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The History of the Caribby-Islands


Material Information

The History of the Caribby-Islands
Alternate Title:
Histoire naturelle et morale des iles Antilles de l'Amerique.
Physical Description:
351 pages; Illustrated; 28 centimeters
A translation of "Histoire naturelle et morale des îles Antilles" by Louis de Poincy, Paris, 1658.
Charles de Rochefort
Printed for John Starkey and Thomas Dring
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:

Record Information

Source Institution:
UCF: Digital Library of the Caribbean ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location:
UCF: Digital Library of the Caribbean ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 83697828
System ID:

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Full Text

es (J., of Kidwelly) HISTORY Of te LARIBBY ISLANDS--w., Barbauus,
'.'St. Christophers, St. Vincent, Martinico, Dominico, Antego, &c., 9 plates,
smn. folio, original calf, 1666 5

'i. The first part deals with Natural History, the second part gives an account of the
native Caribbeans, and their language.
The book was printed in the year of the Great Fire, when many books were
destroyed._ _
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Chrifop hers,

Mevis, S' Vincents, Antego,
Martinico, Monfcrrat,
And the reft of the

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The Firft containing the .Nataral; The Secohd,
the Moral H ory of thofe lil'a.
Illuftrated with federal Pieces of Sculpture, representing
the moft confiderable Rarities therein described.

Englifhed by 7. D

A IE S of Kidielly.

Printed for John Starkey and Tbomas Dringjnr, at the
As tre between the Middle Tewple-Gate and Teaple-m and at the
White Lion never Ctancer -Lae end in Flef tr- 666
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" i: Tt the Righ..Worfhipful.

Sir 4t1%r YsCtHa
S. ;. ..-,r .' ,. .
lWonoured S .. i
S-7Ot O Ahaye .fuiffAcitly fItiIfi Led-i dI
s. b World of the Crit fiiy lou'
fo' r whatever fany aiaifure4 de.
ferves (: You *re pIeas'da giveme:a hint
of the" Piee IMehe prde'tdt you withal;. atnd
your 4 cornmendaufion #the-Origihalr mig-t
well raife in me a hope of your readier accep-
tancec sfthe Triflatit. r It is the noblEft of
humanecAdtin4to vouchf fc a & kind Esrt-r
trinmet iNtoxheifthreltJwhhitritatuThe*
Fortuadh th-zlk thm nalpit&*ou:; Ti e
equaliyTbf MRkfeP: nai Aihe' Eniduriersof:h
rnoft biaimonl th mdi lotompatfionate; fo
far astM:4vKtfeiwho hdJ rireli'd
charity didtA hrt tb fahe ta> btqr
Thus do I b* td-y'trdY, icaiipany
of poor Caribbians, to offer you their Refpedts
and Submifsions, in A44 wfr-ill thofe
Iflands, whereof their Anceflors. have-been
binWs_ 4s)in4%&hOcean of "mWica:
They *1i j4 t neither the obfcurity of
their Origine, nor the harfhnefs of their Lan-
guag,,nprte arbarifme of their Mannert,
nor their ftrange courfe ofLife,nor the cruelty
of their Wars, nor their ancient Poverty, nor
A laftly
A il ,y
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The E iftle Dedicatory.
laftly the unconftancy of their Fortune, will
hinder you ilMi uable Reception of them.
A .g high sis s9 hoi f eis,isan
im*'atisn, thai yotu Who fin lAeffzt t6 'be-
flow your Eye and Thoug t on fo j fipite a
Multitude of Volumes ag l tffiY9 il P&A s of
SbWdin rto ymoiribibra yea(nWBplea-d
wifotA iw idoe 0iav 0g theni2and
te 'ryofthejjrikkkr 'Ay entertain
addmaetiishbdqghe6ilWriity,> am
&dklcrtisfw ofi th4ighb"4 but-.ffo with
at s Mainces('tpable; e 4 itifo g; ys
ir b!bafr *,uor -n ior : -- cfir
3o MlJIew osly b frtrdwzhj on 4Uqit behalf
1iMa&t k iNiyba jtfi4 it1t owin, aural
D RMsmifA htk*hel| mrtM ating fon
A* plogyrf miy fW'. fwhich-.oraly thisThat
Ih4cpW*biop Ath M0prefarA44drei is .in
bnmena fmfti .t*n tft( youth Gdiooidefs and
sEndAr sb4t ikh/ad besiabt a necifary
anpr4diAumay Qnrtu4aA4 1 "uy years

r (neqiprfhoWlhowmm A ch
ord 'f 4 9 ",r A

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o Admion *ew ja .gA frw -,ate Cen.-
P JrfrhE WFA contended

Sf bv : thiwsor o thet n e they are

"" .writtl erfont hboi beeg cocerard
.. t. ta Ar ,o

IIhemf akti's ii rthirkbn;rs to gnwtimes the Trth
"il mtrfrns, who.;.being cwcernpd

a abaid& rwfe .thane they rre, Sometiwer
#wAiMcnditdi'ertain wrw Writers, whain# cldblw4d
,add f uesf theiriwslnhsrv, wouldtiwpofer ponn our
&reduity4 ift bcr a" f 4s woe of li-ng 'jfjied.
qtnd Lyskinr fakM t#Earc we Fiecesof obis:,antmr
.fronmel MfAItle zverid infludy, nd fo fueh as are vot
able to lydkw* tsiLy waith tii requifite exatinef, in.
4fru&' a np&nawAry ovcafiwgs theytake one thing for
a'i ,sarnd terentnthg;rdy nzd nsualaly, though
.beny.h many-I.enjisn to-4eive-uw -On the con- .
knary, itr3 grcat irdedmtages -wfjrfuch Works are ca*
Srf.ed by Aif ho; rs; % whoa 'lifr three nditions.ar
JiAnd..io..ning t.gpkr te~w j.;That thy 4re Sicon
earned; That they dally not withfriyt; a,4 That thy
fwr alUk e &equipfetfr g4& frawig qf their Re-
lationJ' '. :
". Thofr'$n fihanldaftTh&Cw th? rfeftf # m
areto expFltd khfadvsqztes: EaorQflohW
f r# afi fW.mefiwd4nd i that i, t.c"
hiend' hem ukr oncwc4 :4fetyy, Pbe4j Pors of 4No
,rkfty, Awr t w ,r S... A ce.Of'l -ist
S Eeflfkyww uay Ainw 4yI ffup0( ;ok ,of 4e
A4diAi, &hiip t e e x gf fo fi L s.
the &i y lhi kb r, e4 tv&14y t tt eip.M it .4
n;^n* l t a e .,

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The Preface.
an over-earnejl prevention thereto may feem to proceed
from a certain vanity andfejf-confidence; yet when all cir-
cmnflances fall be considered, the ingenuous will easily
be induced to.allow them even that alfo. ,
For- i. The Relations they hbad t 6 workupon came from
Ferfons who had been Eye-witneffes of what they delive-
L*s djifh rife5, and ofknownt integrity, d- enduMd
with the abilities reauifite to mana g fuch a Wor.
2. There was a degn of tis Hiftory draw ~t Parisfome
years before it came abroad, andthen thought worthy pub- A
#liM, if by diners intelligent men,sowhbon it n2as cm'imu-
'ticited, wboairefully rad it owert and honoured t' with
htiitb drks. Tetthat' it might come forth with greater
txaEbft, itt~s laid afide, till the observations rf after-
ithddded minchto its perfe6iiom So that if the
#*EkkJ& WVny fatdsfa&*ion from this HJftoly; ia will
m ijfton rit herw t6 tngrnatulate, than quarel.at' its de-.
eyf e ite)as .ontfow more eniched and.exa'a thag
"M td WA-ewat the firft prefer of it awhe Prefr.
Fo'fbdfide.is ba many Obfervations and Relations came.
fiW 'fo bhdk the Authors made a4 geat adzkutages of
t friateare Diftourfes .they had with one FRuter Ray-
ibnd,- ffecituly as to the Moral part oftheCarbbian
iflrjr For this man having lived many years.in thofe
Jktnds and had muchconv'erfation with the'Caribbians
affomnirilco, came by' hat means to beracquainted with
i^t Liaing ge4 their Manners, and -the moi particular.
Cfifoms frthbat o'atioh From, the (.ame F Raymond
bad ~"a4fi the Caribbian Vocabulary, which may b1
@d4t ithre entbfthe Bok.
bry thittb'ft 1o divide the fiftQery into r*4 Partsi
the Natural and the Moral, in imitation of that of the exA
elekt u }f&C4h Acofla, and they hope the Piece will be
.flJndfdhnb"to akiv.et the Title.;. tmnprebending in tie
ek twrhtcet- is of the& *aturtenwth. ofibhSni%
h' "hts;,It iflowers, Birds, Beaths, &c wdinde
T'e itkt itfhatoever redtda to bheir Mannere' G3flaonuI
thei4, Vk&Vic&c. Not that they.wvrl^ dlk&
i ar^b th^ that ti tattesatife fblddt canttnW 4a
m rhgbi'b 4rkitt 4 he fabjtk of tdie Abiiea;

T The Preface.
Ay they acknowledge, that both the Natural and Moral
mparsof thim fimifory Wight be much enlarged; hut wit h
.iis adverfifement, that ifewery part ofthe New-world
S er fr diligently examined by fHiforianmas tbiihatb
&een, theOld-world would have a wmud more prttu4ear
count thereof than it bath at the prefent.
They have alfo thought it not befide their nrpofe, efr.
casyi inthe Moral arit ofthe Hifory, to cise the Writings
SW'dwvrt ohtwAs w AnAthursnoset of any dajfign
Senlage the Veifuse, asfoin nmtiJht haply kagine ;butto
Sm^ enmainpra p lid between the Morality of our Carib-
bin6, andl'hat of divers other yet Barbarous Natioes;
i ich they concei 'd would not be undeligbtful to fome,
Sven though they leaked on them as fo many digrejins
frwm,or mterruptions'.of the Carribbian Hiffory. But wtat
cenfarefoever may be paffed on them, they hopethat if any
f tbathink. them not neceffarily relating to the main design
Sftbhe Draught, they may nevethelefs view tbhemwitb a
!certai pleafure, as the Drapery; confifting of Flowers
and Fnlut, &c. for the greater ornament ofthe Piece.
Difcorfe is the image of the thought ; but the Draught
ofathing by way of Painting or Graving reprefentf the
thing it felf.- Front this confidera4tion it came, that this
P fiece is further adorn'd witb federal pieces of Sculpture,
S: the end that the Idxas of the things particularly treated
f might bt the more throughly imprinted in the Readers
ind b a fenfible demo nfiraton thereof.
s l nsmch as to the Anthours and Direorsaf the Ori-
n t Edition. The ?unbif/ier ,f the Engifih hath only
hefe fe Remarks to irouble the Reader.withal.
S. atp4 y th le of the E gtli Nationiwbuareie
S 'bitan- the Caribn.es, may be pecuiar names for
divers of the Plants,Beafts, Birds, Fifhes,&c. mentioned
in third Treatife, much different from thofe which the Pub-
lifer hathufed. Some of them, upon confultation with
fuicls bha4 lived in thofe parts be made afbift to get, and
mi ahSlikeflhbod might have gotten mofI of the reff, had not
th breaking forth of the lsijlyears Contagion caus'dmofi
o fthe Inhabitants of London, to retire te their C try
S. Habitations andFriends.

., 1 1

:e aTherPreface.

l.ioic The [Readia ir t'note, that. where fone accident is
Cfaid to haie hbapened Cfor br five, or fome other number
idfryearsfince. (asfor-injfance, pag. r4. where it'isfaid
n ihefel words that, two years fince they were forced
ittquit their Villages, &c.) it is to be referred tothe
coming forthof the nniginal Edition, which was in the

t.Dhat Ytheras there. might well.be expeled, before
r i~bYi ar^azMap of the Caribbylflandx in general, asj
S alfo particular ones off e mofl eminent Ifands, the Kea-
-d"rsIi to content bimfiif with this fatifafaionfrom the
8iWitioners,. th.at if tanacE.arate-oie of the whole, that is
,fwiah oe a nibthtieb.ekan suitable to the other Embe-
Aifi4eftts of the prefcrn frQrk, could have been procu-
r&4ed ito Hld4ifJ' elbenwanting: With this further af-
fai t en. totbhf what. is done-attheprefent meet withe
fwiption expe*ed,:ithenext Imprefflon hall be furnished
wfytunlywiththe forkwentioned Map, but alfo fome other
-Pierdi. of Ornament, whereof the laft years difrafiBon,
and.want oftime now have obflrun ed the infection.
I Lafly, whereas many perfons ofw ~thb(though more in
theO\riginathenibn n the Tranflation) are mentioned in fe-
veral places as Inhabitants ofthe forefaid Colonies, there
is only this to.be faid; that as the inflancing of them adds
foemewhat to the certainty ofthe Relations ; fo it may like-
wifr ferve to undeceie -many Europeans, who are either
: fo ill-informed of tof Iflands, or f[ prejudiced againfj
-ibem, as to ie perfwaded, that, for the mof part, they are
onlyt the refuges and receptacles of Bankrupts and de-
banched-perfons the contrary being moft certain to wit,
that they are inhabited by an infinite number of Families
of good repute, which live civilly and in the fear of God.

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Caribby Iflands.

Containing the N A T U R A L Hifory of thofe

Of the Scituation of the Caribbies in general ; the Temt.
perature of the Air, the Nature of the Country, and its
Etween the Continent of that part of Ameri-
ca which lies Southward, and the Eaftern
Quarter of the Ifland ofS9 1John Porto-Rico,
there are certain flands making up together
the Figure of a Bow, and fo difpos'd that
they crofs the Ocean, as it were by an ob-
lique line.
They are by fome called the Antilles of America, probably
' "~~pon this account, that they make a kind of bar before the
greater Iflands, which are called the Iflands of America; If fo,
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. The Hiflory of Boo I.
the word Thould be Ant-Ifles, as being composed of the Greek
word 'At t, which fignifies opposite, and Ifles or lies: But the
English commonly call them the Caribby-Iflands, and the Carib-
bies. There are alfo who call them the Cannibal-Iflands, from
the names of the ancient Inhabitants 5 and they are read in
fome under the name of the Camergane Iflands.
Thefe Iflands were firft discovered by Chriflopher Columbus,
under the Reign of Ferdinand and Ifabella, King and Queen of
Caflile and Leox,in the year of our LordOne thoufand four hun-
dred ninety and two.
There are numbred of them in all twenty eight, lying under
the Torrid Zone, counting from the eleventh degree of the
JEquator, to the nineteenth Northward. Some Authors, as
Linfcot in his Hiftory of America,taking the name of the Antilles
in a more general fignification, attribute it to the four greater
Islands, to wit, Hi4aniola, Cuba, Jamaica, and Porto-Rico, as well
as to thefe twenty eight.
The Air of all there Iflands is temperate,and healthy enough,
especially to fuch as have lived any time in them. The Plague
heretofore was not known in thefe Parts, no more than it was
in China, and fome other places of the Eaft : But fome years
fince moft of thefe Iflands were much troubled with malignant
Fevers, which the Phyfitians held to be contagious. That cor-
ruption of the Air was occafion'd by fome Ships which came
from the Coaft of AfricAks but now there is no talk of any
fuch Difeafes.
The heats are not greater in thefe parts than they are in
France during the Months of July and Augufl 5 and through a
particular care of Divine Providence, between eight and nine
in the morning there rifes a gentle Eaft-wind, which many times
continues till four in the afternoon, refreshing the Air, and al-
laying the foultrinefs of the heat. Jofephus Acojta affirms, That
in the greater Iflands of America this cooling wind blows about
Noon. Thus through all the compafs of the Torrid Zone, the
wife Difpofer of humane concernments hath ordered cool and
regular Winds, to alleviate the fcorching heats of the Sun.
It is never cold in the caribbies, and Ice is a thing was never
feen in thofe parts 5 nay, it would be accounted a kind of pro-
digy to find that where,
All things are clad in a perpetual green,
And Winter only in the Snow of Lillies feen.

But the Nights there are extreamly cool 5 and if a Man be un-
covered during that time, he is apt to catch Colds, and great
and dangerous pains in the Cheft and Stomach: Nay, it hath
been obferv'd, That thofe who have exposed themselves unco-
Sver'd to that pleading coolnefs, if they haveefcaped pains and

CA n.J..

The Caribby-Jflands.

gripings in the Stomack, have turn'd pale, yellowith .and
fwell'd up, and in a fhort time loft the lively vermilion Com-
plexions they had before. There are indeed others attribute
thefe effects to their feeding on Cafava, which is commonly
eaten in there Iilands instead of bread, .and may poffibly have
fome quality not confident with the natural conflitution of the
Inhabitants of our Climates. There is the:fame temperature in
the night time at Penr, and in the Maldiva:. And thofe who
have travell'd to Jerufalem, and through all the hot Countries,
do affirm, That the greater the:heats arein the day time, fo
much the colder are the nights the reason whereof is, that
the great Vapours raised by the Sun in the day time, being
condensed at night, and falling -down in Dew, do extreamly
cool and refrefh the Air -
The IEquinox lafts in thefe Iflands neer onehalf of the year,
and all the reft of it the longest days are fourteen hours, and
the-horreft nights ten. And thus hath the Divine Wifdom
beftow'd on thofe Parts oftheWorld'which lye moft expos'd to
the fcorching beams ofthe Sun, long and cool nights, to reco-
ver and reftore to vigour what the too neer approaches of that
Planet had dry'd up and almost blafted in the day.
Not can the Year be here divided into four equal and diffinl
parts,, as we do in Europe: But the Rains, which are very fre-
iuent there from Aprilte November, and tie great Droughts
which reign all the reft of the Year, make the only difference
which-maybe obferv'd between the Seafons.
SNow. how thefe different Conflitutions and Temperatures of
the Air Ihould be called, there is a great diverfiry of Opinions.
Some considering, that as in there Parts there is in a manner no
crepufcalum or Twilight (whichis a certain completion of, or
fomthing between night and day) fo neither is there any Spring
or Autumn to make a certain connexion between Summer and
a kind of Winter, which they admit there. "Others.mainrain
on the contrary, That there isno juft reason that that part of
the Year which goes. under the name of Winter, should be fo
called,in regard thevEarththere is never covered with Froft or
Snow, which are the unwelcom attendants of Winter, but at
all times cloath'd with a delightful Verdure,- and almost in all
feafons crowned with-Flowers and Fruits, though in a different
Mfealiire 5 whence they conclude, That the Year may be diftin-
guifh'd into three different and equal parts, and thole be called
Spring, Summer, Autumn 5 though not fo eafily diffinguiihable
as haply they may beinn several parts of the World.
But the commonexpr-effion of thole people, who make up
the Colonies now planted in there Iflands is not confiftent
With this difiinfion for they take the feafon of the rains to
be Winter, and that of the droughts, which is fair, clear, and
pleasant, to be Summer. 'Tis true, Acfla quarrels at the Lib.2. .3.
"' B 2 spaniards,

4 -T r Hflryft 'of ,1 Boor .
SpaniAnts, .for expreCffming emfeives in that manner, and ta-
king thofe rainy months for Winter. He affirms, that the
time of. the drought and fair weather is the true Winter in all
the Torrid Zone, because then the Sun isat the greatest difiance
from that Region and onjthe contrary, that the feafon of
Rains and Mifts ought there to be called Summer, by rea-
fon of the nearnefs of that Planet. To peak properly and ri-
goroufly, there isfometeufon we Ihould comply with the fen-
timent of Acoftai 5 yet ioaflnich as not Only the spaiards, but
alfo many other Nations, express themselves otherwife, we
hall keep to theirterms rather, e-pecially in a thing offo little
But how rainy. fever this Seafic mway. be in tih carribies,
thofe who have liv'd there federal years affirm, that there hard-
ly paffes a day, but the Sun is feen. The fame thing is faid of
the Ifland of Rhodes s whence Antiquity dedicated it to the
Sun," out of af imagination, that that Star had a particular care
of it. .
SThe Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea is regulated in there
Countries, as in our parts 5 but it rifes not above three or four
foot at moft.
The greatest part of there Iflands are covered with several
forts of excellent Woods, which bvgag green at all ties
afford a very delightful profpe ,: and. rprent a-perpetul
The Soil, in moft places, is as rich aud as pregnant as m
any part of France 5 Infomucb that all thofe Ifland thatire
inhabited give not' the Inhabitants any' occafioi to repent
them of the pains they take. In which particular, they differ
much from thofe Countries of New-Frawee where the poor Sa?
vages are fo put to it to get their fublfiftajce, that their Chil-
dren, going out of their Hutts in the. morning, and finding
their Parents a hunting, are wont to cry out as loud as they
can, Come Tatow s ome Caflors cowve Orignacs calling thus
to the relief of their neceffities thofe creatures, which yet
come not in their fight as often as they ftand in need thereof.
The fame inhabited Iflands are alfo furnished with good
forces of fredh Water, Springs, Lakes, Brooks, Wells and
Cifterns, and fome of them have fair Rivers. There are fur-
ther in federal places Mineral-waters, which are fuccefsfully
ufed, in order to the curing of divers Difeafes. Brimftone is
got out of the bowels of the Mountains in divers places; and
the bright filver fpangles which the Torrents and Rivers bring
down along with them, and are found in the fand, and the
froth of their waters, after they have been over-flown, are
certain indicia and discoveries, that there is Cryftal to be had
in them, and that there are alfo Minesof thofe precious Metals,
which are fo much fought after by moft men.
^ Thofe

Q an The i CaJ*ytibnds.
Thofe running waters, which deferve the name of Rivers,
are never dry'd up, even in the greatest droughts, and ex-
treamly well ftor'd with Fifh, for the moff part different from
thofe feen in Europe. But there is fueh abundance on the Sea-
coafts, that the Inhabitants will hardly take the pains to fifth in
the Rivers.
.The Vine thrives very well in ?hete ifltads, and, befitsa
wild kindlof Viae they have, which grow nawgrally in the
Wodds, and bears a very fairandlarge Qrapeo there are in all
the sahahbited pnas great Gardens, with the Walks fet about
wtkhVinps .nay ian ome places perfef Viiw-,yards, as thofe in
F ,wme, which hear twice 'a year,, and. fometies oftener, ac-
asliag to itheq;uivatiqu hiftowr'ddri them, with rcfpe& had
to the Moon and conveniency of the Seafons. The Grape is
excellent good, but the Wine made of it will not keep many
days ; and therefore there is but little of it made.
As for Wheat, which grows in New-Spain as well as in any
place of the Woild, it grows so %rther .thqp the blade in the
Cribbice, and is only for the mpiing of Green-auce, in re-
grd th t rank, i Oflit forth too much at firft, and there is not strength
amtsig Kleft i the ropp to fprce it to ft4pIk aid knit in the ear.
it At ryal wwrc made of.the (owiggof B axfyran Kye, and
Orttw GrAiwhich require bhat its pro.ba4l .they would
thrive -well. And yet, should they c.qae rp waturity- and
with gr at inqreafek the Inhabitants, being at little trouble to
get MAwa, .Pftatoes, Turkey-wheat, and several kids of Pulfe,
wonid not take the pains to put them into the ground.
All the natural Provifions of thefe Iflauds are. light, and pf
cafie digeftion in regard the Coumtry being hot, the l omack
Ought not to be burtlened, as may b prefumed in colder Cli-
mates. Upon this account it is, that fct aseare newly cpkne
intothefe parts re advis'd to eat lite, 'and often. Nor doth
what iseaten breed much blood, and.therefore Phlebotomy is
not much ufed.
. Thefe lands are inhabited by four different Nations; where-
of the firft are the JIdigger, pr Originary Inhabitants, who
have livte there time putpof mind 5 and there are the Caribbians
pr OAsuibal,, of whom we (hall give a perfect accompt in the
Second Book of this Hiftory. 'The other three are the Englif,,
thb.TFrenchk :awd .the Dutch. The eftabli(bnent of thefe to-
reign Nations.:in thofe parts bappen'd about the year of our
Lard one thoufand fix. hundred twenty five, fince which time
they have fo euereasd, .that the -nglifh and French are now. ber
pIen avery numerous people 5 as will be feen more at large in
-te .quad.of this Hiftory .

