Year book


Material Information

Year book
Physical Description:
v. ;21 cm.
Society of the Chagres
Edited by F.G. Swanson
Place of Publication:
Balboa, Canal Zone
Publication Date:


serial   ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Includes "Biographical notes" of members. Began in 1911
General Note:
Panama Canal Museum "Builders of The Panama Canal"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 30180994
oclc - 07092203
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


,523 -///- t

t3At4#j c2,:

Gift of the Panama Canal Museum




Major-General Geo. W. Goethals. Chairman and Chief Engineer I. C. C.

Surgeon-General Wm. C. Gorgas, Sanitation Expert



YEAR BOOK 1916-17

Copyrighted 1917 by Society of the Chagres
Collected. Compiled and Edited by F. G. Swanson
Secretary-Treasurer of the Society
Balboa. Canal Zone
Extra copies Postpaid--$1.P0 Each

Press of
Girard Job Shop, Girard, Kansas


Another year! The whirling loom of Fate
Hath woven for us all, despite desire,
Across the crimson warp of worlds afire,
A little length of life, wherein we mate
Our tangled woof of deeds, to alternate
A shining web, where golden threads aspire;
Or else, to emphasize, with added ire,
The lurid underlay of horrid hate.

Unceasingly the wheels of Time still turn;
Behind, the faulty fabrics disappear;
Ahead each day another chance we earn
To weave a perfect pattern, bright and clear,
With wisdom which by bitter tears we learn.
A year is gone. Beyond! Another year!



Frontispiece. Goethals and Gorgas...... ................................. 1...........
Title page .......... ......................... ....................................... 3
Ode-Another Year, 1916-17.............................. ....... ........... 4
Introductory .......................... ... ............... ....................... 7
Traffic on the Panam a Canal..... ................... ........................................ ........................ ... 9
W eak Link at Panama............................ .................. .......... ........ .........16
Expropriation Expunged from Canal Report......... .................................... 23
Resume of Canal Zone Public System....................... ......... ............. .................. 36
Church Activities During Canal Building...................... ............. 55
The Men the Canal Zone Has Made............................................... ..... 72
The W om en W ho M ade the Canal .................................. ......... ........ .......... 74
Historic Hospital Wards Razed for New Buildings................. ....... 78
P rep aredn ess .............................................................................:.................................... .......... .................. 82
Isthm ian D ynasties ....................... ...................................... 87

Panam a Canal and W world Friendship.......................... ............................................... 89
The Panama Canal, Asset or Liability.......................... 91
W hat the Canal M eans................ .... .. .. ................................. ................. 94
Dreams by Victor Hugo and Alfred Tennyson............................................... 113
T he M onroe D octrin e ....................... ............. .... ..................................................... ....... 114

Passing of the Isthm ian Jag .................................................................................. 116
Satire in Official Correspondence ............. ..................................... .... 124
M etcalf on Isthmian Politics....................................... 132
The Carefree Life of a Quartermaster........................................................... 135
Isthmian Sucker Association ....... ............... ........... 139
At Farewell to Gorgona........................... ........................... 142
The Last Hope Blighted....................... ..... ................................... 149
M ore Truth Than Poetry ...... .. .................................................. ................................ 151
Trial Judges Right M majority of Time......................................................... .... 153
A Reminiscence or Two of Taboga ........ .............. ............ 156
Haps and Mishaps............ ............................... 161

Useless Citizens on the Canal' Zone.................................. ... ....... .............. 168
Progress of the Decade in Pictures..... .....................................-.... .................. 171
Economy ic Causes of Diseases. ........................1................ ........... ............. 189
The A laska R railroad ..................... ....... .......... .................................... ........... 193
Federal Ownership of Railroads in United States..................................... 201

M odesty- Poem ...................................... ..................... ............. ...................................... ..... 210
Those Good Old Tales- Poem ........2............................. ..... ...................... 210
The Sea-Dog's Tale- Poem ..... .................... .. .... .... ..................................... 2i
Goethal's Island- Poem ............................................ ......... ............ 213
The Fool- Poem .................. ..................... .......... ..... ........ 214
A Soldier's Answer.............................................. 215

Longevity and Legislation ......................................................2........ .......................... 225
Comment and Opinion of Organized Labor.................................. 274
Comments by Senators and Congressmen................. .............................. 279

Veterans of the Canal Construction Army........................................................ .. 285
Others Who Earned Medal and Two Bars.......................................... ......... .. 302
Others Who Completed Six Years Prior to June 30, 1916........................... 318
Officers of the Society and Reports.... ................................... ............ 326
Constitution, Society of Chagres........ ...................... .... ............ .... 329
Letters and Stories from Members and Others....................... ................ .. 331

Select List of References on Canal........................................ ...... 354

There are at least two reasons based on practice for "in-
troductories". One is that it is conventional and custom. The
other is to say "thank you" to those who have given counsel
and aid in the preparation of the volume.
The writing of these few lines therefore conforms to cus-
tom and we do most sincerely appreciate the contributions not
only of those who as members of the Society might be ex-
pected to do their "bit" but especially the generosity of others
whose articles appear in these pages. For aid in tedious check-
ing of names and addresses from authentic records, the editor
is especially indebted to Mr. R. S. Hammond of the Executive
Office; also to others who gave similar aid.
This volume is published primarily for the members of
the Society of the Chagres composed of those who earned
the Roosevelt medal and two bars each of which required a
consecutive period of two years prior to December 31, 1914.
All members of the Society served therefore not less than six
years with the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama
Previous volumes have included personal reminiscences
and Canal happenings of particular interest to Canal diggers.
This volume aspires to interest not only members of the So-
ciety but the general public'at large and all interested in the
Panama Canal and its construction and lessons that may be
drawn therefrom.
While not deserving of such credit or blame in all cases
or entire, the Editor cheerfully assumes responsibility for all
unlabeled articles appearing in this volume and invites the
freest of criticism from all readers and suggestions for future
volumes. A number of Jamaican Stories and samples of the
"King's English" have been omitted because of lack of space.
Balboa, Canal Zone, May 30th, 1917. Editor.



From the opening in August, 1914, to December 31, 1916,
there have passed through the Panama Canal from the Atlan-
tic to the Pacific 1380 vessels, with a Panama Canal net tonnage
of 4,637,914 and carrying cargoes to the amount of 4,951,281
tons; from the Pacific to the Atlantic 1390 vessels of 4,565,590
Panama Canal net tons, and carrying cargoes of 6,655,008
tons; a total of 2770 vessels of 9,203,504 Panama Canal net
tons, and cargoes of 11,606,289 tons. The appended tables
give the detail by fiscal years and nationalities. During this
period the Canal has been in practically continuous operation,
with the exception of a six months' period from September,
1915, to April, 1916, caused by slides in Gaillard Cut; and
though navigation has at times been difficult, owing to the
condition of the Cut as affected by these slides, no serious
accidents have happened to vessels in the Canal. Ships draw-
ing up to 32 feet of water have transited without mishap.
The principal steamship routes through the Canal, over
which regular or approximately regular service has been
established by various lines, are: From Atlantic Terminus
to South and Central America; from Atlantic Terminus to
Central and North America; from the Atlantic coast of the
United States to the Pacific coast of South America; from
Europe to the Pacific coast of South America; from Europe
to the west coast of North America; from the Atlantic coast
of the United States to Japan, Siberia, China and the Philip-
pine Islands; from the Atlantic coast of the United States to
Australia and New Zealand; from Europe to Australia and
New Zealand. The cargoes carried over these routes are as
varied as the numerous ports of departure and destination,

the one heaviest item of cargo carried through the Canal being
nitrate from the fields on the west coast of South America,
taken principally to the east coast of the United States and
to Europe. It is interesting to note some of the unusual
items of cargo, such as gambia, jeletong, kauri gum, scheelite,
wolfram, horse hair, licorice root, etc. Cargoes of explosives
may be carried through if permission be first obtained from
the Canal authorities.
Up to the present date no vessels have been started
through the Canal after sunset, other than to bring them to
the inner harbor for an early morning start, as traffic has
not yet warranted maintaining a sufficient operating force
for so doing. Many ships, however, have completed their
transit after that hour, the lighting system of the Canal which
has been in operation since the opening, making navigation by
night entirely practicable.
Under the present rules and regulations governing the
navigation of the Canal, tolls are assessed upon the basis of
the United States net registered tonnage (or upon the U. S.
equivalent in the case of ships of foreign registry) at $1.25
per net ton if in cargo, and 75c per net ton if in ballast. The
average of tolls collected is about $2,500 per ship, if in cargo.
Sailing vessels if without auxiliary power must be towed
through, charge for which is at the rate of 10c per Panama
Canal net ton, with a minimum charge of $150 for the com-
plete transit. This is in addition to tolls. The average transit
time of a steam vessel is now about nine hours. Let us fol-
low one of these ships through:
In practically all cases provision for the payment of ships
bills while at the Canal is made either by deposit with one of
the sub-treasuries in the United States, cable advise of which
deposit is given to the Canal authorities; or by arrangement
with one of the local banks. This cable advice serves as an
advance notice of the expected arrival of the ship for which
such deposit has been arranged. In the cases of ships of
regular lines plying through the Canal, and those for which

there are agencies on the isthmus, fairly definite information
as, to date and time of arrival is given several days in advance.
This information is published daily by the offices of the cap-
tains of the ports in the form of a shipping report and is dis-
tributed to all interested parties. In addition to the above,
vessels equipped with wireless give notice from twelve to
twenty-four hours in advance of arrival, usually stating their
nationality, dimensions, if they wish to pass through the
canal or use the harbors only, their cargo, supplies wanted,
and any information that may serve to expedite their business
while in canal zone waters. Their immediate arrival is re-
ported from the signal station on Flamenco island, operated
by the U. S. army, and from the signal stations on Sosa Hill,
Balboa and the one on top of the Hotel Washington, Colon,
the latter two stations being operated by the marine division.
From these signal stations communication may be had with
ships, by the international code, and a local system of balls
and cones for the purpose of indicating whether the vessel
shall proceed through the canal or go to dock or moorings in
the harbor.
Before ships may enter the terminal ports they must be
inspected and passed by the quarantine authorities. This is
done between the hours of sunrise and sunset, and ships arriv-
ing after sunset must wait at the outer anchorage until morn-
ing. After inspection by the quarantine officer vessels are
boarded by pilot, measurers and boarding officer. The board-
ing officer reviews the ship's papers, obtains information as
to port of departure, destination, name of master, number of
crew, whether or not prohibited aliens are aboard, her cargo,
object of visit, what supplies are needed, and if drydock or
repair service is required; the measurers who, in case the ship
has been measured in another port reviews the certificate,
makes actual measurements in the case of a "new" ship and
prepares a Panama canal certificate for issuance; the pilot
takes her through the canal or to the dock, as the case may be.
The information obtained by the boarding officer is dis-
seminated by the offices of the captains of the ports to the

various departments of the canal charged with the supplying
of ships-coal orders to the plants at Cristobal and Balboa,
commissary and storehouse supplies to the supply department,
water to the division of municipal engineering, charts and
hydrographic publications to the hydrographic office, cables
and requests for information regarding deposits are handled
through the office of the collector. Ship's dimesions are given
to the lock operating force and the dredging division for their
information and guidance. In fact, the entire business of the
ship is handled through one office, so that the master of the
vessel has to concern himself only with the navigating of his
ship. Upon his arrival at the entering or terminal port, as he
may desire, he may take his fuel, water and supplies within
'from one to three hours and proceed with the greatest possi-
ble dispatch. Probably in no other ports of the world can
vessels be so expediciously handled as at the Canal.
In case ship is in need of repairs, arrangements can be
made for prompt attention by the mechanical division. Dock
at Balboa is of capacity to accommodate any ship afloat and
dock at Cristobal those with draft not to exceed about 14 feet.
The pilot has charge of the navigating of the vessel dur-
ing her transit-unless the master wishes to take his own
ship, which privilege is granted him, provided that a regular
canal pilot must be aboard-except in the locks, where she is
handled by the lock operating forces by means of electric tow-
ing locomotives, with a specially detailed lock pilot aboard the
ship during her passage through the locks.
The dispatching of ships is handled from the offices of
the captains of the ports and a careful record of her transit,
passing the locks and signal stations, is kept by both pilot and
dispatch clerks. Records are also kept at the locks. To assist
in the handling of lines from the towing locomotives a special
canal crew is put aboard those vessels whose own crew is not
sufficient in number to handle these lines.


Slipping, Fiscal Year July 1, 1914-June 30, 1915.

British ......... ........ ..................................
United States ..............................
P eruvian ......................... ...................................
D an ish ...................................................... .......
D utch ....... ......................... ............
Norwegian ................ ........... .........
Sw edish ..................... ......................... ..........
Nicaraguan ............................. ...
Chilean ... .........................
Jap an ese ..................................................................
Japanese....................................... .....
R u ssian .......................... .... ..................
Italian ..... ............................ ....
Honduran .................. ........... ...
French .............................................. .......
Canadian ............... ................... ...........


B ritish ..... .............................................
American ..................
P eruvian ................................................................
D anish ................................... ........................
Dutch ................... ..
Norwegian ........ ......... ..................
Swedish ..... .................
Chilean ...........................................
Japanese ............. ...... ......... ..............
Russian ........................................................
H onduran ........................................................ ..
French ....... .......... ...............................
Panaman ................... ...............
Italian .................................. ........ ...............

number. Canal net tons. Cargo tons.
226 795.153 896.379

231 866,121
2 3,662
10 39,949
5 15,173
16 58,801
8 19,970
1 46
16 40,178
4 16,999
5 18,539
1 2,079
2 72
2 6,556
1 1,430



1,884,728 2,125,735

239 838,036 1,306,092
239 880,964 1,224,209
2 5,756 6,202
13 49,781 80,357
2 6,902 8,846
26 72,035 121,706
10 34,057 36,352
19 53,610 39,493
2 7,958 14,000
1 3,861
1 50
1 4,147 6,800
2 71
1 2,079

558 1,958,307 2,844,057
530 1,884,728 2,125,735

1,088 3,843,035 4,969,792

Shipping, Fiscal Year July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916.
Nationality. Number. Canal net tons. Cargo tons.
British .................. 193 654,514- 758,202
United States ....................... ................. 114 338,022 380,763
N orw egian ........................................................... 19 74,280 41,320
Japanese ......................................... 19 68,421 101,472
Chilean ............ .. ................. ............ 16 45,228 26,873
Peruvian ................... ..... 16 38,671 24,365
Dutch .............. ............ 11 25,278 35,259
D anish ..:............... ......................................... 10 41,566 57,959

Nationality. Number. Canal net tons. Cargo tons
Swedish .............................. ....... .... .......... 5 16,134 8.023
Panaman ...................................................... 5 551
Italian ................................................... .............. 1 3,861
Russian .................. ......................................... 1 1,475
Honduran .............................................................. 1 229

411 1,308,230 1,434,236

British ......................................................... ...
United States ................... ..........................
Norwegian ............ ....... ...
Chilean ..................................................
Peruvian ... ............................................ .......
Danish .............................................. ........................
Swedish .............................. .........................
Japanese ....................................... ............
Dutch ..................................... ...............................
H onduran ..... ............... ...................................
French .................................................................
Argentinan ....................... ...............................
Panam an .......................... .....................

165 500,899 790,258
124 399,147 513,355
26 103,078 196,835
17 46,014 31,442
14 35,758 38,251
8 26,430 44,865
8 25,299 38,828
5 13,397 19,945
4 14,364 25,565
2 255 290
1 4,343 6,176
1 2,335
1 212

376 1,171,531 1,705,810
411 1,308,230 1,434,236

787 2,479,761 3,140,046


Shipping, Fiscal Year July 1, 1916-Dec. 31, 1916.

Nationality. Nu
British ...................................... ...................
United States ..................................................
Peruvian ............................................... ...............
Danish ...................... ................. .....................
Dutch .......................................................................
Norwegian ......................... ...... ........
Swedish .. ................ ............................
Chilean ...................................... ....................
Japanese ................... .... ............. .........
Italian ........................................ ....................
French ................................................................
Spanish ..................................................... ..........
Costa Rican ................... ........ .
Panam an ...... ...................................................
M exican .................................. ......................
Cuban ........... ........... ....... ...... .................

British ........................... ..............................
United States ................................
Peruvian ............... ...................... ......:....
Danish ........................ ...................................
Dutch .....................................................
Norwegian ..........................................



Canal net tons. Cargo tons.
709,394 788,790
237,558 171,754
S 56,728 34,365
S49,405 69,785
49,396 29,836
106,754 65,636
18,789 21,326
66,068 48,832
117,833 143,930
8,686 385
15,380 12,132
415 157
81 135
2,007 1,447
3,337 2,800'

1,444,956 1,391,310




Nationality. Number. net tons. Cargo tons.
Swedish ......................... .... .......... 8 30,634 46,415
Chilean ......................... 24 63,414 37,404
Japanese ................... ................... ..... 10 39,821 67,269
Russian ...... ................................... ........ ......1 2,273 3,550
Italian ................................... ................. ............1 3,215 5,700
F rench ...................................................................... 3 12,831 23,983
Spanish .................................. ............................3 7,059 14,587
Costa Rican ...................... 5 415 889
M exican ....................................................................... 2 443 335
C uban ......................... ............................................... 1 2,028 338
456 1,435,752 2,105,141
439 1,444,956 1,391,310
895 2,880,708 3,496,451
TOTALS-Atlantic to Pacific:
1,380 4,637,914 4,951,281
Pacific to Atlantic:
1,390 4,565,590 6,655,008
Grand Total :............ ... ................. 2,770 9,203,504 11,606,289

Owing to present conditions in the shipping world the
Canal has not as yet been by any means taxed to its capacity;
but with its successful completion and operation the members
of the Society of the Chagres, who assisted in the building
and are now a part of the operating force of this greatest of
modern works, can be sure that their highest ambition has
been realized.

The total number of ships making the transit of the Canal during the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, in seagoing traffic was 1,876. In the fiscal
year 1916 the total was 787; in 1915, it was 1,088. The aggregate gross and
net tonnages of the 1,876 ships in the year 1917, according to the rules of
measurement for the Panama Canal, were 8,530,121 and 6,009,358 tons, re-
The cargo carried through the Canal amounted to 7,229,255 tons of 2,240
Ships making the passage of the Canal without cargo, including naval
ships and pleasure craft which did not carry cargo, as well as merchant ships
in ballast, aggregated 284. Of these, 187 were in transit from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and 97 from the Pacific to the Atlantic; net tonnages were
574,881 and 219,907, respectively.
The average net tonnage of all ships was 3,203 tons. The average net
tonnage of the ships carrying cargo was 3,275 tons. The average loading of
the ships with cargo was 4,541 tons of 2,240 pounds.
The ratio of tons of cargo to net tonnage of ships with cargo was 1.386.
As distributed over the aggregate of traffic, for each of the 6,009,358 net tons
that passed through the Canal there were handled 1.2 tons of cargo.-From
Canal Record, Aug. 8, 1917.

(Prepared in November, 1915.)

