of thelll are steady workers The 111a.jority of them work Just long enough to get money to supply their actual bodi ly necessities, with the result that \\hile the Oornmission is quartering and caring for about 25,000 luon, the daily ef fective is many thousands less. lVf allY of thelu settle in the jnngle, building little shacks, raising enough to keep thelu ali V(l, and \\T orkillg only a day or two occasionally, as they see fit. In this way, by getting away from the 00111-mission's quarters. practical control over them is and it beeonles very difficult for foremen to calculatG on keepi llg their gangs filled." "The experiment with lahorers fro1n northerll Spain has proved very satisfactory. Their efficiency is not only more than double that of the negroes, but thoy stand the climate much better. Thoy hn,ve l1uda:-ia ill about the saIne degree as the whi t e Americans, but not at all to the extent that the negroes have it. Their general conditioll i s about as good as it was at their homes in Sp:1in. The chief engineer is c6nvi need by this experiment that an J' white nlan so-callf'd, under the sanle conditions, '\, ill stan the climate on the Ist1llnus very 1l1uch better than thd e

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326 Pilot and Guide. THERE IS NO E QUAL T O OUR LINE OF" IMPORTED F"RENCH CONFECTIO NERY and BONBONS. Direct Importations of tbe 'ery Highest Grade a n d Select S tock of W ines, Beautiful (!) (l) P. Cana vaggjo (l) (/) Liquors (I) (j) Glassware (:) I (;) J2". 32 Centra[ -!ivenue, (!) (D (!) Tobaccos, D I and (j) (j) (i) PcANcAfMcA, of P. (l) (!) Cigars, Q) Crockery. COMPLETE STOCIe of CHOICE PRESERVES, CANNED GOODS and TABLE DELIC A CIES. fee OUT' Display For Latest {\ ovelties. WE HAVE THE GOODS. 1100Toes, "who :1 r e supposed to he illlU1Ulle from practically ev rythinb but ho as a matter of fact are subject to al-1110 t e\ erything." The D e partn1ent of Lahor, Quarters Subsistence in charge of 1\11". J ack Smith (a member of the Oomlui .. ion) a, l\lanR ,1" attends to the securing of all skilled and nn 'killc] labor an d its as igillneut according to the l1 ell of the ,York. l'uitillg aO'ents ha e en luaintained ( tBarbac 0. 'lncl 1\1-rtinigu and a l' pre entatiye kept at l)al'i' t ] I in on h r ith Eur p an lab r con ]itioll and with Ini Tatioll. n J un '0 1 0 ther \\'01'(' Oil til > (nal wor Y [)O ul' P (n and l' 6:....... '\ t 111 d i a 11.' () II tJ U II .., th r ""\ \ e r 1 7 E ul' I all and 1 t () '""\ t IJldic 1\' ( h 1'0 in r a. in tIl) gall go" )l' 1 1 11 ropean lah l', but n l y a llHt II j Jl l' ( e i u th 1) 0'1'0 !:thor. '1 InaiJltain hi .. f r 'lab r r. (nel al t pl'()vid the I an(ll1)( ill' a 1 ,,,ith a, f l' lab r-1'.' (j, I <) lU' pc 11 ( ncl t Iudi n w l'

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. Labor OJ/, t71 allal. .327 the thnlu during the fi"c, t yetr nlin\l' .Tnll ( ,1, .., nay raO'e of ne( rly 1.-n1en cr 1110 nth. he t tal f r f kill d an 1 ULl. kill d 1 orer" f the I thtni II an( 1 lU1Ui ion and H.1HL1l1n. ailroacl 11 IC ,was 1 anI June ;) ; 1 -it wa.' an 111 rea e of (. bout I .00 111 n. nriner thi period :..0 \\1: l11ell ,yere brought to the I thmu .Y tlole 01111n1S i n froln all part. At the end 0 tober. 1 ( -, the grand total of men employed in all branche the lal'g t or2e eyer Oll the canal I n" roll l11ce the inauguration or tIl ,York in 1 t the pre ent t11ue the force in orne, maller, owiug t c01npl tion of work and rec1u ti 11 0 force ill orne of the d e partments. The Il1missioD s report for In07 tate: "The labor problCln i still an unsolved one bllt the xperimellt' of the past yrar with a diversity of races and nationalitie ha.' improved the effici ncy of the force and promi e to make the tel'lll of ervice longer. Tropica l labor is migratory, ana notwith tg,nding superior wage, hou ing and sub i tence, there will alwa T be large periouical chancres in the i ndiyidual force. A regular recruiting organization chan oed frOln one labor center to another will al'\ya T be nece ary to keep a maXimlllll force ayailable. Feeding the Canal Army. At the close of the fiscal year If) hotel were operated for 'white Americans, the price per meal being ') cents. Thi doe not il1cluoe the Hotel Ti,oli ,yh81'e on account of uperior accomn1odation higher rate preyail. Eighteen n1e s hall are operated for Europeans ,yhere a day s board is furni hed for 40 cent. The steward all I cook. at these rues e are usually Europeans and fooel t theso laborers are [leu tometl is served. There are 23 kitchen... for ,Vest Indian laborers where a clay' s board is supplied for the urn of 30 cents and preparrd h T cook of their own nationality. The ub. istence operation. arc de igneu to be only self-ustaining.

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328 Pilot and Guide. The income froln hotels during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, amounted to $ 492,694.40; expenditures, $ 475,967.54, leaving a net profit after deducting an item of $ 3,755.32 charged to loss accouut, of $ 12,971.54. The \Vashington showed a loss duri1lg the year of $ 820.34, and the Tivol i, a loss of $ 6,667.32 since .J anuary 1, 1907. The income from kitchens aluounted to $ 525,632.74; expenditures, $ 466,247.30, a net profit of $ 59,385.44. The average number of meals served during one month was a.bout 1,000,000. The report of quarters for all classes of employes shows the following: Houses for skilled married employes, 537; houses for skilled bachelor eluployes, 223; houses for unskilled married employes, 329; houses for unskilled bachelor ernployes, 528; hotels, ] 6; 111ess halls, 19; kitchens, 55; luiscellaneous, including offices, club houses, etc., 501, a grand total of 2208. Redemption of the Isthmus. In a sketch en I)analna, a noted encyclopaedia a few years back made the unqualified statmnellt that 'the c1iluate is uch that no white lnan can live there." Every thing hygienically evil about the Isthmus has hitherto been charged again t the climate. Yellow fever Inalaria, a.nd a halfdozen Ie sar ills formerly common to th i thlnian coun try have all be 11 charg d to that a me d i. r putabl (?) limate. \V i of thi clay 11<1 n rati n however have c nl to know better. The anitary howi 1) Innde on th I thm JS inc th nal hft b II in III 1'i an hands ha w 11 Jligh di I roven all l' \ i 11 unni doubt and f ar The hi tory f th r n h llll ani go to. h W th( t in a hygi ni "way th y rIa d 11 T d 11 in the II kll wn ] a .,'"inl that' n 011n f r r Y(lllti 11 j w rth a, pound 'I'll y t k ('c l' tIl i1' i 'k in Inn) ucla I rot nil rafter di. a he d ,' 1'i 1 n th In d WIl but thy Inad \ 11 t th light t previ i n f r pl' \' ntinO' i ku

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Rer7 mptio}l of tli(' J tlill/it 329 =================================-EBSAL BAR . JOSE P A DROS, Proprietor. In front of Panama Railroad Station, Colon, Republic of Panama. ---...... ---DIRE 'T DIP RTEH OF TIlE HIGHEST GRADE. OF WlrJEf', LIQ bS sr AKISH I">RE. ERYES, TOBACCO. IGA.l{S AND 'IG.:\RETTES. a:n.c1. R..e'tai1. ORDERS GIVEN PROMPT ATCJENTION. PRICES CAN'T BE BEAT. At that poriod it Inust be said that the theory relative to the of yellow fever and malaria h:ld not become a 11 accepted fact. The inroads 111ade by yelluw fever in the ranks of the employes taken as the workings of the hand of and accepted philosophically. No attl'lJtion was pflic1 to drail J illg stagna1lt pools fllld low places; no safeguanl waR thro" II about dwell il1g-pl:1ces of employeR in the ,yay of screening; anyone suggesting fUlnigation would h:1. ve bee II laughed to COrll. The adlnillistrativeheflus of canal affairs under American control foresaw that the firRt lllove 011 the hoard ill order to 111Snrr. fo'Ucc('ss must be the cleaning up of the callal strip and tlw cities of Pflnamaand 001011. It therefore behooved th81TI to judgnlent in the selectit1l1 of a man to put at the hpfl.d of this irnportant line of That result()d in the sending to the Isthnlus of TIl:1.1l who has made goon", Col. ,v. C. Gorgas ) who had acquired valuable experiellce ill the Cuban sflnitary cnmpaigll. 'Vhell the forces first lined up Oil the Isthmus jn 1904, it dl(lll't look such a difficult task. Froln to Decelldwr there \\'(\1'0 only a few sporadic cases of yellow fe,er :I lid these were quickly sfttwkhed. It looked a.s if Yellow ,lack was going to capitulate his fortress without oppositioll. But as the ernploycs began Rtl'paming to the Isthrnus furnishing abundance of suitable raw ma terial for voracious nlembers of the anophele and stegomyia tribes, a battle royal was begun. And it ,yas a battle

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330 Pilot and G1lic7e. royal. }j'ronl 1\1 arch to Septelnber 1905, the COIn" Inonest sight on the streets of PanaITIa was S0111e detach ment of the fumigation brigade. city was flllnigated in sect10ns once, then again, yet again, and in the fourth and SllpreIne effort there was a general fUlnigatiol1 o-yer tho entire city at the sallle tinlO. Tons upon tons of paper "eut to up the crevices in the :walls of houses, and some of the creviceR in sonie of the houses would easily hase admitted the historic barn door. The fU111e of sulphur. and p) retheum 'were in constant asccnt to the upper air, while all around a Pelee-like aspect prevailed. Tho e were trying days to the householder. He'd barely reco' ereel' fro1l1 his Jast dose before }TIel1 ,vith ladd ers, and 1'011 of paper ,,,ere again besieging his prClnises. : It wn s a 11 i P and tuck battle for three or four lllonths in 190:--. At (,ne tinlG the outcolnc might he said t have looked dnhiolls, but the leader of the sanitary forces ,ne,er wavered in his belief in his theory, and the conte't went steadily on. At last toward the end of 1905 re nlts beg a n Lo be appa rent. Sources of infection 1c1'e, de troyed, ullcl on T oycnlb r J 1 of that rear occurred the ]a t case f y ellow feyrr in Punan1u. The la t ea e in Colon was l'(l p ortt'c1 011 l\Iay 17 ] 906. Tho D .parbnent of anitati 11 of today ha '(, fic ntly O(lllippe<1 pIc nt, ranlifie 1 into eyery nrt of the Z n The two mnin ho, pitals at neon alld o]on are -fortin d b y lin ho I ita1 at (11 th princip 1 etH 111ell along th ( unnl rout e In additioll at all these point. a di 1 11 ary district phy:ician and (nitary in I ,hon for e i ])1<.1inhUll (1. \\ h 11 tIt writ l' P< 1 r the railr (d arIy in 1 tll ,iullgl reign 'c1 sup1' 111 (. t 11 ady (11 th little ,"Hlon.rut. built np b th 1'1' l1eh. ow 11 \' Illy '\ve ll-ont 1'1(1 iJlner s ,yith th hl'u:h and 0TH nt a,,'a 1'1'0111 (r Hna thrIll-dl' ill( O'e lit'll.. l'ull11inO' in \' }:y 1i-" l'C'ctioJ1. si 1 -,walk to 100-1.11 I 1 r and IJl:an 1101.1' <1 < t fir:tfl )l'(',' a .'tn.,iioll n tll raiil'{)( (1 (bout ix 11111 froln 3 sa: ... ..

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R ed mptiou of tlie ] .... tl/}J/ If. 331 Pan mao During this ye( r th in ane ,,,ere 1'OlnOY \d t. new qUc:l,rter on the nc n Eo pital it. and iho le1> 1'.' ha, e h en c regat d a t Palo \ 0, point 011 the l)ay: we t of oca. ncon Ho I ital po 'e .. e. a tille l equipped laboratory and all other fa'ilitie require d f l' 11 up-t -date h pital. The eonvale cents are nul' ed back to cOl11plet at Taboga i'1anitarium an in tit.ution 11 Tn booa i.' land founded by the French, and afterw rd. relllo(l e l I aIle! Clllargecl by the OOlnmis lOll. There are two .J.. 111ericHn e -meteries one at l\Ionkey Hi}] or HOI on the Atlantic sidA, and the other at the foot of Anco n Hill he tween La Boca &.nd the Anc n Ho, pital hudding '. T11e ick are carried in either direction on the railroad each day in hospital car. Figures are often dry, but occasi011all they are eloquent and speak for themselyes. In (" ctober L \ '4: ,,,hen the .French had 19 :?BJ mfll1 on the I they lost 1 G 1. In ] 905, when the and P. R. R. h ad 10.()\) ,in their elTIploy the y lost but 5:5. death late of the general population of the Canal Z one and the cities of Panama and Oolon in 190'" ,,,as 53.7.) per thou andin J9.10, alld of the 1907 fiscal year a .. t l ady diminution in mortality, as ,yill be el'vec1. The total deaths from all causes alTIOng employes in 1907 ll1.nnbel'E 1 1273, of which 10J were due to ac ident. The en uaIty rate was unusual1y large, due to an increase in the nUlnuer of railroad and bla ting accidellt. The l1Pgro 8lnployo death rate ccnnr ared t the ,,,hite is B to ]. It is apparentefl'Oln thi. that the '.\"1 ito Inan stands the conditions on the I thmus just about three 1.in1es as "ell as the negro a statement that ,yolild has been flatly contradicted a few J ears ago. The negro cl nth rate shows a constant decrease however. The total nunlber of cases of yello'w feyer repOl ted from 1\lay, 190J, to the last case known is 112. ut of thi number, fifty were fatal. Pneull10nia c l aim Inor victims E i

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332 Pilot and Guide. H. E. HY A TTl-Watchmaker and Jeweler, EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE_ Gramophones and Typewriters Repaired. Wedding Rings, Latest Style, A Specialty. YOU CAN'T DO BETTER ANYWHERE. than any other disease. l\lalal'ia, tuberculosis and t,) phoiJ fever follow in the order named. During the 1907 fiscal ) ear, 11,975 persons '\\ ere treateel at Comlni, sion hospitals. In tJune, and agnin ill Augnst, 1905, single of l>Llhollic plngne occurred at La Boca. 'l'here ,vas no spread. In 1 907, a case of yellow fever was taken frOill one of the boats in the harbor. None of the other passeng0rs ex posed hrcarne infected. In August, September and October, 1906, there was not a death alnong the 6,000 American 111en, wOffip.n and children on the a truly renlarkal)le occurrence'. A 110.WCOmer Oll the Isthlllus nowadays "onders at the absence of lnosC}nitoes in Pu,llanUl. and Oolon and the settled portio I1S of the canal strip. The reason is reV0a led ,hen it i st ted th::tt during the fi cal year gallons of Ino, ( Illito oil were sprinkled on the street and low p 1:1 es. Tho rtn:U()lltin8 end of the Departtnent of Sanitation j the atchdorr of the 1. thnJll A rigid in pection i mnc1c of pass0llgC'rs (1,))(1 crews OIl in oUlinO' boats, and in case of those tOll It i Ilg n t i nfc ted port" the pn S n O'ers a1' hr ld in dct lltioll for firC' c1n)". TIl total ya,c inatioI). f r th 1 07 fi. a l y ar l'rpol'tC'd by this n i 1 rSD. TolHI net il11migratinJ} f( r he.' !lr 'YH -18. Tumber of im-lTIi r:lllt: r '.i t 1. 111(\ qU:lrnn ill ,-'tnti n on th l)a-dic ,'1(\ will h 10 (t '<1 hol'tl r 011 the. i 'land f ul brn ill P;111:nnn. cl,' rih 1 )11(r r 11 1'(\111ail1" on tho 'thnnl th h tter inured 11 be(' In, t h ll(litiOll.' 'lhl' j tru' in th In
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R demption I}"' the 333 -===-====-=-pital adlni. jon were 10'" r than any imil r I ri d 'nce nitary operation' ha, b n conduct d ;1 the pr sent cale. -__ e-+--_--THE KING PIN OF THE CANAL. The true ource of the hagro ha novel' been ac-curately determined. It ha, hr)we\ two principal branche' one (the larger) known as the Pequeni, rising in the Cordillera all Bla. which at that point forms the OOlltilH1JJtal Divide, very close to the Atlantic Ooast. The other branch has its n, out twenty (by the river) above Alhajueln at "hich point the French Oanal Company establiRhed a 'gauging station. Between Alhajuela and the Oaribbeall the principal tributarie are the Gatun Ohilibrc. ObiHpo, Gatu' ilcillo and Trinidad, named in order their of joilling the Ohagres. In the dry 'ea on the 'e may be regarded a but duri ug rainy months they become tropical torrents \7ith a yo]ume not to be ignored. -'one of h tributaries have been followed to their with the exception of the Obi po although the Oanal Oon1mis iOIl ha" established gauging stations on the Trinidad and Gatuncillo about eight ll1ile above (i-atun. Fctw rivers show a greater variation in the amouut f discharge at different periods ot the year than the Ohagres. In the' dry sea 011, it is a clear, quietly flowing tream, while during the rainy season it becomes a great rIver subject to sudden and violent freshets and floods. The following table shows the maximum the Inurn and the mean discharges at each of the three pal gauging stations operated by the Isthmian Oommission: mInl-. pnnCl-Canal l

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dI.!JCUJe on the "...:1l_,.(_ 6 :JI..!Bi",/(_Nri w w

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r I -----------------T he Killg P i / of tll 'anal. PURITY IS P OVEN \.Il alla.l i laic ly lund h y th e pnrtmcllt o f iulliiatioll th I tlllni a n 1allal )1111111:-iOIl ha pl'o Y o n th o pu-rit of Paraiso Spring Water, Hns ryen fOUlld it to La 'lAs Good As D stil ed Water." Parajso Springs Carbonating Works, W. N. SEITZt Proprietor, P1 P :\IS C AI\AL lONe. 335 HERE'S TO YOU. Xame-of S tation Y ear;., of 013-I :llaximnm Di. }1i n imum Dis :llean Y arl y I 'er,-ation cltarg in cuLic chl1l'ge in cubic Di charg in _____ 1 feet per ff'pt etoncl cubi" ft. p r see. -----1 Date Dat li?!)0 to dat 9 2,00:) A pI. O It 23Q0 1 to datE' } I 1 9 & 76,000 1 2-3-06240 .apt. 0 1 30.w n n w m o 1t h $ } 1139, -1 e9G. i Boldo ,Jf'}J t o d a t e 1 0 0 0 12-4.06 240 A p t 01 4G03 Th e gauging sta.tion at Gatull was est ablis hed in 1 D07, and ,,-hile discha.rg e s hR,e been measured. there sin c o time, tho ob se ryation have not been carried on for fi sufficient time to permit their use as authoritative. Enough (lata has been secnrrc1 however, fr01U measurelnellts made this year, to enaule us to compute the disch a rge at 135 per cent. of that at Bohio. The following table taken from the revised edition of Geueral A bbofs book { Problellls of the Panalna Oanal" will show the maximum discharge reached in the eight

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--_ '----... --P.ilot and Guide. greatest floods of the Chagres of which thoro IS authentic reconl. (j A..c\i130A _. -.. Discbarge in cubic ft.,, Max. Date I heio'ht p e r sec. __ Per height abo y e MuXl.W Um In 48 hour, cent abo Y tlow ",a I low wa BOHIO terinft. Iter in ft. Noy. 1906 I 22.10 40 UIJ 62 --4"""-6,""""29"""'2-Dec. l!:1IJ6 35.65 76 006 42,377 56 3. G5 10 000 1 93 25.33 430 6 27,971 65 28.54 51 100 1 90 I 31.;2 65371 34,752 54 I 32.15 71,660 18 3Un 5 132 4,,218 83 34.6 79,000 Nov.185 I 64,4 43404 671 33.79 'i4 00 D ec. 1 5 24.11 44,9?3 32,421 72 26.41 47.466 1 /9* t 36.65 7 614 .. 39.37 112 730 38 n8 74371 43.590 51,06 *Note: The height reached during thi flood was recorded only for Bohio; that at Gamboa being calculat d by mean of the relation "hi'h ha been fOLU1Cl to exist behYeen those two station. by equent ou. eryation The above is a clear lllountain strealll, and in the dry seaSON the amount of 111attor car ried in suspension is so small that no observlltions were deemed necessar). However, experinlents were made by the Isthmian Canal COlllnissioll of 1 99-190 1 ill order t c1etennine the alllount of matter carried in sllspen iOll dur ing the rainy season, with the followillg results: At Alh t juela it wa.s found that the Iuatter 111 suspension was .15 of one per cent. of the total volume of the "ater and t Bohio .18 of ne per cent. As the result of a chemical analysi of the water of the Chagres by Arthur I. Kendall, Acting Chief of the Isth1nian Canal Com1nission Laboratory collaboratin with Ricardo Arang Di ision Engineer ill charge f the hydrographic work of the OOlnmi iOll, it wa foulld that at Galnboa there is an average of 22 part f. lid matter carried in su pension to very milli n part of" at r. In the cour e of the Ohagr s river fr ill the 'ie1'1':1 n ]( ': it bed pl', ,nh;; vari <.l g 105 ic f l'1na ti n At it s ur e gr nit is found and 1 i har b n wa h d down. hut littl kno"ll of th xu' hal'a t l' of th untry. Ihnjuela, h r i trati eel li1H t IH .'om timp whit but u u By o-l"lY whi h pa e un 1 r th :rllld. n,)f th 1o" ('1' iver. "Jl' d Wll, betw n Alha-

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l'/" /\./JI!! P,li till ('((I/(fl. 337 jueL <111 ru i tel f. 11 i, i 11 i Il 0-P 1'i 1. while th f lim ( aI', r ou .an1. n 11''' Ilt 1111 r r .... fi nc ri\'rct lalnhn i Inpo c1 hin, ther\ i nil -OTCliJ. d 1 atl1ll a Inoc1er' t 1y '011-r-1Q111 rnt llllc1 l' a 1 1'O"'lli. h il1l1 U1'O cal a1' U .' Iay. th f nn r ontni II i 11,0' fo. i1 of th (lig ne a c. l tw 11 Gatun and Limon Bay, th haOTe. pa e throuo-h a tretch f W3Jllp 1 wlanel reachino almo .. t t th wh r the ri, r cut through a ra I1l.JC of 1 \y hi] I. Meteorological Work o n the Isthmus. Thi work could not be can ic1erecl a .. fairly e tahliJled h tho I hlllian Caual 01TIIUi . i n until 1 1 ,yhen there ,,'ere in operation two fir t rIa. Ineteor 100'i al statio1l -.d ncon and X ao, ancl twelye rainfall 'tatiollS-Cri tobal Gatun Bohio, Tab rnilla Ba bi po: G anlboa Alhajuela Enlpinl Culebra Ri Grande L( Eo c. and Pancuna. Of f-be e, the stations at Aucon, .4 Tao Ori tobal Rio .xrancle an I Bohio were u ing elf-regi tering ill tru-11lent.. Durillg the Tear Brazo Brook Ba Obi po Empire Can1ach: Culehra and La Bo a \rere ullliec1 with elf regi tering in8trulllent. :11)(1 as Obispo ,ras establi Jlccl a ... a fir tela s 111eteoro10gical sUltion. Thi tation is al. 0 equipped with ftl1 up-to-date \Taporation plant where experi lllent are being conducted t a certain the clail Inontbl.r and annual alloun of evaporation. The Taos tation was discontinued J auuary 1 1 08 and consolidated with Ancoll. D uring the }ear 190-Oristobal "as e tabli._hec1 as a first cla, meteorological tation, and the tation at Alhn.juela, Gatun and Bohio equipped with triple registering in trulllents for recording the \\'i11<1 direction and velocit r unshine and rainfall. There are now in operation on the Canal Zone three first cla meteorological tatiolls at which the following obserrations are tHkon: Barometric pres ure, teIl1perature

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---------,,-,--,---,,---,,---338 Pilot and Guide. relative humidity dew point, vapor pressure, wind direction and velocity, sunshine, cloudiness and rainfall, while at Bas Obispo the evaporation experiments above referred to are conducted ; at AUCOll on the Pacific, and Oristobal Oll the Atlantic side of the Isthnlus records of the tides and ocean temperature are taken. Alhajuela, Bohio and Gatun are recording wind direc tion and velocity, and rainfall. Brazos Brook, Tabernilla, San Pablo, Gamboa, Empire, Oamacho, Oulehra, Rio Grande and La Boca are recording only rainfall. The pressure, temperature, relative wind di rection and velocity, sunshine and rain are recorded hourly, thus showing the hour of the day most affected by thes elenlents. Tho l11ean and annual temperature on the Pacific side is slightly higher than that on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus. The mean telnperature for the Oanal Zone i about 80 degrees Fah. The year is divided sharply into byo season dry and rainy the latter lasting from April to December. The heaviest rains usually occur in November. The precipitation is greatest Oll the Atlantic Ooast where the mean annual rainfall is 128.19 in hes at 1'i8tobal, and least on the P' cific side, where it i 4 .43 inches at Nao, A table gi ing a synopsi of th climatologi al data of the 1. thnlus folIo s, as also a statelnent sho" ing th maximuL, minimum and mean rainfall at the t ti 11S of 1rist bal, Gorgon Oulebra and Panama. Th Bureau of IV! teorology and iYe1' H ulic (aft 'ward l' i ed to ivisioll, und r ,,,hi h all hyd1' -graphic nd m t roloO'i al studi. ar tabli.'h JUlie 1 1 0:-, ) form r hi f Engiu r' all fr. RicaI' 1. r ng wh he 1 i a 11e I' during th in ti n t.h ra of Pan, h" teen in cbara inc ptioll.

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.-un et and SUJlJ'i. c Tabl e 339 SUNSET AND SUNRISE TABL E 1908. SUNRI 'E SUNSET. H. 1\1. H. M. Jan. 1 6 16 A. M. 5 52 P. M. 11 6 19 5 57 21 6 21 6 02 31 6 21 6 06 Feb. 10 6 20 6 09 20 6 17 6 10 Mar. 2 6 14 6 11 12 6 08 6 11 22 6 03 6 11 Apr. 1 5 57 6 10 11 5 52 i 6 10 5 6 10 May 1 5 -!4 I 6 10 11 [) -!1 6 11 21 5 -!O 6 13 31 5 39 6 16 .June 10 5 40 6 18 20 5 42 I 6 21 30 5 44 6 23 July 10 5 4:6 6 24 20 5 49 6 24 30 5 51 6 22 Aug. 9 51 6 19 19 5 52 6 15 29 5 52 6 10 Sept. 8 5 50 6 05 18 5 49 5 59 28 5 49 5 53 8 5 48 5 47 18 5 48 5 42 28 5 49 5 39 Nov. 7 5 51 5 36 17 5 54 36 ;) 0-5 58 5 37 -, Dec. 7 6 04 5 40 17 6 09 5 44 0'" -, 6 14 5 49 1909 Jan. 6 6 17 5 55 The above table is in local Panama time and is computed for Lati-

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I 340 Pilot and G1.tidc. Only Short Order House on the Canal Zone. Oysters and Fish, a Specialty. Ice Cream and Candies. LOCATED NEAR THE P AJ.:T A:MA RAILROAD DEPOT AND COX,EN lENT TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC. QuiCk. Service. R.easonable Prices. GANDOLFO & RAFFO, Proprietors. EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE. tude 8 deg., 57 min., and 16 sec. north; longitude 79 deg., 31 min., and 4 sec. west. Colon is in Latitude 9
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. -. I f JYI LVI ... i R A I N FA LL (Y) I AT L N, :r() :rO C & 1 N MA. STATIONS: .1.\"'1 VEWY ]\\.\p(, If Al>lnL M .\ H 'LY I'u EP 0("['. /OY. nEro ( LV .. (s, ) ( ;ri) (;j ) (J I) (;) / -) ( ; > I) .w) (;. (j) ( ;3(j ) ;) 7) (:W) -. .>1 :Lnn 1.;H) -1-. :31 ] .17 l:l 1 1 (). -1-9 I ;>.os 1 2.+;") l:LH.J-21. 1;3 12.0 )!) (): 1-0 f). I 7 21. A;3 4-;>.01 ;W.D4: HW:2 L'. G 1 :)1 1 -,) /-l )DH L 'S:) 1 H f)O L lRDa O. G;3 0 '.0+ 0.-1-;) l.'G:) 9.07 -, :). I ,.-t)-;) .. ),) 0.94 1 lSD7 1 HG.) 1 DO;) IDO:2 1 '() 7 ----(,,) (f)) (-1-) (,) (fj ) ) (:3) (:3) (0) (;") (5) (-1-) :2 ;):2 (1.;;,) O. (j() l;) 0:3 .:2.J-'1 .. G ., -.) -. :) ] ;LS7 I 1. DO l1.io .). ., -, ;L Jl. ;L L,) 1 ;' f).t 1 ,:2 1 D),.' 1 ;-.9 1 '.-t:2 1 ,)-7.Dl oJ. 1 /.-/ 1 1 :-. '!) 1 ( J-] DOO 1 'D7 1900 lsns ]SD1 lSD.J-L' 7 1 ., 1 o OS 0.0 1. ;3l" ;).01 -t.OO ,).1 G S. !)s 11 ,)-. -,) --.) I 1_ i.l0 ;J. D 1 ,' )7 1 S. 7 1 SD,' 1sns 1 ,) 9,') lSDO ISD() IDOU ] D' ]SD7 --( 1 I) (]. 1 .') (] S) ( I ) (1 S) (17) (Ii) (1. (lc ) 1S) (1 ( ) :\f e nll. loS t o.-t ') o ,) 1 ., '" ] 1.40 D .O() 0 HUq 10 . 0 11.U;) 1:2.1i7 7.SG ,) ( ) J. [ax. f ) t .. ) ] L70 1 .J-. ) 1; .70 1.) 1. :21) Ij:; 10 ;).t. )0 ( r p, l') 1!l' l,'DO ]SP G J ,'on lSD7 1 D{i 1 lSf)n 1 ,' ;),,) ]. '. '() 1 'OG ] ) f .) .1in. I d O 0.00 () 1 (U) D.) B:2 ;). :L"i n.:2'! :>./.) n. GB 0.33. (Y ('at') 1 n.-> ';., HIO; 1 '. t ] 1 ,'1 (" 1 IDO() 1 (\. ( lSD9 1900 -----------. -( 1 1 ) (10) ( 1 ()) ( 1 () (10) (It)) ( 1 () ( 1 0 ) ( 1 () ( 11)) ( 10 ) (10) 1.:> 1 () n:j 0.: :! .:W l ') D.OO S (un 7.01 11.0:; 11. :1.09 I :>.li 2 f).71 f) ;);) 1 ;307 t l 1 .). (':2 11.H) 1,1.00 1 n. 1 f) I 1 ( P<) 1 70 1 H7D JH7D 1900 L'Sl lnon 1 '0 ] !l()1 IDOO 1.'7D 1 t 0.00 0.00 (l.() o on -l-. 4 fi () D -1.:)1 .0.) -l.O.') -t. : 3 .... G.-qj o.!), I 1 '. ') 2 IPOO ] c",-_ Ie .DO ln07 1 n 1"0,) 1 ,) ') ( -1 Se ':2 ]000 1. \ 0 l,' iD lO(J ] nOO-1 -----NOT : c in par nth c denote of ah er\'atioI). 1,1-: ;, ,''i JflOll, }!)O:?, lBO.I, ,;, J ; 'j. 1 ,' 07. 1 1!) 0,1901.

PAGE 359

CLIMATOLOG-ICAT...a DATA, CANAL ZONE, 1906. Pressure Maximum T empcratur i.-,i Tlum Mean Temp rafUf" Relltive Humidit y JAN. 'Ii 0:-71 t. t -.. FEB. :':!I.!I H7 (in Sl A !) ) ,---------. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE :m.<'H :2fl.8.; ne H4 DJ U (j, ,71 7-:' 70 1.,' ID.n B!) flO ,.. 10.) It it; ';4 JULY AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEG. MEAN --2D.H-l: :.l().84: :!9.8; : 29. (i 9') -fH 02 93 l)ti HO 91. ;, 71 71 "" I., 71 70 70 70.G i\).x .:.! O. () 79.8 79.1 RO.7 j. 91 Ut! -!H I X7 '9. ;.t Ii II 7.> 7-! ,..-I.' 7-! 71 /J.'I Ii Dew Fc.in Wind--Directioll -\y. J .:". 'V. K. \ .... W J.: .... W .... \V. N. ,,-. ,y. -j 'V. J..'" f. ,,'. d Win Veloc :ty Sunshine--P r C(,l1t ClJudines .. --P('r Ce (j J 12 (jj ,i{l l;,! 10 8 7 I i 4ft G') \ 6 10 !I I Ii 41 :-'"'-., , I 73 ,;3 r "\Ybile 11 t 'm!> uitur ofPilnalllai, :1 d g 1'ahl'.; the warme,.'t 8l.6deg.Fahr.,theaverage I Ullil ating '. T11 uniformity :: )xtreme l':1nge of 1 mperatul'e nowber exc elf) :.1;) of t 1111 'ra t ul' 1)' Y;l ilin C) tIll' tlb'l1out t 11 L thmn i. l: clcgl' s; the thermomet l' I'm-ely falls blow 6 \ d g. II rikincrj: illt ,tl'
PAGE 360

hf'!I() 11(7 tlt > liU!lJ'l', THE fIIGH PR.,\DE yEWELRY O F THE JS1 HMUS };F I I ... .. I I ':..,. E < :;.) Do yOlt \. YE n to make a nice present? I .. HEll ;xO TO '1i f iss ;..) 1 Jeleler I;; '--I : NC). 87 Central }\. ve" P \NP. MA, R. P. -------.'PLRXDlJ ) OHTJIEXT OF THE LATE T .... O\TELTIF .. c< T.L\'XTL IX 'TO 'K. 'Bracelets and 'Brooc hes in 14 and 18 Carat Solid Guar an te e d. DIAIUO_ U S PEARL, A n OF ALL U INDS. SWISS AND AMERICAN WATCHES_ I JT yvILL fAY you To YISl1' ]vfISTELl'S fIRST. The fl}i\ )wing t' lrcti' Jll from" Pana ma Patchwork)) i r prillted with t h e kinu 'ion n<:('orllecl the publi 'her by the author 11'101' to hi At the time the pie 'e wa. writt n the name 'bagr .' was one to conjnre with. It W3 a ... ociated with d au1y fey r and all m allHel' of tililJO'. \il. ::\on-ndavF) th llarnc has 10 t .'om of it pateny t i.111 my .. ti<:i In, alth ngh a( the pre. ent time, the t e lTi toryof t.he uppe r Chagre' i s a pl'acticall unknown, allll ,trang e a it may eem v n til Lnc 'ource f the 1'i\'pr, Ie, tined to 1 (' th( gl'eat feedel' of tL t a yet, elltletennined. rrIle 0 cclllec l 'hagr feyel': i:' nothing more than au aO'Q1:a vated type of malaria. 1. B yowl the Cbngl'f-':' Itinl' ..... \1' patl}.' that] 'ad to d atll--To tlw fe'-1": d a(lh hn'('zPR, To malaria l-\ POi,;OllOll. breath! B(,YOIl(l th tropi' foliagt'_ ,,,It 'l't' tlle alligator wait, Arc tIll' lllau:;ioll of tlle Dcyil .. -His original estates! :3, J3L:YOllU the ChagTt':o; tIll:' ('ongar ill ] air. lld t 'U h Ulldrl'd thon...:alld dall a 1'. Hidf> ill the lloxi 11. air, lkhinu tIl(' trf'l1lhlill:J: Hf'ne..'lth the fallt' n 1'('p<1I", _\re eYcr-prt':ent pcril s Of a million different breed'

PAGE 361

344 Pilot and Guide. 2. Beyond the C1lngn'; Rh:("r I Are paths foJ' 'er unknowll, I, ,Vith a spider 'ne,lth ea'Il peul>le. A scorpion 11 ,nth l'Hth ,'tOll('. 'Ti 11 'rr the His f:1 ta 1 ballq U(t An
PAGE 362

Uncle am!' Isfnn'i w Domain. 345 \\"h 1'e the bounlaries illtel'SC t tl'cam (nd r ad', by 11'011 pipe. The provi bouuclario of th 'ities anI harb l' of PcllHlll1a alld olon, which are xcepted fl' lU the allal Zone by the treaty are .'till or e(l, although it i xpect d the t before long th permanent h o un
PAGE 363

346 P'llot and G1{ide, belonging to the jurisdiction of the United States. The islands of N aos, Pel'ico, Flatnenco, Onlebra: and OhangRl'll i are in the Oanal ZOll(l, "bile the islands of Tabog a and Taboguilln are under the sole jurisdiction of Panama. The proyj'tonal b o nnclnr y linn of the cit y aud harbor of Colon is as follows: _.-:tBeginning at a it ul,ted at 10 r ,Yater mark on the northern :hore of Boca lhica, or Folk: I ivel', at a point 30 metres to th ea t ard of the 'entre line of th main tratk of the Panama R<.lill'oad near where 'aid railroad enter ... 111 o n the cau 'eway Cl'I):-' 'ing . aill Bo a Chica tow:l1'd the south, the:lc in a n l'ved. line, nhyays parallel to the c 'ntrp line of the Inain t1'3,k ()f the Panama. Railroad CToi 19 towal'(l tIl city of Colon a))d a at rle uniform distaD f' of 30 Inet.r Iron ,',lid centre line lOt point wlH.'re the aid cnr -t='d line parall ,1 1he l'ailroa 1 tra,ek :-;hall ifilt'l','I:?d thp cpnt 'iO. JilJl..> of E' Htr t sometimE'. cHIlled) linn'. tl'.ct, "ji, ul!'d\..n;llli"ll(:(', followjng ';li(l l: line of D( livnr Str(' t, to thf:' ,tion th I' of ,\ 't h the entre lill of ElevPlIth \..:tl' (it 11 tIt, "aid (iity of olow t1il"llle ill the utrE' "iue of l ::le'",11th Sli'C'et 'e ster]'\" to the ; ho '(' of Lim 11 B;1,Y; th J) e' f01 lowi ng tll,., low nlt(;-l' 1 I of Limon B,lY, along the shr;r(.> line of Lei '1 rn PI iil to a pint on ,aiJ .'hore at 1mv water murk of the ,'Hm c l;]'cdh-.y ,'t 0f th ill llllm nt of ( fill'i,topher Colum bn, l1()W k t tl Heling Oil tl;e Yf':-;tern extl'E'mit: of ,'ait1'),1 '1'1' PIC'in ; thEme in ,1 Rtrnight, d t e We' t a,el'OSt-i Limo1l TI<. to 11p \V .. shor th r of: tIl Ilt norther] -, fo11o\\'i11'" tll(> 10w-\\ 'i1tpl' :-;hore line of Lim n ay t 'l' 1'0 T lighthoLt. 'e thf-'lH'l' ill a .. traio'ht lill' a.. L l'ly to the ligllth use Oil the w .. t 1'1y (;01'11 'I' or tl'emit, y of :Mc Ilz3nillo 1. In.n 1; th 1]' r or ( 'OJUII, ('. I ,,,dillg-f l'Olll the' ,'o lltl ('\'11 lIl'll'g'ill tllPl' ( f, 1 '1Ig' t Itt' It tll(' ( 'hnnllll ('ntl,lI1l'(' t) th 1 ('nmtl, l1U' <\:--lll"ll (hi hUllled tlllll thll't. :.1 ':\'{'S 'ilh 1l CCl(h .. iil( fronl tit, . Iill 'Htnt! a,-i ... t '\,h 1'( 'i-LHl ('11;,nn 1 sh'dl ( lmill,t1l 1 { "t)1l11 tIll' harh r )f '01 ill ill IlH' (4'l';111).:lll ,"'pa. ('ull"ti 111 111 ('il,' Hlld llarl OI' of '( lOll till( j)' I II JUl t ,1 (If tl!' l\ pllhli' f PHl\( 111 a

PAGE 364

l ,tllllli(lIl DOm(lill. 347 __ .,1_,,) c ERe ) Impc .,tel' of fine hand-..... ade C-.J 1""'1Tlcian Cigars. \ TFA. T 'nr.D FHO r THF. CLElHL\T!..D HIGH ( IL DE TOJ.\. C ,_ 01' A,'TA_'I'Bh. [\ _\. If HEPCBLH' or OLO.IULL t -j" r \t' .) ..: II i t Ire '-:';, t () 1 \ \. ,-,,:I'; t f f, u: ;: Ij "1 It 0 rl e \N"'HOLESALE AMD RETAIL. 'rHY THE C .TCCTf()X L U P \STY r Ii>E F THE Y_DIO -\'LEZ TCA ,,"._ (F )f 02\l JL S L) BY F RE Elegan Line oj Tane!l 11'1(. Fille .oj P anaTlw llat . o. 34, Bottle Alley, Ne r tc> Pana rna R. R. Station, Colon, R. P. In ptelnh ] the I Zonc uiyicJec1 into 1l1unicipal eli tricL. Hlld n 1 ) HI D1UIllcipal org 3 Ilizati 11 11 the 1'<1 -1' of the 1 -'nr 1 ,,-p-OYerll mel} t lla n wa pointec1 lllunicipal judgeR gayc WRy to district jLHige.', a nd the ommis' n wa: clothed with auth rity t o enact n1 i nance. 011 jc -t, pte\'iou I, r legi lated by the municipal council. The f ouL' acllnlni. trati,-e di tricts at prosellt are ... -\.llcon Elnpire, orgona and Cristobal. The f:,rnnting of liquor in the Z one is directI,Hilder the control of the and saloons are on1-nllo\Yecl at certain point. ..the annual is 1,200 currency. Thirty-fouc ,[\ 1001l arc now opera till g within the lilnits of the Zone.

PAGE 365

348 Pilot and Guide. Th8 nUlnber of agricultural leases in tIle Callal ZOlle duri ng the fiscal year of 1907 bas decreased, i Ilstead of increased, as was expected. The reason this is Hot apparent, unless it i that the returns froIl1 agricultural velltures are slow, and require an al110unt of capital which the small inve tor who would Gllgnge in independent pur uits ill the tropic is not prepCLl'ed to furni8h' doubtless it is also partly due to the f,lct the t rellluneratiyo clnploylllent call always be 011 tho r:ulal works. The reduction in the nUI110el' of leases has al 0 b o en due to '0111e extent to the cancellation of leasl's on watersheds, drailling into reservoirs which furnish tho wnt -r supply for tOW11S and villages on the ]. thnHls. '1 hr e 'watersheds bn ye bee n elltirely cleared of human hal J itatlon, alld no lea.:es are now Inac1e in the vicinity of res e rvoirs with nt refer ,Ilce to the Sanit' lry Departtnent for approya 1 :18 to loc:ltion In view of the fact that IHan), road f'lHI trailH ha\' peen open e d ill the ac1millistratiyo

  • PAGE 366

    rude "WI/\-; ].'I7l1Jlir(Jl DOJJuciJl. 349 ____ 0...=.== The lalla laws f the -nitea 'tate, ao llot apply tu the 1i1l1al find t.he land laws of Pc naIll( in f rce in the Z n e nt the tim of it ce lOll to tho 1 Ilitecl I tate arc not appJi 'ahle t the conditions in the .%one. "It i be liey cl;' [n:" yen or Blackburll in hi offi :ial l' port, as ...,0011 a. it i possihl to c1 termillo with rea onalJle certainty th Janel that "will be recl1.lircc1 for calla1 purpose on the thl u, the relnainlllg lanel. should be opened to cultiYatlon and ettlelnellt uuder .0111e arrallO"elnellt that ,rill n snre perm" nent tenure to persons desiring to secure it. A great deal of 1 ublic laiHl ill tIl anal Zone is occupied by lUattCl':, who ha,'e bepn on the laud for 11lallY year', without 1 gal right. These PC'L'Oll are not di.:tul'hed except ,,,here th eir 0 enpntion of the laud interferes !'yith the canal work. COll iderable lanel j 11 the ZOlle clai mecl by pri ,-a tn person', i., it is 1 eli8yed, actually pllhlie 1811<1. Iho titles to such land ,yill be acljuclicated in the court '. The new Code of Ci Til Procetlure proyides a 'itnple lllethod of teo ting titles in such cases. n The of land in the Canal ZOllO i a fol lows: o-vvned l)y 1'h Unitc(1 State', lJY pUl'{hase from the New Panama Canal Company.. . . . . . . .. . .-2.11 q. mile OWHed by the Unite d f'tates, by condemnation flnd purella -'e, ",illc:e the pro 'i "ionni delimitation of the Zone .... .... .. .............. ... .. . 3.01 q mil PnlJlic lalll hel(l bv the -cllited tates b\' ceo sion from Panama the tlcr"ty ... ..... .. ,...... 1 .9 l 1. mil Owned the Panama Railroad by ee. ,sion from ColOlnbia, R,lld purch:l. e feom priyat2 owner. ....... 6").12 'q. mile OY'\'ned by 1)l'jYate per.on -. ......... ..... ,.... ... 136.22 -, 1 mile TotaL ........................... 44 .3/. q. mil '. Canal Zone revenues huye a1 Wfl. 'S exceeded the expendi tures. The G reyeuucs are uel'iYed princip::1l1y r0111 real estate tnxafon, real estate rentals, fine and co ts, alld liqu or license::;. 'lhe following table ...,ho,,s receipts fron)

    PAGE 367

    350 Pilot and Guide. thr:e sources, and also total receipts alld eXl cnditurcs for the fiSC<11 ,'ears: 1 nOG, anr l 1$107:-1905 1906 1907. ReR 1 Ct-tfl te Fi 1H .' co::;t.' LiqHOt' lic;ellseK Rrn1 [1]8 'rob 1 r e ceipt T t u 1 e .-p uditlll'Cf:; $ 6,57G.iJl ] 5 :',W(). 4:8,0:32. 0 C) C) > --0 _,_ I./v 114:,I-1-U.1 7 47,-1HI>. :! 11:::) ')')0 -1 t l. __ .' <)0 -6-"0 iJ ,I I,iJ 1:1,:-;06.97 1-. ]-11,3 '-1,93 .r, -"-C)-1 r ;) oJ I -.,) B; .'561.16. 95 7 I 5.40. lq 00 90 oJ, . ')90 (\ -.f C)_ .J v ;) -:t I 1 73, 1i 1 :30 The 3Lo\' anlon 11 ts U l' an in Pana 1)1 a :;,i 1\"e1'. ---.... 0 ... _----TEACHUTPr CANAL ZONE YOUTH. '1ho Isthmian Cnnal COll1mission authorized the c taoli'h-111PIlt of a school I ystem in 1 if l)ut the pre 'nl' of oth(l' "\\ 1 k Pl'cY 'rnti 11. 1 0Ld 1l1'OIlIll:lt ",'a: 1 7:! 1, I'P.'(') ilJin, o tit \ It of til s('hool yen}', and fi.-ing the s:titll'ic',; d t :Ich( rs. 'J 11(' pll1>lic .. cl}()o] tl't'lll undor thi, l'P:(,JIlt.ioll ll()W r. ll'll111 '('/1 Illb 1':1 t),J llll 1, with II \( r u II (J \\ i Illl' jilt 111' III i : s i ( ) II t l! II( It l Y : \Il( 1 1 n t t1 r 1 a" f e H ,It \\(,(,1-: 'I Jl.lllj'gi\ill'l' lay null the foIl "iuO': frolll -_. ---------

    PAGE 368

    J', ({Cliillf) C(tJlal Zone Youtlt. 351 ----==-=-No,v I tl1.e Right Tinie To 1:3t-1J-T Fan..a:r:c.l.a ::5eal Esta t9. Choice Farming, fruit, Timber and Mineral Lands. TR...ACTS FROl::><1: {5 t.o 5,000 .ACRES FOR S.A..LE. JfOIl'U' lUnrkt't. "\Vntcr T:l'nnSllortatioll. No)ninul Taxes. ('hE'3P Labor. Excellent CUm.att'. \YI' lIn\ ( aJ..;() ('hok(' ..1l1uyjal {yold, :llH1 Copp .>r Propntil'. Ollly Pl{OP, IUn:[E'-\\'lTll PEHFECl' TITLES Write for in-J :fa Pintt COllsultll1g, Civil and formation to ., PANAMA & AGUAOUlCE. DeCflnbrl' 21 st to Jan. 5th inc., 'Vashi ngton' s Birthday, the week i receding Sunday, anI I)ecoratiol1 DaY, :\[ay 80. The. l'eoprned cto }Jer 1 1 n07. \,"it II 2* in pel'-ation. The schools for \yhit e children are 10 'nted at L, Bo a, A]) 'Oil, Pedro Jligu 1: Paraiso: CulelJl'a, Elupirc, Las Oasc
    PAGE 369

    352 Pilot and Guide. viou experience ill the T nited States. All but four of the eUlployed for the whit 8 schools haye bad such ex perience. The colored schools are in charge of the 1110 t efficient natiV"e and \Vest Iudian teachers that it is pos...lbl e to attract to the servico, and 80111e delay 119 s been cxperienced in opening theso schools by the reason of the difficulty in securing properly qualified colored teachers. All of the colored teacher are froIll the \Vest l11l1ies or PanllIna. The elltolhnent of pupils in the white schools for NOyell1-bel', was B87' average daily Rttellclance, 311. Enrollment in colored school 10'" D' ayerage clall T attenc1alt 'e I 730. The schools are eli, ided into eihht grade in conforn1ity with tllesi lnilar organization of eleIl1entary schools ill the Un it ec1 States. The curricuI l1rn i Dcludes read iJlg. writing spoIling grallllnar, geogra.phy, elementary phy jolo 7 and free-haud dra wing. In addition to the i nstructioll j n the .. e subject, English-speking children (1'e tan crht panish and Spanish-speaking children are btught Engli h For white children T ho (. 1'e too far ac1rancec.1 for the elem nb ry grades, it i'" intended to orgRllize 1 io' h cho 1 c1n. se (t ulebra and Ori toba], in "hi h in trll ion will be giy n 111 a]o 'cbra, goollloiry, Latin, SpaniBh, botallY, )hy i 'al 0 graph" o'ollcral hi tor T rhetoric (11<1 biol .o ' 1hildr e n e p c rent al' en1110' <1 b r ih I thuljn 11 nallal o1l11ni sion, or h tho I)anan1a Railrontl mpnll liyillg at .'b ion.' at \vIli h 11 .'c hool 11<1 h en ,bthli:hl'tl nl" fUl'ni .. hcd f1' 0 trull.'portati )) on the l)nllnma Hnilro, l'

    PAGE 370

    T( a e71 iI/ [I '(f J/{( 1 Z()llr ron III 353 are fnl'l1i 'heel t the hildrell free of harITe. .... 0 eXl en .. j .. t he i 11CU lTC 1 1 Y hi Idrcll of the \tnal Zon attelld ill' the ch I...;, 'x ept a 11 Iniunl harge for the 111utilatlOIl or 1 r othcr PI' p rty r ulting froln the pupil" :. reI nos or negl igCll C. It i, thc ,lIn 0 the Diyi. ion of 1chools to proyide for the hildren of A ll1eri ca 11 parr]) ts: in. tructioll i mi Itu to that \\hich they wOllIel r ceiyc in the 1 ul1i' hool of the ltat:' ill on1 r th;lt they 111:1' not 1 e h( Ildic a pp e(l hy l' 'lson of their tempo!'
    PAGE 371

    354 Pilot (lna G llide. General Importer and Commission Merchant. No. -18 Front Street, COLON, Hcpnblic of Panama. Telegraphic Address: "B RUUN". A. B. C. 5th. sCl'nh the stolle Hoor of tho bitation; fOllrth al1cl 1: stly llsE.'(l to off the si(le walk in front. 'Vhe n the COI ... lmi slon first grnppled th nbject, it wa: proposed to C )I\. truct a danl alld l'(\'crYoir 0)) the Juan l)iaz :l lenr 111011lltain trealU about fiftcoll n1ile frolll Punama. Imt off the lin e of rnilroad. The Panama (joYcrnmC'llt W;1S largply in fayor of thi, pl:1.11. On a I OUllt of it., ac: If IS the plan of building a H'S('l'Y ir at Rio Grnllde to upply tho city of j)(lllamn (1 intcnnediHt c point .. was ultimately ac1optecl. Il. Wet.' organizC-'d for this '01+ and a corp: of mell ent down in .J uly, 1 in Ihargr. of Carleton FJ. 1 The d '\\,H' thrJ) know!) as thr I)i\-i, i o!) of \\rater and Sewers, ufterwf\.rd' "r ah\l' \Vork ; ; Ie \"(.'}'.' lid H)a 1 alld a thp pre ])iri,'ioll of J:\lulli ip:l1 'Vat '1' promi .. cd the }Jcopl<:' ()f J?;lIlHllla n the [i uf .fnly_ 1 :111(1 t.h fnlfillc'(l. rL he iOIl W:1,' apprO}}l itltcly <.: )lpbl'll ed, the tin' (h'partl1H'l,t tlll'llillg tlut ;\11(1 lllahllg ate. t til differ Ilt bydl'allt:, 'PIte \ro1'1of pnving lIlld ,'(I\\, :\l'ing' tIl, 'iti .' of PClllidl1il (lIHl ( 'Ojll\} \\'it'; carri ,(l oul h.-thi: (ll'partmC'llt-. np('I':lti())l.' h
    PAGE 372

    TIl( i : ,:dltJlliuu Jf(l{f',' di)Jpl!1. 355 ( (y \ lippI, -. '1 he l' .'en" it' lta" 1'( IItly been clllal'g<'( to h II ."):!1, g:t11nll.'. r 'ho WHtfll' j' OIlYC' (1 tl rough (l In-in h m:1ill t [lJlotllrl' l' sCl'Yoi1' at ... \llCOJ), ,-11 l'() It i.' filteretl alld (li, b'ibutt'd through tIl it r 11 j in, rl h ,r;1 ('1' at tim) ha:'" a tli agreeahl odur ( 11 l ta,'t but. C'H'l';d anal.)' 'C.' hare h een l1lU t h T ,'p rt' "'ho :t:ltJ bat tIt (luali1y of th e wn r onlp; re.' r rahl' 'with that ful'ni. hed ,Va:hinoto}), Baltimore TTaIl. a "lit-r. and otlw' ga-1011. in 'Ihis a slunll fnllillg off nob, ith tandilll)' th fact that ill T ovemher 1 n 1t1. thf'rc \ were on1 T 2.-cOllneeti Oll' cOlnptll'(ld ,,i 11 1 )-1;3 C JIlIl('ctioll in J."'-o yelnher. 1007, Th erOll m r ill con umr tion i .. ,rll()1!V c1u to the jll t alL tion of ll1Ct 11". The Ii trict from Elllpire to )n' Ohisp lllcln,'iH"\ i' upplil)d h, Ule lalllncho 1'0 l'YOl1'. ,rith a capacity of .) 1 0 0 11 ('i 1 t l' J ( 1 _:)0,. get o n... Ol'C1'Ona, .... t1 aClllll, t U01' 1. I v 7, thcl' had been aill ill tIl' 'ity of Panmna l11ile.' of \\'uter p ip8 of Y;U'iOl!' ilr', ,-.12 miles in the city of Colon (: uc1 -12 ()O Jude.-ill tlw cLual HUlkillg a total o f :5 InilE's l ) nl'ill()' tho :ame p e riod there had be e n laid in th cit, ( f Pn 1l:ll1Ht 17.40 111iles f pipe in Col o n 5, ) 0 Illile :111<1 ill tho Canal ZOlio ::!9.15 milt", a total o f 5::! ;33. III I 1,8-!J h 0 u:e _co llllecti 0 llS hit bee II !\little all 1 ill Cdr, II

    PAGE 373

    $refkparimel1t ce/t!brating tha 9naugurafiol1 offhq. water s,YsttZm in !Panama, JlI(y,IJ.!!! 1.9().!'. 04morlc(!U1 !R:R/R..Acw d!lllncp 4,q/dwrtI6ing .1iurt!l1u .:II..2Ji6nkfJwlki w m (})

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    Tlte Isthmian rr atm' llpply, 357 FOE. EXCUE.SIONS TO PEz\RL ISLz\NDS, Pd rd[1d Bz\Y, aI)d COz\ST POINTS, AP..PLY, OR WRITE T0 .. -.-_ .... -, No. III North Avenu,e, PANAMA Only Firm on the Isthmus Catering to the Excursion Business. JIagnijicen tly Equipped new Twin-Screw Steamers to be pitt in the 8m'vice tltis year There bad been 13-1 fire hydrant placed in Pana.ma and 54 ill Oolon. During the same period there had been laid in Panalna 0.12 Iniles of brick pa venlents comprising 63,764 square J ards, in streets ranging in width from 13 to 35 feet; 3.03 Iniles of concrete and macadam pavements, cOlnpriRing 67,625 square yards, in streets ranging in width from 8 to 30 feet; and lOA miles of curbing hail been placed. In Colon 2,721 lineal feet of brick pavement, cOlnprising 6,410 square yards, had been laid; 3.24-Iniles of macadaln pavelnents, conlprising 39,603 squaro yards, in streets ranging in width from 14 to 44 feet and 7.3 nliles of curb and gutters had been inRtalled. The fire prDt.ectiol1 furnished to the cities of Panama and Colon is equal to that supplied to cities of silnilar size anyw.here in the world. Several roads have been constructed py this Division throughout the Zone, the principal ones being as follows : Road from PanaTna to Las Sabanas, which is about four 011les in length; from Panalna. to La Boca, about three miles; a complete systenl of roads around the Hotel Tivoli and Ancon section; all necessary highways at Culebra, Empire, Las Oascadas, Bas Obispo, Gorgona, Pedro Miguel, and a road from Mount Hope to Cristobal. This division is under Commissioner Rousse a u, and under the direct supervision of Division EngIneer J. G. Holcombe.