:&'" ".' A P.

6 TIH/ tory of BooK I.

*.^ -f ; *

Of each of the Caribby-Iflands in particular.

SPT Hat we may obferve fome order in the Defcription we
intend of each ofithefe Iflands in particular, we hall
divide them into three Claffes 5 whereof the firft hall
comprehend thofe which lye towards the:South, and are neereft
the Line 5 the second thofe which lye Northward 5 and the
laft, thofe which are commonly called the Lee-ward Iflands,
which reach Weftward from St. Chrifophers, the beft known
of them all.

SA G 0.
T He firft, and moft Souterly of alltheCaribbies is Tabago,
or Tabac, diftarit from the Equinofial Northward
eleven degrees and fixteen minutes. It is about eight leagues in
length, and four inbreadth. There are in it several pleasant
Mountains, out of which arife eighteen Springs or fall Rivers,
which, having drenched the Plains, fall into the Sea' :It is con-
ceiv'd the air of it would be healthy enough, if the Trees were
cut down, and the ground opened.
SThe extraordinary height ofthe Trees growing in this Ifland
argue the fruitfulnefs of its foil. There are in'this the five
kinds of four footed creatures, whereof there are but one or
two in any of the other Iflands. As i. a kind of Swine, not
much furnifh'd with briftles, which have a certain hole on
their backs. 2. Tatouw. 3. Agoutis. 4. opaffidims and 5. Mus/-
Rats, all which we hall describe in their proper place. Not
t6 mention the Wood-Quifts, Turtles, Partridges, and Parrats,
which are commonly feen there, it affords abundance of other
Birds, not known in Europe.
-The Sea which encompafles this Ifland is abundantly fur-
nifh'd with all forts of excellent Fifh. Sea-Tortoifes come in
multitudes to hide their Egges in the fand, which lyes on the
fhoars. On the Weft and North fide of it there are Bayes,
where Ships may fafely Anchor.
:About fixteen years fince, a Company of Burgheis:ofWalcre
i. irealand fent th.ther 200 men, to plant a Colony there, under
the States-General of the United Provinces, and called the
Island, the New-Walcre. But the natural Inhabitants of the
Country;: fearing the Neighbourhood of thofe Foreigners,
maflacred forne of them, which forced the reft, who were
troubled with fickhefs and feared the treatment their compani-
ons had received, to retire elsewhere. Whereupon the fland

CaP I. -The Caribby-Iflands. 7

was a long time deftitute of Inhabitants, and frequented only
by fome Caribbians, who, coming and going to their Wars,
truck in there to get neceffary refrefhments 5 as alfo by fome
French of the Iflands of Martinico and Gardeloupe, who came
thither to fifth for Lamantine and Tortoifes, at certain feafons of
the year.
But now the zealanders are re-eftablifh'd there, and about
three years fince Lampfrn, an ancient Burgo-mafter of Flufhing,
and one of the States-General, ventured to people the island
anew. He brought thither, in his own Ships, federal gallant
perfons, who are likely to restore the Colony which his Coun-
try-men had planted there before.
This fland lying next to the Continent of that part ofAme-
rica which lyes Southward, Ives very convenient for a Com-
merce with'theArovague:, the Calibis, the Caribbians, and fe-
veral other Indian Nations and the keeping together of a
considerable force of men, which might be easilyy fent over in-
to the Continent, and lay the foundations of a powerful


T He Illand of Granada, lying at twelve degrees and fix-
I 'teen fcruples'on this. fide of the Line, does properly
begin the Semicircle of the Antilles. It is in length about even
leagues, thehbreadth.not the fame in all places, reaching North
and South like a Crefcent. The French became matters of it
about fix years fince. They had at the beginning great con-
teftations with the Caribbians, who, for fome months, difput-
Sed the poffeffion of it with them by force of arms. But at laft
Monfieur Parquet, Governour of Martinico, who had refolv'd,
at his own charge, to make an eftablifhment there, oblig'd
them, out of a onfideration of their own concernments,
grounded principally on the great advantages they received
from the Neighbourhood of the French, to leave him quietly
poflifs'd of it.
The ground produces all manner of the;Country provisions,
as Sugar-Canes, Ginger, and excellent Tobacco. The air is
very healthy. It is well furnifh'd with Springs of frefh water,
and;a;laes of good Anchorage for Ships. ft hath alfo abun-
danteef fair.Trees, fome.excellent for their Frdit, others for
their fitnefs for building. There is good Fifhing all about it,
and the Inhabitants have alfo good Fifhing and Hunting in and
about three little!i inds, called the Granadines, lying.North-
Eaft from it. The firft Governour of this place was Mon-
fieur Le Corte Governour of Martinico, who was fueceeded by
Mon. dela Vaumeniere. It hathfince been bought by the Count
SofSerillas of Monf. Parqut.


SThe Hiflory of Boor I.

T He Iflapd of Bekia is diftant from the Line twelve de-
grees and 2 5 fcruples. It is tan or twelve leagues about,
and would be fruitful enough, if it Were cultivated. There is
in it a good Haven for Ships 5 but inafmuch as it is not furniflh'd
with. frefh water, it is not much frequented, unlefs it be by
fome Caribbians of St. Vincent's, who sometimes go thither a
flfhing, or to drefs fome fmall Gardens they have up and
down there for their diverfion.


T He Ifland of St. Vincent is the moft populous of any pof-
Sfefs'd by the Catibbians. Its Altitude is fixteen degrees
North from thetLine. Thofe who have feen the Ifland Ferro,
or Fietra, one of the Canaries, affirm, that this is much of the
fame figure. It may be about eight leagues in length, and fix in
4i breadth. There are in it several high Mountains, between
which are very fruitful Plains, if they were cultivated. The
Caribbians have many fair Villages, where they live pleasantly,
and without any diflurbance. And though they have a jea-
loufly of the firangers that live about them, and ftand on their
Guard when they come to their Roads, yetdo they rot deny
them the Bread of the Country, which is Caffava, Water,
Fruits, and other Provifions, growing in their Country, if
they want them, taking in exchange, Wedges, Hooks, and
other implements of Iron, which they much efteem

r'He Barbados,which is the fame that is called by the French
S. Barboude, lyes between the 13 and 14 degree, North
from the Equator, and Eaftward from St. Aloie, and St. vin.
cent. The Englifh, who planted a Colony there in the year
AM.DC.XXVII. allow it to be about 25 leagues in compafs, but
greater in lengththetri breadth. There is in the whole Ifland
but one River, which truely deserves that name: but the
Country lying lowland even, there are, in several places,
Pools and Refervatoriesof frefh water, which fupply the fcar-
city of Springs and Rivers. Moft houfes have alfo Cifterns,
and Wells which are never dry.
At the firft Cultivation the Earth promised not much ; but
experiencehath evinc'd the contrary, it plentifully producing
Tobacco, Ginger, Cotten, and especially Sugar-Canes, info-
much that, next to St. Chrilfophers, it is the moft frequented
by Merchants, and the moft populous of all the Astilles.
L About

G .II. The Caribby lands. 9
About the year 1646. they accounted in it about twenty thou-
faid Inhabitants, not comprehending in that number the Ner
grb-Slaves,. who were thought to amount to a far greater.
There are many placesin this Ifland, which may juftly be
called .Towns, as containing many fair, long, and spacious
Stueits, furnifh'd with a great number of noble Structures,
built by the principal Officers and Inhabitants of this flourifhing
Colony. Nay indeed, taking a full profpe&C of the whole
land, a man might take it for one great City, inasmuch as
the.houfes are at no great distance one from another 5 that
oiay of thofe are very well built, according to the rate of
Bdio4dig intEnglad thatthe Shops and Store-houfes are well
frilh'4 with all forts of Commodities that there are many
i Fairs and Markets ; and lafly, that the whole Ifland, as great
Cities are, is divided into several Parifhes, which have very
Fair Churches. The aof; considerable of the Inhabitants think
I thenmfelves fo well, that it is feldom feen they ever remove

S'rS'Wis Ifland is very famous in all parts, by reason of the great
S ndance of excellent Sugar it hath afforded thefe many
r y.e e,. 'Tistrue, it is not fo white as that which comes from
S r artsibut it is better efteemed, by Refiners, becaife it.6*
S airer gra audyields more, when it is purifi'd.
4 ,., ,. i* a'4.y d ',o e '., ..

tu e/ gs Ifland I yesat '3 deg.40 fcr. on this fide the Line.
e ...l heretofore frequented only by a.fmall number of
mn, whocame to fifli thereabouts. But sometime fince,
:in chof Martinico came and kept them company. .Ther-e
twohighMountains in the Ifland, which are very cold:
ae ien at a great distance, and are called by the French,.
p4Cdst.t Alonufie. At the decent of thefe Mountains,
i eI leafant Valleys covered with great Trees, and wa-
Stwo Springs. The air is conceived to be healthy, and
..... bf wil'i be fruitful, when it fihall be a little better 4di-
. -hreFieen t yet. i h


F BsHe Ia rdaofagreat fico,which the Indians called Madatina
Slyes at the altitude f fourteen degrees and thirty fcruplens
is fide the Line. t is about fixteenleaguesin length, of ar
4 : +breadth, arid about forty five in comp fs. The Soi
'fi t' lkafint, which takhesit at this day one of thelr dif
i p4dl s s o all the caribbie.
The French and Indians are joyntly pofefs'd-fasE and haven
:o the C liv'd

fo 'The Hiflory of BOOK I.

liv'd a long time in very good correspondence. Monf Parquet
is the present French Governour of it.
Of all the Caribbies this is the moft uneven Ifland, that is, the
moff full of Mountains, which are very high, and intermixt
with inacceffible Rocks. The fruitful parts of it conlift in
certain round Hills or eminences. as alfo in very delightful
* fkirts of Mountains, and fome Plains or Valleys, which are ex-
treamly pleasant.
The Mountains'of it are not to be inhabited, and ferve for
the feeding anid retreat of wild'Beafts, Serpents and Snakes,
whereof there is great abundance. Yet are there Mountains
well furnifh'd with wood, which, in bigners arid length, ex-
ceed any in Europe, and bears fruit and food for the wild Boars
and Birds.
As for the Hills and fkirts of Mountains, they are for the
moft part, inhabitable and of a good foil, but very trouble-
fome to manure. For fome of them are fo high and fteepy,
that people can hardly work on them without danger, or at
left without holding by a Tobacco-flalk, or fome Tree with
one hand, that they may work with the other.
The Tobacco which grows on thefe eminent places is ever
the beft, and efteem'd above that which grows in the Valleys,
and bottoms, which have not fo much presence of the Sun.
For the Tobacco, which grows in bottoms, and places encom-
pafs'd with Woods, is ever full of yel!ow-fpots, as if it were
burnt, and neither takes well, nor keeps well. There enclosed
places are alfo unhealthy, and thofe who work in the n con-
tract an ill colour, and the new-comers, who are noc accu-
ftomed to that air, do fooner, in thefe, then in any other
places, chtch that griping ofthe Befly, which is fo common in
thefe Ifljnds.
There being two different Nations in this ifland, it is accord-.
ingly divided between them, to wit, the Indians, the natural i
Inhabitants of the Country and the French, who laid the ei
foundations of this Colony in july, in the year 163 5.under ,
the ConduC of Mont. Dejnambuc, who brought. them from
St. Chriflophers, and left them in quiet pofleffion of this place.
That part of the lfland which is inhabited by the Indians is
comprehended in one quarter, which is called the cabej-terre,
without any other diftintion.
The part occupied by the French, and called Bafle-terre, is
divided into five quarters, which are by them called, La Cafr
du Pilote, La Caje Capot, Le Carbet, Le Fort St. Pierre, and Le i
freJcheur. In each of thefe Quarters there is a Church, or at
lealt a Chappel, a Court of Guard, and a Magazine for Arms, j
about which are built several large and fair Store-houfes,. :
both for the Commodities that are imported, and thofe of the .
growth of the Ifland. The
SThe, : The
-.'-^ .. .

be Cariby-flands. .
't ii$Qurtet of the cafe du rilote is fo called from a SaVige
i:who had fometimes-lived there, and glory'd much-in
SPilot, which theFrench had given him He difco-
l.rdt6 MoInf; Parqet, the engagements which thofe of his
Sitiomcfttred into against him.
: ~hequArter of Caficapot, there is a vety noble savanna,
S:f. the call in thelflands pleasant Meadows and Paftures)
:~~ chath, on the one fide the River called Capot, and on the
S i'iV :aty fair Edifices.
'i Varbet Qarter hath' its name from the ancient Inhabi-
.;wdf I, mietime hadtthere orde of their greatest Villages,
M Hefofe Whith they called Carbet, a name yet
.ii ( 'tiha, r; ere they have their meetings.
~iFench Oberiout liv'd i6 this Quarter a long time, ha-
t a noble Brick-houfe, beer the Havenh in a pleafant
S : Ctefre&'d by-a considerable River, which falls down
oab:'t ie'M6tuaihs.- The Indians, who never had feen Stru-
.Iutepf any fuch material, looked on it at firft with a great
-i-iCAWLiU eit anid having--attempted to (hake -it, by the
tt hbf their boulderss. but not stirring it, they were forced
udedg thai:if all flouft were'fo built, the Tempeft
WW e th c~y bal theiHktica il wold not prejudice them. But.
4"C t dii O ecrt r n(i~t hti 4'his health perfe&ly there, he
of a th e ;fld ,. together with the Gardens
etIbadUt ii rioeities of the Country, and
ftbndepident on it, and a great number
jie--i *ho cultivat them.
,;; bf,.S&,%tr St. Peter's Fort, is the place where the
O0&iiuo i'fes. There are in it several great pieces of
i bdtiii&t'Brafs, f6me ofIron. This Fort commands all
tW:v -Ab2ot a flories caft from the Governours, ftands
R.it 6Uddege of the Jefrit.s, fituate on a pleasant River,
t a!llekd, The Jefuits River. This Stru&ure is of
Wi nd Brick, very delightful to theeye. The Ave-
i. S itwadt their temptation, and, all about it, are
eii~hOfrfdtArds, "pt 4ocing whatever is molf delicious
I1SPi rii rof theft Ifland. as alfo several Plants, Herbs,
F- io sand Fruits brought thither from France. There is al*
gIPitn yard, which yields yearly good ftore of Wine.
r: The ~tPrfcear,or the Preachers Quarter, contains an even
o w paitof kicCutry, very considerable for.its extent, and
. .Jiral-khigh Mib dihs'i upon the fkirts whereof, there afea
pI i*umnber of fair Habitations.
3Btwe en the C'besetr e, anid the Bafe-terre, there is a kihil
Ojotui, where is abiihdance of that Wood by which the
?bcoilines up. There they have alfo the Reeds, where--
4 Hltfs are Palifado'a 'as alfo the wild Mahot, the
"i rk-hereof ferves for feveiralthings about the houfe.
C a Moft
/ .
'. .? '- *

i The Hiflory.of 8 OOKi.

Moft of the Houfes in this Ifland are of wood, very conve-
nient, and delightful to the eye. The molt considerable are
built on certain eminences. That advantageous ficuation con-
tributes much to their health who live in them, for the air is
clearer then that of the Valleys. It alfo adds much to the
beauty of thofe pleasant Stru&ures 5 and causes a very diver-
W tive profpe&.
The beft Haven of this Ifland lyes between Carbet and
St. Peters Fort. It is more fafe then any of the neighboring
Iflands, as beiqg encompafs'd with high Mountains, which fe-
cure the Ships lying in it from the violence of all winds.
Between carf du Pilote, and a bottom called culde sac des
salines, there is a Rock, running about half a league into the .
Sea, which is called the Diamoxd, from its figure, and is a
retreat for an infinite number of Birds, and among others
Wood-quiltf, which breed in it. It is hard getting up to it,
yet fome vifit it, as they pafs by, when the young ones are fit
to eat.
There is another place on the fame fide as the Diamond, into
which Ships are brought, to be refrefh'd, and mended. The
Sea there is always calm, but the air not healthy, in regard the
Sea-men commonly catch Fevers, which yet are not very
dangerous, inafmuch as they thake them off, as foon as they
depart thence.
Besides the Torrents, which in times of rains fall down with
great violence, and the inundations of this Ifland, there are
nine or ten considerable Rivers which are never dry. Their
forces are at the afcent or foot of the highest Mountains, and
having watered the Valleys they fall into the Sea. They are
prejudicial to the places neer them, in regard that when they
overflow, they root up Trees, undermine rocks, and make a
defolation over the Fields and Gardens, carrying along with
them, the houses which lye in the plain Country, and what-
ever opposes the impetuofity of their course. This inconve-
nience hath obliged the Inhabitants of this Colony to take up
their habitations on the tops of thofe little Mountains, whexe-
with their Ifland is richly furnifh'd 5 for they fecure them from
thefe inundations.
But what is moft considerable in this Ifland, is the multitude
of the Inhabitants poffefling it, who are thought to amount to
nine or ten thousand perfons, not comprehending in that num-
ber the Indians and Negroes, who are never as many. The
mildnefs of the Government and the advantageous situation of
the Ifland contribute much to the advancement of it and the
multiplication of its Inhabitants. For moft of the French and
Dutch Ships, bound for America, fo order their course, that
they may touch here, rather then at any other of the Iflands: !
and as foon as they have caft Anchor in any of the Havens, to
; *- '
.' '* *' .

I he Caribby-Iflands. '

K '- the refreshments neceffary for them, they fet a fhoar
graflengers, if they be not exprefly oblig'd to bring them
Si.foe other place. Nay it hath often hapned that whole Fa-
S> ies, which had left France, with a defigne to pafs over into
Sof the other Iflands which lye beyond this, and are not in-
I"brto it, either as toAir or Soil, being wearied out.with
dk inconveniences of a long Voyage, have fetled here to avid
Spo fing themselves to the fame again.
S Apping thegreat multitude of people which make up this
Coonvy there are many perfons of worth and quality, who
. .t,..r.Veiri honorable imployments in other parts of the world,
P.dt'. choice, of this place,.for their repofe and re-
Among lhefe are particularly to be mentioned
C~s ;Ps Lieutenant-General under the Governor, a
gwjdb .i hy his excellent condua hath gain'd the affe&ions
fbotih Jnohabitants and Strangers s' Monf. Le Comte, and MonC
\ dc Qubieir ias being the principal Officers.
,,iAc the beginning of our Defcription of this Ifland, we faid,
*. ato the -French and, Indians lived there a long time toge-
ther in good correfpondence. But the Letters that came
thence lately, giving an account of the fate of it, affirm, that
about four years fince, the Caribbians made an infurre&ion,
wi4d have cofineied: a War with' the French ever fince ; that
lgltoA.i-d -thoftDarbaxians hbad done great mifchiefsin
if ch starters a d:id tht neither the height of the Moun-
i';por dqpth of the precipices, nor yet thehorror of vaft
Sani&dreadful folitudes, which till then had been accounted an
impenetrable wall, lying between the federal divisions of both
the Nations, hindred not their falling upon them, and filling
their habitations with fire, maflacres, defolation, and what-
ever the implacable spirit of revenge could fuggeft to them of
Sgreateft cruelty, to feed their rage, and fatisfie their bru-
Of the occasions of this Rupture there are several accounts
given. '-So6e attribute it to Monf. Parquet's eftablifhing of
Friech Colonies in the Iflands of Granada and St. Lcy, with-
i~ta confeent of the Garibbiaus, who thereupon took od&ai
ltfiofidifcontent. Others affirm that they took up Armsm to
*'tvee the deaths of fome of thoir Nation, Inhabitants orthe
if and of SVinmceC, whom they believe to have come to their
end by drinking fame poifon'd Strong-water which -had been
Stbiought them frolnpm a ti .
S* Immediately upon the breaking forth of this War, and the
fbft devaftations made by the Caribbians in one of the French
.:Qgrters (which, according to their cuftom, was by a bafe fur-
P-rd)thofe who envy'd the glory of thofe Colonies, and their
..r anfi d eftablifhtment~in thofe Iflands, fcattered their ma-
I toireports, That their French would never be able to keep
*:!.:, *.:; ;,- S

+ The Hift ory of BooK I.
under thofe Barbarians; That thofe of the fame Nation, who
live in DDminico and S. Vincent's,had secretly apply'd themselves
to all their Allies of the Continent, to incite them to engage
in an unanimous War against the French ; That the more easily
to effe&uate that design, and make their-Party stronger, they
had'g6ne fo far as to treat of a Peace with the Arovaguel, their
ancient Enemies; And, That they had fo far engaged all thefe
Salvages in their Quarrel, that they were refolv'd with a joynt-
force to fall upon the French, and over-run them with'their
multitude. '
It isniot certainly known whether there were really any fuch
Affociation against them or not 5 but certain it is, that the ef-
fe&s 'of it appeared not 5 and that after the firft Irruptions
of the Carfihbida of Martinico into the French Quarters, which
vWere'indetdvwith fome advantage of the Barbarians, they have
been fo unfuctdsfil in their Enterprifes fince, and worlted fo
with the lofs of the chief amongft them, that about two years
iftce they were forced to qtit their Villages, and leave their
Gardens to the difpofal of the Viforious, and retire for safety
into Wobds, and inacdeffible Rocks and Mountains. So that
there World i wtow perfwaded of the- contrary, viz. That
if thofe Barbarians (fhll make any further attempt to recover
theinfelves out of that wretched Confternation in which they
live,by the force of Arms, they will in all likelihood be forced
either to quit the absolute poffeffion of the Ifland to the French;
ov- accept of ftch Conditions of Peace as they can obtain, to
renew the"Anci.ent Alliance, which they have been but too for-
ward'to break.


