1977 excavations of the de Mesa Sanchez house interior

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1977 excavations of the de Mesa Sanchez house interior
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Deagan, Kathleen
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University of Florida
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1977 Excavations of the de Mesa Sanchez House Interior Kathleen Deagan Florida State University July 1978 2048 '" .,

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Contents Introduction Methodology House Interior Excavations (by James R. Jones III) Process of Floor Deposition Pre-De Mesa Stage Stage 1: De Mesa Stage 2: British Period Stage 3: Sanchez Stage 4: Modern Summary References Appendix 1: Faunal Remains from the De Mesa House Appendix 2: Provenience -TPQ Guide

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List of Figures 1. Location of the de Mesa-Sanchez site 2. Locations of the 1977 excavation units 3. Location of Profile transects 4. Profile transect composite -East-West 5. Profile transect composite -North-South 6. Stage 1 Floor plan and features 7. Stage 2 Floor plan and features 8. Stage 3 Floor plan and features 9. Composite location of all features 10. Rocque (1788) house floor plan 11. Current floor plan configuration

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List of Tables (r 1. Floors and features 1977 House Interior Excavations 2. Ceramics in Room 101, Trench A 3. Ceramics in Room 101, Trench B 4. Ceramics in Room 102, Trench C and Room 103, Trench D 5. Ceramics in Room 104, Trench A 6. Ceramics in Room 105, Trench E 7. Ceramics in Room 107 8. Ceramics in Room 110, Trench I

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INTRODUCTION The excavation of the De Mesa Sanchez site (SA-7-6; Spanish Inn) (Figure 1) took place from March through September of 1977, under a grant from the National Park Service. The work was done by the Florida State University Field School under the direction of the author, in conjunction with the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board. Field supervision was done by James R. Jones III, graduate student at Florida State University Anthropology Department. The De Mesa Sanchez excavation offered a unique opportunity to excavate both the back lot area, and the interior of a standing colonial structure. In this way the complete range of activity on the site could be archeologically documented; placing the architectural evolution of the structure itself in a behavioral context. The 1977 season excavations included the colonial back lot area; the courtyard of the present building, and trenches inside the structure (see Figure 2). Subsequent work to answer certain architectural questions from the 1977 season was carried out inside the present structure from October 1977 to April of 1978. These excavations were done by the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, supervised by John Bostwick. The data from the 1978 season will be partially incorporated into this report when possible; however the 1978 report is currently in preparation and should be referred to for additional information about the house interior.

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ST. AUGUS'l'INE ca. 1764 (after Puente 1764) FIGURE 1 Location of SA-7-6 '1,

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The 1977 investigations had three primary goals: 1. The determination of the evolution of the De Mesa Sanchez house architecture, including the sequence and dating of floor plans and construction features. 2. The determination of lot element patterning through time 3. the determination of the dietary and material patterning associated with a lower-middle income criollo household (See Jones 1978) in order to better understand how the range of economic variability was managed within the criollo ethnic group. This report will concentrate on the first of the above goals; and Jones (1978) (MA thesis, FSU, in prep) should be consulted for the back lot excavation results and assessment of cultural and material patterning. Historical background data can be found in the historian's report (Scardaville, 1978 in prep); and zooarcheological analyses will be found in Reitz (1978; Appendix 1 of the report) and more completely in Jones (1978). This report will deal primarily with architectural data, rather than with material culture analysis. The non architectural material remains excavated from the house interior are secondary deposits, brought in as levelling material from an unknown source. For this reason, this material cannot be used to gain sight into the De Mesa/Sanchez occupation and cultural behavior. These issues are treated by Jones (1978) using

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the in situ primary deposits from the lot areas outside the house. Nineteen, five day work weeks were invested in the excavation of the De Mesa Sanchez site, for a total of 95 days or 665 work hours. Crews of from five to seven students worked on the site for 65 work days; and a crew of 12-14 students worked on the site for 30 work days (this was due to the structure of the FSU Field School, from which the crews were drawn). Methodology and Controls (by James R. Jones III) On the first day of the Spring excavation, horizontal and vertical controls were established over the backyard of the site. A 1976 survey of the Old Spanish Inn property had fixed two permanent metal pipes at the north and south ends of the east line of the property (where the backyard ends), and a key stake was placed in the center of the line. A temporary transit station was set over the southwest corner of this stake, and stakes were set in at 3 meter intervals along this line, establishing it as the grid meridian, and grid north. It was determined that this line was 8 degrees 39 minutes east of magnetic north. The key stake was then tied in to the southeast corner of the east wall of the Old Spanish courtyard, from which it was exactly 21.89 meters distant at an angle of 237 degrees 26 minutes east of magnetic north. This stake was arbitrarily designated 100NlOOE, in order to allow sufficient number of squares to be set up over the entire site using a modified Chicago

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grid system. The transit was then turned 90 degrees west of the meridian, and a baseline was set up, running over the backyard and through a door in the courtyard's east wall, where a secondary key stake was set up for later reference for the courtyard excavations. All stakes were set in at three meter intervals, or multiples thereof, throughout the backyard and the courtyard. Vertical control was established by fixing a datum chipped and marked onto the northeast corner of the doorway in the east courtyard wall. The datum was tied in with an area of known elevation above MSL, in the doorway of the Monk's Vineyard, a restaurant in St. George Street, opposite the Old Spanish Inn. The datum plane was 3.66 meters above mean sea level (MMSL). All vertical measurements were taken from this point downward, either in meters below datum (MBD) or direct MMSL (within the house). All of these measurements, however, were converted to MMSL for this report. Excavation units were three meter squares, those within the courtyard were meters by 3 meters (or parts thereof), and those within the house were 0.75 meter wide "trenches of various lengths. Outside excavation units were designated by the coordinates of the southwest stake of the square. Inside units were designated by trench letters (A-I). Horizontal measurements were taken from two adjoining sides of the trenches or squares, and, in the case of the squares, were based upon the southwest corner of the southwest stake. All measurements were made in meters or centimeters.