    PAGE 375

    358 Pilot and Guide. Public Works. In N ovelnber 1906, the position of 'Vatar Comlllis sioner was created which was changed to Superintendent of Public ",Yorks on March 1, 1907, when the water and sewer systems turned over to that The olk of this office iucludes the InainteuaLlce and operation of the water and systetus and paving of the cities of Panama and Colon; the collection of wa.ter rents from p.rivate parties supplied with water froin the water systenls constructed for Commission purposes in the: Zone' the inspect.ion of plumbing in Oomillission buildings in the Zone; the constrnction uf roaus and trails and other improvements in the ZOlle; the operation and Inaintenance of slaughter houses and In; lYk8ts in the Zone, street lighting und mainteuance of public buildings. During the elry season extending from 1906, to May, 1907, 37.31 nliles of roads were constructed in the Z ne. These included a 7 -luile trail from Panama Oity into the Zone, folIo'wing the old Oruces trail, a 5-mile trail from Pedro l\liguel to Arraijan' a trail from Empire toward Ohon' ra; n trail fronl Bas Obi po toward Oruces; a macadamized road frOlll Oulebra to EUlpire; a trail fr J m Enlpire to GorgoJla, and a 3-1nile trail froln lVIount Hope to the interior of the district of (Jristobnl. The present Superintendent of Public 'Yorks i l\fr. George L. Oampen. REVENUE END OF THE ZONE. nanal Zone n't m s The < II al Z He 1 di tri t kn' n u h p rt' of A D on n th ivi 1 d into tw cust 111 nand Cri tobal with i 1 and ri tobal 11 I

    PAGE 376

    -"--------_. ----, Rev n1lC End of til Zone. 359 the Atlantic ide. The ste lnship lillr ntcri I g the p l't of An 11 are the Pacific t('anl a yigatioll ompnny Compania ud-Am l'icana de Val ores an I the Pacific fail teamship ompany. The first two compallle. run a rrgular pas enger and freight service between Ancon and Valparai o. The Panama H ,aill'oad Steal1)ship Line run a regular passenger and freight service between Cri tobal and .... ew York. anu in a ddition I there are many freight boats bringing coa l and various other supplies to the Isthmus f o r the Canal 00 lllJnlssion or for other con ignees. No duties, tolls or charges of any kind whatever are imposed by the United States on vessels entering tbe ports of Ancoll and Cris t ol al and no collections are made by the Panamanian authorities on InaterialR or supplies for the use of the Callul Commi sion or the Panalna Railroad, in accordance with what is kno" II as the Taft a gremnent, under Exe.cutiY0: order of December 3, 1 n01. Canal Zone The interna.l reVetlUe of the Canal Z OllO Internal lR from the distillation of nati e rUlU. There are about 12 distilleries situated in the Canal Z o ne and. these "ork about fifteen days every two months. ':rhe charge for distillation is in accordance with the laws of the. Republic of Panama, which ch a rges $12.00 per month. pel' litre for a continuous apparatus, and $6.00 per month per litre for a simplo apparatus. During the 1906, thore was collected fronl this source $7,026.75' for the first there quarters of 1907 ending September 30 there was. collected $2 987.88. Canal Zone Lands This Division has to do with the lands and and Buildings buildings belonging to the Isthluian Ca.nal C0J11mission within the Canal Zone, and the renting of agricultural and buildillg lots to private concerns or indivi . duals. The price for the rental of agricultura l iii $3.00 per hectare per annum, a hectare being about. tWQ,

    PAGE 377

    360 Pilot and Guide. A. ENSENAT WATER FACTORY. CULEBRA. CANAL ZONE. Quality /lig t up to the Mark. Give us a Trial and be Convinced Addre\:)s all inquiries to the above at Culebra, C. Z. and twc,fifths acres. The charge for the rental of building lots varies in accordance with the desirability of location, and the village in which the lot is situated. The amount collected during 1906 for land rent, was ,597.29; for building rent, $318.95 ; for the fin;;t three quarters of 1907, ending eptember 30, land rent, $6,653.20; building rent, $427.25. Canal Zone Posts The Postal Division has seventeen postoffices, as follows: A neon, Station A. Ancon, Oorozal, Rohio, Bas Obispo, Culebra, Cristobal, Elnpire, Gatun, Gorgona, La Boca, L as Cascadas Matachin, Paraiso, Pedro l\Iiguel, San Pablo anel There are in this service one director f po t, fifty gold, and twenty silver cluployes. Regi try and money order Hystem have been installed in every po toffice and direct service is being given to all point both foreign find domestic. The money order busines wa estab lished in June, 1906, and has been on a steady increa e from it inc81 tiOI1. The money orders i ued payabl ill th Canal Z ne and other point will reach a monthly UIll f 3.... ,00 .00. Po t ge ales for the calendar ye r of 1 06. alnounte 1 to 42,197.04, for the calendar J ear nding Decemb J r 1 1907, t 7 55 .77. In accordance with Executire order of D( cmnh l' 3 1904, th tnn1p u d in th anal Zone po t I rvice are ,tc mps f th pullic of Pane masurcharged with the word.. Canal Zone which talup are

    PAGE 378

    J . . ....... ... ___ ...... ____ .... ____ ..... __ ........ ... .. US .?>os! Qlfice and canal gffices Crlstcf?ol. 5>al1ama. .P.JZ.Ji. .JI(,'r6 dI..J3irnk_s/(i

    PAGE 379

    362 Pi70t mill Guide. of the a uthol iie s of the Repnblic of l)all:ul1ft at 40 per eent. of th0ir Y::tIne. DurtllO tho Y(lc r 1 UOc. there 'were rflgistered ill the Znl10 75,21 cloluestic c nel fureign lettpl's alHl parcels. During the pcriol Januar. 1, 1907, to June 30, 1907, there were registered G' ,600 c1 me tic and foreign lettpl's and parcels. The reverlu('s collected by the R venue <.1epartm nt during the calendar year 1907, amounted to $l86,644.61 divided a fullow : Distillation tax ................... _ . ............ $ :3,770 6 Land rents .................................... Building rents ..................................... Liquor licenses......... ........ ......... .... ... . Administrative districts. . . .. .......... ...... .... order fees ...... ... ................... .. Postal sales $67,'-59.77 net Zone Revenue' GO per c nt .... 9 -S.03 1 706 7.) 40, 00.00 i5 05J .3.5 15 126.93 Tota l Zone reyenue .... ....... flt) ,u-.G4 Administration The Collector or Reyenuos, i .r-ofji io of Estates istnltor of Estates and c dn1inister. 0 1 of d ceased An1crican E'lnployes of the stlunian a llal 0111-mission Dnll of the Panalua Rililroa 1 ompany ,,,h 0 e,' tatfl do not flxceed $.-00 gold. The Divi ion of Rey nur On t0111.' ) ,t: au 1 r .Jttllc1 i under the upervi ion of 001. 'lome r. ]p( <1-quarter. at n on. The dcput oIl nrc Jr. H. Gudgel' 11 Oll, Dnrl 1\11'. E. L. l') .Jri tobnL THE GU RllIANS OF THE Z NE Ii . 1 c :lltIl1 nt. wa' .. ;al1izcl in fa:" akillo ()\ ('1' th ..,annl ZOll, h T 1 In ri ell!.. [t ha: .\u),j 'di tiOll Y( l' and \' r: tbe Ul th util' }

    PAGE 380

    . _v--363 6 '0 0 .,,0 Z 0 '-(1 Tnis Is Tne : ONLY SALOO N ON I'HE iSI'HMUS WHERE AN ANALYSIS I S MADe OF ALL WI NES AND LIQUORS -BEFORE BEING SERVED TO CUSTOMERS. (% 0 -----_... c------T ('?5-K, ]V< ..; --I" j M' --' J / --I:, .. ___ ....... ",-'V .--II. ... __ s:.., I W' _"-" J .. ." .. .,t J BAS OBISPO, CANAL 20.JE. w o 150 jIile to Anoth e r a loon L ike Curzel' <:> <"<5 'd Within Easy D ista nce of Ra i l road S4-ation. y) X'A X"V 0 ./\ <:/ i)/VV f/' t, ?>-'XY 0 'X rI' 'V'* oXX' ?/-r-',,<:/'N' 0 .. 6 .. A.)'..,l:) <> >' Y v" ""../,,';(;(, .. N,_ x,. '><>., .... ;(.j.J;;/,,,,(:x,. ..I' A,; Zone from Crist01 al to Ancoll and La Boca inclusiye. as e ll a the i lands belongll1g to the Zone. The headquarter. of Zone police i. located at ncon, C. Z., a j a l o the residence of the Chief f Police. The P e 'ent Chief of Police. ,,-ho is al 0 :JIur hal of the Canal Zone \Varden of the Zone Penitentiary and Coroner of the .lanaI Zone i Geo. R. hanton. The Chief Clerk o r th PL l'tIllPut is D. E. who is in ch a r ge of uli 'e I-Icac1lJlwrt01''S clurincr the absence of the Chie f of P 1 ice The 'tr lJgt h of he i J :..00 officer and llleu are a.bout equally di tributed throughout the different eli t r i c t s of the anal Zone the prinC}I al tatiol1 heing l ocate d at ... neon IJa bn.fW ; La Bora Pe 11'0 ':\ligue], Paraiso Cnlel ra .. Inpire, J-1as Ca cadas Bas 01 ispo iorgona T ahenlilla, B ohin, Gatun and Ori tobal. E ac h of the above stations is supplied with a jail, and a lTIajori t y of them h::t,ve a number of outpost gov-

    PAGE 381

    fA iJ'c.?Slalion at d Jad at Cristobal-!Panama. ,7.,tt.mia" -.:1fmuican & :JI..#tW,f .:JIg,r.t:y &-.7Idvcrtl.Jillg $3urI!Qu. .:A .7.Jum{(ow.fki.

    PAGE 382

    The G /t(f }'(7i{( J/.' of the Zune. 365 RElY.l:EDIO DE REl::'TGIPO Gran Depurativo Universal pari) ei Reumatismo y Enfermedades de la Piel. DE VENT.A. EN LA FARMACIA CENTRAL, Manuel Espinosa B., Avenida Central, No. 130, erned by the Inain statio n s, all station being in innnediate chara of a lieute nant or sergeant, 'who is required to report daily to P olice Headquarters. .A..ll stations and out posts are al 0 imnleu iately connected ,,'ith P o lic e Headquarter. by t e legraph and telepholle. The pre 'en t 'trCllgth of the for e is one 'hie of police one chief c l rk, six clerks, ono first lieutenant, one secoud li eute n an t t,Yel ye sergeants, twell ty corporals, 0 first class polieeuH:n, all of WhOlU are white, anel e ighty colored policelnen. The unifonn worn by the 'white officerR 18 khaki, with regulatio n that '\Yorn by the colored officers is khaki, ,yith khaki hehnet. The side-anns used are the regulation policolnau's clulJ, and rrgulation 3 Colt pistol. Nearly a ll of the first cIa s police officers-corporals, ergeants allrl lieutenants-are officers with good r cords in tho States, or are ll1ilitary ll1ell with excellent records and credentials fron1 the (nitecl tate Anny. The Zone penitentiary js located at Culebra, O. Z., where all critninals who are sellte ncecl to the p enitentiary are i llcarceratec1. The h eadquarters of the penitentiary is at A ncon, H the ,Varden, as stated occupies the dual p osition of "\Varden and Ohief of Police. The average nUlnber of prisoners in the Zone Pcnitentiary is ahout G:). The offices of Coroner and Marshal of the Oanal Zono also COlllO 11IH..101' tho hend oE the Police Department, and the headquarters of these office is also located at Police Headquarters, AllCOll.

    PAGE 383

    366 Pilot and Guide. All police officers in COll1111and of stations arc, by virtue of their position, deputy 111arshals and deputy cor oners, and report cl i rcct to Pol ice A ncon. ---........ ---THE PEARL INDUSTRY OF PANAMA. For Jnany, n1any years lJt io1' to tl10 nc1Y0llt of the Conq u1stadores, the Pearl 1:.; l alH1.' (I' [as las PC'rln ). ere kno'wn and exploited the ri h pearls that abou l1ded ill the hoal waters off the shore. Tlles e i,'land con. 'Litnte an arc lipelago and. lie out ill the :Bay of P;1]Htma, about l1in<:ty ll1ile from P,u)arna City. herG are ill th neighborhuod of 1 G isIaqds 1)0 j.'let., in tb group. the larg est of which is the I In d e l ),. an l\IiO'uei, the only town of consequence ill the archipela.go j locate d on this 181:1,])(1. The pearl fisheries have heen worked more or I yigoron .. ly ever since tIt 11 oeclll { ti Il, rnd th u ands npon thouvands of oeau tifnl gCUl ha \ 'e be n brought to light. ..( t th v preseJlt tinlB the grounds al' not '0 prolific, ancl it is n1y 11 wand then that a 1> ad f c.c ptio nal Vi lUG 1S di 'COY r d. ,. ho pearl f uIHl ill islalHl (11' credit d with having a SUPPl'l l' 1 rilli,'llc r lu tre:, nd '(. llg ill yaiu an tIl wn T fr 111 rl he: ii,'hillg i. c1 1), (lIno,' \ntir 1 b Jle:OT who lire 011 the: islalHl and (li" for tIl p arl ill the 111 t primiti\C'l fashion Th n. nal 111 \th d )f it. hillg i }o"'.': -TpOll revehing the h( Ilk "hi h li frGlll tift 11 (. i gh cell fathol S n nd r \ T a l', ill dive' ii (rop cl,b ut. his hod a nd ,,,iill a mall w i h c tta 11 d t n o faeilitat :inl'ill[l' pInn nt f th u at tIlO h otlOlll. LnJldinb in ih cr u'd hand

    PAGE 384

    Til P ({fl Iudu.{J'!J oj P({Jlall/({. HAVE YOU A WANT? ? HAVE YOU LOST ANYTHING? HA VE YOU GOT A BUSINESS? > HAVE YOU A HOUSE TO RENT? ADVERTISE IT f N l'jfILTI IN !4. HA VE YOU A GeOD BAVE YOU A HEAD FOR ADVERTIS:NG? i i ar & r2ld. .,. c ",} 16 SOUTH A rENUE, tuck 0118 OY. tel' under hi arm, and hoIt1illg one in each with i I1nlly 011 ill his 1110nth, he IL cenc1s rapidly to tht:i n l'fL ce to rcgai n La eath. }[al' (. 111 i !lute 1S usually CO ... l'UI1H'l ill the operation. The 1'e 'nits are often v 1'Y eli cOl1l'ag'il1O'. om timcs up ,,-an1. f 1.0 oy. t 1':' arc ouened bef l'e a pearl of ynlnc i: found. Tn early I palli h time. ,]aY8. "were 1111-p:o ... ecl into the 'en'icC': Hnd Inc ny lost their liYe frolu .. lark a 1l(1 lnanta. that i nre t the 'e ''':1 trl''"'. The 111allta i: a :Hat fi:h [great :ize ,yhih '\Tap' if-, fin about the 0.)j8ct it UI 011 eru, he it to death. < n al 0 round in thv yicinitr of th2.' J water. Thi,' elenlellt v of l'i 'k 11lakes the Hvocation of a pe(lri-(liYel' anything out a plea tlllt one. The (lirer u ually carry kniyes for prtection. 1 ut not\yithstanc1ing this precuutifJll thoy often lose their :\10, t of tho diving is uJlle ill the rain: 'eaSOll, that i' 11'0111 Y to a luring he other Illonth of the' year the telllpel'attlre of the 'Y
    PAGE 385

    368 Pilot and G uide. At the tilne of the Oonquest, pearl were h e l d in great estimation by native in variolls parts o f t h e Xew 'Vorld. Hernando de Soto found theln in Florida where they ,rere used to Ol'nament the tOlnbs of t he India n princes. GOlua.ra lTIrntiol1s that before Oortez I llu d e his triumphal entry into he ,,-as presr.ntcd h y l\lonteZUlna with a ll1agnificcnt nccklace of pcarls an d prec i o us stones. This lleck l a 0 was nfterwal'ds given by Corte z to Emperor Charles V G arcillaso records that the Incas of Peru set a great value on pearls, but t h e l aws of prohibited the nati,es froln exerc is i ng the trade of diver 011 account of the great risk invo l v ed Humboldt describes the statue of a l\I exican priestess in babalt ,,-hose head-dress 1'e 8111bling the ca ] a ntictl, of Isis, was lavishly 1 with pearls. Las Casas and Benzoni havo related not \yithout some exaggerat i on, the cruelties practiced on the Indict 11 and negro s laves elllployed in the pearl industry. Pearls early came into denlallc1 by the inhabitants f. outhern Europe, a nd were introduced in dialnetrically oppo ite dir ction 'l'h e P a leologi of Constantinople \\'01'e gannents covere d with strings of pearls, while the 1\Ioorish king of :x-ran a d a in Spain displayed them in pl'ofusi( 11. The pearl s o f the 'Vest Indies were preferred to tho c of the Indies. r1'11e islauc1 f l\iargal'ita ubagua Ooc h e an d Punta. Araya off the Spanish [ail} the nlouth of the Rio H ac h a iu 'I lOlllbia (nd the ] la))(l. ill th Bay of Pttnnm a w e r e as l chratrd in he 'ixt nth (' IllUrT a wa tho P ers ian Gulf (.lHl the -. h nd of tll'prohane ith the an len t The fir., t .11 anin.I 1 \"h Ian 1 1 11 Ticrra 11'111 He f th e arl lUll)1 i Tnt tl \ -' thnll1" f UIlc1 th Indians de ]'-etl out wi h p rl 11 :k1<1 r c net n pI l h rtl y after tho ac1v frOlll til OIl \ rIll b ,cran flocking to h \..lll l'i a t.Il \ trc Hi in p :11'1.' grcw al u azillg l y ... c .. tet tIl: u.' that ill 1 :1.-hun II 1 ( n 1 nin ty y e n POllild.' )f P 'ld' W 1'.1 ill1lOl't d lut 1, ill f1' 111 it.. \V eRt--fth rat '1, .'lZ( and lraut y

    PAGE 386

    Th. Pearl Ind/( try o f Panama. 369 Dna e" a a enes furn Out ths Bsst Braad Mads on tha Isthmus, QUALITV UNEXCELLED. EXIJert Bread,nak'er l . OUR BAKERIES NOTED FOR THEIR NEATNESS AND CLEANLINESS. House D eliveries Made. Family Trade olieited. E.A:K:EBIES .A.. T PANAMA' Cor. E 13th S t & North AVa EMPIRE' Wes St. & Cor, C and 14th St. Railroad Av. GARCIA BROTlltRS, Proprietors a m o un ting to some eleven pounds WE're set a ide for th monarch P hilip II. T he diving operations at that period e r e under th e ch a r ge of an oyer eer, or Armador. fa t a th e y wer e bro ug h t up frolJl the ocean's bell, a divi ion a mad e t" 0 oysters going to the Annador, two to the diver while the fifth as apportioned to the King. Those of the ArInado r were opened first, and he had to use the utmo t vigil ance for tho diYer had a knack of swallowing the rno t va lu ah l e pearl a l oug with the Ii re oy tel' which he tlue,, into hi s mouth "'i t h a dexterity def) ing detection. Afte r the Armador s, t h e ki u g s fifth wa opened, and l a tl) th e clive r's share A ll the pearl s collected were the n d e po it e d in on e plle, the Armador generally taking tho diver h a r for d eb t s O\'dllg him. X otwithstanding the pre caution s taken, the cli,ers usuall y managed to 1'e erv e som e to tra de for liquor cigars and

    PAGE 387

    370 Pilot aud Guide. The URe of the eli ing boll in connection ,,,ith the peal1 industry has been tried on seyeral occasion, but with out signal success. THE NEW PALACE AND THEATRE. Tho most edifice 1n thr Rcpuhli of PanaIua i the new GOYCTnmellt Pnlace nd Xfttional rrheatrt' "\ hieh occupies a beautiful site on the hn frollt cOrel'JIlg the aren of one block between Cell tral A Y811110 and AyeJlue B. The pc lace fronts on Oentral Arenuc; and the theatre on 1\ yen ue B. Tho struc tu re was cOlnmenced in NOY81nUer, 190r and "\Yill he finished ill the rarly pnrt of 190{ The tilnat o d co. t at rompl tioll 1S gold. 'Ill dinl n-sic)!\. of th e br.ildino are appl'lL iulat 1, :?RO 1>. r 1 f t. The archi te tural .. ty 1 is pa ttol'lled afte r th Italian n:-t1s. an Th principal rooms in the palac tho Pr ill 1) ': offier, roception hall and pnrlor p ri\'at} liyillg 1'o)tll fi '0.' of th e (1I1c1 their taff of clUpl o e. h;tll of .J Ilgre ... ; and 1'00111: f the .1 Tr ;l'lli'," \.11 the 1'00111. ,,,ill L hnlld. 'olllC l T d niH} fUl'lli.'IHI1. 'I'lle tIt will hay a. .. ('apa 'jt,' f ].1 alld ( to al .. an 1 .'tanding ('<11 (\ 'ity of nIH ut 1.(iOO. 'I'll() illt rior c n tl'n ti Jl i.' of .. toile HJI(l iron, al1cl tl1 lmildillfr i,' ah. olulpl T fir })loof. 'Ph tag) j,' of 1l1:1g"llifi (lilt ,'iz<, and 'rill a 01111H dy l' W \1' \ paint cl b T th '" 11 Jn nrn at'ti, t, fr. 1 oh lrt lowi a 'i Liz 11 f cUH 111n, but ,,11 ha

    PAGE 388


    PAGE 389

    372 Pilot and Guide. -y LI:BR..ER.IA.1 Plaza oe 10 CalBOrnl, al GoslaOo Oel Holel Cenlrnl, panamo, R. P. v 11 DROGAS. PRODUCTO QUD1ICO, :MEDICINAS DE P .A.TENTE, (l PERF :llERIA Y ARTICULO PARA DROG I TA UTILE d E -kZ 'RIBIR, LIBRO e n BLAN 0 TARJETA POST ALES Y ARTICULO P RA INGENIERO Y ARTI '.fA MATEI IAL PARA ES UELA. 11 Unicos Agenfes del Celebrado uTE CEYLINDO", y de las 8VIaquinas de Escribir U cAME1?ICAN". Y CONFITE.S. Venta Constante de Pape1 SeUado y EstampiHas de Timbre Nacional. kZ 11 a BENEDETTI HERMANOS, Propietarios. "G SUCURSAL A,"enida. Central, No. 326. I"'-J ):!1.::J, i."/;:!j spent luany years at Paris in the interest of his work. '1'h e ats are of special design, the work of the cel brat d Bonlalli of Italy. Italian talent" a al '0 brought into play ill c ]Hlcction with the painting of the stage 'en r) th 'rvices f Prof. Ago tini, a Ina ter of thi art, ha,yin b en '0 urec1 f r the purpose. The 1l1att r haH been broached of w 1'kinO' up a r gular th atr cil' uit for the we. toast cities f k outh In ri u. h uld this COlne t I ( Pan:una will r-pr ,,(lilt
    PAGE 390

    373 The u iI li1lg vats de sign d by lr. N. Rn ITaj ri f Panama and COll tru t d ulld r the 'up rvi ion of :\11'. F. H. AI' Clnena. The COlltra t r \Y re ::\1e r .. t.T. Duqu and Ramon Arias jr. The d J oratiyc painter We 1\lr. Enri 0 COllrado. The bui! lers ar t be cOlnp lim cllt cl on the excellence f their work, 'whi ch ill talHl ai' a la ting ruOtlUIuent to their effort. THE PAN-AMERICAN RAILROAD. But for the ulltimcly death of that far-seeing tat f; lnan J:unes G. Blaillr, the Pan-merican Raihyay wO,ulcl cloul,tle s now be an accolllplished fact. The ch 8111 e if not born in his hrain was cert ain l y fathered by Blaine frOln the Inoln cntpe becalne ecreta1'Y of tate. 1\[1'. A. J. Cassa tt form e r prosident of the P ennsyl ran ia was lnnde chairllUlll of th e fir t cOlnmittee frol11 the variou Alnericall republics and all went well until death caJI(:lcl the pri Ine nlover. After 1\11'. Blaine.
    PAGE 391

    374 Pilot and jects for extending the South Aluerican railway
    PAGE 392

    Tlir Pall-dmNi an Railroad. 375 divertc 1 f1' 1)1 Europe lntil to -day two-thirds of the trade with ," j 0 i with the l'rat republic of the De/rtl Ercry ar the nitec1 tc t ends good of Teater vaJu to lexico' C ntral Alneri a and Panailla than the total f the enbre ex}) rt. to outh America, which amounts to but a 50 000,000. l\ T r. Carnegie believes that COlunlerc follows the loco111otive, alld therefore he has proluised that co Jlllllerci 1 lruillulers ,, ill be able to scour the South American cOlltinent in ide of ten y aI'S via. tho Pc nRailway and its ramifications It is a great contract for one man to undertake the bu"Heling of a railway nluch of "which must be above the 10uds. Never before has lllan encountered such engi neeri ng difficuItie as that confront the builders of the Andean lines' not e,en in constructing railways in the Hilllalaya of India ha,e such stupendous obstacles prethemsel,es. The lo,,-est trans-continental passes in Andes are higher than the summit of l\Iont Blanc. Only slow-working natives will be able to labor in this rarefied atnlosphere, and luany passengers fr.om seacoast lands will probably be compelled to take the journey in stages. 'Vater for 11)a11, beast ana locomotive will havo to be carried for hundre ds of n11les in theso high altitudes where rain seldolu fLtlls. Great bridges lllust span appar ently bottomless gul c hes, and tracks laid along the edge of precip i ees, and in grooves cut jn the lllonntainsic1es. The cenery will be the Il10St sublirne e,er spread before the e. e of but the panorulDcL will cost the projector of the Pan-Aluerican railway lTIOre than $200,000,000 to produce. P ANAMA'S DIPLOMATIC CORPS. Iri all the capitals of Central and South Amf'rica, none can" boast of a better or more intelligent representation in

    PAGE 393

    376 rilot and Guide. it .. COl igll diplO1nati Ulll 11 n1< r l'vi than Pan::tnu\. I'll <1iv of llnti Ilaliti.. 1l1i t d anI illt rnati nal i11-'l'C. 'ts illY Iv d in th )) trll ti n th gr t. 'anal ha 1 d t (th appointmC'nt by h variou (1 rnments of wid -c wah: pr crr :iv m n. T( turally the untr'y 111 t inter-: d by )' ( on f ,He. 1 p 1', ti II ,i th II i tC'd Itnte, whi 'h n ain ( in L cr ti n and a on ulate General.

    PAGE 394

    P(f}IfIIII{(',' Diplomati' 377 n ,1 the H n. H. guiers wa' al I iute 1 to th im rtant po t of ter Plenipotentiary and Eny y E _iraordin' ry of the I T nited tates at Panama t ucceed E. i\lagooll. ::\1 r. quiers i a native of anada born pril:" 1 59. He r ceiyed a thorough n1ilitary trainin 0' and entering the United tates Anny on ct bor 12. 1 ( --he ,,"a apr ointcc1 econd Lieutenant f the Fir. t nfantry and erye
    PAGE 395

    ..... ...... ......, <::) .... CJ .-I ... I -:..I I :7oreign flJiplomatlc Corps-.!Panama. !I"III/",/on .:/1mericQn 4. :PJUl.../Yttws.:A.!Icrt"1l d.:lldvmI4in.!l1Jureau. dI ------------------------------------------------------------

    PAGE 396

    Panama', Dipl lIlati 379 in 1 L:1 and was appo1ntec1 riti h vi e consul at Panama n uly 1 J l 4-. He Wft aft nyards appointed con ul, with hea 1 Ue rt rs at Panalna. for the Ololubian depart-111ent of Cauca. Iagc1alenu livar, and Panama. I.Jater he ,, a placed in h<. rge at ucc s iYe periods of the Britj. h Legation at Jilna, Peru Quito Ecuador and Bogota, lombia. On DeceInber 2, 190B, h8 "as appoint d on ul for the epublic of Punama, and in 1907 h8 wa apI > inted :\[illi ter Re ic1ent. There is probably not a f l' ign r pre entatiye in PaJH1l11a better versed in Co lumbidn, or Panan1a affairs than 1\lr. 1\Iallet. Tho British yice consul, 1\1r. F. 'V. l\lul1llo:'s was appointed in J anUaf}, 190 and as ulnad on Jan. 27 1\Ir. Tholl1as Broad woo
    PAGE 397

    Pilot ancl Guide. WI LLIAM ARTH U R REI D, Proprietor. CULEBRA, Canal Zone. ......... -.--GOOD SERVICE. PROM PT ATTENTION, PRICES REASONABLE. dono much to prolllote his country's interests in a lit rary way, an10ng his ,yorks being one entitled "'1'he Question of the Pacific, n published in Philadelphia in 1902, and a COlllpilation of article which appeared in the Alllerican PI' s with reference to the Tftcna-Arica controversy aL 0 the question of international arbitr<1tion, inspired and in part written by hill1. ,Vhile consul genera l in England, he ,yR,s award d in 1882 the ... L\.lhert l\iec1al of the ociety of Arts a71d OOlDll1ci'cO for hi work on "Peru, her Oon11nerce and "and ha lectured frequently before Chall1b l' of COlll111erCe and other in titutions in England and Aluerica alway. in the interests of Peru. ]\{1'. Arnolu Shanklin, 011 ul-general, nllc1 d an of the con. ulat rorp' of Pnnanw, '"as appoint c1 to hi, pre nt losition on Bel tC\luhcr _0, 1 ( 0;-, (lld charg of the ffice on 1. oVOlnhcr of the t rear U rc ding JudO' H. A. C U1' 'vi us. nfl'. hanldin Wet borl1 at arrol ton, l\fis:OlIl'i, in .TanlIen',', 1 {1()G. O'l'tlChlc t d fl'Olll the Jaw d pnrtll}C1nt f" HshillgtOll l'sity < t t. Ioni ill 1 ('Dn, (1,11(1 follo,\ 1<1 UH pl'ndi "(' of L w r l' a numl r f yC'ftl'.'. HC' Wt)..' ('0l11111i .. i(,11 r to f('.' i '0 f l' the IJ ui iana J>llrd Ul..'e r. posi t i (1), I)u ri J) (f 11 i,' l' ,ic1 1 n the 1 tIl 11111: ]\fl'. I 'hankJiI! ha.' n1;1 to 11l:t11 '\' il1'})l 1'1'i n<1 .. loih ill I anaHi( go\' '1'1l1l1Clli alld 'allal i1' I'.. 1'h N. 1) pnty 11-

    PAGE 398

    Panama' DiploJilatic Corp,'. 381 '-ul O'el1 1'( I 1 1\11'. Oaspar L. Dreier of :\Ii oun, al pointed in 1 07. Th hand of death r luoved ono of the be..: t known COll-ulal' r 'pro 'olltatives luring the year Don tT eronirn o sa, c n ul for Ohile. He was of a jovial, kindly dispo sition, counting everyone his friend tha t h ould. l)on.l e rOllimo was a native of Panama but received the education of a civil ellgineer in Chile. He cOlupleted his studi o 1n the 1 nited States anel Europe, and upon his return hOlTIe fouul ready en1ploYlnent ,yith the French canal conlpally. He was also at different tilnes in the muploy of the Pana-111a Railroad OOlllpany, a.nd the Pacific l\lail Steanlship 00. Re always took a deep interest in politics, and at the tilne of the sece sion was tireless in support of the cause. hortly before his fata.l illness, he 'was appointed by President Amador as special commissioner to deliyer to Oha. E l\[ agoon, the gold luedal alld vote of thanks tendered t he latter by the National Assembly of Panalna, in recog nition of the universal esteem in which the late Zone Governor was held. Don J eronilno composed the words of the Panama national hymn a splendidly illspiring air, and of severa l poems. Ris death occurred September (), 1 07 at the age of 62 alJd on September 0, the l\lullicipc 1 Coun cil of Panalna, passed resolutiollS of respect in honor of his memory. COINS FROM OLD PANAMA. The Panama Herald of June ,1853 announced the diRcovel' of a collection of olel coins found in the corner of a wall at O l d Panama. In the collection were coins beginning ,,,ith the Oarthaginian period and continuing Oll up until the tinle of Perdinand of Spain. In the lot were coins of the time of Oonstantine and the ROlllan era. It is supposed that this collection was brought to the Tsth luns by SOlIle monk interested in numismatics

    PAGE 399

    382 Pilot and G1icle. ====::00==== ____ === -01 PLOMATIC CORPS ACCREDITED TO TH E REPU BLiC OF PANAMA. AT Honorable II. G. Squier.', Ron. Claude Coventr y :Mal1et, Hon. Antonio da Fontaut'a Xavier, A. J d'Amaral Hon. Henry l\'Ioet, Hon. Federico Alfonso Pezet, Alberto Bre ani Ro se1, H on. Federico Boyd, Envoy Extl'aol'tlill:1l'Y anu :Mini ,ter PleniI ot of th United States of Ameri a. Hi Britannic l\i[aj(', :l\1ini. t('r H.e. idf'llt. Brazilian :Minister He. ic1ent. ecretary Drazilian Legation. French Charo'e Peruvian Charge u'Affair ,. A ttache Peruvian L gation. Nicaraguan ChargE' d'Affaires. ACCREDITED TO PANAMA, LIVING ELSEWHERE. Ton. E. Poll t Hon. J. H. Reu Belgian l\ljni t r R siclent mth ),f'. id lle> in uat mala. Netherland :Mini. t r R<.',jdellt with l' :ielen e in araca . CONSULAR CORPS ACCREDITED TO THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA. Alnoltl hankEn, c .'par L. r ] l', l \V. [aliI '1',', B. D. Fill. 11qn ] a.m6n ria. P. Alliollio Agai Lui.. "il>', n 'nl n l'al of tll llih: 1 at R of Am 1'i H al. o artR in th int 1'e.' t f hinn :1lld l' c '. i('('-1 11. III U 1) t ( 1 f th nit d Htat( f Am titft. (1 uty 11, III Il 11 r th nil 1 H tat s r A 1U l'i' n lTiH I l'itanlli 'ilfaj .. ty's Yi -C n,111. J H"i\zilinll C 11.' 111. 'hilinn omml l'n1. 1 ) .. t : 1 i n 11 \) 11 "n 1.

    PAGE 400

    p({J/ama s DijJlolJlalic CorjJ.. 383 J. abriel U
    PAGE 401

    384 Hilary B. Parker, A. B. Abello, P ilot and Gilide. Norway. Peru. Juan C. Stevenson, Jose :M. F idanque, Eudaldo BastaI', San Sah'ador. Santo Domingo. Dr. James C. Kellogg, J. 1\1. Hyatt, F. Salcedo Ochoa, paIn. United States. "\ enezuela. DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES ABROAD. Buenos Aires, Vi nna, Tri este, Eru sel Eru e18, Antw rp, Antwerp, alparai 0, oquimbo, .. allivia, Iqui lui ARGENTIXA, Rosolino Pilo Canale, Ignacio Furth, Xieolo E. eva tupulo, PhanorEd r F Simon Carron, Erne t Eiff Edmond l oo'in HILE. Daniel Lyon. John ,V. Fortune a,blo Hoffm 11n, Edwarn E. }\Ill -k .. ill n' in H n K 110', l' 11 I 11 .J 0:0, )\1 l'iO Lim n '\" d nil t:tl' 'lHt.' :Jllri In... 'z 1 1 Vt Wt FrHll .i. (0 I. \lq1l. Con ul. on nl. 'on u1. on.ul. Yi -11 u1. on ul. YiN; -on ul. n ul. 011 nl Cun.ul. 011 1 1 '11 ll. n] .)11 n 1. t )}l. nl. e n:n1. '01 '\11.

    PAGE 402

    385 FINEST AND MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED HOSTElRY IN THE CANAL ZONE. The Greal GUIBOrG cut antl Conal HeOtlQuorters Wilhln EaSY Reoen. -----" AIYIERICAN PLAN HOTEL. ). Newty Furnished. cAtt eModern Con'beniences. Ear and Rastaurant in C onnactioll, ...a .. Proprietor. AND POSSESSIONS. Copenhagen, St. Thomas, Guayaquil, Th. Dam, David O. Bornn, ECUADOR. Ram6n L. Vallarino, FRAN E A D POSSESSIONS. Paris, Cognac, Dij on, :1\1::1r eilles, H avre Fort de France, St. I azail'e, Bord eaux, Indo-Chiut'L (reRitlenc Hon g KOTI(r), 111 Roberto Lewi C. G. D. Hermann, Maurice Polack, Carlos R. Crodel, Augnsto Stier, Gaston David, Jose Parede", Deniges, Alberto Moreno P erez, Consul. olisul. Con ul. Consul Gen raj. Vice-Con. ul Vic e-Con ul. Consul Consul. Consul. Coneoul. on ul. COll ul General.

    PAGE 403

    c -I 386 Hamburg, Gotha, Frankfort Hamburg, Bremen, Berlin, Pilot and Gidde. GERMANY. Julio Arjona Q., Carlos Hummel, Leonhard Gro smann, Geo. A. F. Berend, Friedrich Undiit eh, Philip J. L. Bierbauer, Consul General. Vice-Consul. Consular A gent. Con ul. Con. ul. on"ul. GREAT BRITAIN AND POSSESSIONS. Liverpool Liverpool, Kingston, King ton, Barbados, Southampton, outhampton, ar liff Gla gow, ydney, Grim b t. John' ) New Brunswi k London, LOll Ion N wca. I -on-Tyn underlan 1 ;yau", a < n e uy r, T ront lta. li zP, ; i1)1'<111 <11' l' >( d of '1
    PAGE 404

    Guatemala ity Puerto Ba ,rrio Pu rto Principe Pallamq' Diplomatic 01'])8. UATE:JI LA. o 'Yaldo I aza Joaquin H cht, HAITI. Alfredo J ooke, on uI. on ul. on ul. 387 HOLLAND AND PO SE Am terdam, Cura ao, Genoa, Florence, Naples Palermo, Turin, ina, Venice, H. Schieferdecker, 1\10i ei) de Sola, ITALY. Antonio Papi Aizpul'u, Lodovico Flie Archille Armiconi, Gui eppe Salvatore Tagliavia, A lejandro Bona An tonio Lai, Lionello Gold hmidt, JAPAN. Re id nee In Hong Veracruz Tampico l\fexico, "Managua, Callao Arequipa, Mollendo, Kong, A lberto Moreno Per .z, Rafael .A rechaga, A ll1adeo N. J liluegui, :Miguel Alaman, Genaro Ruiz Orozco, NI ARAGUA. Aleeo Razera, Ari ti les Hazera, PERU. Anatolio Freyre, Federico Bo logue. i, Andre A. Reiuoso, Abel J. COll uI. Con ul. onsul. onsul. onsul. Consul. Consul. on u1. on uI. Consul. Con ul General. on suI. Consul. Con ul. Vice-Con uI. Consul. Yi e-Consul. Con",ul. Con ul. Con ul. on 1il.

    PAGE 405

    388 Lambayeque, Pisco, SalayerrYJ Lima, Lisbon, Oporto, Isla FloreR, J 'la, Fay< I Isla de Pi '0, Odc a, San 1\1iguel, Acajutla, Bare lona, R,uiz, 1\IaJaga, 'evil1 'antan<.ler, HtR,. Cruz Ie la Pilot and Nicanor A. Ca.rmonti" Ed. Varga Sariego, Alfredo S. Leon, Leopoldo Aros mena, PORTU 'AL. Vizcond da Rivera Brava, Antonio Eduardo Glama, l\lanuel Pedro Lopez, Federico Rodrigo Labeseat, Antonio Homen da Costa, RUSSIA. Mcri z Schwarzkoff, SAL,TADOR. Joaquin Barrueta Paz, Manuel enis SPAIN. Bernardo Val1arino, uillermo J. Villav Ide, ui Kranel', Sa III G. de Pare de F rnan 0 Odriozola, Jose a tro Dan alma, 1\'1anu 1 A. Rodrigu 7., Vigo. .ia: P .. Inn ,lilt. (" 1'1lZ d ,'I n('tiff lelH.ia PHl"C'l nn, .J} i r Ulg, Antonio < varl' 1. to L 'U01UL, J nlio ana 1 t'c ja, 1 i 'ardo '10m z Cl niH to k110J HI Bt'ik Will! 1m Djlll'(ling 1 J Con uI, Con ul. Vie -Consul. Con ul. Con. ul. Con ul. on. ul. Con ul. Consul. on ul Gen ral. Yi -Consul, on, ul, (on u!. Vi 'e-Con ul. "\ i 'e-on ul, "\ i > c-0 II 'ul on,u!. ( 011:n1. on,'\11. Comml. ('Oll,'ul, 11 u1. lUml.

    PAGE 406

    Pa }/((}JI{l',' Diplo/i1rrfir C")]:1"" 389 \Ya hill,.t 11 J U U III l'aner, r Pl'nil' -t ntiary and EJlYOY xtl'aol'c1illarY. < < ?ew ork ).Ianu el E. Ama lor 'onsul "f II l'al. Francisc )'Ianu 1 nintero ? on. ul eneral '. Franci Loui., ... .,. w rlean .... T W rlean: Phila lelphia Chi -ago. Atlanta al,"e t n n. In. de Pto. odman Poll Edward E. Prin' R 1 If Perez .J.. Tathan Ei. en ann ilfred H. choff '. 'ill ert ,,-'-heeler, Rn 11 Hopkin A. A. Yan AI 'tyn Rico 'hade' Yere, Port Harry.'. 1 Baltimore, Jame' F. :E el'gu on ).Iobile Juan de Dio Amador Hilo-Hawaii Julio Zumeta. Reo inaldo F. Guard r 'idence in Hong Kong. Alberto )Ioreno Perez ulfport Dad 1 Xun z Henrique"" 'araea. arllpano, La Guaira. YEXEZ"CEL... J. Pallron "Gstariz Lui F. aIYani, Llli H. )Iartur t, 'on uI. Yi 'on ul Yic 'onenl. on. ul. n u1. Con ul. on uI. Yic 'on. ul. Yice-'01 ul. Yice-'OIl ni. 'on ular AD' nt. o Con uI. 'on ul Pll ral. Con ul. on uI. Ion uI. OFFICIAL BAND OF THE I. C C. During the month of September 190:-'; I eral of the employes of the Isthmian Canal Commi sion a em bled at Cristobal and perfected lans for the organization of a brass band.