The Panama Canal can be taken without firing a single
shot! To the uninitiated this may sound like the cry ot an
alarmist, but it is believed that a perusal of the following
FACTS will bear proof to the absolute truth of .the statement.
This condition of affairs is not due to faulty engineering in
the construction of the up-to-the-minute forts which have been
placed at both entrances to the great waterway, nor to lack
of armament in size or number, nor to a lack of fighting force
to man the forts and guns and otherwise protect our $400,000,-
000 investment at Panama-not to any of these may be at-
tributed the pregnability of the great inter-ocean roadway,
but, what is worse than all, to an apparent lack of forsight
and sound judgment in the enactment of legislation affecting
our policy in the Canal Zone.
The act of congress of August 24, 1912, also known as
the "Adamson bill" and the "Panama Canal act", section 3
thereof, provides:
"That the president is authorized to declare by executive order
that all land and land under water within the limits of the Canal Zine
is necessary for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation,
or protection of the Panama Canal, and to extinguish by agreement
when advisable, all claims and titles of adverse claimants and occu-
pants. Upon failure to secure by agreement title to any such parcel
of land or land under water the adverse claim or occupancy shall be
disposed of and title thereto secured in the United States and com-
pensation therefore fixed and paid in the manner provided in the afore-
said treaty with the republic of Panama, or such modification of such
treaty as may hereafter be made."
In other words, the entire Canal Zone of about 400 square
miles, was declared a military reservation. It is true that the
act of congress does not say this in so many words, but by the

subsequent acts of those apparently responsible for this leg-
islation, this is the construction placed thereon.
The right to enact legislation such as this was granted
to the United States by articles II and III of the Panama Canal
treaty between the United States and Panama, ratified Feb-
ruary 26, 1904, which state that-
"The republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpe-
tuity the use, occupation and control of a zone of land and land under
water for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and
protection of said canal of the width of ten miles extending to the
distance of five miles on each side of the center line of the route of
the canal to be constructed; the said zone beginning in the Carribean
sea three marine miles from mean low water mark and extending to
and across the Isthmus of Panama into the Pacific ocean to a dis-
tance of three marine miles from mean low water mark with the
proviso that the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent
to said cities, which are included within the boundaries of the zine
above described, shall not be included within this grant. The republic
of Panama further grants to the United States in perpetuity the
use, occupation and control of any other lands and waters outside of
the zone above described which may be necessary and convenient for
the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection
of the said Canal or of any auxiliary canals or other works necessary
and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanita-
tion and protection of said enterprise, etc."
"The republic of Panama grants to the United States all the
rights, power and authority within the zone mentioned and described
in article II of this agreement and within the limits of all auxiliary
lands and waters mentioned and described in said article II which the
United States would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign of
the territory within which said lands and waters are located to the
entire exclusion of the exercise by the republic of Panama of any
sovereign rights, power or authority."
These articles of the treaty grant to the United States the
right of eminent domain. Under this doctrine the congress
of the United States enacted the legislation above referred to.
On December 5, 1912, the president, Mr. Taft, acting un-
der the authority congress vested in him, signed the following
executive order:
"By virtue of the authority vested in me by the act of congress,
entitled 'An act to provide for the opening, maintenance, protection
and operation of the Panama Canal and the sanitation and government
of the Canal Zone', approved August 24, 1912, I hereby declare that all
land and land under water within the limits of the Canal Zone are
necessary for the construction, maintenance, operation, protection and
sanitation of the Panama Canal, and the chairman of the Isthmian
Canal commission is hereby directed to take possession, on behalf
of the United States, of all such land and land under water; and he

may extinguish, by agreement when practicable, all claims and titles
of adverse claimants to the occupancy of said land and land under
"The White House, December 5. 1912."
In accordance with this executive order of the president,
wherein it will be noted the chairman of the Isthmian Canal
commission (Gen. Geo. W. Goethals) was directed "to take
possession, on behalf of the United States, of all such land
and land under water", arrangements were at once made for
the depopulation of the Canal Zone. That is, expropriation
proceedings under the right of eminent domain, on a larger
scale than the world had ever theretofore known, were insti-
tuted and owners, occupiers and claimants of real property in
400 square miles of territory were ordered to vacate their,,
holdings, and this large area of land permitted to grow up
once again in tropical jungle. The depopulation order affected
thousands of small cultivators, farmers, in the Canal Zone,
many of whom had been born and reared on their "fincas", and
whose fathers before them had taken from the selfsame soil
their means of livelihood. It has been said that at least a
part of the framers of this act of congress did not have in
mind the scope of this law, that is, there was no meeting of
minds as to its full force and effect. Be that as it may, the
Canal Zone has been depopulated and there is today sitting in
Panama the tribunal provided for by the treaty, handing down
the justice the treaty grants to those who have been de-
prived of their holdings.
Due in part to a rainy season extending over almost nine
months of the year and to virgin fertility of the soil, vegeta-
tion attains a rank growth in Panama, perhaps to an extent
not excelled anywhere in the world. A well cultivated farm
abandoned for a few months during the rainy season loses its
identity in the rapid growth of the tropical jungle, which
springs up almost over night, so that it is but a short time until
nature has reclaimed its own.
To understand just what this depopulation scheme may
mean to the United States it is necessary that we take into
account the unique situation of the Isthmus of Panama where
18 /

the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are less than fifty miles apart.
It is necessary that one should know that there isn't a rail-
road extending from the Canal back to the limits of the Canal
Zone on either side, not even a wagon road which extends the
full distance, only the poorest kind of narrow trails through
the brush, which while they were kept open to a certain extent
in the rainy season by the traffic of the native farmers prior
to the depopulation of the zone, are now so grown up as not
to be recognizable as such. At their best they were merely
narrow boggy trails, so narrow in many places that two men
could not pass each other without stepping back into the
brush; circuitous, winding foot-paths which led to nowhere;
that the Panama railroad traverses the Canal Zone only fol-
lowing the line of the Canal; that the only means of ingress
and egress to the Canal Zone are the high seas through the
ports of Cristobal on the Atlantic side and Balboa on the
]Pacific; that the republic of Panama has absolutely no system
of wagon roads; that there isn't a railroad in the republic
excepting the Chiriqui railroad, now in course of construction,
running but a few miles back from the coast, and the terminal
of which is a sea port some 200 miles from the city of Panama.
It is understood that those who favored the plan of de-
populating the Canal Zone and that it be permitted to return
to the howling wilderness of tropical jungle, argue that this
is a means of defense of the Canal; that the jungle growth
and the lack of roads will prevent an enemy from forcing an
entrance into the Canal Zone, it apparently being assumed
that the enemy will strike from the land. But let us see what
it is reasonable to suppose an enemy of the United States
could and would do.
At the outset it must be assumed that any first class
power having in mind a declaration of war against the United
States would first be assured that it had sufficient ships in
both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to successfully cope with
our Atlantic and Pacific fleets. It is also reasonable to assume
that the Panama Canal would be one of the first points of

attack. It is well known that subsistence supplies for the
Panama Canal force, numbering about 35,000 including the
armed forces now stationed in the Zone, are all brought in
from the outside, that is to say, from the United States and to
some extent from Costa Rica, through the ports of Cristobal
and Balboa, nothing of any moment being raised in the 400
square miles of territory comprising the Canal Zone which,
in furtherance of this so-called plan of defense, has been let
grow up in jungle, and that these 35,000 persons, more or less,
are supplied with the necessities of life through one organi-
zation, the commissary or supply department of the Panama
Canal. In addition there are in the cities of Panama and
Colon an additional -100,000 inhabitants in round numbers,
who are dependent upon the ports of Cristobal-Colon and
Balboa-Panama through which they receive their supplies.
These two cities being within the ten-mile strip of land origi-
nally comprising the Canal Zone, there are no adequate roads
to the interior of the republic and all their requirements in the
way of the necessities of life must and do come in by sea,
either in the very few small coasting steamers or small schoon-
ers which trade along the coast, or by the regular steamship
lines plying between Panama and the United States and
In the present European conflict we have seen a power
with as great a navy as our own wiped off the high seas and
the effective blockading of a coastline infinitely greater than
that of the terminal ports of the Panama Canal. It is not
hard' to conceive then a blockade in the Bay of Panama and in
the Carribean sea, outside of the range of the guns of our
forts, that would absolutely shut off our source of supplies.
Bearing in mind that Panama has never produced enough to
supply her own people, that if she did, due to a lack of adequate
wagon roads all supplies must be brought in by sea, and that
the subsistence supplies for the Panama Canal employes and
the army in the Zone are, and must be of necessity, since no
one is permitted to farm in the Canal Zone, brought in from

the outside; it can be readily appreciated that the taking of
the Panama Canal by any firstclass power would simply resolve
itself into the establishing of a blockade which would shut off
ofir supplies, in time forcing through starvation, the surrender
of the Canal. Conceding that there may be at all times on
hand in the Canal Zone sufficient supplies to last for six months
in so -far as the forces of the.Panama Canal are concerned, it
must be borne in mind that humanity would demand that in
time of blockade or siege and in view of the conditions referred
to in the foregoing, the United States provide for the 100,000
population of the cities of Panama and Colon, and that these
supplies would therefore be greatly depleted.
If it is granted that the tropical jungle would prevent the
enemy from forcing an entrance to the Canal Zone by land,
it must be conceded that by this same method of reasoning
this same jungle would prevent our going out of the Zone by
land as we must needs do to bring in supplies, from which it
would appear that we are in the position of an ostrich with
its head buried in the sand, and that by an administrative
policy seemingly without any real merit, the Panama Canal
built at an expense of almost four hundred million dollars, al-
though fortified and protected by the largest guns of their
type ever constructed, is rendered not only liable but very
likely to be wrested from us without the firing of a shot from
these guns: As a chain is only as strong as its weakest link,
so is the present plan of defense of the Panama Canal only as
strong as its greatest failing-a very uncertain line of com-
munication with its base of supplies, 2,000 miles away by sea.
The remedy is obvious-an immediate reversal of the pres-
ent policy of depopulation of the Canal Zone. While the own-
ership of all the land in the Canal Zone by the government of
the United States may have its advantages, not a single law-
abiding cultivator should have been disturbed unless his
cultivation was found to be within a proposed townsite .or on
the site of proposed construction projects. Titles could have
been transferred to the U. S. if considered necessary without
removal of desirable cultivators. Agriculture in the Canal

Zone should be encouraged to the extent of clearing and cul-
tivating every foot of the 400 square miles of territory now
given up to the jungle. This territory should be laid out in
tracts of a reasonable size, roads and crossroads constructed
and every form of legitimate business activity fostered and
encouraged that the Canal Zone may be self-sustaining. When.
it is considered that in the entire republic of Panama today
not a pound of flour is milled, nothing manufactured but a
comparatively small amount of sugar not sufficient to supply
local needs, some rum and beer, the desirability of developing
the Canal Zone to its utmost capacity can readily be appre-
ciated. This should be done, now, today, before it is too late.
The question is one of sufficient important to warrant full
consideration and prompt action.
NOTE:-Since preparation of the above article by Mr.
Taylor and since receipt by the Editor for the Yearbook and
during period of delay in publishing Yearbook (owing to lack
of finances in part), considerable progress in cultivation on
the Canal Zone has been made by plantation work of the Pana-
ma Canal. Little progress as yet, however, has been made in
providing roads and means of transportation.-Editor.


(From Annual Report for year ending June, 1915.)

(NOTE:-The following comment was forwarded by the
governor of the Panama Canal as a part of copy for the an-
nual report for the fiscal year ending June, 1915, but was
omitted from the printed copies as published in Washington.
Gen. Goethals later appeared before the committee on inter-
state and foreign commerce of the house of representatives
in connection with toll questions and was also questioned on
expropriation proceedings when he read the following report
taken from printed hearings of the above-named committee,
for January 11 and February 8 and 11, 1916.-Ed.)
The Chairman. Now, you can read that part of the re-
port that has been expurgated.
Gen. Goethals (reading):


The action of the Government and its officials, in connection with the
settlement for lands within the Canal Zone which are being expropriated, has
been so unjustly criticized and the charge has been made so frequently that
the officials, particularly the counsel for the Government, have been harsh
in their treatment of the poor, ignorant settlers, that I consider that the
facts should be stated. I desire also to call attention to the unsatisfactory
method that now exists for the settlement of claims with a hope that some
action may be taken, looking toward securing a method more prompt and at
the same time properly safeguarding the interests of the United States.
By the terms of the Hay-Varilla treaty, commonly called "the canal
treaty," the Republic of Panama granted to the United States the proprietor-
ship to, as well as the sovereign jurisdiction over, a strip of land 10 miles
wide (excluding therefrom the cities of Panama and Colon and their adja-
cent harbors, though they lie within the 10-mile strip), and to all other lands,
and lands under water necessary and convenient for the construction, mainte-
nance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the canal.
The treaty provides that the grants to the United States shall not in-
validate private rights, but if these conflict with the rights of the United
States, the latter shall be superior; and the owners of private property will
be entitled to damages against the United States, to be appraised by a joint
commission appointed by the two Governments.

The treaty provides (Article VI): "The appraisal of said private land and
private property and the assessment of damages to them shall be based upon
their value before the date of this convention." The reason for this provis-
ion is obvious; the purpose of the United States in coming to the Isthmus
was to build and operate a canal, and not, by localizing a world traffic and
creating a large community with the necessary utilities in the way of water-
works, sewers, roads, and other improvements, to increase the value of real
estate for the benefit of speculators.
Mr. John Hay, who was then Secretary of State and negotiated the
treaty, knew that plans had been made-as was inevitable in connection with
such a work-to raid the Treasury of the United States, and in order to
protect the interests of the Government he insisted upon the above quoted
provision of the treaty that he believed would prevent the accomplishment
of this purpose. In a communication from Mr. Hay, which has been made
public, he stated:
"In our final negotiations we shall insist upon a provision being inserted *
which will prevent this Government from being mulcted in enormous indem-
nities for land which has been recently purchased by speculators with that
Mr. Hay showed keen foresight in drafting this provision and insisting
upon its insertion.
The Panama Railroad acquired by a legislative grant in 1850, 96,000 hec-
tares of land, to be selected by the company on the Isthmus of Panama. The
grant was a legislative enactment of the Congress of New Granada, now
Colombia. It expressly provided that no adjudications of public land should
be made by the Government upon the Isthmus until the railroad company
had acquired all of the lands granted to it. The railroad company had ob-
tained only 64,000 hectares out of the 96,000 when the canal treaty was
signed. The company was also entitled to the public lands needed for rail-
road purposes.
In 1878 the Congress of Colombia, among other things, granted to L. N.
B. Wyse as the representative of the Inter-Oceanic Canal Co. of France all
of the public lands along the line of a canal to be built by the company on
the Isthmus, and for 12 miles on either side that might be needed for canal
purposes. To secure that right to the French company it was provided in the
act of Congress that no adjudication of public lands should be made by the
Government in the strip above mentioned until the canal was completed, and
for five years thereafter. The effect of this legislation was to withdraw from
commerce the strip of land in question and dedicate it to a great public
work. It was no longer subject to entry and settlement under the public-
land laws of Colombia. Neither could anyone except the French Canal Co.
acquire a right of occupancy in the reservation. Otherwise the law by which
the French company acquired its right would be meaningless. Thus the
French company had a vested right in the strip reserved, which the Colombian
Government could not, and in fact did not, impair by granting land con-
cessions to others. The Panama Canal follows practically the route laid
down by the French company, but the Canal Zone proper extends only 5
miles on either side of the canal, though the area covered by the lake ex-
tends over considerable portions of land beyond the 10-mile strip.
In 1881 the President of the Republic of Colombia, in response to a reso-
lution of the Senate of Colombia, issued a decree withdrawing all public
lands on the Isthmus from adjudication until the canal was completed. The
express purpose of the decree was to withhold the lands from sale, in order
that they might enhance in value by reason of the building of the canal, so
that they might thereafter be disposed of at a higher value for the benefit
of the public treasury.
In 1906 the Executive of the Republic of Panama resolved that the de-
cree of 1881 of the Colombian president was in force on the Isthmus on No-
vember 3, 1903, when Panama seceded from Colombia; in fact, the republic
of Panama did not change those conditions in the Republic until 1909, when
the assembly of Panama enacted a public land law authorizing the sale of
public lands to settlers and others.
The United States, in conformity with the Canal Treaty, purchased all

of the rights, privileges, and properties of the Panama Railroad Co. and the
French Canal Co.; and acquired from the Republic of Panama all the rights,
present, future, and reversionary, which that government held in the privi-
leges and properties of the two companies by virtue of the concessions grant-
ed them by Colombia. In consequence the United States, by virtue of the
treaty, acquired all of the lands and interests in lands to which the two
companies were entitled by virtue of their concessions or by private pur-
chase, as well as all of the public lands remaining after the rights of the
two companies were satisfied.
In view of the Colombian legislation on the subject, and especially that
relating to the grant to the French company dedicating the strip 24 miles
wide to the purposes of the canal, it is evident that no one could lawfully
claim any right or title in public lands in the Canal Zone or the Isthmus
of Panama, based on occupancy unaided by a grant from the sovereign. The
proposition which served as a basis for the findings of the commission of
1908, that a sufficient title to land in private persons consisted of an occu-
pancy which had not been disturbed by Colombian or Panaman authorities
prior to the canal treaty, was a patent violation of the rights of the French
Canal Co. in the strip of land along the canal.
After some opposition the policy of fortifying the canal was adopted by
Congress and the necessity for making the Canal Zone a reservation, with
a limited civil population, followed as a matter of course. Already a very
large part of the zone had been dedicated to the formation of Gatun Lake
and other governmental purposes. With a large body of troops permanently
established in the zone there will be but small room for a population of
civilians not connected with the canal.
In conformity with the Panama Canal act, President Taft issued an
Executive order on December 5, 1912, declaring that all of the lands in the
zone were needed for canal purposes, and directed the chairman and chief
engineer to take possession of such lands on behalf of the United States.
The order carried with it by implication the depopulation of the zone, and
in consequence many claims for damages against the United States accrued.
At the beginning of the American occupation of the zone a few tracts of
land were taken for building sites, and these were appraised by a joint com-
mission, which followed the terms of the treaty in their findings, and prompt
and satisfactory disposition was made of the business before the commission.
A commission was appointed in 1907 to pass upon the values of private
property then needed for the purpose of the canal. This commission dis-
agreed in every case except one, which involved ownership by a foreign cor-
poration. In the cases which involved Panaman ownership the American
members of the commission found it impossible to accept the exaggerated
values placed upon the property by the two Panaman members. An umpire
was appointed by the two Governments, in conformity with the treaty, to
appraise the property in the cases in which a disagreement had resulted.
The umpire did not adhere to the values of 1903, inasmuch as the appraisals
made by him were in excess of the prevailing values of that date.
The commission of 1907 did not take up any of the claims in the lake
area, which covered about 170 square miles of territory, and another com-
mission was appointed in 1908 to pass upon them. One of the American
members of the commission acted as umpire in the cases in which the com-
mission of 1907 had disagreed. The values placed by the commission of 1908
upon property were far in excess of the prices paid for such property in the
year 1903 and prior thereto.
A joint commission was appointed by the two Governments in February,
1913. This commission not only adopted the liberal rulings of the commis-
sion of 1908, but extended their generosity to much greater limits. They
were generous, not only in the amount of money awarded to the claimants,
but in the application of legal principles as well.
No tribunal, international or domestic, has a right to misapply the rules
of property out of motives of generosity or otherwise, and this is especially
so under the circumstances found here, where we are in the midst of an alien
and for the most part unfriendly population, where a large number of the
most influential men have combined to extort money from our Treasury.