Sl Of W the lfljndx vbickhl ye towards the North.
T He Ifliltids we intend to deferibe in this Chapter, lying
: T. more tWards the North, are consequently more term
." .' Iperate:. They are alfo more frequented than thofe of
2bagom, Granada, and S. Aloufia, in regard the Ships which have
refrti'd theiifelves at Martinico, and fall down thence to S.
Cbrifophers, may vifit them one after another, without any di-
vibiibn out of their Courfe.
S' i !" D 0 :. -.
't He Ifland of Dominica lies at the altitude of i5 degrees
:J and 30 minutes. It is conceiv'd to be in length about 13.
^: : League

C P. III. The Caribby-lflands. i

Leagues, and not much lefs ih breadth, where it isat the great-
agr. There are in the midft of it federal high Mountains,
which encompafs an inacceffible bottobh, where may be feen
from the tops of certain rocks an infinite number of Reptiles,
of a dreadful bulk and length.
This Ifland is inhabited by the Caribbiats, who are very nu-
merous in it. They have a long time entertain'd thofe who
came to vifit them with a ftoryof a vaft and monftrous Serpent,
which had its aboad in that bottom. They affirmed that there
was on the head of it a very fparklitg ftbhe, like a Carbuncle,
of ineftimable price; That it commonly veil'd that rich Je-
wdl tith A thib tAitoing fkin, like that of a mans eye-lid 4 but
that When it went td drink, or fpdrfed hiTnfelf in the midft of
that deep bdfttmf, he fully difcover'd if, and that the rocks
and all about received a wonderful liiltte from thR fire ifluing
out of tliat precious Crbon.
The fupream Perfon of this Ifland was heretofore one of the
moft considerable among thofe of the fame Nation. For when
all their Forces marched out to Battel against the Arovagues,
their common Enemies of the Continent 5 he had the conduct
of the Van-guard and was known by a particular mark which
he had about him.
When any Frexch Ships come neer this Tfland, there are im-
mediately feen several Canows, ii eadh *h*te&f there are
three, or but four Indraks at the.moff, who cothe to direct
them tp the Havens, where theyy ay fifely'Ainhor. They
commonly bring along with them forhe of the Coflttry Frditfs
whereof having presented the Captains and other Offices with
the choicest, they proffer the reft in exchange for Fifhiitb
hooks, grains of Cryftal, and fuch trifles, as they accoudit

'j"He fland of IMarigalanta lyes at the altitude of 15 deg.
I and 40 minutes. It is a flat Country, and well furnifh'd ,
with wood, which argues it would be fertile enough, if it were,
once reduced to culture. It hath always been fitquented by
the Indians, as well in order to Fifhiing, as for fore finall Gar-
dens which they have in it.
The laft Letters from the carribiet brought news that Monf.
d' Howel, Governour of Gardeloupe had lately peopled this
Island, and built a Fort in it to keep under certain Indians,
who would have oppofed his design, and had kill'd twenty of
thofe whom he had feht thither at firtf to discover the Coni-
try 5 and that upon that accident head lent over thither three.
hundred men, who retreated in the night time to a great Vef-
fel they had in the road, till fuch time as the Fort Was made

, The Hiflory of o oK I.
*_ _____ __-_____________ ----`-- ,_____ -- -----
tenable. The Caribbians of Dooinico, the better to continue
the good correspondence there is between them and the In-
habitants ot Gardeloupe, who are their next Neighbours, af-
firm they had no hand in that Maflacre, and excufed them-
felves to Monf. d' Howel, imputing it to thofe of their Nation,
who live in the other Iflands.

B Eiween Dominico and Gardeloupe there are three or four
fmnall Iflands very neer one another, commonly called the
saints : They are at the fame Altitude as Marigalanta, Weft
from which they lye, and are as yet defert and unhabited.
The Ifland of Birds lyes more Weft then the aforementioned,
at fifteen degrees, and forty five minutes. It hath that name
from the infinite number of Birds which breed in it, making
their Nefts even on the Sea-fhoar : They are for the moft part
easily taken with the hand, not fearing men in regard they fel-
dom fee any. This Ifland lyes very low, and is hardly per-
ceiv'd till one be very neer it.

T He Ifland Defirado was fo called by Chrifopher Columbu,as
being the firft difcover'd by him of all the Caribbies, in his
second Voyageinto America. And as he called the firft place he
difcover'dof this new World San salvador, whereas before
iwtwas called .Guanabani, which is one of the Lucayos, at the
altitude of 25 degrees and fome minutes 5 fo ie called this De-
firado, from the obtaining of his Defire. It lies ten Leagues
from Gardeloupe, North-eaft, and from the Line 16 degrees and
io minutes. The foil of this Ifland is good 5 and consequently
it will not be long ere it be Inhabited.

G Ardeloupe is one of the greatest and noble Iflands of any
poffefisd by the French in the Caribbies. It was hereto-
fore called by the Indians Carucue'ira but the spaniards gave
it the name by which it is now known. Some would have it
precifely at 16 Degrees; others add therto 16 minutes. The
Circumference of it is about 60 Leagues, and,' where broad-
eft, about nine or ten in breadth. It is divided into two
parts by a little Arm of the Sea, which feparates the Grand'-
terre from that which is properly called Gardeloupe. Themore
Eafterly part of this latter is called by the French Cabes-Terre,
and that towards the ,Weft Bafe-Terrc.
: That part of it which is called the Grand'-Terre hath two

C, P. III. The Caribby-Iflands. 1
Salt-pits, where the Sea-water is converted into Salt, as iii fe-
veral other Iflands, by the force of the Sun, without affifharicd
of Art.
That part which is inhabited hath in several places, efpeci-
ally towards the middle of it, divers high Mountains, whereof
fome are full of bare and dreadful Rocks, rising out of a Bot-
tom, encompaffed with many inacceffible Precipices 5 others
are covered with delightful Trees, which are to them at all
times a kind of pleasant Garland. At the foot of thefe Moun-
tains there are several Plains of a valf extent,which are refrefh'd
by a great number of pleasant Rivers, which occafioned here-
tofore the spanih Ships to touch there, to take in freih water
for the continuance of their Voyage. Some of there Rivers
when they are overflow bring down pieces of Wood that
have pafs'd through the Sulphur-mines, that are in one of the
moft'remarkable Mountains in the Ifland., which continually
,cafts up fmoak, whence it is called the sulphur-Mountain. There
are alfo in it Springs of hot water, which have been found by
experience good for the Dropfie,and all Indifpofitions proceed-
ing from a cold caufe. There are between there two parts of
the Land two great Gulphs, heice thofe Inhabitants who
delight in Fifhing may at any tiime take Tortoifes, and several'
bother excellent Fifh.
The French firft planted themifelves id this Ifland ib the year
k A. DX. xxx. M. M. du Plef Pi d 0o were thd firft Go-
iernours of it, with equal atithirity .but the former dyin
feren months aftei his arrival, and the.'other becodning Unfit
for Government by the lofs of his fight, there was fent bver
Monf. Auber, one of the Captains of St. Chrifophers who
chanc'd to be then at Paris. This Colony owes its confervat i-
on and welfare fince to the prudence and conduct of this wor-
thy Governor, who fignaliz'd his entrance into that Charge by
the Peace he made with the Carribians and federal good Con-
fiitu'tions in order to the welfare of the lihabitfiBs, whereof
we hall give a more particular account in the fecifhd Book of
this Hiffory.
1Monfieur d' Howel s now Lord and Governor ofthis Ifland
Which is yet better fince his eftablilhmienr, for 'tle number of
the inhabitants is much encreas'd, and they have built very fair
Houfes, and brought fuch Trading thither, that now it is one
of the mhbt flouirfbing and :nf6t coifiderable Ilhands of the
SThere are in it very far Plin's, whThein the grond is or-
dered by the Plcugh, a thing not to be fe'hi in ariy of the other
Iflands. And afterthe Plough, it bears Rice, Tuiky-wheai,
the Manioc, whereof cafava is made, Potatoes, nay, in fome
places Ginger and Sugar-canes, with great increase.
The reformed jacobins, or White-Friers, are poflefs'd of
D fome

is ,-P PiJory of BOOK
fomie part of the beft Land in this Ifland, on which they have
many delight ulfPlantations.' The good condition wherein
they are is to be acknowledged an effect of the care of the R.
Father Raymoed Breton, who, amidft many great difficulties,
preferv'd them to his Order.
In that part of the Ifland, which id called Bafe-terre, there
is a little Town whih grows daily bigger : It hath already fe-
veral Streets adorned with many handsome houfes of Timber,
moft of two Stories, of a conveniqtn ftrufture and delightful to
the eye. Bcfides a fair Parifh-Church, there are in it a Col-
ledg of efuits, and a Monaftery of Carmelites, brought thi-
ther lately by the Governors means 5 as alfo several Store-
houfes, well furnifli'd with Provifions and Commodities, re-
quiit'e fir the fibfiftace of the Colony.
The Governor lives in a Caftle, not far from the Town. It
is tuik four-fiuare, having at each corner Spurs and Redoubts
ot MIafons work, of fuch thickness as to bear the weight of fe-
veral great Pieces of rafs, which are mounted there. A lit-
te beyond the Caftle there is a very high Mountain which
might somewhat incommodtae it 5 but the Governor not
omitting any thing that might contribute to the ornament or
ficirity of the Ifland, hath planted fome great Pieces there,
and to prevent furprife of an Enemy, he hath made a kind of
Cittadel there,which is at all times furnih'd with Provilions and
Ammunition. The Cibes-terre liath alfo a considerable Fort,
which fecures the whole Qgarter 5 it is called St. Mary's
Many. perfons of quality have made their retirement into
this Ifland, and have fet up a great number of Sugar-Mils.

He Island of Atrego lyes at the Altitude of 16 degrees,
and i minutes, between the Barbados, and the Defrado.
It is in reigth about fix or even leagues, the breadth not the
fame ip all places 5 The access of it is dangerous for Shipping,
by reason of the rocks which eincoTipafs it. It was conceived
heretofore, that it was not to be inhabited, upon this prefum-
ption, that there was no freh water it it: but the Englif'
who have plaited themfeivetsn it, have met. with fome, and
have-made Ponds and Cifterns, which might fupply that de-
fea. This Ifland is abundant in Fifh, moft forts of wild FoWl,
and in all of tame Cattel. It is inhabited by even or eight
hundred men.


SAv. III. The Caribby-Iflands. I9


T He Ifland of Mont-Serrat received that name from the
spaniards, upon the account of a certain resemblance
there is between a Mountain in this, and that of Mont-Serrat,
which is not far from Barcelona 5 and it hath kept the name ever
fince. It lyes at the Altitude of 27 degrees. It is about three
Leagues in length, and almost as much in breadth, fo that it
A ems to be almost of a round figure. 'Tis conceived there are
in it between fix and even hundred men.
SWhat is moft considerable in this Ifland is a very fair Church,
of a delightful Strutture, built by the contributions of the Go-
vernor and Inhabitants. The Pulpit, the Seats, and all the
Joyners and Carpenters work within it, are of the molt preci-
ous and fweet-ftented-wood growing in the Country.


T He Ifland which the Englifh call the Barbouthos, lyes at
the Altitude of 17 degrees, and 3o minutes. It lyes
very low, and is in length about five leagues, lying North-
Eaft from Mont-serrat. The Englifh are the Inhabitants of it,
and the Colony may amount to between four and five hundred
nen, who find whereupon to fubiift conveniently.
It is fubje& to this annoyance, which is alfo common to the
flands of Antego and Mont-Serrat, that the Caribbians of Do-
minico, and other places, do many times commit great fpoils
in it. The enmity and aversion which thofe Barbarians have
conceived against the Englih Nation in general, is come to that
height, that there hardly paffes a year but they make one or
two irruptions, in the night time, into fame one of the Iflands
it is poflefi'dof; and then, if they be'not timely difccver'd,
and valiantly oppos'd, they kill all the men they meet, ran-
fack the Houfes and burn them, and if they can get any of the
Women or Children, they carry them away Prifoners into
their own Territories., with all the Booty they have a
mind to,

He Ifland called Redonda, or Rotonda, from its round
Figure, lyes atthealtitude of 7 degrees, and lo minutes.
It is a very little one, and at a difiance feems to be only a great
Tower, and taking a profpeft of it one way, a man might fay
it were a great Ship under fail. It is of eafie accefs on all fides,
by reason the Sea about it is deep,and without rocks or shelves,
which might be dangerous to shipping.

'The Hfory of BooK I.


T'Helfland called Nieves' otherwif vir, yes at the al-
Stitude of 27 degrees, and 19 mimntes, Northward. It
is not above fix leagues about, aiid in the midftof it there is
but one only Mountain, which is very' igh, and covered with
great Trees up to the very top. ThePlantations are all about
the Mountain, beginning from the Sea-fide, till you come to
the highest part of it, the afcent being commodious enough.
This Ifland may eafily be compafs'd ether by land or water.
There are in it divers fpridgs of frefhi water, whereof fome are
firong enough to make their way to the Sea: Nay there is one
firing, whereof the waters are hot and mineral. Not far
from the fou'rce there are Bathes made, whicH are frequented
with good fuccefs, in order to the curing of thofe difeafes for
which the waters of Bourbon are recommended.
The Englijh, who planted themselves there in the year
M.DC.XXY II. are ftifl the Inhabitants of this Ifland, and they
are now thought to be between three and four thousand men,
who fubfift and live handfomly, by the trade they drive in Su-
gar, Ginger and Tobacco.
This Ifland is the beft governed of any in the Caribbies.
Justice is there adminiftred with great prudence by a Coun-
cil, confiftig oft he moft eminent and moft ancient Inhabi-
tants of the Colony: :Swearing, Thieving, Drunkennefs, Forni-
cation, and all diffolutions and disorders are severely punifh'd.
In the Year M.DC.XLIX. Mr. Lae, a .knowing perfon and fear-
ing God, had the Government of it. *He is fince departed
this life.
There are in this Ifland three Churches, which have nothing
extraordinary, as to Strufure, but are very convenient as to
the performing of Divine Service. For the fecutiry of the Vef-
fels that are in the Road, and to prevent the invasion of an Ene-
my, there is a Fort built,wherein are feveralgreat Pieces which
command as far as the Sea. It fecures alfo the public Store-
houfes, into which all the Commodities that are imported, and
neceflary for the fubfiftance of the Inhabitants, are difpofed.
And thence it is, that they are afterwards distributed to thofe
private perfons who ftand in need thereof, provided thofe who
have the over-fight of them think them folvent perfons, ac-
codding to the time and price agreed upon, and ordered by the
Gokrnor and Council.
A'"firther. recommendation of this fland, is, that it is di-
vided only by a fmall arm of the Sea from that of St. Chrif,-
phers, the nobleft and moft famous of all the Caribbies. Hav;n
given but a fhort Defeription of the other Iflands, what w':
-. t K

iCAt L. The Caribyyflands. .z
g fl give ofthis, as being the chiefeft, will be somewhat larger.
For which reason, we (hall affign it a Chapter by it felf.


Of thelflandof St. Chrifopher.
S ,rtCdrillophers was fo called by Chrijiopher Cofukn, who
finding it vony vleafant, would needs give it his own
Same. He was ent d t giv tit tin nate from a ton-
fideration of the figure of tisMotntari, theft latd having on
its ipper part, as it were upon one of ki houldet, another le.
.fer Mountain, as Chrifopber is paintedlike a Gyant, catry-
" ing our Saviour upon his, as it were a little Child. Its altitude
is at 7 degrees, 25 minutes.
It is about 5 leagues in compass. The Soil being light and
fandy, is apt to produce all forts of the Country Fruits as al.
fomany of the choiceft growing in Emrpe.. It lyes high in the
midft, by reason of fome very high Mountains, out of which
arife several Rivers, which sometimes are Co suddenly over-
flown through the rains falling on the Mountains, fo 'as that
there is nonefeen at the extremities of them, or in the Plains,
that the Inhabitants are many times fWpriz'd by thofe
The Iwhole Ifland is divided into four Cantons, or Quar
ters, two whereof are poflefs'd by the Englih S the other two
by the French 5 but in fuch fort, as that people cannot crors
from one quarter to the other, without paffing ovet Lands of
one ofthe two Nations. The Englih have in their fat a gteat-
er number of little Rivers then the French 5 but' in requital,
the latter have more of the plain Countryt aad Lands fitter
for cultivation. The Englifi alfo exceed the FrMche in num-
ber 5 but the latter have more fortified places, atid are better
armed. The French have four Forts, well .fimifh'd with
great Pieces, which carry a great way into the Sea 5 and one
of them hath regular works, like a Citadel. Thed moft confi-
derable next that lyes at the Haven, or AnchoringLplace, cal-
led Bafe-terre. There is inboth a constant Guard kept : And
to prevent the differences which might happen between two
different Nations, each of them upon the Avenues of their
Quarters hath a Guard which is renewed every day. The
Englhvfl have two fortified places, whereof one commands the
great Haven, and the other a Defcetm, not far from Pbinte
de sable.
This fland is furniflhd with a fair Salt-pit, lying on the Sea-
fide, which the Inhabitants commonly call cnutde-sac. Not
far i

T22ifTh ljory of BooK I

far thence, there is a fall Point of Land, which reaches out
fo far towards the Ifland of Nieves, that it is not above half a
league of Sea between the two, infomuch that there have been
thofe who have fwam frpm one to the other.
It is conceived there is a Silver-mine in St. Chriflophers ; but ~
in regard the Salt-pits, Woods, Havens, and Mines are com-
ion to both Nations, no body looks after, it: Befides, fuch
an enterprise would require a great Rtock, and an infinite num-
ber of Slaves. The true Silver-mine of this Ifland is Sugar.
A man may easily compass the whole Ifland by Land,
but cannot pafs through.the midft of it, by reafon'of several
great and fteepy Mountains,' between which there are dread-
ful precipices, and springs of hot water: Nay there are fome
springs of.Sulphur, which hath occafion'd one of them to be
called, the, /phherifa;4mtain. Taking the Circumference
from without, the body of the Ifland feems to extend it felf,
by a gentle decent, down to the Sea-fide, and is of an une-
qual breadth, according as the Mountains dilate their fkirts
more or lefs towards the Sea, or the more the Sea advances,
and forces the land against the Mountains. The Soil, as far as
it is cultivated, that is, to the fteepy afcent of the, Mountains,
is divided in a manner about into several stages or stories,
through which there are drawn fair and spacious ways, in a
ftrait-line, as much as the places would permit. The firftof
thefe lines of communication-begins at about a hundred paces
from the Sea-fide 5 another three or four hundred paces high-
er, and Co ascending to the third or'fourth, whence a man may
take a very pleasant profpe& of all.the Plantations from thence
Every Stage,which makes a kind ofgirdle,or enclofure,great-
er or leffer about the Mountains,according to the greater or lef-
fer distance of it from the Mountains, hath alfo its ways, which
like fo many croffing streets afford an eafie accefs to thofe
who live higher or lower 5 and this with fucha noble fvmme-
try, that when a man compaffes the Ifland by Sea, he cannot
imagine any thing more delightful, then to fee that pleading
verdure of fo many Trees, which are planted along the high-
ways, and ate the divisions between the federal Plantations.
The profpef is fuch, that the eye can hardly be wearied with
it: If it be direfed upwards, it is terminated by thofe high
Mountains, which are crown'd with a perpetual verdure, and
cloath'd with precious Woods: If downwards, it is enter-
tain'd by the delightful profpet of Gardens, which taken in'
from thofe places where the Mountains are inacceffible, are
thence by a gentle and eafie decent continued to the Sea-
fide. The delightful bright-greep of the Tobacco, planted
exa&ly by the.line, the pale-yellow of the Sugar-Canes,
when come to maturity, and the dark-green of Ginger and