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Three 3 meter squares were excavated in the backyard of the lot: Square 100N97E, Square 100N82E (excavated in two by 3m. units), and Square 97N88E, (see Fig. 2). These were selected in order to representatively sample the backyard for backlot structures of the De MesaStout-Sanchez house occupations. Four squares of various sizes were opened inside the courtyard area, to test for backlot structures and foundation structures in the area where the house's loggia should have been. Square 97N67E ( m. by 3m.), Square 92.5N68E by 1.39m. to allow for the south wall of the house). Nine trenches were excavated inside the Old Spanish Inn, in order to test for foundations, floors, and other building structures found beneath the present rooms of the house, in order to determine the evolution of the house and its different occupations through time. The width of these trenches was 0.75m., a convenient size to fit between doorways, and the lengths were determined by the dimensions of the present-day rooms. Excavation of Square 100N97E and the west half of Square 100N82E was performed by arbitrary 15 centimeter levels, or less if a heavy concentration of features were encountered, in order to learn the stratigraphy of the site. After this, however, all squares were dug by natural strata, in 10 centimeter levels, again stopping when a large number of features was encountered at approximately the same elevation. l5cm. balks were kept inside each side of the square, for later profiling.

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All proveniences were carefully excavated with the usual shovels and trowels, and all artifacts found within then were bagged seperately and by provenience and assigned a field specimen (FS) number. Artifactual, faunal, and organic material from the same proveniences was bagged seperately, and each provenience was given a seperate, consecutive F.S. number. Each F.S. bag was labelled with site number, square number, provenience letter or number, F.S. number, and bag number, and all of this information plus top and bottom elevations was carefully maintained in an F.S. catalog. Much of this data was also recorded in the field notebooks. All proveniences, features, and profiles were mapped, the maps being continually revised and kept current in the field. Photographs of all features, profiles, and other important proveniences were made in duplicate, in black and white color. In addition, general photos of the site, the excavation methods, and the crew were taken, to record the excavation of the site. Copious, redundant field notes were kept, in duplicate, every day, detailing crew members and assigned jobs, summaries mf all work done, methods excavations, complete data on all proveniences, sketches of features, etc. Each day, one person was assigned to the field laboratory, where he or she analyzed, classified, and cataloged the artifacts and organic material F.S. by F.S. Faunal material was set aside, to later be sent to the Florida State Museum, University of Florida for All proveniences were water-screened through a inch screen, which allowed recovery of even the smallest faunal and floral material, f

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4J o-o-, ,1 0 I4 ___ Ij 61 2 <{ q

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reduced abrasion of artifacts and the screen, gave the artifacts a good first cleaning, and sometimes kept certain crew members cool towards the end of a hot working day. All field notebooks, maps, recording forms, analysis cords, and photographs are filed at the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, St. Augustine, Florida. Duplicates are located at the Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. House Interior Excavations The excavations inside the De Mesa-Sanchez House revealed at least 4 stages of construction and evolution in the house. This section will summarize the results of the interior work by evolutionary stages with the test explanations summarized and supplemented in the accompanying tables and figures. The reader is urged to refer to these figures and tables in this section. Figure 3 shows the locations of the composite profile sections. Figure 4 is a composite profile of the East-West transect through the house, while Figure 5 is a north-south transect. Figures 6-9 show the stages of house evolution as it is indicated by the 1977 excavations. All floors and features (with a single exception discussed below) are accounted for in these figures, and the location of all excavated features is shown in Figure 10. Table I summarizes in chart floors and features associated with each activity stage on the site, with mmsl elevations listed.

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Tables 2-8 show the distribution of ceramics by provenience in each trench of each room. While material from the tables is extracted and summarized in the text, the reader should refer to them for additional detail. Floors and features were grouped by, and included in evolutionary stages by the following criteria: 1). similar above sea level elevation 2). similar construction methods 3). relationships between floors and footings 4). terminus post quem provided by artifacts in material beneath floors. Only two features encountered during the 1971 season are not accounted for, and cannot be included in any stage by virtue of the above criteria. These are a clay floor found at the lowest level of Trench A, Room 104. This feature was at an elevation of 2.14 mmsl and does not correspond to any other features in the house. The second anomalous feature was designated as Floor tiD"; an irregular layer of coquina debris in Rooms 105, 102, and 107 (see Wigure 4). In profile and upon inspection of their physical composition, these areas are strongly indicated to be areas of masonry trimming and construction debris. All occur at elevations below the earliest grade at the site (represented by the top of the De Mesa stage oyster shell footings). These chipping areas range from 2.07 -2.13 mmsl.

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Process of Floor Deposition The stratigraphic situation encountered in the house interior was somewhat irregular and inconsistent from room to room. Basically, earth was spread on the existing grade to provide a level surface at the desired elevation, and prepared tabby was poured on this surface. This resulted in a series of alternating layers of earth and tabby flooring. The earth is believed to have been taken from the back area of the house, since it is humic, artifact bearing and fauna bearing. This hypothesis is discussed and tested in Jones (1978). In any case, the earth underlying each floor contains artifacts which provide a terminus quem (date after which it must have been deposited) for the floor above. It should be noted that most of the tabby floors in the De Mesa Sanchez House (with the exception of Floor "B", the Sanchez Floor,) were of poor quality; broken in places and settled irregularly. This would increase the possibility of contamination of underlying deposits. Pre-De Mesa Stage Both the 1977 and 1978 seasons indicated the possib1ity of an earlier phase of activity than is represented by the De Mesa-Sanchez House. Possible evidence for such a stage is provided by the clay floor surface in trench A of Room 101 and by several burials beneath the level of house construction. These were Christian Indian burials, encountered both in the back lot area (Jones 1978) and inside the structure (Bostwick, personal communication, 1978), and analyzed at Florida State University '1\