The misapplication of legal principles by the commission of 1913 permit-
ted the presentation of many claims that should not have been entertained
by that tribunal, because they had no legal standing whatever under the laws
of Colombia, Panama, the Canal Zone, or the United States. The time spent
by the commission in hearing these claims was expensive to the United
States. The commission gave as one of the reasons for their findings that
the Canal Zone authorities had made compensation in similar cases. The
fallacy of that argument is apparent. The Government of the United States
may indulge in generous impulses and make compensation, even in cases
where the parties are not entitled to such consideration in accordance with
property rules, but this is done as a matter of domestic governmental policy.
An international tribunal, however, can not intrude upon domestic affairs of
that kind without going outside of its jurisdiction. The United States has
been generous in dealing with these people, and it is entitled to full credit,
and it ought not to be robbed of that credit by erroneous rulings of a joint
commission. Partisanship on the part of the two Panamanian members can
easily be understood, but it does seem that duty to their own people required
a different course from the American members.
The commission of 1913 held that all occupants of public lands in the
Canal Zone were legally entitled to compensation for their improvements
under the actual settlers or cultivators law of Colombia, which, as we have
seen, had no application to the Isthmus, where the lands had been with-
drawn from adjudication, and especially in the strip reserved by law to the
French Canal Co., which includes the Canal Zone.
The representatives of the United States, in a spirit of generosity, were
quite willing that the joint commission should take jurisdiction of cases
based upon occupancies antedating the treaty, but the commission went
further and held that a post-treaty occupancy of public lands entitled the
occupant to compensation for improvement by virtue of the actual settlers
or cultivators laws of Colombia. This ruling was made in spite of the well-
known principle of international law that the public-land laws of the old
sovereign do not follow the territory ceded to the new sovereign, but that
the laws of the latter affecting public property must control.
The joint commission pushed their theory to the extent of entertaining
cases of occupants who had entered upon public lands in the lake area and
even those who had squatted in the canal prism, after the lands had been
dedicated to the purposes of the lake, and made compensation to the occu-
pants as actual settlers under the public land laws of Colombia. This is
believed to be the first instance in which persons may settle upon Govern-
ment property dedicated to public works and acquire rights there as home-
steaders or settlers or any other possessory right. The theory of the joint
commission is a palpable absurdity.
The commission went to the extent of canceling, in effect, leases revocable
at will that had been issued by the canal authorities to occupants of public
lands in cases in which the occupancy was subsequent to the treaty and
subsequent to the dedication of the land to the purposes of the canal.
Reference has been made to a letter from Mr. Hay, in which he stated
that speculators had purchased lands on the Isthmus with the intent of ob-
taining enormous indemnities for them from our Government. There is one
feature, however, that Mr. Hay did not refer to, which is of interest.
Between the years 1901 and 1904 a large number of titles were fabricated
for lands in the Canal Zone which are, and were at the time of the treaty,
part of the public domain, and claims for these lands have been successfully
maintained before the commission. The method adopted by claimants in pro-
curing these titles was very simple. A number of ignorant jungle blacks
were taken before some political judge in one of the villages along the line
of the railroad and induced to testify before the judge, ex parte, that they
knew, because they had heard it stated, that Senor Blank was the owner of
certain lands, describing them, and that the witnesses knew, because some
one had told them, that Senor Blank, or his ancestors, had had paper titles
to the land, but that these were burned in some fire. Of course these ex
parte statements have no validity under Colombian, Panaman, or American
law, and yet they were accepted by the land commission of 1913. After these

declarations of witnesses were secured they were protocolized before a no-
tary and a copy of the protocolization was registered in the records of real
estate, and thereupon the claimant of the land transferred it to another by
notarial deed, which was also placed on record. Some of these transactions
took place after the treaty was executed.
The real estate records, prior to 1904, of all lands lying between San
Pablo and the Pacific ocean are located in the city of Panama. Lands can
not be transferred, under the Colombian and Panama law, except by a deed
executed before a notary, who keeps the original in his protocol and issues
copies to the interested parties, and the deed is not effective until the copy
is recorded in the registrar's office of public and private instruments. The
records of the registrar's office in the city of Panama are intact as far back
as 1854, and, so far as can be ascertained, the records of the notarial offices
in the city of Panama go back as far as 1821 intact.
A number of claims arising in the regiori lying between San Pablo and
the city of Panama, in the conditions just described, were presented to the
commission of 1913, and the declarations of the ignorant black witnesses
were accepted over the objections of the counsel for the Government, who
insisted that the parties be required to produce certified copies from the
records, in Panama of the deeds alleged to have been burned. The ruling
encouraged the presentation of many such cases, especially as the awards
made were for sums equal to about 10 to 20 times the price paid for similar
lands in 1903.
The commission of 1913 did not wait for claims to be presented in many
cases, but upon its own motion it entered upon its docket the names of all
those who made any suggestion of having a claim. The commission divided
itself into four parts, and each member took the statement of witnesses,
which was not reduced to writing except in abstract form. They employed two
inspectors to inspect lands involved in claims, but ignored the rights and in-
terests of the United States by declining to give the Government's represen-
tative the value of the property as found by the inspectors. The commission
felt authorized to seek information by letter and otherwise, without the
'knowledge and consent of Government's counsel, and awards were based upon
information obtained in this irregular manner. The two American commis-
sioners were not familiar with conditions on the Isthmus and kept themselves
in an atmosphere hostile to American interests, where the agents of the
United States were slandered without being given an opportunity to refute
those slanders.
The most aggravated case of misapplication of legal rules by the com-
mission of 1913 arose from the occupancy of lots in the town of Gorgona,
which was located on public lands of the National Government and is now
covered by the waters of Lake Gatun.
The laws of Colombia provided for the concession of common lands to
municipalities. A survey, designation, and formal adjudication of the lands
to the municipality by the chief executive of the nation were required by
these laws. None of these formalities were complied with in so far as Gorgona
was concerned. Consequently, the lands upon which the town was situated
remained public domain. The Supreme Court of the United States, in a case
relating to the city of Santa Fe, held that the city had acquired no title to
its common lands under a decree of the Crown of Spain, similar to the
Colombian laws, because no formal grant had been made by the Crown to
the city of Santa Fe for the lands in question. The same court held that
the city of San Francisco was not entitled to common lands' claimed by it
under Mexican laws, similar to those of Colombia, because no survey and
designation of the lands had been made to the city by the Mexican Govern-
ment. These cases were submitted to the joint commission, which ignored
them completely.
After our Government declared for a lock canal and it was seen that
Gorgona would be inundated by Lake Gatun, to be formed, the Isthmian
Canal Commission, with the approval of the authorities in Washington, re-
quired the people at Gorgona to take out revocable licenses for the lots
occupied by them. These leases provided that the Government of the United

States might terminate the lease at any time without compensation to the
lessees for their improvements. This provision in the lease was nothing
more than a declaration of the principle upon which article 1994 of the
Civil Code is based. It reads as follows:
"The landlord is not obliged to reimburse the cost of improvements to
which he has not consented with the express condition to pay for them; but
the lessee may separate and take away the materials without prejudice to
the thing leased, unless the landlord is disposed to compensate the lessee for
the value of the materials, considering these separately."
The people at Gorgona had occupied the lots under permission from the
governor of the Province of Panama and under municipal licenses. These
were all granted for short periods, which had expired when the land was
taken over by the United States and in none of the permits or licenses was
any provision to be found requiring compensation to be made to the occu-
pants for improvements.
In order to assist the people at Gorgona, the canal authorities had re-
lieved them of paying land rent for a year or more, and from the payment
of taxes. These exemptions had been granted to all of the people in the
lake area, and subsequently were extended to the entire Canal Zone. The
agents of the government of the Canal Zone were prepared to further assist
the people at Gorgona by transporting the material in their houses, the claim-
ants themselves, and their families and household effects, over the Panama
railroad free of cost, and in cases of indigent persons they contemplated pay-
ing them for the material in their houses, and did in fact pay a number of
them, then allowing them to remove the material. I may add that this policy
was carried out in hundreds of cases in the Canal Zone.
By some process of reasoning, which is not revealed in the rulings of
the commission, it was held by that tribunal that the lands at Gorgona were
municipal, and that in consequence the occupants were entitled to compen-
sation for their improvements, under a law which provided that the pur-
chaser of municipal lands from the municipality must compensate any occu-
pants found thereon for their improvements. If the lands at Gorgona had in
fact been municipal, which everyone knows is not sto, the dissimilarity in
the cases referred to by the commission and those pending before that tri-
bunal is manifest. The United States was not a purchaser of municipal lands
at Gorgona, but the owner of them, for the public lands upon which Gorgona
was situated were part of the lands reserved to the French Canal Co. Awards
were made to the occupants, of lots at Gorgona grossly excessive in amount.
A tabulated statement of a number of the cases is submitted, showing the
value of the serviceable material in the houses at Gorgona as fixed by the
chief quartermater's department, and the value of the houses as assessed
by the joint commission. In a number of cases the houses, though large,
were in a bad state of decay, and the serviceable material in them was of
very small value.
Quarter- Quarter-
Owner. Award. master's Owner. Award. master's
estimate estimate
Andrade Antonio........... $400.00 $25.80 Fanfan, Ferdinand $130.00 $14.52
Do..................................... 6,500.00 126.50 Gordon, Pastora..... 85.00 5.00
Cadet, E................................... 1,700.00 151.30 Do................................... 80.00 10.50
Do......................................... 830.00 62.60 Laurent, Charles..... 250.00 22.30
Do..................................... 420.00 35.30 Loon, M odesta........... 200.00 11.80
Carrington, W. H Lopez, Guadaloupe 75.00 11.40
(administrator of .Ramos, Alejandro.. 1,100.00 33.00
the estate of George-
Andrade, deceased).. 1,500.00 115.50 Total.................... ,270.00 759.62
D o......................... .. ..... 1,800.00 129.10
Cookhorn, Lillian
administratrixx of
the estate of Hora-
tio Cookhorn, de-
ceased) ................................... 200.00 5.00

Notwithstanding the excessive awards, the people at Gorgona were allow-
ed to remove the material in their houses, except some zinc, roofs that were
utilized by the quartermaster. The material in the houses were transported
by the canal authorities over the railroad to the Pacific entrance to the
canal, together with the claimants and their families and their household
effects, free of charge, and from there the free transportation was extended
by water to the town of New Gorgona, some 30 miles down the Pacific coast.
The canal authorities materially aided in the transportation of about 1,000
people to the new town.
The commission of 1914, while exceedingly liberal in the application of
legal principles and in the sums of money awarded to claimants, insisted
upon some semblance of rules of procedure. This has been due to the atti-
tude of the two American members, much to the dissatisfaction of the
Panamans, who desire to follow the practice of the commission of 1913,
which left the United States unprotected. However, the commission of 1914
has made a ruling that is of far-reaching effect. They have affirmatively
held that the commission is not bound by the provision in the treaty which
requires that properties be appraised at their value before the date of the
convention, and that the values of December 5, 1912, when the depopulation
order of President Taft was issued, must be taken as the true measure. If
that ruling is adhered to, the United States will be required to pay about
$1,500,000 for property around the southern end of Ancon Hill, which was
worth about $25,000 to $30,000 in 1903, and practically all of the increase will
be unearned increment. The property could have but very little more value
than it had in 1903, unless the owners are permitted to utilize the water-
works, sewerage system, and sanitary improvements of the canal. In addi-
tion to the area around the south end of Ancon Hill, there are several
square miles of land out toward Sabanas, adjoining the City of Panama, for
which the owners are now claiming compensation upon a meter basis, which
would allow awards to be made to them for sums several thousand per cent
greater than the values of the properties in 1903.
The claimants and their witnesses all testified as to the present value of
lands in the city of Panama which are owned by a few influential families,
and they insist that those values should be taken in assessing the damages
for properties on the Canal Zone immediately adjoining the city upon the
theory that, had the claimants been permitted to do so, they might have cut
up the land into city lots and derived large revenues from them. Of course,
the claimants could not have done that without utilizing the waterworks,
sewerage, sanitary ditches, and other utilities of the Canal Zone.
The joint commission accepted the values prevailing on the Panama
city side, as testified to by claimants' witnesses, as a basis for the award in
the case in which the provision of the treaty was repudiated.
The joint commission referred to the decision of the attorney general of
the United States in support of the statement that it would be inequitable
to take the values of 1903 after waiting 10 or more years. The statement
made by the attorney general was not necessary to determine the point sub-
mitted to him; neither had the provision of the treaty been called to -his at-
tention, and certainly there is nothing in his opinion to have justified the
joint commission in accepting the values in the city of Panama as a basis
for an award for land in the Canal Zone, where the conditions are funda-
mentally different.
The towns of Empire and Culebra and other settlements adjoining these
towns were situated upon land belonging to the Panama Railroad Co., and
lots in those towns were occupied under leases from the company. The
leases contained provisions for their termination by the company upon no-
tice and a method was provided therein for the adjustment of the respective
rights of the parties upon the termination of the lease.
The railroad company gave notice of the termination of the leases in
June, 1914, and advised the parties that they would be allowed to remain
in possession until the 1st of October following without the payment of -
ground rent.

The lessees presented their claims to the joint commission against the
United States. Counsel for the Government interposed a plea to the juris-
diction of the commission upon the ground that no claim under the treaty
could arise against the United States for the cancellation of the leases by
the Panama Railroad Co. and that the recourse of the lessees, if any, was
against that company. The joint commission overruled the plea to the juris-
diction interposed on behalf of the Government upon the ground that the
Executive order issued by President Taft on December 5, 1912, declaring that
all of the lands in the Canal Zone were needed for Canal purposes and di-
recting the chairman and chief engineer to take possession of them on be-
half of the United States extinguished all privately owned titles in the
Canal Zone, including those of the Panama Railroad Co., ipsq jure, so to
speak, and that thereupon the United States took possession of all such
lands eo instant, and that in consequence the Panama Railroad Co. was
powerless to cancel the leases in June, 1914, because it had no title or owner-
ship in the land at that time, which had passed to the United States by virtue
of the President's Executive order.
The counsel for the Government called the commission's attention to
the fact that the Panama Canal act directed the President to extinguish
titles by private agreement, and upon failure to extinguish title by private
agreement with the owners, then the adverse claim against the United
States should be extinguished in the manner provided in the treaty; that is
to say, by decision of a joint commission.
The Appropriations Committee, when on the Isthmus, investigated the
cases, and as a result provision was inserted in the appropriation act pro-
hibiting the expenditure of any of the moneys appropriated to the payment
of awards in cases involving Panama Railroad leases or to the payment of
the salaries and other expenses of the joint commission while hearing any
such cases.
The effect of the ruling of the commission in the Empire and Culebra
cases is to extend the jurisdiction of that tribunal so as to include some
thousand or more cases that otherwise would not have been presented. It
may be added, however, that in consequence of the arrival of the Fifth and
Twenty-ninth Infantries on the Isthmus the Land Office has had opportunity
to take over many of the houses in the two towns mentioned for military
uses and has affected settlements with the owners of the houses.
There are submitted below a few concrete cases in support of the state-
ments in this memorandum respecting the action of the various joint land
commissions in making awards.
The commission of 1913 met on the Isthmus in the latter part of Febru-
ary, and a number of claims were submitted to that tribunal, which were
held under advisement by the commission until June following. In the
meantime the newspapers in the city of Panama, which are owned and con-
trolled by claimants against the United States, commenced .a violent attack
upon the American commissioners, and the Panama Government requested
their removal, through the Panama minister at Washington. The Panama
Government went so far as to suggest that the entire personnel of the
commission might be removed and four new men selected, two by each
These attacks upon the two American commissioners were made while
they were considering claims and before an award was made. When the
awards were made they were so generous that all attacks ceased. As this
generous treatment of the claimants by the commission was continued the
attacks thereafter were limited to the Canal Zone officials, the counsel for
the Government especially, because he had protested a number of awards on
the grounds that the commission had exceeded its jurisdiction in the appli-
cation of legal principles and that the awards were grossly excessive in.
One of those awards was for the Juan Grande tract of land, near Gor-
gona; two of the most prominent men of the Republic were principal own-
ers. They owned 470 hectares of the tract, according to our measurement,
and 532 hectares, according to claimants' measurement. These two men

purchased the land in question on April 2, 1903, and paid 800 Colombian
pesos for it, or $400, United States gold. If our measurement of 470 hectares
is accepted, the price paid by them would be 85 cents per hectare. If the
claimants' measurement of 532 hectares is accepted, the price would be 75
cents per hectare. On June 17, 1906, these two claimants entered into an
agreement with Mr. Richard Reid Rogers, then counsel for the Isthmian
Canal Commission in charge of land claims, duly executed before a notary
public, by which they agreed to convey to the United States all the lands in
the Juan Grande tract that might be needed for the purposes of the lake or
for any other construction purpose of the canal or the Panama Railroad.
The various works required about two-thirds of the lands owned by those
two claimants in the Juan Grande tract. Mr. Rogers agreed to pay $5 a
hectare for the land, and that amount, which was about six times as much
as they had paid for the land five years before, was accepted; in other words,
they were to make a profit of approximately 600 per cent in five years.
Soon after the agreement with Mr. Rogers was made, the joint land
commission of 1908 convened and made awards to other people owning land
ini the Juan Grande tract at the rate of $10 per hectare, notwithstanding the
fact that those Juan Grande lands had sold for less than $1 prior to the date
of the convention.
One of the claimants died subsequent to the time the agreement was
made with Mr. Rogers, and, in consequence, he is not responsible for what
his heirs and representatives may have done thereafter. The other, how-
ever, acting for himself and his partner's estate, declined to carry out the
agreement with Mr. Rogers, and all efforts of the agents of the Government
to close the matter with him were unavailing.
When the joint commission of 1913 convened, a claim was filed against
the United States for the lands in the Juan Grande tract, including those
involved in the agreement which he had signed. Counsel for the United
States contended before the commission that that tribunal could not take
jurisdiction of a claim for the land included in the agreement. The com-
mission declined to accept the theory of Government's counsel, upon the
ground that they had no power to compel specific performance of the agree-
ment. Of course the question was not one requiring the enforcement of
specific performance. The United States acquired title to the land by virtue
of Article VI of the treaty, which says that when private rights conflict with
the rights of the United States, those of the latter shall be superior, and
the private owner is left to his claim for damages. In this specific case the
claimants made and joined in a solemn notarial document with the repre-
sentative of the Government, agreeing to accept $6 a hectare for lands to
be taken for construction purposes of the canal and the railroad. The treaty
obligation on the part of the United States to compensate these claimants
was merged in the municipal agreement entered into with the Government's
agent by these parties, and consequently, so far as an international tribunal
was concerned, the case was closed.
The joint commission declined to be bound by the agreement and
awarded $10,000 to the owners of the Juan Grande lands in addition to
making awards for improvements to a great number of squatters that were
upon the property. The award meant a profit of 2,100 per cent on the in-
vestment made in 1903. This transaction brings to mind the statement made
by Secretary Hay that speculators had purchased property with a view of
mulcting the United States.
Another case is that of the Miraflores tract of land at Gatun. One of
the part owners purchased a part of his interest in the Miraflores tract in
1904 and paid $1.52 per' hectare for it. The other portions of the land he
acquired partly in 1893, partly in 1895, and partly in 1901, at. an average of
$1 gold per hectare.
The other part owner purchased his half in 1888, or 1889, when the con-
struction on the French Canal was at its height and real estate values were
the highest at any time prior to our treaty with Panama. He paid the
equivalent in Colombian money of about $1 gold per hectare; that is to say,

he paid 2,700 Colombian pesos for 1,499 hectares, of which 1,262% lie within
the Canal Zone, on which the award was based.
An agreement was made by Mr. Rogers with one of the part owners to
convey his half interest in the Miraflores tract to be submerged by the lake,
at $5 per hectare, in 1908; in other words, he was to make a profit of more
than 300 per cent in about five years. Like many of the other claimants,
he repudiated the agreement after the commission of 1908 had made such
generous awards to his neighbors, and in order to close the agreement made
with him it was necessary to offer him inducements.
The joint claim was presented to the land commission of 1913. An award
was made of $7,500 for 590% hectares still belonging to one of the partners
after deducting the land already sold in the part of the tract to be flooded
by the waters of Gatun Lake. In other words, this claimant had 590 hec-
tares of uplands and mountain peaks left to him. For these he was award-
ed $7,500, which is equivalent to $12.75 gold a hectare; about eight or nine
times what the land had cost him, including the valley lands, which had
previously been conveyed to the United States.
The other partner received $17,500 for the 1,246Y hectares owned by
him in the Miraflores tract, a little more than 14 times what he paid for it;
and of course the awards to both of these claimants was in addition to
awards made to several hundred squatters upon' the property. This award
was made notwithstanding the fact that the owner offered to sell to the
United States all of his interest in the Miraflores tract to be flooded by
Gatun Lake for $8 a hectare. This offer was made in 1908, but was not ac-
cepted by the Government.
The commission of 1908 awarded damages to the owners of the Pihisba
tract of land on the upper Chagres for that portion of the property to be
flooded by the waters of Gatun Lake. The awards were for excessive
amounts, and were made to the owners of the land notwithstanding it was
shown in evidence that there were numerous occupants and tenants upon
the property, and these received nothing under the awards. When the com-
mission of 1913 met, the.tenants and squatters on the Pihisba estate above
mentioned presented their claims. Counsel for the United States contended
that the lands in question were no longer subject to the jurisdiction of the
joint commission; that damages had been assessed against our Government
for them and these damages had been paid in accordance with the awards.
To this the commission replied that it was not necessary to pass upon the
effect of the previous award; that it was sufficient to say that the tenants
and squatters had continued upon the land after the award of 1908 was made,
and that they were entitled to compensation for their improvements by
reason of their occupancy since 1908 in conformity with the public land
laws of Colombia. There is no public land law of Colombia or any other
country that permits an entry upon lands that have been dedicated to pub-
lic works to be used as a basis for a claim against the sovereign for im-
provements. However, awards were made to the tenants and squatters
above mentioned.
Leopold Cantoral was a tenant of the French Canal Co. He leased a
piece of land in the French canal prism and planted sugar cane, and dis-
posed of the product of the sugar cane by converting it into rum on the
premises. The lease from the French Canal Co. contained'a clause that it
might be canceled on 30 days' notice without compensation of any kind to
Cantoral for the improvements he might have placed upon the land. The
French Canal prism was utilized by our Government and forms part of the
present channel of the canal. After the transfer of the canal to the United
States, Cantoral paid rent to the Isthmian Canal Commission for one year.
The canal authorities did not require him to pay rental thereafter, but he
was repeatedly advised that he was there at his own risk, and would have
to get out when the waters of the lake came up. He filed a claim before the
land commission and was awarded $1,500.
Here again the award was based upon the public land laws of Colombia.
The award does not inform us by what process of reasoning the commission