CAP. IV. The Carildyflands. 23
Potatoes, make fo delightful a Landfkip, as muft caufe an ex-
traordinary recreation to the unwearied eye. What very
much adds to this delight, is, that in the midff of every Plan-
tation, or Garden, there may befeen several fair houses of dif-
ferent ftru&ures, particularly thofe which are covered with red-
or glaz'dflatc, contribute a greater luffre to that pleasant per.
fpetive. And in regard there is a perpetual-afcent in the Iflandb
the lower ftage or flory deprives not the fight of the pleasure
arifing from the profped of that which lyes at a greater di-
ftance 5 but a man may at one grafp of the eye, as it were i n an
ir4antr behold all thofe drlightfl divifions, all thofe ways
which book fkef6 rhany walfr of an Orchard, planted with
federal forts of Trees all thofe Gardens regularly befet with
divers Fruits ; an4 all thofe Edifices, which for the moft part
are not distant one from another above a hundred paces. In a
word, fo many agreeable objects offer themselves to the eye,
at the fame intuition, that it is at a kind oflofs on which moft
to faften it felf.
There is indeed a certain neceffity, for the greater conveni-
ence of the Inhabitants, and eaffer managing of their employ-
ments, that their houfes should be 4iftinf one from another,
and placed in the fitidft of that piece of ground which they
have to manure, JTe French, befidev the houfes they have
thus dif4os'd at certain diftandes, have, in their Quarter of
rIaff-frrfe a Tows which grows bigger daily, and whereof
the Ho6uCs are of Brick and Titber. It lyes neer the Haven,r
where comihionly Ships lye at Anchor. The ioft considerable
of the Inhabitants, and Foreign-Merchants have Store-houles
The French and Dutch Merchants, Who refide there con-
flantly, are well furnilh'd with excellent Wines, Aqua-vite,
and Beer, all forts of Stuffes, of Silk, or Wooll, fit for the
Country, and generally all the refrefhments, which being not
of the growth of the Ifland, are yet neceflary for the better
accommodation of the inhabitants. All is fold at a rcafonable
rate, and in exchange for the ComIModities growing in the-
dountry. In the famine plape live several forts of Trades-ien,
whofeeitploymentsare ieceffary to Commr-te and civil So-
cikty. here is asloa Hall for the adminifraiton of Jufice,
and a fair Church able to conr~i'a very gre afCongregation:
The Stru&tire is'of wood, raised on a fbiuidation:~fFt. M Vne:
Inftead of Glafs-windows there are only turned Piliars, after
the fashion of a Balcoy., It is cover'd with red Slate.
The Capuchins for Ibm'e years had the overfight of the faid
Church, and the charge of the aouls, as to the French, over
.the whole ifand buttin the year one thousand fix hundred
for tygnd fix, they were difengag d from that employment by
the unanimous content of the Mnabitants, who civly difitif'd

4+ 4The Ififory of BOOKL.
them, and received in their ftead Yejuits and Carmelites, who
have very fair Houfes and Plantations, which are manured by
a great number of Slaves belonging to them, through whofe
means they are very handfomly maintained. The R. F. Henry
du Vivier, was the firfi Superior of the Jefuitical Miflion.
His Excellency the General hath alfo built a very fair Ho-
fpital, in a very healthy place, where fuch fick perfons as are
unable to effe& their recovery at their own houses, are at-
tended, and maintained, and vifited by Phyfitians and Surge-
ons, till they are restored to their former health. Strangers al-
fo who fall fick in the Ifland are received in there. Order is al-
fo taken that Orphans be difpos'd into convenient houfes,
where they are brought up and inftruted.
There are many noble Stru&ures built both by the the Eng-
lifh and French 5 but the moft magnificent of any is the Caftle
of the French General, the particular Defcription whereof we
hall nevertheless forbear, in regard it makes not much to the
Natural Hiftory oft he Caribbies.
Of the Englifh building the moft considerable are thofe of
the late Mr. Warner, firft Governour General of this Nation ,
Mr. Rich's, Is fucceffor 5 Mr. Everard's, and Col. Gefreyfin's,
which may well be ranked among the moft noble, and beft ac-
complif'd of any in the Caribbies.
The Engliib have alfo built in this Ifland. five very fair
Churches, well furnifh'd within with Pulpits, and Seats, ofex-
cellent Joyners work, of precious wood. Till the late Times,
the Minifters were fent thither by the Archbifhop of Canterbu-
ry, to whofe Diocefs it belongs.


Of the Lee-ward Iliands.
A LL the Iflands lying Weft from St. Chriifophers are com-
monly called the Lee-ward Iflands, inafmuch as the
conftant wind of the Caribbies is an Eaft-wirid, with
fome point of the North, and. that there is feldom any Weft or
South-wind. Qf thefe there are nine principal ones, whereof
we (hall give an account in this Chapter, according to the order
they are placed in the Map.

S' E VSTA C1:.
T He fleand of St. Euflace lyes North-Weft from St. Chriflo-
pherr, at the altitude of feventeen degrees, and forty
minutes. It is about five leagues in compass. To fpeak pro-

C A. V. CThe Caribby-Iflands.

perly, it is but a Mountain riling up in the midit of the Ocean;
much like a Sugar-loaf, which is thought to be the figure of
Mount Tabor, and the Pic of Tenerife, fave that the laft named
is incomparably higher. The Colony inhabiting it, confit-
ing ofabout fixteen hundred men, acknowledge the Sovereign-
ty of the States-General, who have granted the Government
of it to Monf. Van Rtee, and his Aflociates, Merchants of FlIffj-
ing in Zealand.
This Ifland is the ftrongeft, as to situation, of all the Carib-
bies, for there is but one good defcent,which may be easily de-
fended 5 fo that a few men might keep off a great Army: But
besides this natural Fortification, there is in it a strong Fort
which commands the beft Haven, the Guns of it carrying a
good distance into the Sea.
1he Inhabitants have neat houfes, and thofe well furnifl'd,
as their Country-men have in Holland. Only the very top of
the Mountain iscover'd with Wood; all the compafs is manur'd.
It can hardly b2 credited what quantities of Tobacco it hath
heretofore and' ftill doth yield.
Though the top of this Mountain feems to be very picked,
yet is there a kind of bottom of a large extent, affording a re-
treat to a great number of wild Beats. The Inhabitarts are
very induftrious in keeping on their Lands all forts of Poultry,
as alfo Swine and Conies, which breed exereamly.
There are no Springs in this Ifland 5 but there are now few
Houfes but have a good Ciftern to fupply that defeat: There
are alfo Store-houfes fo well furnif'd with all things requisite
to life, and the accommodation of the Inhabitants, that many
tires they have wherewithto pleasure their Neighbours. The
Inhabitants live decently andChriftianly; and cannot juffly be
reproach'd with thofe crimes which fome have imposed upon
them. There is in the Illnd one Church, which hath from
time to time been fupply'd with very able Paftors; of whom
one was Mr May, who, among other Writings, put out a Learned'
Commentary on the moft difficult places of the five Books of
Moles, wherein there are many curious Obfervations of Na-

T He Ifland of S. Bartholomew lies North-eaft from'S. Chri-
S lophers, at the 16. degree of Altitude : It hath but litz
tie ground fit for manuring, though it be it be a considerable
compafs: The Governour-General of the French, de Poincy,
peopled it at his own Charge about fifteen years fince: It af-
fords several forts of excellent Trees, which are much efteem'd
an infinite number of Birds of federal kinds 5 and a kind of
Lime-ftone, which is fetched thence by the Inhabitants of the
E other,

Z6 The Hftory of BOOK .

other Iflands. There is no fafe coming in for Ships of great
burthen, by reason of the many Rocks which encompafs it.
Such perfons as are enclin'd to folitude cannot difpofe them-
felves to a fitter place for it than this is.
T'He Ifland of Saba lies North-weft from S. Enj aces, at the
Altitude of 17 degrees and 35 minutes:A man would think
it at a distance to be only a Rock 3 but the Colony of S. Euftace,
which fent over men to manure It, hath found in it a pleasant
Valley,able to employ many Families, who live contentedly in
that delightful retirement. Only Shallops can come neer it.
The Filhing about it is very plentiful: Nor is there any want
of ther efrefhments that are neceffary.

T He .IflandA S. Martin lies at the Altitude of 18. degrees
and I6 minutes: It is about even Leagues in length,
and .four in bredth: There are in it excellent Salt-ponds, which
had obliged the spaniard to build a Fort in it, 'the better to fe-
cure the poffeffion of it 5 but about nine years fince he demo-
lifh'd the Fort and quitted the Ifland: Which being obferv'd
by Monfieur de Ruyter, who commanded one of the Ships which
Monfieur Lampfen commonly fends into America, and who then
failed by this Iland, he went to S.Eufiace' to raife men, whom
he brought thither, and took poffeffion of it in the name of the
The news of the spaniards departure thence coming at the
fame time to the French General,he prefently difpatch'd thither
a Ship very well mani'd, to recover the right and pretensions
of the French, who had been poffefs'd of the faid fland before
the ufurpation of the Spaniard: Since the French and Dutch
have divided it, and live very friendly together. The French
have there about 300oo men. The Salt-ponds are in the Dutch-
Quarter. The Dutch are more in number than the French:
Lampfen and Van Ree are the Dire&ors of the Colony. They
have very fair Houfes, large Store-houfes, and a considerable
number of Negroes, who are their perpetual Slaves.
There is no frefh water in this Iflandt, but what when it rains
is received into Cifterns, which are common enough. There
are federal little Iflands about this, very convenient for the di-
vertifements of the Inhabitants. There are alfo Ponds of faltr
water, which run up far into the Lahd, in which are taken
abundance of good Fifh, especially Sea-Tortoifes. There are
in the Woods Wild-Swine, Quifts, Turtles, and an infinite
number of Parrots. There arealfofeveral Trees, out of which

C AP. V. The Carbby-Iflands. 17

diftill several forts of Gums: but the Tobacco which grows
here being efteem'd beyond that of any of the other Iflands,
the Commerce of it is fo much the more considerable. The
French and Dutch have their diftint Churches in their several
Jurifdi&ions. Monfieur des Camps, the present Paftor of the
Dutch Church was fent thither in September, 1655. by the Sy-'
nod of the Walloon Churches of the United Provinces, under
whofe fpiritualinfpe&ion this Colony is.

T He Ifland named the snare, is fo called from its figure 5
t r forits alongtra& of earth, but.very narrow, winding
almost about neer S. Martins Ifland, whence it is very plainly
perceived. There is not any Mountain in it, the ground lying
low and even. Where it is broadeft there is a Pond, about
which fome Englifh families planted themselves about even or
eight years fince, and where they plant Tobacco, which is
highly efteem'd of thofe who are good judges in that Commo-
dity. The Ifland lyes at 18 degrees and 20 minutes on this
fide the Line.

V l He ifland SobhreroJyes in the midft of thofe Banks which
iL lye about the Channel, through which the Ships bound
for Europe do pals. It lyes at 18 degrees and 3o minutes.
The Spaniards called it sombrero, from its having the figure of
a Hat. It is not inhabited.

A Neado, which lyes.under the fame degree as sombrero, is
alfo defert, and of dangerous accefs.

Snie Virgins, greater and leffer, comprehend several
Iflands marked in the Map by that name, There are
numbred in all twelve or thirteen of them : They reach Eaft-
ward from St. Jobhne Pogto-Rico, at the altitude of I8 degrees,
North of the Line. Between.thefe Iflands there are very good
Anchoring places for federal Flets. The Spaniards vifit them
iften, in order to Fifhing, whici' is there plentiful. There
arialfo in them an infinite number of rare both Land and Sea-
fowL. They afford fo little good ground, that after a tryal
made thereof in federal places, it was concluded, that they
defervec'n t Inhabitants.
SE 2 Ste oCRO X.

18 The Hifort y of BOO I.

T He laft of all the Caribbies of the Lee-ward Iflands is the,
Ifland of sante Croix, Or the Hbly Crofs. It lyes at 18
degrees and fome minutes. The Caribtawns who were forced
thence by the Spaniards, call it Aa : It was much efteem'd
among them, because it was the irft Ifland that Nation poffefs'd
themselves of when they came from the North to feek a con-
venient habitation to lay the foundations of their Colonies, as
fall be represented particularly in the Second Book of this
The Soil of this Ifland returits with good interest whatever
is fown init.: there are in it fair and spacious Plaiis, of a black
earth, and eafie to be manured: there are alfo several fair and
precious kinds of Trees good for Dying arid Joyners work.
The Aik is good, but the Waters not fo wholfom, if drunk im-
mediately after they are drawn: To take away the ill quality
they have, they are put to reffa certain time in earthen veffels,
which makes them good 5 aMd thence it 'is' eonceiv'd that the
bad quality proceeds from their mud, as is observed in thofe of
the Nile.
This Ifland is now poffefs'd by the French, who have rais'd
it to a great height after its several changes of former Mafters.
The French General supplies it. with Inhabitants at his own
It may be nine or ten Leagues in length; and neei as much
in breadth, where it is broadest. The Mbnrntains iare neither
fo high nor shuffled fo neer together; but that people may get
up to the tops of them, and that there is good ground enough
besides to find work for many thousands of men.


Of Treas growing in thefe Iflands, whofe Fruit
may hbe eaten. ., i.

O F the Trees growing iii thefetatid fom btiar g6oo
Fruits, which contribute to the nourishment of the
Inhabitants others are fit for BuildiTig, Joynrers work;
or Dying : There are fome alfo very facdefifully ufed in Me-
dicine and fome which only delight thr Smelling by their
feet fent, and the Sight by their ever verdant Boughs arid
Of thofe which bear Fruits fit for Food, and may iefeen in

CA VI. The CGribyAflands. 9
Europe, there are only here Orange-trees, Pomegranate-trees,
Citron-trees, and Lemon-trees, the bulk and goodnefs whereof
far exceeds thofe of the fame kinds growing elsewhere.

O F ranges there are two kinds, yet of the fame figure,
and diftinguifhable only by the tale: fome are feet,
others harp, both extreamly delicate. The [harp are a great
convenience to hofle-keeping, for they are ufed inItead of
Verjuyce and Vinegar 5 but the fweet excell in goodnes': Some
indeed call the Chitn-orange, the Queen of Oranges, -aid real
Mutk-ballsunderthe colour and figure of oranges: Buthow-
ever fome may celebrate the delightful iweetnefs of the china-
Oranges, there are others prefer the excellent tafte and picquan.
cy of our AtJerican-oranges.

T fle Pome ganate-trees grow alfo excellently well in all
thefe Iflands, and bear Fruits fair to the Eye and plea-
fant to the Tafte. In many places there Trees ferve for Palifa-.
does about Courts, borders of Gardens, and the Avenues of

O F Citrons there are three kinds, different as t6 bigners,
and which confequently are not all called Citrons. 'The
firft kind, which is the faireft and largeft,is called Lime iit is on-
ly good to be preferv'd, having very little juyce 5 but perferv'd,
it is excellent. The second kind is the Leswon about the big-
nefs of the Citron bought from spain: 'but its juyte is little, in
comparison of it-bulk. The little Citron, which makes the
third kind, is the beft and moft efteem'd it hath a very thin
fkin or pellicle, and is full of a-very fharp juyce, which gives
an excellent tafte to Meats, and a picquancy to federal SAwces .
it is a particular Fruit of Americta. Some curious perfons have
-in their thrdens a kind of very tweet Citrons, both as to their
peel and juyce, which astobig "efs and tafte come notbehind
thofe which grow In Portugal.'
All other Trees growing in the caribbies have their Leaves,
Flowers, Frit; and Bark, of a Figure, Tafte and Colour dif-
ferent from thofe of our Countfies.

S.4. tOtIVIEd.
.... .


30 The Hi/ ory of Boos 1l

T O begin with the Fruit-Trees there is fome account
made of the Goyawier, which comes never the figure of
the Laurel, fave that the Leaves arefofter, of a brighter green,
and more cottened on the lower-fide. The Bark of this Tree
is very thin and fmooth: It (hoots forth at the roots federal
fuckers, which if not taken away, will in time make a thick
wood about it, as far as there is any good ground. Its branches,
which are thick and well furnifh'd with leaves, are loaden
twice a year with little white Flowers, which are followed by
federal green Apples, which become yellow, and of a good
fmell when they are ripe. This Fruit hath on the top a little
polie like a Crown, and the meat within is either white or red,
full of little kernels, like thofe of a Pomegranate 5 whence the
Dutch callit the fweet Pomegranate: It is about the bignefs ofa
Pearmain, and ripens in one night.
Being eaten green, it is aftringent: whence it is ufed by
many against Bloody-Fluxes: but being ripe it hath a quite
contrary effe,.

T He Papayer is a Tree which grows without boughs,
about 15 or 20 foot high, big proportionably to its
Height, hollow and fpongious within, whence it is ufed to
Convey Springs and Ktvulets to diverfe places. There are two
kinds of it 5 one commonly found in all the Iflands. The
leaves of it are divided into-three points, much like the leaf
of the Fig-tree: They are faftened to long tails, as.big as a
mans thumbs, and hollow within. They foot out of the top
of the Tree, and bending downwards, they cover several
round fruits, about the bignefs ofthe great .gince-pear, which
grow round the boal to which they arefaftened.
The other kind is particular to the fland of sante Croix.
It is fairer, and hath more leaves then the former : but what
causes it to be more efteenfd is its Fruit, which is about the
bignefs of a Melon, and of the figure of a woman breast,
whence the Portughefe call it MIwao.
There is this particularly remarkable in thefe Trees, that
they bring forth new fruits every month in the year. The
flower of both kind is of good fcent, and comes neer that of
Jefferine. The Fruit-of the latter is accounted among the
choiceft entertainments of the Iflands, in as much as being come
to perfefion it hath a firm fubflance, and may be cut in pieces
like a Meon, and is of a very pleasant tafte. The rind is yel-
low, intermix'd with certain green lines, and within it is fall

CAP. VI. The Caribby-Iflands. 3
of little feeds, round, vifcous, and foft, of a picquant tafte,
and approaching that ofSpice. This fruit fortifies the ftomacks
and helps digeftion.

T lHe dMaomin is a Tree grows up to the bignefi of a d4fp &*
tree, and bears a large fruit of the fame name. 'Tis true
the Iflanders commonly call it Corafol, because tAetfeeds of
thofe they have was brought from Grdfolal an Ifan poffefs'd
long fince by the Dutch, who have there a good Fort, anda
numerous Colony, which hatht-fpretit fClf into Cfveral other
Iflands never it. This Fruit is like a little Cucuiber not fully
ripe i the rind of it is always green3 and enamenlld with federal
fall partitions like fcales : if it be gathered in itS maturity it
is within as white as cream, and ofa mixture of fweetnefs and
iharpnefs, which much heightens the tafte of it. This Fruit
is extreamly cooling, and pleafant to the palate : In the miift
ofit lyes the feed, which is of the bignefs and figure of a Bean,
very fmooth, and of the colour of a Touch-ftone on which a
piece of gold had been newly try'd for it feems to fparkle
with little golden veins.

Vnipa, or Jenipd, being the fame Tree which the Brafliats
call Janipaba, and the Portugues, Jenipapo, grows upto the
bignefs of a Cheifnt-tree, the boughes of it bowing down ta-
wards the ground, and making a pleasant fhade: The leaves of
it are long, like thofe of a Wallnt-tree : It bears a kind of
flower like thofe of NarcifWr, and they are of a good cent.
The wood of it is folid, and in colour of a pearly grey. The
Inhabitants cut down thefe Trees while they are yet young, to
make flocks for Muskets and Fire-locks, in regard the wood
being eafie to be wrought, may be excellently polifh'd. Eve-
ry month it is cloath'd with fome new leaves: It bears a kind
of Apples, which being ripe feem to have been baked in an
Oven, about the bignefs of an ordinary Apple t Falling from
the Tree they make a noife like that ofa gun difeharg'd: which
proceeds hence, that certain winds or spirits pent up in the thin
pellicles which enclofe the feed,being ftirr'd by the fall, fore
their way out with a certain violence, Whence it may be coabi
eluded, that it is the fame Fruit which the Indians in New.-Spai#t
by a barbarous name call gant la Latin.
Thefe Junipa-apples eaten without taking away the littleskin
within them, are extreamly binding. This Fruit is much
fought after by Hunts-men, in regard that being fourifh it
quenches thirft, and comforts fuch as are wearied by travelling.

RB r

3 rL UV C j ,vj& / v.y v ,. Ax,
'_ LrJ J.LIJ-vI/' __________- ------ ---------
The juice of it dyes a very dark Violet, though it felf be as
4lear as rock-water:nay when it is applied twice to the fame part
of the body whicha man would dye, it makes the place appear
black. The Indians ufe it to fortifie the body, and to make it
more fupple before they go to the wars. They are alfo of a
perfwafion that this colour renders them more terrible to their
detmies. The tin&ure this Fruit gives cannot be taken away
with Sop;i but after nine or ten days it disappears of it feif.
The Swine -hich eat of this fruit when it falls off the Tree,
have the flefli and fat of a violet colour, as hath been found by
experience. The fame thing hath been obferv'd in the flelh of
Parrots, and other Birds, when they have eaten of it. There
may be made of thefe Apples a drink pleasant enough, yet fuch
hs is only us'd among the Indians and Hunts-men, who have no
fetled habitation.


T He Raifit-tree, or Vine, which the Caribbians call u!ient,
grows up to a midling height, and creeps in a manner
along the ground on the Searfide : but in good ground, it
grows up high, as one of the moft delightful Trees tt the Fo-
reft. The leaves of it are round, and thick, iniermixt wkh
red and green. Under the bark of the trunk, having raised a
white foft fubftance about two inches thick, a man finds a
wood of a violet colour, folid, and fit for excellent pieces of
Joyners work. It bears in its branches fuch fruits, as when they
are ripe might be taken for great violet Grapes 5 but in ftead of
kernels, every Grape hath under a tender pellicle, and under a
very fmall fubftance, which is a little fowrith, cooling, and of a
good tafte, a hard ftone like that ofa Plumb.