    PAGE 407

    390 Pilot and Guido. The object of the organizati n wa to furni h recr a tion to those of the COlnmission eluployes ,,,ho might be come members and later, when the band should have becon1e proficient enough, that it might furnish recreati n to the other employe through the concerts "bicb it" ould be able to play. wi ng to tbe expense in ident to furn ish1n an quip-111ent for the band, it "as {flIt thnt the C0111111i .. ion -.;hon]d lelld a ha lid tn n id so Oil SrptelnhC'l' ;-)0, Dr. B, R. Lr I{o ? SPilt a comn1UIlicatiol1 to Charlc::-E. l\Iagoon, who wn' then goYC'rllor of the nal Zon reqnesting his co pel'a-tin)) ill securing a set of instru111ent. rrh 0\ rnor wn favol'nbly imprflssfld with the pr0j and readily loan 1 hi illHlH'llce to its furtheran r, and all order ,ya .oon placed for the instnnncnts. The fir t roster of the band contains 37 nnm r. r111PIl H. Rlak ,Y::l elC'ctec1 it first PI' i r. I LC' loy, vic -pres'lelent; L. I .. tr a 'Ui' 1, n11(l E. t J{Oh:OIl, r n\tDl", Dq. nnlllC'r 0 licl(T:I WH", npp lnt I 1)i1' \ctor, which position he h'ld until after fhe l'COrcrHlliz
    PAGE 408

    o.Oic ial Band of tll I. J -T' INGENIERO CONSTRUCTOR. SE ENCAIlGA DE TIlABAJOS DE ALBANILEIlIA. EJXI:PER..ADOR.., Z.ONA DEL. CANAL.. LOr ENGII'JEER AND CONSTRUCTOR. WILL ALSO UNDEIlTAKt MASONIlY r.---ED<1:PIR..E, CANAL. cllltip uncleI' \,"hieh tho InCH labored nlade it hard to hold the n izatio 11 together. J oh 11 .E'. tovells, who was then the Chicf Engi ncrr and la ,ter Chll i rlll
    PAGE 409

    392 Pilo t and Guide. At present the band numbers over 40 ll1elnber and new men are continually applying for position in it. Four rehea.rsals are helel each mOHth and four concerts given. The 111e1nbers are working with a will to increase the efficiency of the organization, and hope by the end of another six 1nonths to put it on a par with the best amateur bands in the States. All above t h e thir t y-five melnhers who are arriec1 on the payroll, beside the 1Ylusica.l Director and Li brarian, are heJel on a reserve list, and as oon a they become proficient enough and there js a vacancy on the payroll, they aro appOlnte d to become band .ll1en flnel their names p l aced on t h e payroll. Until then they erve through a probationary period. Ohanges occur quite often in the nlembershiI. The n1en cornpleting their service with the OOlumi sion or Pallama Railroad, of course, cease to be 11leluber f the ba.nel, as it is specified in the authorjzation for the point ment of the hand as the officia l band of the OOllUUl ion, that the 111 ,111 bers sha ll be enlploy s of tho OOlnU) issiol1 or Panama Railroad. The meulber. hip is cOlnposed of all classes of help mnployec1 by the COl1nuission and Panallla ailroac1 lerk, eloctors, I olicenlen ciyiI engine rs ti Inekec pers c< rp 11-t r SUI erintenc1 nts, fOrOln)), sanitary jn I ectors, nut h1-lli t et', It 1, al 0 very 0 lllopolitan ill tIll. t at len, t a dozen ))(. tionalitie arc r p1' s nted ::nl1ong it. 111 .111b TIl lihrary of ih b<. nd i luado up f, tanclnrd and p pular 01 J tiOD nc1 i being added t Oll i !luall y ---.. ... THE CLUB HOUSES OF THE ZONE. rl11 )( ling fell .' hri ,til 11 ciation In} h tV at ul hra 111111' l ., )l'Cf n[ and Opt rat \.j t b( 1.

    PAGE 410

    TTl Clu.b HOllse. 0/ the ZOJ/ 393 = bich th nal 01l11uis i o n ha. ere t d :1.11U equipped. n each f the buil ling the 111ain structure I rovides for a bu ine office, ocial 1 bhy, ic e cremn parl()r bill-iard and po 1 roonl a five table, lounging and luaU galne rooUl read ing room cOlnn1ittee ro o m and an entertainment hall which h<1 a seating capacity of thre, hundrpd G llc1 ''Ihich is also 11 cd for gYlnnasium cla ''los and gatnes a ba s k e t ball (Ind volley ball. There i an annex pro\' idi ng two bowling a ll eys baths, lockers l aYatorie, and additional g nlnasiuJll apr aratus which ca.n Hot be u eel in the entertainment hall. Connecting the Blain structure al)(] Hl1lleX are two corridors, in on8 of which is installed a barber shop. Spacious verandas encircle both floors of the Inain building and add Inuch in ath':1ctiveness and cOlllfort. The reading room recei,e regularly about Olle hundred carefully se lnagazines and papers, and there is a five hundre d vohlDle library fUrIli h eel b y the Government. .Free use of th e entertainment hall is grante tickets from any Youug. Thfen's Ohristian As-. . .. .

    PAGE 411

    394 PUot ancl G Hide. sociation in the world are honored by the Association: on the Canal Zone. The activities promoted include tho \ usually found in simi lar orga,nizations e1.'ewhe1'e. :\ CIDbcI" forn1 tbell1Se1ves into groups and arrange for tonrna1l1ellt in chess, checkers, pool and billiard, aDd bowlino Another gronp finds interest j \l the gY1111lasillm, where bo_? j 11 f)' fencing, wre tling, work on 11lats and bar.', ba ket ball, field alld track work take up their attention. IL othc'!" find enjoyment and profit ill stud. Clas. e arc 01'0':l Jl ize I in Spanish, 111echanical cll'HWiuO', Inathematic.'; and the Bible, Camera and debn ting clubs are conduct d hikinn, riding and rxcnrsion partie: ill soason. The Sun la -Clnl is organization that tnke charge of the Yelljon' actiyi ties of the day, such a al'l'angernents for afternoon addresses, concert, alld in a general way !ook after tIl "eHare of lTIen who are in the hosi ital The work of the;" s ociatiolls i earefull) ,'upel'yis d by an Ad visory COlllInittee anc1 the ExecntiY8 OUll i The c1vi ory C0111111ittce con i t of five l' pr Plltatiy ill 11 appointed by the C01111Ui whose c1ut r i j t.o have general snpervision of the work of th or "1.nizati n a a whole. Ea'11 1-SS0 iatio}) h,t-it Ex uti\' un il. and it duty is that of outlining the poli y f th A 0 'iation it repre ents. It i. Olnposed f l'epl'(, "ell b iy( III 11 of tho local A ".'oeiation. he f lIowin 111 11 ar th retal'i in 'haret" )[ the w rl: \VIn. H. axl y ul bra' 110b rt. L U s .. i tant I cretaI' J. 11'l yd 1\I '1' jeI' 1".J1npir Pillph p, 1 (} rgolla: T, I1, a 1 ("l', R TL't:l'.': :\1. tT. k l haL ) 1, (I. Fro luall. Tl':ty Jillg Iru c fillC1ax, (; tHral N Cl' an' v h ( '\ II n 0 ::\ f '1l 's C h 1'i.' t ian \ ... ) i at i I},' 0 f tlll"\ /(\ Il} I xt 11(1 th 1110:t or lin} ill, ittl i Il tn all lrall-o cr.' Oil thr 11 111,1\ tll m ch at home ill til l> 11 i 1(1 ill)'. Hill 11 P ) 11 c1l pI i at. i II (t i h ] k t g n f : t i (' k -t \ViII crladly h gi ]) th rn ...--------..,-.. ----_. ........ -----............ -.,-------

    PAGE 412

    Rondel 395 --:0:--By .rl.LEJAJ..,\DRO DuTARY. TI,e foliulciJl(f ,'e7 ction i 'from tlie p II of tlle IstliJJliaJllJoet, JIr. A7r:j((lldro Dutar.'/ 11;7/0 It(t3 contributed largcly in tlle pa ,t to tll 'Heraldo del l'{mo' ({Jld otller 1)u7Jlicatio7ls. O}}le tim ((go the Pilot ({Jld Guide I'eqllestecl JIr. Dutory to let it liare his favorite lJ1'odllction, fo)' plluli('ntio)l in this folllJ1lC. The H Bmzdel" leas 71i c7iOice. Al pie ue la entrea.bierta celo fa Templa el galan con mana mi teriosas "" ... _----_ -.--.-.

    PAGE 413

    396 Pilot and Guide. FURNISHED BY THE Colon Electric Ice Supply Company. GOLON REPUBLI C OF PANAMf\, Electric Lights for House s. Electric Lig his for Stores. Electric Fa.ns. Motit:()e Power for Machi n e ry. Save L a b o r Time a n d Anno} a nce by In taIling OUf e r v icc. RATES AND FULL INFORMATION GIVEN UPON APPLI. CATION AT THE COMPANY'S OFFlCE. Su sonora guital'l'a, amoro 'a Cancion entona, Uena de armonia. Al e. 'cuehar la unlc ill lodia Deja e1 1echo 1a viro'en pud rosa Y a 'oma U I 1'[1, 1 1 reiuil: Diot'a 'rras la ntI' abierta y i ja eel sin. Y mientra.' 1 ra1tl, n n al O'l'in. Cauta y t <1, 1, 'all t 11 1'08<1 IlmninHll u Inz dp lU '(li dit L j;' c PI' ,j" ,,1 In, 11 )I'lll a R elinada ')1 In i j, I PIPING OIL ACROSS ISTHMUS. r 11 Pni Jl il 101npc ny [ alii' ruin is 011 of th \ ind I nel 1) t 'lnpalli. whi 11 Il'C au ran 1 ri

    PAGE 414

    397 ren.n and market petroleuUl in the tate of California.. It was n of the earliest companies to establish it elf in that tate and ha been Ol1e of the first to open up foreign Inarket for rdifornia oil. rrhe lnain office of the Oom pany is located in the city of Los Angeles, and its principal ,to khokl rs and directors are men of the highest .. tanding in the oil industry as weJl as in the financial worl L The eight inch oil pipe line crossing the Ist1llnu from La Bo a to l\lount Hope was installed by this company for the purpose of doing a,yay "'ith the long journey by sailing yes 'els arounu Oape B .orn in order to Inarket its products on the Atlantic coast, as the trans-continental railroad freight rates are absolutely prohibitive. The plant consists of a lnrge pumping station at Petrolia near La Boca, connected by an eight inch pipe line forty-eight miles in length ,rith another pumping station on the other side of the Isthmus at l\Iount Hope. The actuallayillg of the line "was comnlenced on J\pril 16, 1906, and completed Oll October ] 6, 1906. The company has four 37,:-'00 barrel tank: at each tern11nal site, Inaking a total storage capa city of 300,000 barrels. The ocean-going oil-cnr:ryi Ilg ves sels of the company lauel in specially dredged berths on either side of the If;thmus and discharge their cargoes by lneans of a flexible hose into the cOlllpany's tanks, and reeeive their cargoes from the SD.llle source and in the same Inanner. The oil COlnes from Santa Barbara County, Oal ifornia, and is loaded on the ships at Port Harford, the voyage south occupying fro111 twelve to fourteen days. Besides suppl) ing the neeus of the Atlantic coast, the com pany purposes to furnish such oil as lnay be lleeded to the Isthmian Oanal Oonlulission and the .Panama Railroad Oornpany, thus giyillg theul the advantage of a very substantial in fuel and relieving the congestioll of transportation to some extent. STAR & HERALD" is the Best Newspaper for Advertisers,

    PAGE 415

    398 Pilot and Guide. PANAMA OF THE PRE SENT DAY. AREA. PananUl, although forming the connecting link ly,tween T orth and Sonth AlTIericH, sho,\'s its greatest dimensioll rangi ng frOIn east to west. Broadly speaking, the Republ ic repres .lnt a bellt finger, the a rerage width of this finger, 70 Inilcs, heillg about equa l to th e state of Ne, it greatest length about Jao Inil e., three tirrles as great as that state. Although only aboll t one fifteenth the area of ColOlnbia, and Ie, s than one -h a lf the size of U ruguay, Pall:tnHt COll1pares fa.Yora.bl T \yith Inany other countries which play an illlpOl'tunt ro l e in the COlTIlnerciul life of the world. Compared \yith European coulltries, Panama is three ti mes the size of Bel gium aud 1110re than twice the size of Switzerland. It has about the same area as the state of )Iai Ile, and i.. ahout brothird as large as Pennsylvania. The llepuhlic contains abo u t 32,000 square miles. In the treaty of limit bchreen all:t111:t ( III Costa Ric:l the' bounciar' lille Wit. d finitcl r LDIITS. fix U. COlnmcllcing at P(,int ,:\1 lin < on thc ,l,ribb ( 11 eoa t it follow the Sixola and 111'quin Rirer to t h e Cord tIl ra, thence to the n J) ta In nl }lou I1ta in:. alld from th re f lIow' the oHito Ri\' r tit: 1110uth in tb 01f Dul rrhe trcaty W(l. 'igllC'd ::\I:trch .). 1, :). 'rhe bounclnry line betwc 11 01 lnhia alld Pallam( i_till an un cUled C"{ll stiOll. 1: xpr tn(l h W")\'C'1'. that tIl pen 1-11lg treaty hetw n tIl two \rill p nt l T 1-('rnll11 tIl lilnit:. the pre." 'llt l'nllama \allll, tb t rl'i or to til rato 1 I\' 1'. hich \\'oultl f nl1 a l1:ttllral boundar "hil C It)]llbia <1i 'lutp!' I annma: right t more trl'l'it r T ban, hat h 1 DO II t) it be f)}' t h .. l' .. ion ,\Jul 1I1l(h r the f n'm l' dc'paJ'tnH' Ilt:ll di\'i iOIl. '1 h C"{ llC'. t i () n J. (l Y (' r, i J 11 P () rt a 11 tile all d it, ( In t i 0 11 i.' 1 k d forward wi1h illt ')' .. t.

    PAGE 416

    Pwwmrr. of th e Pre s ent Da!l. 399 The Repuhlic is well-nigh seagirt, ha in 0 a CO \ 'T LI)iE. lanel frontier f le.'s than 0 Iuile ; while the coast provj led by the Cal'iiJbean iea, und the Pacific cee-11 how a total of 1 :24: 5 Inile 767 Inilrs 011 th Pa and 7K 1niles on the Carihbean ca. PIll 1 n04. the popula tiOH of Panalna was esP1T L 'rIOX. t' t d I t 0)11 000 Tl t' f 1 11l1a eat) 10 l'eSUIllp lOll 0 calla operation u nc1er Anlel'icftll Inanagelllent howe er. has attracted cOllsid rable ilTImlgration, not only those who wor]'" on the canal, but other' 'who have sought the Isthmus as a a, orable i)lace for l}eIY illvestm61lts. Tho population of the cities of PalHunn and Colon, anel the Oanal ZOlle, falls but a little short of ] 20,000 at the present time, while other portions of the I{epublic, notably, Bocas del r:I. oro, Chiri lui an(l ,T eraguas h a ye grown cousidcrahly. 0 census figures of recent date outside of the two principal cities, and the Callal Zone, are availa11e, but the Pi70t w 'tilnate of the total population of the Republic and the Canal Zone at the beginning of 190 is 475,000, this in elusiye of the Indian tribes which will nUlnber close to RO,OOO. Panalna is still sparsely populated, for although ten p e r cent. larger than l\Jn,c1agascar, that j 'land has 3,000,000 inhabitants to Panalna's 475,000. The larger part of the surface of Panallla is Inoantainous, consisting of a nUlnher of short, irregularly disposed rallges. The IllOst westerly of these ranges known as the Sierra de Chiriqui, entering Pan Uln a fron1 Costa. Rica, trend luuch nearer the Caribbean Sen t.han the Pacific Ocean the plain of David lying between the 111011ntains and the Pacific, while nte Bay and the Chiriqui Lagoon extend a considerable cl i tnl1ce inland on -the other side. The Sierra de Chiriqni has a lllean eleyation of 6 600 feet. The most conspicuous peak flre ll,:265 feet-Pico Blanco, 11,740 feet, and Rovalo, 7 feet. This range is broken by two passes, one 3,000 feet ahove sea-level, the other 4-000 feet. Farther east the Panama 1110nntain systelll recelves the name of the

    PAGE 417

    . .... 400 Pilot (wil G /lido. ===========---=-====--===-======-= f t ( r t . < l I ( I I I t I J. Francisco de la 0558, 11 ayor of the City of Panama. '-----------------------------

    PAGE 418

    401 lerra d \ Teragul' Thi. rancre contain.' :\1 unt antiag I, f ... ,t: '1 UbI,:), feet, and \tllta J .60 feet. :\Iic1 \ya r het\Y en t 11 e( trril a ncl we tern extrelll i tic, of the ('ountn-, the Blount:li)) ,y, telu i hroken h.\ nl hra PH,:. which Ita, <111 (ltitu<..1e )f onl -_90 fee ahoyo sealeyrL and i. the lo,,": .. t pa. s in tho western Inoullhlill sy.ten}. of "orth find 80uth .. A.merica, with the 'ino le ex ('ption of a pa. ill "'icnracrun. En t of Culebra the InOlllltaill: ar:tdllfllly il1('re("e in tc\ ation, cuhninatillg in tll of j[; ria Ellriqnrz 1 feet, HIHJ Pacol'a 1.-00 'rhe Serrnnia del D;lricll, ntno 'ino ill altitude '0111 ,-00 t f(ct. l'kil'ts tho CnrilJlle< II onst from Porto Bell to tIl (j n If of (-raIl:\. 1 \yo prak' in this range nn :dtitnclo of :3.000 f )llt, while tll Tihnlc Pa, inks :.t low [l' -1:?O fept,. Latel'nl ridO'c. connect the e1'-1':1llia <101 J nrion with th l1an 10 rallO'E': 'rhich fOl'1)1f.; the Pa 'itic cna ... t ]'
    PAGE 419

    tt_ -=e' -402 Pilot ana C. C ) /Ic IT. .. /l.E. Colon Stationary and Supply Company, No. 53 f:3olival---St., Colon, R" P. DIRECT IlYLPORTERS OF EuropeaJ\ aJ\d f{rnericaJ\ Goods. AG-1\i--S L.1llGE TATIO TERY" FIIDI IX ElTllOPE. !:.111 :.r AXD OTHER IN"DI X PA PEHS. ONE BLOCK WEST OF PANAMA DEPOT. tl10 i a labebol'rt and the Rio de los Indio: elnpt. ing into the aribhean Sea' the Tarire near th) n. tel Ri '(1 n tho "ian Pcdro 111ptying lnt tho n1 (,1' [nn-tijo and th Rambu, 90 Inilc 10no ', c1rbonchinO' lilt the' Bay of p. nmna. v 1 mira Ilte ay on the arihbeall ();1 t 11 at' til ,stn. Rican honndary, i s l:l III ii, long frorn n .. t t. \n','t, with a wit1th l'al\gi 1l0' '( m:2 0 Il1 il '. 1 t i!-; IltL'l'c(l fr01n tho ra hy th Ii ( 1] I)rngo tllld tll<' dy tll Hoc; d(' 1 '1 igl'C', whi lw .. a widt.h r thl' '( ,uHl ollC'hnlf l11il ... N ,cure :til 'hol'ug i .. aft' n1 d ill fl' In () t l:.?O f( e't or "
    PAGE 420

    Pan((JIlrt of tlie Pr .cnt })ay. 403 Isthmu", i,' 20 luil I llcr and 10 wi(l and is .. h c lt erc<1 f1' t1l tIl n rth wind by the ]\Iulatas Arrhi bO'(. r 11 1>a 7 of l\Iandino':t Oil th outhwe'tern idp of th gulf, f I'm,' a deep allcl ea, ily apI roa -hed harb r. aledol1ia a :11. pr teet u hy a I cIt of cay, ha two de pinner harh r,. a \ al'c1i and al d nia. The 1 [IV of Panama. xtel1(L fr m
    PAGE 421

    404 Pilnt and Guide. and covered with forest and cocoallut groves. The Pearl I lands ill Panama Bay co, er 400 square lllile of land and ,y::tter. The islands are low and but little cultivated. The larg t island of the group Rey, i 1:-l11ile long anel -; 1ni1e. wide. There is a peak 011 this i'land GOO feet hiah. -.Ioi ba, the largest island. belonging to P 'anama, is 21 111ilo long :1 nd froIll 4: to 12 mile ,ride. It is coyered ,,,ith dense forests. Oehaco Island lyi ng across the Inouth of the '111 of l\1ontijo, is thirteen anu one-half 1ui]es long and three 1niles wide. Taboga, a gem of the Pacific is onc of the prettiest island" belonging to the R epublic. The greater 101'tioll of its surface is mountaiDou but. a good deal of the land is UDder cultivation. Taboga p:ne apples are kUO"Tll all ovcr the "hile ma])goe ora nges. and oth r fruit are pro luced extensi vely. The island is 12 111iles froll1 Panalna ity, and is much resorted to by p ople fro111 the lnninlan 1. Palla1na i diyidec1 into ey Jt I r 'lnce Politi<:al Diyi ion. nam 1 T Bocas c1 1 Toro hiriqni. 10cl' jolon Los Santos Panama and -r eraguas. Ea h I ro\'il1 e i (dll1inisterec1 y n. G vernor appointed by and 1'e p n i-hI only to the Pre id n t f the I ublic. Th I r vince. rc in turn di i(1 c1 illtO 111uni ipal Ii tricts gOY rIle 1 by a lllunicipa,l "oullcil ,,ho:;; lllelnb r PO} ularl TIt cl (1)(1 j 'tl1 1 (11 r l\1a)' r \y11 i the '11ie acbllini tr' -tiyo Hi i( 1 f the lTIUnl il alit: and {I 0 the <.1ir. t ( rr 11 the provinci,l g Y rnor. In all in rnal affair'. th Il1nlll'il aliti (1'e If-g YCl'llinO'. he c 11 tituti II 0 U \ rnm nt. f r L \V 1H viel : f l' 111 Ill. de ,If. '(Ia 1'.' ( I r t 1'111 f fnnr t 1'm. . .\n ma 1 l' '}H )f 0, P 1 u, illlilnI' t) tIl< ubli an g Y l'1l-

    PAGE 422

    405 111 nt. He lllU t sign or veto all bill pa ed by the 1 ClO'_ i lati,e body "'ithin froIn f1-\e to eight day depenc1in0' 11 tb) length of the hills, oth 1'wi. e they become law ith out hi ignature. ill. ,etoed by the President by rea all of their doubtful ol1stitutionalitj are referred to the upreIll Court of the country. If that body decides they ,iolate no proyi ion of the constitution the President Inu t affix hi ignature. Other yetoed bills mny be repas ed bj the assenlbly by a t'\yo-thirc1s vote. Tho President appoint.. all the higher onsible officials of the countr) including mCIllber.' of hi.. abinet, i udges of the Supreme Court diplolnatic and cOllsular repre .. entatiYes, and governors of the provinces. Tn OllIe nppointments the chi e f executive acts alone' in other ases approval of the 1 O'i latiye boc1y i required. All regulatioll order and decrees of the Pre ident lllU t be counter. igned by the ill rober of hi Oabillet j 11 charge of the subject under con ideration. The PrE' ic1ent i a isted in tho (lischarge of hi dutie by a Cabinet consi ting of a Sccretary of Goyernment and J us tice' cGretary of Foreign Relations' Secretary of Finance; Secretary of Public Instruction and Secretary of Public \\ o rks. The e officials hayp, a ,"oice, but 110 vote in the legislatiye body. In ca 'e of the death or disability of the Pre ident, exe(jutiyC' powers devol ye upon one of three per 011S termed De ignadores. elected at each session of the ASSelI1bly, aJld in the event of the disabilit., of these three officials, upon a llClnber of the abinet. The la"'-making branch of tho gOyernnlent i a ingle bod) the National Assell1uly, C011-i ting of Deputies elected for a term of four year in proportjoll of one Deputy for every 10,000 inhabitants. or a fraction o,er ;-;000. Substitute are elected in the same 111anner at the same time and for the same tenll. The A sembly meets every two years and extra session may be called by the Pre ident. The administration of justice is vested ill a Sll-ourt. PICll1C Court, circuit courts, district court, aJlc1 other tribunals established by law. The Supreme

    PAGE 423

    406 Pilot a lUi Gil hle. Court is located in Pananw, with jurisdiction and powers sinlil a r to tho8e possessed by such courts ill other outh A .lll l':ca n COll Ilt.ries. Its judges fi y Po in l1lnn bel', are 1101ni!la t e d hy the Pre ic1ellt and confirn1e<1 by the .A.SSC1l1bly. The circuit courts, of which th e re js one for each proyinc located in tho cDpital city of each, possess jUl'isc11cwIth the l'cspectiYe provinces. The district ('onrt Olle fol" each nnlnicipal district, have local jurisdictioll. The n.ppo illtlnellt of th l judges of the circuit, disb'i t Hlld ot h er illferior courts rests IGlrgely \rith the illlll1cclinte superi or tribunals' the de'18ion8 of these inferior courts are suLjec t to review by tho high e r tribullals. III a genernJ way e njoy the saIne rights and priviieO'Es before the tribunals of the Republic, a s citizens do. All imports into tlle Republi ,yith the exc ptiOll u 'tom' f l' 1 b f I I 1 l' 1 f (I a 11l11tec nuIU er 0 artlc es lllC LH 8( III t 1"\ reo Jist or subject to a pecific duty, pay an ad ,u,10rel11 duty of tCIl per cent. SOI110 of tho 1110re inlport .ant arti I es Oll the fre 1 ist :1 1'e <111 i 11la ls for bre e d ing purpose, ice, guan), <::eec1s (,nd plallt.s,111:lchine w e i g hing Ie. s than 22 4 pounclR, l'()ad makl11g' an d c:tnal 1l1achine1 '.) raib,a rolling tork and track .'upplie h)l gr;1ph Jnat rial" coal imported by the 'Oil umer. bridrr iron, hips Hllcl pa.rt.' ra\\ 111at rial' IlPcc. ,'ary in tIl \ Intll1ufactul'.) of b r ctlndles Rnd oap, ('.'CCI tillo tall h kbilller. and printer' SUI pli) inc1u 1-illg 11lk Hn 1 paper: articlc)' illlport o d by tea.mship c IH-pani .: r ligiou' Hnd harit:lhl e l'P;<.Lll iZrl tic n . and by the 1'11m nt f()r ex In iy U \, .,pirit .... liqn r'" i-haec '( ffe l Hat > he: 111atch l1Hl.tel'iHL., opium, ':1.] t. and ('a ttl ( nre ,'ubj c t if) spEcifi' dutic:, a fol-low:: ()r
    PAGE 424

    407 -jiter: 0)) ntn t 1 liquid us I in the manufactur )f du i}hi b \\'erng ,.,,) 1.5 P x Iltt-l .. bitter"" 'U h as JIg .. unt hi r .. f rl1 t-bral1 a. co oa; cent per liter; whit e r l 1 and Bordeaux wine; 10 cent per litc'f' \"inc wert ; InaL ga, sherr', I l'to and yennouth _0 cpnt per lit r: (hnmpagne. f:.... per liter' a rated and Inineral \\' ( ter.', I i::-;:i l' and 1l1ccli 'inal wine ill1p01.'ted in p -inl b ttle :!.) p r rnt. il\"(: 'l' 11 not gold value' 10'ar' ':Z.O p r kilogl'anr igarette per kil gnln1' other fonn of toLa ) : 0 P l' kilogr .. m: c ff2C, per quintal. gl'O ... \yci:rht: \"ax Inatche cent pel' kilogram. gl'O' S ,rei n ht; ,rood 11 mat bes, cent per kilograln: raw nlaterinL for 111nt he. 10 cent I er kilogram; gros weight iUlll 81:') I -1' 1 i10-gram' ualt, :2. per (luilltal; cattle for public C O il ump-ti Il: nlnles :? 0 each, females, 1:')' .00 each. ... :111 the aLo\'e duties are ill P,111alna sil\'er. The liter J 1 .. G quarL. The kilogl'aln is 16 pounds. The qui] tal IS :?:? .-:1:0 pOUIlC] J. \V in,ention anti inyention.' already pat-PA TEXT..l. t 1 L 1 b t t d' P ell ec a roat may e pa en e]n anan1tl. proyidincr the illr Iltion i' not already CO\ erect. A pplicati oll for a patent honld be Ina 18 to the ecretary of Panan1a, Rep. of Panama. The application ll1U t be aCCOlllpaniec1 by a de ript1011 of the invention jn<1icating it ll, lture and obje't. and if the application be made through a 1'e ic1ellt agent. by a power of attorney vised by con ul uf PHl HUll a; drawing and models or samples are aI 0 r e quired by the g Yenl1llent. Patents are granted without examination. ."-<\.11 corre I onc1ence and neces ary papers ll1U t be in the Spani h language. The tenll for \rhich a patr ])t IlIa T e .. e ured i. fifteen. or T years: at th opti 11 of the applicant. Action mu. t be taken "ithin one .:ear or grant. The co:t of filing application is about 820 goll, with all annual fc )f )20 gold during th life of the pate nt. The 1 a,, f Pallama recognizes byo cIa r T P ADE f 1 k fl t' '1' 1 trac e Illar 5, or t 1e reglstra Ion 0 \'1 llC 1. slightly differellt procedure i necessary and diferellt fees

    PAGE 425

    408 Pilot and Guie. charged, Theso are the industrinl or nutnufJ.rtllrcrs' lual+ L and COlllluerciul or merchants' nlu:' k"', Rerri .. trati II Ina r be 111ade jn persoll or through an authoriz 1 H rr 11t. A pplication should be Inade of the Secretary of Public ,Vork (Folnellto, and luust gi\ e a complete clescri[ tion of the 111 ark, indicate the product to which it j, to ho all1i d and state the place of Inal1ufactnre. It Inust bo accompanied hy t\yO copie of the 111 ark, by a yi .. eel of attorlle' if the application be illn,de thr ugh an agent, nncl if it be a Inark a lread,' registered abroad by a. certificate of nch regi tratio]). The npplication 1 I n hii hed at expen ... e of the applicant ill the Gaceta Ojicial for a period of dO clays for an industrial mark, and 60 clay,' for a c Inn1 rcia l 111 ark. If no oppo ition dcye]ops, the 111ark 1 then regi tereel an 1 a c issued t applicant. Th ice for an industrial llHtrk is :-0 gold and for a c mnlerci'll 30 gold. The Prcsic1en', alar T i 0 0 per 11-FFIC'L\L s_ L \RIE...;. 'tl tl t 11 1 J' llum. "'} 1 10 saDl<: anl01111 \Ve( 1 r liyinrr expo]} es, and $3,000 for extl'( official )uq .-. Tl :1lary of th Hnalllct Eny y Ht n.-hingtoll i" 0 1 r n:Hlum' of the con ul gcneral t "'w 01'1-: t";3;liOO p If con ul gcne r al <:1 e\Yh 1'0 0 P 'Rll11llLll' 11-suI., 1 r anllun1, and yicc-C'ou,'ul.. :1 l) 0 pt'r :l \1-llum. rChe oll,'u l ge n eral 'oll,'ul: lId vic COil 'ul in tho "'lIit c1 tate' all 1 are pai(l he abOYl' .. i 11 I r () 1 d' i Il tIl e r p ( r t f h \ () 1'lll. tIL ( d n II L' i Jl sih 1'. rl he abin t milli .. t 1\' n II\, () )er annl ll1" til (TOYCl'llor 101 11 :".1 () PCl' :t 1\11 lllll' tll \ n l\ l'IH r of 1>1l1l:l1l1i.t and '(l' d 1 '1 Jl'l, "'1.1' l IH'l' allllllJ 1 '11; gOY('l'IlOl'. of nil () 11(11' pn rill' \., 'l.:!OO pc 1'ill1l1U111 a '11, Th) alcalde .. or PallHllUl. and i )I()n l"cl'i\ ,nlnri" 01 J)('l' allllUIll each. \11 tIl ant >Ull :.; .d)o\ III lltiolH .. 1 arc) III ()' I 1. 'tl TO ,'l.):..,)() 0 work, <1i\ i 1 d inn )lll' tll th 'lUll IT! 1(1 .... ct a I f ). l)U 1 i \ \ 'lid pro\'in' '. a f Uo\\" ,:-

    PAGE 426

    /0 tl1 (J -o o f40 (J u Panama of tlle Pr 'e1l t Day. 409 -..-$ Y. FREClADO & Co. TIO. TERS AND Store 'Hispano=Panamefia' 51 and 53 ixtb treet, Panama, R. P. } r o ntiu'" Oill of Pacifi c l1ail "'. Co. LARGEST AND MOST COMPLETE STOCK Of STATIONERY ON THE ISTHMUS. FULL. LINE OF WRITING MATERIALS. MIRRORS. TOYS. NOVELTIES. COMMIssIoN. IMPORTATION. EXPORTATION. TeleDhone No, 44. Calle: Freciauo, P anam3, A. B. C. 4th & 5th, Edition. Y. P _ZECIAp0 & Co. P analna, $500,000; Colon, $150 000' Chiriqui, $225,000; Oocle, $175,000; 110S Santos, 175 000' "'\ eraguas, $17 and Bocas del Toro, $225,000. Since then nUl.ny roads ha, e been constructed, bridges built, schools and other buildings of a public character erected. In Panalna city several Hew schools and colleges have been put up, and the work is still being continued. J. A. I.;oyd a captain of engineers ill Simon I thmian "\ ""(,0 1 B 1" f .] d 't d th o l var s army 0 Innepen ence VISl e e Isthmus in 1 27 and nlad e a carcfel study of the forest ri -hes in Pan'llua. He state in his notes : that in vigor and Yarieties, the "'oods of the Isthmus challenge con1pe tition with any part of the world." :JIr. Jil Sanchez, a citizen of Panama and one of the be t posted illP,n ill the country on its natural resources, has written a v ery interesting little book on the forest riches of the Darien region. The timber lanus in that part of the cover '.:J

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    410 Pilot and Guide. estilnated, nearly 6,800,000 acres, cOlupl'ising hundreds of varieties of native woods. A book could be devoted to a description of these woods but it i the purpo e of the Pilot and Guide to nlention only the 1l10re prOlninent and \\'ell kno"'n species. The gnayacan; or lignulll vitae f
    PAGE 428

    Panama of the Pr ent Day. 411 i ng ; like zebra nnd ha' a, fragrant mell. 1he prieto yuri ty ha a beautifully figured grain and gn)\y to about thr00 feet in It beautifully and i. ill great den1and for cane:s. The fine t cetlar in the country i the cedro real amargo. It gro,Ys to fiTe and IX feet in diameter, ha a long grain, "ith the familiar odor of cedar, alld is much used in boat building. The e paVE} prieto is one of the commonest wood, something like e11n, and is lunch used in house building. The guavita is a white, soft wooel of an extrelnely hitter taste. Tho sap fro111 this tree is used by the natives as all antidote for snake bites. The jagua colorado is a soft, close-grained, but tough dye ,yooel u ed by the Indians for carving spoons and orn::unents. The jobo do Ingarto has a bark like the skin of an alligatur. l\Iangle (mangro\e) is a C0111D10n ,, 'oo d of a reddish bn.nYll (:olor, and makes a most excellen t firewood, burnillg like tinder. l\Iatapolo possesses the peculiar and rather ullfortnnate faculty of killing any other tree growing 118ar it. The ,,'ood is -white and tough, having a long, close, white, shi ny grain. It is common and gro,Ys to large size. Quajaelo is an indestructible wood with an untractable graill. Totuma (the calabash tree) gro\\ s to the size of Ol1e foot in diameter, and is quite plentiful. Vela bears a fruit consisting of a loug candle-1 ike pod. The palo de vac[t (lllilk tree); rubber tree and bread frni t tree are quite COmlllOlJ. 1lany valuable resills are extracted fron) the different trees of the Istln11us, notably, ono distilled froln the bark of a tree called the pa.lo Santo (holy stick). The essence is highly fragrant and is used as a relllecly for disorders, and also burne 1 as incellse. The tyrax officillalis of Linnaeus is very COlTt-111011, n u<1 thp, gnln derived frorn it cOllllnanels a read. sale. Ink is [unde froI11 gall nuts, and likewise r01n a hush ca.lled alsifax. The algodon, or cotton tree is plentiful. A couple of ) ears ago tho writer submitted a sample of this tree cotton to the Bureau of Plant Industry at \Vashington. Upon comparison, it was found equal in most re-.. -------------. ---._-------+-----. . -

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    I 4 1 2 Pilot mul G lIille. peets to Alahama long staple. )otton th ordillUl'Y kind an he ea:ily l'UltiVBt lc1 Oil t It tbnlU 1111L t.o labor condition it" I'a i ing ha not been prontal)le The gigant.ic tree of tho I tll1nns goes by the l1ctlle )f (1 j pl.l, and ,yill l'i vet 1 ill size OUl f the gia,nt trcc! f the 'jposa J nIley in a l ifol'nia. 'Iwon4-y-two ton h YO lwPl1 hollo wed (Jut of a sino' l e tree. llotlwr 1(\ 'tdia' tree the ,roo10n tree, which pl' c1nce.' a poel tilled with a t 'xture closely resOlnbling <:1uim 1 wool. It Inake o_-ceUent mattre s and pillow lnatel'ial. 1 he 01' ; on h . A, meriCu,1l tig l' i .. fdUllll ",Vild Allimn,l" I' ff t t f tl J tl 1 11 111 (r el'ell pal' Ole. 111Hl '. t b l in attack rDa 11 unless a ng l' (1, but i a t error t 1'.liers. Rac oon snj ina \ a pecios of wild hoar, l'ahh' L : 111all de rand 111011koy' aboulll1. There 't1'e C \ sp -cie of quirrel and llUtnnO ets; the latter 1 eing ill actiyo dem( nd (s pet. 'Vilc1 turkey: hi rd, reseIubling th rican h n phon 'allt, p igeon.': dnel'" P' 1'1'O(S alld 1 are t be f0l111c1. The nak fanlily i 11 l' present (l frol the gr at boa-con trictor t) th pitoflll CJl'al. Ihe tiger snak i CT litec1 with beillo' ne of the 11lO.'t \ ell moU:. n 'ett life j' vel' (tcti r), :1.11(1 th appet ranee f .'{Jln 1 of tho I.,thnlian hugs clef r J "Cl ipti ll. I t w( uid hL nce -' ary to hav"\ D e f curvos () C In6 at the rio'ht 111 H. nl' ,In nt. Durillo' the dry 'en '( 11 ,,,hen animal lif t j, 11lun or 1e 1 l'll1ant bug lif'\ i H.' bu y a' "r. wehe' and ant are th \ tnl1l01l p(\:L of 11 hOll 'e and a. '0 11 'tautly h lHing 1'01' all inYa'i II. '1'h' sloth. anna lill 111 t Ili-()'at l' a1' ])1 r r Ie.' .' 11111 n rOll' Plant lif 1 Ull til I hmu.' .. It \\ tt \ in rOll O'l'tJ\\'th. but ill the lllain i' P 'uliar t ih \ l'O Tho l' ,hid faluily is Uk 111 I.'l Pl'Clllill InC (lid 'OJ11-}J1'I a. gl' at 111: 11, \ ( l'i<.'til', 1 he Ill O .. t 11 )L;Lbl \ "p('cic. a r th e i r i t II I '1 jilt H () 1 I 1 pi l'i t). ; 1 11 d II m : I 1\ a Ian l ( Iy v k). 'h, .'p 'ial hitral't. 'ri.' i' I f tll 1 I K:;:i u 'i Ilt til frue if, "ill" 'Ol1lll11l ill he "11 r of h' LV r wi h it "mill Ullti .':"" :LIltl: : ,I r "i:lg gland

    PAGE 430

    P({nama tile Pre,' lit Day. 41 3 f l'0llen-lua e which p1'. pnt a triki ng r smn! lanc t ad" \. The extcnd d ,,jugs. the head and beak an 1 lY(\1l tw purple dot, {or th eye arc all c1i.'tinctly and aIm t as tru to Jl, ture a: the art of Inan nn depict th IU. Fiv leave.' 81rillg fron1 ea 'h bulb of the pIa]) t. The e ]eaycs are frmll 0 to ;{O i Dche in lellgth h,' fire 01' inch 1n brcndth-lullceolate in fonn. The i em 01 th fio,,'er gro,Y' fr01n three to four feet in hight, bo( ri11O' UPOll it. slllnlnit a .. pike of globose fle hy y(\lIowi 'h white Rower which yield a delicate perfuDl. 8 l1letimes tIl re i a pc ulIa1' .'cnsibilit, conuected 'W'ith the H()\yer of thi .. pecies (f llallt, which 1l1alre s it a most cffectiye insect trap, so hi nged that it quickly cio e .. and 1101<1'" fa. t allY in cct which lnay alight upon it. The Se-111 ClIHt 1 anta deriyes its nalne frolll th fact that it usually hIo' onl during Ho l y week. I os s are growll, hut they d 11 t acquire the 'izc or beauty of the rose in the telnpcr3 te zone. :told i found in ynriou part: f the l ,th-::)Iinel'al. ll1U, principall.Y in the Darien and an RIa. a lld the PI' vinces of "r and Ohiriqui. 1\1 nngn 11e .", 1111 nes e. t at Oln )re de io f l'ty 111iles ca. t of Col II. Coal hftS been (1 iSCOY8f d near del rroro. hilt llot in paying guantitieR. Oopper dep ).'its occur near Dayj.l and Felix; iro11 in the vicillity of the Cerro \\.n Cristobal. Traces of 1 rtroleum have h en found jn '(hil'iqui i. nc1 Tl s al1tos province.'. Bana.nas '111, th leading article of export Pl'OUU 1 I f 1 11 of a naUla: anc ara OUlle III a part of the OUlltr '. T h grentcst degr e of pro-dl ctiYCll s ho \ rev r i reached ill the eh, ngui-nola. nnd ixoh d i 't.rict. of the Pl'OYlllt:C of Boca,' Toro the G'nitecl Oompany 'ontrol r0'B pinntatiolls. fIle 'ity of Bocas is founded up >1l the hauulla clnd iR .aid to be the .'e cond large.t banuna port in the world. Bebyecn three and four l11illioll bUllche. are annuRHy shippcd it' ill this pint. Bhnunas

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    414 Pilot and Guide. are also plentiful [liong the Chagres, alld are brought dO'Yl1 to Bohio al1(l Gaiun ill cn:yuco,-, or native canoes, and from these points shipped to Colon by rail. Coffee renches its highest stage of perffctioll in the province of Chiriqui, where in the ,icil1ity of Boquete, Ulan r forejgll ers are engaged ill its (,l1ltivatioll with "pl(lndicl ,uC'ce s. The Panalll:t bean of a ,ery good grade. Chiriqui prov ince is the best agricultural and grazing section in the Repuhlic. It is bl ssed with :t di, ersifird clilnat0, being cool ellough in some parts to raise wheat Hnd oats. early nll the cattle for local con:umptioll como froln there. 'while tobacco ::ind garden products are prodnc d exten i,-ely. Tho best cacao (the cocoa of commerce) COine fl'oln Coc]' province. Sugar cane. llsed principally in Ini1king 11)01as es and nati ve rum is rmsed ill Chiriqui, C()de, La..: Santo and '7 eragnas Provinees. Or ,her products consi::'t of corn, rice, rubber, illdigo, cocoauuts. pahn anI j"ory sarsaparilla, ipecacuHllhfl, skins of ,,-illl [1l1d <.10111 ,tic bea ts, etc. Rubber is bei Ilg p1'l duced rnol' fll1d Bocas del Toro, and the Da riell being the fa.\'ored ectiolls. lVIr. Jil l heretofore ll1entionecl has is' 'U0U a cOlnprehensiv treati e on the rubber iudu try of the thmus, in English :1l1c1 .1palli 11 \rhich i 1'e 111-nlenc1ecl to all interested ill rubber PI' c1ucti Il. The National ...... :elnbl r n 1\In r _l 1 ( pa eel .. a. et of law tIl a IjlH!ic( Lion f wIld or ,,"( to lalld .. of tll ) puhlIc. FollrnYlll' a ynop i of the h \\" ,,,hih will be fund y:tlu. ble t tll ont 11111 ting making ill\, tmellt in 1. tlnnian publi L. 11C1.::-ational ,,", t l lal11. al' all tho tluLt f I'm th t l'l'i-Art. 1. tor)' f th H 1 nhlit' ,,,itll til -"('PI ti n of .. 1l h a a1' 1 nominat 1 f1' ,1:1111 .. HlHl U 11 U n w 1 1 llO'to nntn},[ll, 01' jnri<1i P l' on Art. _. .F u11 W11 f h lawl i .. \ 1 in th l llati n. Th :HljlHli'n i n f 'vn. t Ian 1 .. 11a f 1'it.. oj t th ir \wr: l, 'nltivc Ii n allcl tit t;\hli:hm lit f inc111 tl'i l' '011'rn. f p1l1lil Itlit, vi;" ( 1 ) Fr th llH'llt. d \ '(' } )pm nt and 111m 11 n . f 'itit' S t \\,n .. an 1 iUnO'. ----:.....----

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    P((IIClJJl(t of tltt Pre 'ellt Day. 4 1 5 1 nt 'h aclju canDot 1 trau 'ferr IU, 01' liv rt d to au th l' bj t, ex 'ppting f land for <: ity pllrpo .. e ', whi 'h may h 'd d ratuitou ly 1 3 -<1 or so]<1 by th reo pechv municipaliti 011 condition ot: building ou tll m to the f I'm, an 1 within the tim tipnlat u, by th> afor .. ai 1 orporation .. l' hom ,'tad' that L t -nr. ountl'yre .. iden e.' by lanu. f r 30'ri 'ultlu'al a ,nd O'l'azing PUl'PO...,ClS. (3) }I'O!> the a : i 'tallce of e:t,-f public. benefit, but .'nch adjudi 'atioll hall be .. ubj t to I an tion. (4:) F H' the and dey 101 m nt (f COlonie uutho1'izedl)y law. (.5) For tL a ' i -tauce and subsi that may be gl' 'ree a,ll,iulli 'ation' of another cIa (I) All natul'al,ol' ,juridic per::;oll,' domiciled ilt the countl')' ::11a11 ha ,-the rio'ht to hay portion of laud allotted to them, f'Xcept that foreigner who ere nati VE' 'of conntl'ie .. ,,-bert' Panamanian' ( 1.'(:' not pel'mitt d to OW'll 'ity or cOlmtl'y prop l'ty "hall llOt en'oy tIlL right. A tax of :2.5 cent:-: gold per hectare i illlPose 1 Oti the AUTS. -; an 1 f t'tl b th 1 d 't' uallC 0 1 e.:, w eel' proVl :ona or eunl lVe. The ta on title, cl by this law 'hall 1 e u.-ed ART",. 9 to 10. to defray the exp 11 e.' of management 'urve 11111 a.d-judication of nationallanc1s. For the adjudication of ('oncel')} f l' the public benefit, deyelopment of colonie' awl ways of comnlunication, the tax 011 'llall rallge f1'0111 to 50 ( enf' voId per hectare. ART 11. AnT. 1:... The tax 'hall obtain a'" soon a .. the paper' are filed ,,,itlt the Comilli ioner of nat ionalland who ""ill pa ',' a COl' .. re pOllding oucher to the Trea 'urer. The application )uuN t be clear!: written in 'tating the name of the district where the land is ituated, the ar pl'oximat area of aid Ian I, the boundarie'" thereof, the object for which it i .. to be used and all d etails tending to convey a clear knowledge of the transaction. RT. 14 The Conlmi ioner of national lanlll:i is empo'Yol'ed to alter boullc1arie'" pecified in the application "hen arne are found to be detrimental to the ad,joiuing ,Ya. te land 01' likely to cau e general inconyenience. ART. ]?5. After an application h:1. been made attordwg to form h rein pre cribed, it shall be publicly made known by edict, which 'hall be posted for a period of 30 day in a public place on the outside of the office of Commi ioner, alld in the office of th Alcalde of the di trict in which such land is locatpd. It ,hall al 0 be publi hed in the Gaccta O/iciaZ at the aIIJlicant' expen 'G. The publication of the edict ha for it, obje t the affording of an opr ol'tullity for who may con idpr that they have uffered dama,g by the appli ation to put iu their claim in due cour e

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    416 Pilot and Gllicle. Agents of La Nave g aci6n Nacional. DEALERS IN PEARL AND COjl}lIS IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS, 1aim agains' application for laud, mu t be ART. 16. 1=1'e8 uted within ;)() lay ,nb .. equ lit to the (Iat of the thil'l publication of the (lid in the O(lcct(( to the mmi 011 l' of national lands for t 11< t lli tri t. _lit r the lap ... e of ') day', withont auy claim lla ing be n RT. 17. pre nte ,and if pl' eutetl, cl i If'd ill fa VOl' f th a p-plil:flllt the n l' ,'ha ll 1 Ii, e1' ill appli ation to an offirial Ul'V J:Ol' who in th It. ,t 15 cla', .:::ha 11 11'a w np th plan f the lan(l ll1 ,cure' i and uumit rep l't. \.11 c. em;;, in 1 in th 01 Ining f tIlt n 'C>: :1l'Y ... \n1', '1'0:', -path' for th 11 ::t, nr III llt f tll( laml an I for <1l'H\ving up 1h plc 11..' th "1'('1 f hall b" 1 rn 1: til eOlH' n (1. rrh '1' .. -path, ;"hnll hay ( minimum Willth f tw 111 t (abo I t I fp t). .. \UT. ::!.l, haying 1 ionn 1 tit! Th plan, 111 ( ,'nl' m 'Ilt r 11<11' p 1't h. yiuO' b pt 1 t a pI'-rrh t l'm f l' tlw (1(' 1111 :\t lj lHI i 'i tin h, -in 0' 1 1"1', :31. ,\'ith nt appli a.tiOll hH\'ing' b 11 11' .'{ nt d, th n11 iOJ1( r 11' ('(1 ( lllilk \ P 1'''4onn11,\' Ot' thl'Ol1crh a, lC')lnt y fm 0('111<11' it r ti n f hl'lawl Hll(l if 11-III in) ti n it n11

    PAGE 434

    Panama of the Pre 'cnt Da!!, 417 r "ult that the party concern ... d hfl. no fulfill 1 th >bligatiOlt:--pro-Yided by thi. la.w the land. hull 1 shall be criv 'n of u -11 action a proyi deu in Art 1;') and 16. All titlC'. to 1 finit ow-npr hip of land .. hall be t r (1 ART, a tit xp 1) of the party conc rned at the prol r R -gi. tel" offic \ ithiu ; 0 day. aft r th hHye h ( o n i ':ued to in ure validity. Ally l' iei nt, and in g neral fllly p l'. on II t deharre 1 h:-ART. -13. the or 'who L not the own l' of land ha tIl:> rio ht to th provi" i nal adjudication for hi <..:ountry r i Iell -e of u much a 20 h(, "'ta.re. of wa. te laud for purpo e, wh l'ey rlw may el t; pl'oyid d tlH'Y art:> not c1 'laned f01-any other u e, The maximu of "\yu t laud,-' to b atljudica ted to a ART. ingle per on hall b :"'0,000 hect, re. hectal'e equal .. 2.-1711 acre, DJflking' the maximulU allotment in acre Imme liately after the offi 'er. lected to give e ion ART. 66. of the land l' ceiyE's the commuuication from th proYin"'ial commi 'ioner, he 'hallllotify the party COD 'erne 1. and po t a placa1'd during -1 ., hour. in the office of the Ale-al i of the Di t1'ict, annon 1 ing the day and hour in ,yhi h th proc e
    PAGE 435