reached the conclusion that a tenant, under a revokable lease in the canal
prism and part of the public works of the canal, could acquire any rights as
a cultivator or homesteader, or in any other manner, under the land laws
of Colombia. The fact that Cantoral paid the.Isthmian Canal Commission
rent for one year was naively disposed of by the land commission by saying
that the payment was evidently a mistake. The award was too much for Dr.
Faulkner, one of the American members of the commission, and he dissented.
It is true that the depopulation of the zone has worked a hardship to
some, but the building of the canal was a world necessity, and it impera-
tively required the clearing of very large areas of the Canal Zone of its
occupants. The lake covers an area of 167 square miles, and the other activ-
ities of our Government require great areas in addition. Everything has
been done that could be done to relieve the people being removed from the
Canal Zone. They were compensated for their improvements; the material
in their houses was returned to them after being paid for by the United
States; and free transportation was granted to them, their families, and
household effects; and, in addition, free transportation by water has been
furnished by the United States to thousands of these people in order that
they might return to their former homes in the West Indies, South and
Central America, to Europe, and to other parts of the world.
When the commission of 1914 met, the plan of attacking the agents of
the United States Government was continued. Charges of oppression,
threat, and frauds, were made against the Government's agents and the land
inspectors by claimants and their attorneys, and were supported by the
testimony of the former, who have combined against the Government to
extort money from it, and that of their witnesses. The atmosphere here is
quite unfriendly to the United States, the evident intention is to get all that
is possible by any means that can be employed, and in many cases the most
palpable perjury is committed by claimants and their witnesses.
The important issue involved is something more than money. It affects
the good name of our Government and its agents. They are entitled to the
protection of the American members of. the commission from the slanders
against them, and the American commissioners should decline to hear these
slanders when made in the absence of the representatives of the American
Government. The commissioners, by their rulings and attitude generally,
have done much to take from the United States and its agents the credit
that is due to them on account of their indulgence to an antagonistic peo-
ple. The commission has made it appear as though a legal obligation rested
upon our Government in these cases, and comfort has been given to those
who have slandered the United States and its agents.
These slanders culminated when, under the date of June 12, 1915, the
Panaman members of the commission addressed a communication to the
Secretary of Foreign Relations for Panama, and made the charge that "in-
vestigations made on the land by the commissioners have shown that the
quantity of improvements which were found on the properties of the inter-
ested parties was much in excess of that which, under the gravity of oath,
had been declared by the inspectors of land of the United States." The
representatives of the United States are in position to absolutely refute this
charge, and it, therefore, constitutes a slander of the most serious nature.
The offensiveness of this action was further aggravated by the fact that the
charges were embodied in a resolution offered at an executive session of the
commission, which was not communicated-to our counsel through the Ameri-
can members, or by any other means, but was made known upon request of
one of the most active of the claim attorneys and later was given out to a
local paper which- has been extremely partisan in the support of claimants.
On account of this action on the part of the Panaman Commissioners, our
Government would be justified in making to the Panama Government the
most summary representations with respect to them.
The resolution in question (which failed to pass because of the negative
vote of the American members) was to the effect that as the testimony of
our inspectors had been found unreliable, future awards should be based on

personal ocular inspection of property by members of the commission; this
in order that no injustice might be done to any claimant. The Panama
members of the commission are not credited with sincerity. Personal in-
spection of all property would greatly prolong the sittings of the commis-
sion, and, consequently, substantially increase the remuneration of the
members; it is much more probable that this, rather than zeal for the pro-
tection of claimants, is their impelling motive.
This resolution grew out of a claim by William Keyes, whose attorney
publicly accused the representatives of the United States Government of
unfairness in dealing with the inhabitants of the Canal Zone, and claimed
that the United States had broken faith with Panama in that it had not ad-
hered to the spirit of the Canal Treaty, though he failed to mention what
the treaty provides. The case has been given such publicity that the facts
are given.
Keyes filed a claim for his farm and asked for $3,284 damages. He was
a tenant on land situated east of the city of Colon, in the Canal Zone. About
six months ago the Government inspectors visited Keyes's place, made a note
of the improvements, fruit trees and other cultivations that they found, and
offered to pay $200 for his improvements, which the latter accepted, signing
a bill of sale to the United States releasing the improvements on his farm.
In the meantime Mr. Keyes was interviewed by the attorney who made
the accusation and induced him to repudiate the bill of sale, offering to fight
the case before the land commission for a contingent fee of 40 per cent.
This attorney was disbarred from practice by the courts of the Canal Zone
about a year ago or more for defrauding a woman client of money. He went
to the United States and returned to the Isthmus soon after. He appealed
to the sympathies of the local bar and the attorneys interceded for him with
the district judge and succeeded in having the disbarment order set aside,
so that he might have an opportunity to reform. The main witness employ-
ed in the trial of the case and who claimed to have taken an inventory of
the property formerly belonged to the Canal Zone police force and was dis-
honorably discharged in 1906 for drunkenness and abuse of authority. When
the case was called for trial the claim was increased to $8,000. Although
Keyes did not think he had signed a bill of sale to the United States, for he
had signed without reading the document, such bill was accepted in evidence
and Keyes admitted that the signature was his. The land commission ig-
nored the bill of sale and awarded Keyes $800, 40 per cent of which, or $320
goes to the attorney.
The joint commissions have been extremely costly to our Government.
The expense has amounted to about $5,000 a month, aside from the sums
expended in the payment of awards. In a letter under date of May 7, 1915,
to the Secretary of State, Mr. L. M. Kagy, one of the American members of
the commission, states "It is estimated that it will require probably one
more year to complete the work of the commission." Even if this were true
much more time has been consumed and money expended than should have
been necessary, but there is no guaranty that it is true. On the contrary,
the proceedings give every indication of being interminable. At the present
time the commission is in a state of deadlock over the proposal to make
personal inspection of all property, one American member of the commission
is in the United States, and even the slight progress that was being made in
the settlement of claims has ceased.
Had the joint commission adhered to the rules of law governing public
and private property as recognized in the courts of the land, not one-third
of the claims appearing upon the docket could have been presented. The
tribunal as constituted has appeared to act upon the assumption that its
members are diplomatic negotiators, with plenary powers to adjust all
claims, without being bound by the rules of property applicable to the or-
dinary courts or the treaty obligations. The effect of Article VI of the treaty,
requiring that claims arising from the maintenance, operation, sanitation,
and protection of the canal be adjudicated by the commission, makes it a
continuous institution. It has become evident that some more expeditious

and less expensive method of adjusting claims must be found than that now
prescribed by the treaty. Congress has already made one step in that di-
rection by conferring jurisdiction on the District Court of the Canal
Zone in cases of damage to ships, their cargoes and passengers, while pass-
ing through the locks under the control of the operatives, when there is a
disagreement between the governor of the Panama Canal and the claimants.
The jurisdiction of this court could be extended to other cases, but without
jury trial, or a special court could be instituted.
SIt is strongly urged that, when the modification of the Taft agreement
is under consideration, which it is assumed will be at an early date, the
treaty be amended, so that an equitable, and at the same time expeditious,
settlement of claims can be secured.
Respectfully submitted.
GEO. W. GOETHALS, Governor, the Panama Canal.


Prior to the American occupation of the Panama Canal
Zone no effort had been made to organize a system of schools
for the interior villages. The native children had grown up
with the little instruction a few of them obtained at home or
in an occasional private school. The laborers imported by the
French Canal Company opened a few schools but these con-
stituted a very small step toward the growth of a school sys-
On September 2, 1904, the same year that the United
States secured control over the Canal Zone, the Isthmian
Canal Commission authorized the establishment of a school
system, and on January 21, 1905, placed it under the juris-
diction of the Collector of Revenues. A school census was
taken the following June and preliminary plans were made
for providing buildings and equipment, but little was done
toward organization until more than a year later.
The census showed that there were in the Canal Zone
nearly two thousand children between the ages of six and
sixteen, one-half of whom could neither read nor write. For
these the ordinary district school curriculum was planned.
An order was placed in the States for text books, desks, and
one thousand slates. Buildings were set aside and repaired
for school use.
On December 2, 1905, a superintendent of schools was
appointed, and on January 2, 1906, the first public school un-
der the jurisdiction of the United States Government was
opened at Corozal. Owing to delay in receiving the supplies
from the States, this first school had a very meagre begin-

ning, the equipment consisting of a few borrowed chairs and
tables and such sample texts as were on hand, supplemented
by a few books from the homes in Corozal. This school was
closed in a little over four months, as the maximum enroll-
ment had reached only nine, and the attendance was from six
to seven. In the meantime additional schools had been start-
ed at other villages in the Canal Zone.
At the time the Government schools first opened, five of
the seven municipalities had established and were operating
five schools, with a combined attendance of about 150 pupils.
For a time, then, there were two systems of public schools in
the Canal Zone, acting independently of each other. However,
on February 1, 1906, at the request of the Inspector of Muni-
cipalities and some of the mayors, the municipal schools were
taken over and made a part of the Government system.
A Bureau of Municipalities was created on May 1, 1906,
and at the same time the jurisdiction of the schools was
transferred to the chief of that bureau. The schools were
then more closely related to the work and organization of the
Bureau of Municipalities and under this bureau they were
free from the Government routine which had previously
caused many delays. The building program was at once in-
creased, and the work was done at the expense of the munici-
pality in which the school was located. There was a large
growth in the school attendance, caused principally by com-
pulsory attendance ordinances which were enacted by the
municipalities on June 1, 1906.
On May 1, 1906, there were eighteen schools in opera-
tion, with an enrollment of 611 pupils, and a force of twenty-
one teachers. Five months later, September 30, 1906, this
had increased to thirty schools, with an enrollment of 1,237,
and a force of thirty-four teachers. Of the thirty-four teach-
ers, fourteen were Americans, one Panamanian, and nineteen
colored West Indians; of the thirty buildings, four were for
white children, and twenty-six for both white and colored.
The attendance was largely made up of negroes; only about
ten percent of the enrollment were white.

The schools were opened under a reorganized system on
July 16, 1906. The teachers' salaries, which had previously
been from $30 U. S. C. to $80 per month, were revised into
three classes:-Class A, composed of assistant teachers of
fair qualifications, were to receive $45 per month; Class B,
composed of teachers with educational qualifications but no
experience, were to receive $65 per month; and Class C, com-
posed of white teachers with both educational and expe-
rience qualifications, were to receive $80 per month. The
school year, which had previously been from September 15
to June 15, was changed to a twelve-month school of four
terms, viz: from July 16 to Sept. 28, October 18 to December
21, January 2 to March 22, and April 8 to June 30, respectively.
The school day consisted of six hours. The teachers, who
had previously been employed for nine months, were now em-
ployed for the calendar year, without deductions for the va-
cation periods. Teachers of Class C were the only ones
furnished quarters unless it was impossible for others to pro-
vide same for themselves.
One of the greatest obstacles in bringing white lady
teachers from the States at this time, and until some time
later, was the impossibility of securing suitable quarters for
them. Consequently, a large majority of teachers were those
living with friends and relatives and employed on the Isthmus,
or were married women living here.
The first teachers' meeting was held at Ancon on March
3, 1906. There were sixteen teachers present, and also many
Canal Zone and Panamanian officials. Regular meetings for
colored teachers were not held until February 8, 1908.
On December 1, 1906, the schools were organized as an
independent division under the Department of Law and Govy
ernment. One of the interesting features of this month was'
the visit to the Isthmus of President Roosevelt. In his pas-
sage across the Isthmus he was greeted at all the principal
stations by large groups of school children, who welcomed
him with the national flag salute and American patriotic

songs. The president expressed personal pleasure and satis-
faction with the efforts being put forth in the development
of the educational system in the Canal Zone.
The Isthmian Canal Commission passed a resolution on
June 11, 1907, making the school year from October 1 to June
30. The salaries were also changed to a nine-month basis.
The rates of pay for white teachers were fixed at $110 and $90
per month, U. S. C., the higher rate being for principals and
for teachers rendering additional service to that of regular
teaching. The rates of pay for colored teachers were fixed at
$60 and $50 per month, the higher rate dependent upon length
of service and quality of work.
When the schools opened on October 1, 1907, a plan was
inaugurated for the gradation and classification of pupils as
it existed in the States. An organization of high school
classes at Culebra and Cristobal was formed. An effort was
made to provide facilities for continuing the education of
children in the Canal Zone so that upon returning to the
States the pupils' school work could be continued without loss
of time or progress.
All school supplies from the beginning had been furnish-
ed to the pupils without charge,-a policy which has never
been changed. A tuition fee, however, was established for
non-residents not employees of the Canal or Railroad at the
rate of $2.00, U. S. C., per month for attendance in the ele-
mentary schools, and $4.00, U. S. C., per month for attend-
ance in the high schools.
Up to the close of the school year on June 30, 1909, the
foremost school problems were those pertaining to the pro-
vision of buildings, the securing of teachers, and the obtain-
ing of general school supplies. Parents asked for school
privileges for their children faster than accommodations
could be provided for them. The first buildings in many cases
were makeshifts, competent available teachers were scarce,
and there were practically no general supplies in the way of
seats and text books. Gradually, however, these conditions
were met so that when the school year ended on June 30 there

was a fairly complete working equipment, and the first great
step in the development of the Canal Zone school system had
been taken.
With the opening of school on October 1, 1908, as with
each succeeding year, these general preparations were natu-
rally extended, but the solution of other problems was com-
menced. By way of carrying forward to more definite com-
pletion this first step in the work, additional frame buildings
were erected, more teachers were provided for the newly
opened schools and for overcrowded schools. In the erection
of new buildings special attention was now given to location
of site in order to serve the convenience of the majority of
the children and at the same time to secure proper surround-
ings for study. The greatest problem in construction of
school buildings on the Isthmus was found to be with respect
to the proper lighting and circulation of air, and at the same
time avoiding the interference of one room with another. In
order to attract especially well prepared teachers to the Isth-
mus, a circular of information, stating fully the improved
condition, was printed early in the year and widely distributed.
Partially because of this circular, but more largely on account
of the general spread of information throughout the United
States concerning conditions in the Canal Zone, there was
much less difficulty to provide teachers with both training
and experience.
The most important school problems at this time, how-
ever, were connected with the course of study, the supervision
of instruction, and the grading of pupils,-problems which
in the life of a school system like that of the Canal Zone natu-
rally come later than the construction of buildings, and pro-
vision of teachers and supplies. Not until at this time was the
number of children in the white schools, which now had an
attendance of between five and six hundred, sufficiently large
to make it seem advisable to have the same subjects and the
same portions of those subjects taught to pupils of the same
grades in all schools of the Zone. The latter half of the school
year 1907-1908 and the first half of the school year 1908-1909

formed a transition period from what was then in the white
schools essentially a system of individual instruction, to what
was not essentially class instruction. This transition involved
the necessity of a well organized, detailed course of study, in
which the work for the respective grades was definitely out-
lined; and the necessity of paying closer attention to the
grading of the pupils throughout the Zone, in order that the
same class of work would be done. in similar grades in all the
schools. This was necessitated not only because of the in-
creased number of children in the schools, but also because
of the great amount of required moving of employees and
their families from one portion of the Canal to another. In
order to facilitate the transferring of pupils from one school
to another during the year, a system of transfer cards was
adopted, giving complete information concerning the pupils'
past school record. In order to provide systematic individual
instruction for assisting pupils who were not up to grade, and
to supply properly qualified substitutes during the absence
of regular teachers, two instructors were appointed in April,
1909, to give all their time to coaching and substituting. The
problem of grading was especially difficult because many
children lost six weeks from school while on vacation in the
States with their parents. Another obstacle in the way of
making rapid progress in grading the schools was the differ-
ent degree of advancement in the several subjects shown by
pupils in any particular grade. This inequality resulted large-
ly from preparation in the different school systems from
which the pupils came. The scattered distribution of the
schools and the fact that teachers came from all sections of
the United States, bringing with them their own local ideals
as to methods of teaching, made the problem of unifying the
methods of instruction difficult, requiring for its successful
accomplishment a greater amount of supervision to the num-
ber of teachers employed than would be necessary in a city
system where schools are centralized and teachers are drawn
to a very little extent from centers with educational ideas at
variance with those of the system to which they are called.

To meet this problem a supervisor of primary grades was ap-
pointed and arrived on the Isthmus on February 20, 1909. A
supervisor of high schools, grammar grades, and colored
schools was also appointed for the following year.
A three-year high school was established at Culebra and
a two-year high school at Cristobal, with a total enrollment
for both places of twenty-five pupils. Special attention was
given to physical training. On January 1, 1909, regular
monthly medical examinations for the white schools were
authorized. With the co-operation of the horticulturist, ex-
periments in school gardens were commenced. The teaching
of Spanish in the four upper grades of the elementary schools
was inaugurated. In accordance with a movement toward
consolidating the schools the policy was adopted that when
the number of children in any of the towns did not justify the
establishment of a white school, free transportation was pro-
vided to the nearest town where appropriate school facilities
were given. This transportation consisted of passes on regu-
lar passenger or labor trains, wagonettes operated by the
Division of Schools, and in a few instances it included even a
boat and ferryman.
During the school year beginning October 1, 1909, addi-
tional adjustable sanitary steel seats and desks were secured
so that every school was adequately supplied. Basket ball and
base ball teams were organized. Consolidation of schools was
developed further, and approximately 300,000 miles of trans-
portation were furnished. Special attention was given to the
reorganization of the high schools, the organization of colored
school gardens, and the revision of the course of study for
elementary grades. The high schools were consolidated at
Cristobal with a full four-year course, making conditions
more comparable with those in the States. A high school
school paper, the "Zionian", was published for the first time.
A colored teacher was appointed to give all his time to direct-
ing the work of colored school gardens. The tuition fee was
raised to $4.00, U. S. C., per month for attendance in the ele-

mentary schools, and $8.00 per month for attendance in the
high schools.
In the school year 1910-1911 physical culture and medi-
cal inspection were placed temporarily on a more systematic
basis by having a physician detailed to the Division of Schools
exclusively for this work. Consolidation of schools was con-
tinued, and over 400,000 miles of free transportation were
furnished. The four-year high school was transferred to
Gatun, and a one-year branch high school was established at
Ancon. The high school successfully gave a class play for the
first time. The high school commencement was held at Gatun
on June 24, 1911, with two graduates. The Board on College
Entrance Examinations included the Canal Zone as a center,
and the first examination was given at Gatun in June, 1911.
A part-time director of music was secured for the schools
during the year. Some difficulty had been experienced in ob-
taining suitable colored teachers, and the superintendent and
supervisor were sent to Jamaica for the purpose of securing
the services of experienced colored teachers who were gradu-
ates of West Indian colleges.
New schools were opened on October 1, 1911, and efforts
were continued toward consolidation. The amount of trans-
portation furnished school children remained large. This had
previously been furnished free to the division of schools, but
at this time a direct charge was made. The colored school
gardens were continued until the end of the school year 1913,.
when they were abandoned.
During the school year 1912-1913 the main high school
was transferred to Ancon and branch schools were established
at Empire and Gatun.
On November 4, 1913, the high schools at Ancon and
Empire were reorganized and the school day lengthened so
that the recitation period could be of the minimum standard
of forty minutes. The pupils were given supervised study in
school, adequate laboratory work in the science course was
arranged, and the principal was given more time for the