T Here are three kinds of Trees known by the name of
Acajou 5 but of thofe, only that we hall here describe
bears any fruit: 'Tis a Tree of no great height, spreading its
branches down towards the ground : The leaves of it are fair
and large, closing to a roundnefs before, and divided by certain
veins. The flowers of it at the firft shooting forth are white,
but afterwards they become incarnate, and of a purple colour:
They grow in tuffes and bufhes, and they fend forth fo feet a
fcent, that it is eafie to diftinguifh the Tree which bears them:
There flowers fall not till they are thruft off by a kind of cheft-
nui, much after the form of an Ear, or a Hares kidney. When
this ChefnHt is come to its growth, there is framed under it a
very fair Apple, fomewhat long, which is crowned with that
as a creft, which as it ripens becomes of an Olive-colour, while


,Th l o,,l,,, n(

CA P. VI. The CaribbyIlflands. 33
the Apple puts on a thin delicate skin of a lively Vermilion.
Within it is full of certain fpungious filaments, which yield a
kInd of fweet and fharp juice extreamly good to quench thirif,
and accounted very good for the stomach, as alfo in fwoonings
and fainting, being qualified with a little Sugar: But if it
chance to fall on any Linen, it makes a red flain therein, which
Continues till fuch time as the Tree brings forth new flowers.
SThe Indians make an excellent drink of this fruit, which
being kept fome days inebriates as foon as the beft French-
wine would. The Nut which is above, burnt, yields a cau-
ftick oyl, which is fuccefsfully ufed to mollifie, nay to take
away Corns, and the calloufnefs of the feet. If it be crack'd
there is within a kernel, covered with a thin pellicle, which
being taken away it is of an excellent tafte, and its virtue is to
warm and extreamly to fortifie the Stomach.
This Tree bears but once a year 5 whence the Brafilians
number their age by the Nuts growing. on this Apple, laying
Uip one for every year, which they keep very carefully in a little
basket for that purpose. If an incifion be made at the foot of
this Tree there will come forth a clear and transparent Gum,
which many have taken for that which is brought out of Ara-
bia. The feed of the Tree is in the Nut, which put into the
ground grows without any trouble.

THe Icaco is a kind offmall Plumb-tree which grows after the
form of a Briar 5 the branches of it are at all times loaden
with fmall long leaves: Twice a 'year they are drefs'd with
abundance of pretty white or violet flowers, which are fol-
low'd by a little round fruit, about the bignefs of a Damfin
and that being ripe, grows either white or violet, as the flower
had been before: This fruit is very fweet; and fo lov'd by
fome Savages living neer the Gulf of Hondurer, that they are
called Icacos from their much feeding on thefe Plumbs. Thofe
who have traveled among them have observed, that when there
fruits are ripe they carefully fecure the propriety thereof to
themselves, and to prevent their Neighbours, who have none in
their Quarters, from fpoiling the Trees, have Guards fet on
the Avenues of their Country, who with Club and Dart op-
pole fuch as should attempt their disturbance.
."fHe Maobain is a Tree grows very high, and bears long
aL and yellowifh Plumbs, which are of a fcent good enough:
But the frone being bigger then all the meat about it, they are
not much efteem'd, unlefs it be of rome who mix them in the
drinks of 0icos and M1ab1, to give then a better tafte. Th;
F Swine

4+ TITh ftory of BOOK rI.
Swine feeding in the Woods are always fat when thefe fruits
are ripe for there falls abundance of them under the Trees as-
they ripen, Which are greedily devoured by thofe creatures.
This Tree yields a yellow Gum, which cats a ftronger cent
then the fruit. The branches thruft into the ground eafily
take root whence it comes that they commonly fet thole i
Clofes with them where they keep Cattle.
The Courbary for the mot part grows higher, moreleavie
arid bigger then the Monbin. It bears a fruit the hell where-
of can hardly be broken, :hd it is about four fingers long, two
broad, and one thick: Within the (hell there is two or three
stones covered with a foft meat,- as yellow as saffron. Itis of a
good tafte but if much of it be taken it extreamly clogs ihe
ftomack," and-hinders refpiration. The Savages in cafe of ne-
cefity make a drinkof it, which well ordered is not unplea-
fant, that is, whenitis well boild with water. The wood of
this Tree is folid, of a colour inclining to red. The Tree be-
iig dld yields a Gum which is hardened by the Sun, and will
continue clear, tranfparet as yellow Amber, and of a good
fcent. Someindians make Buttons of it, of federal fashions,
of which they make Bracelets, Neck-laces, and Pendants,
which are handfom, glittering, and of a good fcent.

T Here is in molt of there Ilands a great Tree, which the
Europeans have called the Indian Fg-tree, because it
bears a mall fruit without any ftone, which in figure and tafte
comes neer the French Fig: Otherwife it bath no rcfemblance
to our Fig-trees; for besides that the leaf is of a different
fire, and much narrower,' it grows in fome places to fuch an
exceffive bulk, that there are of them fuch as many men put
together cannot encompafs, in regard- the Trunk, which com.
only is not even in itscircumference, Ihoots forth on the fides
from the very root to the place where the boughs begin, cer-
tain excrefceficies which reach four or five foot about, and
Which by thdt mans make deep cavities, finding like fo ma-
ny Neeches. 'Thefe Exerefeencies which are of the fame fub-
france with the body of the Tree, are alfo enclosed' with the
fame bark as covers it, and they are even or eight inches
thick, proportionably to the Trunk they enct~npafs. The
wood of this Tree within is white and foft, and there are com-
monly cut out of thofe long pieces which (hoot forth out of the
Ttrnk, Planks for Flooring, Doors and Tables, withoutany
fea~that the Tree should dye: For, in a ihort time it foeafily
recovers the prejudice it had received, that it can hardly Lye
perceived there was any thing taken from it. All rhole who
have liv'd ithe Ifland of Tortoifes,r which lyes -North from

CA VI. The Caribby-lflands.
Hifbaniola, have feen in the way which leads from the Plains
of the Mountain to the Village, which the French call Mil-
plantage one of thefe Trees which may well afford shelter
to two hundred men under the flade of its branches, which
are always loaden with leaves very thick and bufhy.

T Here is in thefe Iflands a kind of service-tree much diffe-
rent from that in France 5 for it is of an exceffive height,
pdeafant to the eye, and adorn'd with fair leaves and branches.
Itrbears a pleasant fruit, round as a Cherry, of a yellowish co-
lour, potted with little round fpots 5 when it is ripe it falls off
of it felf: It tafles like a Sorb-apple, and thence it came to be
fo cal led : It is much fought after by the Birds.

ALL there Iflands have Palms, nay rome have four several
Sports of them. One is called the Prickly or Thorny-Palm,
having that name from the pricklinefs of it, the boal, branches,
and leaves being furnished with prickles very (harp, and fo
dangerous, that whoever is prick'd thereby will be troubled a
longtime, if a present remedy be not applyed : Thofe which en-
.compafs the trunk are flat, about the length of a mans finger,
.of the figure of a Tooth-pick, fmooth, and of a tawny colour
inclining to black. The Negroes before they come neer it
make a fire about the foot of the Tree to burn up the prickles,
which are as fo much armour to it. Its fruit corifilts in a great
tuft, which contains several greyifh, hardand round Nuts, with-
in which are kernels good to eat. Of this kind of Palms fonme
Negroes get a fort of Wine by making incifions in the branches.
It is probably the fame Tree which the Brafilians call Ayri.

T He second kind is the Franc-Palm: It is a firait Tree of
extraordinary height. The.roots ofthis Tree are above
ground, round about the ftock. two or three foot high, and
about the bignefs of a Hog(head : Thefe roots are fmall pro-
portionably tothe. height of the Tree they fuftain 5 but they
are fo confufedly fhufled one within another, that they afford
I it a fubffantial fupport.. One thing particular to this Tree is,
"that it is'bigger above then below : While it is young the bark
is tender, of a dark-grey colour, and marked at every foots '
distance with a circle, which discovers very never how many
years it hath been in the ground: But when it is come to its
full growth, it is all over fo folid and fwnooth, that there is
F 2 nothing



T bhe RHflory of B oo I.

r ---

_- ... -... -__ .. ._ --,-, .. .... --. ....---. .-- /.
nothing to be feen. The top of it is adorned with several fair
branches chanelFd, and fmooth, which have on each fide an in- .
finite number ofleaves,green,long,narrow and very thin,which
add much to its beauty. The tendereft of there branches,
which are not yet fully blown, ftart up direfly from the mid-
die of the Tree, while the others which bend downwards all
about make it as weree a rich and beautiful crown.
This Tree difburthens it felf every month of fome one of its
branches, as alfo of a bark which is looked from below, which
is four or five foot long, about two broad, and of tle thick-
nets of tann'd leather. The Inhabitants of the Iflands call this
bark Tache, and they ufe it for the covering of their Kitchins,
and other places belonging to their habitations, as they make
ufe of the leaves neatly ty'd together in little heaves to cover
their houfes.
We have purposely ranked the Palms among the Fruit-trees
of thefe Iflands, in regard all of them, the Latanier only excep-
ted, contribute somewhat to the nourishment of men. For if
the Prickly-Palm before, described, afford Wine, this bears on
the top of its trunk, and as it were in its heart, a whitifh mar-
row or pith, very tender and favor, tasting like a fmall Nut,
if eaten raw, ahd being boiled, and feafoned with the thin and
white leaves which pncompafs it, and are as it were fo much
linen about it, it may be numbred among the moft delicious
difhes of the Caribbies. The French call that marrowy fub-
flance,'and the leavesenclofing it, Chou de Palmife, Palm-Cab-
bage, for they put it into the Pot instead -of Cabbage, and
other Herbs.
Cleave the'trunk'ofthis Tree in two, and take away, as.may
eafily be done, a certain filiamental and foft matter, whichI
lyes within, the remaining wood, which is by that means made
hollow, and a good inch thick, makes excellent long gutters,
which will laft a great while. They are ufed alfo to cover
with one piece only the roof of the Cazes, and to convey wa-.
ter to any place. Turners and Joyners make of this wood,
which is almost black and eafily polifh'd, several excellent
pieces which are naturally marbled.
Pliny writes of Trees fo prodigioufly high, that an arrow
could not be hfot over them': and the Author of the General
History of the Indies peaks of a Tree fo high that a man could
not caft a tone over it. But though the Palm we now de-
fcribe much exceeds all the other Trees of the Caribbies, yet
dare we not affirm it to be of fuch an extraordinary height,
fince that from the foot of the Tree there may be eafily ob-
ferv'd a fair branch, which riling out of the top of the trunk,
is always turned towards the Sun-rifing. It is renewed every
year, and when it is come out of its cafe, it is enamell'd with
an infinite number of little yellow flowers, like golden but-

C .VI. The Caribby-Iflands. 37

tons, which afterwards falling, their places are fupply'd by
certain.round fruits, 'about the bignefs of a fmall Hens egge.
They are taften'd 'together as it were in one cluster and
that theft flowers and fruits might be fecured against the in-
juries of the weather, they are covered above by a thick bark,
which on the outfidL is hard and of a greyiih colour, but with-
in of-a kind of Vermilion-guilt, closing upwards like a Pyra-
mid. This precious fin is nothing elfe but the cafe which kept
in the flowers before they were'fully blown, and being opened
below spreads it felf into a hollow figure in the inidff, and
pointed at the extremities, the better to cover both the flowers
and th fruit.. :


T He third kind of Palm is called the Latanier: This grows
upto a considerable height, but not very big. In lead
of branches, it hath only long leaves,round above,and fpread at
the extremity like a fan.They are fattened to certain great talks
which come out of certain filaments that encompass the top of
thetrunk,like a thick piece of Canvafs,red and very clear.There
leaves ty'd up in little bundles ferve to cover the Cazes, and
of the rind which is raised from above the tails or talks, may be
mnadeSives, Balkets, and several other little curiofities, which
the Indians account thebeft of their Houflold-ftuff. Of the
wood of this Tree, as alfo of that of the Franc-Palm, they.
make Bows, the Clubs they ufe in fighting, in ftead of Swords,
Azagayes, a kind of little (harp' Launces, which they dart at
their enemies with the hand, and they fharpen therewith the
points of their Arrows, which by that means are as piercing as
if they were of Steel.


THe fourth kind of Palm, and the moft excellent of all is
that which is called Cocos, that famous fruit of which
Hiftorians tell fuch miracles. But it is to be obferv'd that the
iocos of the Weji-Indies grow not neer to the height of thofe
in the Eaft-Indies, the trunk commonly not exceeding twenty
or twenty five foot in height, of a bignefs proportionable there-
to. It is better furnifh'd with branches and leaves then the
Franc-Palm. The Iflands of Monaca and Reutam, at the Gulf
of Hondures, are famousfor their abounding with thefe Trees.
The Illand of S.Bartholomew of the Caribbies have alfo of them,
and thence they were brought to S.Chrifiophers.
The fruit grows upon the very trunk, at the shooting forth
of the branches. It hath the form of a Nut, but is without
comparison much bigger 5 for one of them sometimes weighs

I -

The Hiflory of


about ten pound. From the firft bearing the Treq is never
found without fruit, for it bears new'every month. The
fell is fo hard and thick that it may be polith'd, and figures en-
grav'd upon it, and made into Cups, Bottles, and other Vef-
fels. It is encompafs'd with a thick covering which is all of
When the Coco-nut is opened, there is firftmet with a meat,
white as fnow, which is extreamly nourishing, and taftes like
an Almxod: There is fo much of this marrowy fubftance in
every fruit as may well fill an ordinary difh. It is very firm-
ly fastened within the fell, and in the midft of it there is a
large glafs full ofliquor, clear and pleafant as perfum'd Wine:
fo that a man may be well fatisfi'd with one of thefe fruits at a
meal. It is only this water which is turned into feed, and
among other vertues hath that of clearing the face of all
wrinkles, and giving it a bright and Vermilion colour, fo it
:be wafhed therewith as foon as the fruit is fallen from the
Who defires a particular account of the Cocos and its ufes, as
: well in Phyfick as Houfe-keeping, may read the large defcrip-
' tion of it made by Franci Pyrard, in his Treatife of the Ani-
mals, Trees, and Fruits of the Eafi-Indies.
Some from the neernefs of the names do sometimes confound
the Cocos with the Cacao, which grows in the Province of Gua-
timala, neer Nfw-spain, which is alfo a famous fruit all over
America, for its being the principal ingredient in the compofi-
tion called Chocolate. This drink taken moderately caufeth
Venery, Procreation and Conception, and facilitates Delive-
ry, preferves Health, and impinguates; It helpeth Digeftion,
Confumption and Cough of the Lungs, Plague of the Guts,
and other Fluxes, the Green-Sicknefs, Jaundife, and all man-
ner of Imflammations and Oppilations: It cleanfeth the Teeth,
and fweetneth Breath, provokes Urine, cures Stone and Stran-
gury, expells Poyfon, and preferves from all infectious Dif-
Seafes 5 all which vertues are attributed to it by federal credita-
ble Authors.
The Cacao which was to be feen in the Caribbies, in the year
one thousand fix hundred forty nine, in a Garden of an Inhabi-
tant of the Ifland of sante Croix, which was then in the hands of
the Englifh, is a Tree much like an Orange-tree, fave that it
grows not up fd high, and that it hath larger leaves. It is com-
monly planted in fhady places, .even under other Trees, that
they may keep off the heat of the Sun from it,~which might
otherwise occasion the withering of its leaves. Its fruit is
about the bignefs and neer the figure of an Acorn, or a middle
fiz'd Olive, and grows in great long cods, or hulks, which are
freaked in several places with little partitions along the fides.





"6 C a I d.........--- ------- __
CAP. VII. The Caribby-flands. g
S --


Of Trees fit for Building, Joyners-Work,
and Dying.

W 7E havd hitherto given an account of thofe Trees,
whofe Fruits contribute to the fubflftance, and re-
freliment of the Inhabiants: we thalt 'bo treat
of the moft considerable in order to the Building of Houfes,
and Furnihing of them'by the hitp of the Jo ner.' Which
done, we hall fpeak of all thofe other Trees of feteralto-
lours, whereof the Dyer may make ife in his Profeffion.
T Here are few of the Iflands but afford good Trees fot he
Carpenters and JoynerE-Work. Of thefe one of the
tnofl considerable is the Acajou, which grows to that exceffive
height, 'that the Caribbians will of one trunk make thofe long
Shallops called Pjrage, 'which are able to carry fifty men. It
shoots forth many branches which grow very clof together,
by. ieafon of the abundainee of leaves they are lkadent with.
The (hade of this Tree is very delightful 5 nay bmne afirm
that it contributes to their Health who tikfb thetmfelves
under it. 7
There are two forts of Acajou, which differ only in the
height of the trunk, and colour of the wood. The wood of
the moft efteem'd is red, light, of a good fcent, and eifily
wrought. It hath been found by experience that it receives no
prejudice from the Worm; that it rots not in theviatet when
it hath been cut in feafon 5 and that the CheftM hnd Cabinets
made of it communicate a good fcent too, 'nd feeitei the
Cloaths kept in them from Vermine, which either breed i 6t
get intd thofe made of other wood. Hence ifathI have iwa
gil'd it to be a kind of Cedar : There are alfo made of it Shin-
gles for the covering of Houfes. Some Mafter :of Ship: 'who
Trade to the Caribbies many times bring thertee Planks of this
wood, which are of fuch length and breadth that thereneeds
but one to make a fair and large Table.
The other kind of dcajouQ is of the fame figure; as to the out-
fide, as that before defcibed 5 but it grows' tit up 1o high,
and the bark and pith taken away the wood is white: Newly
feli'd it is very eafily wrought; buit left abroad in the air, it
growS fo hard thnt there can hardly be any ufe made 'ot it.
The Inhabitants ufe it only for want of other, because it is' Cub-
jac to worms, and putrifies in a shortt time. If'an incitiothbe

a Th.e iftory o Bo ox I.
made in the'trunks of thefe Trees, they will yield abundance
of Gum, whereof there might be a good ufe made, if any'.
tryal had been made of it.

T He Acomas is a Tree grows up to the height and bulk of
j the Acajoe, and is no left efeem'd by Carpenters and
Joyners. Itsieaves are feiooth and long enough: It bears a
fruit of tlebigefta Plum, which come to maturity, is of a
yellow qolour, pleasant to the eye, but too bitter to be roans-
meq TI'he Wood-Qpifts grow fat on it at a certain time of
thq tear, and daring that time, their fleih is of the fame tafte
as the fruit they have eaten. The bark is of an Ath-colour,
and very rough; the wood heavy and easily polifh'd, and ac-
cording to the places where it grows, the heart of it is red, or
yellowish, or inclining to violet. Ifthe bark be"opened, there
wiJN.ipme forth a milky liquor, which grows hard like Gum.
(. ; '.' .. ;
;,, 4 ".S L'W ". P
rHe wood calleAd ofe-wood is fit not only' fo the Car-
peter, but alfo forthe Joynerf and therefore is num-
bred among the moft considerable. And here we cannot but
tcknowledg, that if the ancient inhabitants of the Caribbies
had any defign to make a firm fetlement'of themselves there,
.they might find not only things requisite for their fubfiftance,
Sbut aifo delicacies and curiofities, as welt in order to their
ncbrifhmenrand cloathiqg, as to the building of their Houfes,
and the furnishing of them when they aire built. But the flat-
tering imaginations of a return into the place of their birth,
whereof moft have their hearts fill, induce their toa negleCt
.of all thofe considerable advantages which thefe Iflands pre-
fent them withall, and an indifferenicy, if not a contempt, for
that abundance, of precious things Which they fo liberally pro-
duce. For pot to fay any thing at prefent how easily they
might makes Stuffes of the ,Cotton.growing here 5 how they
might keep all forts of Fdwl, and tame Cattet, which breed
there asabundantly as in any place in the World they might,
no doubt, enrich themselves very much by feverAl forts of
precious wood, through theTrade they might drive into fe-
.veral parts of Europe, fince they think not fit to make ufe of
them in order to the better accommodation of their habitati-
ons, The description we fall make of foie of thefe rare
Trees in this and the next Chapter~ il make good this Pro-
Of thefe" as we faid before, thfe ofe-wo'od is to be ranked
among the chiefeft. This Tree gfows to a height proporti-
r" unable

SVII. The Caribby lands. 4.1
ble to its bignefi. The trunk of it is oin'iionly fo ftrait,
that it is one of the greatest ornaments of the Caribbian Forelts.
It id covered with many fair boughs, and thofeIoaden with foft
leave, dowriy on one fide, and neer as long as thbfe of a Wall-
zidtitree. 'During the -fafon of the Rains it beit' whiti fibw.
ers, of a good fcent;jwhich growing in bushes, or as it Werei
Pofies, add very much to the natural beauty of the Tree.
Thefe flowers are followed by a fmall blackifh and fmooth feed.
The bark of the boal is of a whitifh-grey : The wood within is
of 'tthp'obur of aA? ed leaf, 6id when the Sitoothiigplane
ihtidPdleIfher hath 'pad 'upon it, there trap be feeilfe'eral
ids ofAiffetencoileuts, waving$ upan4 dqwnf, which'
rluft rYift Wifte inatbled :' Btt tie fe'et 4cent tIts
A th:t ii~it is hariidll'ind Wi~ tht catifes i tt be the more
efteem'd, iard proct'df ithe nameit is nowitqdWh by. 'Sime
have ifiniagd,that that fweet fcentwhich inde&Hism1ore plea-
fantrthen tftatff a Kiofe,- fhoiild hae given it'"te he ame of (-p.
prin-wdd, 'and indeed ir fome :partsrf the Caribbies it paflbs
under that denomination. This Tree grows in all the lands'
after the fanie fashion, as to the extenial figure but the wood
of it is marbled with divers colours, according to the difference
of the fqil where' it had itsprodu6tion and growth,
.I .W PAN WOOD.o ;
TjEi ",i'Widl d alfo a preciout Iret atid of good
f. dri J0 th Of there is fuch abundance ini the fland of
S. Croi, arid'feveral others, that there are in them whole Fo-
refts of it. It is not inferior to the Rofe-wood, bit grows big"
ger and-higher when it meets with good ground. The roots of
it fpread themselves very deep into the ground, and the trunk
is very ftrait-: The bark is fnooth, thin, andve.ntii ll oVet, of
albright filver-grey colour, and in fome places intlihing to yel-
low, which-is a diftinftiob between this Tree and ill others : It
flourishes once a year, in the feafon of the Rains, and then it
renews fome part of its leaves. The wood of it is Very folid
and' weighty,, whence it comes thrt it may be rtlifh'd, and
fome Savages make their Clubs of it. Hdting taken dffa Vet-
milion-pith which is under the bark, there appeas the heart of
the tree, which is' extream hard, aand of a Violet colour! for
which it is much efteemnedby the curious. -
The good cent of this tree confifts particulatly n its leaves:
they are of the fame figure with thofe oftheGoava-tree,and when
they are handled, they perfume thelands with a fweeter fcent
then that of the Laurel: they derive to Meat and Sauces fode-
licate a gufo, as might be attributed rather to a cbnipofition of
federal Spices, then to a simple leaf: It is ufed alffci ir the Baths
prefcrib'd by Phyficians to fortifie bruited Nervesiaad dry oa
G tbe

r Bo?,X ofI ow I
t(LeeJIingw Ar~wiw~kmiip rr Les who hwr .eben in ma,
S8 tfidse ttberf~tib btfor fpokep, ofa tqr are it thefe
Iflanws fq4 fpinFs p f trees wh-reofe wood i c 4 foid,
w1igft[iap A;q4bjf tgrqy utt&ufa4(on. They,
asecqllc.,n for kqtbh:.asztead n4 '.yn ..
,. .W U D .,
-.- ,
7I I1R iofl :Wf0.f