    418 Pilot and Guide. remain pprm8.nently. The. e permit hall not be O'ra nted for plot o,er ight hecta.res in extent. held by savage) 01' half-avage indigenous tribe", Art. 7D. are not ubject to adjudication. The.Ex cutive em powered to determine under thi law the precis boundarie, of these territorjal reo el''\ atiolls and to rE'o trid :u h ound:tl'ie. from time to time, a circum tance' may r quire. The following are not subject to adjudieatioll: Art .. O. ana metal and mineral depo it. alt depolSiL an 11uin-eral water springs; water that lna.''e1'\-e f ,1' th pu -lie use of to",,'11ships ; waters of rive r and mm'itim" "atf'r na'dgable e,en h.' mall craft ; In,nd that the Exe 'uth-e ha.ll for future port. : or for enlal'geluent of xi ting one' ; area of town hilr. nel spa for their expau. ion. In the fil' ... ,t two a e adjudication b e 1118.(1 ill conformity with 'which h
    PAGE 437

    4?O Pilot and Guide. same nlllnber o f claims as was conveyed to the original ,Vhen the instrU111ent of d e llouncen1cnt has heen execute< l the Executive Authority hall order that I 0 of the lnine be given. The head of the municipa lit y 'rill then, upon petition of the party denouncing> COllll111SsiOIl the Inspector of Police to convey po e. slon. Shoul(l the party denouncing fail to c1aiu1 po es. ion within GO day: after publication of tho notification without good cau e, he will forfeit his rights to the 1111 no, and it shall be declared abandoned. The cost of the forrnality of giying posses iOll shall he bOrllC by th e party concerned. ..... 0 mine ll1UY bo denounced as a deserted or abandoned mine ullder allY other nalTIC than that which it carried at the tilUe. of abanclolllllent, providing it was kUOW11 by th t lla1l1e. "V"iolation of this provision "ill forfeit the right to (lenOUllce the 1111ne for a period of four J Cc r The peri a of timc to acquire title to a 1U1110 is sunlmed up in the follo,rillg :-(J) For denouncing, 90 day after notification ha' been given. (:..,) _"For ( 1 l' of 111 hr. tIn. \\'ith tit) ('. ('('pi iCll f p(nn'r: of att l'IH' r \\ bic h n1'0 gi\ I) t < P itioll fur :\ HI l'.nir.; p .s(: .. inn, or for (lllV tb r "Tit. r tn 111('.'( (lI)(t tlm tit!, (r .wJH'r:hil ){ ill mill. rI he so latte l'
    PAGE 438

    Punama III PJ'{'8C1I t Da!l. --. ---.---------. -----------of th third 1c.'. The py of llotificcltioll acc 111 pn! I.)' i the ill, tnllllellt f dt1nOUllcenl nt shall ue m ade 011 c01UHlOll paper. ']'h e teL"e. on lnilles according to I.i[tw o 1 no are f reach 11l11lO dellounc ed, $10 )allallla eal'}'( 'lll'j'; to o),taiu the right of proprietorship title, $ 2:) IJall iuna turrCllCY. The annual taxE'. are: On Inin es of prrci(Jw' 'tOl) s, ',t 10 Panallla ul'l' e ncy per .'(1na1'e and ill ]Jro portion according to lellgth of Inilles. Ou alluvial 1nil1e.' .,' 1 0 PallaIna currency for each 25 kilolDctel's. Pcn tio1ls not exceeding Dve kilol1lCters will hav e to pay and pro portionately in exce L s of this measur emeJlt Ul' to :?;"5 kilolneter.. ()u quartz, or vein Inilles, 8:=) l)u'llall)H, cur r ellcy for each appurtenance 600 rneters lung by 1110-t en; wide. The right to a l11i ne is lost whea the tax js not paid pUlIctualIy. 1 he tax ca n be pail jn a d vance fo allY nU111bE.r of years desired. Owner s to titles 011 Inincs llOt in litigation can secure ponnanent owncl'.'hip, e."empL fro 11) future taxntion, by paying in ad\ance tll 3 COlT l-'pOllcli I) 0' taxos for 20 years. 'raxes COlUlnCllCC froln d
    PAGE 439

    422 Pilot and Guide. 1" The GOyernn1ent financial staten1ent for th calendar yen, 1907 111akes a particularly exC'ollcllt showing. The total revenues roln all sources anl0unted to $;2,-1:39,30 l.GS gold derived "0111 ilnport duties, and lIlternal imposts, a considerable increase over the preyious year. ']'ho following table hows the rcvenue fl'oln ilnports for the year 1 nOG and 1907 :--On artide ,-ubjed to 10 pel' cent. duty n importation of liquors On importation of tobaccos and cigarette On importatioll of salt On jmportation of matches On ilnp rtation f coffee Total ]()OG 1907 $ 693.G57._ 317,07 .4 / 7.70 4 66!. 1 11,000.00 11 553.$ 757,9 -f.no 290.10 1)0 -4-<) t), / < v 7,669AO J9;;6'')<) ,v V.v '27 , f po'b 1 'ommi,' ('>0.n-1. l)tt rYe :--)(i:L 00.00' ,:t;\ lU h i)> mpan ie .. ( ,-) 7' p 'arl 11:-;h-rj( . '() 11atiollal 11'0]> rt,', ( .0:2' l'ctail liqu)l' 11-l'(Il.' ... ,',)J{':.?0JO importatlll of tttlp j \l 1l1011.' 'hn1lgPl'.: (,-7.:> : puhli' 111Hllt t f r 111 nth of T) ( H1l> l', 1 D 7, daL 1urll
    PAGE 440

    423 :05: 1\,, : I >I" t"iF to Xalla,n" t o ,ec I Misteli; the Swiss Jeweler, rn m In O rder t o Se l ec t a Good Wed d in g Pre sent." ,J ELL! TOl ARE i LTG TO rn m THE BEST PLACE, rn m ru III BE' r:E HE .A L" AY' '..i1 RIE,'" THE FIXE T L-m rn ,'IT.YER .. .:\..SD IL ,Ell PLATED WARE.' FR :u THE ru I. R E'l lIERIC.i.X A.XD E llOPEA..X }fARRET, In W tl WE DO H IGH GRADE REPAIR WORK. MOUNTING STONES, A SPECIAL TY, ;\.1 I 1 : E L l' !') 0, 87 C E 3]:' FA LA' E rn S"2..S2.....-=-e.s-F?S252 S2...JJ ,. The tel ura ph and long distaJlce t l e ph on Telegraph awl 's teIn of the countrY' i the l)roI)erb vf th T lephoneR. J J Panan13 lorernment, and extends from Pa-llalna to Dayic1 ill Ohiriqui. The telll is diyi(led iuto 'ix sections a: follow to OhaI11e. Ohallle to Agl1ac1ulce to SOlltl, Smut to Remedio R e Inec1io to D ayid and antiago to Las Tablas. The total line luiienge i: about) Inile. The pole constrncti 11 is of iron and hard \ \ood and an open circuit i, u e 1. A new line i now 1 eillg c.: III tructec1 betwe n Empire and Ihorrra. ,,,hich will c1 a,yay with the u e. except for 1 cuI llt:l ne of the line y l a. Coroza l and ArraijHl1. ..A nc'y telegraph lin j al'o heing bui l t cOll11ectino I.J[ls Palfila and Peda i in the province of Los anto and La Pill tac1a in the pro\'i nee of Cocle. The headqual'ters of th e 1 t ill is at Pall:tlll::t alld is in charge of :\1 r. Ernc. 'to r Lefevre, as D il'0ctor eneral. The rato on a. t ell W 1'1 lllessage is ten cent gold. u . -,

    PAGE 441

    I -I I 424 Pilot and Gui(7a. = Following is a cOlnplete list of tho Panallla Gu erllmcn t telegravh and telephone offices:-TELEGRAPH FFICES Central Heallquarter::; Aguadulce, Auton Cap ira _,hame Chitre ChOlTel'U David IIorconei10 I Ja Palmas La,' Tabla' .d.V -nUt B. Los SHu tO. 1JaCt:racD ParihL Penonom' P se Pocri Hem"d io San Carlo' Santiago SOlla .. TEL 1 HONE fE. Arl'aijall Gual'al'e La Mesa, rTata 001i San }'eli.' and Las Laji l 'fol The PUllalna Railroad Cnnlpany operates all extensive telll of tol graph and telephone lin s alollg the line of l'Clilway, which also l'
    PAGE 442

    .--_._-----------------.. ---------_ .. ----. Panama Ij' the Pres 1lt ]Ju1/. 425 Cable Three lin of cahle c Inn1unicati n rc( eh the J sthlnus. Two h long to the entraJ and outh American Telegraph -0., and the oth r to th 'Vo t T ndia and Pancuna 1 The 11e, .c 11 American able establishing dir(lct c mlTIunicatioll between 1 Ion [lnd New TOl'k "a, laid during 1907, the work h ving h en cOlnpleted in July. Offices of the cable cOlnpanies are nHl.intained at both Panama anel Colon. \Vith the exception to points on the Pana-Post Offices R '1 d' tl 0 1 Z I ma al roa ,In 1e ana one} t 1e tranR-portatioll of mails on the IsthnlUs is alnlost wholly dependent n water COlllll1unicatioll. The National Navigation Company has the contract for carrying the InailR 11 the Pacific side, and maintains a regular itinerary_ From the ports, Inail carried into the interior by hor:;eback. The headquarters of the postal ystem is in Panalna city, with Samuel Boyd in charge as Postmaster General. Do-111e tic mail rates of the United States applies to mail mattor sent froln there to points in the Republic of Panama, and the Oanal Zone, although this docs not seem -rery well understood by the Inerchants and manufacturer. in the former country. letter postage rate frOln the Republic of Panama to points in tho United States is two and a-half cents gold Panalna bei Ilg in the Postal Union the parcels post regulation govern, the rate being 12 rents per pound. The interior parcels post rates are 10 cents gold f r one pound, and 35 cents gold for the rnaxilnum 'weight allowed, viz, 11 pounds. The post-office of the Republic are as follow,,;-Aguadulce, Provo of Cocle Anton, Provo Cocle I Arraijan Provo of Panama Bastimeuto. Provo of Bocas del fJ.'oro Bocas del Toro, Prov. of Boea I del'roro Boquete, Prov. of Chiriqui CapiTa) Provo of Chagrcs, Pro\,. of Colon I.Ja Palma, Prov. of Pa.nama Las Pl'OY. of Lo I anto'i Las PH lma. Pl'ov. of V rat) lla "; Las Tablas, Provo of Los 'anto Los Pro\". of Los Santos Lo Santos, Pro of Los autos Macaraca. Provo of Los k antos Nata, Provo of ocle Ocu, Prov. of Los Santos OtoquP Prov. of Panama

    PAGE 443

    Chepigana, Prov. of Panama Chepo, Provo of Panama Chame, Provo of Panama Changuinola, Prov. of Bocas del Toro Chiriqui Grande, Prov. of Bocas del Toro Chitre, Provo of Los Santos Chorrera, Prov. of Panama Colon, Provo of Colon David, Prov of Chiriqui Dolega, Pro,, : of Chiriqui EI Real, Prov. of Panama Guarare, Provo of Los S3.uto -Horconcitos, Prov of Chiriqul La Mesa, Prov. of Veraguas Panama, Dist. Capital ta, Prov. of Los Santos Pedasi, Pro v of Los Santos Penonome, Prov. of Cocle Pese, Prov. of Los Santos Poeri, Prov. of Los Santos Remedios, Provo of 8hiriqui San Carlos, Prov. of Panama San Felix, Pl'OV. of Chiriqui San l\figuE'l, Prov. of Panama Sautiago, Prov. of Veraguas Sixola, Provo of Boeas del Toro Sona, Prov. of.Veragua Taboga, Prov. of Panama Tonosi, Provo of Los Sant Tole, Prov. of Chiriq Ili Schools. Schools are well distribJlted throughout the settled portion of the country, but in these only the prin1ary grades are taught. ca.pital, however, offers excellent facillities for education in the higher grades 1n the following six institutions :-Nonnal School for girl ; Nonnal School for Young Men; National College of Language and COllll11el'Ce; Superior School for ung IJadies; Superior School for Young Men; N Htiollal hool of Music and Declamation, and School of Art (Hut A chool is also lnaintained in Pananul, city f r th tion of an BIas Indian boy. There are a numb r of privat choois and c 11 'ges ill aclditioll t th \ abov a Ii. t f which will be found ill the dire tory part of this volulne. The Del a1'tlnent f Publi lustrn tioll IS III r(f f l'Ilr. M,l hoL' IjaR de In. Veoa, "h I,' t tigable ill hi off rts tow( 1'<.1 building up tit \ h th l{ pul)li. 'fho c1 0'1' f illitera y (Ill Il tll tru )an manian 1c. 5 i. ul'} ri 'illoly 5nu 11, r l:\ it lly ill thr citi 5, mu 1 .' than in III I 'aliti, ill the nth 1'n t.'. Ther c r v ry f w illd d thnt ann t r t d r wri A larg llumh \1' f II W h I h u. v h II r ct 1 ill t.h \ .IV ral pr yillc th 1l w J{ I nbli a. .. f 1'IlW<1, and '\ It Y I t l' willl SS. HIl IIlCl' a d illt l' st ill t.h) "UI. of dll 'aLi 11. 'l']w Illlmh.r of It I.', h-,

    PAGE 444

    '----------------r a n{( lJla of tllO ]'}'(. '('1/ t Day 4 ? 7 TABLEAU OF THE NATIONS BY PUPILS OF THE COLLEGE OF SAN JOSE.

    PAGE 445

    428 Pilot and Guide. ers eIllployed. enrollment, and average attendance in the schools of the Republic in 1906 waR as follows:-Province No. No. "Enroll Av. Attend-Rchools Teachers. ment. ance. nocas del Toro 10 13 447 356 Cocle 15 24 39 637 Colon 24 32 1020 8iO Chiriqui 29 37 134:8 ]087 Los Santos 33 42 1405 1211 Pallama 46 4.5 19 :: 1524 Panama (Dist. Cap.) 6 (Schools) 3-n 1418 1041 Panama (Dist. Cap.) G (Colleges) <)-i.)J 660 660 Veragua. s National Currency. 24 31 950 730 ----193 296 10,069 8; 116 At the tilne of the secession, the Oolombian silver peso, and fractional denotninations thereof, constituted the prillcipal Inoney in circulation on the Isthlnus. This had a fluctuating valup according to the current rate of exchange. The changers usually gave $2.10 Oolombian silver for $1 gold, but in cOlnlnercial transactions tho rate someti1nes w nt a high as Oololnbian paper, having a value of one cent go d to the dollar, was not accepted as legal tender. The prpsellt currency is known as the 'Balboa n erie.' the balh a being a fictitious uilit of valu repre 'ellting 1 f; old. rrhe highest actual d llolnination at pr eut i th iiver peso l' half-balb a pi e, the lue of all Panallla silv r .. lrrency 1 eing half the y< In of the :1.111 den 1ninations in llH'ri an gold. Th th in in ir uln.ti 11 arc 1hH 'il l' 50ent pie e, the .... ent 1 i c the -(' nt pice a 11 ickd fi nt 1 i e. h jng it. a tual goldv luc, and n tw nnel 11 -half (' nt lli( k I J)l W( rth 1hat (111 Ullt ill (Itl. \Vith the l'ininal inag. \\:l: Inint d a qu, Ilti y of ,il\. r" nt pi' whi h \\' llt nt ( [ g ncnd 'irculati)11 ill: v .. T :11 rt tilH ,vinb to til it' groat <1u lllalll f l' ,' ( u\ nil'.' ,nd rnaUl Ilt.. ()llit u-lati 1\ ''":t. ('nl'ri( 1 Oil III tIl Inillut hu1 h.IH1. 111 eo) 11., I Il 1 s< m pc pl< (r kll(m Il t, heH ma.
    PAGE 446

    Panama of tll 429 hundr:ld 1 lIar' in this, ay. merican g Id and .. ilvcl' coin' dowu to th, 10-cent piece are in general circulatioll quite as Inuch 0 in fact a the local urrollcy. .J.. Ineri-an five cent I ie e and 01 pel' arc not a cepteu. The population f Pananla presents a variety f t 'pes. There are the nati ve Indians, r Ra e the 111 stizos con:isting of a lllixture of whit with Indian the nlulatn a rnixture of whito with negroe' ; the zalnbo a 111i.-ture of negr with Indian and as yet an ullclassified type consi tillg of a Inixtul'e of Indian and JlC'gro with Chillc.'c. Several Illdian trihes are scattered about the Isthmu the chief being the San BIas and Darien. The latter are jealous of iutrnsiou and do not allow foreigners to their territor). l\Iany stories are told of narrow escn,pps Ly those who had the telnerity to dis obey the injullction. The an Bias Indians are a peculiar. race. They are very SlTI::l It in stature, ,vith abnormally large I heads, nornlai bodie and ulldersized. legs. The youths are a11o\\ eel to lea ve the tribe alld seek employl11ent in civilized cOIllIDunities, but are required to return after a certain age. The WOlnen are ral'ely seen abroad. Some of the wild tribes still adhere to cruel Cll toms. Not long since some Indians from Olle of the western provinces were brought to for trial upon th8 charge of bur, lng a mentally afflicted nlenlher of the trihe alive. In addition to the aboye, there are the nati e white residents, white North .... L\.nlericans and Europeans, and a spri nkli ng of nearly all the principal races on the fHce of the globe. By the law of 1904: Chinese, Turk and Syrian were debarred, hut the Chinese were already here in large lllllllbers, and practically control the retail trade j 11 grocorio Tho l8gal ,, eights und llleaSUres. are th of vVeiO'bt an <.1 1 1, I 1 1 ure. t 10 metrIc s.) steul, uut cllstonl las lJltl' ( lIee( others. The American pound weight i 11 ow cJlnmonly used. In 'measures of length the pulgada (inch), and pie (foot) is used instead of centimeters and deciJne ters,. but beyond this the Ineter and kilometer of the met-

    PAGE 447

    430 ric is resorted to. Th liter is used ill,'tead of the (lund measure, but the ga,llon is fretlUently referred tu. Tn measure of surface, hectare i the only luetric IllPa:uremont in COlnnlon use. Thero is really no 'warrant for the use of the word "ya c1a," Ineaning the .A.n1crican yard Ineasur ement yet it is in COlll1110n use ill eyery dry :0:00 1.store in Pananla and Colon. 'Thon the -ell itcd Itntes GOYGl'lllllell t a 'su lllCtl Tariff Difference. control of the Canal Zone; one of its fir;' t acts to n pply the Dingley t;lriff. 'T 1Ic1l'l' this interpretation of the treaty. good.. entering the anal Zone from the "Cnited Stat R 'were adnlitted Jut free. but goods entering the Oanal Zone frotn the pul Ii 1 of Panulna were 11lac1e subject t.o the tariff reguh.ti 11. as merchandise from any other foreign country. 1 twa. quickl seen that a ITl rchant doing bu ine in tll .60J)(l. and getting his good froln the llited tate fre of duty could ea ily place hinlself outside the pale of ue e.' fnl comp titiUll from one in or --,olon. ,ybo wa.' at that tilDe required t pay a (luty of fifteen I er E'llt. goll1 n all lnerchandise ilnporte 1, ,,,heth r frolH tlJe I Tnitrc1 tates, or European countrie rrhis cnn:sec1 n ,'trOllg: })1' -test to be Illude. T,ro other di put -cl qne ti]) ame np n the mn J time viz, c ntrol of the u t 1111 alld tho ]) >.,toffice r v n ue,'. 'I h f el ina hecaul Y :lrv bitt 1'. and -'1 cretar,)' ft \Ya..; deleo 'at c1 to yisit th J l .. thmus al)(] illY,\ ticrato tho Inutt 1'. (11 I e e 11lb I.' t). 1 L ctl-ing lwf r th populflc fl' n the I al )J)Y uf Ho l 1 ntra1. he -.: i(l : ,. Th Ol'(1(')' \\ hit, It 1 :--ig ll (1. f )' whi(,!t [al lW <.tUl bll' 1wl whi -11 wn, pnt illtl) ( ff( t :to'aillo;;t til \ i .. hu.; of' Il.lJl ral n,lvi,' ('O\"l'l1Ol'oftlt' ('rulnl hOlt( llHllll'ly. thl
    PAGE 448

    Panama of tl, Pl'. nt Day. 431 th 11
    PAGE 449

    432 Pilot and Guide. =;::::-::------------Boston and Bennington rode at anchor in the ha ,Yitllin a few days after the trouble the army COD sisti Ilg () f about 400 men, ,,'as disbanded, and their firoarms tll r 11 cl over to the Zone authorities for afe keeping. the .. amc time, near1y all the gunR on the seawall were With the disappearance of the arnl,Y, the po 1 ice force ,rt\' largely augmented. G H After the clisbandlnent" of the (} 11. en. uertas. H t t' 1 t h' t 1 ueras re Jre( 0 1S COUlll'Y l0111l! lle')r A guadulce, wh3re he hnR since been Cluietl r residing. The general js very popular wi th aU classes, a l\d ha a troll (T following. His military career is a record of ft COl1l'ag ou and painstaking for ,, hich froln time to timc. h \ received nlcrited recognition. H e was born at 1T 1nhita. u lombia., lVIay 28, 1872, ontered th e army ,,,h n bnt nin' and one-half years of and frolll L to 1 t 01-part in no les than B5 land lH1ttle. 11<1 13 sea fights. At the battle of A .Behien. Ta, un 1 r Gen. 1-ba}l, t.h8 Colo111bian c0111ina,nc1e r, he a i ted ill placing a cannon while under fire fronl the ellClllV and 10 t hi, hand ... in tho effort. The year Ln.:) found hilu a drUll1111er Uby. froln which position he ,1'0 0 'tep hy tep until ill )Y:\111-ber, 1902, he was promoted to tho grad f Cen raJ. H 'was the keystone to the seccsl,; ion 111 velnent in 1903. 'lncl for tIli altlabl seryic \Va lunde COlllnand r f the Pal1fUllanian fore s. The firs . elnbly v teu him n It tty of absenc and appropriat d 11''''}0,000 b ld f r exp \}l.\'. He "i ited ]1Jul'opr an
    PAGE 450

    TOlll'i, 'ts' j)cpm-tmc)lf.. 433 The Y1 itol' to the Isthlnus orcl inal'ily 10 'el:) lllLlCh time :tnc1 patience in being eompelled to Blake inquiries at ly very turn, and in finding out tor hin18e1 the thing he .. houlcl be able to post up on beforehand. It is the a11n of the Pilot (l Ill-Z () II ide to afford tonrists and tray elers a cer tain amount of general information of thi nature as \\ ill tend to Inake their yisit a 1Hore thorough 3ncl pleasant one. The Isthmian quarantine regulations are very Quurantlnc. trict ana. lllUSt b cOll1plied ,vjth t the Jetter. Incolning yessels llluSt fly ,t yellow flag (Q) at the fore and awa it quarantine lusp2ctioll at the anchurage des ignated. fla.g must not be lowered until pratiqu is grant e d by the quarantine officer. The captain of sneh HUlst not allow any boat or other craft, except that ,)f the offieor of the port, to approach wi thin :200 rneters, or all)w an T thing to leave th e vesse1. \ essels ho\\ ever, al'rivlno at the P01't. of Oolon and Cristobal are allo\yed, the eli cretion of the Quarantine to corne along side the wharf for inspection except when they have siclTnes on hoard, or are from ports infected with quaran tinable disea e . unles.' they have proper certificates show ing that they have !lot lain at an anchorage exposing such yess 1 to infection. ,1ossels arrivi I1g at night must anchor ill the bay and not C0111 to the \\ harf for ill. pection be fore daylight. \ essels entering the ports of Ancoll, or O1'istobal fronl any foreign port where there is a llited Sta.tes officer Inust present a hill of health of the salne character and form as is 1'e-

    PAGE 451

    4-34-Pilot allrl Gui(le. LARGE ASSORTMENT OF SPECIAL JEWELf?Y. No. 34, BOTTLE t\LLEr, COLON, R. P. ----_..-.._---:: o r"'" tTl CA em Im.porte::.-or the Celt-brated COLOMBIAN CIGAHS lUa :2 C ;I:) ;-r A TREAT 1'0 ALL OF THE TrBED. --------------.-------------------CALL FOR GUAVA VELEZA DELICIOUS CONFECTION quired ot vessels entering t.he ports of the l nited States froln foreign ports. Such Y(lssr) having entE'red or enUcd at an intermediate port 111Us t <11 0 present a supp1elllentul bill of health. The penalt y to}' non-observance of t.hi.' regulation is a fine of not to ex eed the to be fixed by the courts. Yellow Fever. Passe ngers on Y('Isseis coming f1'01)1 potts infected or suspected of b illg jllfected with y lllow fever will b o halidl d no.. follow: It ilUmune, and so certified, thpy win b aclnlitted without re strictions. Others will be h('1(1 ill (It l'YHtioll t olnplete six full days fron1 date of Inst XI o. n1'e to inft'ctioll. \\l -e l s a rriving with caS0S of y<'llow f Y01' : hO{ll'c1 will be treated in accordance with the .-our 1 f inf \cti n. ] f II t olltl'Clctc d on bonnl, th'y will b e di, illfec etl nlld llW T b gi\'rll pratiqn at on otherwi r tho \' (1 will b oi i)lf(,('tpcl (1lc1 tho I held ulld l' hs rynti n i." full (t ',; aftJf 0lDII ti n of clisinf t.i n. 11 Y,j("imti n 1 t Il pt( vi 11 attn 1I0t ,'uffici Iltly a IT;lI 11. Ill( ))0 r 11n1. t PI' nt ati.'fa 'L ))., c\'i-pr t (-tillll fl' U1 ,-ulall-p)x ith r h r by va' illn iOIl. rf the Y:1<' ini.lti 11 1 llt, it will ill' II .'cu t b inat( d th j n ward bound .'t '(un l'., 11 ta hI.) th

    PAGE 452

    I I TO/f/,/.-f, 1 ])('l'((1'11I1 Ill. 435 :---:-1 illla nn Haill' ad b ,ts afford an opportunit t ::> 1'5 to b Yit' '1l1nte 1 lJc,f l' IrtlH.1illg. Plngnl' POl't::;, Pcl. l1.,er:-; fr 111 plagu -in[")t <1 port lULl.' ful'-11\.,h a ( l'tifi ate from 11 c1icnl neeL' a tac]lc t til tT. I. Co n. 11 In to a 1'( rt f depaI'Ln r if ".\1( h an offi \1' i: n (lnt' .. tatina the locality in ",hid1 I '-t.-tll per on ha l'e .. and whcther in th opinion )f tIl) 11 p
    PAGE 453

    ,43. 6 Pilot and Guide. 111 Dari l, IPI'Cl{l1dI S, Santos, BoycLca, Coele -Ta"oliue Tow Boat' Za7 Jarlof.--"asol ill,' L 'mn 'lu". :.1 tltol'a, lndl'pl!ndencia. Cam-seed hipped frolu port j 11 fectl?<1 i th "rlagu h uld llot be received ao.; cargo and will 110t be allo\yed to bt"l landed at the ports of Pauan1a, or the ""lana} Zon (Decree. No.3, of th R e pu bl i of Pc J)c Ina.). 'Cn ie ira1)le dated .:\1'<.'11 ] ,. II ; 11'oyide that no P l' '(In. foreigucl' will be 811u,, 1 to Iall 1 un! h ha i 11 his pos e sion a UlH of 1110ne: uf Hot I than 1 Thi. proyj iOll does not appl.Y t Ie I 'ontractecl for by the thmiall Canal 11, For igllcr. will not be (dn1itted to the Istlllnu rho ar) inc:q ahle of earning a Ii\' 1ihoo<.1 hy manual lab r. 111lIr., th(\' ca 11 h w th: t th y hay means t pn riding for III Ire.. .... TCl\'i,(rat'ion cOlllpanirs hringill(l' "11('h ill1lDi rallt will ur c rnp<.\]1 ,1 t r turll theul i1.t tll'ir own rxp J1), III if lan-d tinely iJltrodu cL will h i fine
    PAGE 454

    TOllr ist," Dcp{( J'tme Jlt. 437 t ;::>::::::::.:::::>::: .,,, : o 0 ?; THE O. K. HOTEL (, ;': :9.. .:. ---.. ---....----BE T PLACE IN THE CITY TO GET A .,Q,17 HE SelGet Stock of Wines, Liquo.' s and Cigars CO:l stantly 0:1 Hand. F .UL TO GIYE rs ,yHEX T:\ :\ kt:>::'.:::::<:::>:::: ::>::::::::<:::>:::: ::::<::::>::: : : :> :::. :>:::: ./ ::>::::::>:::::>:::. ::>::::::::<::::>::::::>:::::>:::::>:::::>::: on the G -ovenllllents of the Republic of P anama or the Cannl Zone: 'will not be allowed to land uutil they :atisfy the offic ers that the} can reach their d es ti l1tHiol1 in a ccordance witb tho la\ys of the country to \"bich the y nr e going, and that they aro able to do so. P e r o n s falling under the provisions of tho f o re going ,, ill b e requirec1 to proceed to their destination b y the first a vail ablo tran portation. Any p ersons of the prohibite d cIa s who are unable to reach their and ,rho ,,,ould thereby become residents of the Isthlnns, '\rill not b e allowed to land until a s[tti ,factory guarantee is given by th, steamship cornpany that said person, or p e rsons. will 1I0 t become residents of the I thll1US, or a public chnrg e in Panama, or the Canal ZOlle, and if said guarantee proves incffectiye within the 111eaning of these r egulations, su c h persons 11lUSt be deported a t the expense of the steamshi p COlnpan:r that brought thenl, cyen thoug' h the y hay') b ee n allowed to ]ancl. teanl hip cOlllpani e s bringing suc h p e r sons: and refusing to furlli s h a guarantee, will be r e (luir ec1 to rnaintaill the ill Oil board. :l net to deport salno a t their 0,,'11 expense. The letter of instructions f1'o111 Presiuent Roo s e yelt, issued l\lay 9 1 HO-1, proyido s that the COlnlllissioll shall h .ave po,Yer to exclude fronl tilne to time from the Canal Zone, and other places on the Isthmus oyer which t.he luitecl States has jurisdiction. p e l'Hons of the following classcs who were llot actually c1o lni-

    PAGE 455

    l' .. 438 Pilot ancl Guide. cil a with in the Zone on the 26th day of Februar' 1904 viz., idiot, beggars, persons afflicted with loathsolue or danger ous contagious diseases those who have been cOt1yicted of felony; anarchists tho. e whose purpose it is to incite insur rection, and otbers whose presence is believed \yould tend to create public disorder, endanger the public health or if) any llJUllller impede the prosecution of the work of opening the anal, and nuty cause any and all uch newl arrived person, or those alien to the Zone, to be expelled and deported fro1n the territory coutl'olled by the l nited States. Dr. J. P. Perry is the Ohief Officer 011 the I thnrn his assistants beillg Dr. Olaude C. Pierce at Colon and Dr. Fleetwood GruyC'l' at Pa,nRlna. Arri Vfll. After quarantine i llspecl ion COllles the Cll'tOlll. examination by the PRll(llna officiaL. 'rhis is u.'ually accolnplishec1 on the docks after the baggage lla, been taken off. All that it is neco, :ar to do i to notify tho customs officer that the baggage 1 read', and th" .-:u11111ation will be lnade at on o. The ne.rt t p i to get the La O'gage transferred to tIl clesi red point. Tho r sthlllian Baggage .FJxpres. C lllpan)' are ontire] T respoll sible an<1 "\ ill 1rJ.l1sfer to the railro( (I tatioll (IlY point (t UoIon, ristobal, Panama, or n 'OIl. If cart. r port-er. nro hil' (1 the traveler will
    PAGE 456

    . . 439 L N--frh "YVashington Hou an 1 lJeaeh promena(l. (j()lon HI. pi t 1. Colon wir01. 'tation. HI.'T BAL---H.oo 'e \ relt L v nu and ri .. tobal Poillt. Statu of jol l' .ml u and Infiian gil'l, Thi .. bronz tatn ... w, PI' 0utrel to (,ll. qUC'l'a of 'olomlJia, by the Empl'e EuO' lIi in lllmemoratio ll of tho di. cov IT of th I thmu: 1 y joluml)u:. During Frenc 11 canal time', the ta tue wa turn u ov l' to jount de Le::; e p'" who hall it l' moved from OlOll anu I'l< eed at Cristobal Point. Other points of intcre. t ill Cristobal art' the new ury dock offices of the Division of :Drat rial ancl ,'npplip .. occupying OIle of the old De Le ps' man:ioll', th French enh'ance to th ('allal, now ahaudolle 1 in fa. VOl' of t h dil'OC waterway from atnn) Cei. tolnl ('lub hon:e, hotel ommis ary, etc MOUNT HOPE --Site of the In.rg t'st torehon.'", on the in charge of the lJivi "'ion of Mat l'ia.l and Supplie.', partly d .. tro 'cel by fire in 1907, bnt rebuilt and now practi('ally fil't'pl'o f. Pumping Station. Site of tank of Union Oil Company. lmm nse railroad yard .. Neal' here is the fa.mon ... :JIonkpy Hin cemetery :NIINDl---Hom e of Gov. POl firio of olon. GATUN---Site of the great dam, triple flight of lork. and .. pillwa.v. AJIORCA LAGARTO---(hanging alligatol'). BOHIO---Site of the propo 'e ll dam of the French company .B'RIJOLES (Beans)---\Yater from creek at thi: p1ae forme]>ly u. e d during dry ea on to snpply Colon. TABERNILLA---Site of oue of the great cana] clnmp BARBACOAS---The railroad cros::;e' the Chagre. at thi. poiut. BAILAMONOS---(Dancjng monkey . ) :J!IA1\:[EI---From the I. thmian fruit of thi'" name. GOR.GON \.--ODe of the pr(lttiest ettlement on the lin (luI' h re' i the great machine shop' where repair'" to canal are made. The main trail acros th3 b:foee the' (In,ys of the railroad pn. sed throngh here. :J1AT ACHIN---Ot'igin of name in di 'pute. Popularly be1ieve(1 to Kill Chinamen, from unmmaJ mortali y am ng the e1:-{tials at this point employed in the con .. tructioll of the Panama. Railroad. BAS OBISPO---Peetty 'ettlement on the Ea. Obi po ri vel'. I it of the ... econd large. t cutting in the canal. N ear here 1, amp

    PAGE 457

    , 440 Pilot and Guide. Elliott, where U. S. ]\iarine are, tationed. The fj r: .. t Amerian flag on the Zone floated at point. CASCADAS--Site of great yard .. coal chute, et EJ\IPIRE---The settlement on the Zon. ire f Empir(: hop.-, th disbur",ing and auditing' officE',.' of th 'Omm1,] n. Ha. fine club hou. e, good hotel etc, C( LEBRA---The engineering h a(lquart r of th cummis .. ion. it of the grnat Culeb1'a cut. Admini. t.ration Building i. on tll hill, and can be reached from th railroad tation hy a 'hol'l walk either by road or cinder path. nt half 111ile from railroad. tatioll over t h hill. RIO bR NDE---Site of the resel'voil' hat ,'uppli Panama "\ ith water. Sren to right of l'ailroad tJ'a k omin 0' towaru Panama. 'ite of ail' compressor plant, ere. RA HA (Coekroach)---Sit of great lab l' 'amI. I RAT. 0 (Paradi e)---Site of machiu 8hop .. anI tll l' 'tulal "York.., E R MIG eEL---ite of large raih'octll yllr 1 A thi" point tll south 1'n cutting of the Clllebra id ion tonnin1ttes, ,ite of on 10('k. l\fTH :b'L RBI ---(Look at th flow 1', ) I it f tll( Pa iih (lam HJ1(1 two 10 'k. (, H >ZAL---1'a ti 'ally an Am Ruturh f a,llRmu. H l-\11-(PH l't 1',' of Pacifie Divi ion, Lock and am' 11. t1'll 'tiOIl. \ ""CON--ZOll") government ('apit.al. ,'it f Zon fi,(1mini tr< ti n huilding, h nt An on IIo,pital, in Hn [ti(. 1':' <"lH. l cmplo quart 1':-1 lIot 1 Th' oli th liu'g sl h stplt'. on tll I.tJl1nu ,t, v\ ithin ri(1ing-, l' walking' (1i, tUll l I'I'Onl l'aill'oa 1 ,tati('n in (: nama. rA. '.J\ fA--( 'apital of th puhlie. Pints of llltpl'Pst : HuillS or Hi lit oming 'hm'(,h Hwl .1r,'ui x' ('011 'g Oll A \ ( 1111 \, X I (' II:! t
    PAGE 458

    Tourists /) 'jlm'{m 'llf. 441 --MANICURING PARLORS. Ancon Boulevard, near Fourln 01 JulY Slrea!, panama, Repunllc 01 Panama. 'fhis Establishmelt is Open Every Day from 8 a. m. to 10 P, m, "" .,. :-;tl 'HILl all" YapuL' rat" -.' 'alp Trl'atnwnt, aJl(l 'haml' :\llcl 1".1-dal Elt'l'tric ::\[a: sng:e A..ttl 'lllallt. fur :llaui urino :lJIcl Dod y ) [ (\'l:' :I!!t '. PHYSICIAN IN ATTENDANCEp Only Place in the City Devoted to Massage Treatment and Manicuring Trip, The following ide trips are full interest, alld will enable yisitors to aot a good idea of tho COUll try: Trip down the ChaCl'l'e' HiYel' to Fort au Lorenzo ly lauu Trip 1> boa from Colon to the hi ruin' of Pol'to B 11 Trip by ea' t-tage. through the ut. Trip to 011 p .. mama, fh-e mile' from the pre 'ent dt:. TilL <:all be made either b -boat, 01' by coach. The latter t a k 0]10 thl'ough tIl' a v"ry pret y tretch of couuh'Y dotted with, nmmer home. B fore vi iting Old tnlY l e r. h uld read it. de 'C'ription in another part of thi work. Ride through 11 'on lio. pital ground around Ancon Hill to La BO'a and back yia the old road fro m La B ca. Trip to the island of Taboga. Al'l'angenlent for transpol' ation
    PAGE 459

    442 Pi/ot (fud Guillc. --= ---ontaining de 'cripti n of points tOUd1 11 lJy their line of -teamers, from which we make the followi lIg extrad : Ohon"era has a good entrallce, splelld id ri \"01'S ('HOltREIA,] 'I 'Th } I }' a lle exte1l Ive p ell ns. ere lS a lote at t 11 town with modest acco
    Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013094/00031
     Material Information
    Title: Revista de la Universidad de Buenos Aires
    Physical Description: v. :ill. ;27 cm.
    Language: Spanish
    Creator: Universidad de Buenos Aires
    Publisher: La Universidad,
    Place of Publication: Buenos Aires
    Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
    General Note: Description based on: t. 41, no. 142 (July/Sept. 1919) Series 1 in 2 parts: Artículos originales; Actos y documentos officiales Vols. for 1904-31 called also año 1-29 and no. 1-158; ser. 4, v. 3-13 (July 1948-53) called also ser. 4, no. 7-18, no. 337-52, and año 44-49.
    General Note: 1924-25 in sections 1-8; 1926-31 in sections 3-8.
    General Note: Publication suspended Nov. 1931-June 1943.
    General Note: Text in Spanish with summaries in English and French. Vol. 1-51, 1904-23, in ser. 3, v. 1; ser. 4, v. 1-9, 1947-51, in ser. 4, v. 9 pt. 2. Section 1-2, 1924-25, superseded by the University's Archivos, v. 1, 1926. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Archivos de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (boletín informativo de la Revista de la universidad)
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    Source Institution: University of Florida
    Holding Location: UF Latin American Collections
    Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
    Resource Identifier: aleph - 21176032
    oclc - 01537609
    System ID: AA00013094:00031

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        Indice del tomo XXXII
            Page 654
    Full Text




    a" .";L_


    DE LA






    Afo XIII. Tomo XXXII.-Articulos origlnales

    444, VIAMONTE, 444


    Anvo \3







    Unica de las regions donde la dominaci6n romana al ex-
    tenderse habia echado raices tan profundas como para dar
    lugar al nacimiento y lozano desarrollo de las nuevas naciona-
    lidades cuya base principal es la cultural latina, Espafia ha
    producido antes de la disgregacidn del imperio, various hombres
    que ejercieron preponderante influencia enl el tiltimo period
    de la literature latina y que figuran en primer line, muy
    cerca de los grande nombres que ilustraron la lengua del
    Lacio. Mas tarde, rotos los lazos de union de las diversas
    provincias romanas por la invasion de los pueblos del norte y
    asimilada en gran parte la civilizaci6n latina por various nticleos
    de invasores, lo que juntamente con el cristianismo hizo de
    algunos de ellos pueblos de cierta cultural, de no poca in-

    (1) El articulo qmu va a ler-ore e un trabajo de aula. Fue preseitado por su
    autor, estudiante en la Facultad de filosofia y letras al professor de Literatura caste-
    liana, on cumplimiento do las disposiciones vigontes sobro redaccin de monografias.
    Las producciones do esta indole son, generalmente, do e-scaso valor, y no merecen
    los honored de la imprenta; pero la present so destaca y sobresale entire ellas,
    tanto por la seguridad de la information como por la amena claridad del lenguaje.
    La posibilidad de que so produzcan trabajos como el del senor Franoois justifica
    de sobra el mantenimilnto en la Facultad de est mnodilo do comprobar el aprove-
    rhamiento de los alumno-, por mas que lo desacrediton la superficialidad, el descuido
    y afin el fraud col quo comunlnente se elabora las monografias,.
    Bien es cierto, por lo dlemas, que el author ha dado ya pruebas muy apreciabloe
    d1, pronunciada vocaci6n lite.raria y de fino gusto arttistico.


    fluencia en el desarrollo posterior de las nuevas nacionalidades;
    uno de esos n6cleos da lugar en Espafia a la formaci6n de la
    monarquia visig6tica cristiana, donde adquiere gran desarrollo
    una nueva fase de la literature latina, la latino-eclesiastica,
    base de la cultural de la Edad .Media, en la que se encuentran
    nombres que figuran entire los padres de la Iglesia.
    Estas circunstancias obligarian a un historiador de la litera-
    tura espafiola a dedicarles bastante espacio, no s6lo porque
    son en cierto modo manifestaciones del character espafiol a cuya
    existencia no obsta la dependencia de Roma ni la influencia
    de una nueva raza, sino porque en toda la Edad Media se
    encuentran hechos que tienen estrecha relaci6n con aquellas
    literaturas, como la influencia de las doctrinas de S6neca en
    various escritores, la del caracter de Lucano en su compatriota
    Juan de Mena o la de la literature latino-eclesiAstica en el
    mester de clerecia. Pero los reducidos limits de este trabajo
    nos eximen de semejante tarea y siendo nuestro prop6sito
    estudiar las primeras manifestaciones del lirismo castellano,
    prescindiremos de lo que no haya sido escrito en romance pe-
    ninsular y por lo tanto, de las literaturas citadas, si bien de
    la latino-eclesiastica hemos de ocuparnos a su tiempo pero
    s6lo desde el punto de vista de su influencia en ciertas pro-
    ducciones castellanas. Por esta misma raz6n debemos dejar
    de lado a toda la literature de los cantares de gesta cuya
    condici6n verdaderamente 6pica excluye de si toda manifesta-
    ci6n de lirismo que no puede encontrar cabida en obras de
    pronunciado carActer national y colectivo y tomaremos como
    punto de partida las postrimerias del siglo XII y 'principios
    del XIII, epoca en que la nueva lengua, despu6s de haber
    pulido sus elements en las largas narraciones de los cantares
    de gesta en cuyo ancho cauce, como las piedras en los rios,
    perdieron la rudeza de sus formas, comienza a tener aptitudes
    para la expression de sentimientos, con lo que se ve apuntar
    algunos rasgos de personalismo que anuncian la aparici6n de
    la lirica.
    Antes de entrar a considerar las obras po6ticas en si, quiza
    hubiera convenido trazar un somero cuadro de los elements
    que han influido en la formaci6n de la nacionalidad espafiola
    y repercutido en su literature, pero el tratar, aun de una ma-
    nera sucinta, de tantos y tan complejos factors que corren y
    se chocan simultanea o sucesivamente durante esa 6poca tu-


    inultuosa de la primera parte de la Edad Media, aparte de
    exigir un espacio de que no disponemos, nos llevaria a consi-
    deraciones de caracter 6tnico o hist6rico algo ajenas al asunto
    y quizA a nuestra capacidad, raz6n por la cual nos contenta-
    remos tan s6lo con indicar de paso las dos corrientes princi-
    pales que influyen en la peninsula: la septentrional, represen-
    tada por el element g6tico que al producer la dislocaci6n del
    poderio romano tiene gran acci6n sobre la nacionalidad, hasta
    el punto de que ha dejado en ella rastros indelebles, y la
    meridional, representada por los arabes que a pesar de su larga
    dominaci6n han influido relativamente poco en ella y los raros
    y difusos rasgos suyos que han dejado en la literature, perte-
    necen a un gdnero distinto de nuestro tema.
    Pero al lado de estas influencias, mas etnicas que literarias,
    otras hay que se ejercen direct y exclusivamente sobre la li-
    teratura v a las cuales es menester referirse tratando de los
    origenes de la lirica: No hablaremos de la literature hebrea,
    cuya acci6n es aproximadamente la misma que la de la arabe
    y que s61o en el siglo XVI llega a influir con alguna fuerza
    en poetas como F. Luis de Le6n y Fernando de Herrera, -
    ni de la literature francesa del norte que si bien es de una
    influencia preponderante en la Edad Media, tanto en Espafia
    como en otras parties, lo es sobre todo en la poesia 6pica de
    la que no debemos tratar -pero si de la literature provenzal
    que tal grado de esplendor alcanz6 en la Edad Media y cuya
    condici6n de madre de todo el lirismo neo-latino exige que se
    le dedique algdn espacio al hablar del origen de la lirica es-
    pafiola en el desarrollo de la cual es factor de bastante peso.
    Esta escuela lirica, la primer que se haya expresado en un
    idioma neo-latino, naci6 en el mediodia de Francia y lleg6 ra-
    pidamente a un grado de desarrollo que sorprende en el rudo-
    cuadro de la civilizaci6n medioeval, como consecuencia de un
    fortuito concurso de circunstancias que asi lo permitieron:
    abarbares, les hommes se laisserent aller plus t6t aux douces
    d sductions de la vie. La toutes les femmes etaient aimnes,
    (tous les chevaliers etaient poktes.v (J. Demogeot, Hist. de la
    Lit. Francaise, Paris 1880). No estamos en condiciones, ni es
    el caso aqui de hacerlo, de investigar las causes de este precoz
    fiorecimiento poetico: bastanos sefialarlo y saber que esta
    literature esta formada en su mayor parte por la escuela que


    se conoce con el nombre de poesia trovadoresca, cuyo lirismo
    reviste las varias formas de canciones de amor (cans6s), cantos
    guerreros cantss), panegiricos (plants), composiciones de caracter
    satirico (sirventes), argumentaciones dialogadas generalmente
    de caracter amoroso (tensbs), las pastorelas o vaqueiras, etc.
    La instituci6n trovadoresca parece tener origenes muy antiguos
    y remontarse hasta los celtas, entire los cuales tenian proba-
    blemente el caricter de los bardos bretones, especie de Tirteos
    de las huestes armoricanas, que ocupaban un lugar preferente
    en el s6quito en los jefes y que por un grado mas de evoluci6n
    se transforman en los juglares de los cantares de gesta. Pero
    en Provenza la evoluci6n fue mas rapida; los trovadores cesaron
    pronto de ser tan s6lo hombres de obscure nacimiento y gran
    parte de caballeros y sefiores feudales alternaban con gentes
    de humilde condici6n pero dotadas de ingenio, no ya para ce-
    lebrar hazafias guerreras que muy poco turbaban el tranquilo
    ambiente de su pais, sino para reunirse en las cortes de sus
    sefiores o suyas a celebrar la hermosura de sus' damas y a
    cantar sus amores, formandose asi una verdadera repdiblica li-
    teraria donde se codeaban un Conde de Poitiers o un Beltran
    de Born, caballeros y sefiores feudales, con un Arnaldo de
    Marveil o un Bernardo de Vantadour nacidos entire la servi-
    dumbre de los castillos y que elevaban sus canciones amorosas
    a una hija del Conde, de Tolosa o a la castellana de Van-
    Pero aunque tan cortesana y apasionada de la forma, lo que
    habia de hacerla degenerar mas tarde en mero esfuerzo de
    ingenio para buscar y realizar las mas complicadas combina-
    ciones de palabras y rimas, tiene esta poesia un aspect mas
    viril en los cantos de guerra, como por ejemplo los de Beltran
    de Born y en los serventesios, aunque con demasiada frecuencia
    se trocasen 6stos en terrible invectiva, --y al lado de ellos,
    como un g6nero especial de poesia buc6lica, dignas son de ci-
    tarse las delicadas pastorelas que dieron fama al trovador Ge-
    rardo Riquier.
    En los comienzos del siglo XIII la tromba de los rudos y
    cat6licos hombres del norte se desencaden6 sobre esa tranquila
    y brillante sociedad que se habia entregado casi por entero a
    la herejia albigense y la mayoria de los galanos trovadores
    habituados al tibio ambiente de los salones donde rcitaban
    sus canciones amorosas, se desbandaron como golondrinas al


    soplo frio del norte en cuyas alas venian las huesiles de Sim6n
    de Monfort y corrieron a. refugiarse en las cortes cercanas,
    sobre todo de Castilla, Arag6n y Portugal, donde hicieron co-
    nocer el noble arte de trovar nacido bajo el sol de su cara
    Provenza. Entonces comienza la verdadera influencia provenzal
    en Espafia que muy poco se habia ejercido hasta. alli, pues
    apenas podia hacer mella en el rudo arte 6pico de los cantares
    de gesta y adn en la primera fase de la escuela narrative del
    mester de clerecia, el lirico y sabio de los trovadores. Esta
    influencia toma dos caminos y mezclandose con otros elements
    resucita en Espafia el arte lirico de Provenza transformado por
    nueva savia que rejuvenece su ya gastado organismo: el uno
    conduce a la formaci6n de la escuela lirica galaico-portuguesa
    por su fusion con el lirismo popular de Galicia y la tradici6n
    hagiografica que con un caracter casi exclusivamente narrative
    era la material del mester de clerecia, pero que necesitaba de
    aquella influencia para producer sabrosos frutos liricos como
    las Cantigas de Alfonso el Sabio, y da origen a esa copiosa
    y encantadora poesia escrita en lengua gallega sobre la cual
    nos detendremos mas adelante, de donde nace a su vez una
    escuela de trovadores con un caracter castellano ya definido.
    El otro, comenzado por la tentative de restablecimiento del
    arte provenzal que produjo las sutilezas ret6ricas del Consis-
    torio de Tolosa y de las "Leys d'amor", da lugar a la forma-
    cion de la literature catalana que al ser separada de la del
    mediodia de Francia, se desarrolla con mas liberta.d y character
    propio y llega mas tarde a influir tambidn sobre la literature
    castellana y aun a darle un poeta de significaci6n t ascendental
    para su lujuriante florecimiento del siglo XVI.