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(Gest 1977). These individuals are believed, on the basis of stratigraphic placement (beneath the earliest house level) and also on historical documentation of crown ownership and Fort labor sources (see historical report); to be Indians associated with Castillo construction activity during the 1670's. The site may therefore have functioned as a historic period Indian burial ground prior to its occupation by Spanish inhabitants. Stage 1 (Figure 6) Footings encountered during the 1977 season, which described the De Mesa structure include Features 28, 30, and 58. The extant west wall of the present structure is almost certainly sitting in the location of the de Mesa west wall as well. No evidence for floors inside this structure was recovered at the grade level (ca. 2.13 -2.23 mmsl) All of the lowest floors in this part of the house overlay deposits in elevation to later floors in other parts of the house, and are thus not associated with the De Mesa occupation. No interior dividing walls are believed to have been present at this earliest stage. Feature 29 (footing between rooms 102/103) was obviously added after the exterior de Mesa walls were built, although the exact date is uncertain. The later construction of Feature 29 is shown by the nature of its juncture to the west De Mesa footing. This is either a very late 1st Spanish period, or a British period wall. Floor "c" in both room 103 is poured to but not across the

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F30 K\TC\4E:N? I B I I OWELL '. ::<:' TAe"e,y I ::..I=LOOR..... -.J .. ...LJNO FLOOR COURTYARD .. :.-.......-.::(j) ... m -.. I o 7/78TAe,5,< FLOOW' I' ....I. .___ ---,-_ -_/ DEp,."GA..N : .... ... ..F .S9 :.:..... ::....:.::.> :.:": ::..': :': :.:::..r m Xl E XCAVATE-Den F OOT\NGS o \ 2. :3 J IF 25 FLOORI TABBY FLOOR \ \00 METRIC 1I (1=.2 6) (0) G ESCaVE:DO \ (DE.

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Feature 29 footing. Beneath this floor is soil containing 1st Spanish period ceramics plus a few creamware sherds (which could have been deposited as early as ca. 1755; (Deagan 1975), and the Second Spanish period floor "B" was poured over it. This data is interpreted here as indicating a British period affiliation for the Feature 29 wall; being constructed after De Mesa's occupation; and before 1788, at the same time that the tabby Escovedo House remains to the south were covered as the old De Mesa structure was expanded to the south. This is supported by: a). the creamware sherds under floor C in Room 103, 102 and 104. b). the discontinuity between Feature 29 and the west (standing wall) and (Feature 59) De Mesa walls c). The fact that a room described by Feature 28 (south de Mesa wall) and Feature 29 would only be 8'-10' wide, and would be far more approximate as a central entry room (as it would be if Feature 29 dates to the 2nd period of activity) as the south room of the house. In addition to the footings in the northwest section of the present structure, other evidence for the De Mesa occupation was encountered during the 1977 and 1978 seasons. The first of this evidence was tabby flooring found in rooms 105 and 107 (Fig. 6). These were floors in fairly good condition, overlaying only first Spanish period material. All were at elevations between 2.20 and 2.29 mms1. These are the earliest floors in this part of the site and seem certainly to date from De I ..

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Mesa's occupation (see Figure 4 for relationship between Floor "e" here, and the De Mesa wall footing) The most reasonable explanation for these floors with the present data is that they represent exterior loggia flooring. The east side of the structure was .the only possible area for a loggia, since the Escovedo house to the south, the Avero house to the north and St. George Street to the west would have preluded its placement on those sides. The 1978 excavation data will be needed to test or expand this explanation. The 1978 season revealed features and floors to the east of the De Mesa structure, which suggests a garden wall and a kitchen. Feature 60 is an oyster shell wall footing under the present north walls of Rooms 106 and 108. This footing abutts Feature 30 (north wall of De Mesa structure and present Room 103) at the exterior northeast corner of Room 103. Feature 60 is 10 cm. higher in top elevation than Feature 30 (230 mmsl) and is believed to have been added to the already described De Mesa structure during the First Spanish period (Bostwick, personal communication 1978). Feature 60 entends from the northeast exterior corner of Room 103, along the north side of Room 108. At 1.45 meters west of Room 108's east wall, Feature 60 ends, and is abutted at right angles by Feature 67: This is a north to south shell wall footing (top: 2.21 mmsl) extending across Room 108, up to Feature 60. It is also poured up to a continuation of Feature 60, extending east, but seperated by a stacked jOint from Feature 68 (Bostwick, personal communication 1978). The wall footing was designated Feature 68 (top: 2.19 mmsl) Features 67 and 68 are beleived to be a De Mesa garden wall along the north lot line while Features 67 and 68 are beleived to describe the

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west and north de Mesa kitchen walls respectively. Feature 68 extends to the east for an unknown distance into Room 110, and the report from the 1978 season should do much to clarify this situation. The following evidence is offered to support the interpretation of these features. 1. The 1978 season trenched the entire area between Rooms 110 and 103. In this area, Feature 67 was the only N-S footing which could have dated to early periods of house construction. For this reason, it must represent the west wall of an outbuilding with the east wall at an unknown distance into Room 110. 2. Underlying the wall between Rooms 106 and 108 (which was a post1780 wall; Bostwick, personal communication, 1978) was a probable well pit, designated Feature 75 (top: 1.35). This obviously dates (by elevation and contents) to the earliest period of site occupancy. The position of the well between the house back wall and a kitchen is highly typical of hispanic St. Augustine lot patterning and supports the hypothesis that Features 67 and 68 represent a kitchen building. 3. To the west of Feature 67, no floors earlier than the Sanchez Floor "B" was encountered. Feature 67 itself is covered by Floor "D", which is poured over, but exactly to the west edge of Feature 67. Floor "D" is dated by elevation and underlying artifact materials to the second (British) stage of activity (Bostwick, personal communication, 1978). To the east of Feature 67, a tabby Floor "E" underlies Floor "Dn and was apparently poured while Feature 67 was standing. This is believed to have been a kitchen floor. This is the only De Mesa period