B Ie a vp a4lt ire is patAula Ir t made of theiron-
S BTMY .fo alle4d, hqufe i lidity, weigbi tW. har4d-
Sexceeds.1 tW.f w .:aive'yet 4dfcribpd.. hi tree,
w miay bp 9- gdar n9g t~9 high a pd4 btl propootione
ony i, je th, fPaT, n ~l f ithjV bwt he, and
t4QEwi4it4h I.wtavs wit_4 ryp poinpS, wo 4divd cer the
t A4fiW4 3 4Wts twicVra, to w6i b,;p 4rtka d arqetwr
e,2 P i tptyW itr 4 Wbf it, 'fich re O9f a Viotct qIpoqr, are Cuc-
cp 4g4 y aw T fruit inthe b igf a Qery which
a ., flipeagpw ~4a j iln .mqch f4glit after by the Birds,
T-l, aikqfAh;h tuk: i$.f a brow.l 4 colpqO Tbh wood is '
ofa Py ibrigha r rng pewly fell'd, t, lying abroad in the
air it lofes mu1h Afits iy.iasr ond, I4 Ite. Tbihegst of the
Tree is of a very dark red, like that of rafil, and of fuch hard-
nefs that the wedges uilt be veryfharp and well try'd before,
to bring it to the ground. But the wood of it being fair to the
e~e, fold, efieto be pqlit ', gond Oirs iWerToppf e then ei-
thr!edar e at 4Cfprf nit ~ andly reqitcs by all thetb excel-
S lent, q~alte~l whpaWr 4 *en qbo;ri: kwfobre there can be
ana.dfe h t.ereofi '. :. i..,.
SThm.ere is fo.o pother Tree know by th fame pei butit
is gQt .compplrahb to the former: .I, bearp only, 4, i leave,,
and whIoit. ,8fwrifath it i-load with i#bundancg of Polifc,
Sas it were, .riigBOup abovthe btrachcbs like fo many Puwms qf.
F.atherf, whichgivc it an.extraordiary ornaen;. It is of a
grpet height, 4i tie innr-barkis yellowvi(b or white, accord-
iuig to the places where it grows.. All the wood of, this Tre,
thl eweart. 0icjy cepted, which is vry f(all, very :hard, and
inOii9g tpo:bick, i~lAbijea tto wornt s whence it ctajeia that
isQ not commonly ufed,, butu r waentof other. .
,Thee are rinhe Cartibbie many ay Tes fit for .lying s. The
moft efteemed and beft known are thle rafi- &odd& rh Tel/r
wopd, the a~epr-Ebony, and the Runto,:
Itli i '
':b ... '. '
T H2 Ar4fi?-ood is Co called, became the firf brqugh iato
S EfrA G ame from the Provine of.rail, where .ir grows '
wre abulae-tly then i any other pasrt of AmericQ, iOf this |
..' kind r

CAP. VII. The Caribby-lflands. 4
kind of Tree there are not many in the Caribbies, and what
there is, is only in thofe Iflands which are moft furnished with
dry rocks. The trunk of it is not firait as that of other Trees,
but crooked, uneven, and full of knots like the White-Thorn.
When it is loaden with flowers there comes from it a feet fcent,
which fortifies the Brain. The wood of it is much fought after
by Turners j but the principal ufe of it is for Dying.

T He Ifland of s. croix is the moft famous of all the Iflands
for its abundance in rare and precious Trees. Tjere
is one very much efteem'd for its ufefulnefi in Dying: Ith s
up toa great height, and the wood is perfe&ly yellow. Wen
the Englilh had the Ifland they fent much of it to their own
Country. It is called the TeUow-wood from its colour.

T He Green-Ebo.y is commonly ufed in fome excellent pieces
of Joyners-work, because it eafily takes the colour and
luftre of the trucEboxr s Bnt the beft ufe of it is for Dying.
for itcoloursa fair Grafs-green. The Tree is very .bfhy by
reason its root (boots forth a great number of Suckegrs, which
hinder it froin growing fo high and big is it might, if the tap
weredirefed only to thetrunk. The leaves are fm th, and
of a bright-green colour. Within the outer-bark there is
about two inches of white inner-bark, and the reftof the wood
to the heart is of fo dark a green that it inclines to Wack : but
when it is polih'd, there appear certain yellow veins which
make it look as if it were marbled..

T He Roucox is the fame Tree which the Brafiliass call Vru-
It grows no higher then a fall .Orage-tree: Its
leaves, which are pointed at one end, have the figure ofa heart:
It bears flowers in' colour white, mixt *th Carnation they
confit of five leaves, in form like a Star, and about the big-
nes of a Rofe: They grow in little bushes at the extremities
of the branches. Thefe. flowers are succeeded by little hiskes,
in which are enclosed several feeds about the bignefi of a fnall
Pea, which being come to ripenefs are of the moft bright and
lively Vermilion colour thatcan be imagined. This rich Dy-
ing-Commodity which is enclosed in the faid husk is fo foft
and- vifcous that it flicks to ones fingers as foon as it is
touched. t.
To get this precious liquor they (hake in an thenn vefl
GOa the

4+ The HiJiory of Bo o:K I.
the led unto which it is fastened then there is poured there-
to warm water, in which they are wafh'd till fuch time as they
have loft ithei Vermilion colour 5 and then when this water
ath retied.a vthile, they dry in the fhade the dregs or thick
Lye which is at the bottom of the veffel, and then it is made
upinrt Lozenges or little Balls, which are very much efteem'd
by Painters and Dyers ;when they are pure and without mix-
ture, as thofe are whereof we have now given the de-
The wood of this Tree is easily broken: It is very good for
tn .4 d'if the firwo be
ring anhdifthe firet should be quite out5 it is only rubbing
f( olicertamttie two piees one againft another, and they will
S bh parks like a Fi lock, which will fet fire on the
ct6nr ,.oraty otlefite tter fufceptible thereof, that is laid
netr tw rteiv it. Oi*ftfl Bark 4f it are made Lines which
lafi a ltrng'ttre. TheiRoet of i 'gives a delicate gflo to
Meats, and when there is any of it put into Sauces, it commu-
nicates to them the colour and fcent.of Safron.
.The Caribbians have of thefe Trees in all their Gardens, are
WTyl ctfoIift the orddtihg ajSmkw lpng of them, and efteem
1her ni y ithly I etufi frtf tihetf they have the bright
iv With 'vwhidit'#~ l r~iakdtheit Bodies red: they ufe it
'ffo iPiitt1Wig, aktdlokgve aiftlitt and handfamnefs to thofe
tdftels Ifhifk th riea-kt ufe of il thAerhbttfe&
S:t Tfie ait'Wfll.Rbeitdumbirean1og thelTrees fit for Dy-
g ri@tti$feb~hieh,.itld ai Oy'Onitmz: For thofewbhohave
axd;tit d4bM~ ityoy io aki dtral thereof, have-foundiby ex-
dei lt tti Dyi4f they heightenn the darkeft
tdl dtAedr6 ;4at&b &titaillvdiefsiarid hftre which they


w wdrd tie. h h i,- ar e Y nt:akt' h -gret
-,_.aP" ;Ix [ -,-r; : t

C T o ,i.at; difpolhr of allthNgt, having a-1i6n'd al. Nati-
i. ; loikxb~ditnmits mfte~iib febraal-4tlbitA is, hath left no
bu,: n oia'rydfbitutrof meais requiftefot the convenient
-ftiftaiiceidFtthe'men placed rhertitri t andlhat they ightike
t yd4Aiinei1r df'the ia-exhiiftiafh ticrifuir of his ever. lo:ie
acddired BlAoiidence,. hd hthat- impreriated theEarhwth-ith the
vertue of producing not only the Provifions neceffary.u their
.ntiurifari n n but:itf'd feral Antid.esoio f~tnmrthem against
-' the

CAP.VIHi. The Caibby-lflands. 45

the infirmities whereby they might be aflhulted, and divers
sovereign Remedies for their recovery when they are fallen in-
to them. Not to make mention of any other.part of the
World, we may affirm it of the Caribbies, that they have all
thefe rare advantages in a very great measure : For there do not
only entertain their Inhabitants with a delightful variety of
Fruits, Roots, Herbs, Pulfe, Wild-Fowl, Fifh, and other
delicacies for the Table, but they alfo fupply them with a
great number of excellent Remedies to cure them of their in-
difpofitidns. And this the judicious Reader may eafily ob-
ferve all through this Natural Hiftory, and particularly in this
Chapter, where we flialldefcribe the Trees which are verfc-
,ful in Medicine. ''

le chDfia-tree grows up to the bignefi, and tomes neer the
figure of a Peach-tree, the leaves df it being somewhat
ong and narrow : They fall off once a year, in the time of the
gceat Droughts, and when the feafon-of the Rain comes in, it
puts forth new ones : They ate ipceceded by several Pofies of
4fyelfowiflowers, which are fucceeded by long Pipes or Cods
pbntit thehignefsof a snans thuthb, and fometines a foot and
SbhAlf~ ornt foot in length: They contain within them, as in
i~smsanylit tit Cells, that Medicinal Drug fo well known to the
a4whecaiidlltd lrckd fit, whbih the Caribbiasr cAlU ali Ma-
li, $ Befoet the frititis grown to its full bignefs and length it is
~away egre.ebt: iWt asii'a advances to perfeftion and ripenefs it
J ouws kf:abtroWniif(or Violet colour, and fo continues,hang-
Apgsat the: hIXachaes.
-I .When :fthFruit it ripe and dry, and the Trees which beat it
Ar#iytkaken by great winds, the noife caused by the collision of
hole hard aadlong Cods striking one againft.another is heard
.at-a great distance: This frightens the Birds, and keeps them
from coming never it; nay fuch men as are ignorant of the caufe
' o that onfifed found, if they fee not the Treesfhaking, and
flirring their branches and fruits, imagine themselves neer the,
Sea-fide,, and think they hear the agitath of it, or take it for
the clafhidg of Arms in an' Engagement of Souldiers. Tis the
oabfervaritof.of all thofe who- have visited thatrpart of SSt. Do-
mingo where there ae whole Plains, and thofe of a large ex-
*temt3 filionly of. thefeTreesd It,is thence, in all probability,
that the feedof thofrgrowing in the Caribbies was brought.
Thofe flicks of Caffiawhich are brought from America are fuller
and more weighty then tthofe which come out of the Levant,
and the Drug within them hath the fame effects and vertues.
The Flowers of the caJfia-treepreferv'd with Sugar gently
purget onlyy the Belly, but alfo the Bladder. The flicks of



4.6 The Hflory of BOO I.
Cafia conferv'd while they are green have alfo the fame vertue.
But the pulp taken out of the ripe fruit operates Iboner and
more effe&ually. Many of the Inhabitants ufe it with good !
fuccefs once a month, a little before meals and they have
found by experience that this gentle Medicine contributes v
much to the continuance of their good conflitution.

T He Medicinal Nuts,which are fo common in all the Iflapds,
grow on a fmall Tree, which is for the moft part ufed to
partions between the Gardens and Plantations. If it were
r*indred from growing, it would come up to the height of
a" ordinary Fig-tree, which it fomwhat resembles in figure.
The wood of it is very'tender and pithy, and it fhoots forth
several branches which fcamble confufedly about the trunk:
They are loaden with pretty long leaves, green and foft, round
below, and ending in three points.
S Out of the wood and leaves of this Tree there comes a mil-
ky juice, which flains Linen: nay there is no pleafure in being
neer it when it rains, for the drops which fall from the leaves
have the fame effect as the juice: It bears several yellow flowers
confifting of five leaves, which when they are fully blown
look like fo many flars. The flowers falling, there come in
the places of fome of them little Nuts, which at firft are green,
then t-n yellow, and at laft black, and a little open, when
they are ripe. Within every Nut there are three or four fkones,
in fo many little'cells, the rind whereof is blackifh, in bignefi
and figure fomwhat like a bean. The rind being taken away,
there is in every one of them a white kernel ofanoily fubftance,
which is inclofed and divided in the midft by a thin film or pel-
licle: There kernels are of a tafte pleasant enough, not much
different from that of Small-Nuts: but if they be not mode*
rarely eaten they will violently purge both upwards and down-
wards, especially if the fkin which enclofes them, and the pel-
licle dividing them in the midft be fwallow'd : To moderate
their quality, and that they may be taken with lefs danger, the
way is to cleanti: tln of thofe'fkins and pellicles, and put
them for a little while upon the coals then being beaten, or
bruised, four or five of them may be taken in a little Wine, as
a vehicle or corredive.
The boughs of this Tree being cut off and thruft into the
-ground do eafily take root. The PortRgez' extra& an oyl
otat of the kernels, which is good enough'for the ufes of the
Kitchin, and may alfo be useful in Medicine.


cj VI. TC bbyrIflands. 47

Het He: ree which bears that indi of Cireat which is to
. o om angn i.all the06flands, may ber~aked among thofe
bich brrtieful in Medicite, iice ittAmomatick Bark is fought
*art by al thofeWwho are troubled. iith cold diftempers, and
fAipofsfilly ufed to~ifburthen theicheft offthelvifcous and
phlegmatick humors which opprefli t. Thafwet felent and
petpetWiFqt' dure of this delightful Tree hawr perfwaded fime
sthat tt'- a kind bf Laumrel .bptit grows:miunh higher, its
tmtk is.fotbigge9, iats raanchs. larger, wa4its leaves which
are not altogether fo long, are muchfofter, and ofa morecJ'
ly,green. The bark of t, which is covered by an Afh-colour d
fkin, is ticker, and ofawyhiter colour thep tghe inmo which
comes from the Levant : It is alfo of a harper and more biting
taft t b t'beinv g dried, in the thad, it gi s' a pleasantt ttfte
oiMeets 1 : -
' T;he lands Tabago, sarbados, and 8sate.C B are accounts
ed to be better furnith'd then any of the reft with. fveral forts
of wood which experience hath found very ufeful in Me.
idkne r. For they afford sandsl-wood, Guaiacuaa, and nsfafara
all whitkare fo well known, that we need not ip this place
k6iae lee particulahsdefriptionrtiaradf. i.. :
** &: :.kt. .I 0* f L i: .
ii:'.' .-;:-'. (~j.O, oN-TILE9 '' 4
.: r .... it"; "* "
T Here are several other Trees very common in all thefe
- Iflnds, whereof the Inhabitants may make very conart
derable advantages. The Cotton-tree, called by the Savage
Manoulou-Asecha, may be ranked among the chiefift, as being
the moft profitable. It grows up to te bright of a Peach-tree,
the bark is of a brownifh colour, the leaves fmall, divided in-
to three parts: It bears a flower about thebignefq of a Rofe
under which there are three little green and fharp-pointed
leaves by which it is encompaffed. This flower comfiks of
fivoleaves which are ofa bright yellow colourharing towards
the feminall linesof a purple color, and a yPllow button or
crown encompaffed with little filaments of the fame colour
The flowers are fucceeded by a fruit of an oviA figure, boit-
the bignefs of a fmall Nut with its fell : when it is coaeto
tnaturity it isall black on the out-fide, and opens in three fW
veral places, at which appears the whitenef6 of the Cotton lying'
within that rough covering ; thereare in every of the ftmit
feven little beans, which are the feed of the Tree.
There is another kind of Cottnrtree which creeps along the
ground like an unfupported Vine : this bears the heft and mofl
efteemed cotton: Of both there are made Cloths, and feverat
cheapScuffs, very ufeful in Houfe-keeping. soAP-

'4 ;JitI e Cflqt~ryD~ Do -o JCI

Here are .two forto6fl Trees whith the Iflanders ufe in-
S-ifteJadof sbrap dneof thtm hith:idis quality in its fruit, i
wtich growsinialufters, round, iyellcbiif, and about the big- A
hefi of-a fmallPlcmb, which hathalfo hard black ftone with-
Sla -it that may 4l bp6lifhidri It is commonly called the soap-
fruit.: the ortr ihtihhth rhe: fame vertie- in its root4 which is
white and fofit both of tthdm lathet as well as any Soap j but
the orier rifedtoo frequently burns the Linen. There Trees
recalled the sap-trees .from the vertue they have to whiten
% a. 1 .' i

Th.. e T~ C I E D. N- I.N NF, I G-T.RE E.
ffrHe ;ltJed dianrFitg-ree is a Trie thrives beft in fenny
1 places, and on the Sea-fide: Its leaf is green, thick, and
ofa, good enptt-: the branches which bend down to the
groikhd, nafoimer touch it but they take root andgrow up in-
t another Trees, whic]i afterwards produce others, fo that in
timnA they fpr.ead=over'altlthe-good ground they meet with,
whch- issbyi bthatmeans-vfohliardly redlcible to bear other.
things, that it will yield no profit. under thefe Trees the wild
Boars,and other beafts are fecurely lodg'd. They are alfo in ma-
ny places the lurking-holesof the Inhabitants of the Iflands,
who having garrifon'd themselves within there Trees, defie all
enenMies *. Thercris further this great advantage made of them,
thatthere.leiingmo Oaksin hefe Iflands,; their bark is good for

NTOr m'ay weforget the Oourd-tree, of which are made the
Sgrgattft part of the Biouffold-veffels, ufed riot only by
the Indians, but -the Foreigners who are Inhabitants of there
Iflands: 'tisa.T~ree grows up to the height and bignefi of a
great Apple-itfee its branches are commonly well-loaden
with leaves, which are long', narrow .and round at the extre-
mityfaften'd by..bufhes to thebranches, and fometimesfhooting
out ofthe trunkiit felf:It bearsflowers and fruits mift months
of the year 5 the flowers are ;of a greyifh colour .nixt with
green, and full of fall black pots, and sometimes violet:
they are succeeded by certain Apples, whereof there can hard-
ly be found two on the'tame Tree of equal bignefs, and the
fame figure ; and as a Potter fhews the excellency of his Art'by
making on the fame wheel, and:of the fame mafr of clay, Vef-
fels of different forms and capacity ; fo Nature fhews here a
.i miraculous A

-- -- -- _
. Vil I. re GarbbyAflands. 49
= .." -- --- ,, =,: 7.". "" '
miraculous indutftry, by loading the fame Tree with fruits dif
ferent in their form and bignefs, though the producions of the
famefabftance. -
Thefe fruits have this common, that they have all a hard
woody bark of fuch a thickness ald folidity, that Bottlq-Ba-
fons, Cups,.-Dilhes, Platters, and several other Veffels wieef-
igry to Houfe-keepin~ may be mide thereof: They artfidll of
a certain pulp, which being ripie becomes of a Violet-colour,
though before it had been white: amidft this fubftance there
arq certain fall flat,ap4 hard g aiJs, wbhWi are the,-edlabf
the Tree.., Thofeeof the Inhabitants who arq gpft addiftedto
Iauoting,,in pafe ofin edfity qu8wnh their cdirf with thiisfrit,
,andthey f(yi.t hatthlh afte of burnt-wine, bat is too atsin-
gent. The, Indiaos Polifh thebarks and g -ive i.fo; delightful
al enam.,lwith RoacoM, ladic;o ,and fevera,!:other ple.ant o-
jours, th t abtrftl.nice may eat and drink out of the veffds
they make -thereof: Nay fome are (p.curious, as to think .them
p9rthy a placp amongthe Rarities;of their C oetf. '~

S.f A HO T.
(\F the. Tree -called Mahot there are two kinds, Mahot-
franc, apd MAIkhy 4'erbc : the former is-the more fought
after, ;i s being the ftrpnger : i grows not very big, iW regard
the branches.wrdep alngthe ground the, bark is very thick,
and easily taken from the Tree : there are niade of it lng
Laces or Points, which are ftronger then the Lines ofTeil,
which are ufed in many places: they are commonly ufed to
make up Rolls of Tobacco, and to faften things about the
,Joufe: as for the latter Mahot, it is ufed where the former is
wanting; but it easily rots, and is not comparable to the other
as to ftrength.
In a word,. there are in thefe Iflands feverA other Ttrees not
known in Europe, whereof fome only delight the eye, fich as
are that which is called Mappow, and divers kinds of thorny
wood:. others only fatisfie the smelling by their: feet cents
others have venemous qualities, as the MAiltc-treQ ,as alfo that
whofe root reduced to powder and caft into.rivers inebriates
the Fib 5 the Manceuilier, which we (hall defcrdihe in its proper
place, and an infinite number of others, the Wood wheoeof is
white, foft, and of no ufe, and have yet got:no:names among
the foreign Inhabitants of thofe parts.