    Trazado este somero cuadro de las influencias que determi-
    naron la formaci6n de la nacionalidad espafiola y de su litera-
    tura, comenzaremos ahora a tratar de esta literature, ya como
    expresi6n del caricter del pueblo 'o de la sociedad en cada uno
    de los periods evolutivos de Espafia, ya con relaci6n a las
    influencias apunthdas por lo que hace a las escuelas de arte a
    que dieron origen en la peninsula; concretandonos, empero,
    del mejor modo possible a lo que se refiere a ]a poesia lirica


    cuyas manifestaciones trataremos de analizar durante la prilnera
    parte de la Edad Media hasta el moment en que los primeros
    anuncios del renacimiento vienen a modificar fundamentalmente
    su carActer.
    Para seguir un orden cronol6gico en este studio lo inicia-
    remos, aunque ocupAndonos poco de ella, dado que ofrece escaso
    tema a nuestro asunto, con la aparici6n de los primeros mo-
    numentos escritos en romance en ese primer period que se
    extiende desde mediados del siglo XII hasta el primer tercio
    del XIII o sea la aparici6n de Berceo. En esta 6poca de in-
    tensa gestaci6n de reinos turbada continuamente por el fragor
    de la lucha por la reconquista, escaso tiempo quedaba al pueblo
    espafiol para cuidarse de cosa alguna que no fueran las guerras,
    principal y casi finica preocupaci6n de todos, y en los raros
    ocios de que disponian las gentes entire una y otra campafia
    o durante su ejercitaci6n military, la dnica distracci6n intellectual
    que practicaban era la audici6n de los cantos de los juglares
    que, naturalmente, versaban sobre los asuntos de su predilec-
    ci6n y narraban los hechos de los grandes capitanes. Vale decir,
    que el cuadro de esa epoca esta l1enado casi exclusivamente por
    la poesia 6pica, manifestaci6n obligada de la vida y acci6n
    colectivas de su sociedad, por lo cual su literature es an6nima,
    desde que el autor'o autores de sus monumentos no hacen
    sino interpreter el sentimiento general sin otro m6rito que el
    de su capacidad para comprenderlo y expresarlo: al rev6s de
    otros generos, la epopeya es tanto mAs perfect y field cuanto
    la personalidad del poeta desaparece casi del todo para iden-
    tificarse con el medio en que vive, mientras el lirismo, por
    ejemplo, product de una civilizaci6n mas adelantada, require
    para su manifestaci6n la existencia de un sentimiento personal
    que se aparte, o distinga del element colectivo y revele la
    propia personalidad del autor: la una es puramente objetiva
    y actual, la otra subjetiva, especulativa y spiritual.
    De esta epoca y de toda su literature principalmente 6pica
    que debi6 de ser bastante copiosa, es muy poco lo que ha
    llegado a nuestros tiempos, ello se reduce: a un fragment de
    misterio conocido con el nombre de Auto de los Reyes Magos,
    cuya composici6n estA fijada por algunos como Amador de los
    Rios y Lidfross en la primera mitad del siglo XII y por otros
    como Baist en los comienzos del siglo XII, fragmento de ca-
    racter puramente dramatico y de gran interns para lo que se


    refiere a los origenes del teatro espafiol. Inmediatamente a
    este auto sigue el famoso Cantar del Cid cuya composici6n
    fija D. Ram6n Mendndez Pidal en la segunda mitad del siglo
    XII, poema epico de 3735 versos, de interns trascendental
    entire las obras de su genero, pero del cual no podemos hablar
    aqui pues por su caracter de verdadera epopeya falta de toda
    relaci6n con la poesia lirica. Sigue luego el poema conocido
    con los nombres de Cr6nica Rimada y Cantar de las mocedades
    de Rodrigo atribuido a los comienzos del siglo XIII que trata
    tambien de los hechos de Ruy Diaz de Vivar y que asume,
    por lo tanto, un caracter epico como el anterior. En este poema
    puede sefialarse, empero, algo como un germen de lirismo que
    se encuentra en una especie de canto triunfal en que prorrumpe
    el juglar despues del relate de una batalla, pero que por: lo
    demAs, no es sino un germen, como digo, una debil vislumbre
    de lirismo que como un desahogo del poeta rompe la mono-
    tonia del cantar de gesta y reposa el animo de la constant
    vision de las batallas. Completan esta enumeraci6n la Vida de
    Santa Maria Egipciaca y el Libro de los Tres Reyes de Oriente,
    composiciones de indole religiosa como sus nombres lo indican
    y de character puramente narrativo,- el Libro de Apolonio,
    primer poema perteneciente a la escuela del mester de clerecia,
    pero que siendo como lo es, una narraci6n novelesca, trasunto
    de las novelas bizantinas sin caracteres liricos, no es ahora de
    interns inmediato para nosotros, y por filtimo, un fragment
    denominado Disputaci6n del Alma y del Cuerpo, reproducci6n
    en versos romances de un lugar comin de las literaturas me-
    dioevales, el Debate del Agua y del Vino y la Razon feyta
    d'amor: Estas dos ultimas composiciones halladas juntas y atri-
    buidas al siglo XIII se consideran de un mismo autor y nos
    ofrecen, en la segunda de ellas, la primera composici6n estric-
    tamente lirica escrita en castellano.
    Consta este gracioso poemita de 162 versos enneasilabos
    pareados donde se relata el encuentro de un escolar con su
    dama, de donde se sigue un dialogo de amor que como la obra
    en general asume un caracter de gracia y delicadeza que sor-
    prende muy agradablemente en la literature epica o narrative
    de ese period donde semejante refinamiento de sentimientos
    y encanto de expresi6n es algo desconocido. Su autor es evi-
    dentemente un clkrigo (en el sentido lato con que debe tomarse
    esta palabra tratAndose de la Edad Media) no s6lo por el ca-


    racter erudito de su composici6n, sino por revelaci6n expresa
    del mismo: dice el quinto verso de la
    composici6n, y mis adelante:

    7... a plan con grant amor ando,
    mas non connozco mi amado;
    pero dizem'un su messaiero
    qu'es clerygo e non cavallero,
    sabe muito de trobar,
    de leyer e de cantar;....

    dice la dama; y salta a la vista que el tal escolar que segfn
    confesi6n propia habia estado en Francia:

    ,mas sienpre ovo cryanza
    en Alemania y en Francia,
    mor6 much en Lombardya
    por aprender cortesya.

    era perito en el arte galante de Provenza de donde procede
    el character de su composici6n, inspirada en el gdnero de las
    pastorelas. Pero hay bastante diferencia entire la frescura y
    sencilla gracia que se encuentra en este poemita y un cierto
    dejo de amaneraniento que se manifiesta ya en las poesias
    provenzales de esa 4poca, lo cual quiza obedezca a que su origen
    provenzal sea mediator y proceda de la escuela galaico-portu-
    guesa de que trataremos mas adelante.
    Las relaciones de esta composici6n con la escuela gallega
    parecen bastante claras: desde luego algunas formas dialectales
    gallegas se encuentran en ella, basta citar la existencia de pa-
    labras caracteristicas de este dialecto como feyta, c dereyta>,
    muito,>, < el autor conociera bien los > para hacer
    decir a la nitfa:

    a... ay men amigo,
    si me verd yamas contigo!, etc.,

    palabras que traen en seguida a la memorial los graciosos can-
    tares gallegos de doncellas enamoradas.
    Por los demds, el artist (que lo era y de no pocos quilates
    el autor de esta pequefia joya) emplea un castellano bastante
    correct que maneja con verdadera habilidad, como lo demuestra


    lo gracioso y movido de estos versos que por cierto no son
    los inicos bellos de la composici6n:

    y el lirio e las violas;
    que tantas yervas i avia
    que sol nombrar no les sabria,
    mas ell olor que d'i yxia
    a omne muerto rressuletaria.

    Quiza no fuera aventurado career que el autor haya sido cas-
    tellano seghn maneja el lenguaje, pero en todo caso su com-
    posici6n puede considerarse como el eslab6n que une la lirica
    gallega, retoflo de la poesia provenzal que cobra nueva savia
    y florece en tierras de Galicia, con el lirismo de Castilla que
    ha de aparecer luego.


    Esto en cuanto al primer period de la literature espafiola
    que como se vd, s61o por acaso ofrece material a nuestro studio
    con una composicion que es precoz aunque felicisimo ensayo
    de un genero que habia de tener no poca descendencia. Al
    entrar en la segunda 6poca que podemos dilatar hasta fines
    del siglo XIV, nos encontramos con la primera escuela de arte
    erudito en la literature espafiola, que en sus mfiltiples aspec-
    tos ofrece tema para cualquier studio, afin para el present
    con ser todo lo restringido que es: me refiero al mester de
    clerecia, asi Ilamado por sus adeptos para distinguir su arte
    de escuela del rudo y popular master de juglaria que afecta-
    ban despreciar; en efecto <>, voz antigua derivada del
    latin vulgar ministeriumm> que no se ha conservado en caste-
    llano pero si en otros idiomas neo-latinos (frances: metier,
    italiano: mestiere,- etc.) significa oficio y por ende, de clerecia> viene a ser oficio, ocupaci6n de clerigos, tomada
    la palabra cleiigo en la muy amplia significaci6n que tenia en
    la Edad Media de cualquier persona, religiosa o nd, que fre-
    cuentaba el ambiente monacal donde se conservaba la mayor
    suma de cultural. Esta escuela represent, desde muchos pun-
    tos de vista, un notable progress sobre la poesia 6pica y
    popular de los juglares, si bien no puede decirse con exactitud
    que le sucediera, puesto que ambos mesteres coexistieron aun


    en tiempo de uno de los iltimos representantes del de clerecia,
    que con pertenecer a este parece contarse a si mismo entire
    los juglares, quiza llevado por su afici6n a lo popular:

    Seiiores, hevos servido con poca sabidoria:
    por vos dar sohis a todos, fabl6vos en jugleria> (1).

    Desde luego, la cultural de sus adeptos es much mas vasta,
    como que tiene por base la literature latina pero n6 la del
    period clasico sino la profusa literature latino-eclesiastica de
    la Edad Media que ya existia en los tiempos de la monarquia
    visig6tica, de donde provienen las leyendas hagiograficas, las
    cr6nicas latinas de los hechos de la antigiedad, las parafrasis
    de Ovidio, etc. que son la fuente principal de los poemas de
    clerecia. Ademis, los elements liricos son mas frecuentes,
    desde que ya asoma la personalidad del autor en sus obras a
    pesar del estrecho parentesco de forma que existe entire todas
    las producciones de la escuela pero que dista ya much del
    caracter colectivo e impersonal de la poesia 6pica.
    Pero donde acaso se nota mis el adelanto es en la forma y
    en la lengua: entire el vocabulario de las obras de Berceo o
    del libro de Apolonio, el mis antiguo de los poemas de clerecia,
    y el Cantar del Cid, por ejemplo, media una distancia consi-
    derable; el enriquecimiento de la lengua es evidence, pero no
    como pudiera creerse, dado el caracter erudito de la escuela
    y la cultural latina de sus discipulos, por introducci6n de pa-
    labras latinas, como ocurri6 en la epoca de D. Juan II, sino
    por empleo de palabras claramente populares, como que mu-
    chos de esos poemas eran escritos con miras de edificamiento
    del pueblo. En cuanto a la forma m6trica el perfeccionamiento
    es tambidn grande: la estrofa de cuatro versos alejandrinos
    rimados con un mismo consonante podri no ser agradable a
    quin estA habituado al ritmo del endecasilabo, pero es sin
    duda un gran adelanto sobre los versos indefinidamente aso-
    nantados y sin media exacta, de los cantares de gesta, y ya
    veremos como no paran alli las innovaciones del mester de
    clerecia en cuanto a la metrica, sino que en sus postrimerias
    nos ofrece gran variedad de combinaciones !estr6ficas, si bien
    por influencia de la escuela gallega.

    (1) Arc. de Hita, copla 1633.


    El origen inmediato de esta forma metrica, llamada por los
    poetas del mester de clerecia claramente establecido: creenla algunos procedente de la poesia
    francesa donde tambien era empleada por una escuela seme-
    jante, el < la peninsula: lo mis probable es lo segundo, desde que la
    forma latina de donde proviene se usaba tanto en Espana
    como en Francia y su adaptaci6n al romance puede haberse
    hecho simultdneamente en uno y otro pais. Pero indudable-
    mente su origen mediator esta en la poesia latina medioeval
    que en la mayoria de los casos se escribia en pentimetros o
    trimetros yambicos unidos en grupos de cuatro por un mismo
    consonante, practice que se denominaba con los nombres de
    ,similiter cadens o desinens,, como se ve en los siguientes

    Viri venerabiles, sacerdotes Dei,
    precones altissimi, lucerne diei,
    claritatis radio fulgentes et spei
    auribus percipite verba oris mei.

    Qui sedet in solio summer majestatis
    vos purget a vitio, mundet a peccatis;
    vobis sit auxilio vestre pietatis
    ut abre gremio fine sedeatis (1).

    Pero si la forma de todos los poemas de esta escuela tiene
    notables parecidos de familiar hasta el punto de que se hace
    dificil sefialar a veces otras diferencias que algunas dialectales,
    no sucede lo mismo con su fondo que es sumamente variado,
    como veremos al enumerarlos. De ellos han l1egado hasta
    nosotros el Libro de Apolonio, el mis antiguo de todos, espe-
    cie de novela bizantina de aventuras; las obras de Berceo
    compuestas de leyendas hagiogr~ficas, relaciones de milagros
    y revelaci6n de dogmas; el Libro de Alejandro, vasto poema de
    argument clasico; el poema de Fernrn GonzAlez, de asunto
    epico; la vida de San Ildefonso del Beneficiado de Ubeda; el
    poema de Yusdf basado sobre el CorAn; y por filtimo, las
    obras del Arcipreste de Hita y el Rimado de Palacio del Can-
    ciller Pero L6pez de Ayala, que si bien pertenecen ain al

    (1) Tomas A. Sanchez: Colecci6n de pooiias anteriores al siglo XV.


    mester de clerecia, se apartan much de su caracter general
    por influencia de la naciehte escuela trovadoresca.
    Como se ve, muchos de estos poemas son an6nimos: del
    Libro de Apolonio no hay menci6n alguna de autor asi cono
    del poema de Fernan Gonzalez y del de Yusuf, aunque este
    iltimo, escrito en aljamia aribiga es muy probablemente de
    autor moro; en cuanto al Libro de Alejandro, fuM atribuido
    hasta hace algin tiempo a un Lorenzo Segura de Astorga,
    -pero este parece ser s61o el copista; ultimamente se le ha
    dado como autor a Berceo, segdn un c6dice nuevo hallado en
    Paris, pero es asunto ain discutido. De ellos no nos deten-
    dremos mis quesobre las obras de Berceo, el Libro de Ale-
    jandro, el poema del Arcipreste de Hita y el Rimado de Palaci&,
    finicos que tengan algin interns para la lirica: los demas,
    unos por su character puramente narrative, otros por su infe-
    rioridad, no ofrecen suficientes elements liricos.
    De Gonzalo de Berceo no se sabe, por algunos documents
    que referentes a l1 se conservan, sino que naci6 en la villa de
    su nombre a fines del siglo XII, segdn se conjetura y que pas6
    su vida en el monasterio de San Millhn de la Cogolla, vida
    que por manifestaci6n expresa del mismo en sus obras, fue
    bastante larga. Su labor poetica es considerable y alcanza en
    sus diez composiciones a unos trece mil versos que seg6n la
    ley general pierden en meritos lo que ganan en cantidad,
    pues llevado por su gran facilidad amontona cuarteta sobre
    cuarteta hasta el punto de cansar muchas veces con su proli-
    jidad. Pero en medio de todo result un poeta simpitico por
    sus moments, no muy escasos, de placida inspiraci6n y sobre
    todo por su encantadora ingenuidad. Es desde luego el mas
    popular de esta escuela que se ha l1amado tambien erudito-
    popular, si se exceptda al Arcipreste de Hita, y el que mis
    conserve todavia algo del estilo de los cantares de gesta, si
    bien bastante transformado en su significaci6n, como por ejem-
    plo, el: < con que
    el rapsoda del Cantar del Cid terminal su declamaci6n y que
    aparece en Berceo: vino >, aunque con mas caracter ret6rico que otra cosa. Pero
    escribiendo como lo hacia, para ilustrar y edificar al pueblo,
    tiene el mIrito de identificar con el sus sentimientos y asi
    emplea a cada paso comparaciones sencillas, casi triviales,
    pero a las cuales su sincera ingenuidad dan una gracia parti-


    cular, con lo que va exponiendo los dogmas abstractos de la
    iglesia y las vidas de sus santos predilectos. Probablemente
    el amor con que estudiaba las relaciones hagiogrificas le era
    inspirado por su carifio al pueblo en medio del cual vivia y
    del que debia sentirse muy cercano, lo que lo impulsaba a
    exaltar y a divulgar las obras de los santos que de ese mismo
    pueblo habian salido.
    Caracteristico de Berceo es su apego a la verdad hist6rica
    que en sus composiciones le hace atenerse con grande escru-
    pulosidad a los textos hagiograficos de donde saca sus argu-
    mentos y que aparece expreso a cada paso en sus obras: que non es escripto non le afirmaremos. ... Non lo diz la
    leyenda, non so yo sabidor,>. Escribir aventura series
    grant folia,. Podra decirse que semejante escrupulosidad im-
    plica falta de recursos po6ticos o de imaginaci6n, cualidad
    principal, de un poeta, pero desde luego demuestra gran since-
    ridad y rectitud de Animo. Por otra parte, en medio de la
    frondosidad de sus versos a ratos pesados, se encuentran aqui
    y allA algunas verdaderas flores po6ticas que impiden negar
    en absolute a Berceo el titulo de poeta, poeta plAcido, con-
    templativo e ingenuo si se quiere, como que el ambiente en
    que vivia predisponia a ello, pero que a las veces alcanza
    verdadera inspiraci6n mistica al expresar la fe profunda en la
    bondad divina que se halla difundida en todas sus obras y
    que se muestra principalmente en los Milagros de la Virgen,
    de la cual, como muchisimos otros poetas espafioles, es fer-
    viente adorador. No es de olvidar tampoco en 1l el senti-
    miento national que indicamos mas arriba, que lo leva a
    componer tres largos poemas y no de los peores, en honor de
    los santos que tuvieron a Espafia y principalmente a La Rioja
    por teatro de sus virtudes.
    Lo mAs cercano al lirismo que se encuentra en Berceo esta
    en el Duelo de la Virgen, donde figure una cantiga con el
    estribillo de < sentimiento lirico, -y en los Himnos, de todo lo cual es
    impossible citar nada a causa de la extension de los trozos en
    que esta con frecuencia diluido. El Duelo de la Virgen, sobre
    todo, tiene a ratos acentos de conmovedora elegia donde mas
    se levanta el estro de Berceo en alas de su profundo y sin-
    cero sentimiento religioso.
    En otros lugares, como la Introducci6n a los Milagros de
    ART. o xxx 2


    Nuestra Seniora y la Vida de Santa Oria, ofrece hermosas
    descripciones y cuadros de encantadora gracia y sencillez de
    que puede dar idea este fragmento:

    <(Vido tres sanctas virgines de grant auctoridat,

    Cecilia fue tercera, una martir preciosa
    que de Don Jhesu Christo quiso seer esposa:
    non quiso otra suegra si non la Gloriosa
    que fu6 mis bella que lilio nin que rosa.
    Todas estas tres virgines que avedes oidas,
    todas eran iguales d'una color vestidas;
    semeyaba que eran en un dia nacidas,
    lucian common estrellas, tanto eran de bellidas.
    Estas tres sanctas virgines en cielo coronadas
    tenian sendas palombas en sus manos alzadas,
    mas blancas que las nieves que non son coceadas:
    parescia que non fueran en palombar criadas> (1).

    La versificaci6n y la lengua de Berceo no son menos reco-
    mendables que sus aptitudes podticas: adn en los pasajes mas
    cansadores y prolijos de sus obras, los lentos alejandrinos van
    desarrollandose siempre con notable fluidez y hasta armonia,
    y no son nada escasos los versos donde hay verdadero ritmo
    y belleza, como por ejemplo el peniltimo del fragmento citado.
    De la lengua, ya sefialamos al hablar en general del mester
    de clerecia, su gran progress desde la literature de los canta-
    res de gesta y Berceo es uno de los que mas demuestran este
    progress entire los poetas del primer period de esta escuela.
    No nos detendremos much sobre el Poema de Alejandro
    porque en realidad su caricter es mas dpico que lirico; pero
    como en lo que tiene de aquel g6nero es mis una epopeya
    literaria que, una verdadera epopeya, se sigue que no se mani-
    fiesta en 61 la impersonalidad propia de 6sta y que no dejan
    de mostrarse a ratos rasgos individuals del autor, circunstan-
    cia que nunca falta en las epopeyas literarias. Sin embargo,
    el element lirico de este poema es muy escaso: su caracter
    general es la descripci6n y la narraci6n, siendo en el orden
    tdcnico donde mas se trasluce la personalidad del autor, por
    lo 'agradable de su estilo y su habilidad en el manejo de la
    lengua y del metro.

    (1) Vida de Santa Oria, copla 27 y sg.


    -Este vastisimo poema (dice D. M. Menindez y Pelayo) que
    <(consta de m6s de diez mil versos, es sin duda la obra de
    c un repertorio de todo el saber de clerecia y un alarde de la
    ,sin duda uno de los hombres mas doctors de su tiempo.,
    Estas cortas lines del gran maestro bastan para darse cabal
    idea de lo que es el poema cuyo autor, ademas de las dos
    obras de que se sirvi6 para la *composici6n de la suya, una
    latina la Alexandreis) de G ualtero de Chatillon, otra francesa
    escrita por Lambert li Tors y Alejandro de Paris, conocia,
    mas que nadie entonces, obras clasicas aunque casi todas por
    intermedio de las cr6nicas y parafrasis compuestas sobre ellas
    que corrian en la Edad Media.
    El asunto del poema es desde luego la vida y hechos de
    Alejandro de Macedonia, por donde se ve el caricter mas
    epico que lirico de la obra; pero lo mas curioso en 1l es la
    complete transformaci6n del character de los personajes que
    describe, pues el autor parece haber puesto singular empeilo
    en caracterizarlos como cumplidos caballeros de la Edad Media:
    Alejandro figure como Caballeroo cristiano armado tal por el
    Papa y acompafiado de sus doce pares; < ha
    forjado para 1e una espada; ((Don Jupiter> es honrado por
    numerosos capellanes y hasta aparece el. ,Conde Don Dem6s-
    tenes) que despues de exaltar los animos de los atenienses
    se ve obligado a refugiarse en un convento de monjas, apart
    del convertido en un doctor escolastico, diestro en el trivio y en el
    quadrivio y formidable en el silogismoo> (M. M. y P. op. cit.).
    Estas circunstancias dan al poema gran valor para el studio de
    la vida y costumbres espafiolas de la Edad Media, pero seria
    quiza recurso demasiado socorrido atribuirlas a la ingenuidad
    del autor, antes bien, parecen revelar en 6l gran sentido artis-
    tico para adaptarse al ambiente donde queria divulgar su obra
    y al ptblico a quien la destinaba; probablemente un poema
    compuesto segin las reglas de la literature clasica no hubiera
    tenido 6xito en aquel tiempo y hasta, considerando estas cir-
    cunstancias, nos pareceria a nosotros mas fuera de lugar.
    Como se ha dicho mas arriba, poco es lo que hay de lirico
    en el Poema de Alejandro y este poco creo poder sefialarlo


    en la descripci6n de la tienda de Alejandro (coplas 2376 y sg.)
    aunque s6lo fuera por la concepci6n aleg6rica de los meses
    del afio que alli se encuentra; ademts, en la descripci6n del
    mes de Mayo (c. 1788 sg.), de las maravillas de Babilonia (1200)
    y en el retrato de la reina Talestris (1710), aparte de sus
    m6ritos como trozos descriptivos encuentrase aqui y alli algu-
    nos rasgos cercanos al lirismo.
    Las obras de Berceo y el Poema de Alejandro son los dos
    monumentos de la primera fase del mester de clerecia de que
    en rigor puede hablarse tratando de la poesia lirica. En efecto,
    el poema de Ferndn Gonzalez es de caricter puramente 6pico
    a pesar de pertenecer a esta escuela y puede decirse que es
    una obra del mester de juglaria vestida con el ropaje del de
    clerecia o si se quiere, el eslab6n que une al primero con el
    segundo; el Libro de Apolonio, ya dijimos que es una novela
    bizantina, muy graciosa y bien escrita, pero como tal, una
    obra narrative con mas elements dramiticos que liricos, y
    el poema de Yusdf o de Jose, dijimos tambien que no es sino
    la vida del hijo de Jacob puesta en verso, aunque sacada del
    Corn, como que fu6 escrito el poema al parecer por un moro
    y en aljamia aribiga. En cuanto a la vida de San Ildefonso,
    su manifiesta inferioridad y su condici6n de obra de decadencia
    nos eximen de tratar de l1. Quedan pues, el libro del Arci-
    preste de Hita y el Rimado de Palacio del Canciller Pero
    L6pez de Ayala que son las obras del mester de clerecia donde
    nuestra cosecha lirica sera mas abundante; pero como ellas
    pertenecen a la filtima fase de dicha escuela y se apartan
    bastante de su caracter original en virtud de otras influencias,
    principalmente la de la escuela trovadoresca resucitada y re-
    juvenecida en Galicia, bueno sera que digamos algo de ella
    antes de ocuparnos de aquellos poemas.


    Al noroeste de la peninsula ib6rica habia comenzado a for-
    marse y a desarrollarse antes que en 1l e independientemente
    del resto del territorio, un romance espafiol que a vueltas de
    muchas semejanzas ocasionadas por la unidad de raza, presen-
    taba algunas diferencias, principalmente en la parte fonetica,
    con los otros romances peninsulares, el cual, ayudado por


    algunas circunstancias de orden hist6rico, se desarroll6 mas
    rapidamente y alcanz6 antes que los otros ciertas condiciones
    de estabilidad y de armonia que lo hacian mas apto para la
    expresi6n de una poesia menos ruda que la 6pica medioevaL
    No es necesario detenernos aqui sobre las causes de este feno-
    meno: bastara sefialar el caracter algo sofiador y melanc6lico,
    mas inclinado a la poesia contemplative que al empuje belico
    que su situaci6n geografica da a los pueblos cercanos al mar
    como el de Galicia a diferencia de los pueblos mediterrdneos
    como el de Castilla. A estas circunstancias se unen las rela-
    ciones de esa parte de Espafia con las demas de Europa, en
    especial modo con la Francia meridional merced a las pere-
    grinaciones religiosas a Santiago de Compostela y al prestigio
    que alli alcanzaron numerosas personalidades francesas y de
    ese contact del pueblo gallego, de suyo predispuesto al lirismo,
    con la sociedad que mayor cultural artistic habia alcanzado
    entonces en la Europa latina, surge esta nueva escuela que
    nos ocupa. Esta influencia comenz6 a hacerse sentir entire la
    gente mas ilustrada y de mayor posici6n social y de esta pri-
    mera fase result, como frecuentemente sucede, un divorcio
    entire la literature erudita y la popular que se evidencia hasta
    en la lengua, pues el continue trato con gente francesa di6
    lugar, en el habla de los hidalgos, a la introducci6n de algunos
    elements nasales que hoy se reconocen en la lengua portu-
    guesa, derivada de aquella. Ellos adoptaron pues el arte de
    los trovadores que ya entonces era bastante artificial y culti-
    varon una poesia amanerada y formalista, descendiente direct
    de la provenzal que les servia de modelo, de la cual esta
    compuesta en su casi totalidad el Cancionero de Ajuda, que
    viene a representar asi la primera fase de la influencia pro-
    venzal en Galicia.
    Pero al lado de esa literature trovadoresca cortesana de
    escaso valor podtico, florecia riquisima vena de poesia popular
    donde la influencia provenzal tuvo poco asidero y si lo tuvo,
    fue solamente en la forma: el fondo era puramente indigena
    y a la inversa de la poesia popular de Castilla esencialmente
    epica, aquella rebosaba de un suave y melanc6lico lirismo
    propio del pueblo gallego que adn hoy puede sefialarse en 61
    y que tiene profundas raices en el pasado a juzgar por la
    mas aceptada de las hip6tesis que le da un origen c6ltico.
    De ahi provienen los numerosos y encantadores cantares de


    ledino y de amigo, puestos en la mayoria de los casos en
    boca de mujeres y en ocasi6n de las romerias que eran el
    centro de la vida social de aquel pueblo desparramado en
    pequefios caserios.
    Pero lleg6 un moment en que se produjo, como fatalmente
    se produce en todas las literaturas, la fusion de las dos co-
    rrientes, erudita o aristocrAtica y popular, hecho que es condi-
    ci6n de la existencia de una verdadera poesia y lo mismo
    que sucedi6 en Castilla siglo y medio mas tarde para dar su
    caracter y vuelo a la poesia genuinamente espaliola. Esta
    uni6n tiene lugar a fines del siglo XIII durante el reinado
    de Don Diniz de Portugal y este mismo monarca, que era a
    la vez uno de los buenos poetas de su corte, es precisamente
    el representante de este fen6meno y en sus obras se muestran
    claramente los dos g6neros de poesia: el vacio y amanerado
    de los trovadores provenzales de la decadencia y el poetico y
    espontaneo del pueblo; y se ve tambien c6mo crece en valor
    la poesia gallega a media que en las formas aristocraticas
    se infiltra el sentimiento popular. Asi como en el Cancionero
    de Ajuda estb representada la poesia puramente trovadoresca,
    los Cancioneros del Vaticano y de Colocci-Brancutti reflejan
    la uni6n de aquella con la popular y nos ofrecen el mas her-
    moso caudal de poesia lirica de la Edad Media.
    Semejante grado de perfeccionamiento como el que osten-
    taba la poesia gallega a fines del siglo X3II y a principios
    del XIV, no podia dejar de atraer a los poetas liricos que ya
    existian en las demas parties dq Espana, a quienes ofrecia gran
    variedad de formas m6tricas y sobre todo una lengua excepcio-
    nalmente apta para la poesia no s6lo por sus condiciones mu-
    sicales, sino por la several discipline que le habia impuesto el
    largo uso de las formas provenzales que hicieron los versifi-
    cadores del Cancionero de Ajuda. Primero de todos ellos por
    su condici6n y talent portico es Don Alfonso el Sabio a
    quien no puede dejar de citarse al hablar de la poesia gallega,
    el cual, si bien di6 gran impulse al desarrollo del romance
    castellano prescribiendo su uso en lugar del latin y alentando
    a la composici6n de numerosas obras en prosa con 6l por
    instrument, prefiri6 casi siempre el gallego para sus poesias
    y en gallego escribi6 sus hermosisimas Cantigas a Santa Maria.
    Gran numero de poetas sigui6 el ejemplo del Rey Sabio y el
    habito de emplear la lengua galaico-portuguesa como dialecto


    po6tico se extendi6 hasta la 6poca de D. Juan II, como lo
    atestigua el Cancionero de Baena donde aparecen las uiltimas
    composiciones gallegas de trovadores castellanos, casi del
    todo suplantadas por las coplas de arte mayor y menor en
    que florecia ya el romance de Castilla.
    Esta es pues la fuente de la nueva corriente que cambia
    considerablemente el caracter de la poesia castellana en el
    siglo XIV y que al infiltrarse en el mester de clerecia es
    causa de que las obras de esta escuela en tal epoca difieran
    tanto de las del siglo anterior. En cuanto a la forma, produce
    la aparici6n de metros cortos entire el caudal de los versos
    alejandrinos, practice desconocida por los primeros poetas del
    mester de clerecia con la sola y corta excepci6n de Berceo y
    que se manifiesta en el Rimado de Palacio del Canciller Ayala
    y sobre todo en las obras del Arcipreste de Hita; en cuanto
    al fondo, hace nacer en las obras de este iltimo las cantigas
    de serrana, precursoras de las que habia de llevar a tanta
    perfecci6n el Marques de Santillana, las cantigas y loores
    de la lVirgen, que tambidn se hallan en el Rimado de Pa-
    lacio, y los cantares de amigo que nms tarde aparecen,
    aunque algo transformados, en lengua castellana.
    Pero no basta la influencia galaico-portuguesa para explicar
    la gran transformaci6n que sufre el mester de clerecia consi-
    derado en la obra del nms grande de sus filtimos representantes,
    el Arcipreste de Hita: hay que, tener en cuenta tambien el
    gran movimiento de curiosidad cientifica y literaria que se
    produce durante el reinado de Alfonso X y ayudado por el.
    El niimero considerable de obras en prosa escritas en aquel
    tiempo, entire las cuales ocupan no poco lugar las traducciones
    de ap6logos orientales, es otro factor important en la evolu-
    ci6n de la literature y cuya acci6n, ayudada por la transfor-
    maci6n en un gdnero de burguesia de la sociedad guerrera y
    caballeresca de los primeros tiempos de la Edad Media, pro-
    duce esa considerable corriente de poesia didactica y moralista
    que dej6 hondas huellas en la literature posterior. Pero basta
    sefialarla de paso, puesto que no es nuestro asunto la poesia
    didactica y trazado ya este bosquejo de los nuevos factors
    que intervienen en el desenvolvimiento de la poesia castellana,
    pasaremos a tratar de las obras del Arcipreste de Hita, cuyo
    character dificilmente puede estudiarse sin tener en cuenta a



    Este poeta cuya aparici6n hace 6poca en la literature espa-
    fiola y que, si se exceptda a Dante, es quiza el mayor que
    exista en la literature medioeval de toda Europa, fu6, segin
    se conjetura, natural de Alcala de Henares, la patria de Cer-
    vantes, y vivi6 desde fines del siglo XII hasta mediados del
    XIV. Escasos son los datos conocidos acerca de su vida aparte
    de los que de si mismo da en su libro y cuyo grado de vera-
    cidad parece dificil de establecer; se sabe, empero, que mereci6
    la confianza del gran Arzobispo de Toledo D. Gil de Albornoz,
    quien lo comision6 para llevar cartas suyas a los cl6rigos de
    Talavera con el objeto de morigerar sus costumbres que aun
    para el relajamiento de aquella 6poca eran escandalosas; mas
    tarde fue preso por orden de este mismo Arzobispo, por causes
    e meramente curiales (M. M. y P.) o por delaciones de esos
    cl6rigos de Talavera irritados de que se pretendiera disciplinary
    su regocijada vida (Cejador y Frauca). Segin confesi6n propia,
    fu6 en la prisi6n donde escribi6 el admirable Libro del Buen
    Amor, obra de considerable valor no s6lo po6tico sino tambien
    hist6rico, por la pintura que nos ofrece de la sociedad tan
    compleja de esa 6poca de la Edad Media.
    La material de este libro es variadisima y con s6lo tener en
    cuenta que hallamos en el el germen de obras tan represen-
    tativas en la literature espafiola como la novela picaresca y
    La Celestina, puede deducirse su importancia como obra de
    character national; aparte de estos g6rmenes, comprendidos en
    la forma autobiogrifica y en el episodio de los amores de
    Don Mel6n de la 'Huerta y de Dofia Endrina, encontramos
    una colecci6n de < enxiemplos > o fabulas, una parifrasis del
    Ars amandi de Ovidio, una parodia 6pica representada por la.
    pelea entire Don Carnal y Dofia Cuaresma, varias satiras y
    composiciones de caricter moralista y por filtimo, una colecci6n
    de poesias liricas sagradas y profanas. Con este inventario
    no result nada facil establecer el verdadero caracter de la
    obra y la intenci6n del autor, porque si bien dste manifiesta
    expresamente en su pr6logo sus prop6sitos moralizadores, no
    dejan de ser sugestivas las palabras con que prosigue y que
    escandalizaron a su primer editor hasta el punto de supri-
    mirlas: < Empero, porque es umanal cosa el pecar, si algunos


    > (lo que non los conssejo) quisieren usar del loco amor, aqui
    Sfallaran algunas maneras para ello >, asi como la regocijada
    picardia que campea en todo el libro y el perfect conocimiento
    que muestra tener de toda suerte de andanzas tabernarias y
    amorosas. Por eso las opinions sobre Juan Ruiz esthn divi-
    didas: quienes como Sanchez, Amador de los Rios, Cejador y
    Frauca, se inclinan a career que su intenci6n es efectivamente
    moralizadora y que la atribuci6n que se hace a si mismo de
    tantas picardias responded a un fin artistic, para dar mas vida
    y mas caricter de actualidad a su satira contra el relajamiento
    de costumbres que sobre todo entire el clero cundia por entonces,
    o al prop6sito de pintar una victim de las pasiones huma-
    nas; quienes, como el ilustre Men6ndez y Pelayo, Fitzmaurice
    Kelly, el conde de Puymaigre, creen que en el fondo hay much
    de cierto en su autobiografia, que en realidad era el Arcipreste
    un cl6rigo de vida bastante irregular para su estado y que su
    libro es en cierto modo una obra de regocijo. Lo cierto es
    que aunque escribiera su obra con fines edificantes, mostrando
    el mal para inducir a apartarse de 1l, parece poco probable que
    no conociera por experiencia personal el ginero de vida de escola-
    res nocherniegos, trotaconventos, mujeres de costumbres faciles,
    monjas disolutas, etc. que con tanta verdad y gracia describe.
    Sea lo que fuere, ninguno de estos dos aspects bajo los
    cuales puede considerarse, restan valor a este hombre de tan
    elevada talla y que al merito de presentar en su obra un re-
    sumen del estado y tendencies de la literature de sus dias,
    con lo que viene a ser el representante de su 6poca como lo
    fu6 el Marques de Santillana de la suya, une el de ser un
    genial poeta que parece igualmente dotado para cualquier gd-
    nero de poesia, puesto que los reune a todos en su obra, si
    bien sus tendencies son principalmente satiricas.
    Dijimos que era el representante de su epoca, y en efecto,
    aunque admirablemente manejadas y vivificadas por su genio,
    hay en la obra del Arcipreste huellas de todas las influencias
    que por entonces se ejercian en el campo de la literature
    castellana, como lo prueba el breve analisis que hicimos de
    la material de su libro. Casi todas estas influencias las hemos
    ido sefialando hasta ahora y bastara solamente relacionarlas
    con la obra que nos ocupa. El fondo traditional de cultural
    latino-eclesiastica que segdn ya vimos, fu6 la fuente principal
    del mester de clerecia, es tambien la base de la erudici6n del


    Arcipreste y en 61 esta inspirada gran parte de su obra, pero
    en el Arcipreste de Hita esta cultural latino-eclesiastica es
    much mis profunda que en sus antecesores y en ella se
    puede sefialar una tendencia clasica en la imitaci6n del verda-
    dero Ovidio, por sus referencias a Arist6teles y a las teorias
    astron6micas de Ptolomeo o por algunas fabulas que toma de
    los Isopetes o colecciones de fabulas es6picas. La antigua
    vena epica de los cantares de gesta aparece en forma de
    epopeya burlesca en la batalla de Don Carnal con Donla Cua-
    resma, aunque el asunto sea de origen transpirenaico. La lite-
    ratura galaico-portuguesa y por intermedio de ella la provenzal,
    ademas de su influencia formal que es causa de la variedad
    de metros que en el libro del Arcipreste se encuentra, da
    origen a su parte lirica de cantares sagrados y profanos, como
    los loores de Nuestra Sefiora y las cantigas de serrana. Por
    uiltimo, la tendencia didActica y moralista que aparece entonces
    en Castilla por la difusi6n de ap6logos y libros doctrinarios
    de origen oriental, se encuentra en el vasto repertorio de
    fabulas que el Arcipreste intercala habilmente en su libro.
    A todo esto hay que agregar la influencia francesa que, si no
    muy grande, se ejerce empero, como lo prueban algunos cuen-
    tos tornados de < fabliaux franceses, entire los cuales puede
    citarse el muy donoso de Don Pitas Payas en que el Arci-
    preste, con deliberada picardia, imita hasta ciertas formas de
    Pero todas estas influencias estan de tal modo fundidas en
    el crisol del talent del Arcipreste de Hita y se hallan tan
    poderosamente vivificadas por su genio, que apenas si merecen
    el nombre de tales segin es de viva y real la personalidad
    del autor en cada una de sus paginas. Hasta entonces toda
    la literature del mester de clerecia era de una desesperante
    uniformidad y no es fAcil distinguir las obras de Berceo, del
    libro de Apolonio, del poema de Alejandro, etc., pero el Arci-
    preste es inconfundible y su habilidad tecnica, la pujanza de
    su genio y sobre todo, la incomparable ironia que se esconde
    casi en cada una de sus coplas, revelan al autor en cualquier
    parte de su obra; ninguna hay tan personal en la literature
    espafiola anterior y much habra que andar para encontrar
    un poeta que pueda ponerse al lado del Arcipreste de Hita.
    Hemos visto ya que la parte puramente lirica de este autor
    la componen cierto ndmero de cantigas a la Virgen y cantigas


    de serrana. Las primeras, que tambi6n llevan los nombres de
    gozos y loores, son las finicas composicion6s en que el Arci-
    preste olvida su aguda ironia y adopta un lenguaje serio y
    elevado donde brilla su profunda y entusiasta fe en la hermosa
    figure de la Virgen cuya devoci6n estuvo y esta ailn en ciertos
    lugares, tan arraigada en Espafia. Pero aunque en Castilla
    culmine el g6nero en las notables cantigas del Rey Sabio, la
    literature < marial) habia sido muy cultivada durante la Edad
    Media en toda Europa y sobre todo en Francia, bajo la forma
    de relaciones, en su mayoria latinas, de milagros atribuidos a
    la virgen y, aunque en menor grado que esas, de himnos en
    su honor. De esa profusa literature hagiogrdfica latina y fran-
    cesa se sirvieron Berceo y Alfonso X para la composici6n de
    sus Milagros y Loores de Nuestra Sefiora el primero y de sus
    Cantighs el segundo. La fuente inmediata de los cantares
    mariales del Arcipreste son pues los de Alfonso el Sabio,
    aparte de la tradici6n popular a que toda aquella literature
    hagiografica, asi como las mismas Cantigas respondian, pues
    muchas de 6stas eran cantadas por el pueblo, objeto con el
    cual thmbi6n fueron escritas algunas o quiza todas las del
    Arcipreste, desde que junto con el epigrafe de muchas de
    ellas se lee la indicacion del cantar popular a cuya tonada
    estan adaptadas. Pero a diferencia de Alfonso X y de los
    hagi6grafos que lo precedieron, el Arcipreste no parece haber
    escrito sino cantares en loor de la virgen, prescindiendo de
    las relaciones de milagros que en todos aquellos se encuentran,
    asi que los suyos que se conservan versan en su mayoria
    sobre los Gozos de la Virgen, es decir, los siete sucesos mis
    salientes de su vida que festeja la iglesia cat6lica, genero de
    composiciones muy en boga en la Edad Media y que, con
    character sacrilege, segdn los creyentes, fu6 usado mas tarde
    aplicindolo a asuntos mas mundanos como los site gozos de
    Amor del trovador Juan Rodriguez del Padr6n y muchos otros.
    Casi todas estas composiciones son bellas y de gran delica-
    deza de sentimiento: se ve por ellas que aun en el caso de
    que el Arcipreste fuera dado a andanzas amorosas y picares-
    cas, existia muy viva en 61 la devoci6n a la divina figure que

    i Oh Maria,
    luz del dia,


    ti me guia

    i Reyna, Virgen, mi esfuerzo! yo so puesto en tal espanto,
    por lo cual a ty bendigo, que me guards de quebranto,
    pues a ty, Sefiora, canto,
    tu me guard de lision,
    de muerte y de occasion,
    por tu fijo Jhesu Santo.

    Tal unci6n y espontaneidad no pueden ser artificios ret6ricos,
    sobre todo en un hombre que no parece cuidarse much de
    Expresiones hay que son verdaderas joyas literarias que s6lo
    un poeta de la talla del Arcipreste pudo haber formado en
    aquella 6poca:

    Por la tu bondad agora
    goardame toda ora
    de muerte vergofiosa,
    porque loe a ty, fermosa,
    noche e dya.

    Estrella resplandeiente,
    melesyna de coydados,
    catadura muy bella,
    syn mansylla de pecados:
    por los tus gosos preciados
    te pido, virtuosa,
    que me guards, lynpia rosa,
    de follya.

    Y sobre todo este cantar que es de lo 1ms bello que se haya
    escrito en castellano:

    Quiero seguir
    a ty ;flor de las flores!
    sienpre desire,
    cantar de tus loores,
    non me partir
    de te servir,
    i mejor de las mejores!


    i Estrella de la mar!
    i puerto de folgura !
    i de dolor e pesar
    e de tristura
    venme library
    e conortar,
    sefiora, del altura!

    ;Nunca peresge
    nin entristes.e
    quien a ty non olvida!

    Hay ademas entire los cantares sagrados del Arcipreste, algu-
    nos dirigidos a Jesucristo, muy religiosos tambien, pero que en
    general no alcanzan a la hermosura de los que tienen a la
    virgen por tema.
    La parte lirica del libro del Buen Amor se complete, como
    vimos, con las cantigas de serrana a las que pueden agregarse
    las trovas cazurras, de las que s61o se ha conservado una, y
    algunos cantares de ciegos y escolares; prescindiremos de 6stos
    que son pocos y de escaso valor po6tico y para terminar con
    el Arcipreste diremos algo de sus serranillas.
    Conocido es el origen provenzal de esta clase de compbsi-
    ciones que los trovadores llamaban pastorelas y que desde
    Provenza pasaron al norte de Francia, donde se cultivaron
    principalmente en el siglo XIII, a Italia y a Espafa; algo
    dijimos ya de ellas y citamos al trovador Girardo Riquier que
    se distingui6 en este g6nero. Su introducci6n en Espafia se
    hizo por Galicia por donde entr6, como vimos ya, la corriente
    provenzal en la peninsula; pero el g6nero de las pastorelas
    fu6 de los que permanecieron alli como patrimonio de esa
    literature aristocritica que seguia la poesia amanerada de los.
    ultimos tiempos de la provenzal y que no entraron en la
    fusion rejuvenecedora que se hizo de otros elements con la
    poesia popular gallega, lo que se ve en la inferioridad de las
    pastorelas del rey D. Diniz, por ejemplo, con respect a sus
    demAs composiciones en que se inspira en el sentimiento del
    pueblo. Pero la influencia de un element nuevo y rejuvene-
    cedor que este g6nero no sufri6 en Galicia, la encontr6 al ser
    torado por los poetas de Castilla, de los cuales fu6 el primero
    el Arcipreste de Hita, siguiendo a este el Marqu6s de Santi-
    llana que di6 su mayor esplendor al g6nero.


    Con todo, asi las serranillas como las demds' parties de la
    obra del Arcipreste; aunque tengan su origin en escuelas an-
    teriores o extranjeras, no guardian de su procedencia otra cosa
    sino el asunto escueto o la idea general: todo lo demds que
    para la formaci6n de la obra po6tica debe concurrir, es ruy
    propio del autor y de tal manera, que result una obra nueva
    cuyo poderoso cardcter personal no le deja ya sino lejanas se-
    mejanzas con sus models. Tal cosa sefialamos ligeramente
    con respect al episodio de Don Mel6n y Dofia Endrina y de
    la Pelea de Don Carnal con Dofia Cuaresma, y lo mismo su-
    cede en las serranillas. Las que se cultivaban siguiendo la
    manera provenzal eran, las mas de las veces, falsas y amane-
    radas; las serranas no tenian a menudo de tales sino el ves-
    tido y discurrian como gente de corte, pero el genio realista
    y burl6n del Arcipreste las volvi6 a su verdadera naturaleza
    y cargando algdn tanto la mano, hizo mis bien una parodia
    del g6nero. ;Y cudn poco se parece a las atildadas vaqueras
    de las canciones provenzales y gallegas la Chata, por ejemplo,
    de quien dice el Arcipreste:

    en su pescuego me puso
    como a ,urron liviano,
    levome la cuesta ayuso;

    ;A fe que el Marquds de Santillana no hubiera podido decir
    a .sta:

    que non soys villana. !

    Y todas son asi, interesadas, bravas y montaraces, que
    manejan al igual la honda que el cayado o que cargan a un
    hombre como a un zurr6n, y nada digamos de la desaforada
    Alda, de la cual

    < sus miembros e su talla non son para callar,
    ca byen creed que era grand yegua caballar;

    El su dedo chiquillo mayor es que mi pulgar,

    sy ella algund dia te quisiese espulgar, ,
    sentiria tu cabeva qu'eran vigas de lagar. >


    ;Era muy variado en sus gustos el Arcipreste y despuds de
    la delicada y graciosa Dofia Garoza o de la apuesta Dofia En-
    drina, no desdefiaba a tan rudas y varoniles serranas! .
    Como se ve, estas serranillas son esencialmente realistas, si
    bien verdaderas ascendientes de las de Santillana cuyo tem-
    peramento aristocratico habia de trocar ese realismo un poco
    crudo en una suave malicia, pero con todo, son superiores a
    sus amanerados models y a muchas de las que despuds de
    Santillana se escribieron.
    Queda, por iltimo, la dnica trova cazurra que se ha conservado
    de las muchas que debe haber compuesto el Arcipreste, cuyo
    origen pareceme no puede hallarse sino en el caracter satirico
    y burl6n del autor, porque si bien la literature gallega nos
    ofrece algo que tiene relaciones con este gdnero en las canti-
    gas de escarnio y de maldecir, las semejanzas no son tales qne
    permitan deducir la descendencia; por otra parte, una sola y
    breve composici6n no es element suficiente de juicio y no
    sabemos si entire los cantares perdidos habia o n6 alguno don-
    de pudiera rastrearse la influencia gallega.
    El asunto de estas coplas es el fracaso de una aventura
    amorosa del Arcipreste a quien el tercero que habia enviado
    para abogar por el le sopl6 la dama: pero en lugar de lamen-
    tarse romanticamente de la infidelidad del amigo y de la in-
    constancia de la dama, el Arcipreste toma el asunto a risa y
    se burla donosamente de su desgracia:

    , el comi6 el pan mas duz'.