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floor along the north side of the house and extends an unknown distance into Room 110. Within the present De Mesa-Sanchez house and also the remains of the 18th century Escovedo tabby structure. These are represented in the 1977 data by Feature 25 (north wall of Escovedo) which extends east-west through all of rooms 101 and 104; by Feature 27 (top: 2.09 mmsl) (northsouth, dividing wall) and by Feature 26 (top: 2.19 mmsl) (tabby flooring in the west Escovedo room). Floor "D" (elevation 2.22 mmsl) a tabby floor in Trench A of Room 104 is also most likely associated with the Escovedo structure. Additional evidence for the Escovedo structure was recovered during the 1978 season and that report should be consulted for that data. Figure 6 summarizes the hypothesis layout of the lot at ca. 1750. Stage (Figure 7) ca. 1763-1780 British period Figure 7 shows those footings and floors associated with the second activity stage at the site (this is based on the assumption that the Feature 29 footing between 102/103; and the Floor e in both rooms were not a result of De Mesa's activity). This stage took place prior to 1788, when the Roque map was made, and prior to the laying of the Floor B (TPQ -1785). The ceramics underlying the floors associated with this stage suggest a British period affiliation, since all of them overlay deposits of creamware (ca. 1760). During this stage; Feature 29 was added ( a partition between 102/103) as discussed above, and Floors "e" in Rooms 103 and 102 were

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P R ESENT NW CORN E R OF B U\L Dlt--JG l (fl Gl m o Xl ffi :D m F.cC,O (NO F-L.O OR) TABS'( FLOOR (C) T"r.6V F lOO R (NO FL.OOR)(C) F S9 TI\&&'l (C) F 2 3t"'.A:::....::: :-:.: .: .. Y...A. :-.:., .. :.', '. TA.BBY FLOOR (C) F.06 PROBABLE 1 WOOOEN ,,'TC14eN? W/lt-.LL 0 TAe.e,y FLOOR I (D) o l SP-,.::] 7/ 7 8 T\LE D EA6A.N F. ::'6 PZZZ2I E:XCAVATED f=OQTI I'J G 5 N \.._ 2 :) I 1: (00 METRIC F\(!'U-RE 7 STA.,(E,E: 2 -:,TOU-r)

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laid. At the time Feature 28 (the former south wall of the De Mesa House) was still standing. This is strongly suggested by the nature of the floors adjacent to Feature 29 and 28. Floors e in rooms 103, 102, and 101 north of Feature 28; appears directly below the upper floor B; and in some instance is borded to it. Upon close inspection, however, it can be seen that the finished, worn surface of Floor "e" is present and intact; although in many places covered by Floor B. While Floor "B" is poured across the tops of Features 28 and 29; Floor e is poured to these footings, indicating that the wall were still standing during Floor "e" times. At the same time as the construction of Feature 29 and the laying of Floor e in 102/103 the tabby Escovedo House to the south was demolished, and the De Mesa-Sanchez house expanded to the south. This can be seen in the juncture of the present west wall of the structure's south half, with Feature 28 (former south wall of the De Mesa). The trench adjacent to the interior of the present room 101 west wall was excavated during the 1978 season. The information concerning juncture of wall footing and floors in this trench is from Bostwick (personal communications 1978) and the 1978 report should be consulted for further details. It is beleived that this Feature 28 wall was still standing at this time due to the fact that Floor e to the south; both came to the edge, but not across the top, of the feature. Although the Floor D in Room ,J101 to the south of Feature 28 is at a somewhat lower elevation that

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Floor C to the north; it was clearly poured after the demolition of Escovedo House; since it completely covered the footings of that structure. In ad4ition, it was also poured up to the edge of Feature 28 (That is not clearly shown in profile; but is quite apparent from a top view. Another piece of evidence for a British period date for this floor is the presence of a painted pearlware above the floor, and creamware underlying it. The 1977 work therefore described a three-room structure extending north-south along the present street face of the building. Floor evidence in other areas of the house suggest, however, that this does not describe the entire extent of the Stage 2 building. In Room 104 (to the east of Feature 23) a well preserved tabby floor was encountered at an elevation consistent with others in this stage. This also overlaid creamware. Other evidence for the British period occupation was recovered in the 1978 season, and the 1978 report should be consulted for that information. What was apparently an exerior floor, probably a loggia floor was encountered in Trench G of Room 107. This also was of consistent elevation and terminus post quem with other elements in Stage 2. This was a surface (Feature 38; top: 2.32 mmsl) paved with broken barrel tile and other ceramic debris, and covered with packed earth. This was seperated from what was the east wall of the structure by a distance of about 5 meters. Only earth was encountered in this space; which is close to the distance between the north room (103) and the kitchen (see below).