'x of 1 dd

h-E:lriemienX,,ejan& wbsoofFndtrref
S'h -02rontribu tAe to b ke f &undi othe l 'I*- 'sb 'f I

i rfclvroeforfamet thirehe ht'nae a ore diif
andeairtivt gtemonstieto nuof hs iof all-heilhing Prt- -

yildedce ; it; t inuif:be {atiho*ledg'd. that in the difIributi-
ow*vIidh 't ie Divine Wifedome Ibth made of its bcuntieh,
the Cariblby-flnridhave 'had a tery large portion : For,to coni-
fine our elves to the design we intend to profecute, not only
the greater iforts of Trees, which weave deferibed in the for-
mer Chapters, contribute to the Sheltr, Nourifhment, Cloath-
icgPealth, ahd several othet accommodations of the Inh?-
itsets but here are atf h divers hitaubs, or Ileflr Tres,nd
which either fhoot forth Rooms or bear Fruits conducing to
theniene purpose, as t thll be fend in in the peru ti of this

1Nifhtad of Wheat the nhabe ants m ake afe of the root of a
j.A finll Tree nled Maedomec, by fothe M tadny and by others
aandioqu, of which is made a kinde of Bead delicate
fienough, called toth ei whee it ilfntend o foetmes called th only
C4)ca-tree.. This root is to fraidbi' that a fral parcel of
greater forts of therewith wilh feed more perfois then for-
mer Chapters m contr wite to the beft Wheat could do: Iet, looth
forth crookedbranes about the height of five or fthe Ih fot,
eaie o beut broken and falle f fniall knots: the leaf israrrow
and fiaewhaer ng: at ninermonetor end the root conduies to its
aturity t Nay' it is reported that in Brafl it grows to the
Signers of a:nuns1 thigh in three ol four itoneths. If the ground
he not too moift the rooms may continue in it three years with.'
out corrupting, o that there needs no Sore-houe, o G r ret
toputeadt up inform it is takeout of the ground as it s iroot of a
To propagate this Root, you muff take of the branches, at
ncuttheti in pieces about a foot in length: then make trenh,.
in your Garden with a Hoe, and thrufmo in three of thofe fci
triangle-wife into the earth which had been taken out of th

1-- --- -~
A P. IX. The Caribby-flands. 5x
------ ..__ .'T~--

trenches, and wherewith a little hill or tump had been raised :
this is called Planking by the trench. But there is another way
of planting Manyoc, much more expeditious and more eafie,
but the .Manyoc is neither fo fair, nor fo much efleemed as the
other. The way is only thus, to make a hole in the ground
with a ftick, and to thruft the Manyoc trait into it: care muft
be had in the planting of it, that the knots be not fet down- 6
wards, for if they should the Manyoc flicks would not grow.
The Indians never plant it otherwise 5 but that it may ripen in
its feafon, they obferve a certain time of the Moon, and fee
that the ground be not too moift.
h.ihere are. several kinds of there shrubs differing one from
theother only in the colour of the bark of their wood and of
their root: Thofe which have the bark greyifib oEwslite, or
green, make a very good tafted bread, and grow up ia a thort
time:. but the roots they produce do not keep To well, nor
thrive comparably to thofe of the red or violet Manyoc, which
is the molt common, the moft efteem'd, and themoft advan-
tageous in houfe-keeping.
The juice of this root is ascold as Hemlock, and fo effe&ual
a poyfon, that the poor Indians of the greater Iflands being per-
fecuted with fire and fword by the Spaniards, to avoid a more.
cruel death, made ufe of this poyfon to destroy themselves.
Thewis tb thisday to be feen-in the Ifland of HifJpaola~ other-
wife cald S. Dai.go, a place called the Cave of.the Indians,
wherethere are the bones of above four hundred perfons, who
ended their lives there with this poyfon, to avoid the cruelties
of the Spaniards. But let this juice, which is fo venemous to all
forts.of living creatures, reft four and twenty hours atter it is
taken from the root, and it lores that malignant and danger-
ous quality.


T Here are in thefe iflands an infinite number of the shrubs
Called Palwa-Chrifti or Ricinus 5 and they grow up fo
high, and fo big in fome places, that they would be taken for
a different kind from thofe commonly feen in Europe. The
Negroes gather the feed, and qetraO an oyl from it, wherewith
they rub their hair to keep themselves clear from vermine.
The qualities attributed to- it by Galen and Diofcorides, con-
firm the ufe thefe Barbarians make of4 : the leaf of this fhrub
is fovereign for the healing of fome kinds of Ulcers, as being
very attractive.
There grow in all thefe Iflands two kinds of fhrubs, or rather
great Reeds, fpongy within, growing of themselves in fat
ground never little rivulets, or n Valleys not annoyed by winds.
They are commonly called Baxana-trees, or Planes, and Fig-
H trees,

The Hijfory of


BOrO S1:

trees, or Apple-trees of Paradife : Thefe two kinds of fhrubs
have this common to both.
i That they grow of equal height, to wit about twelve or
fifteen f60t above ground.
2 That their talks, which are of a green colour, hiring,
fpOgious, and very full of water, (hoot out of a great Onion,
ike a Pear, encompafs'd with many little white roots, which
faften it to th ground.
3 That they have (hooting f6rth at the foot of the Items cer-
tain Scyons, which bear fruit at the years end.
4 That when one ftem is cut off for the getting of the fruit1
the moft forward next that succeeds in its place, and fo the
ihrub is perpetuated, and multiplies fo exceedingly, that in
time it fpreads over all the good ground neer it.
S 5 That the fubftance of both is very foft, and reducible into
water, which though extremely clear, yet hath the quality of
dying Linen and white Scuffs into a dark brownish colour.
6 That their Fruits lye at the top of the item, like great du-
fiers or pofies.
And latly, that their leaves, which are about four foot or
morei.n length and a foot and ahalf in bredth, may fefve for
Napkin# and. Towels, and being dried make a foft kind of
Couch or Be tolyeupon.
There two fbrub have this further refemblance, that which
way forever their fruit be cut when it is come to maturity, the
meat of them which is white as' fnow represents in the middle
the form of a Crucifix, efpecialy when it is cut in thin flices.
lemce the Spaniards aref6 fuperttitious as to think it a kindof
morit! fin tofle a knife about it, and are fcandaliz'd to fee any
thing employed about it but the teeth,
But there is this to be faid particularly of the Baeda-tree.
i That its fruit is in length about twelve or thirteen inches,
a little bending towards the extremity, much about.the bignefi
of a mans arm: whereas that of the Fig-tree is but half as big,
sad about fli inches in length.
j The Baudta-trei hath not in its pofie or clufter above 25
or go BaxMamat. he ioft,'which do not lye over-cldfe one to
another ; but the Fig-tree hath many times 120 Figs, which
lye fo lofe together that they can hardly be gotten afuider.
3 The iteat of the Ba ar :is firm and folid, and may be
drefe'd either by roafingit under the embers, or.boiling it in a
Pot with meat, or preferv'd, and drv'd in an Oven, or in the
Sun, and afterwards eafily kept : But the Fig being of a fofr
fubftance hath not the fame conveniences.
To get in.thefe fruits, the trees, which it Ceems bear but once,
are cut it the very foot, and the great clufter is supported by a
fork, that It may not be bruised in the falling : But they ire
feldom cut till fome of thefruits of each cluster be turn'd a lit-


___ ~ __ __


* I

Car. IX. Ihe Caribby-Alflands. ,

tie yellowifh; for that is a fign of their maturity, and then be-
ing carried into the houfe, thofe which were green ripen by
degrees, and fo they have every day new fruit.
SThecluffer is commonly as iriuch as a man can well carry 5
nay sometimes it is laid on a Leaver, and carried upon their
boulders between two, as that bunch of Grapes which the
Spies of the Ifraelites brought out of the Land of Canaan.
Some have thought this fruit fo excellent and delicate, that
they haveimagined it to be the fame which God forbad our firft
Paseats to eat of in Paradife: accordingly they have named it
Ad Fig4ree, or the Fruit-tree of Paradife : the leaf of thefe
Reds being of the largenefi we have before described, may in-
deed be allowed very fit to cover the nakednefs of our firft Pa-
rents and as to the figure of the Crucifix which may befeen
within the fruit when it is cut, we leave it to find work for their
profound speculations who bufie their thoughts in searching
out the fecrets of Nature.
There are fome who affirm that the figure of a Crofs is alfo
marked in the feed of the Herb commonly called Rue. The
fall Gentiana, or Cruciata, hath the leaves difpos'd in the
form of a Crofs upon its flalk 5 and it is to be acknowled'g'd
that Natune, as it were sporting her felf, hath been plead to
make -fieral fich representations in Plants and Fltc*ers.
Henceditfmes that fome have the resemblance of Hair, others
ofEy0otherbe of Eirs, othersofa Nofe, a Heart, a Tongue,
aMinodg'td fiome 6ther prrts of the Body: There are in like
manner divers famous Plants which feem to represent federal
other things, as Eagles, Bees, Serpents, Cats-clawes, Cocks-
combs, Bears-ears, Harts-horns, Darts, and the like : whence
many ties thofe Plants derive their names from the faid re-
femblance. But of thefe it is besides our design to give any

T Here is alfo in federal of the Iflands a little (hrub which
bears a feed as red as any. Coral : it grows in bunches at
the extremity of its branches, which derive an extraordinary
luftre.from it : But thefe little feeds have a fmall black fpot at
one end, which disfigures them', and abates much of their
efteem with fome others on 'the contrary affirm that that
diversity of colours makes them more delightful to the
Eye. This may be called the Coral-tree: The feeds are ufed
for Bracelets.


4 The Hiftry of BooK I.

T He shrubs called by foine Jafmin, and Candle-wood, may
be numbred among thofe that are considerable in thefe
Iflands: The former bears a fall white flower which per-
fumes all about it with its fweet fcent S and thence it had the
name: The other cafts forth fo pleasant and fweet a fcent when
its wood is burnt dry, and does fo eafily take fire, and gives fo
clear a flame, by reafon of a certain Aromatick Gum lying
within it, that it is with reason fought after by the Inhabitants
for their firing, and to ferve them for a Candle or Torch in the
night time.


Of the Plants, Herbs and Roots growing in
the Caribbies.

SH Arving in the former Chapters represented the Trees and
Shrubs wherewith, thefe Iflands are richly furniffied
we come now to the Defcription of several rare,
Plants, Herbs and Roots, whereby they are alfo abundantly

T 'IHe Plant called by the French and others Pyman, or Amew
I rican Pepper, is the fame which the natural Inhabitants
of the Country call Axi, or Carive 5 it grows clofe like a little
Briar without any prickles: the ftemof it is covered with an
Afi-colour'd rind, and bears several little boughs loaden with
an infinite multitude of leaves, which are pretty long, full of.
jags, and of a giafs-green colour : Of there there are three
kinds, differing only in the figure of the hufk or cod, or the
fruit they bear., One bears only a little red button, fomewhat
long like a Clove, within which there are very fmall feeds,
much hotter then the Spices brought from the Levant, and in a,
manner cauftick,'which eafily communicates that picquant qua-
lity to all things wherein it is us'd. g .j
The second kind hath a much larger and longer Cod, which
when ripe is of a perfe1 Vermilion colour, and being us'd in
Sauces, it makes them yellow, as Saffron would do.
Stlhethird hath yet a larger Cod then the precedent, which
is thick enough, red as any Coral, and not smooth in all parts:
The '

i;. --- U l----. ---- -- -, -
Th Gatihy hands '

!T fed,. w-i&& is notrfo bituig, ndr fI fpicy as-dtofepf tfI
trter .two kids, lies in the midft of iit Bding rijpet is oni of
optn.otdightful fruits that may be.' The feed hath :beea
brought, oCver Iito Eiraoend-actherparts, and- haih come cd
perfection ; but the fruit is not fo bg as that of'Amew~ c This
ad, and the feed-Within tis.us'd.infeadof pepper, becau it
Iua kniaStets a ea #aiaii iiequancy t6 things; like that fpice
rut the operations of "hen~diffe. mch ; foPrafbr it:.hath bit
ten the tongue, and by its acrimony inflam'd the palat, instead
offortifying and warmingbthe ftomach, it weakens it, and cau-
fes coldnefs in it 5 or rather, according to the opinions of fome
f i- u'inr, iottt4tatstl iatid'by'is cauflick vertue weak-
e Ansit .ca guef eitefdi i only. by accid nt, inImafmoh s it
tlifpdrftsithe radical moaftrejwhichdis the fat of heat. Whence
t -is obfoi'd iokthe flinds, that thcfe-who ordinarily ufe itk i
their menat.arfbjeft to paihs ih the cheft, and ipt to-contrad
ellow colair:
I BAC C 0.
I.... r' irrn o

T He Plant called tobacco, from the Ifland Tabago, where,
Sas fome affirm, it was firft difcover'd by the Spaniards,
had alfo the name Nicotianum from one Nicot a Phyfician, who
friusWd it iin? iEs dad feat it from Portgatl:inib FPanice:
ItIwas-:alfe called S enxarA heuncrhat being brought from
,.Awdrcr`it was prCfented d- the Queen of Spain asa raie Plant,
ri otaf.extraordinary vertdes. The Spaniards give it further
the.title of Holy-herb, fr thr excellent effects tiy 'have expe-
iriehc'd. from it, as Garciaffo in his Royal commsteary of t/
Tirnca of Per, lib. i. ch. 5. affirms. Lafily, the Frehch call
t Fetur, though de Lery is much difpleas'd at the nanie,affirtn-
ing, that the Plant he faw in stafl, and which the Topinaw-
.b#t call Petnw, differs very much from our Tab accv. The Ca-
inhtbMs in their natural Language call it T7IW l Heretofore
t~hee oere -known in the flands but two kinds of- Tobacco-
Plants,, commonly called by the Inhabitants t-rveeTbaacu,
and -Tongu'd-Tobacco, from the.figure of its leaf; bti fince
there have been brought from the Continent the feeds of Viri-
zvs, and the Tobacco of the Amsazons, they are divided into
four kinds:- The two former are of a great produce, but the
twa others-4ei~more efteet'd by reason cf theiriect foent.
All thefo kind of% obacco-Plants grow in the Itlands to
the height ofa man an&hfigher, if their growthbbi nt checked
by cutting off the tops of their ftems: They bear good ftbre
df leaves, which are green, 1ng, downy on the lower fide,.and
feem in the handling as if they were oiled i Thofe which grow
towards the ftock of the Plant are larger and longer, as deri-
ring more nourihmnent from the moifture of &r&e:root. At

O6 eI4owlof Boo o I.
the tops:iey thoot'forth little branchess, whicf bear a flow-
t like a finlh Bell,v Which is of a clear violet colour: Alid
when ithi flower is dry, there comes intoits, place a little,
buttonihefen- .is contained the feed, which is of a brown. ,
ifh.colu~,.and. very ml. .
:There h rere imetimesm fund, under the leaves: and branch:I
e softhis EBLOt the ~efts of thelittler Birds: called colibris
which wedihalP describe in its proper plcee.
p." 3 a .. .
... .'.,.. -.II

He inateriil of which is made the Dyirg commodity
T called Indice is got from a Plant which grows not a-
hove two foot and a half above the ground:: It hath but .a
fmalL Jeaf,; of; grafi-green colder, inclining to yellow when
it is ripe!: The flower is reddifh:; It grows'from the feed,
which is fown by trenches in a freight line :- It ath a very
bad fcent, quite contrary to that growing in Madagafcar,whic
Sears (mall flowers of a purple colour mixt with white, which
fell well.
;. -'. .- .
r\F all the Spices of the Levant that have been planted in
.America only Ginger hath thriv'd, and come to perfefti-
on. 'Tis the Toot of a Plant which grows not much above
ground;, having green long leaves like thole of Reeds and Su-
S gar-canes : The root fpreads., it: felf not. in depth, but in
Sredthb;ard ties neer the furfaceJlike.a hand encompafs'd by
.many fingers; whence the Inhabitants of the Iflands call it a
Paw. This Plant may be propagated by the feed, or, as is"
moft commonly done, by certain fall roots which grow like
fo- many firings all about the old ftem and the greater roots,
-as there do about Skirretts. It grows with cafe rin all the 1 I-
-flands,.efpecially at S. Chriftophers, many Inhabitants of which
Island have-planted it, and traded in it with advantage, fince
Tobacco came to fo low a rate.

T He rotate is a root much like the Sdigots growing in
SGardens, which are called Topinambowh4 or Jerufalem
Artichokes, but of a much more excellent tate, and- more
Thofe Topinarmr us or Artichokes, which are now not only
very common in moft parts, but cheap, and flighted, as being a
treatment for the poorer fort, were heretofore accounted de- -
licacies: For in fome extraordinary Entertainments made at

CaP. 7he Caribby-lflands. 7
C'p X' 57

pris by the Princes to certain Embaffadours, in the Year
,M. DC. XVI. they were ferv'd up among the moft exquisite
But the Potatoe is infinitely beyond it: It thrives beft in a
light ground, somewhat moift, and well ordered: It shoots
Forth abundance of foft leaves, of a very dark green, in fi-
gure like thofe of spinage: They spring from certain fibres
which creep along the ground, and in a fhort time over-run ,
the place where it is fown. And if the ground be well or-
der'd, there fibres within a certain time frame divers roots by
the means of certain whitifh filaments Which fhoot forth below
thi!knots, and easily fallen into the earth. It bears a flower
near -the fame colour with the root, and like, a bell, within
which lies the feed: But commonly to propagate this fruit
,they take only of thefe firings or fibres, which lye scattered all
over the ground, as we faid, and thruftthem into ground pre-
par'd for them, and at the end of two or three nionths they
will have produced their root, which hath this further vet-
-tue, that being cut into fall pieces, and thruft into the
ground, it produceth its root and leaf as effetually as if th9
feed lay in each of its leaft parts.
.Thefe roots are of federal colours, and in the fame piece
of ground there will be fome white- ones, which are the
moft ordinary, fome of a violet colourr' fome red as beet-
roots, fame yellow, and fome marbled: They are all of at
excellent tafte: For, provided they be not fill of water
and grew in a ground moderately moift and dry, that is. par-
ticipating of both, they tafte like Cheft-nuts, and are a bet-
ter nouriflment then the Cafava, which dries up the body 5
for they are not fo dry. Some, as particularly the Englith,
ufe thefe roots inftead of bread and Caffava, and to that
purpose a bake them under the Embers, or upon the coals .
For being fo prepared they are,- of:a better tafte, and are
cleared of that windy quality which is commonly obferv'd to
be.in imoft roots. But for the moft part they are, boyl'd, or
ftew'd in a great iron pot, into which there is a little water
put to keep the bottom from burning; then the pot-lid is fet
on as clofe as may be, that they may flew by that fmother'd
heat. This is the ordinary treatment of the Servants and
'Slaves of thd Country, who eat them out of the pot with a
face made o Pyman and juice of Oranges.
If this root were not fo common it would be more eftcem'd.
The Spaniards think it a delicacy, and drefs it with butter
tagar. nutmeg, and cinnamon: Others make a pottage of it,
and putting into it fome fat,.pepper and ginger, account it an
excellent dilh: But moft of the Inhabitants of the Iflands
trouble not themselves fo much about the dreffing of it.
There are fome will gather the tender extremities of the aforer
I faid

58 The Hiftory of Boo K
faid firings, and having boil'd them eat them as a Sallet, li
the tops of 4d aragrs or Hops.

T He AanHS or Pine-Apple is accounted the moft delicious
fruit, not only of thefe Iflands, but of all America.
Sis fo delightful to the eye, and of fo feet a cent, that Na
ture may be faid to have been extreamly prodigal of what was
moft rare and precious in her Treafury to this Plant.
It grows on a flalk about a foot high, eiicompaffed by about
1 5 or 16 leaves, as long as thofe of fomie kinds of Thiftles,
broad as the Palm of a mans hand, and in figure like thofe of0
dws -: they are pointed at the extremity, as thofe of Corn-Gla-
den, formewhat hollow in the midft, and having on both fides I
little prickles .which are very fharp
-.the fruit which grows between there leaves, ftrait up from
theltaflk, is ftcm times aboutthe bignefsof a Melon: its figure
is Auch:likteluit of a P'*e-Appk : its rind, which is full oflie-
tl oiitmpriaint litkei the fcales of fih, of a pale-green co-
lour, bordered with Carnation upon a yellow ground, hath on
the out-fide several fmall flowers, which, according to the diffe-
rent Afpe&s ofthe Sun, feemr tobe offo many different colours
as may be feen in the Rain-bow; as the fruit ripens moft of thefe
flowers fall. But that which gives it a far greater luftre, and
acquired itithe fupremtacy among Fruit is, that it is crown'd
with a great Pifie, confifmg of flowers and several leaves, ib-
lidland jaagged about ,which are of a bright red colour, and
axtreamly add to the ddightfulnefs of it.
The Meat or Pulp which is contained within the rind, is.a
little fibrous, but put into the mouth is turned all to juice: it
hath fo transcendent a tafte, and fo particular to it felf, that
thofe who haveendeavoikr'd to make a full description of it s
obt able to coonfie themselves to -one comparison, have bor-
tow'd what they thought moft delicate in the Peach, the Straw-
berrj, the iJfcadine-grape,and the Pippin, and having faid all
they could, been forc'd-to acknowledge that it hath a certain
particular tafte which cannot easily be exprtefs'd.
The vertue, or fhoot by which thisfruit may be perpetw-
ated lyes not in its root, noryet in a fnall red feed, which ip
inany times found iin its Pulp, but in that Garland wherewith it
is covered for as foon as it is put into the ground it takes root,
(hoots forth leaves, and at the years end:produces new fruir.
It happens sometimes that thefe fruits:are charged with three
pofies or crowns, all which have the vertue of propagating their
species : but every ftalkbeas fruit but once a year.
There ate threeor.rfour kinds; of them, which the Inhabi-
tants diftinguifh "by the colour, figure, or fcent, to wit, the

A ^P. X. The Garibby-Iflands.

hi.te-Ananas, the'Pointed, and that called the Pippin, or Re-
nette: This laf is more efteemd-then the other two, inasmuch
ias being ripe it hath as to the tafte all the rare qualities be-
fore described 5 it hath alfo a fweeter fcent then the others, and:
does not fet the teeth fo much on edge.
The natural Indians of the Country, and the French who
live in the lands make of this fruit an excellent drink, not
much unlike Malmfey, when it hath been kept a certain time:
there is alfo made of it a liquid Conferve, which is one of the
nobleft and -moft delicate of any brought put of the Indies :
they alfo cut the rind into two pieces, and it is preferv'd dry N
wit~ifome of the thinneft leaves, and then the'pieces are
neatly joyn'd together again, and they ice it-over with Sugar,
by which means the figure of the fruit and leaves is perfealy
preferv'd ; and there nray befeen in thofe happy Countries, not-
withftanding the heats of the Torrid Zone, a pleafant reprefen-
Station of the fad. produ&ions of Winter.
In Phyfick the Vertues of it are thefe: The juice does ad-
mirably recreate and exhilarate the Spirits, and comfort the
Heart it alfo fortifies the Stomack- cureth Queafipefs, and
caufeth Appetite : it gives prefent eafe to fuch as are troubled
with the Stone, or ifoppage of Urine nay it defroys the
force of Poyfon. If the fruit be not procurable, the root will
do the aime effe&s. The Water.ectraaed from it by diftilling-
hath a quicker and more 'effe6tual operation 5 but iq regard it
is too cotrofive, and offends the mouth, palat, ani uretory
veffels, it muff be very moderately ufed, and with thy .advice of
an able Phyfician, who knows how to correct that4crimony,