,duties pertaining to that position. On February 20, 1914, the
branch high school at Empire was transferred to Ancon, and
on February 24, 1914, the third-year high school pupils at
Gatun and Cristobal were also transferred to Ancon. Amend-
ments requiring four years' college training for high school
teachers and limiting the female teaching force to unmarried
women were made to the rules governing qualifications of
teachers. The married women then in the service were al-
lowed to remain. This rule was made for administrative rea-
sons resulting from complications caused when husbands were
transferred to other towns or took their annual vacations
during the school year. The qualifications of teachers as
stated in the Circular of Information issued to all applicants
"Examinations for teachers are not required. No applicant will
be considered who is not an American citizen; who is more than
forty-five years of age; who has not completed a regular four-year
high school or academy course; who has not had two years' training
in a standard normal school or college; and two years successful
experience in some first-class graded school system in the United
States. Men are not employed in grade positions. High school teach-
ers must have four years' college or university training, in place of
two years' college or normal training required for grade teachers.
Married women are not eligible for appointment to the position of
Medical examination was extended to include monthly
inspection of school buildings and playgrounds, and reports
were required regarding sanitary conditions. Puipils absent
from school on account of sickness were not readmitted to the
school except by permission of the district physician. Fire
drills were inaugurated in all the schools, and hand extinguish-
ers were installed, and the teachers and janitors were in-
structed in their use.
In order to overcome the irregular attendance which ex-
isted in a large degree, the plan was adopted of giving the
room ace u iln at ing forty half days without any absence or
tardiness the reward of a half-day holiday. A system of
record cards was devised by which the complete history and
record of the pupil's whole school life is kept in convenient
form. A Public Schools Athletic League was formed in the

white schools. With the co-operation of the Y. M. C. A. club-
house officials the first annual meet of the league was held
on the evening of June 12, 1914, in the clubhouses at Balboa,
Corozal, Empire, Gatun and Cristobal, and was won by the
Corozal school.
On April 1, 1914, the permanent organization of The
Panama Canal went into effect, and the Division of Schools
was placed under the jurisdiction of the Executive Secretary.
Up to June 30, 1914, the schools had been supported entirely
by local funds from the Canal Zone Government revenues, and
not from appropriations for Canal construction. From this
time a special appropriation by Congress has been necessary
for their maintenance.
It was thought that the schools had reached their highest
point in attendance in 1913, and that a rapid and large re-
duction would take place consequent to the completion of the
Canal and the resultant general reduction to a permanent oper-
ating force. Anticipating this condition, the two supervisory
positions were abolished effective at the close of the school
year on June 30, 1914.
When the schools opened on October 1, 1914, the main
high school was transferred to Balboa, where a temporary
building had been erected during the vacation, and the branch
high school, with two years' work, was transferred to Cristo-
bal. The teaching of Spanish was again introduced into the
four upper grades of the elementary white schools, and a
special teacher of Spanish was employed for this work. Fur-
ther sanitary measures were taken by furnishing liquid soap,
paper towels, and paper cups to all schools.
In accordance with plans for adding certain phases of
industrial education to the school work, a position of super-
visor of industrial training was authorized and the position
filled on September 22, 1914. A co-operative plan between the
schools and the commissaries was worked out whereby the
commissaries employed a number of boys out of school hours
and during Saturdays and vacations. Courses of instruction

in drafting, mathematics, elementary mechanics, shop meth-
ods, and business English for all boys serving their apprentice-
ships in the Canal shops, began on February 13, 1915. Twenty-
six apprentices reported during the year for this work, rep-
resenting the following trades: machinists, boiler makers, pipe
fitters, plumbers, pattern makers, carpenters, electricians,
shipwrights, molders, blacksmiths, and cabinet makers. An
elementary course in mechanical drawing was started in the
Balboa High School on February 19, 1915. This subject, which
was the first industrial study to be offered, was elected by
twelve boys. A building was moved to Balboa for industrial
purposes, and was completed by April 7, 1915. An advanced
drafting class, made up of boys who had had one year of
mechanical drawing, was started. The necessary equipment
and supplies for the courses in woodwork were installed and
.a class in this work began on May 10, 1915. Courses in wood-
work and sewing for the seventh and eighth grades on the
Pacific side were started on May 12, 1915. Forty-four boys
reported for the woodwork course. The work in sewing for
these grades was conducted by the respective teachers. A
two-month course in woodwork and mechanical drawing was
offered during the vacation period. During the year a re-
vised course of study for the elementary schools was in prep-
aration. Committees of teachers had been appointed to out-
line, under the general direction of the Superintendent, the
detailed work of their respective grades.
Children of alien employees of the Canal and the Panama
railroad- residing outside the Canal Zone had prior to this
time been allowed free tuition in the schools. This privilege
was withdrawn effective October 1, 1915, with the result that
four rooms in the Cristobal colored school and the entire
Ancon colored school for four rooms were closed.
A full four-year commercial course, was provided in the
high school beginning October 1, 1915. During the year there
were forty-five pupils enrolled in commercial subjects. The
work done in the high school has been accepted in fulfilling

entrance requirements to colleges and universities in the
States whenever presented by any of the graduates. The high
school has become accredited to all institutions to which it
has made application, including the United States Military
Academy at West Point.
There was an increased enrollment in colored schools over
the previous year, ending June 30, 1915, and to obviate the
necessity of providing additional school rooms the "double
session" plan was adopted, by which one room served for two
teachers, with their respective pupils, by alternating their
school hours.
Physical training in the white schools was continued un-
der the direction of the physical directors of the various club-
houses, and competitive athletic meets were held during the
year as follows: High school track and field meet at Pedro
Miguel on. May 13, 1916; High school aquatic meet at Balboa
on May 20; and Grammar school track and field meet at Balboa
on May 27. The trophy cup offered to the grammar school
obtaining the highest number of points was won by the Pedro
Miguel school. Athletic events were also held for the colored
pupils in connection with the Fourth of July celebration by
silver employees at La Boca.
The Canal Zone High School Alumni Association, which
was organized on June 29, 1915, held its annual banquet at
the Tivoli hotel on the evening of July 3, 1916, with a mem-
bership of fifty Canal Zone High School graduates.
The new schedule of teachers' salaries was made effective
from July 1, 1916. The entrance salary for high school teach-
ers was fixed at $120, U. S. C., per month, with an increase of
$5 per month after each year of satisfactory service, for three
Sites for permanent concrete white school buildings were
selected at Balboa, Ancon, Pedro Miguel, Gatun, and Colon
Beach. With the co-operation of the Government Horticul-
turist, a limited amount of work in nature study was at-
tempted. Arrangements were made so that a large number

of pupils were able to take instructive excursions into the
jungles and to the various Government plantations. In fur-
therance of this work an outline has been prepared and ref-
erence books secured.
The school year 1913-1914 showed a slight falling off in
attendance as compared with that for the year ending June 30,
1913. However, the school opened on October 1, 1915, with a
small increase over that of any previous year, and in spite of
the anticipated reduction the attendance has rapidly increased.
Consequently it was found necessary to re-establish the posi-
tion of primary supervisor which was filled effective Septem-
ber 16, 1916.
The most important activity during the present school
year (1916-1917) is the construction of the five new concrete
school buildings, costing a little over half a million dollars. It
is expected to equip these buildings with the latest and best
school furniture. Everything will be in readiness for the
opening of schools on October 1, 1917.
At the beginning of the present school year a teacher of
household arts was authorized and courses in sewing and
cooking were offered to the high school and seventh and eighth
grade girls. A housekeeping apartment has been turned over
to the Division of Schools for this work.
The high school course of study was revised and printed
during the past summer vacation and was ready for distribu-
tion at the opening of the school year.
A new system of medical examination cards has been
devised whereby the complete record of the pupil's physical.
condition is accumulated for their entire school life. Pro-
vision has been made so that when Canal Zone school children
are sent to the hospital upon the recommendation of the dis-
trict physician as a result of his inspection no charge is made
for any necessary operation. Improved plans are being made
for the physical education of the pupils, and modern play-
ground equipment will be installed in connection with the
new buildings.

As will be noted from the appended diagram and tables,
the Canal Zone schools, from a meager beginning, have grown
into a comparatively large system. With the large number
of children now on the Isthmus who will soon reach school age,
and with the large number of family quarters being con-
structed, the maximum growth of the Canal Zone schools has
not yet been reached.

o U
uo a*
U2 H r

-o 0

-m -,



------ White Schools. ....................................Colored Schools.


School year end- G
ing June 30,
1904 ..............
1905 ...............
1906 .....................
1907 ...................
1910 ...................
1911 .....................
1912 .............
1913 ...................
1914 ....................
1915 .....................
1916 .....................
Dec., 1916 .....................

rade. Grade. Grade. Grade. Special
9 10 11 12

School year ending June 30, Wh
1 9 0 4 ................................................ ... ........................................
19 05 .................... .... ....................... ........................................
1906 ................. ............ ........................ 10
1907 .................. ......................... .. 1
1 9 08 ............. ........... ................................................................ 3
1 9 09 .. ............. ..................................................................................... 5
1 9 1 0 .......................... ......................................... ................................... 6
1911 ... ................................................................................ .......... 83
1912 ............................................................... 97
1 9 13 ........... .... ................................................................ ................. 1 ,0 2
1 9 1 4 ........................................................................ ............................... 9
1915 ........................................................................................ 1 ,0
1916 ............................ 1,0(
D ec., 1916 ............................................................................................ .. 1,22

Superintendents, Supervisors and Teachers in the C;
from December 2, 1905, to December 31, 1916.
(*Indicates in service on Dec. 31, 1916.)

Gause, Frank A.
.Lang, Albert R.
O'Connor, David C.
Smith, Henry L.
Wagg, Frank P.

Alexander, Alice.

Bechlem, Dora Nielsen.
Christopherson. Edmund
Talbot, John E.
Wagg, Frank P.

Time Employed.
8-23-09 to 8-9-13.
12-2-05 to 9-14-08.
9-15-08 to 8-22-09.
9-16-13 to 10-18-13.
2-13-09 to 6-30-13.
9-19-13 to 6-30-14.
D.11-6-13 to 11-27-13.
11-17-13 to 6-30-14.
9-15-09 to 9-15-13.

Edgerton, Alanson H. 9-22-14 to 7-24-16.
Sutherland, Thomas G. 9-7-16.*

Number of
Total. graduates.

1 77
3 165


ite. Colored

17 1,000
i7 971
15 765
19 784
12 577
18.8 556.
9.9 733.'
19.1 799.
17.7 715.
16.3 755.
65.1 436.
!6.4 450.

anal Zor




1. Total.

1 1,394.9
7 1,713.6
0 1,828.1
2 1,682.9
9 1,762.2
3 1,501.4
6 1,677
ie Schools


New York.

Adams, Mary F.
Allen, Mrs. Charles P.
Alstaetter, Ida.
Anderson. M. Edith.
Annis, Bessie. .
Annis, Lucile.
Argraves, Lizabeth I.
Armistead, Christopher
Atchison, Marjoire C.
Bailey, Catharine.
Baillie, Mabel L.
Baker, Constance A.
Baker, May L.
Bates, Mildred O.
Bayless, Marie.
Beard, Ruth B.
Bechlem, Dora Nielsen.

Beeler, Lydia A.
Beeler, Nina P.
Belding, Irma M.
Bentley, Lucille.
Berry, Fay Calvert.
Berry, Mattie N.
Best, Virginia.
Beverley, John Anna.
Birmingham, Marie.
Bliss, Gladys E.
Bogner, Jennie.
Borgen, Marian Patters
Bowdry, Mrs. James S.
Bowles, Ida H.
Boyd, Elsie E.
Bradford Manora.
Bradford, Mary K.
Bradley, Blanche A.
Brinkerhoff, Fronce R.
Bristol, Edith C.
Browning, Laura C.
Burkheiser, Elizabeth S.
Cage, Elise.
Calhoun, Clelia Crespi.
Carr, Charles C.
Carr, Marion SukefQrth

Carroll, James W.
Carson, Mary L.
Carter, Charlotte.
Cespedes, Maria.
Christopherson, Edmund
Clark, Jessie Wilson.

Cloys, M. Lee.
Cabban, Emma M.
Collins, Harriet N.

Time Employed.
3-25-13 to 6-30-16.
10-5-06 to 1-8-07.
10-1-07 to 6-30-09.
10-1-09 to 6-30-12.
10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
10-1-11 to 5-31-12.
10-1-08 to 4-25-09.
H. 8-20-06 to 10-2-06.
10-1-07 to 6-30-10.
4-1-08 to 6-30-08.
3-15-09 to 6-30-09.
12-27-09 to 1-14-13.
10-28-13 to 6-30-14.
10-5-10 to 6-30-13.
4-5-15 to 11-14-15.
11-18-11 to 3-20-13.
9-4-06 to 6-30-07.
11-5-12 to 1-22-13.
10-1-08 to 6-30-09.
4-9-06 to 9-30-06.
1-3-11 to 6-30-13.
10-6-16 *(Resigned
10-1-12 to 6-30-14.
2-8-07 to 5-26-08.
10-1-10 to 6-30-11.
on. 11-15-09 to 6-30-12.
2-19-06 to 5-10-06.
10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
9-10-06 to 6-30-07.
10-26-06 to 6-30-07.
10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
11-16-14 to 2-28-15.
2-15-08 to 6-13-09.
4-1-06 to 6-30-06.
2-10-11 to 2-16-14.
10-1-09 to 6-30-13.
10-1-11 to 6-30-12.
5-1-13 to 6-30-13.
12-26-11 to 2-29-12.
10-7-15 to 6-30-16.
10-1-12 to 6-30-15.
3-5-06 to 6-30-06.
D.10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
10-5-06 to 6-20-08.
10-1-08 to 3-15-14.
4-15-07 to 12-31-07.


Dist. of Columbia.
New York.
New Mexico.
New York.
Dist. of Columbia.
New York.
New York.

West Virginia.
Republic of Colombia.


Cook, Ernest L.
Cook, Fannye A.
Cookingham, Ada R.
Coombs, Alice L.
Corcoran, Alice A.
Cornish, Ruth M.
Cruson, Florence.
Daniels, Jessie E.
Darr, Lulu M.
Davis, Katherine I.
DeCamp, Mallye A.

DeLassus, Amelia C.
Dildine, Florence M.
Dillon, Wenonah Whiting.
Dorsey, Shirley C.
Doyle, Dorothy.
Dunn, Shellie M.
Edmonds, Mary.
Eger, Emma L.

Eldredge, Evelyn.
Ellsworth, Cornelia H.

Elwell, Sara D.
Erickson, Ida 0.
Ewing, Winifred C.
Fennell, Inez Cox.
Field, Lenore H.
Fitzpatrick, Ethlyn C.
Fleming, Mary E.
Flory, Floyd C.
Fogerty, Pearl Widaman.

Frazier, Mattie A.
Frost, Odina J. L.
Frost, Olga J.
Gallup, Myrtis M.
Gohrman, Anna J.
Grobe, Nona M.
Hale, Bertha.
Hall, Frances.
Hall, Ila T.
Hall, Ruth.
Halsey, Jessie A.
Hanson, Gertrude.
Harrison, Florence A.'
Hartman, Lois K.
Hartt, Edna M.
Hassenfratz, Lillian.
Hawley, Alberta.
Hawley, Hattie L.
Henshaw, Virginia C.

Hiller, Eunice G.
Hine, Frederika.
Hoffman, Gertrude Bliss.

Time Employed.
10-5-07 to 6-30-08.
10-1-15 to 6-30-16.
1-15-13 to 6-30-13.
10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
5-26-08 to 6-29-09.
1-3-13 to 6-30-14.
10-1-12 to 6-30-14.
10-1-12 to 6-30-14.
10-1-10 to 4-2-15.
4-8-09 to 6-30-10.
10-1-11 to 6-30-15.
3-13-12 to 6-27-15.
10-1-15 to 6-30-16.
11-17-08 to 6-30-10.
8-22-06 to 6-30-07.
1-1-08 to 1-12-11.
10-1-12 to 6-30-14.
1-8-08 to 6-30-09.
10-1-11 to 6-30-12.
4-19-15 to 6-30-15.
10-1-14 to 11-20-16.
11-26-12 to 4-29-13.
9-1-06 to 6-30-07.
1-6-08 to 2-7-08.
10-5-07 to 6-30-13.
10-14-07 to 3-14-08.
11-29-09 to 6-26-10.
10-7-12 to 6-30-13.
10-31-06 to 2-10-07.
10-1-14 to 6-30-16.
1-28-11 to 12-31-11.
10-29-06 to 12-31-06.
4-2-09 to 6-30-10.
10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
10-1-16 *
10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
10-1-14 to 6-30-15.
10-7-15 to 6-30-16.
11-1-11 to 6-30-12.
10-1-11 to 6-30-14.
10-1-08 to 2-18-12.

New York.
New York.
New York.

Republic of Peru.

New York.

West Virginia.

New York.
New York.
New Mexico.
New York.

New York.

Name. Time Employed.
Holcomb, Nellie M. 10-1-07 to 6-30-08.
Holme, Annie W. 10-1-14 to 6-30-15.
Hughes, Janet I. 10-22-14
Humphrey, Natalie Hine. 10-1-09 to 6-30-14.
6-1-16 to 6-30-16.
[rvin, Annie S. 2-22-09 to 6-30-11.
James, Maybelle C. 10-1-14 to 6-30-15.
Joiner, Lillian. 10-1-16 *
Kiernan, Marie C. 2-17-14 to 6-30-14.
Kingman,. Regina. 4-8-09 to 6-30-10.
Kuehne, Gertrude H. 12-2-15 to 6-30-16.
Kyte, Margaret E. 1-2-06 to 11-30-09.
Lang, Albert R. 10-1-13 to 10-18-13.
Lawlor, Ida Keys. 10-1-08 to 6-30-11.
10-1-13 to 11-16-13.
Leggett, Myrtice G. 12-27-06 to 6-29-08.
Leydecker, Jessie W. 1-19-11 to 2-17-11.
Little, Sophia E. 10-27-16 *
Macbeth, Blanche J. 3-18-11 to 6-30-11.
McCarthy, Edith Maclntyre.10-1-10 to 5-31-16.
McClure, Jeannette. 10-1-13 to 6-30-14.
McCray, Grace E. 10-19-08 *
McKenzie, Orrie. 1-1-15 to 6-30-15.
Magill, Jean. 11-15-09 to 6-30-10.
Maher, Mrs. P. F. 5-14-06 to 4-5-07.
Mallory, Bertha H. 11-6-11 to 6-30-14.
Mattes, Ninetta. 11-1-13 to 6-30-15.
Maxon, Viola M. 4-1-06 to 10-2-06.
2-12-08 to 6-30-09.
May, Minerva. 2-4-07 to 1-17-08.
Mills, Mabel H. 12-21-06 to 6-30-08.
Miracle, Mamie. 7-16-06 to 11-21-10.
Morrow, Estella C. 10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
Mosteller, Anna. 3-1-12 to 6-30-15.
10-1-16 *
Munroe, Georgia T. 10-1-09 to 6-30-16.
Nason, Helen C. 2-11-11 to 6-30-13.
Neal. Muriel K. 10-1-15
Nichols, Lucy. 10-1-13 to 6-30-14.
Nichols, Margaret W. 3-16-14 to 4-30-14.
O'Connor, Florence M. 2-8-06 to 6-30-10.
O'Connor, Mary. 2-8-06 to 6-30-07.
Orenstein, Marie S. 2-3-08 to 5-17-08.
Osorio, Emeline. 3-5-06 to 3-19-06.
5-14-06 to 10-31-06.
10-1-07 to 12-31-07.
Paddock, Elizabeth J. 1-21-11 to 6-30-11.
Parmelee, Helen Daniels. 3-28-10 to 1-16-16.
Paul, Virginia M. 2-1-12 to 6-30-12.
10-1-16 *
Pendleton, Charlotte. 10-1-16 *
Perkins, Jennie Dunlap. 12-3-10 to 10-11-13.
Perkins, May L. 1-6-08 to 3-5-08.
Petersen, Niels F. 10-1-13 to 6-30-14.
Pilzer, Tessie. 4-8-07 to 6-30-07.
Pontius, Jessie C. 10-1-10 to 6-30-12.
Potts, Ida B. 10-1-12
Pratt, Archie. 10-1-12 to 6-30-14.
Reber, Dorcas L. 10-1-10 to 12-29-10.
Reed, Etta. 10-1-12
Reese, Edna A. 10-1-16 *


Rhode Island.
*(Supt.) Nebraska.
South Carolina.

New York.
New Jersey.


New York.
Republic of Panams


New York.
New York.

Reid, Mabel M.
Riedesel, Dorothy W.
Remon, Laura K.
Robb, Cherry.

Robb, Ena.
Ross, Helen Danforth.
Russell, Minnie O.
Prather, Dove L.
Sabsovich, Debora Vera.
Sadler, Martha J.
Sanderson, Katherine M.
Sawtelle, Verna M.
Schield, Beulah E.
Schreiber, Alice P.
Scofield, Florence A.
Scribner, Effie Powers.

Sergeant, Amalia.
Sessions, Cora E.
Shane, Lillian.
Shea, Mary M.
Shea, Nellie M.
Shimer, Elizabeth E.
Shippee, Julia P.
Simmons, Mary E.
Sine, Edith.
Slifer, Edith L.
Slifer, Margaret B.
Smith, Blanch B.
Smith, Curraleen C.
Smith, Ezoa.
Smith, May L.
Snediker, Grace D.
Speight, M. Delle.
Spicer, Edna M.
Stanners, Mary C.
Steele, Laura.
Stone, Annie E.
Stowe, Edith M.
Swan, Mertell B.
Taylor, Fanny F.
Taylor, Lola M.
Thomas, Meta E.
Tozer, Lina L.
Turpin, Jere.
Voyles, Clara L.
Wagar, Grace.
Walser, Nelle.
Weightman, Adelia E.

Whyte, Jessie Heller.