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Floor D in Room 108, discussed in the previous section was poured directly over and up to the west ,side of Feature 67. Apparently during this stage, the stone De Mesa kitchen was torn down, and a structure with a wooden west wall and a tabby floor (UD") was constructed. This is evident in the nature of the west edge of the poured floor D (Bostwick, personal communication 1978). There is no corresponding floor in the rest of Room 108, or in 106. The tile paving (Feature 38) corresponds both in elevation and location with this proposed wooden kitchen area, and is a likely location for an outside activity The configuration outlined in Figure 7 is suggested for the second stage. The 1978 season report should be consulted for further information. Stage 1 (Figure 8) ca. 1780 1900 Sanchez activity On the basis of the 1781 Roque map configuration of the structure (see historian's and architects reports; Figure 9); and also the presence of Floor "B" in all areas of the site except Room 100, a third construction stage is indicated (Figure 8). This activity would have taken place after 1785, since Floor "B" in all rooms overlays deposits containing hand painted pearlware (1785). In Room 107 only the latest dating item is a single sherd of mocha ware (1790). From the absence of artifacts dating to later than 1790 in any part of the house under Floor B, it is suggested that Floor B represents a late 18th or early 19th

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t.J I tD28 tlJ.J I f'lllru-If) 0 'lJ :t ItS Z ,......'1,. I w (f) U UJ rO ro Ili C\l (i 0: t1J 1If) :1. :r 4.... Cl ri{9
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century activity, and the house at that time exhibited much the same floor plan that it does today. A seperate kitchen was present to the east of the house in what is today Room 110. The west wall of the kitchen is represented by Feature 35, a north-south wall footing at 2 meters east of the east wall of Room 107. To the east of Feature 35, a single floor remnant was encountered, designated Feature 32 (top: 2.13 mmsl). This was a hard packed earth layer with a greasy texture, which contained sherds of painted pearlware (1785). The area between Feature 35 and the east wall of the house contained primarily 1st Spanish period deposits, while the areas to the east of Feature 35 all contained materials dating to 1785 -1790, suggesting that this area was primarily a Stage 3 activity area. In addition to the kitchen in the Room 110 area, the loggia area represents another change from Stage 2 to Stage 3. The tile paved loggia area suggested for the Stage 2 activity, probably remained as a loggia (on the south wall of Room 107) during Stage 3, but was resurfaced with the same flooring material as the house interior. Feature 23, the wall dividing rooms 101 and 107 was also added at this time, and the present room 106 was enclosed. Stage 4 post 1905 Modern' The fourth and final stage of activity on the site is represented by Floor A, a modern cement floor present in all parts of the extant building. This stage, which occured after 1905 (based on the presence

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o-to o z D T Iet J o u o

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of a 1905 nickel under Floor A -(Bostwick, personal communication, 1978), but invloved not only the laying of floor A, but also the incorporation of the seperate kitchen into the present structure; and the enclosure of the loggia, this stage resulted in the structure much as it stands today. Summary 1977 excavation in the De Mesa Sanchez house interior revealed four stages of construction activity at the site. These stages are graphically depicted in Figures 6-8. Stage 1 was a First Spanish period structure, a one-room De Mesa structure of coquina described by Features 28, 30, 59 and the present west wall. No floors or interior partitions were indicated; although a floored area, probably a loggia, was located along the east side of the structure. A garden wall is also indicated (Feature 60) extending East-West to the east of Feature 58 along the north lot line. At 5.4 meters west of the De Mesa structure, a possible kitchen building is indicated to be Features 67 and 68, floored in tabby. Immediately south of the De Mesa structure, the Escavedo tabby house remains were encountered. That was a 2-room tabby house floored in tabby, about 1.5 meters south of the De Mesa house. At some time betweem 1760 and 1780; the Escovedo ,ouse was demolished and the De MSa was extende{to the south to incorporate its present ; North-South extent. At this time, the masonry kitchen represented by

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Feature 67/68 was removed and a wooden structure floored in tabby was erected in the same area. The area to the south of this room was a courtyard or loggia, paved with broken barrel tile (Room 107). Current data suggests that an unsurfaced area existed bwtween what is today the east wall of Room 105, (rear of the streucture) and Trench G area in Room 107 (loggia). Stage 3 activity did little to change this configuration other than the addiiton of a partition wall between Rooms 104 and 101, the tabby flooring in the loggia area (Room 107) the enclosures of Rooms 106 and 108 and the establishment of a seperate kitchen to the rear of the structure, represented by Feature 35. This was probably floored with earth. Floor "B", which was poured during this stage, was a durable tabby floor which was to persist in all areas of the house and loggia (except the kitchen) until the 20th century. At some time after 1905, the kitchen (Room 110) was enclosed; the loggia was enclosed, the partition between Rooms 101 and 104 was removed and the house took on the appearance that it exhibited immediately prior to the excavation.

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References Deagan, Kathleen 1975 New Dates for Creamware From Closed Contexts in St. Augustine Conference on Historic Sites Archeology Volume 8 Gest, Thomas 1977 (ms) Physical Analysis of Two Skeletons From SA-7-6, St. Augustine. Ms on file, Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, St. Augustine. Jones, James R. III 1978 MA thesis in prep. FSU Anthropology Department, Tallahassee (Excavation at the old Spanish Inn, St. Augustine, Florida) Noel Hume, Ivor 1970 A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America, Knopf, New York Reitz, Elizabath 1978 Analysis of Faunal Remains From the De Mesa House, St. Augustine, Florida. Paper presented at Society for American Archeology Meetings, Tuscon, Arizona.

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Appendix 1 TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF MNI AND BIOMASS FOR THE DE MESA HOUSE (Reitz 1977) Spanish I British Spanish II % Biomass Mammals 89.29 89.19 98.47 Reptiles 0.36 0.13 0.04 Birds 1.34 1.64 0.14 Fish 9.01 9.05 1.35 %MNI Mammals 24.18 27.66 22.44 Reptiles 3.92 4.26 2.31 Birds 13.07 19.15 10.26 Fish 58.82 48.94 64.10 TABLE 2 BIOMASS FOR THE FAUNA AT THE DE MESA HOUSE Spanish I British Spanish II % % Domestic Mammals 76.70 64.57 91.61 Wild Mammals 6.23 1.47 6.82 Land Reptiles 0.18 0.13 0.04 Aquatic Reptiles 0.28 0.01 0.001 Domestic Birds 0.97 1.01 0.05 Wild Birds 0.34 0.76 0.01 Shark and Bony 15.28 18.86 1.45 Fish