    Non medre Dios conejero
    que la cac'ansy aduz'!>

    Antes de abandonar al Arcipreste de Hita, conviene hacer
    notar los grandes cambios que en la forma, a la vez que en
    el fondo, como acabamos de ver, se produce en el mester de
    clerecia con la aparici6n de este author yn que segin dijimos,
    son consecuencia del influjo de la literature gallega. En la
    obra del Arcipreste es donde mas se manifiestan esos cambios
    y la variedad de metros que en ella se encuentra es grande:
    Su mayor parte estd escrita en tetrdstrofos alejandrinos mono-
    rrimados siguiendo el uso de la escuela del que s6lo Berceo
    se habia apartado ligeramente, pero entremezclados con esos


    metros figuran numerosas coplas en octosilabos y no pocos
    versos heptasilabos, hexasilabos, pentasilabos, tetrasilabos y,
    lo que es mis interesante, endecasilabos, que son probable-
    mente accidentales, en la canci6n que comienza:

    Squiero seguir
    a ty iflor de las flores!'

    si se unen los dos versos que en las ediciones de Sanchez,
    Janer y otros se encuentran impresos en la misma linea, no
    asi en la reciente de Cejador y Frauca. Mas numerosas ani
    son las combinaciones estr6ficas que demuestran la fineza de
    oido del Arcipreste y la gran influencia de la metrica gallega,
    pero para no extendernos demasiado, s6lo citaremos el hecho.
    Tal es, a grandes rasgos, la obra y el hombre que con
    legitimo orgullo puede ostentar la literature espafiola en 6po-
    ca tan lejana y tan compleja como el siglo xiv: mayor poeta
    que 61 no lo hubo hasta entonces en Espaia y pocos de los
    que florecieron en los siguientes siglos lo aventajan, si es que
    a tanto lHegan, y como tal, y como profundo conocedor de su
    tiempo y de la naturaleza humana, a la vez que como sutil iro-
    nista, dificilmente admite otro parangon que el del gran
    Restanos, para terminal con el mester de clerecia, decir
    algo del Canciller Pero L6pez de Ayala, filtimo representante
    de esta escuela, que con su muerte deja libre el campo de la
    literature a la escuela trovaderesca castellana a la cual en bre-
    ve vendran a mezclarse los elements italianos para dar lugar
    en Castilla a la formaci6n de esa literature con tendencies
    clasicas que es como el precursor del florecimiento renacen-
    tista del siglo xvi. En verdad, no podia esta escuela, iniciada
    por obscures y an6nimos clerigos, aspirar a mejor compaiiia
    para despedirse del mundo, que la de semejante personalidad
    political; efectivamente, el Canciller Ayala, cuya larga vida le
    permiti6 actuar en las mas altas esferas political casi durante
    el reinado de cinco monarcas, desde Pedro I hasta Juan II, ve-
    nido a la corte como pobre hidalgo, supo manejarse tan bien y
    desarrollar tales aptitudes political que lleg6 a regir los des-
    tinos de Castilla figurando, por lo tanto, en todos los importan-
    tes acontecimientos del establecimiento y de los primeros
    reinados de la dinastia de Trastamara, a la que se pleg6 y
    ayud6, abandonando a Pedro I.


    No nos detendremos en hacer una biografia, por sucinta que
    sea, del Canciller Ayala: bastanos para el caso, saber que su
    larga vida de 75 afios se extiende desde 1332 hasta 1407, que
    fu6 personaje de cuenta en las cortes de todos los reyes de
    Castilla durante cuyos reinados vivi6 y que fue hecho prisio-
    nero por el Principe Negro en Najera y por los portugueses
    en Aljubarrota, prisiones de las cuales la que mas nos intere-
    sa es la segunda, pues fue durante su cautividad en Portugal
    cuando escribi6 gran parte .de su obra poetica.
    Aunque esta parte poetica de las obras del Canciller Ayala
    sea secundaria en su producci6n, puesto que su mayor gloria
    como escritor se basa sobre su tilla>, notable por el criterio modern con que encara la his-
    toria y por su forma clasica, asi como por los meritos de su
    estilo, no deja de ser important su Rimado de Palacio como
    document ilustrativo del caracter de su epoca y en cierto
    modo complementario de la obra del Arcipreste de Hita con
    quien, a vueltas de fundamentals diferencias ofrece no pocas
    semejanzas, principalmente en lo que toca a la intenci6n sati-
    rica, si bien diferente en su manifestaci6n y mas que todo, al
    caracter eminentemente personal de la obra.
    Pertenece el Rimado de Palacio al g6nero didactico-moral
    que ya vimos manifestarse en el Arcipreste de Hita como con-
    secuencia del movimiento de curiosidad cientifica y de divulga-
    ci6n de ap6logos orientales iniciado por Alfonso el Sabio,
    caracter que por su frialdad y a veces prosaismo, nos exime
    de tratar extensamente de la obra, que si no fuera por otros
    elements que la componen, no tendria relaci6n con el pre-
    .sente studio de la lirica. Veremos luego cuales son estos ele-
    mentos; entretanto conviene decir dos palabras sobre la obra
    en general, siquiera ein merito de su caracter de postrer reto-
    fio de su escuela y de la gran figure hist6rica de su autor.
    Por el libro del Arcipreste de Hita puede juzgarse lo que
    era la sociedad espafola del siglo xiv que su talent pinta tan
    al vivo, pero su caracter picaresco y burl6n lo tomaba a risa
    y si en realidad era tan dado a picarescas andanzas, no debia
    star del todo descontento de vivir en una epoca que ofrecia
    tan ancho campo a esas aventuras. Por otra parte, su estado
    y sus gustos lo llevaban a alternar con el pueblo y con la
    clerecia comdn y por lo tanto su admirable pintura no alcan-
    za sino a esta parte de la sociedad. En cambio el Canciller

    xx.x 3

    ART. ORIGo


    Ayala, hombre grave y menos corrompido que la generalidad
    de los de su tiempo a pesar de su maquiavelismo politico, que
    actuaba en las esferas superiores de la sociedad, complete el
    cuadro presentado por el Arcipreste y nos describe el lamen-
    table estado del alto clero y de la corte, si bien con tintas
    mas sombrias que l1, pues no a una burlona descripci6n sino
    a irritada sitira lo ilevaba su cardcter, apenado por la suma
    de corrupci6n que en torno de si contemplaba. Asi, para po-
    der flagelar mas a sus anchas, comienza por castigarse a si
    mismo y despu6s de haber sacado a luz, cargando un tanto la
    mano, todos sus pecados, truena contra el mal gobierno de la
    repiblica donde cada dia se ve levantar nuevos impuestos

    e a tal estado son llegados ya los fechos,
    que quien tenia trigo, non le fallan afrechos;>

    contra los mercaderes, los letrados, contra las continues gue-
    rras civiles que promueven los caballeros

    ,por levar muy grandes sueldos o levar la quantia
    e fuelgan cuando veen la tierra en roberia;

    contra los arrendadores, los regidores, contra los fechos del
    palacio, etc., y por iltimo y con mayor fuerza contra el alto
    clero, comenzando por el papado, en el sangriento sobre el cisma de Occidente y terminal su poema con una
    larga digresi6n moral donde, ya llegado a la vejez y despuds
    de haber desfogado sus iras en la primer parte de su obra,
    se muestra tristemente resignado y vuelve la mente a pensa-
    mientos mAs elevados.
    Toda esta parte satirica y moralista esta escrita, con pocas
    excepciones, en tetrAstrofos monorrimados segdn las normas
    de la escuela de clerecia, si bien influenciada, en cuanto a su
    fondo, por la corriente didactico-moral de que ya hablamos;
    pero en el curso de ella va interpolada una colecci6n de can-
    tares a la Virgen y a Jesucristo que forman la parte lirica del
    poema, donde aparece el verso octosilAbico y sobre todo, gran
    variedad de combinaciones de rimas para los mismos alejan-
    drinos, que evidencian la influencia galaico-provenzal. Del
    genero de estos cantares sagrados hablamos ya al tratar de
    los del Arcipreste de los cuales difieren poco; como ellos fue-
    ron escritos en la prisi6n y respiran la misma profunda y con-


    fiada fe en la madre de Dios a quien promete ir en romeria
    t sus santuarios de Guadalupe, de Toledo, etc., devoci6n que
    del mismo modo que a todos los que han elevado con since-
    ridad sus acentos al objeto de ella, le inspira hermosos y
    sentidos versos, de los que puede citarse algunos como los

    <,Dios te salve pres.iosa Reyna de grant valia,

    Tu eres abogada de nos los pecadores,
    a ti laman los tristes e los que sienten dolores.
    tu amansas cuidados, enojos e temores;

    Sennora, por cuanto supe
    tus acorros, en ti espero,
    e a tu casa en Guadalupe
    prometo de ser romero.
    En mis cuytas todavia sielmpre te Ilaino, Sennora,
    O dulne abogada mia, e por ende te adora
    el mi coragon agora en esta muy grant tristura,
    por el cuydo aver folgura e conorte verdadero.,

    Completan esta parte lirica algunos cantares a Jesucristo y
    oraciones al Sefior, tambien de profundo y sincere sentimien-
    to religioso.
    Vese por lo que precede que la importancia del Rimado de
    Palacio estriba, desde el punto de vista literario, principal-
    mente en la parte satirica cuyo character de tal y la desmesu-
    rada extension que va tomando el present trabajo, no nos
    permiten dedicarle mayor espacio que las cortas lines ante-
    riores. En cuanto a la part lirica, interest solamente comno
    obra de un period de transici6n donde las uiltimas manifesta-
    ciones de una escuela que se extingue anuncian la que le ha
    de seguir y por lo tanto, se mezclan rasgos del moribund
    mester de clerecia a que tan aficionado era el Canciller y de
    la naciente escuela trovaderesca castellana que ha de ilenar
    con su florecimiento a casi todo el siglo xv, no sin modificar-
    se muy pronto por influencia de nuevos elements que a su
    vez han de anunciar una nueva fase de la literature espaiola.
    Conviene seiialar de paso, puesto que en campo tan vasto
    y de tanta complejidad de manifestaciones como es la litera-
    tura hay una relaci6n intima y constant entire sus elements
    de acci6n simultanea o sucesiva, la influencia q(ue en los poe-


    tas del siguiente siglo como el Marqu6s de Santillana, F. P6rez
    de GuzmAn y los Manriques, ha tenido esta corriente mora-
    lizadora que circula ya por entire la armaz6n claudicante del
    mester de clerecia y que en el mismo siglo xiv alimenta la
    obra del Rabi Sem Tob de Carri6n, (el patriarca de esta poe-
    sia gn6mica) tan interesante por su sabor oriental originado
    en la abundancia de metAforas y en el carActer biblico de
    ciertas parties, tanto como por la novedad de la forma que in-
    dica en sus redondillas heptasilAbicas una evoluci6n del verso
    alejandrino erudito, anAloga a la que sufre el largo verso de
    los cantares de gesta al transformarse en el pie de los romances.
    Y aqui llegamos al fin de nuestra jornada, pues en la
    imposibilidad de seguir en tan reducido espacio la evoluci6n
    de la poesia lirica hasta la aurora del siglo de oro, nos hemos
    propuesto tan s61o investigar sus origenes y seguirla en sus
    primeras manifestaciones hasta fines del siglo xiv o sea hasta
    la extinci6n de la primera escuela literaria con verdadero ca-
    rActer de tal. En todo este camino, aparte de algunas mani-
    festaciones aisladas, no hemos encontrado sino un poeta ver-
    daderamente notable, que si bien no es precisamente lirico,
    se acerca no poco a este g6nero por la forma con que se
    muestra su personalidad que descuella en una literature bastan-
    te copiosa, notable por su uniformidad; pero no importa, puesto
    que lo mas interesante era rastrear las diversas influencias no
    poco complejas de ese period de la Edad Media, de cuya ac-
    ci6n habia de nacer una corriente de caracter lirico ya defini-
    do. Desgraciadamente no hemos alcanzado a analizarlas todas:
    se ha quedado a la puerta la influencia clAsico-italiana, sin la
    cual es impossible explicarse gran parte de la literature del siglo
    xv y serd pues este trabajo, s61o un bosquejo de los origenes
    liricos hasta la aparici6n de las primeras influencias renacen-
    tistas, de las cuales buena parte de aquella literature estA li-
    bre y proviene de las diversas corrientes que hemos sefialado,
    que nacidas, una en Provenza, otra en Galicia con la cual 6sta
    se une, y otra originariamente espafiola en la que van invo-
    lucrados los elements producidos por la denominaci6n romana
    y por las fuerzas que motivaron su caida y la evoluci6n del
    pueblo, se funden por fin para former la escuela trovaderesca



    PR LO GO

    La conferencia dada en clase por el aventajado cursante de
    la Facultad de Ciencias econ6micas, seflor Mauricio E. Greffier,
    merece publicarse. Es una sintesis fitil y bien hecha de los
    principles rasgos del <(Panamericanismo >, o sea del america-
    nismo propiciado por los Estados Unidos. Si tal no quiere
    decir, etimol6gicamente, esa palabra, eso, estrictamente, signi-
    fica en la political del Nuevo Mundo.
    Existen publicadas las de las cuatro Conferencias
    panamericands; las notables obras del tratadista chileno Ale-
    jandro Alvarez, sobre el cDerecho Internacional Americano> y
    la copilacion y comentario del doctor Zeballos, XConferencias
    Internacionales Americanas> y otras obras, pero son todas fuen-
    tes extensas de consult, o responded a tendencies o prop6si-
    tos determinados, sin contar con que algunas estdn, ademas,
    agotadas. Por eso conviene que esta Conferencia se publique
    y se divulge.
    Su lectura no ensefiarA novedad a los profesores, pero, sera
    sin duda provechosa para los que no tienen ocasi6n y tiempo
    de dedicarse especialnente a estos studios.
    Durante muchos afios (casi un siglo), se ha predicado un
    americanismo sentimental, que, sin ser completamente falso, no
    ha respondido como fundamento s6lido y capaz de servir de
    base a una political continental.
    Recien se ha empezado a realizar obra practice y eficaz
    cuando hemos dado al americanismo el character de una comu-
    nidad de intereses, mis bien que el de una lirica comunidad
    de tradiciones.


    Tenemos una vinculaci6n geogrifica indudable, porque vivi-
    mos en el mismo continent; nos regimos por identicas formal
    de gobierno; sentimos una admiraci6n marcada por el trabajo
    y un pronunciado desden por los titulos y condecoraciones, que
    tan felices hacen a los europeos. No nos separan odios ances-
    trales, ni ambiciones perturbadoras, Fuera de la cuesti6n de
    Tacna y Arica, que ha quedado como ap6ndice muy molesto
    de la desgraciada guerra del Pacifico, no existe en Am6rica
    ningin problema international que no sea de facil y de ine-
    diata resoluci6n.
    No tenemos en el Nuevo Mundo cuestiones de nacionalida-
    des, equilibrios politicos, ni guerras de tarifas aduaneras.
    Todo nos invita a ser cada vez mejores amigos, a entender-
    nos, ayudarnos y, llegado el caso de una agresi6n injusta, unir-
    nos continentalmente para defendernos.
    Eso y nada mas que eso, es el americanismo.
    No es buena political americana la inclinaci6n de algunos es-
    tadistas, que, inconscientemente tal vez, resucitan en nuestros
    dias, la aspiraci6n tendenciosa de otra 6poca, que queria hacer
    del una expresi6n y un temperament, si no
    agresivo, por lo menos contradictorio del <,europeismo,.
    Nuestra civilizaci6n es europea, como el principal origen de
    nuestra poblaci6n; nuestras vinculaciones comerciales lo son
    igualmente y nuestras relaciones juridicas han sido y quieren
    ser, cada vez mis, universales.
    Todo lo que sea, pues, separarnos del concept de personas
    de la comunidad international, para former un campamento
    americano a parte, es un americanismo err6neo e inconvenient.
    Hay que sentar, por lo tanto, como principio, que la comu-
    nidad de intereses materials y morales entire los paises del
    Nuevo Mundo no excluye su mas amplia vinculaci6n con los
    de Europa.
    Los lazos que nos unan con el Viejo Mundo serAn siempre
    de otor genero, porque no pudiendo entenderse, ni en un aso-
    mo de comuni6n los paises europeos entire si, mal podrian con-
    fundirse con la comunidad americana.

    Jose LE6N SUiREZ.





    Las conferencias painamericanas no son sino el resultado de
    una political americana tendiente a la mayor uni6n de todos
    los pueblos del Nuevo Mundo en defense de sus intereses co-
    munes y que constitute lo lamado el americanismo, que es
    algo vago e indefinido pero que sin embargo existe desde que
    los mismos extranjeros que nos han visitado, como el professor
    Ferri, afirma que hay una mentalidad americana. Esto no
    puede ser causa suficiente para constituir un Derecho Interna-
    cional Americano, pues uno de los fundamentos de la existencia
    del Derecho Internacional es precisamente su universalidad; lo
    que se puede afirmar es la existencia de cuestiones propias
    de este continent y que requieren formulas especiales para
    su soluci6t.
    Esta idea de estrechar las relaciones inter-americanas viene
    manifestandose desde los primeros albores de nuestra indepen-
    dencia, y asi en 1816, al iniciar el general San Martin su cam-
    pafia libertadora de las regions del Pacifico, recibi6 de nuestro
    gobierno instrucciones para que los paises libertados por sus
    armas, enviaran a Buenos Aires diputados para constituir forma de gobierno general aplicada a toda la America unida
    en identidad de causes, de intereses y de objeto y que consti-
    tuya una sola Naci6n>.
    Un eminente hombre ptiblico argentino, el Dr. Julian Se-
    gundo Agiiero, enunci6 en 1817 la siguiente formula de political
    international: (La sociedad tiene como la naturaleza sus leyes,
    segin estas la America y Espafla pertenecen a dos sistemas
    politicos diferentes: la Espafia al europeo, Am6rica al suyo
    propio >.
    Estas ideas pueden considerarse como el germen de la poli-
    tica que se denomina actualmente panamericanismo y no de-
    bemos olvidar que uno de los primeros en propiciarla fue un
    argentino ilustre, Monteagudo, que manifest su opinion que
    no era agradable a Bolivar, a pesar de ser su consultor en la


    soluci6n de las cuestiones dificiles, dados sus grandes conoci-
    mientos. Muri6 violentamente, quizas por haber contrariado a
    un libertador tirano en aspiraciones geniales pero ut6picas y
    que fueron siempre combatidas por los gobiernos de las Pro-
    vincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata.
    En 1826, una vez asegurada la independencia de los paises
    americanos, trat6 Bolivar de former una confederaci6n de los
    Estados de la Am6rica Latina bajo una direcci6n central que
    hubiera sido reservada al gran libertador venezolano. Con este
    fin reuni6 en Panama un Congreso al cual asistieron las repii-
    blicas de Colombia, Chile, M6jico, Perd y las Provincias Unidas
    de Centro Am6rica, encontrando una resistencia tenaz por par-
    te de nuestro gobierno (era entonces president Rivadavia) que
    temia caer bajo la dominaci6n absolute de Bolivar y es cono-
    cido el encono que este tuvo siempre para la Argentina que
    habia contrariado sus proyectos de dominaci6n americana.
    Despu6s de varias sesiones en que no se arrib6 a nada prac-
    tico se resolvi6 reunirse el alio siguiente para continual sus
    tareas, pero nunca se volvi6 a reunir este Congreso.
    Este fu6 el primer jal6n plantado en el largo camino que
    hay que recorrer para llegar a la primera conferencia pana-
    mericana, que trata de dar una forma concrete a la political
    asi denominada. No es del caso estudiar los Congresos que se
    reunieron en Lima, en Santiago de Chile y en Montevideo en
    afios posteriores, pero si debemos dejar constancia que todos
    ellos contribuyeron a vincular mis intimamente a los paises
    americanos, a pesar de que en algunos de ellos se manifesto
    cierto encono por la political international que desarrollaba
    nuestro gobierno, inspirado en las verdaderas necesidades de
    la Argentina.


    A pesar de haber servido, los Estados Unidos de Norte Ame-
    rica, de modelo a las repfblicas americanas para la soluci6n
    de sus numerosas cuestiones econ6micas y sociales que en su
    desenvolvimiento se les iba presentando, hasta el siglo XIX
    nada habian hecho los Estados Unidos para estrechar sus rela-
    ciones con los paises del Nuevo Mundo que estaban mas bien
    vinculados con la Europa por intereses politicos y econ6micos.
    La explicaci6n de este hecho lo tenemos en que los Estados


    Unidos no habian adquirido adn un gran desarrollo industrial
    y commercial, y en la indiferencia con que consideraban a la
    America Latina.
    La prosperidad que adquieren las repdblicas sud-americanas,
    la enorme actividad commercial que se revela en los mismos y
    otros numerosos factors que demuestran su brillante porvenir,
    hacen comprender a los Estados Unidos que los paises de la
    America Latina iban a constituir un gran mercado para la co-
    locaci6n de los articulos que elaboraba su industrial, entonces
    en pleno desarrollo y acrecentamiento.
    La intimidad de relaciones con los Estados Unidos nos es
    provechoso anicamente conservando nuestra plena libertad de
    accibn, para mantener relaciones comerciales con la Europa,
    tanto mas, cuanto nuestros products agricolas y ganaderos,
    que constituyen la principal riqueza del pais, es similar a los
    norte-americanos que nos hacen una gran competencia, mien-
    tras que por el contrario los paises europeos, con quienes man-
    tenemos activas relaciones comerciales, son consumidores de
    nuestra producci6n, recibiendo en cambio los articulos manu-
    facturados y los capitals necesarios para nuestro desenvolvi-
    En 1881 el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de los Estados
    Unidos, Mr. Blaine, comprendio la necesidad de establecer ac-
    tivas relaciones econ6micas y political con los demas paises
    americanos y dominar econ6micamente al Nuevo Mundo, for-
    mando un Zollvereign que, como se recuerda, fuP la base de la
    grandeza material de Alemania. Esto fu6 rechazado en6rgica-
    mente por nuestro representante en la Primera Conferencia
    reunida en Washington en 1890, que era el Doctor Sienz Pefia,
    quien declared que la America era para la humanidad, teniendo
    present asi nuestros verdaderos intereses, desde que en el
    caso de realizarse la idea de Mr. Blaine, hubieramos tenido
    nuestro mercado inundado de products norte-americanos sin
    encontrar salida para la producci6n agricola-ganadera del pais.
    En efecto, los Estados Unidos se bastan a si mismo y la Eu-
    ropa nos hubiera puesto enormes trabas a nuestro comercio
    como justas represalias a los obstdculos que dicho Zollvereign
    ponia a sus relaciones comerciales con nosotros. Desde entonces
    fue abandonada aparentemente esta idea por los Estados Uni-
    dos, pero, parece que se resucita actualmente por la political
    seguida por nuestro embajador en Washington, Doctor Na6n,


    y que es propiciada por el Museo Social Argentino y que,
    quizAs nos sea convenient para la 6poca normal actual, pero
    nunca para el desarrollo posterior de nuestro comercio, de-
    biendo recordarnos que nuestra grandeza no se la debemos a
    los Estados Unidos que en ciertos moments mis bien nos ha
    obstaculizado en nuestro desarrollo, sino a las naciones euro-
    peas que nos han traido capitals y la mano de obra inteligente
    necesaria para la iniciaci6n y desenvolvimiento future de cual-
    quier industrial de importancia.
    De acuerdo con su pensamiento de former un Zollvereign
    americano, Mr. Blaine comprendi6 que era necesario en primer
    lugar, que reinara la paz en el Nuevo Mundo, y que los Esta-
    dos Unidos, fueran en lo possible, el Arbitro de todas las difi-
    cultades. Para realizar su proyecto se propuso reunir en
    Washington en 1882 una Conferencia de todos los Estados de
    Am6rica y en el cual deberia tratarse como punto cardinal: lo
    referente al arbitraje. El resultado de esta Conferencia fu6 que
    los Estados Unidos comprendieron que era premature el pro-
    yecto de hegemonia econ6mica americana, dado que las mas
    importantes repdblicas sudamericanas estaban muy vinculadas
    con la Europa por su comercio, civilizaci6n, legislaci6n, cos-
    tumbres, etc., como se puso de manifesto en 1910 en los festejos
    de nuestro primer centenario, por los homenajes tributados
    universalmente a la Argentina y tanto mas cuanto vemos ini-
    ciar la IV Conferencia Panamericana con un saludo a Francia
    con motivo de su fiesta national. Era impossible hacer cambiar
    repentinamente su orientaci6n, pero se vi6 que habian cues-
    tiones y problems comunes propios de America y diferentes
    de los de Europa, que requerian formulas especiales para su
    soluci6n. Esto es el Panamericanismo en su verdadera acepci6n
    y es la idea dominant en la political de los Estados Unidos,
    de reunir y vincular los paises americanos sobre su verdadera
    base que es el interns comAn y no considerar lo que antes se
    habia intentado realizar, es decir, la confederaci6n cuya reali-
    zaci6n es ahora impossible. Se abandonaban discusiones est6-
    riles para ir a lo que era susceptible de una soluci6n practice.
    Como decia anteriormente, Mr. Blaine, con el objeto de des-
    viar hacia los Estados Unidos el comercio cada vez mas active
    entire los paises americanos y la Europa, convocaron en 1881
    a una Asamblea en Washington, a los representantes de estos
    paises para reunir inmediatamente una Conferencia destinada


    a establecer las bases de un sistema commercial entire las tres
    La guerra del Pacifico entire Chile, Peri y Bolivia fue una
    causa fundamental que impidi6 la reunion de esta Asamblea,
    pues era impossible hablar de arbitraje cuando tres naciones
    americanas habian resuelto liquidar por las armas sus cuestiones
    y asi tambien lo hizo notar el representante de Chile en Was-
    hington. Esta fue tambi6n la causa que express el Ministro
    de Estado de los Estados Unidos, de la postergaci6n de la
    Asamblea, mencionando que si se habia hecho la invitaci6n en
    1881 era con la creencia de que en esa fecha hubiera termi-
    nado el conflict ya indicado.
    Tambien habia influido en esta postergaci6n la muerte del
    president Garfield y la salida del ministry Jaime E. Blaine.
    La ley del 7 de junio de 1884 demuestra que no se habia
    abandonado la idea, pues se creaba una comisi6n encargada de
    averiguar segiin los t6rminos de la ley el mejor medio de
    asegurar las relaciones internacionales y comerciales mas inti-
    mas entire los Estados Unidos y los paises del Sud y Centro
    de Am6rica>. Es decir, tenia por objeto ver si los gobiernos
    de las repiblicas de la Amirica Latina serian favorables a la
    celebracidn de tratados comerciales ventajosos a los Estados
    Unidos, pues era este el prop6sito verdadero de la political
    norteamericana y si estaban dispuestos a congregarse en una
    Conferencia para tratar los asuntos de interns comfin.
    Habiendo sido favorable el resultado de la encuesta se vot6
    una ley el 24 de mayo de 1888 autori-ando al president Cle-
    veland a convocar la primer Conferencia international de las
    repdblicas americanas que se reuniria en Washington o en
    Nueva York. El president recibi6 con indiferencia el proyecto
    parlamentario y ni siquiera lo promulg6, dejando que la accion
    del tiempo le diera caracter legal.
    Esta Conferencia debia considerar los siguientes puntos:
    1.0 Formaci6n de una Uni6n Aduanera (Zollvereign).
    2.0 Establecimiento de relaciones regulars y frecuentes entire
    los diversos puntos de los paises de America, adoptando un
    sistema uniform de derechos de Aduana.
    3.0 Adopci6n de un sistema uniform de pesas y medidas.
    4. Legislaci6n sanitaria y literaria.
    5.0 Arbitraje para todos los conflicts entire los paises de


    6. Adopci6n de una moneda coming de plata emitida por
    cada Estado.
    La simple lectura de este program revela su colosal impor-
    tancia y si se hubiera realizado, se habria constituido un Nuevo
    Mundo Econ6mico, y, como bien dice Alejandro Alvarez, todo
    el comercio se reconcentraba en una sola naci6n que por su
    potencialidad hubiera dominado el mundo.
    La invitaci6n fu6 hecha por el secretario de Estado, Mister
    Bayard, el 13 de julio de 1888 y los terminos en que estaba
    concebida restringia enormemente el alcance de lo que parecia
    querer indicar el program que enunciaba la ley. Esta invita-
    ci6n decia que en la Conferencia a celebrarse no se firmaria
    ningdn tratado sino Anicamente se sancionarian recomendacio-
    nes, siendo entonces un Congreso mas cientifico que politico.
    Tanto en Europa como en America caus6 una impresi6n de
    desconfianza la invitaci6n de los Estados Unidos. La opinion
    unanime del Viejo Mundo era que los norteamericanos aspira-
    ban a la dominaci6n del continent americano y que la Con-
    ferencia era el primer paso hacia la meta final de su political.
    En America se temia la demasiada preponderancia de la gran
    repi(blica del Norte, pero no obstante la desconfianza que se
    manifest hacia esta Conferencia todos mandaron representantes
    con excepci6n de Santo Domingo. En cuanto a Chile, los envi6
    condicionalmente, es decir, no podrian considerarse sino los
    asuntos de carter ec6nomico, abstenirndose de intervenir en
    las discusiones del arbitraje pues era reciente adn la guerra
    del Pacifico.
    Se ha pretendido justificar la actitud de Estados Unidos di-
    ciendo que no habia tenido nunca la intenci6n de adquirir la pre-
    ponderancia que se le atribuy6 entonces, y asi el representante
    de Mejico, Don Matias Romero, declare que conocia intima-
    mente el pensamiento de Mr. Blaine y que este nunca sofi6
    ni siquiera con este imponente plan. Sin embargo es evidence
    que el sentimiento que inspiraba los Estados Unidos al reunir
    esta Conferencia era su interns personal y si no se llev6 a la
    practice sus ardientes deseos de la liga aduanera fue debido
    a la energica oposici6n de nuestra delegaci6n segin ya hemos



    Asistieron a la primera Conferencia Panamericana diez y ocho
    estados; eran: Argentina, Brasil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa
    Rica, Estados Unidos, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Haiti,
    M6jico, Nicaragua, Peru, Paraguay, San Salvador, Uruguay y
    Venezuela.-No envi6 representante Santo Domingo.
    La Conferencia reunida en Washington inaugur6 sus sesiones
    el 3 de octubre de 1889 y las clausuro el 19 de abril de 1890.
    En el transcurso de ella se puso de manifiesto la falta de
    experiencia de los miembros que la formaban. Estos se divi-
    dieron en secciones destinadas a estudiar los proyectos elabo-
    rados y presentar sus informes a la Conferencia reunida en
    quorum, donde era objeto de un amplio debate. Puede con-
    sultarse las conclusions a que se lleg6 en esta Conferencia
    en el voluminoso escrito en ingles y castellano titulado nutes of the International American Conference >.
    De acuerdo con la formula de la invitaci6n mandada por los
    Estados Unidos a los paises americanos no se firm ninguna
    convention sino que se vot6 inicamente recomendaciones que
    son de tres categories:
    1.0 Aquellas de interns americano que eran destinadas a
    estrechar las relaciones existentes entire los Estados de Ame-
    rica y a resolver de una manera uniform los problems eco-
    nomicos y politicos comunes y propios de su situaci6n especial
    en el Continente Americano.
    De esta naturaleza son las siguientes recomendaciones:
    a) Fundaci6n de un Banco Internacional Americano.
    b1) Fomento de las comunicaciones entire los paises de Ame-
    rica por el AtlAntico, por el Pacifico y por el golfo de Mejico.
    c) Conclusion de tratados de reciprocidad commercial.
    d) Promover la construcci6n de un ferrocarril panamericano
    o sea la prolongaci6n de las lines ferreas existentes en cada
    pais de America y su construcci6n en los trayectos donde no
    existe hasta unir el extreme norte con el extreme sud del
    Nuevo Mundo.
    e) Adopci6n de una unidad monetaria comun (plata).
    f) Navegaci6n libre de los rios internacionales americanos.
    g) Establecimiento de un Comit6 Comercial de las Reputbli-
    cas americanas.


    h) 'Condenaci6n del derecho de conquista.
    2.0 Aquellas de interns inicamente para los Estados de la
    AmBrica Latina, comprendidndose aqui las destinadas a corre-
    gir los abusos de las reclamaciones de los extranjeros por via
    3.0 Aquellas que tenian por objeto conseguir el acuerdo de
    los paises de America sobre cuestiones de interns universal
    pero sobre las cuales no era possible obtener el acuerdo mun-
    A esta categoria pertenecen las siguientes recomendaciones:
    a) Adopci6n del sistema metrico decimal.
    b) Establecimiento de una nomenclatura comfin para las
    mercaderias objeto del comercio americano.
    c) Reglamentaci6n sanitaria.
    d) Reglamentaci6n aduanera, portuaria y consular.
    e) Extradici6n.
    f) Arbitraje para dirimir las cuestiones internacionales.
    g) Marcas de fabric y patentes de invenci6n, para lo cual
    se recomienda la adhesion al tratado del Congreso de Derecho
    International Privado de Montevideo de 1889.
    No es possible entrar a estudiar cada una de estas recomen-
    daciones y hacer su andlisis, es suficiente considerar las de
    mayor importancia y trascendencia por sus vastas proyecciones
    o por las ideas fundamentals que las inspiraba.
    Para vincular mas las naciones del Nuevo Mundo se cre6 la
    <> cuya fina-
    lidad era estrechar las relaciones comerciales entire las mismas.
    A este efecto se constituy6 un Comit6 de Comercio destinado
    a reunir y proporcionar a los paises de America los datos
    necesarios para el desarrollo de su intercambio commercial, de-
    biendo publicar aquellos documents de interns comtn como
    las tarifas aduaneras, los tratados de comercio, etc. siendo
    costeados los gastos de su mantenimiento por todos los Esta-
    dos de America en proporci6n de su poblaci6n.
    Una de las cuestiones que mas largamente se discuti6 fu6
    lo referente al arbitraje que siempre habia apasionado las
    reptblicas americanas en todos los congress hasta entonces
    celebrados y que se habia empleado con much frecuencia para
    resolver las cuestiones que se suscitaban entire ellas. A este
    fin se formula un proyecto el 17 de abril de 1890 cuya
    adhesion se recomend6 a los gobiernos americanos y en el


    cual se adoptaba el arbitraje, segdin sus propias palabras,
    (como principio de derecho international americano para la
    soluci6n de los litigios o controversial que se susciten entire
    dos o varias de ellas> (art. 1.0). Pareceria aqui querer indi-
    car la existencia de un Derecho Internacional Americano dife-
    rente del de los demtis continents, en contra de la teoria de
    la universalidad de este derecho y hubiera sido mas propio
    decir principio americano de derecho international,. Este
    arbitraje debia ser obligatorio, permanent y general, es decir,
    aplicable a cualquier categoria de cuestiones con excepcion de
    aquellas que, segdn decian textualmente los articulos 2 al 5
    ca juicio exclusive de una de las parties interesadas en el litigio,
    comprometia su independencia> en cuyo caso seria voluntario
    para este pais pero obligatorio para la parte contraria. El
    articulo 5.0 comprendia una disposici6n de gran trascendencia
    y que debia ser motive de una oposici6n tenaz, desde que
    enunciaba que el arbitraje era obligatorio para las cuestiones
    pendientes en la epoca de la Conferencia. Por el articulo 19
    todas las naciones podian adherirse a este tratado.
    Demasiado reciente era la guerra del Pacifico para que fuera
    aceptado por todos los paises del Nuevo Mundo y asi fue
    rechazado por la delegaci6n chilena que lo consider como
    ut6pico, admitiendo el arbitraje lnicamente en casos especiales
    y para paises determinados pero que no era acceptable en su
    caracter general y obligatorio en el estado en que se encon-
    traba en esa epoca la sociedad international.
    La cuesti6n del arbitraje habia de ser objeto de todas las
    conferencias panamericanas futuras.
    Por las mismas causes que justifico el rechazo del arbitraje,
    Chile, tambi6n rehus6 adherirse a las declaraciones hechas por
    esta Conferencia en lo referente al derecho de conquista y
    que fue aprobado por los demas paises americanos, incluido
    los Estados Unidos, por cuanto venia a quitarle los frutos de
    sus victorias sobre el Perd y Bolivia. Es necesario tener pre-
    sente que una de las normas de nuestra political international
    en la comunidad americana ha sido constantemente condenar
    la conquista pero sin deber llegar nunca al exceso de consi-
    derar no ya que la victoria no da derecho sino que quita lo
    que legitimamente le corresponde al vencedor.
    Las declaraciones hechas en material de conquista son las


    1.0 El derecho de conquista queda eliminado del Derecho
    Pdblico Americano, hasta que termine el tratado de arbitraje.
    2.0 La cesi6n de territories hecha durante la existencia del
    tratado de arbitraje es nula si se ha realizado bajo la amenaza
    de una guerra o de represalias.
    3. La naci6n que hubiera hecho semejantes cesiones tiene
    derecho de exigir que la validez de las mismas sea establecida
    por el arbitraje.
    4.0 La renuncia del derecho de recurrir al arbitraje hecho
    en las condiciones del articulo 2.0 es sin valor y eficacia.
    Esta condenaci6n del derecho de conquista es tanto mas
    just, cuanto que en AmBrica no hay cuestiones de nacionali-
    dades, con excepci6n de lo referente a las consecuencias del
    conflict del Pacifico, y en general cada Estado comprende en
    sus limits sus nacionales, siendo los litigios referentes a los
    limits. En Europa no sucede asi y a veces no es conquista
    sino liberaci6n de los nacionales oprimidos en el territorio de
    otro Estado como sucede con las aspiraciones italianas y fran-
    Por dltimo tenemos como asunto de gran importancia lo
    relative a las reclamaciones diplomnticas de que habian abu-
    sado las naciones de Europa con los paises de America,,decla-
    rando esta Conferencia en contra de la opinion de los Estados
    Unidos, que los extranjeros tendrian los mismos derechos civiles
    que los nacionales y que los podian ejercer en la misma forma
    que estos iltimos. Como consecuencia se declaraba que los
    Estados americanos no tenian ni reconocian a favor de los
    extranjeros otras obligaciones y responsabilidades que las que
    de acuerdo con sus propias leyes tienen con respect a sus
    El echo de no haberse firmado en esta Conferencia, ningdn
    tratado no significa que sus resultados hayan sido nulos. En
    efecto el 28 de abril de 1890 se firm en Washington, despu6s
    de la clausura de las sesiones de esta Conferencia, un tratado
    de arbitraje de acuerdo con el modelo votado el 17 del mismo
    mes, entire Estados Unidos, Haiti, Guatemala, San Salvador,
    Honduras, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Bolivia y Brasil. FuB un resul-
    tado inmediato a pesar de no haber sido ratificado.
    El resultado de importancia es que se establecia una corriente
    de simpatia y amistad entire todas las naciones de AmBrica,
    iban desapareciendo las dificultades que existian entire ellas; y


    el temor a los Estados Unidos que nunca manifest su superio-
    ridad con respeto a los delegados de los denmis paises, se
    transformaba en relaciones cordiales, comprendiendo tambien
    este pais su conveniencia en mantener activas relaciones con
    todo el Nuevo Mundo.
    Para terminal podemos decir que esta primer Conferencia
    fu6 de studio y habia de servir de base a las que habrian
    de reunirse posteriormente en una forma periodica.


    La idea de reunir nuevas Conferencias panamericanas no
    debia ser abandonada y asi vemos en 1896 hacer 'una tentative
    para una nueva Conferencia a reunirse en M6jico. Colombia
    procedi6 posteriormente en la misma forma y a este efecto
    dicto una ley que qued6 sin ejecuci6n, hasta que en 1901 los
    Estados Unidos volvieron a invitar a los paises americanos a
    reunirse en la Segunda Conferencia que tendria lugar en M6jico
    del 21 de octubre de 1901 al 31 de enero de 1902 tomando
    desde entonces un caracter periodico.
    Concurrieron diez y nueve estados; eran: Argentina, Brasil,
    Bolivia, Colombia, Costa'Rica, Chile, Estados Unidos, Ecuador,
    Guatemala, Honduras, Haiti, Mejico, Nicaragua, Perl, Paraguay,
    San Salvador, Santo Domingo, Uruguay y Venezuela. De
    estas repilblicas Chile renov6 las reserves formuladas en la
    Conferencia de Washington, especialmente en lo relative al
    arbitraje obligatorio que se oponia a sus intereses en la liqui-
    daci6n de la guerra del Pacifico.
    Esta Conferencia como las que se han de reunir posterior-
    mente difieren de la primera en muchos hechos de importan-
    cia. En la primera los Estados Latinos habian concurrido
    con temor o por lo menos con incertidumbre en lo que se
    refiere a la political que los Estados Unidos desarrollarian en
    la misma, mientras que en las posteriores, este temor desapa-
    recia para ser reemplazado mas bien por el de que surgieran
    diferencias entire los representantes de los demas paises ame-
    ricanos que impidiesen los trabajos de la Conferencia. Afor-
    tunadamente siempre rein6 en todas ellas la mayor armonia.
    El program es preparado de una manera diferente. Ya no
    es el gobierno de los Estados Unidos que lo confecciona sino
    el Consejo Directivo de la Union Internacional de las Repi-

    xxxn -4

    Al. onri .


    blicas Americanas, compuesto de los plenipotenciarios de los
    paises americanos en Washington, no dominando ya finica-
    mente los asuntos de caracter econdmico sino que se le da
    la proporci6n :correspondiente a las diversas cuestiones que
    podian interesar a todos los Estados.
    Ya no se votaron finicamente recomendaciones como se hizo
    en la primer, sino que en 6sta como en las posteriores se
    suscribi6 convenciones y se vot6 tambidn recomendaciones;
    de aqui su caracter diplomatico, pues todos los delegados eran
    Es necesario tener present que si bien las diferentes con-
    ferencias presentan ciertas diferencias entire si, todas estan
    ligadas y los asuntos tratados en una no son sino la conti-
    nuaci6n de los considerados en la anterior.
    El program de esta conferencia comprendia en primer tdr-
    mino el studio del arbitraje y de la organizaci6n de un Tri-
    bunal permanent de las reclamaciones diplomaticas. Ademas
    se debia considerar los medios necesarios para proteger la
    industrial y el comercio y desarrollar las comunicaciones inter-
    El arbitraje fu6 amplio y ardientemente discutido en la
    Segunda Conferencia y esto era debido no solamente al valor
    del principio en si mismo, sino en el interns de ejercer una
    presi6n moral sobre Chile para que sometiera su cuesti6n pen-
    diente con el Peri a un arbitraje, pero la repdblica vencedora
    rechaz6 el arbitraje obligatorio y se declare partidario del
    facultativo, formulando una moci6n para que los Estados de
    America se adhirieran a la Convenci6n para el arreglo pacifico
    de los conflicts internacionales, asi como a las demas decla-
    raciones y convenciones suscritas en la Primera Conferencia
    de la Paz de la Haya. Habidndose mostrado partidario de
    esta moci6n los Estados Unidos, se resolvi6 afirmativamente y
    como la Convenci6n para el arreglo pacifico de los conflicts
    internacionales regia para los paises que habian concurrido a
    la Conferencia indicada y que las condiciones de adhesion
    debia ser objeto de un convenio ulterior entire las potencias
    contratantes, quedaban los Estados Unidos y M4jico, inicos
    paises de America que habian participado a la Conferencia de
    la Paz de La Haya, encargados de negociar.la adhesion de
    los demas paises americanos que lo solicitaran.
    Simultaneamente los delegados de la Argentina, Bolivia,


    Guatemala, Mejico, Paraguay, Peril, Santo Domingo, San Sal-
    vador y Uruguay firmaban el 29 de enero de 1902, es decir,
    tres dias antes de que la Conferencia clausurara sus sesiones,
    un tratado de arbitraje general y obligatorio, obligindose a
    resolver por este medio todas las controversial que existian
    o podian existir entire ellas, salvo en los casos que segin el
    juicio de una de las naciones interesadas, afectara su indepen-
    dencia u honor national. En el articulo 3.0 se resolvia someter
    a la Corte permanent de arbitraje de La Haya todos los
    conflicts que se relacionaran con el tratado, siempre que las
    parties no prefirieran organizer una jurisdicci6n especial.
    En la Conferencia de Mejico se discuti6 y se suscribi6 ademas
    del protocolo referente a la adhesion a la Convenci6n de La
    Haya una series de tratados, convenciones, resoluciones y reco-
    Las convenciones se refieren al intercambio de publicaciones
    comerciales, industriales y cientificas, al derecho de propiedad
    artistic y literaria, a la formacion de codigos de derecho
    international pilblico y privado para la America, al reconoci-
    miento de la validez de los diplomas profesionales en todos
    los paises contratantes y se resolvia la celebraci6n de un Con-
    greso Geografico en Rio Janeiro. Los tratados suscritos conm-
    prendian: la protecci6n del derecho sobre patentes de invenci6n,
    marcas de fabrica y de comercio, la extradicidn de los crimi-
    nales, la defense contra la anarquia, la condenaci6n de los
    medios coercitivos y el sometimiento al arbitraje de todas las
    reclamaciones pecuniarias, el restablecimiento del arbitraje obli-
    gatorio para todas las cuestiones que no afectaran la indepen-
    dencia y el honor de las naciones declarandose no comprendido
    en esta clausula limitativa las cuestiones relatives a los pri-
    vilegios diplomaticos, a derechos de navegaci6n, a los limits,
    a la validez, interpretacion y observaci6n de los tratados.
    En cuanto a las resoluciones se refieren: a estimular la
    construction del ferrocarril panamericano, celebraci6n de Con-
    gresos especiales que traten de los sistemas aduaneros, de las
    leyes sanitarias y de la protecci6n al comercio del cafe, orga-
    nizaci6n de la Uni6n Internacional de las Repfiblicas Ameri-
    canas para darle mayor estabilidad y para reglamentar la reu-
    ni6n de las futuras Conferencias.
    Se recomend6 a la atenci6n de los gobiernos americanos la
    conveniencia de crear un banco international del Nuevo Mundo


    y una comisi6n arqueol6gica para el studio de las antigiiedades
    de Am6rica aprovechando las ventajas que para este fin ofrecia
    el Museo de Filadelfia.
    Como vemos la tarea de esta Conferencia fu6 ardua y no
    todos los tratados y convenciones firmadas fueron ratificadas
    posteriormente por los Estados que concurrieron a la misma
    y sirvieron de base a las que se reunieron en 1906 y en 1910.


    En 1906 tuvo lugar en Rio de Janeiro la Tercera Conferencia
    Panamericana reunida alli en virtud de la resoluci6n tomada
    en la anterior de M6jico y por iniciativa indirect de los Esta-
    dos Unidos y por invitaci6n del Brasil. Inaugur6 sus sesiones
    el 23 de julio de 1906 y las clausur6 el 26 de agosto del
    mismo anlo. Concurrieron diez y nueve Estados que son:
    Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Cuba, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
    Ecuador, Estados Unidos, Guatemala, Honduras, M6jico, Nica-
    ragua, Perd, Paraguay, Reptiblica Dominicana, San Salvador,
    Panama y Uruguay.
    La Segunda y Tercera Conferencia Panamericana difieren
    entire si en various puntos algunos de detalle, otros de impor-
    tancia. Entre los primeros tenemos que en la de Mejico todos
    los Estados estuvieron representados mientras que en la de
    Rio Janeiro, Venezuela y Haiti no mandaron Representantes
    pero asistieron delegados de nuevos paises como los de Cuba
    y Panama.
    En la preparaci6n del program por el Consejo Directivo de
    la Uni6n Internacional de las Repfblicas Americanas hay una
    diferencia de importancia con la anterior. Fu6 mIs complete
    para la de Rio Janeiro, desde que se eliminaron aquellos asun-
    tos que podian dar lugar a debates est6riles. Asi el arbitraje,
    material muy discutida y la doctrine Drago fueron enviados a
    la Segunda Conferencia de la Paz que debia tener lugar el
    aflo siguiente en La Haya y a la cual estaban invitadas todas
    las Repdblicas americanas. Se discutieron finicamente los t6r-
    minos en los cuales serian enviados a dicha Conferencia.
    Ademas la tarea se hizo en esta Conferencia mas bien en
    las comisiones, de manera que las sesiones generals fueron
    poco numerosas y duraron poco tiempo.


    El prograna preparado en la forma ya indicada comprendia
    lo siguiente:
    1.0 Reorganizacidn de la Unidn Internacional de las Repi-
    blicas americanas para las futures Conferencias.
    2.0 Arbitraje e iniciativa de adhesion a las resoluciones de
    la Conferencia de La Haya en esta material.
    3.0 Tratado sobre empleo de los medios coercitivos en las
    reclamaciones diplomaticas.
    4.0 Recomendacion a la Segunda Conferencia de La Haya
    para que consider la cuesti6n del empleo de la fuerza para
    el cobro de las deudas piblicas.
    5.0 Codificacidn del derecho pfiblico y privado.
    6. Naturalizacion de extranjeros.
    7." Desarrollo de las relaciones comerciales entire los paises
    8." Leyes aduaneras y consulates.
    9.o Patentes de invencion y marcas de comercio.
    10. Policia sanitaria v cuarentenas.
    11. Ferrocarril panamericano.
    12. Propiedad literaria.
    13. Ejercicio de las profesiones liberals.
    Todos estos puntos fueron estudiados en sus sesiones y han
    sido objeto de las siguientes resoluciones:
    1." Una nueva reglamentaci6n de la Uni6n Internacional
    de las Repiiblicas Americanas.
    2.0 Un tratado de naturalizacion que dispone que si un ciu-
    dadano native de cualquier de los paises firmantes de la con-
    venci6n y naturalizado en otro de estos, renovara su residencia
    en el pais de su origen sin intenci6n de regresar a aquel en
    el cual se opero su naturalizacion se considera que resume
    su ciudadania de origen y que renuncia a la adquirida por di-
    cha naturalizaci6n. Este articulo comprende no solamente al
    ciudadano y a naturalizado sino tambien a los que se natura-
    lizan despues. La intenci6n de no regresar se presume cuando
    la persona naturalizada reside en el pais de su origen por mas
    de dos aiios, pero esta presuncion puede ser destruida por
    prueba en contrario.
    3.0 Convenci6n declarando que en material de reclamaciones
    pecuniarias, los Estados Americanos mantenian lo resuelto en
    la Conferencia de Mejico.