Williams, Minnie E.
Wittstein, Harriet M.
Witzel, Sarah M.
Yarborough, Grace.
Yates, Franklin.
Young, Anna R.
Zook, Leah A.

Time Employed.
10-1-12 to 6-30-13.
10-1-13 to 3-31-14.
11-2-14 *
2-17-08 to 6-29-08.
10-1-08 to 1-18-09.
10-1-10 to 6-30-11.
10-1-07 to 4-11-09.
10-1-11 *
10-1-08 to 6-30-09.
11-13-12 to 6-30-14.
10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
11-27-09 to 3-29-11.
11-28-10 to 1-24-12.
1-17-16 to 6-30-16.
3-1-09 to 6-30-09.
10-1-11 to 6-7-15.
1-8-09 to 6-30-16.
10-1-09 to 4-9-10.
2-10-08 to 4-11-09.
3-26-06 to 12-31-06.
10-27-13 to 6-30-14.
10-1-08 to 11-15-09.
5-18-08 to 6-30-09.
4-15-07 to 6-30-07.
10-1-12 to 6-30-13.
1-11-13 to 5-21-15.
10-1-14 *
10-1-11 to 1-10-13.
3-11-07 to 6-30-07.
10-1-12 to 11-4-15.
10-1-12 to 1-16-13.
9-1-06 to 6-30-08.
11-18-07 to 4-10-08.
11-12-06 to 6-30-08.
3-8-15 to 6-30-16.
10-1-09 to 6-30-10.
2-12-06 to 6-30-06.
10-1-09 to 4-30-11.
11-23-06 to 2-15-07.
10-1-10 to 6-30-13.
2-2-09 to 6-28-09.
9-1-06 to 6-30-07.
10-7-07 to 5-10-08.
10-1-07 to 6-25-08.
10-1-08 to 11-6-11.
5-9-06 to 6-22-06.
12-7-06 to 6-30-07.
1-29-08 to 3-4-12.
5-17-11 to 6-30-11.
10-1-13 to 6-30-14.
10-1-13 to 3-9-14.

South Dakota.

South Carolina.
New York.

Republic of Panams
Rhode Island.
New York.
New York.


New York.
New York.



The work of the American Episcopal Church on the Isth-
mus should properly be dated from the consecration of Christ
Church, Colon, in 1865, by the Right Reverend Alonzo Potter,
Bishop of Pennsylvania. This was the last episcopal act of
Bishop Potter for he died in San Francisco harbor July 4, 1865.
Accordingly, this church is the pioneer of Protestant churches
in religious work in what is now the Canal Zone and Republic
of Panama. In these early days, Panama was within the
jurisdiction of the Archbishop of the West Indies and that
distinguished prelate made several visitations to the churches
on the Isthmus. Later the work was transferred to the
Bishop of British Honduras and, still later, to the Right Rev-
erend Albion W. Knight, then. Bishop of Cuba, now Vice Chan-
cellor of the University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee.
The Episcopal Church had from the beginning very large
work among the West Indians, possibly more than all the
other religious bodies, and at its own expense erected church
buildings along the line of work of the Panama Canal. In
addition, it maintained services at Culebra, Empire, Gatun and
Ancon, for the American population. At present its work is
concentrated at St. Luke's Church, Ancon; St. Paul's Church,
Panama; St. Peter's Church, La Boca; St. Augustine's Church,
Paraiso; St. Barnabas Mission, Empire; St. George's Mission,
Gatun, the Christ Church, Colon. It also maintains a suc-
cessful work in the Darien region, at Cona. At present, in
addition to the Bishop, there are only two American clergy,
the Rev. Edward J. Cooper, Colon, and the Rev. H. R. Carson,

By concurrent resolution of the General Convention, held
in St.. Louis during the month of October last, an Episcopal see
will be erected within the next three years which will include
the Isthmus and a very large part of Central America. It is
very probable that there will be resident in Panama a Bishop
-of the Episcopal Church and the work extended so as to in-
clude the large aboriginal and Spanish speaking population
which is not reached by the ministrations of others. It should
be noted that the Episcopal Church maintains regular services
among the lepers at Palo Seco, Bishop Knight having held con-
firmation on two occasions and the Rev. H. R. Carson minister-
ing to these unfortunates every week. These services are
held in both English and Spanish.
The first time this Society tried to do any work along the
present Canal site was in 1854, when the Rev. H. D. Wheeler,
:Seaman's Friend Chaplain at Aspinwall was local agent. Be-
sides general distribution it is recorded that he placed Bibles
in the hotels at Gatun, Aspinwall, and Chagres. From that
time on work was carried on in a desultory fashion until about
1890, when the Isthmus began to be visited by colporteurs of
the Society. In 1892 the Rev. F. G. Penzotti was appointed
agent for Central America, resigning in 1907 to become agent
for the Spanish speaking portion of South America.
Mr. Penzotti was succeeded by the Rev. James Hayter,
who had come from England as a missionary a number of
years before, but had entered school work in the employ of
the Costa Rican government. The new position was less lucra-
tive and more difficult, entailing long journeys and heart break-
ing experiences. Rev. Hayter has, however, been one of the
.Society's most successful agents.
A few years ago only eight or nine thousand books a year
were circulated while in the first six months of this year about
thirty-five thousand were sold.
On the Canal Zone not much has been done for the simple
reason that needier fields were close at hand. However, the

Rev. Chas. W. Ports, the Rev. J. A. Dunkum, and the Rev. W.
W. Williams have all worked here. The cities of Panama and
Colon have both been thoroughly canvassed, especially in the
Spanish speaking districts. An interesting note is that nearly
all Chinese have provided themselves with Testaments. Quite
a number of the San Blas Indians have called at the depository
to buy Bibles. As their own language is not written and as.
many of them know English they nearly always buy English
During the year the Society has received quite a bit of
advertising from its building which was erected in Cristobal.
It is a handsome building of three stories made of reinforced
concrete. On the first floor are located the offices, store rooms,
sales room, laundry, and rooms for colored employees. On
the second floor will live the sub-agent with rooms set apart
for missionaries who are passing through. On the third floor
will live the agent and three or four white colporteurs. In
the near future a launch will be secured so that ships passing
through the Canal may be visited. While all accounts have
not been settled, the house furnishings, launch, etc., have cost
approximately $44,000.
The Society has been criticized in some quarters for erect-
ing such a fine building, but it does not take a knowledge of
higher mathematics to figure out that the interest on $40,000
would not begin to give the Society the room they have in the
Bible House if they had to rent in Colon.
It has been decided to cut down the appropriation for the,
Central American agency fully twenty per cent. Though the
Bible House is a gift to the Society the work must be main-
tained by the Society itself. Bible work has been entirely
suspended in Costa Rica and curtailed in other places in order
that funds may be left for canvassing the ships. It is true,
that the Bible Society sells its publications as a rule. But it
is not generally known that all the Bibles put out by the Amer-
ican Bible Society are sold at less than cost. The Society also
generally has several committees working on translations of

the Bible into languages newly reduced to writing or revising
More than twenty years ago some missionaries who re-
sided in Central America paid occasional visits to the Panama
'Canal, during the French construction days, and held services
for the employees. Definite work, however, was begun about
sixteen years ago when the Jamaica Baptist Union sent Rev.
S. M. Loveridge here to establish churches for the Baptist
people. The zeal and success that have attended his labors
are well known to those who have tried to do similar work.
The hardships encountered in those days were far greater
than any that exist today.
When the Americans took over the Panama Canal the
House Mission Board of the Southern Baptist convention
selected Rev. J. L. Wise to come and look after work for
American Baptists who were turning their faces toward the
land of the "Southern Cross" to make a fortune. He arrived
in April, 1905, and has been active ever since. There were
thirty men on the boat that brought Rev. Wise from New Or-
leans and soon after their arrival he was called to bury one of
the number, who had succumbed to yellow fever. In those
.early days, two Baptist ministers were called to Eternity, one
of them having been Auditor of the Panama Canal. From
those early days the work has been steadily progressing with
the exception of 1914, when through the depopulation of the
Canal Zone, more than two hundred members were lost. The
present membership in the six churches and mission stations
along the Canal numbers more than six hundred. During
these years the church property has grown from nothing to
;seven buildings worth about $40,000. About $17,000 were
,collected and expended last year in all the work on the Canal
Zone. Of this amount $12,700 was received from the States.
At present the Baptists are completing one of the best church
structures in Central America. It will cost more than $20,000

when completed. It will be opened the first Sunday in the
New Year.
The Christian Science movement in the Canal Zone dates
back to January 1, 1906, when seven members met at Matachin
and organized a Christian Science Society. The lessons were
read each Sunday in a private home until permission was
granted in September, 1907, to use the I. C. C. Chapel in Gor-
gona, where services were conducted until the town was de-
In July, 1913, the Society removed to Empire, where,
through the courtesy of the Secretary, Sunday morning ser-
vices were held in the Y. M. C. A. When the permanent force
was transferred to Ancon and Balboa the Society decided upon
Ancon as their permanent location.
Owing to increased attendance and interest in the work,
the necessity for another Society at the North End became
apparent, and in perfect good-will and accord the members
living in Cristobal and Gatun withdrew in July, 1914, to form
the Christian Science Society of Cristobal. The remaining
members, through the continued courtesy of the Y. M. C. A.
Secretary, met at Pedro Miguel for three Sundays.
In August, 1915, the Judge of the Ancon Circuit Court
granted the members the use of the Court Room for Sunday
services, and later on extended this privilege making it possi-
ble to hold Sunday School and Wednesday evening meetings.
May 7, 1916, the Christian Science Society of Ancon
opened the doors of its new church home, an attractive frame
structure on the Ancon-Balboa road.
The Christian Science Society of Cristobal organized in
1914, held services in the Y. M. C. A. Clubhouse until Septem-
ber of that year, when permission to use the Court Room was
secured, where the Sunday services, Sunday School and
Wednesday evening services have been held.
The Methodist Episcopal Church first began work on the

Isthmus of Panama about the year 1876, when under Bishop
William Taylor a man was placed at Colon. His work there
was carried on for some time, a church was erected and quite
a large congregation was gathered. The missionary was called
to the States and the work was left temporarily in the hands
of another denomination which finally assumed full control.
The present work of the church was begun coincident
with American occupation when Dr. Thomas B. Wood came
here from Peru. He served as chaplain to the early Canal
workers, preaching in English at different points along the
line. He also founded the present Spanish work in the city
of Panama. The mission work is carried on at three points,
the Seawall Church, situated at the head of Central avenue
on the old Sea-wall of the city, where services are held in
English and Spanish. Pioneer Sunday School work for this
part of the Isthmus was done by the members of the congre-
gation; Guachapali Church, which has one of the largest West
Indian congregations in the city; Colon Church, situated at
the corner of Broadway and Third street, where Spanish ser-
vices are held.
The mission maintains two schools: Panama, College, situ-
ated at the Sea-wall Church, an English School for white
Panamanian children; Guachapali M. E. School, for West In-
dian children..
Plans are being perfected for the erection of a three-
story building on the Sea-wall property. This building will
double the present school capacity and provide living quarters
for the whole mission force. The mission is securing several
new teachers, and expects soon to establish mission stations
in the interior of the Republic.
The work of the Wesleyan Methodist church on the Isth-
mus dates back to 1884. Ecclesiastically it is attached to
the Jamaica district from which in former days it received
financial aid. It was established to meet a felt need and its
main purpose is to minister to the British West Indians who

have come to the Isthmus for work. When the U. S. govern-
ment commenced Canal operations in 1905 regular services
were being conducted at Gatun, Bohio, Empire, Frijoles, Lion
Hill, and Pedro Miguel on the Canal Zone and also in the larger
churches at Panama and Colon. Of these only the two last
remain but the work done in the Zone during the construction
period has been concerned partly in the Terminal cities and
partly in the new churches opened in Paraiso, La Boca, and the
West Indian colony of New Providence on Gatun Lake. During
the construction days the Rev. B. King was in charge of
churches. His successor, Rev. C. G. Hardwick, has just
recently left the Isthmus after a residence of three years. The
work is nowcarried on by Rev. W. H. Evers, residing in Pan-
ama and his colleague, Rev. F. T. Parker, residing in Colon.
The total membership is now about 800 but the ministrations
reach a much larger constituency, the largest among West
Indians. The work is self-supporting and approximately $375
U. S. C. is contributed annually for the evangelization of
heathen lands. The work and influence of the church is
growing steadily.
The operations of the Salvationr Army on the Isthmus
began in the year 1904, when the flag was planted in Colon by
Adjutant Jackson, and by the year 1905 had extended to Pan-
ama, so that the work has been going on here for the last
twelve years.
Unfortunately, the early records were destroyed in the
burning of the Institution and Divisional Headquarters dur-
ing one of the fires so prevalent on the Atlantic side. Conse-
quently the period covered in this article will of necessity be
confined, in order that it may be authentic, to the operations
and progress of the last few years, and will deal largely with
that period that followed immediately on the large exodus
from the Isthmus of the "Silver Employees", due to the com-
pletion and opening of the Canal, and scattering back to their

"Thankful for God's abundant goodness, and for His great gift
of salvation through Jesus Christ our Lord, I hereby covenant tc
seek to know and to do His will, and to promote, as far as I can
the interest of Christ's Kingdom."
"Accepting the Bible as my supreme standard of faith, and
heartily believing in the province of private judgment in the in-
terpretation of the Scriptures, I agree to recognize as Christians
and worthy of my fellowship, all who devoutly love the Lord
Jesus Christ and accept His standard of teaching and conduct as
set forth in the New Testament."
"Realizing that the success of the church depends upon the
consecration of the individual membership, I covenant to at-
tend its services, to contribute to its support; to labor to main-
tain its peace and harmony, and as far as possible in every wav
to promote its temporal and spiritual welfare." i
The following denominations, among others, are repre-
sented in the membership: Episcopalian, Baptist, Methodist,
Presbyterian, United Brethren, Dutch Reform, Desciples of
Christ, Christians, Congregational and Lutheran.
The business affairs of the organization are conducted
through an Executive Council consisting of the president,.
vice-president, secretary-treasurer and representatives from
each local branch.
Pastors must be clergymen regularly ordained by some
Protestant denominations, whose teachings shall be Evangel-
ical, in the broad sense, and strictly non-sectarian.
No effort has been made to set up a new denomination,
but our "object shall be the advancement of the principles
of Christ's Kingdom on the Canal Zone, in the carrying on
of the various religious activities characteristic of the com-
munities from which our membership shall have come."
For several months after organization was perfected
services were conducted by lay members.
On September 11, 1914, the Reverend Wm. Flammer, an
Orberlin graduate, arrived at Cristobal from Covington,
Ohio, and immediately entered upon his work. For some
time he conducted services every two weeks at the following
points: Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Corozal and
Balboa, until relieved of part of work on arrival of Rev. Wm.
A. Covert, who was stationed at Paraiso and Pedro Miguel
for about a year. Rev. Covert has now been succeeded by

Dr. Geo. A. Miller, who devotes part time to Union church
work and also to Seawall Church, Panama.
A residence for the pastor and his family was completed
and furnished at Balboa, a short time after his arrival, and
this has been his headquarters ever since. In June, 1915,
the Rev. J. V. Koontz arrived on the Isthmus, having been
called here upon his graduation from Princeton Theological
Seminary. He has been succeeded by the Rev. J. C. Abels,
formerly at Colombo, Island of Ceylon. His headquarters
and main activities are at Cristobal.
Rev. S. S. Conger, from Mexico, who succeeded Mr.
Flammer now conducts preaching services every Sunday
morning at Balboa and every Sunday evening at Pedro Mi-
guel, eight miles away, Corozal having been turned over as a
military post. A mid-week meeting is also conducted at
Rev. Abels is located at Cristobal. He preaches there
every Sunday evening, and conducts services at Gatun every
Sunday morning. He has a mid-week meeting at Cristobal,
and a meeting every other Wednesday at Paraiso.
Under the auspices of the Union church, Sunday schools
are conducted at Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel
and Balboa. A young people's society meets on Sunday
evenings in both Cristobal and Balboa. The ladies of the
church have their societies in each town, and the men of
Cristobal have organized a men's club and there is a Federa-
tion of the societies of Christian women that meets semi-
The Isthmian Sunday School Association, composed of
representatives from all Union church Sunday schools, the
Panama Methodist Sunday school, and the Sunday school
established at the military post at Empire, holds quarterly
meetings. Other Sunday schools have been invited to send
The membership of the Union church now numbers
nearly 400, divided about as follows: Cristobal, 125; Gatun,

Institution is at present under the direction of Adjutant and
Mrs. Terrace of Cristobal.
The regular work of the Seventh-day Adventists in the
Isthmus dates from the arrival of Pastor H. C. Goodrich, in
At the present time they have four congregations and
-church buildings. During 1916, thirty-four were baptized
{by immersion) and added to the membership of the organi-
zation, bringing their present membership in the Isthmus to
240. The average membership of the Sabbath schools has
been 330, and from these during the year of 1916 were re-
ceived $521.60 offerings for missions, in addition to funds
raised for local expenses. The tithes and offerings from all
sources during the year of 1916 was $2,523.00.
Pastor C. E. Boynton lives in Panama City. Pastor W.
G. Kneeland, president of the West Caribbean Conference of
Seventh-day Adventists, which includes the republics of Nic-
aragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia; and the secre-
tary, H. C. Kephart, live in Cristobal. Their general head-
quarters are in Takoma Park, Washington, D. C., and their
local address is Drawer M., Cristobal, Canal Zone.
The Seventh-day Adventists are in sympathy with the
cardinal doctrines of the evangelical Protestant churches. In
honor of Christ as creator and redeemer, they observe the
seventh day (commonly known as Saturday), as the Christian
Their work, both locally and in foreign lands, is support-
ed by tithes and freewill offerings, equitably dispursed by a
general board, according to the efficiency of the laborers.
They have always been a progressive people on the sub-
ject of temperance. Their members are required to abstain.
from the habitual use of all intoxicating liquors, opium, to-
bacco, etc. Many of the popular health foods are the result
of the careful study they have given to the relation of foods
to man's physical, mental, and moral development.