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Appendix 2 Provenience and TPQ Guide SA-7-6-House Interior (1977) Room 104, Trench .A. top elevation FS/I Provenience (mmsl) TPQ 252 Zone 2, Level 2 2.32 Creamware (1762) 261 Zone 2 under Floor C 2.26 Creamware (1762) 263 Pit 3 2.24 Creamware 263 P.M. 4 2.21 Slipware (1680+) 280 Zone 2, Level 1 under Floor D 2.17 Creamware 281 Clay Floor 2.13 San Luis Poly (1670+) 282 Area 5 2.12 San Marcos 283 P.M. 6 3.01 Oriental Porcelain 284 Zone 2, Level 2 under Floor D 2.11 Creamware 321 Zone 2, Level 2 under Floor D 1.98 San Marcos Room 101, Trench A 251 Zone 2, Level 1 2.36 Painted Pearlware 252 Zone 2, Level 2 2.32 Creamware 279 Zone 3, Level 1 2.21 Painted Pearlware 289 Zone 3, Level 2 2.18 Slipware 293 Zone 3, Level 3 2.08 Puebla Poly 297 Zone 3, Level 4 1.98 San Marcos 311 Feature 24 2.21 White Salt Glazed Stoneware (1740)

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291 Area 9 300 P.M. 13 290 Area 7 277 Clay Floor Room 101, Trench B 260 Zone 2, Level 1 South of Feature 23 292 Zone 3, Level 1 South of Feature 23 295 Zone 3, Level 2 South of Feature 23 296 Zone 3, Level 3 South of Feature 25 298 Zone 3, Level 3 between Features 23 and 25 299 Zone 3, Level 4 South of Feature 23 312 Zone 2, Levell. North of Feature 23 313 Zone 2, Level 2 North of Feature 23 314 Zone 2, Level 3 North of Feature 23 317 Zone 2, Level 4 North of Feature 23 257 Floor D 1.86 1.90 1.78 2.00 2.33 2.19 2.08 2.09 1.98 1.99 2.25 2.15 2.05 1.95 2.14 Creamware (l) San Marcos San Marcos Creamware (1762+) Creamware Creamware B/W Delft (1700+) San Marcos Olive Jar San Agustin B/W (1720+) Huejotzingo B/W (1700+) San Marcos San Marcos Creamware

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Room 102, Trench C 338 Zone 2, Level 1 2.26 Creamware (2) 339 Zone 2, Level 2 2.16 White Salt Glazed Stoneware (1740) 345 Zone 2, Level 3 2.09 Puebla B/W (1700+) 347 Zone 2, Level 4 1.98 San Marcos Room 103, Trench D 322 Zone 2, Levell 2.23 Creamware (4) 325 Zone 2, Level 2 2.13 San Agustin B/W (1720+) 327 Zone 2, Level 3 2.03 Puebla B/W 332 Zone 2, Level 4 1.93 San Marcos Room 105, Trench E 361 Zone 2, Level 1 2.33 Pearlware 368 Zone 3, Level 1 W-2.17 San Agustin E-2.09 370 Zone 4, Level 1 2.05 Wbeildon.w?re 376 Zone 4, Level 2 1.95 Delft Room 107, Trench F,G,H 391 Trench F, Zone 2 2.30 1 Mocha Ware (1790+) 400 Trench F, Zone 3, Level 1 2.11 San Agustin B/W 405 Trench F, Zone 3, Level 2 2.04 San Agustin B/W 409 Trench F, Zone 3, Level 3 1.94 San Marcos

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412 Trench F, Zone 3, Level 4 1.84 San Marcos 392 Trench G, Zone 2 2.28 Creamware 401 Trench G, Zone 3, Level 1 2.19 San Agustin B/W 406 Trench G, Zone 3, Level 2 2.03 San Luis Poly 408 Trench G, Zone 3, Level 3 1.93 San Marcos 393 Trench H, Zone 2 2.29 Transfer Printed Pearlware (1785+) 402 Trench H, Zone 3, Level 1 2.14 San Agustin B/W 407 Trench H, Zone 3, Level 2 2.11 San Luis Poly 410 Trench H, Zone 3. Level 3 2.01 El Morro 414 Trench H, Zone 3, Level 4 1.91 Pearlware (1780+) 388 Trench F, Packed earth 2.35 Creamware 387 Trench G, Packed earth 2.35 Creamware 384 Trench H, Packed earth 2.26 Creamware 390 Feature 38 (tile paving) 2.32 Creamware Room 110, Trench I 326 Zone 2, Level 1 2.36 Late Painted Pearlware (1810+) 356 Zone 2. Level 2 2.18 Late Painted Pearlware West of Feature 35 359 Zone 2, Level 3 2.08 Transfer Print Pearlware West of Feature 35 357 Zone 2, Level 2 2.18 Creamware East of Feature 35 358 Zone 2B, Level 3 2.08 SAn Agustin B/W

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362 Zone 2B, Level 2 1.96 Puebla Poly East of Feature 35 365 Zone 2B, Level 3 1.86 San Marcos East of Feature 35 386 Feature 34 (earth floor) 2.18 San Marcos

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Table 2 Ceramics in Room 101 Trench A FS# 251 Zone 2 Level 1 San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar Black Lead Glaze 1 El Morro Rey ware 2 Mexican Red Aztec IV Majolica San Agustin B/W Puebla B/W Puebla Poly San Luis B/W Unidentified San Luis Poly B/W Delft B/W Faience Agate ware 1 Creamware 7 Early Painted 1 Pearlware Elersware 1 White Salt Glaze Stoneware Rhenish Stoneware Oriental Porcelain European Porcelain Total 13 252 Zone 2 Level 2 27 19 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 21 4 279 Zone 3 Level 1 12 3 1 289 Zone 3 Level 2 26 1 293 Zone 3 Level 3 11 297 Zone 3 Level 4 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 9 1 1 1 1 4