    4.0 Se dispone la creaci6n en la Uni6n Internacional de las
    Repdblicas Americanas de una secci6n especial de comercio,
    aduana y estadistica que tienen por objeto suministrar a los
    diferentes paises americanos datos de interns para la navega-
    ci6n, procedimientos aduaneros y consulares.
    5.0 Se confirm [el tratado sancionado en la Conferencia
    anterior sobre los diplomas de las profesiones liberals.
    6.0 Se recomienda a los gobiernos americanos para que in-
    sistan en la Segunda Conferencia de la Paz en la Haya, el
    examen del caso del cobro compulsive de las deudas pdblicas
    y en general los medios tendientes a disminuir entire las na-
    ciones los conflicts de origen exclusivamente pecuniario.
    .7. Se adhere a las reglas generals de la Conferencia Sa-
    nitaria de Washington y se recomienda la adopci6n de las
    madidas tendientes al saneamiento de las ciudades y especial-
    mente de los puertos.
    8.0 Se recomienda a los gobiernos americanos un studio
    sobre el sistema monetario vigente en cada uno de sus paises,
    se historic las fluctuaciones del tipo de cambio que han tenido
    lugar en sus iiltimos afios y la confecci6n de tablas que de-
    muestren la influencia de las referidas fluctuaciones en el co-
    mercio y en la industrial.
    9.o Se inform del estado de la construcci6n del ferrocarril
    panamericano y se aprueba los medios tendientes a acelerar
    su terminaci6n.
    10. Se resuelve la celebraci6n de un congress juridico que
    se debe reunir en Rio de Janeiro con el objeto de proyectar
    un c6digo de derecho international piblico y privado para
    regir las relaciones interamericanas.
    11. Se confirm en material de patentes de invenci6n, dibu-
    jos y models industriales, marcas de fabrica y de comercio,
    propiedad artistic y literaria las iniciativas sancionadas por
    la Conferencia de Mejico con algunas modificaciones.
    12. Se celebra una convenci6n para el estimulo del desen-
    volvimiento de los recursos naturales de los paises de America
    y de los medios de comunicaci6n entire ellos.
    113. Se consider la reuni6n de las futuras Conferencias.
    14. Se crea en los Ministerios de Relaciones Exteriores de
    los diversos paises americanos una secci6n especial destinada
    a facilitar los datos necesarios para las tareas de las futures
    Conferencias Panamericanas.


    Como se ve aunque cortas las sesiones se resolvieron numero-
    sos asuntos interesantes que no son sino la continuaci6n de
    los de la anterior y que han de servir de base para la future.


    Con motivo del Centenario de nuestra independencia se reu-
    ni6 en Buenos Aires la Cuarta Conferencia Panamericana, de-
    mostrando asi la participaci6n que tomaban los demas paises
    americanos a la celebracion de tan glorioso acontecimiento,
    inaugurando sus sesiones el 11 de julio de 1910 para clausu-
    rarlas el 31 de agosto del mismo anio. Despues de una labor
    intense que se encuentra resumida en su vasto program se
    realize un balance de los resultados obtenidos hasta entonces
    por medio de estas Conferencias, ponidndose de evidencia que
    muchos de sus tratados y convenciones no habian sido ratifi-
    cadas pero que en general se habia conseguido acercar y vin-
    cular mas cada pais del Nuevo Mundo, hasiendose apreciar y
    conocer mutuamente y contribuyendo a indicar al mundo ente-
    ro la existencia de un Continente formado por naciones unidas
    capaces de hacer respetar sus derechos y de cumplir con sus
    El program que fue redactado en la misma forma que para
    la Conferencia anterior, comprendia los siguientes puntos:
    1.0 Commemoraci6n del Centenario de la Naci6n Argentina
    y de la independencia de las repiblicas americanas.
    2.0 Estudio de los informes y memories presentadas por
    cada delegaci6n relatives a las disposiciones de los gobiernos
    respectivos sobre las resoluciones de la Tercera Conferencia
    con inclusion del informed de la comisi6n panamericana y de
    la consideraci6n de la conveniencia de prorrogar las funciones
    de esta.
    3.o Estudio del informed del actual director de la Uni6n In-
    ternacional de las repidblicas americanas.
    4. Resoluci6n expresando agradecimiento a Andrew Carne-
    gie por su generoso donativo para la construcci6n del nuevo
    edificio de la Uni6n de las Rep6iblicas Americanas en Washington.
    5.o Informe acerca de los pro-gresos hechos en la construc-
    ci6n del ferrocarril panamericano despuds de la Conferencia de
    Rio Janeiro y la cooperaci6n que las Repdblicas de America
    puedan dar a fin de lograr la terminaci6n de la obra.


    6.0 Estudio de las bases sobre las cuales se pueda regular el
    establecimiento de un servicio nms rapido de comunicaciones
    a vapor para la conducci6n de mercaderias y pasajeros entire
    los paises americanos.
    7.0 Estudio de los medios tendientes a establecer entire las
    Repdiblicas americanas uniformidad de documentaci6n consular,
    reglamentaci6n consular y estadistica commercial.
    8. Estudio de las Conferencias Sanitarias Internacionales
    relatives a policia sanitaria, cuarentenas, etc.
    9.0 Estudio de una convenci6n entire las Repfiblicas Ame-
    ricanas relative a patentes de invenci6n, marcas de fabrica,
    propiedad literaria y artistic.
    10. Estudio de la continuaci6n de los tratados sobre recla-
    maciones pecuniarias despues de su expiraci6n.
    11. Estudio de un plan para el intercambio de profesores y
    estudiantes entire las Universidades y Academias de las Repd-
    blicas de AmBrica.
    12. Resoluciones del Congreso Cientifico Panamericano de
    Santiago de Chile de diciembre de 1908.
    13. Resolucion que autorice al Consejo Directivo de la Uni6n
    International de las Repfiblicas Americanas para que acuerde
    la manera de c6mo los paises del Nuevo Mundo celebraran la
    apertura del Canal de Panama.
    En esta Conferencia cuyo program represent una conside-
    rable labor, tomaron parte todos los Estados americanos con
    excepci6n de Bolivia, lo que se explica por estar interrumpidas
    las relaciones diplomaticas con nuestro pais por circunstancias
    que no corresponde rememorar. La representaci6n de los paises
    de America se hizo en la siguiente proporci6n de plenipoten-
    ciarios: Argentina (8), Brasil (6), Chile (5), Colombia (1), Costa
    Rica (1), Cuba (5), Estados Unidos (8), Ecuador (1), Guatemala
    (3), Honduras (1), Haiti (1), M6jico (4), Nicaragua (1), Panama
    (1), Paraguay (2), Perd (3), San Salvador (2), Uruguay (4), San-
    to Domingo (2) y Venezuela (2).
    El resultado de esta conferencia fu6 en lines generals la
    aprobaci6n y continuaci6n de los trabajos de la anterior cum-
    pli6ndose el program enunciado, al pie de la letra, emitidndose
    en consecuencia numerosas resoluciones aprobando sus diver-
    sas cuestiones.
    En esta conferencia se puso aun mas de manifiesto la intima
    vinculaci6n existente entire los paises americanos, extendiendo


    sus relaciones cordiales y amistosas a las demas naciones del
    universe que nos enviaron representantes para festejar nuestro
    primer centenario de independencia.
    La proxima conferencia ha de reunirse en Santiago de Chile
    y debera considerar numerosas cuestiones de interest para Ame-
    rica puesto de manifiesto en la Guerra Europea de 1914/1915....
    referente a la protection del comercio americano y el respeto
    que merecen los principios de derecho international sancionados
    universalmente y consagrados en numerosos Congresos y Con-


    Es impossible entrar a estudiar analiticamente cada resoluci6n,
    convenci6n y tratado celebrado con motivo de las conferencias
    panamericanas y por eso me limitare a hacer una breve reseiia
    de los que tienen verdadera importancia international.
    1.0 Convenci6n para la codificacin del derecho international
    americano pfiblico y privado. No es possible entrar a discutir
    los fundamentos y las objeciones hechas a la codificacion del
    derecho international tanto ptblico como privado, pues es una
    cuesti6n que tiene dividido a los autores y que constitute uno
    de los puntos de mans ardua labor para su solucion. Hay que
    limitarse a explicar los trabajos hechos por estas conferencias
    para este fin mencionado que en el Congreso cientifico que ha
    de reunirse este alio en Washington sera objeto de discusion
    esta cuestidn.
    En la convenci6n sancionada en Mejico se establecia (ue
    una comisi6n deberia proceder a la elaboraci6n de un Codigo
    de derecho international piblico y otro privado para regir las
    relaciones internacionales. Debia constituirse esta comision por
    cinco jurisconsultos americanos y dos europeos, nombrados por
    el cuerpo diploinatico americano resident en Washington. El
    proyecto debia ser sometido previamente a los gobiernos res-
    pectivos y despu6s de haberse recibido sus observaciones debia
    redactar el C6digo definitive y seria entonces remitido nueva-
    mente a los gobiernos de Amdrica para que pudieran adoptarlo
    por tratados hechos directamente entire ellos o bien en el seno
    de una conferencia future.
    En Rio Janeiro se insistio en la codificaci6n de este derecho
    pero siguiendo procedimientos diferentes a los propuestos en
    la de Mtjico. La convencibn dispuso que la comisi6n se habia de


    reunir en Rio Janeiro y que estaria formada de un delegado
    por cada estado. El proyecto preparado debia ser elevado a los
    respectivos gobiernos con un aflo de anticipaci6n por lo menos
    a la conferencia pr6xima y 6sta deberia resolver los medios
    convenientes para dar continuaci6n a los proyectos. Por diver-
    sas circunstancias la comisi6n no pudo reunirse sino en 1910
    y dadas las divergencias surgidas en la misma, adn no se ha
    llegado a ninguna soluci6n practice.
    2.0 Uni6n international de las republicans americanas. La
    tercera conferencia panamericana ha desarrollado enormemente
    a esta instituci6n destinada a estrechar las relaciones entire
    los paises del nuevo mundo y que de ninguna manera puede
    considerarse que tenga por finalidad crear un regimen juridico
    entire todos los estados de Am6rica para todas las cuestiones
    que son objeto de las convenciones panamericanas, englobando
    asi asuntos que son material de grandes tratados europeos. En
    este sentido lo han entendido algunos autores como Basdevant
    en un articulo publicado en la Revista de derecho internacio-
    nal pdblico. Hay en esta uni6n regimen juridico finicamente en
    ciertos asuntos en que las convenciones lo han declarado ex-
    presamente como sucede con la propiedad artistic y literaria.
    Tampoco puede considerarse que sea una especie de ministe-
    rio de los Estados Unidos destinado a informarlo de todo lo
    que interest a la vida econ6mica de los demas estados de la
    America latina como han querido considerarlo muchos otros
    autores, sino que esta llamado a establecer y mantener relacio-
    nes cordiales entire todos los paises americanos.
    El objeto de la union puede resumirse como se expresa a
    a) Centralizar los principles datos comerciales, econ6micos,
    politicos y sociales y ponerlos a disposici6n de los paises de
    b) Mantener y fortificar los intereses comunes para que las
    relaciones comerciales y sociales sean siempre las mds intimas
    c) Ser un comite permanent de las Conferencias interna-
    cionales americanas.
    Esta administrada por un Consejo directive que tiene por pre-
    sidente al secretario de estado de los Estados Unidos y como
    miembros a los representantes de las repdblicas de la America
    latina en Washington.


    3.0 Convenci6n sobre reclamaciones pecuniarias por via diplo-
    mnitica. Los paises de la America latina, en el deseo de evitar
    los abuses de las reclamaciones pecuniarias por via diplomatic
    por parte de la Europa que desconfia de la administraci6n y
    justicia de muchos de los estados americanos, declararon en
    Mejico segrn ya hemos visto, la absolute igualdad de los ex-
    tranjeros con los ciudadanos nativos, lo que importaba esta-
    blecer que gozaban de los mismos derechos para hacker valer
    sus reclamnaciones como los nacionales, condenando las reclama-
    ciones diplomaticas que solamente se admiten cuando hay una
    manifiesta injusticia. Ademiis declaraban que el Estado no se
    responsabilizaba de los dafios causados en los bienes de los
    extranjeros por movimientos sediciosos siempre que la autori-
    dad constituida hubiera hecho todo lo possible para evitarlos.
    Habia exageracidn de ambas parties, Europa no puede consi-
    derar en la misma forma las grandes naciones americanas como
    los pequefios paises y America tampoco puede exigir de los
    estados europeos una igualdad de tratamiento en todos sus
    diversos paises.
    Hay ademtis una convention reference a los ciudadanos na-
    turalizados que renuevan su residencia en su pais de origen
    que hemos ya explicado anteriormente y que produce efectos
    entire los paises que la han ratificado debiendo ser denunciada
    con un afio de anticipaci6n ante el gobierno del Brasil. Las
    convenciones sobre arbitraje, marcas de fdbrica, etc., tienen
    una gran importancia y la primera ha sido considerada en su
    Aunque las convenciones votadas en estas conferencias no
    hayan sido ratificadas por los estados americanos en su totali-
    dad, las conferencias panamericanas dieron los resultados que
    deben producer asambleas de esta naturaleza. Se pueden con-
    siderar estas convenciones como leyes internacionales en for-
    maci6n que adquieren cada vez mas autoridad a media que
    las conferencias futuras las van confirmando.
    El resultado mas important de estas conferencias es no so-
    lamente haber demostrado que los estados de America podian
    arreglar pacificamente sus cuestiones y ponerse de acuerdo en
    asuntos de interns universal, sino que armonizaron y unieron
    los interests de todos los paises de America contribuyendo a
    desarrollar lo que Alejandro Alvarez llama la concicicia ane-
    ricana, que debia constituir una caracteristica de la vida poli-


    tica contemporanea del Nuevo Mundo. Hubiera sido de desear
    que esta conciencia se manifestara en la conflagraci6n actual,
    demostrando asi que no se limitaba a las cuestiones de Ame-
    rica sino a las del universe, condenando todo aquello que era
    contrario a las leyes internacionales, a los tratados firmados y
    a las convenciones celebradas. Aunque hecha en una forma
    plat6nica la protest americana sobre la violaci6n de la neu-
    tralidad de Belgica por los germanos, hubiera tenido una reso-
    nancia universal y habria hecho comprender que en la epoca
    actual no es ya possible proceder como en los tiempos de la
    primitive civilizaci6n europea y que la humanidad unida por
    un sentimiento de solidaridad no admit que una parte de ella
    atente violentamente contra la otra, y que era necesario res-
    petar la firma puesta al pie de los tratados internacionales.
    Ademas los Estados Unidos comprendieron que era necesario
    para el desarrollo del panamericanismo no solamente la reunion
    de estas conferencias sino tambien destruir la desconfianza que
    la America latina habia manifestado hacia su political para lo
    cual resolvi6 hacer concurrir con ellos en el ejercicio de la
    hegemonia a los estados mejor organizados del Nuevo continen-
    te, modelando un concerto parecido al de las grandes potencias
    europeas pero en una forma mas equitativa y en beneficio de
    la justicia continental.
    Todo hace esperar que la expresi6n Am6rica no sea inica-
    mente un termino geogrdfico sino el sin6nimo de un Nuevo
    mundo cuyos estados, abandonando todo prejuicio, estan inti-
    mamente ligados por intereses de todo orden.
    Es digno de menci6n ver en America el espiritu de frater-
    nidad que domina en todo su inmenso territorio, iniciado con
    estas conferencias panamericanas, continuado por la political de
    concordia, que salvo raras excepciones, siempre se ha desarro-
    llado por los paises americanos y puesto de manifiesto filtima-
    mente por el tratado firmado entire las naciones que constituyen
    la formula A B C. Tanto mas de alabar es esta political inspi-
    rada en principios de cordialidad y pacifismo cuanto que, en
    los moments actuales, un soplo belico sacude la civilizaci6n,
    la hace crugir y tambalear carcomida por el militarismo, que
    un estado de Europa ha engendrado en sus aspiraciones de
    hegemonia y dominaci6n universal, desconociendo a las nacio-
    nalidades el derecho de vivir con honra, libre e independiente.


    DE LA



    La exploracidn sistemitica de nuestro territorio, desde el punto
    de vista arqueoetnologico, se viene realizando en forma constant
    a partir del afio 1905. Tal iniciativa correspond a la Facultad
    de Filosofia y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, cuyo
    Consejo Acad6mico, aprob6 en sesi6n del dia 5 de noviembre
    de 1904, el primer plan de exploracidn proyectado por el di-
    rector del Museo Etnografico de dicha facultad Dr. Juan 13.
    Ambrosetti. (1)
    Esta exploraci6n se realize en la region de Pampa Grande,
    provincia de Salta, y desde entonces hasta la fecha, sin inte-
    rrupci6n, durante las vacaciones universitarias o cuando la
    direccion, por causes harto comprensibles, lo crey6 convenient,
    se han venido sucediendo estos viajes de studio. De esta ma-
    nera el suelo de nuestro territorio se esta conociendo met6-
    dicamente y lo serA en su integridad en un tiempo mas o
    menos largo, de acuerdo con las ideas que tuvieron los fun-
    dadores de la Facultad de Filosofia y Letras.
    Hasta este moment comisiones de studio han practicado
    investigaciones en Pampa Grande, Kip6n, Cachi y La Paya,

    (1) Vdase: Revista de la Universidlul die Buenos Aties, t. II, pd.l;i 514 y
    t. III, pdfinas 332 y sijfientes. Buenos Aires, 1903.


    en la provincia de Salta; en la -Isla de Tilcara, Pucard de
    Tilcara y llanura oriental de la provincia de Jujuy; en los va-
    lles de Abaucan y AndalgalA, provincia de Catamarca; en
    Tafi, provincia de Tucumin; en el litoral magallAnico y region
    de la Araucania, Chile; en algunas localidades del Chubut y
    Rio Negro; en el delta del Parana, Entre Rios, y en algunas
    zonas aisladas de la provincia de Buenos Aires (1).
    Por otra parte y como complement 16gico del desarrollo del
    plan de investigaciones arqueoetnol6gicas, en oportunidades
    precisas y hasta tanto ha sido possible, comisiones especiales
    han hecho entrada en territorio extranjero con fines de studio
    o simplemente para reunir el material indispensable a fin de
    que la ensefanza de la Arqueologia Americana, que se dicta
    en la casa, no tropiece con los inconvenientes que ofrecen las
    series precarias o incompletas.
    En el present trabajo se estudiara la arqueologia de los
    valles preandinos de la provincia de San Juan, cuya explo-
    raci6n fu6 realizada durante los meses de octubre, noviembre
    y diciembre de 1914, de acuerdo con el plan general de inves-
    tigaciones a que hemos hecho referencia. Posteriormente a
    este viaje de studio fu6 realizado otro, durante los meses de
    enero y febrero de 1916, a la region de Jachal.
    Me acompafi6 en ambos viajes el senior Jose Pozzi, que ya
    se habia desempefiado con 6xito en dos misiones de igual ca-
    racter en la region patag6nica.
    Practicamos studios extensos en Calingasta, Barrealito, An-
    gualasto, Pachimoco y Niquivil, habidndonos detenido lo nece-
    sario en Barreal, Tocota, Los Pozos, Iglesia, Rodeo, Tucunuco,
    Huaco y en las tamberias del Paso de Limar.
    Lo crecido de los rios por el deshielo y los temporales de
    la cordillera nos aislaron en un principio de la region de JAchal,
    donde nos proponiamos hacer algunos studios. Fud precise
    entonces regresar a San Juan, cruzando los tendidos y Aridos
    campos que constituyen la parte meridional de la llamada tra-
    vesia de Jachal.
    Es de mi deber agradecer aqui la eficaz y entusiasta coope-
    raci6n que ha prestado el sefnor gobernador de la provincia

    (1) Puede consultarse la sorie de publicaciones de la seccion antropol6gica de la
    Fauultad de Filosofia y Letras, iniciadas en la Revista de la Unlversidad de Buenos
    Aires, en 1906. Dichas publicaciones comprenden 14 nionografias originales, en las
    que predominan las de character arqueologico.


    de San Juan, doctor don Angel Rojas, para llevar a buen tar-
    mino la misi6n que se nos encomendara. Las autoridades de las
    poblaciones de transito, a su vez, nos rodearon de atenciones y
    en mas de una ocasi6n allanaron imprevistas dificultades, no
    raras y mortificantes en aquellas apartadas zonas. Tambidn
    agradezco la cooperaci6n privada de las gentes del lugar, algunas
    de las cuales fueron nuestros amables acompailantes y en muchas
    circunstancias verdaderos e inteligentes guias. Cito, agradecido,
    entire otros, los nombres de don Ricardo Segundo Araya, de
    Barreal; don Juan Ramon Araya, de Calingasta; los hermanos
    Caballero, de Angualasto; el senior V. Arnaez, de Jachal; y los
    sefiores Dojortis, de Huaco.


    No son muy abundantes las noticias que poseemos sobre la
    arqueologia de la provincia de San Juan. Hasta la fecha nin-
    guna exploraci6n sistematica, ninguna investigaci6n prolija
    se habia realizado.
    Sarmiento nos suministra escasas y vagas noticias aprove-
    chables en los studios arqueol6gicos (1) de la comarca.
    Afirma este autor que en los tiempos en que escribia su
    obra, subsistian cerca de Calingasta, en una Ilanura espa-
    ciosa, mtis de quinientas. casas de forma circular, con atrios
    hacia el oriented, -todas diseminadas en desorden. Si tal afir-
    maci6n es verdadera debemos confesar que en la actualidad
    no s61o no se encuentran las viviendas a que se hace referen-
    cia sino que ni vestigios hay de una poblaci6n tan numerosa
    en las vecindades de Calingasta.
    Las casas de forma circular mis pr6ximas que hemos hallado,
    aunque no en ntimero tan grande, se encuentran a 170 kil6-
    metros al norte de Calingasta, en Angualasto; dudamos que
    Sarmiento pueda referirse a ellas.
    Asevera, por otra parte, el mismo autor < que en la ciudad
    huarpe de Calingasta se encontraron dos plates toscos, de oro
    macizo >, que despues de haber servido para usos triviales
    fueron llevados a Chile, done los adquiri6 don Diego Barros.

    (1) DOMINGO FAUSTINO SARI:IENTO, Los huarles en Recuerdos de 1provin) pa-
    gina 27. Buenos Aires, 1916.


    En cuanto a las costumbres de los comarcanos, Sarmiento,
    sigue casi al pie de la letra la clasica descripci6n de Ovalle.
    Termina el capitulo sobre los huarpes con una ligera noticia
    sobre los cestos de juncos tejidos, industrial generalizada entire
    los habitantes de las lagunas de Guanacache en todo tiempo.
    Tales son en sintesis los datos que nos da Sarmiento y, como
    se habra podido notar, son de un muy relative valor. En ver-
    dad, Sarmiento vi6 en Guanacache y en Calingasta caracteris-
    ticas muy ajenas a las de la arqueologia de dichas localidades.
    Debido presisamente a la carencia de elements de juicio,
    algunos errors se han deslizado referentes en especial a apre-
    ciaciones sobre los caracteres industriales de los pueblos que
    ocuparon los apartados values preandinos de aquella provin-
    cia. Asi, ciertos vasos conocidos tanto por sus formas como por
    su decoracidn habian sido adjudicados a un arte desarrollado
    en Calingasta. (1) En realidad no abunda tal material en la
    region que estudiamos y su centro de dispersion parece estar
    en Chile (2).
    Generalmente las investigaciones de caracter arqueol6gico
    se habian orientado en otro sentido; las exploraciones se ha-
    bian dirigido con preferencia a la region de nuestro noroeste
    o a. las tierras patag6nicas. Hubo razones fundamentals para
    que asi fuera: los datos sobre yacimientos en el noroeste
    argentino eran mas precisos y, por otra parte, los resultados
    obtenidos en innumerables viajes ofrecian excelentes esperanzas
    de 6xito sobre todo si las investigaciones se llevaban a cabo
    de manera sistematica y constant.

    (1) SAMUEL A. LAFONE QUEVEDO, Tipos de alfareria en la reidn diaguito-cal-
    chaqui, en Revista del Museo de La Plata, t. XV (segunda series, tomo II), pagina 313.
    Buenos Aires, 1908.
    (2) Al proceder a preparar el catalog de las colecciones arqueologicas del no-
    roe'lte argentine, existentes en la sala XVII del Museo de La Plata, encuentro con
    sorpresa, que uno de los vasos que ha dado origen al llamado ticne una inscripci6n en el fondo, trazada con tinta azul, que dice claramente Co-
    piapo. C6mo ha llogado este ejemplar al museo no me ha side possible resolverlo.
    La verdad es que he encuentra entire las series que Desiderio Aguiar form en la
    provincia de San Juan, durante sus viajes y excursions al valle de Calingasta.
    Que el vaso en cuesti6n es de Copiap6, Chile, no lo podriamos afirmar rotunda-
    monte desde el memento que la finica prueba que tenemos es la inscripcion que
    aparec en el vaso mismo. Pero en cambio probaria su procedencia de modo indis-
    cutible su absoluta igualdad cn otros publicados por Oyarzfin, come procedentes do
    una ancuvieia de Guallillinque, departamento de Ovalle. (Vease: AURELIANO OYAR-
    ZUN, Contribucidn al studio de la influencia de la civilizacidn pei'uana sobre los abo-
    ri .enei de ChiLe, en Actas del XVII0 ConIreso Inte'nacional de Americanistas, sesidn
    du Buenos Aire, 17 23 de mayo de 1910, pigina 375, figure 8. Buenos Aires 1912).


    De esta manera la region de Calingasta iba quedando pos-
    puesta; se presentaba como una laguna en los studios arqueo-
    16gicos. Las apreciaciones que se habian hecho no tenian mas
    caracter que el de una conjetura inducida con mas o menos
    acierto a base de un muy reducido nlmero de pruebas y ele-
    mentos comprobatorios.
    El material arqueoldgico conocido, a pesar de no ser tan
    escaso, tiene muy poco valor por cuanto carece, en la mayoria
    de los casos, de antecedentes documentales y demas accesorios
    indispensables para establecer conclusions definitivas. La ar-
    queologia sanjuanina hasta la fecha no habia salido del terreno
    de lo meramente curioso; las series habian sido hechas con
    fines mns comerciales que cientificos y, podemos asegurar, que
    algunas marcan verdaderas incidencias de viajes, cuyos fines
    fueron diametralmente opuestos a los de cualquier investiga-
    ci6n arqueol6gica.
    Las primeras colecciones de cierta importancia datan del afio
    1897, 6poca en que Desiderio Aguiar realize su primer viaje
    al valle de Calingasta en busca de minas, derroteros y del
    tapado de Soria o Sor-ha. (1)
    De los tiempos anteriores a Aguiar las pocas noticias que
    se tienen son tan vagas como inseguras. Consignaremos breve-
    mente las mas importantes.
    Ameghino (2), dando a conocer los hallazgos de Nicour,
    afirma que este viajero encontr6 en San Juan habitaciones
    escalonadas, formando una especie de poblaci6n troglodita
    prehist6rica. Estas cuevas, en forma de hornos, contenian abun-
    dantes fragments de alfarerias, huesos quemados y partidos,
    carbones y piedras talladas. La misma persona descubri6 en
    la cordillera de los Andes, a gran elevaci6n, un cementerio
    indigena antiguo donde abundaban puntas de flechas de silice,
    carbon y hueso. Los esqueletos estaban colocados en grandes
    vasijas de barro cuyas paredes tenian un espesor de dos pul-
    gadas y su altura maxima era de 86 centimetros.
    La posici6n de los restos humans era la de un feto en el
    vientre materno. Generalmente estos restos tenian en la boca

    (1) DESIDERIO SEGUNDO AGUIAR, Los lHtulpet, en Prianera reunidn del con.7'eso
    cientifico latino americano celebrtdo en Buenos Aires del 10 al 2' de abril de 1898,
    paginas 283 y siguientes. Buenos Aires, 1900.
    (2) FLORENTINO AMEGHINO, La (ontiFipielad del homtbre en el Plata, t. I, paginas
    514 y siguientes. Pari, 18SO.
    ART. osGl. .xxII 5


    una flecha triangular. En el fondo de una urna se encontraron
    pequefios vasos que contuvieron substancias alimenticias. La
    tapa de las urnas estaba hecha de paja muy bien tejida, la cual habia tan s61o una pequefia piedra para que no la
    volase el viento o no la sacaran los animals. La mayor parte
    de las urnas del cementerio descubierto por el senior Nicour
    habian sido reducidas a fragments en la creencia de encontrar
    en ellas grandes tesoros. Un craneo huarpe recogido por el
    senior Moreno, en Calingasta, provincia de La Rioja (sic), tiene
    un indice cefilico de 87, 73>.
    Por las noticias precedentes no podemos inferir nada de
    trascendencia. Ignoramos en absolute el lugar donde fueron
    encontradas las habitaciones escalonadas a que se refiere Ni-
    cour, pero, parece, que las identifica con species de cuevas,
    a manera de hornos. Con este inico y vago dato, nos es posi-
    ble, sin embargo, referir estas cuevas, hornos o grutas a las
    que personalmente descubrimos en Calingasta y de las cuales
    hablaremos en oportunidad. Por el moment rectificamos la
    afirmaci6n hecha por Nicour: los hornos considerados como
    viviendas no son tales; son grutas naturales, tal vez, con su
    abovedamiento concluido artificial e intencionalmente y fueron
    utilizadas tan s61o para inhumaciones.
    Los demAs datos consignados por Ameghino, debido a infor-
    mes de Nicour, han sido comprobados durante nuestro viaje por
    el amplio valle de Calingasta. Entierros de adults en grandes
    tinajas si bien no pudimos descubrirlos, conseguimos noticias
    suficientemente veridicas que no permiten poner en duda esta
    modalidad de inhumaciones en la comarca.
    Para terminal con estas observaciones haremos notar que el
    lugar l1amado Calingasta, en la provincia de La Rioja, donde,
    segin Ameghino, el doctor Moreno recogi6 un craneo huarpe,
    debe ser el Calingasta de San Juan. No tenemos noticias de
    otro Calingasta que no sea el de esta provincia.
    Ambrosetti di6 a conocer un ejemplar de la alfareria pre-
    colombina de la region de Jachal (1). Se trata de una ollita
    decorada, encontrada en aquella localidad, con carb6n, junto a
    los restos de una india. La decoraci6n de esta pieza es geo-
    mitrica y anAloga a las que comtnmente se encuentra en los

    (1) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, Descripcidn de algruns alfarerias calchatquies deposita-
    das en el lluseo provincial de Entre Rios, en Revista del Muiseo de la Plata, tomo III,
    paginas 78 y 79 y lamina 7. La Plata, 1892.


    vasos de base c6nica cuya procedencia es admitida general-
    mente como peruana y en especial de la region del Cuzco.
    Desiderio Aguiar, que en diversas ocasiones se ha ocupado
    de la arqueologia de San Juan, nos da abundantes noticias.
    Conviene, sin embargo, tomar con much reserve las informa-
    ciones de Aguiar por cuanto en ellas muchas veces campean
    fantasias ingenuas y apreciaciones exentas de todo valor cien-
    En su primer y breve trabajo (1), este autor estudia ligera-
    mente la region de Calingasta y Anhualasto (Angualasto) en
    capitulos separados. En el primero da cuenta de la expedici6n
    de don Diego Maldonado, que, en 1551, obedeciendo a 6rdenes
    de don Pedro de la Gasca, cruz6 desde el Cuzco hasta la lejana
    provincia de Cuyo y qued6 < asombrado de la obra magna de
    los iharpes del Calingasta y del puente de una sola arcada
    echado sobre el torrente de Uspallata ,. Se extiende en noti-
    cias sobre los canales practicados por los aborigenes en los
    faldeos de las asperas serranias e insisted en el llamado camino
    del Inca, cuyo trazado esta mas o menos visible desde Yalgua-
    raz hacia el norte. Habla extensamente de los petroglifos que
    a uno y otro lado de este camino se extienden con profusion.
    En verdad, nosotros, que hemos marchado por esta antigua sen-
    da, s6lo una vez hemos encontrado petroglifos, de los cuales se
    ha ocupado Khiin, entire Yalguaraz y Calingasta: en Barreal (2).
    Agrega que los hnarpes cultivaron el valle de Calingasta en
    todo su perimetro y aunque no determine sus limits precisos
    sostiene que grandes pueblos como los de Anhualasto y Jia-
    chal, actuales centros construidos a las margenes del rio de Jachal
    ban sido de hombres, aunque igualmente adelantados, de otras
    razas ,. A pesar de ello, este autor descubre que en estas
    poblaciones como en las del valle de Calingasta < el sistema de nivelaciones e igual el material de las simientes
    de sus cultivos Sostiene la existencia de arados de piedra y
    su curioso y complicado manejo.
    Da, a rengldn seguido, algunas noticias ligeras sobre el alza-
    miento de los naturales en .1635 y de la expedici6n de don
    Diego de Salinas y Heredia a Jachal, Valle Fertil y Calingasta,

    (1) AGUIAR, ibid., paginal 28' 2!S.
    (2) FRANZ KH jN, Estudios sobre petrofilifoa. de lat re'qidon diaguita, en Recista de la
    Unliersidad de IBueano Aires, t. XXV, paginas 385 y siguientos. Buenos Airos, 1914.


    para sofocar la rebeli6n. Afirma que los aborigenes ahuecaban
    las colinas practicando mausoleos de forma abovedada.
    Algunas de estas sepulturas fueron excavadas en 1836 por
    don Domingo F. Sarmiento de las cuales extrajo cabezas de guanacos en oro y cobre y tambien un pufio cin-
    celado en plata con un pedazo de hoja damasquina,.
    De las mismas sepulturas, asegura Aguiar haber extraido una
    momia complete, de pie, cuyas vestiduras estaban destruidas.
    Sin fundamento de valor real atribuye estos restos humans
    a una epoca anterior a la conquista incaica.
    Otras dos momias bastante bien conservadas, actualmente
    de propiedad del Museo national de Buenos Aires, fueron ex-
    humadas en 1892 por dofia Isabel Moyano de Poblete en el
    lugar denominado Barrealitos, situado en el valle propiamente
    dicho de Calingasta, a 4 kil6metros al oeste de esta localidad. En
    este mismo lugar, la mencionada persona encontr6 infinidad
    de flechas, utensilios de barro y piedra, armas y objetos de
    forma rara y uso desconocido >,.
    Todo lo que hasta aqui se ha consignado referente a las
    exploraciones de Aguiar, se refiere a Calingasta de manera
    especial y, como habrd podido notarse, las noticias, considera-
    das desde el punto de vista arqueoldgico, con ser exiguas, son
    vagas y a menudo antogadizas.
    M:is al norte de Calingasta, Aguiar, que no determine el
    lugar, recogi6 < rros, algunas agujas de hueso (posiblemente topos o alfileres
    para sujetar las vestiduras) y ciertas piedrecillas de las que
    los huarpes viajeros usaban para levarlas constantemente en
    la boca, provocando con la presencia de estos cuerpos duros y
    extrafios la salivaci6n y, por consiguiente, alejando la sed en
    esas largas travesias que tenian que cruzar a pie. Tambien
    por estos parajes don Saturnino y don Sim6n Flores encontra-
    ron, despues de una creciente, una momia < encogida y envuelta
    en telas de lana.
    En 1897, continda Aguiar, don Luis R. Martinez visit ciertas
    grutas al noroeste de la poblacidn (suponemos que dicha po-
    blaci6n sea Rodeo) y extrajo < tres o cuatro caretas de cuero >;
    el citado autor afirma haber recogido personalmente ,frag-
    mentos de un taparrabos con plumas de avestruz >.
    En conclusion: Aguiar en este citado trabajo acumula datos
    de importancia secundaria y sin fundamentos atendibles llega


    a la conclusion que los huarpes se extendieron por todo el
    valle de Calingasta.
    En un trabajo posterior (1) vuelve a sostener la misma tesis
    y sin mayores indicaciones reproduce en malisimas figures casi
    todo el material arqueol6gico que pudo reunir en sus viajes por
    los valles preandinos.
    En esta monografia hay manifiestos errors: consider como
    escultura religiosa lo que es sencillamente una tortera o peso
    para los usos; consider como manifestaci6n de la intelectua-
    lidad huarpe: las construcciones cuyas ruinas aparecen disemi-
    nadas en la parte montafiosa de la provincia; el camino del
    Inca y < el puente del Inca (de una sola arcada) que son verda-
    deros prodigios de buenas practices y tecnica arquitect6nica> (2).
    Insiste una vez mnis en los arados huarpes a los cuales se
    do el surco >.
    En resume: este nuevo trabajo de Aguiar une a su insufi-
    ciencia un ciumulo de conclusions peligrosas. Habria podido
    prestar un servicio al conocimiento de la arqueologia local si
    en vez de perderse en consideraciones vagas, de orden especu-
    lativo, nos hubiera descripto sencillamente el material de sus
    colecciones, con precisas indicaciones de procedencia y carac-
    teristicas de los yacimientos.
    Eric Boman trat6 ligeramente la cuesti6n de los huarpes (3);
    su idea fundamental es que los restos de ruinas prehispanicas
    que se encuentran en los valles andinos de la provincia de
    San Juan son de procedencia diaguita y no huarpe. Basa esta
    hip6tesis en una precisa descripci6n que, sobre los hiarpes,
    nos da el P. Alonso de Ovalle en la cual muestra claramente
    las diferencias que habia entire estos indios y los araucanos.
    Fortalece su opinion en las conclusions antropol6gicas de Ten
    Kate que establecen una relaci6n de identidad entire los restos
    humans de Calingasta y Jichal y los diaguitas del valle Cal-
    chaqui y Yocavil.
    Para Boman, los huarpes fuera de las montailas de San Juan, en las llanuras que cir-

    (1) DESIDERIO AGUIAR, lluap'ce, se'ygduil part. Buenos Aires, 1904.
    (2) AGUIAR, ibid., pagina 30.
    (3) ERIC BOMAN, Antiquitds dte lt r)'dioin adrline dle la Rdpimblique Arjentine et dli
    desert d'At taniia, t. I, piaginat 33-35. Paris, MDCCCGVIII.


    cundan las grandes lagunas de Huanacache, probablemente
    hasta las vertientes occidentales de las sierras de C6rdoba; no
    tenian ninguna relaci6n con los habitantes de los valles
    andinos (1).
    Agrega Boman que absolutamente nada sabemos de las
    ruinas prehispinicas de la provincia de La Rioja y de San
    Juan y que de esta fltima s6lo se conoce una < gran aglomera-
    ci6n de construcciones en pirca: la tamberia de Calingasta.,
    No deja de ser extralfa esta afirmaci6n cuando se tiene pre-
    sente que en la 6poca en que este autor public su excelente
    obra eran ya conocidas dos monografias de Aguiar, que, aun-
    que de escaso valor, dan noticias de los valles de Calingasta y
    Pismanta, con indicaci6n precisa de algunas localidades ar-
    Boman forzosamente ha visto ambos trabajos, pues los cita
    en su bibliografia, y creo mis possible que la relaci6n que
    plantea entire la vieja cultural de Calingasta y la sostenida por
    los diaguitas, la haya inferido del studio del material publica-
    do por Aguiar mas que por la descripci6n de los huarpes
    hecha por Ovalle.
    El iltimo trabajo publicado por Aguiar, data de 1910 (2) y
    se propone demostrar en 61 que los < huarpes fueron los po-
    bladores aut6ctonos de San Juan., Basandose en la morfologia
    del idioma huarpe Uega a la conclusion que Calingasta fu6 la
    cuna de aquella raza y agrega que dicha opinion le fu6 suge-
    rida por ,las ruinas de sus pobladas y numerosas tamberias,
    sus laboreos y los abundantes hallazgos, cuya exhumaci6n
    puede repetirse todavia.> Ademis, agrega, los huarpes ,s6lo
    en los valles y montafias encontraban la tierra cultivable y
    las reses para su alimentaci6n>; por otra parte en los rios
    ,pescaban ficilmente haciendo atajos.,
    Como puede observarse, la argumentaci6n de Aguiar esta
    desprovista de todo valor 16gico. La abundancia de ruinas
    dispersas y las demds razones invocadas no constituyen prue-
    bas eficaces para demostrar el carActer aut6nomo de la cultural
    que se desarroll6 en los valles andinos de Calingasta y su
    vecino de Pismanta.

    (1) BOMAN, ibid., pagina 35.
    (2) DESIDERIO AGUIAR, Huarpes, on C'enio General de la provincial (San Juan)
    t. I, paginas 135 a 259. Buenos Aires, 1910.


    Al contrario, estas mismas razones nos llevaran, como podrA
    notarse en el transcurso de esta monografia, a conclusions
    opuestas, es decir, a sostener que la cultural precolombina de
    la region no se present con los caracteres aut6nomos que
    pretend Aguiar. Fsta fuertemente vinculada con las que
    campearon en las vecindades tanto de este como del otro lado
    de los Andes. No se present en ningin caso de modo espo-
    radico y a cada paso, en cada yacimiento, se van notando in-
    fluencias y antecedentes que obligan a referirla a cultures
    conocidas. Hasta podria creerse que Calingasta marca el
    extreme de una cultural en dispersion.
    Los vestigios de otras civilizaciones infiltrados paulatina-
    mente son demasiado visible y han conducido a errors lamen-
    tables, en lo que a su consideraci6n se refiere.
    En Calingasta, lo veremos en oportunidad, el problema de su
    cultural se present de un modo harto claro: hay que descar-
    tar en absolute la idea o sospecha de que se present con
    autonomia como alguien lo ha pretendido. Ninguna manifesta-
    ci6n hemos descubierto que pueda ni remotamente apoyarla.
    Gran parte de las colecciones arqueol6gicas reunidas por
    Aguiar en los valles sanjuaninos se encuentran en el Museo' de
    La Plata, catalogadas, indebidamente, bajo la denominaci6n ge-
    nerica de c huarpe ). Hay en estas series, ejemplares buenos
    e interesantes en todo concept, pero la falta de una docu-
    mentaci6n prolija, con especial referencia de las condiciones
    bajo las cuales se han realizado los hallazgos y la ausencia de
    datos ciertos que en ningin moment permitan poner en duda
    su procedencia, dan a la colecci6n Aguiar un valor muy rela-
    tivo. Se nota, en general, la falta de un m6todo riguroso para
    preparar dichas series. En nuestro tiltimo viaje hemos podido
    constatar que Aguiar no reunia personalmente sus colecciones.
    Tenia agents en distintos lugares de los valles de San Juan
    que, accidentalmente, le reunian el material. De alli se expli-
    ca que en la clasificaci6n que adopt, eliminara por complete,
    por ignorancia, la procedencia y atribuyera todo el material a
    una cultural que, guiado, tal vez, por un prejuicio trat6 y do-
    mind de ,huarpe.>
    La colecci6n Aguiar consta de un centenar mas o menos de
    ejemplares de los cuales s61o 52 llevan indicacidn precisa de
    haber sido coleecionados por dicha persona. Como hemos dicho
    ya, ninguno tiene procedencia exacta pero atendiendo a su


    uniformidad y a sus caracteres generals, como tambien a las
    declaraciones de los colaboradores que tuvo el coleccionista en
    el valle de Calingasta, tenemos que aceptar que la colecci6n
    procede del citado valle. Personalmente hemos verificado la
    procedencia de muchos ejemplares y en muchas ocasiones he-
    mos examinado las tumbas que abrieron los comarcanos extra-
    yendo de ellas much del material que compone la colecci6n
    Alguna parte de estas series conocidas fueron publicadas
    por su collector en sus tres monografias citadas, pero las de-
    ficiencias de que adolecen dichos trabajos no permiten tomar-
    las muy en cuenta. Guiados por este motivo nos vemos en
    la necesidad de publicarlas o referirnos de nuevo a ellas pues,
    creemos, prestar asi un concurso al mejor conocimiento de la
    arqueologia de la region.
    Otras colecciones de los valles preandinos de la provincia de
    San Juan existen en el Museo de Historia Natural de Buenos
    Aires. Fueron reunidas por dofia Isabel Moyano de Poblete
    y formaron parte de las colecciones del Instituto Geogrdfico
    Ascienden en total a 35 piezas.
    En la ciudad de San Juan, en el museo privado que posee
    el senior Gnecco, se encuentran algunos ejemplares arqueol6-
    gicos recogidos en Ulin, y otras localidades mas o menos
    vecinas. Salvo pocas piezas excepcionales, lo restante es de
    escaso valor.
    Como se habrd podido notar, el material arqueol6gico pro-
    cedente de la provincia de San Juan, y reunido hasta antes
    de nuestro viaje no siendo muy numeroso es de valor relative
    por las deficiencies de origen y obtenci6n que acabamos de
    Por nuestra parte, la colecci6n que hemos reunido en nues..
    tros viajes, en 1914 y 1915, nos permit presentar y estudiar una
    series de 479 ejemplares distintos, perfectamente documenta-
    dos y catalogados. Su extracci6n ha sido realizada personalmente
    en todos los casos, ya en pueblos en ruinas, ya en cementerios
    mas o menos definidos, ya en enterratorios aislados o sepul-
    turas solitarias.



    Barreal esta situado a 155 kil6metros al Oeste de la ciudad
    de San Juan, sobre el camino de herradura que une dicha
    ciudad con Chile, al trav6s del paso de Los Patos. Esta larga
    distancia puede recorrerse en tres dias, pero generalmente se
    efectUa en cuatro, debido a la lentitud con que marchan las
    arrias y a los inconvenientes imprevistos que se presentan a
    menudo tanto en las regions altas como en las bajas. A lo
    largo de aquella ruta se encuentran algunas aguadas o insig-
    nificantes arroyos que riegan exiguas vegas las cuales rompen con
    su verdor la monotonia del aspero paisaje: son pequefios oasis
    que el viajero utiliza como alojamiento en medio de la inhos-
    pitalaria comarca, avara de refugios y saturada de soledades.
    Tales parajes son conocidos por los nombres de (Los Colora-
    dos>,, e Maradona >, , <, beceras etc.
    Hasta llegar al pie del temido Tontal, escaso interns ofrece
    la dilatada senda: retorcidos, escuetos y destefiidos retamales
    se suceden en cadena interminable sobre los inclinados y pe.
    dregosos campos que soles despiadados caldean durante el
    largo verano. A veces el contorno inesperado de un cerro ve-
    lado por la bruma, se levanta sobre el lejano horizonte como
    esperanza cuya realizaci6n se avecina.
    En vano. iSiempre la misma pesada rigidez, el paisaje inal-
    terable, el ambiente mortificante, seco, calido, empobrecido hasta
    lo indecible como si sobre la comarca se sintiera el vacio an-
    gustioso que deja la vida ausente!
    El colorido sin firmeza de las serranias, la deformidad de los
    peilascos provocada por la constant erosion, las fractures ca-
    prichosas de los cerros, desarticulados, a veces, hasta en su
    misma base, la vegetaci6n dura, achaparrada, espinosa, sin brillo
    bajo un cielo raramente, azul, en dias de calma y caliginoso
    cuando los vientos al soplar levantan nubes de polvo, empa-
    iiando el dia, todo aquello sentido bajo enervante temperature,
    comunica al Animo del viajero un extrafio mundo de impresiones
    desconocidas y confusas.
    S61o en las vecindades de las aguadas la vida parece retor-
    nar: la vegetaci6n adquicre entonces cierta lo2ania aumentAn-
    dose con ejemplares nuevos y algunos pajaros timidos revuelan,


    seguros, en torno de los manantiales, porque mas alli esti el
    desierto en cuyos dominios jams penetran. Al llegar al Tontal,
    despuds de haber atravesado el cord6n de los desmantelados Pa-
    ramillos el paisaje cambia fundamentalmente: la vegetaci6n de
    arbustos desaparece y las faldas de las empinadas montafias, sin
    sensibles asperezas, como lavadas, se cubren de los pastos duros
    de la puna. El frio es alia intense y los cambios atmosfericos
    rApidos, razones por las cuales sera preferible y siempre pruden-
    cial tentar el paso de la cuesta del Tontal (3760 metros sobre
    el nivel del mar) antes del medio dia.
    Despues de esas horas el viajero se expone a sorpresas muy
    desagradables entire las que se dan por mas temidas y peligrosas,
    las repentinas nevadas y la excesiva violencia de los vientos
    que en mas de una ocasi6n hacen impracticable el paso. En-
    tonces las mulas, resisti6ndose a avanzar, vuelven el anca y
    comienzan a desandar el camino sin que haya forma de dominar
    su instinto de conservaci6n y seguridad.

    Desde el Tontal, el panorama es magnifico: al frente, muy
    lejos, se destacan con nitidez los quebrados lomos de la cor-
    dillera andina; las altas cumbres se alargan hacia el cielo
    confundiendo sus blancas dentaduras entire nubes ya densa-
    mente espumosas, ya deshilachadas por el impetu de los hura-
    canes; al pie de la cordillera, ligeramente inclinado hacia el
    norte, se extiende el valle de Calingasta, atravesado en toda su
    extension por el rio de los Patos (fig. 1). Algunas arboledas
    lejanas, cuyo color negruzco contrast visiblemente con lo
    blanco de las cumbres y lo amarillento de-las interminables
    faldas de la cordillera, delatan la presencia de las escasas y
    reducidas poblaciones del valle.
    En los mismos parajes o en sus inmediaciones estuvieron
    tamblen ubicadas las viejas poblaciones. Ningdn cambio fun-
    damental se ha operado en la comarca. El mismo desierto sin
    t6rmino las rodea hoy como entonces. El mismo desolador
    ambiente las envuelve hoy como antes. Una misma vida de mis
    o menos analoga soledad preside el lento desarrollo de los po-
    blados y campea sobre los dilatados y yermos campos.
    El rio, tal vez, es lo fnico que ha sufrido un cambio: la re-
    ducci6n paulatina de su cauce es demasiado visible. Por viejas
    y abandonadas acequias que utilizaron un dia los indios co-
    marcanos no volverA a pasar el agua que en otra 6poca llev6


    ~: ;. ~I

    , -


    ]Figi. 1. V3l1 il !imal ;nst (par in rii al).


    riego a los campos cultivados, convertidos hoy en desnudos
    Las primeras viviendas del valle que encuentra el viajero que
    va desde San Juan a Calingasta, estAn en Pituil, algo asi como
    un barrio apartado, perdido entire los alfalfares de Barreal.
    Desde alli hacia el norte, hoy, como hace siglos, hombres de
    razas distintas y de aptitudes distintas, aguijoneados por los
    mismos estimulos y la misma relative facilidad de vida, se han
    agrupado y en lucha abierta contra una naturaleza precaria van
    conquistando el suelo palmo a palmo, a expenses de sacrificios
    finicos, a veces, tan llenos de promesas en sus comienzos como
    esteriles y decepcionantes en sus resultados.