The Isthmian Sunday School Association was organized
at Cristobal, February 2nd, 1908. Its object is to federate
the Sunday schools on the Isthmus; to form a central point
of contact between the said schools and the International Sun-
day School Association; to arrange for conferences, conven-
tions, and any other joint action that may be desirable.
The membership consists of two classes-Regular and
Honorary. The Regular Membership consists of the superin--
tendents of the various Sunday Schools together with two
delegates from each school, which are to be selected by their
respective schools on the last Sundays in June and December..
Honorary Membership consists of all the ministers of the
Gospel of regular Evangelical churches on the Isthmus of
The officers are a president, vice-president, and secretary-
treasurer, who are elected at the regular meeting of the
Association in January and July to serve a term of six months.
The present officers are-President, W. H. Kromer, Vice-
President, J. F. Warner, Secretary-Treasurer, E. M. Foster,
all of Balboa Heights.
The regular meetings of the Association are held the
second weeks of January, April, July and October at places.
selected by the officers.
This Association does not pretend to exercise any super-
vision over the individual school, but it has assisted materially
in establishing new schools in the past and is ready at all
times to give any assistance desired in establishing new-
schools in localities where there are none. In the past this
Association has also handled the affairs of schools which dis-
banded on account of the removal of towns such as Taber-
nilla, Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Las Cascadas, Empire, and
The Sunday Schools on the Isthmus have not been as:
closely associated with the International Sunday School Asso--
ciation as they should be, and for that reason considerable;

correspondence is now under way to obtain reports of County,
State, Province, and World Conventions for distribution to the
Sunday schools on the Isthmus. The establishment of teacher
training classes, such as are provided for by the Sunday School
Boards of the various churches in the States and elsewhere, is
also under consideration. The average teacher training
course is designed for either individual study or for class use,
examinations are conducted, certificates issued and teacher's
diplomas awarded to all who make an average of say 70 per
cent or over as the result of examinations. The course under
consideration provides for three terms of two and three
parts respectively-four lessons on the Bible; ten lessons on
Bible history; five lessons on the lands of the Bible; four les-
:sons on Bible worship and customs; four lessons on the Sun-
.day school; seven lessons on the teacher and six lessons on
the pupil.
The Union Church of the Canal Zone was organized Jan-
uary, 1914, by a few devoted Christian men and women, many
of whom we regret to say have left the Isthmus. It was de-
veloped from the local Union organizations existing at several
points during the construction period. These local Christian
leagues and Union churches pointed the way to the solution-
of Christian work on the Isthmus. Our constitution provides-
that the activities shall be non-sectarian, and its teaching
evangelical. Our membership consists of those who furnish
satisfactory evidence of present or former church connec-
tions elsewhere; or who accept "the tenets of Christian living
as laid down in the New Testament," and express a "deter-
mination to henceforth lead a Christian life,"
As all members are here temporarily, they are permitted
to retain their membership in their home churches, if they
so desire. The church covenant is sufficiently broad, yet, we,
believe, embodies the essential elements of the Christian faith.
It is quoted just below:

"Thankful for God's abundant goodness, and for His great gift
of salvation through Jesus Christ our Lord, I hereby covenant to
seek to know and to do His will, and to promote, as far as I can,
the interest of Christ's Kingdom."
"Accepting the Bible as my supreme standard of faith, and
heartily believing in the province of private judgment in the in-
terpretation of the Scriptures, I agree to recognize as Christians
and worthy of my fellowship, all who devoutly love the Lord
Jesus Christ and accept His standard of teaching and conduct as
set forth in the New Testament."
"Realizing that the success of the church depends upon the'
consecration of the individual membership, I covenant to at-
tend its services, to contribute to its support; to labor to main-
tain its peace and harmony, and as far as possible in every way
to promote its temporal and spiritual welfare."
The following denominations, among others, are repre-
sented in the membership: Episcopalian, Baptist, Methodist,
Presbyterian, United Brethren, Dutch Reform, Desciples of
Christ, Christians, Congregational and Lutheran.
The business affairs of the organization are conducted:
through an Executive Council consisting of the president,.
vice-president, secretary-treasurer and representatives from
each local branch.
Pastors must be clergymen regularly ordained by some
Protestant denominations, whose teachings shall be Evangel-
ical, in the broad sense, and strictly non-sectarian.
No effort has been made to set up a new denomination,
but our "object shall be the advancement of the principles
of Christ's Kingdom on the Canal Zone, in the carrying on
of the various religious activities characteristic of the com-
munities from which our membership shall have come."
For several months after organization was perfected
services were conducted by lay members.
On September 11, 1914, the Reverend Wm. Flammer, an
Orberlin graduate, arrived at Cristobal from Covington,
Ohio, and immediately entered upon his work. For some
time he conducted services every two weeks at the following
points: Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel, Corozal and
Balboa, until relieved of part of work on arrival of Rev. Wm.
A. Covert, who was stationed at Paraiso and Pedro Miguel
for about a year. Rev. Covert has now been succeeded by

Dr. Geo. A. Miller, who devotes part time to Union church
work and also to Seawall Church, Panama.
A residence for the pastor and his family was completed
and furnished at Balboa, a short time after his arrival, and
this has been his headquarters ever since. In June, 1915,
the Rev. J. V. Koontz arrived on the Isthmus, having been
called here upon his graduation from Princeton Theological
Seminary. He has been succeeded by the Rev. J. C. Abels,
formerly at Colombo, Island of Ceylon. His headquarters
and main activities are at Cristobal.
Rev. S. S. Conger, from Mexico, who succeeded Mr.
Flammer now conducts preaching services every Sunday
morning at Balboa and every Sunday evening at Pedro Mi-
guel, eight miles away, Corozal having been turned over as a
military post. A mid-week meeting is also conducted at
Rev. Abels is located at Cristobal. He preaches there
every Sunday evening, and conducts services at Gatun every
Sunday morning. He has a mid-week meeting at Cristobal,
and a meeting every other Wednesday at Paraiso.
Under the auspices of the Union church, Sunday schools
are conducted at Cristobal, Gatun, Paraiso, Pedro Miguel
and Balboa. A young people's society meets on Sunday
evenings in both Cristobal and Balboa. The ladies of the
church have their societies in each town, and the men of
Cristobal have organized a men's club and there is a Federa-
tion of the societies of Christian women that meets semi-
The Isthmian Sunday School Association, composed of
representatives from all Union church Sunday schools, the
Panama Methodist Sunday school, and the Sunday school
established at the military post at Empire, holds quarterly
meetings. Other Sunday schools have been invited to send
The membership of the Union church now numbers
nearly 400, divided about as follows: Cristobal, 125; Gatun,

40; Paraiso, 30; Pedro Miguel, 30; Balboa, 180. An attend-
ance of 150 .to 160 is now frequent at the church service
at Balboa; at Cristobal, 80 to 100; Gafun and Pedro Miguel,
50 to 60. The Sunday schools have the following average
attendance: Cristobal, 150; Gatun, 40; Paraiso, 40; Pedro
Miguel, 30; Balboa, 300, with a membership of 515, including
Home and Cradle Roll departments.
Present facilities are entirely inadequate at all points.
The needs are greatest at Balboa as it is the central admin-
istrative point. It joins Ancon. The two places combined
have an American population of 4,000. When the census
was taken several months ago, about 500 families signified
a preference for the Union church. The needs of Cristobal
are nearly as great. Both must have additional facilities at
the earliest possible date.
We desire to build permanently in concrete construction
similar to the office buildings and the quarters constructed
by the Panama Canal near the location selected by us. Our
Balboa church should cost from $50,000 to $60,000, and we
should spend at least $40,000 for one at Cristobal. The
plans for our Balboa building are taking definite shape as
it must supply a large demand. It must be the centre of
Christian activity on the Isthmus and must emplify all that
is best in Christianity. With the work that could be done
from it, results the most far reaching throughout Central
and South American countries will certainly come.
The budget of the central organization that conducts the
general business affairs, required about $3,500 during the
last calendar year; a larger amount will be expended this
year; while next year the amount required for current ex-
penses, will be considerably above $4,000.
We, on the Isthmus, however, cannot provide the plant
that should be available for use now; that must be obtained
before we shall be able to provide it without assistance, if
we are not to lose one of the great opportunities that is
offered a Christian nation. Wooden buildings last but a

-short time and permanent buildings are very expensive. Our
inability to own land leaves us with no security for a church
debt and with no ability therefore to incur a debt. Our not
being affiliated with any denomination prevents help from
,denominational church extension funds, and we feel very
strongly that for the indirect effect which it will have oh mis-
sions, as well as for our own best spiritual good, our equipment
should be in all ways worthy. of the best ideals of American
At an informal meeting held February 18, 1916, the
history and needs of the Union church of the Canal Zone
were explained to a group of delegates and visitors to the
Panama Congress on Christian work with Robert E. Speer
as chairman. The following resolution was presented by Dr.
Ira Landrith, of Boston, and seconded by Reverend G. W.
Muckley, of Kansas City, and unanimously adopted:
RESOLVED: "That it is the sense of this informal con-
ference of delegates to Congress on Christian
Work in Latin America, that the Union Church of
the Canal Zone deserves and is hereby accorded our
endorsement and commendation as offering the best
solution of the problem of evangelical Christian
work under prevailing conditions."

It was expected that the activities of the Catholic church
would also be fully covered .in this volume; however, owing
to pressure of other matters various ones were unable to
handle or volunteer and. when request was made on Father
McDonald .who is a very busy man on the Isthmus, he did
not consider within the few weeks allowed that he was able
to handle in connection with other work. To quote: "I am
compelled to state that in justice to your contemplated bool
and the Catholic church on the Zone, I consider the time
allotted to the desired essay entirely too short. Within that
time I could do no more than to give an inadequate and
superficial resume of a work that deserves a careful and
studious treatment. I regret very much therefore that I

cannot have the pleasure of accommodating you, under the
conditions.'' The omission is regretted by the Editor.
The above history of church activities is almost verba-
tim in most cases from notes contributed by various ones in-
terested in the respective denominations or work covered.
The editor assumes responsibility for some minor changes
and omissions and extends the thanks of the Society to Mr.
Kromer by whom largely compiled and those contributing.



The late Dr. Otis Mason of the Smithsonian Institution
used to point out. how profoundly men were influenced by
their own work. Michael Angelo himself grew as St. Peter's
grew under his master hand. The art reacted on the artist.
"Gazing on the great"-to use Lord Byron's phrase-
whether it be great men or great deeds, rouses in the be-
holder whatever latent responsive powers there are in him
and quickens his impulses to nobler action.
Has not the Canal done this for us, perhaps to a greater
extent that we know? We have seen men grow down here
as well as concrete walls and mighty iron structures. Even
as a vast mountain falls to impress with its grandeur those
living on its slopes, so we ourselves may not have the per-
spective to see what so strikes casual visitors. But they
say that a Canal man has a sort of confident attitude of po-
tential force, a careless disregard of the seemingly insur-
mountable which only some extraordinary psychological in-
fluence can explain. He has seen with his own eyes vast
deeds done as it were in the twinkling of an eye. He came
here perhaps a provincial-he has become cosmopolitan as no
New Yorker or Londoner ever was. He gazes on both vast
oceans often in the same day, and world geography to him
is condensed into a single cell of his brain. He has met here
every type and character of mankind--not only of his own
land and race, but of all lands and races. The "Yankee" and
the "Rebel", the Dakota Swede, and the East Side Italian
have met, mingled, and intermarried. Here the swathy
Hindoo and the slant-eyed Celestial have come, as did the

wise men of old, to see the wonderful thing that has come
to pass. Almost no race or nation of earth has been unrep-
resented. The children learned ethnology without being
able to spell the word. Army officers forgot to demand the
salute, marines built roads and bridges, soldiers cleared the
jungle. The melting pot glowed with the fervent heat of
high resolve and the gold came out shining like the rays of
the morning sun.
Monsieur Beneau-Varilla may not have been idly com-
plimentary when he told the canal workers-paraphrasing
Napoleon to the army of Italy:
"Some day when you are in your far away homes, your
wives, your sweethearts, your neighbors will say to you:
'There goes a man that belonged to the army that built the
Panama Canal.' "
They are not much given to the mercurial expression of
sentiment as are the lively Gauls, these rough and ready men
who came from the north to open the great southern trail,
but those who watch them see what the poets and historians
of future ages will love to dwell upon many a romantic page.
They see how the great work of their hands has made them
into men whose like on earth is hardly to be found elsewhere;
how they have fought the greatest battle of peace to a finish
and stand now wondering somewhat how they did it, and
looking at their white-haired commander with a somewhat
puzzled air, as if to say: "Colonel, can't you get something
bigger for us to do before you die?" And the old man turns
his eyes sadly out across the ten thousand miles of heaving
water and his soul swells as he thinks that Columbus and
Balboa and Humbolt and Washington saw it in their mind's
eyes centuries ago, but God gave him and his little brigade
the doing of it, and his old white head may bend lower over
his desk, but we know that somewhere beyond the sky the
voices of God's great dead are saying "Well done!"-From
The Star and Herald, of Panama.


Some of "the men the Canal has made" have received
thanks and promotions from Congress and the president and
the Star and Herald has written an editorial about all of
them. So they are not quite forgotten or unappreciated. But
No Congress or president has yet mentioned any of
them-with one exception, and her husband had to be a
member of the Canal Commission and to die at the right time
in order for her to be mentioned'in the Congressional Record,
She deserves every bit of it, that noble and gracious lady
whom South Carolina sent to garland with orchids and to
adorn with her presence the home of Col. Gaillard, but she
was only one of an immortal number whose labors of life and
of love on the Isthmus of Panama made this dark and bloody
ground the light and the glory of the earth.
Yes, what of them?
That same Dr. Mason wrote a book about "The Place
of Woman in Human Culture," using the word culture in its
scientific, not its social, sense. He showed how woman had
either been the direct cause or the inspiration of most of
human achievement.
History shows it abundantly. The Grecian Helen caused:
the destruction of Troy, which forced Aeneas to go to Italy
to found Rome. Caesar's defiance of Sulla when ordered to
put away his young wife led ultimately to a change in the
Roman constitution and altered the map and the history of
Europe. In the Hebrew story, it was woman who was the
wife of the Fall, but the mother of Redemption. Examples
might be multiplied, but this is no historical essay-it is a
vindication of the fact that the women made the Canal.
Oh, yes, they did it. It is true that it might conceiv-
ably have been without them-just as it might without the
West Indians or the steam shovel or the Colonel; But the
fact is that they all did it, and facts are stubborn things.

Those who know how they did it will never argue the
question. Perhaps a few bachelors or grass widowers who
never knew how they did it may try to discuss it, but they
might as well argue with Cucuracha in motion.
They nursed it. Colonel Gorgas knew what they could
do in this way, for he married a trained nurse before he
went to Havana and he brought her to Panama-and many
another after her; all of them nursed the blue-shirters,
many married them.
They fed it. The "army that fights on its stomach,"
as Bonaparte said, might have done well on the I. C. C.
hotel fare, but they did infinitely better at the tables of the
Canal Zone homes.
They taught it. The men had children and they were
happy if they could see their children at morn and eve and
the children had to be educated and women taught them
until many of the men married many of them and put them
to even better use.
They took part in it. Not a large number, perhaps, but
enough women have the Roosevelt medal to make him proud
that his face is on it.
They cheered it. That they did! The dances, the
parties, in the churches and at the ball games they made
the land look like it was really inhabited. They made the
Panama railroad trains look like home. They sang, they
played, and even if they only sat and were looked at they
looked good to the beholder, and they cheered his life along
as he "swung the cranes around and went on to deeper
And then they made it home. Ah, there's the point.
The government might have built barracks of silver and
floored them with gold; it might have put on its hotel tables
the vintages of fair champaign and the pates of old Strass-
burgh-but no woman, no home, for God made it so from the
beginning of creation, and ordained it to the end of time.

So it came to pass that what was man's job became
woman's achievement. The pity of it has been that so far no
literary genius has arisen adequate to tell the story. For
while history has dealt preponderatingly with men, it has been
the privilege of romance to tell the truth about women. But
some day there will rise one who shall tell the story of how
they braved the terrors of the ocean, scouted the evil reputa-
tion of the land, faced the mosquitoes, bearded the jungle,
nursed the sick and buried their dead with an unfaltering
spirit whose heroism no pen can describe. Whether ruling in
regal beauty over the drawing room or making music at the
sewing machine, whether coming from homes long the centers
of wealth and culture or from the fight with social disadvan-
tage in the ranks of the toilers, they made a sisterhood in
which one bond was common to them all. The men came for
money, for adventure, for fame or in sheer wanderlust-the
women came for love-and in that they found what one said
nigh 2,000 years ago was the "Fulfillment of the law," the
"greatest of all." And when they went to where, under the
canopy of the bright tropic sky and beneath the evergreen
sod they laid away their loved ones to rest-it was oftenest,
perhaps, a babe cradled on the canal and lisping little notes
where strange birds sang and unknown flowers bloomed-what
tears they shed were the seed of a new life in the soil of this
land long cursed with strife and sodden with grief. They were
not shed in vain, for as the story sooner or later strikes far
and wide in the knowledge of mankind, it will do its destined
part in the redemption of the lost lands and peoples of the
earth. The seed was sown in sorrow, but it will ripen into
everlasting joy.
Cecil Rhodes was a hater of decent women. He tried to
found a South African empire without them and made war
on the marrying Boers. For a time he beat them, but Botha
ultimately took Rhodes' place as the great man of South Africa
and the Boers ruled there and but for their loyal devotion now,

that rich land with its hundred million of gold per year would
ere this be in the German empire.
Colonel Goethals was wiser than Rhodes. He loved one
woman and esteemed all other good women and made the
Canal a place for them. He builded better than he knew. For
after all, the canal is only a thing of concrete and steel, a hole
in the ground and a pond of water; but the men and women are
human flesh and blood, whose example will inspire the after
ages even if the canal becomes naught but a picturesque ruin.
They are those who gave to a mere idea the solid substance
of a thing created and they will inspire the creative genius of
mankind in every land and age while memory endures or tra-
dition lives; while among all these human forces here there
has stood forth pre-eminent for good the sweet presence, the
ennobling influence, the inspiring voice of her to whom history
can never do full justice and of whom it may be said:
"Earth hath not her equal!!"-From the Star and Herald
of Panama.


The Historic Ancon Hospital Wards established during
the French regime on the Panama Canal have now been almost
entirely razed by the American forces on the Canal to make
way for the new hospital buildings of reinforced concrete type
as contemplated by the present building program of the offi-
cials of the Panama Canal.
Several of these wards have already been dismantled.
Two of the most historic of such wards in American associa-
tions are numbers thirteen and fourteen, formerly numbers
eleven and twelve, which in early days of American occupa-
tion on the Isthmus during the years 1904 and 1905 were used
for yellow fever patients. Number twelve for some time was
exclusively so used and was equipped with closely screened
cages within which were confined and cared for those upon
whom the ravages of the disease had already laid hold. These
"cages" were absolutely mosquito proof and were so made
that in case any insects did manage to enter the screened ward
they could not secure access to the yellow-fever infected per-
Wards Nos. 11 and 12 in the "old days" will long linger
in the memories of most all of the Canal workers of the early
years of American construction and will never be forgotten
by many who suffered within their walls all the ravages of
yellow fever and recovered-as did many. It was also general
practice to observe in such days "safety first" and all sus-
pected of yellow fever were so "caged" until suspicions were
entirely removed. Therefore, those confined within such cages
during the years 1904 to 1906 included many who have now
scattered to all parts of the globe, and quite a number who still

remain on the Isthmus in the employ of the Panama Canal and
are interested spectators of razing of buildings that for them
have acquired a more or less sentimental value in Canal asso-
Parts of the Ancon Hospital were started in 1883. During
the days of the first French company it was operated under
contract, at a usual charge of five francs per patient per day
which prohibited treatment of other than whites on account
of expense. This company failed in 1889, but left a complete
record of the hospital showing that deaths for such period
were more than 5,000 in the hospital of which about 1,200
were from yellow fever.
During the regime of the second French company which
soon renewed Canal operations, Ancon Hospital was under
the charge of the SISTERS OF CHARITY who also cared for
patients sent in at a fixed charge. When the Americans as-
sumed possession on May 4, 1904, the Sisters were allowed to
remain for a short time when they were given their passage
by the American government to any point they elected to go.
A large number went to South America while others returned
to France.
Sister Bezard, who was Mother Superior at Ancon with
the French Canal company after 1899 and until American
occupation, is now Mother Superior of La Familia Orphanage
in Panama City, and has many interesting notes and anecdotes
of French and American operations in connection with the
care of the sick and ailing; and was interviewed by President
Taft when on Isthmus in 1905. She has never forgiven the
Americans for destruction of all hospital records when such
were secured on transfer to General Davis and Col. Lagarde.
She has, however, and for sale the entire plans of the hospital
grounds from earliest occupation by the French, and the
buildings with their seventy-odd pavilions.
The French hospital gave free treatment to employees
in same manner as has the Isthmian Canal Commission. The
Strangers' Ward or Foreign Wards which with a separate drug

store and chapel occupied the buildings used by the Ameri-
cans for nurses quarters, were reserved for pay patients en-
tirely. But little charity work was undertaken except among
children and for these an orphanage and pay school was con-
ducted by the Sisters, and maintained almost entirely by sale
of sewing and of flowers, fruits and vegetables from the hos-
pital grounds.
Father Quijano, for many years chaplain with the Ameri-
can forces at Ancon Hospital, spent the year of 1885 on the
Isthmus, but states that he remembers very little in detail
of conditions at that time.
When transfer to the American force was made, wards 11
and 12 subsequently used for yellow fever patients, consti-
tuted housing of orphan asylum. But one ward of the Old
French Hospital (Ancon) was then in use. An immediate out-
lay of $50,000 was authorized which placed many of wards
in shape for use. From time to time since such expenditure
additional buildings were added and others were altered and
repaired, and considerable amounts expended for improve-
ment of the grounds and roads or streets. To Americans on
the Isthmus the Ancon Hospital site with its cocoanut palms
and location on Ancon Hill with commanding view has always
been one of the most beautiful spots on the Isthmus.
Many fond memories and recollections of pleasant asso-
ciations formed during periods of convalenscence in hospital
wards are held by many former and present Canal employees.
But for the hospital as received from the French, there are
many who believe the Canal would have been long delayed on
account of difficulties of securing material and constructing
such buildings in the early days of American work on the
Isthmus, and without which it would have been more difficult
to secure and retain a working force.
But sentiment blocks but little the onward march of prog-
ress. The present historic buildings give way to more modern,
more sanitary and better equipped ones as proposed in present
building plans now under way and nearing completion. Yet

the old wards of Ancon Hospital will long linger as memory
pictures in the minds of Canal Workers past and present and
by most of them at least be given a deserving and enduring
niche in their Canal Hall of Fame.
Note:-For considerable of the data from which the above
is prepared the editor acknowledges his indebtedness to the
Misses Mackereth and Houle of the Ancon Hospital staff.


(Other and Perhaps More Necessary Than Military.)