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San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar Black Lead Glaze El Morro Rey ware Mexican Red Aztec IV Majolica San Agustin B/W Puebla B/W Puebla Poly San Luis B/W Unidentified San Luis Poly B/W Delft B/W Faience Agate ware Creamware Early Painted Pearlware Elersware White Salt Stoneware Rhenish Stoneware Oriental Porcelain Table 2 (cont.) 311 291 300 290 Feature 24 Area 9 P.H. 13 Area 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1

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Table 3 Ceramics in Room 101 Trench B ( South of Feature 23 260 292 295 296 299 257 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Floor D San Marcos 31 128 26 2 Slipware 11 2 1 Olive Jar 15 4 6 1 Black Lead Glaze 1 Coarse Earthenware E1 Morro 2 Rey ware 2 Mexican Red 4 Majolica /" San Agustin B/W 1 Pueb1a Poly 7 Pueb1a B/W 1 San Luis Poly 2 3 1 Huejotzingo B/W White 2 Unidentified 1 3 1 Delft Plain 3 B/W 14 3 B/W Faience Agate ware 2 rreamware 85 2 12 7

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Table 3( Ceramics in Room 101 Trench B (cont.) South of Feature 23 260 292 295 296 299 257 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Floor D Wheildonware 2 Brown Salt Glaze 1 White Salt Glaze 9 1 Oriental Porcelain 7 1 European Porcelain 6 (

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FslI 338 Zone 2 Level 1 San Marcos 52 Olive Jar 12 E1 Morro Rey ware Mexican Red 3 Aztec IV Majolica Plain White 1 Auci11a Poly 2 Aranama Poly Fig Springs Poly Ichetucknee B/W San Agustin B/W 1 Pueb1a B/W Pueb1a Poly 1 San Luis Poly 1 Huejotzingo B/W 1 Abo Poly 2 San Luis 'w '-'. Table 4 Ceramics in Room 102, Trench C and Room 103, Trench D 339 345 347 322 325 327 332 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 63 148 8 77 34 21 3 6 10 1 6 1 4 2 1 1 3 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 "--J

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Table 4 (cont.) 338 339 345 341 322 325 321 332 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Unidentified 5 3 3 3 Delft B/W 3 1 Plain 1 1 Faience B/W 1 Brown 1 Creamware 2 3 Painted Creamware 1 Wheildon ware White Salt Glazed 3 Brown Salt Glazed 1 Oriental Porcelain 1 3 Orange-Fiber Tempered 18 25 Aboriginal

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Table 1 Floors and Features SA-7-6-House Interior (1977) Room 104 Room 101 Room 102 Room 103 Room 105 Room 107 Room 108 Stage 3 Floor B Floor B Floor B Floor B Floor B Floor B Floor B Stage 2 Floor C Floor C Floor C Floor C Featute 38 Floor D British Floors (E of F 23) (covers F 25) (under and top: 2.37 (tile paving) (covers F 67) top: 2.33 (abutts F 28) bonded to top: 2.31 top: 2.26 top: 2.25 Floor B) Stage 1 Floor D Feature 26 Floor C Floor C Floor E de Mesa/Sanchez (Escovedo) (tabby f1oortop: 2.19-top: 2.17-(E of F 67) floors top: 2.22 Escovedo) 2.25 2.23 top: 2.23 top: 2.19 Wall Footings Features 22/24 F 25 top: 2.21 Feature 29 Feature 60 top: 2.21 F 27 top: 2.09 (Stout) de Mesa garden (Sanchez or Escovedo top: 2.23 wall top: 2.20 Stout expanFeature 67 sion) (de Mesa kitchen) ... top: 2. 21 Feature 28 Feature 30 Feature 58 Feature 68 (de Mesa S wall) (de Mesa) (between Rms (de Mesa wall?) top: top: 2.30 105/107) top: 2.19 top: 2.25 Non de Mesa/ Clay Floor Masonry trim Masonry trim Masonry trim Sanchez Archtop: 2.14 debris debris debris itectural Features top: 2.07 top: 2.07 top: 2.13 data from 1978 excavations, J.A. Bostwick (

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San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar El Morro Rey ware Mexican Red Aztec IV Majolica Plain White San Agustin B/W San Luis Poly Delft Plain B/W Faience B/W Plain Poly Oriental Porcelain European Porcelain Creamware Rhenish White Salt Glaze-,Brown Salt Glaze Nottingham Stoneware Table 5 Ceramics in Room 104 Trench A Pit 3 Pit 4 P.R. 6 Area 5 Clay Floors 1 8 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 13 1

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Table 5 Ceramics in Room 104 Trench A San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar E1 Morro Rey ware Mexican Red Aztec IV Majolica Plain White San Agustin B/W SAn Luis Poly Delft Plain B/W Faience B/W Plain Poly Oriental Porcelain European Porcelain Creamware Whei1don ware Annular Pear1ware Transfer Print Pear1ware Zone 2 under Floor C 22 54 4 1 2 2 9 2 5 7 2 2 2 3 5 83 3 1 1 Zone 2 Level 1 under Zone 3 Zone 3 Floor D Level 2 Level 3 10 32 15 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Table 5 (cont.) Stoneware Rhenish 2 White Salt Glaze 20 Brown Salt Glaze 2 Nottingham Stoneware