    En la provincia de San Juan, y especialmente en la region
    montaiosa, se conoce bajo el nombre de < (1) cualquier
    porci6n de tierra despojada de piedra y a primer vista, apta
    para ser cultivada. Tal designaci6n proviene del aspect
    particular, del color rojizo que toman los campos y que, vistos
    desde lejos, se asemejan a lechos de lagunas o pantanos ago-
    Todos los barreales de los cuales se tiene noticia, se encuentran
    en las zonas constituidas por terrenos modernos de acarreo.
    Comlinmente en los lugares por este nombre conocidos se en-
    cuentran poblaciones agricolas mas o menos importantes pero,
    en muchos casos, la merma constant de agua los ha conver-
    tido en aridos eriales.
    El Barreal de Calingasta, se encuentra situado en la porci6n
    meridional del valle del mismo nombre, constituyendo un <(dis-
    trito que lo forman el Tontal y las cordilleras andinas> (2). La
    escasa poblaci6n y los campos de cultivos se encuentran dise-
    minados en una amplia area, sobre la margen derecha del
    rio de los Patos. Los pobladores de la comarca se dedican
    a la agriculture, cuyos products anuales comercian especial-
    mente con las ciudades chilenas. De esta manera se ha llegado
    a un intercambio active con el vecino pais, tanto mas visible

    (1) Conervamos intencionalmente el modismo local, ,barreal-, por cuaiato su
    generalizacion es absolute en la comarca. Claramente so observe que dicho termino
    os una corrupcion del americanismo barrial.
    (2) Sejundo ceno general de la provincial de San Juan, t. I, pagina 103. Buenos
    Aires, 1910; JUAN P. MOSCARDA, Guia geo/rdftfica inilitlr de la provincial de San Juan
    pagina 27. Buenos Aires, 1902.


    cuanto mis se tiene present la facil y econ6mica comunicaci6n
    entire ambas regions, al traves de los boquetes de la cordillera.
    Debido a estas comunicaciones, que s6lo se interrumpen cuan-
    do las nieves cierran los pasos, toda la comarca esta directa-
    mente influida por Chile. Tal influencia se observa en forma
    ilimitada en todas las manifestaciones de la vida. Por esta
    causa sospecho que los actuales habitantes del valle no tienen,
    salvo en rarisimos casos, punto de contact con los antiguos
    pobladores de la comarca. De mis esta decir que nuestros es-
    fuerzos tendientes a descubrir, en el fondo de las tradiciones
    locales, un valor positive que nos permitiera establecer corre-
    laciones, han sido est6riles. Por todas parties y en las cosas
    todas aparece constantemente la influencia de los pueblos de
    allende la cordillera.
    La razones para que este fen6meno se haya realizado en
    tiempo mas o menos largo y para que continue en su desarrollo
    como un process 16gico son muy poderosas y atendibles: la
    condici6n de region fronteriza, mas pr6xima a los grandes
    centros chilenos que a los nuestros; el element etnico prepon-
    derante; las comunicaciones mAs rapidas hacia las costas del
    Pacifico, que hacia el litoral AtlAntico, fuera de otras de se-
    gundo orden pero no por ello menos eficaces.
    En Barreal tuvimos noticias de las excavaciones que rea-
    lizara Aguiar, en" 1907. Los resultados de estos trabajos no
    fueron publicados. Con anterioridad este mismo viajero habia
    reconocido la region, pudiendo obtener en sus incursiones buenas
    series de material arqueol6gico, a las cuales, oportunamente,
    nos hemos de referir.
    Al este de Barreal, y no muy lejos de la finca de don Ri-
    cardo Araya, se extiende un campo pedregoso y arido donde,
    segdn las referencias de las gentes del lugar, se suele encon-
    trar marcados vestigios de la antigua industrial indigena local:
    consistent estos en pedazos de alfarerias variadas, puntas de
    flechas de silice y fragments de utensilios de piedra tallada.
    Tales objetos se encuentran, aunque no profusamente, sobre
    una superficie aproximada de siete hectareas.
    El desarrollo de la agriculture ha invadido ya esta zona y
    los alfalfares, dilatandose, empiezan a borrar las huellas deja-
    das por los viejos pobladores.
    Se ven sin embargo, entire el raquitico monte de jarillas y
    retamos y de distancia en distancia, sin guardar orden alguno,


    montones informes de tierra amasada, endurecida y lavada por
    la acci6n de los agents externos. Son los lltimos vestigios
    de las viviendas indigenas. Fueron como los ranchos actuales
    de adobes crudos, techadas con una mezela de barro, paja,
    cailas u otros vegetables. Quizas, como en las construcciones
    actuales, anexos a los ranchos o formaildo parte de ellos,
    existieron esos raros tipos de habitaciones secundarias cuyas
    paredes eran de jarillas atadas entire si con tientos de cuero
    y que son conocidos vulgarnente por el nombre de ramadas,
    en todas las zonas del interior de nuestro pais. En semejantes
    construcciones no se utilize piedra alguna ni siquiera en los
    Estos amontonamientos de tierra (1) han despertado mis de
    una vez la curiosidad de los habitantes de la comarca y de
    los escasos viajeros que por alli acertaron a pasar.
    Frescas estan las huellas de las profanaciones sucesivas, al-
    gunas realizadas con exito, otras en absolute vanas.
    En las excavaciones que practicamos en esta zona, guiados
    mas por intuici6n que por datos seguros obtenidos del examen
    del terreno, tuvimos escaso exito: fueron halladas algunas
    puntas de flechas y pedazos de silice de los que los nativos
    utilizaron para obtener aquellas.
    Nos aseguraron, genes del lugar, que Aguiar tambien habia
    hecho excavaciones, encontrando algunos esqueletos que dese-
    ch6 por no asignarles importancia. Abierto un gran hoyo, en
    un paraje donde, segdn nos afirmaron, estaban sepultados al-
    rededor de treinta craneos, nada encontramos.
    Posteriormente abrimos una tumba y extrajimos los restos
    de cuatro nifios y un adulto, dispuestos al acaso. De este
    filtimo no se encontr6 ni el crdneo ni el sacro. Don Eliseo
    Herrera G. que fu6 nuestro guia en esta ocasion y que habia
    acompanado a Aguiar en su dltimo viaje por aquella region,
    nos asegur6 que esta tumba colectiva habia sido abierta lle-

    (1) Los. comarcanos Ilaman unc'tviilgs a estos vestigios de viviendas derrurmba-
    das. La palabra ha side importada de Chile y soipecho quo en especial del departa-
    mento de Ovalle donde este termino, generalizandose, ha side aplicado a cualquier
    yacimionto de caracter arqueologico. Es evident su sinonimia con los terminoo:
    huacas o gentilares en el Perdi. chulpares en Bolivia, antifjales on la region diaguito
    calchaqui, tamberils en los valley andinos de San Juan, chelques en la Patagonia,
    etc. Entre otros autores chilenos que han estudiado la arqueologia de aquel pais,
    Oyarzfn, usa el termino ancuvi la, aplicado a.los yaciniientos do la region central
    chilena. (Vease: AURELIANO OYARZUN, ibhl. p:g. 374).


    vAndose, Aguiar, el crAneo y demAs huesos que faltaban. Tam-
    bien se extrajeron entonces algunos ejemplares de cerAmica (1).
    Por nuestra parte, y como resultado de un prolijo registro,
    hallamos, mezclados entire los huesos que ocupaban esta sepul-
    tura: el extremo afilado de un topo de hueso, una punta de
    flecha de hueso, un pedazo de cuarzo, abundantes fragments
    de mates y cestos de paja de tejido apretado. Estos liltimos
    en tal mal estado de conservaci6n que fu6 impossible salvarlos.
    Algunos pedazos de troncos de retamos y algarrobos no muy
    gruesos, encontrados en el piano mas profundo de la excava-
    ci6n, abandonados alli en desorden, nos hicieron sospechar
    que no fu6 esa su posici6n primitive. Por hallazgos posteriores
    y por algunos datos que pudimos recoger en el lugar, podemos
    reconstruir esta sepultura en su forma originaria: los troncos
    y ramas de arboles cubrian los restos humans a manera de
    techo o de reparo.
    Este carActer de las tumbas si bien no puede asegurarse
    que sea general en la region, es bastante frecuente.
    En algunas localidades diaguito-calchaquies se han encontra-
    do tumbas con peculiaridades anAlogas a la que nos ocupa. En
    Kip6n, en las vecindades de Payogasta, las urnas funerarias de
    un yacimiento estaban dispuestas sobre troncos de algarrobo (2).
    Despu6s de prolijos y largos registros podemos asegurar que
    las excavaciones que puedan hacerse en Barreal han de ser de
    resultados dudosos. No se ven huellas seguras ni de verda-
    deros cementerios ni de mas o menos organizadas y densas
    Los enterratorios y tumbas son ocasionales y seg6n la larga
    experiencia de los habitantes de la region, su descubrimiento
    es casual, cuando se abren canales y acequias o se aran los

    (1) Sospechabamos que entire las colecciones arqueolugicas existentes on el
    Museo de La Plata, catalogadas por el mismo Aguiar bajo la dominacidn gendrica
    de "Huarpes", se encontrarian los ejemplares recogidos en esta tumba de Ba-
    rreal. Nuestros esfuerzos para identificarlas han sido estdriles. Por otra part,
    centre los papoles que pertenecieron a Aguiar y que se encuentran en parte, en el
    archivo del Museo de La Plata y en el Museo Etnografico de la Facultad de Filosofia
    y Letras de Buenos Aires, no se encuentran datos que puedan aclarar este asunto
    de manera satisfactoria.
    (2) SALVADOR DEBENEDETTI, Excursidn arqueoldyica a las rminas de Kipdn
    (Valle Calchculni, Provincia de Salta). Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, publicaciones
    do la seccion antropoldgica, N.O 4, pagina 22. Buenos Aires, 1908.


    Fuera de aquellos montones de tierra a que hemos hecho
    referencia y que indican viviendas derrumbadas con el andar
    de los aiios y la acci6n de los agents externos, nada queda.
    Estas circunstancias, la extension de las tierras despojadas
    de piedras que delatan largos trabajos preliminaries en los
    campos destinados al cultivo, algunas borrosas huellas de ca-
    nales y los pocos restos de viviendas, bastante distanciados
    entire si, nos permiten afirmar que la poblaci6n de Barreal fue
    esencialmente agricola, como parece, lo han sido casi todas las
    que hemos podido visitar en nuestro viaje al traves de los
    values de la provincia de San Juan.


    Entre las excavaciones que realizamos en la region de Barreal
    citaremos las del campo de las sobre la margen derecha del rio de los Patos, a unos nueve
    kil6metros aproximadamente al norte de Barreal. Esta zona es
    conocida en los mapas corrientes de la provincia de San Juan
    por el , pero por encontrarse alli algunos
    caracteristicos amontonamientos de tierra cuyos origenes son
    atribuidos por los comarcanos a los antiguos indigenas, ha
    sido llamada la region: Campoo de las ancuvinias,.
    Colocados caprichosamente se encuentran, sobre el terreno,
    cuatro monticulos de tierra amasada, firmemente consolidada,
    cuya altura no pasa de tres metros. Dos de ellos fueron exca-
    vados con anterioridad a nuestros trabajos y, seghn nos afir-
    maron, nada se extrajo. Sin embargo pudimos comprobar que
    el interior de estos monticulos afecta la forma de una b6veda
    irregular producida al acaso, por el derrumbamiento de las
    paredes de lo que fud, en su origen, una vivienda.
    La excavaci6n que practicamos en uno de estos amontona-
    mientos de tierra, si bien no nos proporcion6 ningiin material
    arqueol6gico, nos did el convencimiento de que fueron habita-
    ciones, construidas con grandes adobes de barro crudo, super-
    puestos. Desde el interior pudimos constatar estos caracteres.
    El barro ha adquirido una dureza tal que fu6 necesario emplear
    barretas para poder perforar las paredes y penetrar en el in-
    terior de la construccion.
    En las inmediaciones de estas ruinas, un poco hacia el na-
    ciente se nota claramente el trazado de un antiguo canal que


    sirvi6 para dar riego a los campos vecinos. Este canal se en-
    cuentra a unos 60 metros sobre el nivel actual del rio. Impo-
    sible nos fue determinar el punto donde existieron las tomas
    que alimentaron dicho canal. No cabe la menor duda que el
    area sembrada por los viejos pobladores de aquella region fu6
    much mas grande que la que en nuestros dias se ve. Por
    otra parte, sospechamos, que alli existi6 un nacleo de pobla-
    ci6n agricola de relative importancia sin haber llegado a una
    visible densidad: los restos de alfarerias, en su totalidad co-
    rrespondientes a vasos, ollas y cantaros de color gris, con de-
    coraci6n elemental geom6trica incisa, los abundantes morteros de
    piedra que se encuentran dispersos por los campos, son datos
    sobrados para probar nuestra afirmaci6n.
    En la zona donde se levantan las construcciones a que he-
    mos hecho referencia y que estuvo bajo la influencia del riego
    artificial traido por el canal que corre de sud a norte, a un cos-
    tado de las ruinas, no hay vegetaci6n de ninguna clase. Desde
    lejos present el aspect de un gran arenal, de color blanque-
    cino, despojado de toda piedra. Tales vestigios demuestran de
    manera evidence los grandes trabajos que tuvieron que realizar
    los indigenas para preparar los terrenos que estaban destinados
    a la labranza.
    Visibles estAn tambidn los lugares apartados donde los pri-
    mitivos agricultores arrinconaron las piedras que cubrian los
    campos para que, libres de estos obstAculos, fuera facil la tarea
    de la siembra y mis productivas las sementeras. Esta peculia-
    ridad se observa en direcci6n a los faldeos de las vecinas lomas
    que corren hacia el rumbo este de la comarca descripta.


    Al norte de Barreal, a una distancia que no excede de cinco
    kil6metros, al pie de altas barrancas rojizas dislocadas por la
    erosion, queda en pie una construcci6n rectangular, de piedra.
    Sus dimenciones son 27 metros de largo por 19,50 de ancho;
    las paredes no sobrepasan los 60 centimetros de altura y su
    espesor es, en las parties mas anchas, de un metro.
    Este gran rectAngulo esta orientado de norte a sud y en
    sentido longitudinal estA atravesado por otra muralla. Trans-
    versalmente estA cortado por dos muros que corren paralelos,
    a 9 metros de distancia uno del otro.


    ,En resume, esta curiosa construcci6n tiene el aspect
    de seis cuadrados regulars unidos entire si a manera de
    tablero (fig. 2).
    Las paredes no fueron much mAs altas de lo que actual-
    mente son, pues el derrumbe de material es minimo.
    Tampoco se ven rastros que hicieran sospechar que sobre
    las construcciones de piedra existentes se hubieran levantado
    otras de adobes o barro y menos ain que estos edificios estu-
    vieran techados en alguna epoca.
    Las excavaciones que realizamos han demostrado que fueron
    corrales para encerrar ganado, probablemente, llamas. A 15

    Fig. 2. Tamberias doe Barreal

    centimetros de la superficie arenosa del suelo se descubri6 una
    capa uniform y espesa de huano, y por mas que profundiza-
    mos las zanjas abiertas nada encontramos. El suelo fire lo
    hallamos mas o menos a 60 centimetros de la actual superficie.
    Corrales de esta naturaleza hemos hallado en distintas oca-
    siones siendo los mas grandes, ubicados en el interior mismo
    de la poblaci6n, los descubiertos con el doctor Ambrosetti en
    el PucarA de Tilcara, provincia de Jujuy.
    Fuera del recinto pircado o amurallado, debajo de un mont6n
    de piedras y a muy poca profundidad, se encontr6 un fragment
    AfT. o111. XXxII (i


    de cuello de un vaso de fondo c6nico, decorado con dibujos geo-
    m6tricos de colors rojo y negro, sobre fondo blanco.
    Segdn referencias que pudimos recoger en la localidad, el
    pasaba por las vecindades de esta cons-
    trucci6n o tamberia. Nuestras tentativas por descubrirlo fueron
    initiles. Sin embargo es possible que dicho camino pasara muy
    cerca por que, siguiendo su trazado, en lo que es possible
    observarlo, en la zona que estA al sur de la tamberia, se ve
    claramente que marchaba en direcci6n tal que casi debia tocarla
    o pasar no muy distant de ella. Por otra parte, las barrancas
    pr6ximas, situadas al oeste, asi como el rio de los Patos, que
    corre al este, en direcci6n sur-norte, eran obstaculos que los
    que trazaron el camino tenian que evitar a cualquier costa.
    De esta manera, result que la tradici6n del lugar sobre este
    asunto tiene sobrados y fundados motives de ser.
    Fuera de las tamberias, se ven en las vecindades, sin guardar
    un orden calculado, algunos monticulos de grandes rodados. Su
    altura es mis o menos de 80 centimetros y el diametro de su
    base no pasa de 2,50 metros. Excavamos algunos, pero nada se
    No nos ha sido possible darnos cuenta del fin de estos amon-
    tonamientos de piedra. En varias ocasiones y en various parajes
    los hemos hallado. Todas las excavaciones realizadas en ellos
    fueron infructuosas.
    Pudiera ser que al despedrar los campos, como adn actual-
    mente dice y hace la poblaci6n de labradores de la comarca,
    fueran amontonadas las grandes piedras rodadas en sitios de-
    terminados y las pequefias fueran arrojadas sin orden a espal-
    das de los terrenos destinados a los cultivos.
    En tal caso quedaria explicada tambidn la falta de regularidad
    que se observa en la distribuci6n de los montones de piedras
    grandes cuyo transport a lugares apartados implicaba un tra-
    bajo largo e indtil, lo cual no dificultaba de ning6n modo, en
    lo que a su ubicaci6n se refiere, las tareas de las labranzas.
    Las actuales poblaciones y viviendas de los nativos se encuen-
    tran relativamente lejos de las tamberias de Barreal. Como en
    muchos casos observados, reduciendose el drea de las tierras
    sembradas por razones de riego, ciertas construcciones han ve-
    nido a quedar alejadas y, por consiguiente, independizadas en
    absolute de los centros poblados de nuestros dias.
    Tal fen6meno es exactamente la repetici6n de los sucedidos
    en la epoca de predominio de la cultural indigena.



    Objetos de piedra

    a) Liminas y raspadores (1).
    Se hallan dispersos profusamente estos objetos en las ve-
    cindades de los lugares donde suponemos se alzaron las vi-
    viendas indigenas. Entre los que hemos recogido s6lo algunos
    presentan caracteres definidos que demuestran trabajos poste-
    riores de retoques. Se encuentran en este caso los dos raspa-
    dores de las figures 3 y 4, de 30 y 42 mm. respectivamente.

    h/i ,

    Fig. 3. 18754 "-/3 Fig. 4. 187534 ,

    b) Perforadores.
    S61o dos ejemplares hemos hallado. Ambos son del mismo
    tipo: el cuerpo propiamente dicho del objeto present ligeros
    retoques a fin de facilitar mejor su adaptaci6n a la mano del
    operator; la punta esta perfectamente tallada y redondeada
    con esmero, (fig. 5).

    Fig. -5. 1S77.5 2/

    Las dimensions de estos perforadores son de 31 y 34 mm.

    (1) La numeraci6n quo acompala a los objotos represontados en las figures es
    la que corresponded a cada pieza, segfin el catalog del museo de la Facultad de
    Filosofia, y Letras. Cuando so trate do ejomplares portenocientes a otras colecciones
    o musoos se hara la indicaciun pertinent. Los dibujos de las piezas pertonecientes
    a las colocciones del Museo Etnogrefico de la Facultad de Filosofia y Lotras han
    sido ejecutados por los sefnores Vicente Faggiotto y Cesar Mainella; los do las co-
    lecciones del MIuseo de La Plata por la proifeora Srta. Evelina Marraccini.


    c) Puntas de flechas.
    Siguiendo la excelente clasificaciin de material analogo,
    estudiado por Outes (1), estableceremos para las puntas de
    flechas halladas en Barreal tres tipos:
    I) Puntas de flechas de formca amigdaloide figurea 6).
    Parece que este tipo no es muy comin en la region. Son, en
    general, pequefias y sus dimensions oscilan entire 16 y 30 mm.
    II) Puntas de flechas de tipo de tridngulo isdceles (fig. 7).
    Los ejemplares de este tipo son los mas abundantes. Sus
    dimensions extremes son 12 y 27 mm.
    Como variedades del tipo anterior de puntas de flechas,
    a) Las que presentan bordes rectos y base cdncava.
    b) Las de borders convexos y base c6ncava.

    -)*i f\ \

    Fig. 6. 18801 1/1 Fig. 7 18783, 18813 18810 '/. Fig. 8. 18776 y 18819 '/,

    Ambas variedades tienen sus dimensions mnximas y mini-
    mas entire los 18 y 20 mm. respectivamente.
    III) Puntas de flecha con pedz nculo (fig. 8). Sus dimen-
    siones oscilan entire 12 y 33 mm. No son abundantes.
    En resume: las puntas de flechas recogidas en Barreal son
    25, todas talladas en silice, y, como puede verse, es cantidad
    insuficiente para cualquier demostraci6n. Sin embargo las del
    tipo II son las que con mis frecuencia se hallan.
    Entre el material arqueol6gico de esta naturaleza reunido por
    Aguiar y conservado entire las ricas colecciones del museo de
    La Plata merece citarse un ejemplar que, si bien no complete,
    da idea clara del modo de ajustar la punta de la flecha al Astil,
    utilizando mystique o resina y luego fibras especiales posi-
    blemente de nervio de guanaco- para conseguir de esa

    (1) FELIX F. OUTES, La edad de la piedra en Pata lonia, en Anales del lMueo
    National de Buenos Aires, series III, tomo V, paginas 376 y siguiontes. Buenos Airos,


    manera mayor seguridad (fig. 9). Tal procedimiento parece
    haber sido general entire los pueblos precolombinos de AmBrica.
    Tanto en el litoral patag6nico (1) como en la costa chilena (2)
    se han descubierto flechas mas o menos completes que con-
    firman nuestra aseveraci6n.


    Fig. 9. Colecci6n del Museo de La Plata (Exp. Aguiar, N." 52 '/a)

    Hacemos notar que puntas de flechas de obsidiana, tan
    abundantes en la region diaguito calchaqui, no han sido en-
    contradas en las comarcas que estudiamos.
    d) Puntas de lanzas o jabalinas.
    S61o tres ejemplares hemos hallado en Barreal.
    Uno de forma de triangulo is6celes, de base y bordes rectos
    (fig. 10) y de 60 mm. de largo. Los otros dos de forma ana-

    / \ I

    AI I

    Fig. 10. 18777 2/, Fig. 11. 18793 "/,

    loga al anterior pero con la base c6ncava (fig. 11). Estos
    tallados en silice; aquel en cuarcita.
    Entre las series de objetos de piedra de la provincia de
    San Juan que se encuentran en el Museo de La Plata abun-

    (1) FEL1X F. OUTES, L( ufa ILr eptdulcl del cerrito de las Calaceras en Anales
    del eMuseo Nacionl de llistori, Natural de Buenos Aires, tomol XXVII, paginas 371
    y 372. Buenos Aires, 1915.
    (2) RICARDO E. LATCHAM, Los chanos de ia costa de Chile, pagina 25. Santiago
    de Chile, 1910.


    dan las puntas de lanzas o jabalinas pero como no tienen in-
    dicaci6n precisa de procedencia no insistimos mayormente.
    Bastara que se sepa que son iguales en todos sus caracteres
    a las que hemos recogido y descripto, salvo un pequeno nl-
    mero que puede fdcilmente relacionarse con las conocidas de
    tipo patag6nico, estudiadas por Outes (1). Hacemos notar,
    sin embargo, que las puntas las lanzas encontradas en los
    valles preandinos de la provincia de San Juan, generalmente
    no tienen pedmnculo, siendo, por lo tanto, su base o recta o
    ligeramente escotada.

    Objetos de hueso

    a) Puntas de flechas.
    Estos objetos son bien conocidos en nuestra arqueologia del
    noroeste: Ambrosetti (2) public en 1902 las primeras puntas
    de flechas de hueso, procedentes de Jujuy, del valle de Yocavil
    (Catamarca) y de Calingasta (San Juan). El mismo autor pu-
    blic6, tambien en 1902, siete ejemplares exhumados de La
    Paya (3). Posteriormente este material, perteneciente a las
    colecciones del Museo Nacional, fu6 publicado de nuevo (4).
    Boman reproduce tres ejemplares procedentes de La Paya (5).
    Bruch ha dado a conocer algunos ejemplares de los muchos
    con que cuenta la colecci6n recogida personalmente en las pro-
    vincias de Catamarca y Tucumin (6).
    Tanto Ambrosetti como Boman han dado abundantes noti-
    cias sobre las puntas de flechas de hueso de nuestra region
    del noroeste.
    Las que hemos hallado en Barreal en nada se diferencian

    (1) OUTES, La edad de tl pledra, etc. paginas 401 y siguientes.
    (2) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, Antigiledades calchaqr/iea. Datos arqueole iicos sobre In
    provincia de Jujuy en Anales de la Sociedad Cientiflca Argentlna, t. LIII, paginas 89
    y siguientes. Buenos Aires, 1902.
    (3) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, El sepulcro de La Paya (i,, on Anales del lJTMseo N1-
    cional de Buenos Aires, t. VIII. (Serie 3.a t. I), pagina 128. Buenos Aires. 1902.
    (4) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, Exploraciones arqueoldoicas en la ciudad prehistdrica
    de La Paya' (Valle alchiaqei, Provincit de Silta), Facultad de Filosofia y Letras,
    Publicacionos de la secci6n antropol6gica, N.' 3, pagina 50. Buenos Aires, 1907.
    (5) BOMAN, ibid t. I. pl. VI.
    (0) CARLOS BRUCH, Exploraciones arqueold.jicas en las provincial de Tcculmdn y
    Cattanerca on Revista del Museo de La Plata, t. XIX, primer parte, (Setunda Serie,
    toeon VI), pagina, 99, Buenos Aires, 1913.


    de las que consignan los citados autores en sus respectivos
    Como dice Boman (1) estas puntas de flechas de hueso han
    sido fabricadas utilizando la parte central, cara anterior, de un
    metatarsiano de llama, cortado longitudinalmente y desgastado
    por frotamiento hasta obtener la forma deseada.
    En el ejemplar de Barreal (fig. 12) aparecen claramente las

    Fig. 12. 18792 1/,

    rayas o insiciones producidas por el frotamiento del hueso
    contra un objeto de mayor dureza.
    El largo de este ejemplar es de 130 mm, dimension que esta
    dentro de lo normal de los instruments anilogos conocidos
    hasta ahora.
    Ambrosetti sospech6 (2) que estos objetos dado su tamaiio
    y su peso mas que puntas de flechas sirvieron, enastados a un
    mango corto de madera, como dagas o puiiales. El descubri-
    miento de piezas completes nos permiten asegurar que fueron
    verdaderas puntas de flechas.
    Aguiar, de los 27 ejemplares que recogi6 en el valle de Ca-
    lingasta, cuatro hall6 completes es decir, colocados en sus
    respectivos Istiles (fig. 13). La seguridad y el ajuste perfect

    Fig. 13. Colecciun dol Museo de La Plata (Exp. Aguiar, N. 58) '/3

    de la flecha al astil se obtuvieron uniendo ambas parties con
    resina y luego atandolas con nervios de guanaco.
    Como todos los stiles estan quebrados, es impossible deter-
    minar su exacta longitud, pero teniendo en cuenta la dimen-
    si6n de los arcos, uno de los cuales esta complete, y la rela-
    ci6n que existe entire este y las flechas, calculamos en un

    (1) BOMAN, ibid. pagina 235.
    (2) AMBROSETTI, El sepulcro de la Ptay p ggina 128.


    metro aproximadamente la longitud del astil con su correspon-
    diente punta.
    En la colecci6n del professor Lafone Quevedo, depositada en
    el Museo de La Plata, se encuentran 8 ejemplares anAlogos
    al que hemos descripto. Sus dimensions oscilan entire 80 y

    Fig. 14. Colecci6n del Museo de La Plata (Exp. Aguiar) '/

    125 mm. y proceden todos de los alrededores de Andalgala
    (Catamarca). Bruch recogi6 no menos de 150 fragments de
    huesos largos partidos y tallados, correspondientes a puntas
    de flechas inconclusas o destruidas. Dicho material procede de
    localidades distintas de la provincia de Catamarca y TucumAn.



    Ultimamente ingresaron a las colecciones del Museo de La
    Plata 8 ejemplares analogos, procedentes del valle de Yocavil
    habiendo sido reunidas por don Segundo Salvatierra y se
    hallan catalogados bajo los ndimeros 6115 a 6122.
    Entre las series coleccionadas por Aguiar se encuentran
    arcos y flechas en abundancia: entire otros, un arco bastante
    bien conservado, con la particularidad de estar decorado con
    una double guard geometrica, incisa, continue, que corre a lo
    largo de las superficies laterales del arco. Como puede verse
    en la (fig. 14) esta simplisima decoracion esta constituida
    por tres lines paralelas dispuestas en zig zag. Algunos de los
    stiles de la misma colecci6n tienen, como decoraci6n, incisa
    una linea quebrada continue.
    En conclusion: a diferencia de las puntas de flechas de silice
    que, por sus caricteres geherales, responded a los tipos pata-
    g6nicos conocidos, las de hueso, exhumadas en la region que
    nos ocupa, son franca y definidamente de tipo diaguito-calchaqui.

    b) punzones y topos.
    Tambien estos objetos fueron fabricados con los huesos lar-
    gos de llamas y guanacos. En nuestras colecciones de Barreal
    tenemos un ejemplar de cada naturaleza.

    Fig. 13. 18786 '/2 Fig. 16- 1882- /I

    El que Ileva el nimero 18786 (fig. 15) es un punz6n afi-
    lado, en bastante mal estado de conservacidn; tiene 95 mnm.
    de longitud y su fabricaci6n se hizo usando el mismo pro-
    cedimiento de frotaci6n que para las puntas de flechas.
    El representado en la (fig. 16) es el extreme inferior de
    un topo de hueso, objeto de uso personal muy difundido en
    todas las provincias andinas.

    Objetos de cobre

    Pinza depilatoria.
    En las excavaciones de Barreal s6lo un ejemplar de cobre
    hemos hallado. Es un fragmento mal conservado de una pinza


    depilatoria, (fig. 17) de forma conocida, raz6n por la cual
    no insistimos mayormente. Tiene 27 mm. de
    Ambrosetti ha reunido el mayor nfmero
    de datos sobre pinzas (1). En La Paya (2)
    fueron descubiertos con relative abundancia
    en algunas tumbas.
    Fig. 17. 18823 2/
    El uso de este utensilio estuvo muy gene-
    ralizado en todas las regions donde se dej6 sentir la influen-
    cia de la cultural diaguito-calchaqui.


    Como hemos tenido oportunidad de decir, los fragments de
    ceramica son abundantes, en general, y especialmente en los
    campos situados al este de Barreal.

    Fig. 18. 18789 2/,

    Son groseros, bien cocidos, rojos, espesos y por lo comin
    presentan caracteres muy primitivos y de remota antigiiedad.
    Tienen un fuerte desgaste de las aristas y en muchas ocasio-
    nes adquieren aspect de rodados pulidos. La decoraci6n de
    estos fragments esta constituida por lines rectas que se en-
    trecortan, adquiriendo, en conjunto, aspect de reticulados mas
    o menos espesos. Otros presentan decoraci6n de puntos practi-
    cados por presi6n, distribuidos segdn una linea recta y sepa-
    rados entire si por distancias que nunca sobrepasan de 5 mm.
    Entre los fragments decorados recogidos, puede citarse el
    que lleva el ndimero 18789 (fig. 18). Es la parte media

    (1) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, El bronze en la re lidn calchaqui, en Anales del Museo
    NTcional de Buenos Aires, t. XI, (Serle III, tomo IV) p8gina 231, Buenos Aires 1905.
    (2) AMBROSETTI, Exploracione., etc. paigina 426.


    del cuello de un vaso de fondo c6nico, dpodo o aryballo.
    Fud extraido, como ya se dijo, durante una excavaci6n practi-
    cada debajo de uno de los monticulos de piedra que se en-
    cuentran en las inmediaciones de las tamberias de Barreal o
    < Casa del Inca >.
    La decoracion consiste en una double guard de rombos en-
    cadenados, limitados entire lines paralelas que gira en torno
    del cuello. La guard superior ha sido trazada utilizando color
    negro; la inferior, rojo. El fondo sobre el cual se traz6 este
    decorado es blanco.
    Este caracter no es muy comfin en la cerdmica de la region
    diaguito calchaqui. Sin embargo, en repetidas ocasiones se han
    lallado vasos cuya decoraci6n fue trazada sobre la superficie
    previamente recubierta con pintura blanca. Parece que la zona
    de estos encuentros esta en la region de Santa Maria y valle
    de Yocavil (1). En los museos argentinos, como tambien en el
    Museum fiur Volkerkunde, de Berlin, existen buenos y raros
    ejemplares. Pero, con todo ello, los valles preandinos de la
    provincia de San Juan han dado los mejores vasos con este
    caracter ornamental. La coleccion recogida por Aguiar en los
    citados valles, existente en el Museo de La Plata, present
    series muy buenas y numerosas.
    El fragmento que nos ocupa tiene 46 mm. de altura, es de
    pasta fina, homogenea y bien cocida; los colors uniforms,
    bien distribuidos, en perfect estado de conservaci6n y el
    color originario de la alfareria, rojizo amarillento.
    La decoraci6n es la comtin en los vasos de esta naturaleza,
    llamados comninmente de Atipo Cuzco>>.
    Sospechamos que no sea un product local y su presencia
    indicaria, a nuestro modo de ver, un contact o comercio con
    los pueblos situados al otro lado de la cordillera andina (2),
    donde, considerando los datos que poseemos, ceramica ana-
    loga a esta ha sido hallada con relative profusion. Por otra
    parte estas correlaciones no se explican de otra manera sino
    aceptando en general un intercambio active entire los pueblos
    de ambas vertientes de la cordillera.

    (1) JUAN B. AMBROSETTI, Los plates pintad 0os de Srojo sore banco dl relvalle rde
    Yocavil, en Antdes del Museo XNacionml die Buenos Aires, t. IX (Serie 3.' t. II), pmgi-
    nas 357 a 369. Buenos Aires, 1903.
    (2) OYARZiSN, ibid. paginas 10 y siguiontes.


    Creemos que se trata de alfarerias ex6ticas en territorio
    argentino, aunque su hallazgo es bastante frecuente, tanto en
    los cementerios como en las viviendas prehispanicas (1).
    Otro fragmento no desprovisto de interns es el representado
    en la figure 19 recogido en el campo de las tosco, de pasta muy cargada de mica y pequefios rodados de
    cuarzo; habiendo sido la cocci6n perfect ha adquirido fuerte
    consistencia. Su color es grisaceo y la decoraci6n consiste en li-

    9'"'" *

    Fig. 19. 18787 /

    neas paralelas, incisas y regularmente anchas, trazadas con un
    instrument de punta roma. eS trata, posiblemente, de un frag-
    mento de olla de uso comfin. Decorados de esta naturaleza se
    han encontrado en la ceramic de la region diaguito calchaqui
    con relative frecuencia y especialmente en la de color negro
    o gris.


    Dos leguas, mas o menos, al sur de Barreal, costeando a
    media altura los inmensos conos de deyecci6n, que se ex-
    tienden al pie de las vertientes de las precordilleras, se
    hallan los petroglifos. El lugar es conocido bajo el nombre de
    las Piedras Pintadas. El camino del Inca, siguiendo rumbo
    de norte a sur, atraviesa por aquel paraje, cortando casi per-
    pendicularmente la linea de Fasperas rocas que afloran, y en
    cuyas superficies se encuentran esculpidos los petroglifos.

    (1) Do una vivienda del Pucara de Tilcara, provincia de Jujuy, se extrajo un
    procioso vaso de esta naturaleza quo, por las particularidades que rodeaban el ha-
    llazgo, debo inferirse queo se trata do un objeto de especial veneraci6n.


    Kiihn, los estudi6 y public en 1914 (1) con copiosas y acer-
    tadas observaciones.
    Cree este autor, y esta en lo cierto, que en los petroglifos
    de Barreal, deben distinguirse dos 6pocas. (2) Una remota y otra
    modern. En los petroglifos de la primer epoca predominan
    las figures conocidas en today la region diaguito calchaqui; en
    los de la segunda las figures convencionales de la religion
    cristiana: representaciones de cruces aisladas o agrupadas como
    si se hubiera querido representar un calvario, iniciales, marcas
    de propiedad para el ganado mayor u otras figures caprichosas.
    Estos son ejecutados mais torpemente que los anteriores, sin
    m6todo y en algunos casos los modernos artists han preten-
    dido imitar los antiguos models, pero sin exito. La obtenci6n
    de los petroglifos se ha efectuado golpeando con una piedra
    dura la superficie del pefiasco. En uno de estos hemos encon-
    trado, olvidada, tal vez, la piedra que sirvi6 para la ejecuci6n
    del petroglifo.
    En general, se puede afirmar, que las figures representadas
    lo han sido aisladamente, es decir independientemente unas de
    otras. En los pefiascos grandes se encuentran agrupadas pero
    en los pequefios se encuentran sueltas. Presentamos una series
    de las figures halladas en estas condiciones. (fig. 20).
    Como podra verse, no presentan novedad alguna por ningfin
    caricter y por lo tanto los petroglifos de Barreal, hay que re-
    ferirlos a los conocidos de la region diaguito calchaqui. Pueden,
    por otra parte, soportar una comparaci6n con los descubiertos
    y descriptos por Barros Grez, en Chile, en Cauquenes (3) y por
    Moreno, en el Bajo de Canota, Mendoza (4). Ademas, son seme.
    jantes al de la Quebrada Colorada, Rio del Zanj6n, Mendoza, cuyo
    calco se encuentra entire las colecciones del Museo de la Plata.
    No insistiremos mayormente sobre estos petroglifos por cuanto
    Kthn, ha dado las mis abundantes noticias sobre ellos en su
    citado trabajo.

    (1) KeCH ibil., loe, cit.
    (2) KI EN, ibid. pig. 14.
    (3) DANIEL BARROS GREZ, Nofte on the prPhistoric, picto.lraphic, ;ero l)raljhic
    wr'itings and !ieroplasts of the ancient people of the southern hemis'pheire of the new
    vorld. Valparaiso, 1903.
    (4) FRANCISCO P. MORENO, E.,'jlloracida ci'qeold fiea de li, prouinci m de Cotltumarcit,
    >on Ieviis.ta del Museo de la Plata, t. I, pagbin, 20S. La Plata, 1890-91.


    Agregaremos, sin'embargo, que los petroglifos de la series
    modern, son ejecutados en los ratos de ocio por los rarisimos
    pastores y leilateros que llegan a aquel desemparado paraje.
    Sobre la antigtiedad de los petroglifos es much lo que se
    ha escrito, pero es opinion general que datan de una epoca
    remota en AmBrica. En los que se encuentran en la region
    diaguito calchaqui, estdn representados, en general, los mismos
    simbolos, las mismas figures que aparecen en la ceramica. Esto

    Fig. 20. Potroglifos aislados que so encuontran on Barreal, grabados sobre
    piodras dispersas.

    si bien no prueba la contemporaneidad de las figures grabadas
    en las piedras y las de las alfarerias, demuestra una correla-
    ci6n entire ambas que conviene no perder de vista. Es possible
    que los pueblos que poseyeron esa rica y variada ceramica que en
    muchas ocasiones causa admiraci6n, sean los continuadores de
    los que grabaron en las piedras los extrafios simbolos que
    se encuentran diseminados en aquellas regions de los valles
    preandinos. Si los petroglifos representan, como sostiene la
    mayoria de los autores una faz, un moment de un culto ar-
    caico, tendremos que admitir que las mismas figures que apa-
    recen luego en la alfareria, son una supervivencia del viejo


    culto, cuyas huellas estarian visible en aquellos. Verdadera-
    mente no hay hasta ahora una prueba que satisfaga en abso-
    luto, pero lo que a todas luces es evidence es la correlaci6n
    de figures y simbolos entire los de los petroglifos y los de la
    alfareria, como tambi6n la aproximada unidad de caracteres
    entire los petroglifos conocidos en nuestras regions del noroeste
    y los que se encuentran en Chile. (1)


    El cono de deyecci6n donde se encuentran los petroglifos
    que acabamos de ver, estd atravesado por un camino conocido
    en la comarca como contemporaneo de los incas. La gente
    lugarefia cuenta, como unica prueba para sostener esta creen-
    cia, la tradici6n.
    Tal camino es, sin duda alguna, un resto de una vieja senda
    muy trillada. Actualmente su ancho es de 2 metros, lo sufi-
    ciente, por lo tanto, para dar paso cnmodo a un carro de tro-
    cha comin. En algunos sitios estd limpio, despojado de today
    piedra; en otros conserve su primitive aspereza. La ejecucidn
    de esta senda se realize desmontando los tupidos jarillales y
    retamales que cubren las saves laderas de los cerros. La
    vegetaci6n no ha vuelto a crecer.
    En algunos lugares parece tendido a cordel, en otros tuerce
    suavemente hacia un lado o hacia otro, pero la particularidad
    mas notable es que los que lo trazaron evitaron a todo trance las
    pendientes fuertes y lo apartaron de los faldeos asperos y
    Pocos transitan por aquel camino, reducido hoy a una send
    simple que comunica las pequehas localidades de la comarca
    con los raquiticos y dispersos montes concurridos s6lo por le-
    fiateros y pastores.
    El camino national, por razones inexplicables, pasa a muy
    corta distancia del <. En cambio, la line
    telegraifica corre, preferentemente, sobre la antigua y olvidada
    Sigue en general una direcci6n Norte Sur y su punto de
    arranque parece ser el valle de Uspallata. Desde aqui, y
    siempre en direccion al Norte, corre entire la sierra del Para-

    (1) AURELIANO OYARZCiN, Los jefrolif'os de Lliila, Santiago, 1910.


    millo y la precordillera. Pasa al este del paraje denominado
    Tambillos y penetrando en la provincia de San Juan por Yal-
    guaraz Ilega hasta Pituil (Barreal).
    A muy corta distancia del rio de los Patos y costeando la
    margen derecha, atraviesa los lugares conocidos con los nom-
    bres de Alto de Roman, Sorocayense e Hilario. Esquivando
    la actual poblaci6n de Calingasta cruza el rio San Juan pr6xi-
    mo a las juntas de los rios de los Patos y Castaiio. A corta
    distancia de aqui, un poco al Norte de Villa Corral, la traza
    del camino del Inca se borra del todo para reaparecer de nue-
    vo frente a Villa Nueva, en las vecindades del misero lugarejo
    laamado Tambillos, situado en medio de algunos cerros aislados
    y chatos que se levantan sobre la arida meseta; de alli se
    descuelgan algunos insignificantes hilos de agua, dificilmente
    utilizables, product de exiguas vertientes desparramadas en
    la comarca. Continuando al Norte el camino pasa por el de-
    samparado lugar llamado Crucesita y esquivando el Cerro Ne-
    gro lega a Iglesia para unirse un poco ins al Norte, en
    Campanario, con el camino carretero que baja de las minas de
    Gualilan, situadas entire Cerros Colorados y la sierra de la In-
    vernada. DespuBs de cruzar el rio del Agua Negra, el camino
    del Inca, pasa a la derecha de la poblacion actual de Rodeo
    y llega a Colota para border desde alli el rio de Jachal por
    su margen izquierda. Atraviesa el paraje conocido por los
    Quillais, cruza la antigua poblaci6n en ruinas de Angualasto,
    trasmonta el Portezuelo de las Pefias y despues de describir
    algunas curvas amplias, se pierde en el paraje llamado Fierro,
    situado pr6ximo a un pequefio arroyo, afluente del rio de la
    Sal. Desde aqui, en adelante, el camino se borra totalmente.
    Hacemos notar que el camino del Inca, cuyo recorrido aca-
    bamos de seguir en un trayecto de 370 kil6metros, solo las
    parties comprendidas entire Yalguaraz y Villa Corral y Tambillos
    y Campanario estan visible como sendas antiguas.
    Los trayectos restantes son actuales caminos carreteros y es
    possible que tambidn hayan sido pedazos de la antigua ruta.
    En algunos casos, sobre el camino del Inca, han venido a em-
    palmar carreteras nuevas.
    Bajo estas condiciones, el camino del Inca, en sus parties
    mas trajinadas se mantiene limpio pero las necesidades del
    transito no han permitido que se conservara en su primitive
    y caracteristica direcci6n.


    Siguiendo el trazado de la ruta en cuesti6n observamos que,
    en general, pasa a corta distancia de los lugares donde ain
    se ven vestigios de la vida indigena. A veces corta y divide
    las ruinas mismas de poblaciones abandonadas, como sucede
    en Alto de Roman, Los Pozos y Angualasto. Sin embargo no
    estamos en condiciones de afirmar categ6ricamente que el cami-
    no que atraviesa estas dos iltimas poblaciones sea el del Inca.
    En las varias jornadas que anduvimos por esta antigua senda,
    s6lo una vez hallamos petroglifos: fu6 en las vecindades de
    Barreal y a ellos hemos hecho referencia en el paragrafo
    anterior. Aun cuando en su recorrido existen various lugares
    o localidades conocidos por los nombres de Tambos, Tam-
    billos o Tamberias, en realidad s61o una vez hemos podido hallar
    uno que merezca tal nombre, en el sentido, se entiende, que
    tuvieron los tambos en los tiempos precolombinos y alin en
    los posteriores. De tal carActer son las tamberias o casa del
    Inca construcciones caracteristicas de piedra, que se encuen-
    tran al note de Barreal.
    Se ve, por lo tanto, que el camino del Inca en su largo
    recorrido al trav6s de los valles preandinos de la provincial
    de San Juan, carece de aquellas condiciones propias sobre las
    cuales insisted los cronistas y que caracterizaron las rutas in-
    digenas antiguas.
    Max Uhle, (1) entire las pruebas aducidas para probar la
    dominaci6n incaica en las regions que constituyen el antiguo
    Tucuman, menciona la existencia de su apariencia id6nticos a los que se ven en muchas parties del
    Peri u.
    Lafone Quevedo, basado en las noticias precisas que nos ha
    dejado Matienzo (2) establece que tres eran los caminos im-
    portantes que unian ,la ciudad del Cuzco con el Tucuman y
    Chile pero ninguno de ellos pasaba precisamente por los va-
    lles que estudiamos (3).
    Restos de viejas sendas y caminos, trazados con mayor o
    menor esmero, se ven con harta frecuencia en toda la zona de
    nuestro noroeste y todos son atribuidos a los incas. Posible-

    (1) MAX UHLE, Las relaciones prehistoricas entire el Pern' y la Argentina, en Actas
    del XVII Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, pagina 538. Buenos Aires, 1912.
    (2) LICENCIADO DON JUAN MATIENZO, Gobierno del Perl, pagina 184. Buenos
    Aires, 1910.
    (3) LAFONE QUEVEDO, Tipos de alfareie etc., pigina 312.
    AnT. oui1. nxx 7


    mente muchos datan de una 6poca anterior a la que fu6 direc-
    tamente influida por los incas, otros son tal vez contemporA-
    neos y muchos son posteriores.
    El que nos ocupa podria ser una ampliaci6n de una senda
    antigua pero creemos oportuno hacer las siguientes considera-
    ciones cuyas consecuencias no alteran los resultados finales.
    Sabemos que las relaciones comerciales mantenidas entire
    los pueblos precolombinos se efectuaban utilizando recuas de
    llamas, animals, que, aunque resistentes para soportar las
    inclemencias naturales de las l1amadas travesias, no marchaban
    mAs de cuatro leguas por jornada, raz6n que obligaba a tener
    bien dispuesto el sistema de tambos, o posadas, a lo largo del
    camino (1).
    Si asi hubiera sucedido sobre la ruta que estudiamos, los
    vestigios de estas construcciones habrian quedado como han
    quedado los de tantas otras. Sin embargo no es asi y fuera
    de las tamberias de Barreal no se encuentra ning6n otro ves-
    tigio en trayectos que a veces son de 30 6 35 leguas, lo cual
    supone un termino medio de 8 jornadas de viajes en los tiempos
    precolombinos por regions en absolute exentas de recursos.
    El indio, .por otra parte, tan prActico como conocedor del
    terreno, no gast6 sus energies en obras que no representaran
    para 61 una utilidad a la vez que una seguridad. En este sen-
    tido habria trazado el camino pr6ximo a lugares que le ofre-
    cieran cierta comodidad en sus largas marchas y no esquivan-
    dolos, como parece que ha ocurrido.
    La vegetaci6n raquitica y rara de la comarca que atraviesa
    el camino del Inca no constituia un inconvenient insalvable
    para las tropas de llamas. Es tal la naturaleza del terreno y
    las condiciones de ambiente que se podia y se puede adn
    marchar en cualquier direcci6n sin tropezar con obstAculos
    grandes. No habia, pues, necesidad ni motive para trazar un
    camino de una trocha constant de 2 metros.
    No hay una verdadera correlaci6n entire los caracteres de los
    caminos indigenas descritos por Ovalle y los que presentan el
    que estudiamos. Especialmente no coinciden las dimensions.
    Para este historiador el camino tenia 25 pies de anchura.
    La traza del que adn hoy se conserve no pasa de 2 metros (2).

    (1) MATIENZO, ibid. pagina 184.
    (2) OVALLE, Histdrica relacidondel reino de Chile, t. I, pigina 28, Roma DDCXLVI.


    Estas son las razones principles que damos para negar que
    se trate de un camino incaico es decir de una construcci6n
    efectuada en tiempo de los incas. Posiblemente es una vieja
    senda indigena ampliada hasta darle los caracteres que tiene
    En mi viaje efectuado en los meses de verano de 1916 a los
    valles occidentales de la provincia de La Rioja tuve oportuni-
    dad de seguir el trazado de un viejo camino con particula-
    ridades iguales al del Inca, de la provincia de San Juan. Dicho
    camino, descendiendo por la quebrada del Carrizal penetra en el
    valle de Guandacol y lo atraviesa en direcci6n al noreste, cortan-
    dose aqui, borrandose alld, hasta la quebrada de Guasamayo
    situada en la cadena de montarfas que divide el valle de Guan-
    dacol del de Vinchina. Hacemos notar que este camino, pone
    en comunicaci6n dos antiguas tamberias indigenas en el men-
    cionado valle: la de Guandacol y otra sin nombre situada a
    cuatro leguas al este de Cosco y a igual distancia, al sud, de
    la quebrada de Maz que es otro paso que vincula los valleys
    de Guandacol y Vinchina. En ningiin moment el camino de
    referencia recibe el nombre de ,incax> pero vuelve a reapare-
    cer, como senda estrecha, dificilmente transitable y ya bajo
    la denominaci6n de tales del macizo del Famatina.
    En las alturas del nevado, antes de llegar al portezuelo del
    Tocino, por donde hoy pasa el camino national, el camino del
    Inca toma resueltamente el rumbo norte, recorriendo las tor-
    tuosas y Asperas cumbres de la serrania para ir en demand del
    valle de Tinogasta. En esta region no me ha sido possible se-
    guirlo. Si por alli pas6, sus huellas se han borrado en absolute.
    Vemos, pues, que estamos en condiciones de determinar con
    much probabilidad el trazado de una antigua send, que ne-
    cesidades urgentes habrAn podido modificar en detalles pero
    que en su primitive traza existe.
    Sea que fuera obra de los incas o no lo que es innegable
    es que aquella senda por donde hoy raros viajeros traginan,
    es la misma que en los tiempos precolombinos estableci6 evi-
    dentes relaciones entire los pueblos aislados y perdidos de
    nuestras montafias del noroeste.