The cry of "Preparedness" which has been rolling over
our country like a huge tidal wave and absorbing the attention
of all classes by reason of the great European war reminds
me of something a little nearer home. It is the same ques-
tion of preparedness which confronted the United States in
connection with the construction of the Panama Canal. Ow-
ing to the importance which is being attached in these martial
days to the necessity of being properly prepared to meet the
attack of a foreign foe it might not be amiss to refer to some
of the disadvantages and handicaps which attended the early
days of canal construction through lack of preparation. I
was here in those days, and in fact years preceding the occu-
pation of what is known as the Canal Zone by the Americans,
so do not speak from hearsay or books, but first-hand knowl-
edge gained by my connection with one of the large steamship
companies operating in these waters. This story will, there-
fore, have to do with the first two years of canal work-1904
and 1905-in many respects the most interesting of the en-
tire construction period. To speak precisely, the Americans
took possession, rolled up their sleeves, and started work in
May, 1904, as everyone knows that knows anything at all
about our Canal, although Major Brooke and Harry D. Reed,
the latter the some time Executive Secretary of the Isth-
.mian Canal Commission, were down here during the year 1903
for account of the American Government, keeping track of
the amount of work done by the French during that time so
that the value thereof might be taken into consideration in

connection with the proposed selling price for the French
rights and equipment in the event of the possibility of a
sale materializing; this hinging upon the ratification of the
Hay-Herran treaty. It was Major Brooke who received from
the French the keys to the old Administration building in the
City of Panama on May 4, 1904.
When the canal diggers first came down they appeared
to be imbued with but one idea, and that was to "make the
dirt fly", a popular phrase then in the United States. That
was the slogan, the battle cry. They then felt that they had
to make good on that, so they proceeded to "make the dirt
fly", to speak figuratively, but it didn't fly for long. The re-
sults of undertaking such a colossal work without first pre-
paring the way for same soon became apparent. There was
no end of confusion. The one branch that suffered most was
the Panama railroad. Prior to the advent of canal work by
our people this railroad only had sufficient rolling stock to take
care of its commercial business and even then it was often
hard pushed for cars during the coffee season, its busiest time.
Imagine the result when the additional business incident to
canal construction was placed upon it. The railroad had made
no preparation to meet this increased business. Its little
twelve-ton box-cars could not begin to take care of the canal
material in the shape of stores and equipment which soon
started to pour in from the States. To make matters worse,
it was not possible to always store or deliver canal material
at once, and so the cars were tied up with it longer than would
otherwise have been the case. The wharfage facilities were
also inadequate. Outside of the American wharf in Panama,
at the Pacific end they only had the one steel pier, the one
built by the French during the years 1896-98 at what was
then known as La Boca. It, of course, could not meet the in-
creased demands made upon it, with the result that steam-
ers had frequently to discharge to and load from lighters, and
also much time was lost waiting for a berth at the pier. Fur-
thermore, the pier at that time was too narrow, had only one

track, and, consequently, the greatest care had to be exer-
cised in arranging the cargo checking and trucking system
in order to avoid 'a mix-up in the transfer of cargo. As it
was, with all the care taken, cargo would slip by the checkers,
get into some car unchecked, and afterwards be loaded aboard
a ship for which it was not intended. For instance, a bale
of goods for Central America instead of being put aboard a
Pacific mail steamer would, through some mistake, get aboard
a Pacific steam navigation steamer and be taken south. I
remember some cases of gunpowder destined for San Fran-
cisco ex some Atlantic steamer. The mistake was made in
Colon in not shipping them over the road properly. They
came as ordinary cargo. Another mistake was made in the
Pacific mail office by the clerk who made up the check book
in not calling special attention to the powder when entering
it in the book. As the result of these mistakes, when they
were loaded at the American wharf to launches the check
clerks on the wharf did not appreciate what was passing by
them, and, consequently, the cases got in the hold of the
steamer Newport, a passenger steamer, loaded promiscuously
along with other cargo. This was ascertained from the ship-
ping documents and check books after a part of the ship's
cargo was aboard. There was nothing to do then but to send
empty launches alongside the ship and discharge the cargo
already aboard in an effort to locate the gun-powder and place
it where it belonged-in the ship's magazine. The ship, of
course, could not sail with the gunpowder in her hold as that,
at least, would vitiate the insurance.
Things kept going from bad to worse. The railroad with
its single track, 12-ton box-cars, and inadequate wharfage
facilities, could not stand the pressure brought to bear upon
it by the increased canal business, and it gradually got so
badly choked during the year 1905 that it was on the verge
of paralization insofar as the commercial business was con-
cerned. The inability of the railroad to properly take care of
the commercial business in turn crippled to a certain extent

the steamship companies operating steamers to the Isthmus.
Shipments would get badly mixed and tangled up while in
transit across the Isthmus, and in consequence a great many
packages were lost, which created great dissatisfaction among
consignees on the coast. I remember one occasion when four
cars of Mexican cargo were lost on the Isthmus. This cargo
was ordered forward by the Pacific carrier and, manifested,
and at the last moment it was ascertained that the cars in
which it was loaded could not be located, and so the connec-
tion was lost. It would seem funny to a railroad man for cars
to get lost on a line of railroad only 49 miles in length!
The pile of short-shipped cargo at the Pacific end kept
getting bigger all the time. This was by .reason of the fact
that this short-shipped stuff for one cause and another (some
mix up), could not be sent forward in the regular way on
short-shipped papers. It was a real "sancocho" as they say
in Spanish. Finally, as the only solution, the whole pile was
loaded aboard the different steamers and sent to the coast,
the steamship companies instructing their agents on the coast
to endeavor to fill shorts from previous shipments with same,
the packages being turned over to them without papers.
To make a long story short, the congestion of traffic got
so bad that the latter part of 1905 the Pacific Mail Steamship
Co. lodged a complaint at Washington against the Panama
Railroad Co., and the matter came on for hearing before a
congressional committee when the grievances of the mail
company were fully aired. The proceedings were published in
book form.
At just about this time many improvements were gotten
under way on the railroad, and in 1906 the road was double-
tracked almost its entire length, and modern rolling stock,
sufficient to meet the traffic demands, placed on the road.
Some of their little old twelve-ton box-cars are still to be seen
serving as living quarters with the familiar I. & C. lettering
on them.
At the same time that the railroad was laboring under

great difficulties by reason of the increased traffic pressure
the work in the famous Culebra cut was greatly hampered
through lack of proper preparation for the excavation and
removal of the dirt. As a matter of fact, conditions in the
cut were so bad that Chief Engineer Stevens, when he came
down in 1905 to relieve Chief Engineer Wallace who had re-
signed, suspended all excavation operations in the cut with the
exception of a few shovels, necessary for the excavation of
the.different levels, and entered upon preparatory work on
an extensive scale. There was only one way, he said, to make
the dirt fly, and that was first to prepare; to get the necessary
levels, proper road bed, rails that would support the locomo-
tives and other equipment, and erect sufficient buildings for
housing the employes, which were sadly lacking at the time.
Prior to that time the dirt had been doing anything else
but fly.
This is merely written with the object of showing what
preparation means for any great undertaking, be it war or
the carrying to completion of some colossal work such as the
Panama Canal. There are eminent engineers who said that we
should have started with two years of preparatory work ex-
clusively before entering upon the task of excavation.
Ancon, Canal Zone, December, 1916.

The "Men Higher Up" in Panama Canal Construction.

Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, U. S. N., appointed March 8, 1904.
Theodore P. Shonts, April 1, 1905, to March 4, 1907.
John F. Wallace, appointed May 5, 1904, arrived on Isthmus and assumed
duties June 29, 1904, resigned June 28, 1905.
John F. Stevens, June 30, 1905, to March 31, 1907.
Major W. M. Black, U. S. A., in charge from March 22, 1904, to June
28, 1904.
W. J. Karner, October, 1904, during absence of Chief Engineer.
W. E. Dauchy, June 12, 1905, during absence of John F. Wallace.
J. G. Sullivan, December 11, 1905, during absence of John F. Stevens.
J. G. Sullivan, May 18, 1906, during absence of John F. Stevens.
F. B. Maltby, December 3, 1906, to February 4, 1907, during absence of
John F. Stevens.
John F. Stevens, appointed March 4, 1907; resigned March 31.
Lt. Col. Geo. W. Goethals, April 1, 1907, to March 31, 1914.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective September 22, 1908, during absence
of Chairman and Chief Engineer on leave.
Major D. D. Gaillard, effective December 10, 1908, during the absence
of the Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective February 7, 1909, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective August 31, 1909, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective May 10, 1910, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective September 29, 1910, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
H. H. Rousseau, effective January 29, 1911, to February 2, 1911, during
absence of Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective February 3, 1911, during the absence
of the Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective February 3, 1911, during the absence
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective January 29, 1912, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
Lieut. Col. H. F. Hodges, effective May 28, 1912, during absence of
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
H. H. Rousseau, effective December 27, 1912, to January 20, 1913, during
absence of Chairman and Chief Engineer.
H. F. Hodges, effective January 21, 1913, during absence of the Chair-
man and Chief Engineer.
H. F. Hodges, effective June 3, 1913, during absence of the Chairman
and Chief Engineer.
H. F. Hodges, effective February 12, 1914, during absence of the Chair-
man and Chief Engineer.

GOVERNOR OF THE CANAL ZONE (in charge of Department of Government
and Sanitation):
Major-General Geo. W. Davis, retired, appointed May 9, 1904, arrived on
Isthmus, and entered on duties May 17, 1904; relieved May 9, 1905.
Charles E. Magoon, arrived and took up duties of position May 25, 1905;
left service September 25, 1906.
ACTING GOVERNOR OF THE CANAL ZONE (in charge of Department of
Government and Sanitation):
Col. Wm. C. Gorgas, from May 9, 1905, to May 24, 1905.
H. D. Reed, from January 21, 1906, to April 10,1906.
H. D. Reed, from September 26, 1906, to November 16, 1906.
Richard Ried Rogers, November 17, 1906, to March 31, 1907.
Joseph C. S. Blackburn, appointed April 1, 1907, entered on duties May
9. 1907, resigned effective December 4, 1909.
Maurice H. Thatcher, April 12, 1910, to August 8, 1913.
Richard L. Metcalf, August 9, 1913, to March 31, 1914.
H. D. Reed, November 26, 1906, to May 8, 1907.
H. H. Rousseau, effective December 10, 1907, during absence of Jos. C.
S. Blackburn on leave.
Lieut. Col. George W. Goethals, effective November 25, 1907, during the
absence on leave Jos. C. S. Blackburn.
H. H. Rousseau, effective October 10, 1909, during absence of Jo. C. S.
Blackburn on leave and to appointment of M. H. Thatcher.
H. H. Rousseau, effective May 25, 1911, during absence of M. H. Thatcher
on leave.
H. H. Rousseau, effective May 28, 1912, during absence of M. H. Thatcher
on leave.
H. F. Hodges, effective June 14, 1913, during.absence of M. H. Thatcher
on leave.
Geo. W. Goethals, effective July 2, 1913, during absence of M. H. Thatcher
on leave.
Col. George W. Goethals, appointed April 1, 1914.
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, nomination sent to Senate January 3, 1917;
appointment confirmed by Senate January 9, 1917.
Col. H. F. Hodges, effective December 17, 1914, during absence of the
Governor on leave, and until relieved from duty with the Panama
S Canal (January 1, 1915).
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, effective January 2, 1915, during the absence
of the Governor.
Lieut. Col. J. J. Morrow, effective January 24, 1915, during absence of
Governor and Engineer of Maintenance.
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, nomination sent to Senate January 3, 1917;
of the Governor.
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, effective August 2, 1915, during the absence
of the Governor.
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, effective May 25, 1916, during the absence
of the Governor.
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, effective September 20, 1916, during absence
of the Governor on leave.
Lieut. Col. Jay J. Morrow, effective December 11, 1916, during the ab-
sence of the Governor and the Engineer of Maintenance.




Senator of Belgium.
Professor of International Law.
Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

A European scheme, an American achievement! How
much more impressing, if it would have been an international
scheme and a world achievement! As it is, with its locks and
its forts, it may become and certainly is, in the mind of wor-
shippers of might and war, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus
of the Western Hemisphere.
May never its doors be battered by submarine torpedoes
and may its guns remain silent! May never human blood redden
the stones of its sluices! May the humming birds and the
butterflies on its borders never be frightened by the thunder
of bursting shells!
I dream of goodwill, of open hands and of open hearts.
Others dream of preparedness, of hatred and slaughter. Amer-
ica dreams also; she dreams to be the peacemaker and the
mediator in this world where war is maddening rulers and
peoples and hurling them in a vortex of unheard-of crimes.
She will make perhaps some suggestions and talk of freedom
of the seas and of freedom of the rivers, of open straits and
of open canals.
Is there not some inconsistency in having the Panama
Canal, unlike the Suez Canal, bristling with the most up-to-
date implements of murder and to speak of peace to others
when you are preparing for war, not against a given foe,
but against all the nations alike? I see already ironical

smiles appear on the lips of the diplomats in the foreign offices
of the world.
What a lesson, splendid and striking, of highest morality
and farsightedness, if America would propound the interna-
tionalization of the Panama Canal, despoiled of its strongholds
and offer to all the States, small and powerful, to share with
her the cost and .management of this highway between the
seas and to own together, for the centuries to come, the key
of this majestic portal linking, across the new world, the Old
World and the Oldest World.
An individual thought, weak as a winged seed in the grip
of storms, may it land somewhere in the soul of men!


The people of the United States understood that the
Panama Canal was built to help along the commerce of the
world, our own with the rest, but in no sense exclusively. It
was agreed that all traders should be treated alike and that
no "America first" privileges or rebates would be granted to
American operators to the prejudice of others.
If the question had been raised, the American people
would no doubt have thrown the Canal open free to all the
world. This would have at once ended the question of asset
or liability. It would have been financially a liability only, but
in the long run an asset in promoting the good will of nations,
a matter infinitely more important than commercial expansion,
and without which commercial expansion is of itself a lia-
bility. The protection by warships of the commerce of Europe
during the "Dry War" prevailing in the years before 1914
cost Europe many times the aggregate profit on all overseas
trade. As compared with the cost of military defense an open
and free canal would be relatively an asset.
In any event it -may be many years before the tolls or
traffic through the canal will pay for its cost.. The American
people are not worried over this. It is a great work, a noble
work, a work compelled by our duty to humanity, and whether
it pays in money all it cost or any part of it, is a secondary
matter. Every week of war costs Europe more than the price
of the canal, and war has nothing to show for the expenditure.
Only International Peace can yield returns.
This raises the question of military values. Clearly to
fortify the canal involves great additional expense. Probably
a canal absolutely free would be a better investment, and for

all that anyone on earth knows it would be just as well de-
fended if it were both unprotected and freed. The most dan-
gerous fortification is that built on selfishness. A statesman
would think twice before venturing to seize a free gift of any
artery of world commerce. But those men in all lands who
think of military force as a legitimate argument in politics
and in trade will doubtless continue to consider the Canal as
an asset in war. When this point of view is emphasized it
turns our steps towards war. To those to whom blood ap-
pears as an argument in politics or business, it is always the
first argument.
In the Canal as a "military asset" the body of the Ameri-
can people have little interest. Moreover, they feel that they
have not been treated quite fairly in this matter.
Before the Canal was built Admiral Mahan and his fol-
lowers (to whom the sea exists mainly as a theater for sea
fights) used to tell us that the Canal, once built, would greatly
reduce our naval expenses. War ships could then freely move
from one ocean to the other if we were threatened on either
side. When the Canal was finished the same authorities ex-
plained to us that we should require a navy about three times
as large as before, for besides the defense of both coasts the
Canal must also be defended. In itself it was declared to be
"the weakest link in our chain of defense", and hence to be
especially guarded.
And now, when "sea power" is obviously one of the rocks
on which civilization seems likely to founder, we are told by
authority still higher than Admiral Mahan, that this three-
fold- navy, fitted to defend a free people from imaginary ene-
mies, must be second in striking ability to nothing else on
This may indeed be true, but if so, it takes away all our
pride in the Great Canal as a contribution of our Republic
to world-civilization.
But we are not forced to this extreme of 'discouragement.
The Canal is actually a monument of patient, intelligent ef-

fort. It is a piece of altruistic constructive work. It has been
finished and will be maintained in no spirit of hatred, suspicion
or antagonism towards any nation whose people may need to
use it. The Canal is an Asset of Good Will, with only the
remotest liability that it may sometime be perverted to the
service of war.
Stanford University, California, November, 1916.



What does the Panama Canal mean? What does it mean
to the United States, to Latin America, to Europe, to Asia, to
Australia, and to all of the world?
These are questions which every man interested in the
progress of the world cannot fail to turn over constantly in
his mind.
No other great engineering undertaking in the history of
the human race, not even the construction of the Suez Canal,
the building of the transcontinental railways of North Ameri-
ca, the construction of the great wall of China, has had any
such effect on the power, prestige, commerce and opportu-
nity of one or of a group of nations as will have the Panama
For the United States and its twenty sister American
Republics the formal opening of the Canal will be the solemn
inauguration of a great new Pan American era of commerce,
friendship, and peace. In separating North from South
America with a water channel it will draw them closer to-
gether in ties of better acquaintance and larger trade.
While it will bring a quickening influence to every state
and part of the United States, its most immediate benefits will
be first felt upon the Atlantic Gulf, and Pacific seaboards.
Gradually the interior, especially the commercial, industrial,
manufacturing, and exporting sections and later the agricul-
tural districts, will gain both direct and indirect advantages,
until the whole land realizes that a new world commercial
route is in operation. Too great changes or effects, however,
must not be expected to come all at once. The real and lasting
benefits to the trade and commerce of the United States will

come only through the process of years and the adaptation of
the business interests, not only of the United States but of
foreign countries, to the new conditions of the Canal. There
is probability that much disappointment will be experienced
in many seaports of the United States that their docks and
wharves are not immediately crowded with shipping after
the Canal is opened. It must be remembered that water
routes, though freer and less restricted than rail routes, re-
quire fleets of mercantile vessels, much capital, and large
actual exchange of commodities to develop them on a big
Just as a new railroad built through a sparsely settled
country between two cities does not begin to do the business
at first which comes to it later on through the construction of
feeders, the filling up of the country, and the growth of its
terminal points, so the Panama Canal, through the extension
of old steamship lines, the putting on of new lines and tramp
vessels, and the building up of the countries reached by them,
will increase its commerce and its shipping with eventual indi-
vidual benefits to each port within the limit of its influence.
Probably the greatest good to the United States from
the Canal will result from the cheap, short, and quick route
of water communication between its Atlantic, Gulf, and Paci-
fic seaboards. The exchange through the Canal of trade and
commodities between the Atlantic and Gulf states and ports
on the one hand, and the Pacific states and ports on the other,
should grow rapidly in quantity, volume, and value. This
development should not and probably will not injure perma-
nently the business of the transcontinental railways. On the
contrary, it will so increase the prosperity, population, and
business of the coast and adjacent interior states that it will
develop the local trade of the railways and that class of
through business which will not be handled by slow-going
Some simple contrasts in distances between the Panama
Canal and the Straits of Magellan will show at a glance what

the Panama Canal means in the relations of the Atlantic,
Gulf, and Pacific seaboards of the United States. By Ma-
gellan, the distance from New York to San Francisco is 13,-
135 miles; by Panama, 5,262 miles, a saving of 7,873 miles,
or more than twice the distance across the Atlantic ocean.
From New Orleans to San Francisco, by way of Magellan, is
13,551 miles; by way of Panama, 4,683 miles, a saving of 8,-
868 miles, or practically a month's steaming of vessels
averaging 12 knots an hour. Such figures need no further
argument than themselves to illustrate the real significance
and meaning of the Canal.
While the shortening of the distance between the domes-
tic ports of the United States is, perhaps, the most remark-
able and important fact, the saving effected between the
ports of the United States and others beyond its shores upon
the Pacific is almost equally significant and impressive. A
steamship bound from New York to Honolulu, using the
Panama Canal in preference to the Magallan route, will save
6,610 miles; from New York to Wellington, New Zealand,
2,493 miles; to Melbourne, Australia, 2,770 miles; and to
Yokahama, Japan, 3,768 miles. All these distances give also
a large advantage to the Panama Canal over the Suez Canal
route, but there is practically no choice in actual distance
between the Panama and Suez routes in the steaming dis-
tances from New York to Hong Kong, China, and -Manila, the
capital of the Philippines.

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EUD9QVA7B_6PZGS9 INGEST_TIME 2013-01-22T14:18:53Z PACKAGE AA00013083_00006