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Table 6 Ceramics in Room 105, Trench E Fs/t 361 368 Zone 2 Zone 3 Level 1 Level 1 San Marcos 51 36 Slipware 1 1 Olive Jar 2 3 El Morro 3 1 Mexican Red 1 1 Aztec IV Majolica Aucilla Poly Plain White San Agustin B/W 1 1 Puebla B/W Puebla Poly San Luis Poly 1 Huejotzingo B/W 1 Abo Poly Fig Springs Poly Aranama Poly Delft B/W 1 Plain Creamware 3 Wheildon ware 1 Astbury ware 1 Late Painted Pearlware White Salt Glazed Stoneware 1 370 Zone 4 Level 1 258 15 1 1 6 4 7 1 376 Zone 4 Level 2 43 5 4 1 1 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench F FslI San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar E1 Morro Mexican Red Aztec IV Marineware Majolica Plain White San Luis B/W San Agustin B/W Pueb1a B/W Pueb1a Poly San Luis Poly Huejotzingo B/W Abo Poly Unidentified Delft Plain B/W 391 Zone 2 155 1 4 13 14 2 1 1 1 1 7 3 400 Zone 3 Level 1 164 8 6 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 405 409 412 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 3 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 177 37 5 13 3 3 3 4 6 1 3 1 2 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench F (cont.) Faience Polychrome Refined Earthenware Agate ware 'Wheildon ware Creamware Pearlware Plain Transfer Print Shell Edged Painted Mocha Stoneware Nottingham White Salt Glazed Brown Salt Glazed Ironstone Lead Glazed Porcelain Oriental European Orange Fiber Tempered Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1 1 1 2 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench G 392 401 Zone 3 Zone 2 Level 1 San Marcos 19 116 Slipware 2 Olive Jar 1 7 E1 Morro 5 Mexican Red Aztec IV Marineware Majolica Plain White 2 San Luis B/W San Agustin B/W 2 Pueb1a B/W 2 Pueb1a Poly San Luis Poly 5 Huejotzingo B/W 1 Abo Poly 1 Unidentified 3 3 Delft Plain 1 B/W 2 1 Faience 1 406 Zone 3 Level 2 43 2 408 Zone 3 Level 3 15 2 1 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench G (cont.) Polychrome Refined Earthenware Agate ware Wheildon Creamware Pearlware Plain Transfer Print Shell Edged Painted Mocha Stoneware Nottingham White Salt Glazed Brown Salt Glazed Iron stone Lead Glazed Porcelain Oriental European Orange Fiber Tempered 392 401 406 408 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 3 Zone 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1 11 3 3

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench H 393 Zone 2 San Marcos 27 Slipware 7 Olive Jar 2 E1 Morro 1 Mexican Red Aztec IV 1 Marineware Majolica Plain White San Luis B/W San Agustin B/W Pueb1a B/W 1 Pueb1a Poly 1 San Luis Poly Huejotzingo B/W Abo Poly Unidentified Delft Plain B/W Faience Polychrome 402 Zone 3 Level 1 37 1 1 1 1 1 1 407 Zone 3 Level 2 105 1 5 1 1 9 4 2 1 1 1 410 414 Zone 3 Zone 3 Level 3 Level 4 43 15 2 1 1 2 1 1 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Trench H Refined Earthenware Agate ware Wheildon ware Creamware Pearlware Plain Transfer Print Shell Edged Painted Mocha Stoneware Nottingham White Salt Glazed Brown Salt Glazed Ironstone Lead Glazed Porcelain Oriental European Orange Fiber Tempered 393 Zone 2 1 21 8 1 1 1 3 1 3 3 9 2 402 Zone 3 Level 1 407 Zone 3 Level 2 410 Zone 3 Level 3 414 Zone 3 Level 4 3 1

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Packed Earth San Marcos Slipware Olive Jar El Morro Mexican Red Aztec IV Marineware Majolica Plain White San Luis B/W San Agustin B/W Puebla B/W Puebla Poly San Luis Poly Huejotzingo B/W Abo Poly Unidentified Delft Plain B/W 388 Trench F 7 1 2 2 1 1 387 Trench G 6 1 384390 Trench H Feature 38 5 26 1 35 __--4

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Table 7 Ceramics in Room 107 Packed Earth (cont.) 388 387 384 390 Trench F Trench G Trench H Feature 38 Faience Polychrom Refined Earthenware Agate ware Wheildon ware Creamware 26 1 5 3 Pearlware 6 1 Plain Transfer Print 1 1 Shell Edged Painted 1 Mocha Stoneware Nottingham White Salt Glazed 4 1 Brown Salt Glazed Ironstone Lead Glazed Porcelain Oriental 1 1 3 European Orange Fiber Tempered

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Table 8 Ceramics From Room 110 Trench I Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2B Zone 2B Zone 2B Zone 2B Zone 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Wof F 35 Wof F 35 E of F 35 E of F 35 E of F 35 E of F 35 Feature 34 Earthenwares San Marcos 2 24 20 4 68 27 2 6 Slipware 1 2 Olive Jar 1 2 1 1 2 1 Lead Glazed 1 1 E1 Morro 1 Rey ware 2 1 Mexican Red 1 1 Majolica Plain White 2 San Agustin B/W 1 1 Pueb1a B/W 1 Pueb1a Poly 1 1 San Luis Poly 2 2 Abo Poly 1 Unidentifiable 2

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Table 8 1 I Ceramics From Room 110 Trench I (cont.) Zone 2 Level 1 Zone 2 Level 2 Wof F 35 Zone 2 Level 3 Wof F 35 Zone 2 Level 2 E of F 35 Zone 2B Level 1 E of F 35 Zone 2B Level 2 E of F 35 Zone 2B Level 3 E of F 35 Feature 34 Delft Plain B/w Refined Earthenware Wheildon ware 1 Creamware 2 8 1 1 Pearlware Plain 8 5 Transfer Print 2 17 1 Shell Edged 6 Early Painted 1 5 1 Late Painted 2 8 1 Annular ware 1 4 Stoneware 1 Salt Glaze 1 1 Porcelain Oriental 1 4 2 European 1 1 Canton ""-" 4 "",-. -......I