THe Reed which by its delicious juice fupplies that fub-
ftance whereof Sugar is made, hath leaves like thofe
of other Reeds which grow in Marfhes and neer Ponds, bait
only they are a little longer and harper 5 for if they be not ta-
ken with a certain care and flight, they will cut a mans hands
like a Rafour. It is called the Sugar-Cane, and grows up in
height between five and fix foot, and two inches about: itis
divided by federal knots, which are commofily four or five
inches diftant one from another 5 and the greater the distance
is between the, knots, the more Sugar are the Canes apt- to
The leaves of it are long, green, and grow very thick, in
the midft whereof rifes the Cane, which alfo at the top isloa-
den with several pointed leaves, and'one kind of knot of them
which contains the feed: it is as full as it can be of a white
and juicy pith, out of which is drawn that liquor that makes
the Sugar.
I 2 It

do The Hiftory of B oo K
It thrives extreamly in a fat foil, fo it be light and fomewhai
moift: it is planted in trenches made at equal diffances one
from another, either with a Hoe, or a Plow, about half a foot
deep: Having there laid the Canes, being ripe they cover
them with earth, and a little while after out of every knot
(hoots forth a root, and out of that a ftem which produces a
new Cane. As foon as it appears above ground, it muft beh
carefully weeded all about, that the weeds choak it not: butI
as foon as it hath covered theground it fecures it felf, and keeps
its footing as well as any Copfe-wood might do, and it may laft
fifty years: without being renewed, fothe main root be found
and not iniored by the worm 5 for if there be any jealouie ofP
that, the remedy is to take up the whole Plant as oonoas may s
be, and to order it allanew.
Though-the Canes be ripe at the end of nine or ten months,
yet will they not be any Way pre)udic'd if continued in the 1
grouia two years, nay sometimes three, after which they det .
eby O But the belt ad fureft way is to cut them every year as
never the ground asmay be, and below thelaft knot or joynt.
Thofe *ho erofs the Fields when thefe Canes are come to
atamury. may refrefli themselves with the juice of them,
whichis an excellent beverage, and hath the fine tape with
the Sugar : But if it be taken immoderately it may occasion
Sfluxes and loofenefs, especially to fuch as are newly come into
the Country ; for thofe who by a long abode there are in J
a manner naturaliz'd are not fo fubjec to that incon-
vtaieo .
There p ow alfo in fome of thefe Iflands thofe neat and pre-
Scious Canes which are us'd in walking naturally marbled,
Sand enamelld with federal figures. The fides of great Ponds,
and all Fenny and Marfhy places are alfo furnilh'd with a big.
fort of Reeds which grow up very high and very ftrait, where-
of the Ithabitaors comimanly make the partitions of their
Itoufes, and ufe them instead of Lats, for the covering ofthem.
The Indians alf make fe of. the tops of thefe Canes in the
nlaking of their Arrows.


, r
C XI XThe Caribby-Iflands. 61


Of fome other rare ProduSiions of the Caribbies, and
federal forts ofPulfe, and Flowers growing in thofe

Aving (foken of the Plants, Herbs, and Roo6fs onfi-
Sderablefor their Leaves, Fruits, orVertues, wpqow
''F come to treat of foipe other rare Prodltoiops o~tlfe
f.la,4, for the moft part not known in Erop .

T Hat which the French call Raquetfes, from the figure of
j. itsraves, which are like a Racket, is great thorny bult
creeping along the earth, and not able to raife it felf to any
height, in regard the ftem, which is only a laf grown big in
procefitftime, grows not much more then half a foot above
oamnd;. aad though it be big enough, yet is it not to be feen
til theleaves, which are green, heavy, ill-lhap'd, and about
in inch thick, and faften'd one to another, encompaffing it, be
firft taken up: they are armed with prickles extreamly (barp
and 'mall; and upon fome ofthefe long and prickly leaves
there grows a fruit about the bignefs of a Date-plumb, which
hath aifb. on the ont-fide federal very fmall prickles, which
paittkeir fingers who would gather them : being ripe it is red
within and without, of a Vermilion colour : the Hunts-aea
of thefe islands think it very delicate and refreshing; but it
hath this property,that it colours a mans Urine as red as blood
a Coon as he hath eaten it; infomuch that fuch as are ignorant
of this fecrtt imagine they have broken a vein: Nay fome
perceiving that alteration in themselves have taken their Beds
ortofain imagination that they were very fick. Some report,
that in Fers there is a kind of Plumb which works the fame ef-
fed : nay there are who affirn, that they have obferv'd as much
after the eating of a Gelly of red Goofe-berries.
Thlef who have described Tat, which is fo much efteem'd
for the precious Scarlet-dye lying in its leaves, make it like the
Plant we now deferibe, five that they affiga it no fruit. Some
others have ranked it among thofe Thifties which bear Figs,
because the fruit is of that figure, and when it is open, instead
of a tone, it hath only fmall.feeds like thofe of the Fig- '
There is alfo another kind of this Plant, whereof the fruit is
white, and of 'a sweeter, and more favor taite then the red
we fpoke of before : nay there is yet another, which, no doubt,
'," is

St The Hi/foryof BOOK Boi
is a kind of Tunal, on which there have been feen certain little.
worms in colour like a Ruby, which dye Linen or Woollen-.4
Cloth,whereon they are'crufh'd, into a very fair and lively Scar->
let-colour.. -
t ", i 4 1
T He Plant called by the Caribbians Akoulerou fome of the,
Eurqpeau Inhabitants of there Iflands call the. Torch k
it is ik na'ogreattj iftle growing like a great bufhy Briar
furniijh' 6f all fides with prickles, extreamly fharp and finall:4
thet d b6 foith ip 1th midft of it nine or ten talks without
either branches or leaves, growing up to the height of nine or-
ten foot, ftrait,and channelledlike fo many Torches: they have:
;alfo very harp prickles, like fo many fall Needles, which fo .
secure them that they cannot be touch'd of any fide: the rind,-
aindm h tisiwithin it, is foft arid fpongy enough. Every Torch
.*Aihas .et tcertain feafoh of the year, between the channels of'v
th ftalk_; eeiiti yellow or violet flowers, which are fucceed-
edi by ftit-like a great Fig, good to eat, and delicate enough. |
The:Bikds loreit'~elli but they can only peck at it flying, be-
ataafe-the prickles hilder them from lighting on any part of
thet lnt. The Indians get off the fruit with little forks or .
flickscleft at one end.
_. LI ENE S.
-, .E T*a
ttfHetre are federal kinds of Plants which creep along the '
fL : Egtdund, or are faftend to Trees 5 nay fome which very
mueh oblttuft peoples paifage through the Forefts: The In-:
habitants call them Lienes C fome are like a great Cable, others
bear flowers of federal colours: nay fome are loaden with 4
great brownifh hufks a foot or better in length, four or five ?
inches thick; and as hard*as Oak-bark,. herein are contained -
thofe curious fruits called>sea-Cheflnuts, which have the figure
of a heart; an-d.the pulp taken out, are made into Boxes to
keep Sneezing-powder, or any other fweet powder.; The
fruit called by the Inhabitants Lines-Apples, grows on a kind
of Willow, which is faften'd to the greater fort of Trees like
Ivy : it is about the bignefs of a Tennis-ball, and cover'd with
a hard- hell, and a green out-fide, containing within it a fub I
fiance, which being ripe hath the figure and tafte of Goofe-

T Here are in there Iflands several kinds of Herbs that never |
1 dye or wither whereof fome grow on trunks of old 1
Trees, .

SAP. XI The Caribby-Iflands.

i Trees, as Mifletoe does on the oa0 others grow on the ground,
S and upon rocks. They have fomuch natural moiflure, that
being pluck'd, and hung with their roots upwards in the midft
of rooms, where they are many times kept as rarities, and to
recreate the eye, they loft nothing of their verdure.
THere is in the Ifland rabago a kind of Herb, which besides
its perpetual growing is alfo fenible, whence it is called
the senJitive Plan: it grows up about a foot and a half in
height, encortipafsd with a many leaves, in length a foot or
better, in breadth three fingers, jagg'd almoft like thofe of
Fern, being at the extremities of a green colour checquer'd
with litt e brownifh or red pots. In the feafon of fruits there-
grows out of the midft of this Plant a round flower, confifting
of federal leaves f(anding much. after the fame order as thofe ,
of the Marigold 5 but they are of a bright violet colour, and
being handled have a good fcent ; the nature of this Plant is
-fuch, that if one pluck off the leaves of it, or fo much as
touch them, the wholePlant withers, anl all the other leaves
fall to the ground, as if it had been trod under fee( 5 and ac-
cording to the number of the leaves that had been pluck'd
6ffit will be a longer or fhorter time ere it recover that lofs.
"There grows fudh another Ait Madagafar, which the Inha-
bitants call Haeft-vel, that is; the Living-herb: but it is not the
fame kind as that which may be feen in the Kings Garden at
Pari; for that hath a much leffer leaf, and it is neither potted
nor jagged and which is more, it bears no flowers: besides, its
leaves being touched, clofe together-by a certain kind of con-
trafion ; whereas that we defcribe fheds its leaves on the
There is alfo another kind of lhing-orgenfitive Plant in tome
of the other Iflands: it grows sometimes to the height of a
fhrub: it hath many little branches, which are' at all times
loaden with an infinite number of long and narrow leaves,
which during the rains are enamell'd with finally golden flowers,
like-fomiany ftars. But what makes this Plant efleen'd one of
the rareft andi mort admirable of any in the world, is, that as
foon as one-would faften on it with his hand, it draws back its
leaves, and wriggles them under its little branches, as if they
Werewither'd 5 and when the hand is removed, and the party
gone away fome diftance'from it, it fpreads them abroad again.
Some call this Plant the Chafle Herb, because it cannot en-
dure to be touched without exprefling its resentment of the
injury. Thofe who have pafi'd by the jjthmWpf from n'ombre
de Dios to Panama relate, that there are whole Woods of a Tree
called the senjitive-tree, which being toueh'd the branches and

6 The Hifory of BOOK J
leaves Itart up, making a great noife, and clofe together int"
the figure of a Globe.
Some years fince there was to be feen in the Kings Garden a
Paris a senfitive-Jhrub, valued at a very great rate: But fome
body having advised the putting of it in the bottom of a Well
to keep it from the cold, and the fharpnefs of Winter, it there
miferabl'y perith'd, to the great regret of the Curious.

Of fveral forts of PEAS E.
.rl Hefe Iflands are alfo fruitful in bearing all forts of Pulfe,
i fuch as are several forts of Peafe and Beans : The Savagesl
call them by the general name of Aanconti.
The Peafe are in a manner of the fame kinds as thofe growing
in Europe, thofe only excepted, which are gathered from a
little ihrub, which is about the height of Broom, and hath
fmall, green, and narrow leaves : it bears Peafe in cods or hufks,
which are faltened to its branches: they are green and leLfs
then the ordinary ones, of an excellent tafte, and fo eafily
boil'd, that they need but a walm or two: they are called in
the Iflands, The Piafe of Angola, probably, because the feed,
was brought from that Country.
There is another kind known by the name of Peafe, which
yet have the figure of Beans: they are fmall enough 5 and of
this kind there are fome white, foine black, rome red or
bzown, all very excellent, and are ripe in three months.
Thefe in S. Chrifop ers are called Englih Peafe.

O F Beans and Fafels there grow in the Caribbies federal
kinds, not to be feen in the Weftern parts ofEurope. The
moft common are white, to which the firft Inhabitants gave an
undecent name, by reason of their figure : their fruit may be
eaten fix weaks after they are planted : others are of several
pretty colours, as thofe which are called Roman-Beans, or
But the moft considerable for their rarity are thofe called the
seven-years Beans, because the fame ftalk bears even years one
after another, and fpreads it felf over Trees Rocks, and
whatever it can' faften on 5 and what is to be yet further ad-
mir'd is, that at all times during the faid term of years it bears
flowers, green fruit, and ripe fruit: So that he who fees it,
------ay well admire
Spring, Summer, Autumn in-one bough confpire.
The fame thing is affirmed of a certain Tree in Egypt, called"

S p. X1. The Caribby-Iflands. 61

Pharaohb Fig-tree, on which there may be feen at all times fruit
fully ripe, fruit ripening, andfruit newly knit. Orange-trees
have the fame advantage.
Plants ufeful in Phyfic.
O F Plants useful in Phyfick there are many kinds in thefe
Iflands, whereof the vertues and temperament are not a
yet well known, and fome others which are alfo to be had from
other places: Such as are scolopeodria, and a kind of Aloes,
and federal forts of Maideonhair. There are alfo fome, where-
oftrial hath been made, and they have been endued with great
vertues, .among which the moft efteem'd are the Swee-tuflJh,
the Balifier, and the Dart-Herb.

T-He 'sweet-Ruh is like other Rufhes which grow neer
Ponds and Rivers, but it hath a round root about the
bignefi of a Small-nut, which cats a fweet cent like that of
the Flower-de-luce, and being dried in the fhade, and beaten to
powder, hath a miraculous vertue to help Women in Labour,
if they take but a mall dofe of it.

T" He Balifier grows bigger and higher, according to the foil
it meets with, but it thrives beft in moif places: The
leaves of it are fo large that the Caribbians, in cafe of neceffity,
cover their little Huts therewith. They are alfo apply'd to
abate and mollifie the infammations of wounds, and to make
baths for fuch as have had their Nerves crufh'd,or have contract-
ed any other weaknefs. The flower of it, which grows like a
Plume of Feathers, confifting of several yellow, or red cups,
are succeeded by certain buttons, which are full of feeds as
big as Peafe, and fo smooth and hard that Beads are made of

T He Dart-Herb is a fad kind of Herb, for'in the day time
the leaves lye clofe together, and in the night they are
fpread abroad : its leaves, which are of a bright-green, are
about fix or even inches long and three broad : the root of it
pounded, and applyed on the wound, takes away the venom of
poyfoned Darts.

66 The Hiftory of Bo'oIK I


M Oft of the Pot-Herbs growing in federal parts of Europe
gV row alfo in there Iflands. "Tis true, there are fome,
as Cabbages and Onions will not bear feed yet is there no
Want of them. The Cabbages'being ripe Ihoot forth many
flips, which transplanted produce others, which come to be aI
fair and as large as if they grew from the feed. And for Oni
ons, there are good ftorebrought in the Ships, which produce.
abundance of Chibols, and thofebnly are commonly ufed in'
Pottage, and with Peafe. '

T Here is alfo abundance of ordinary Melons, the feed.'
.whereof is brought thither from thefe parts : but by;
reafon ifth heat of the Cotmtry they grow more easily;
Sripe, the t s firmer and f a better tafte, and they have a
tweete fitit: iAnd what is a greater advantage, they are tdc
be had at'itftifne itathe year.
T Here grows in thefe Countries another kind of Melons,,
which are common in Italy, but muft needs be incom-
parably bbtefti: Egypt and the L at. There growof them .
alfoin fbme patts of France, but-they are naught: they are cal- I
Id Water-Melony, beciife theyae ai ftill of a fugar'd water, in4
termingled with their meat, which ordinarily is of a Vermilion_7
colour, and red as blood about the :heart, wherein are con
tainted their feed, which is alfo of the fame colour, and Come-l
times black: theirrind continues always green, and without
any fcent, to that it is rather by the talk then the fruit that:
their ripedrefiis to be difcover'd: they are sometimes bigger,
then a mans'head, either round, oroval: they are eaten with-;
out Salt, and though a man feed liberally on them, yet do they '
not offend the ftomack: but in thofe hot Countries they are ve-
ry cooling, and caufe appetite.
They plant alfo in there Iflands Mays, otherwise called'
spanib-Whedt or Turkey-Wheat, all forts of Milet, Cucumbers
Citmlls, Rtd-rarfhips, and other Roots, all which are of an ex-
cellent tafte.
N 'Or isit to be doubted but that the flowers of there Coun-
| tries are very beautiful, and admirable for their fcent :

SCAP XI. he Caribbyllands. 67
c _---- -------------------- ---------
Among others, there is a kind of White-Lilly that fmells ex-
treamly wcl ; for the feent of it is like that of Jefemine, but
0fo communicar ive of it felf, that there needs but one flower to
perfume a Vwhole Room. The round top and the leaves are
like thtfe of the Lillies of France, but the flower hath its leaves
.difpers'd and divided intolittle Labels, as if they had beenccut
with a pair of Sciflers: there are alfo other Lillies which differ
Sin nothing from our Yellow and Orange-colour Lillies.

'~ lrg : is another Plant in thefe Iflands famous for the
;^ beauty of its leaves, the feet fcent of its flowers, and
the exceJlency of its fruit: The Spaniards call it Gresadile
the Dutch, Rhavg-Appel, and the French, La Fleur de l Padfion,
that is, The Pajfio#-Flower, because it bears that rare flower
wherein may be feen,not without admiration,fome ofthTelotru-
ipents of our Blefled Saviours Paffion plainly represented. "Tis
true, forie curious Perfons, who have attentively considered
it do affirm, that they have obfcrv'd therein a certain refem-
blance of the Crownof Thornes, the Scourges, the Nails, the
Hammer,and: the Pillar: but they add withall,ttfat moft ofthofe
things are therein -reprefqnted or figured much after'the fame
manner as VYrgins, y1yoSs, a Bears are feen among the Ce-
lefial Bodip .s fo t la, to find all hef reprefenataoos of the
Kaifion inthofe floweS,.. they fy with Ace0o in his Hiflory,.
L b. 4. Ch. 27. that there is fome piety requisite to help on the
belief of fome of them."
There are federal forts ofthem, all which bave this common,
" that if they meet not with fbme Tree to faften themselves too,
they creep along the ground as Ivy doth 5 that their flowers are
Sdifplay'd after Sun-rifipg, and clofe again before it fets s and
that they bear a delicate and very refreshing fruit; but the
leaves, flowers, and fruits of fome are fo different, as to their
outward figure, that it is not to be wondered if the Authors
who treat of this Plant, imagining there had been but one
kind, agree not in their descriptions thereof. The Inhabitants
of.Brajfl number feen kinds thereof; but in the Caribbies there
are but thofe two known, which are represented among the
Sculps of this Chapter.
One hath very large leaves, which are divided into five lef-
fer leaves, whereof that in the midft is round at the top, and
the four others pointed: its flower being fully blown is big-
ger then a Rofe 5 it is enclosed never the ftem in three little green
leaves, the body confifts of several other beautiful leaves,
Swhereof fome are of a Sky-colour, chequer'd with little red
pricks, which have the figure of a Crown, and others are of
a purple colour: All this fair flower is encompafs'd with anin-
SK 2 finite

\ 4

"_ .4

68 -The Hiftory of Booi 1,
S__________ ~- ~ --- ---- -- 4 -- '--c
finite number of fmall waving filaments, which are as it wer
the beams of this little Sun among the flowers they. are en'T
amell'd with White, Red, Blew, Carnation, and federal othef
lively colours, which contribute an admirable grace thereto.
The other kind hath alfo its leaves divided into five parts as
the former but its flower,- which is like a little bowl, border.
td ibove with little white and red ftririgis not fo large: with'.
in it is adorned with white 'pointed leaves : there- (hoots as it
were out of the heart of both there kinds of rajjion-Flowers:
a finally round Pillar, which hath.on its chapter a button be-'
fet with three grains; somewhat like Cloves. From this Pillar
the-ififlue out alfo five white strings, Which support little yel-W
low knobs, like thofe which may be feen in the cavity of
the-Lillies arid there they fay represent our Saviours five
wounds. o :.
STherfe flowers, which ace of a feet .cent, falling off, the
buttoithat istr the pillar'grows fo big, that-it comes to be
a fIir-yellow friut, fmooth,:and about the bignefs of an ordi;-
ary Apple. The rind of it's s thick a that of a P.omegratv
inatei and it ii fillof a certain juice, very delicious to the tafte,
among which there is a great number of kernels, which are
black, apd extreamly hard. This fruit is prefcrib'd as a fove-
reigrn rrefrehment to fuch as are in Feiers, and it hath been!
found by experience, that it hath a fingular vertue to retrieve
loft Appetite, to comfort the vital Spirits, and to abate'the|
heat of the Stortack. The Iihabi'tints of' rajilare very care-
fulinttbe cultivation of thi~iPlant, ufing'it as a -fi6gular orna- .
nient for the covering of their Arbours, and other places in
thePr'Gardens; for its leaves anrd flowers make Svery delightful',
(hade, and they 'make of the fruit a cordial fyrrup, which is.;
highly efteem'd among them, upon this account., that besides.|
the properties aligned it in our description, it hath alfo this
remarkable quality, that thofe who are once accuffomed to
ufe it hall never have an averfion against it. The rind of this
fruit, and its flowers being preferv'd, work the fatne effe&s a&s
the juice.

T: Here is alfo an Herb called the A td icHerb. the ftalk of
it isof a considerable height, and it grows very thick
and clofe together, as a little Briar, or Bulh without prickles ;
.itsleaves arelong enough, and rough ; the flowers are yellow, ;
"cry delightful to the eye, after the form of a Chalice, or little!
Bell, which afterwards becomes a button of a pretty bignefs,,
and when it is ripe, is of a white Satin colour within, and of a
*Mulk-colour without: the feed contained within this buttonrv
-is alfo of the fame brownish colour it hath theperfedt fcent,
? .. .'

C: TA X I. The Caribby Iflands. 69
-" ....... ..
-of Mulk when it is newly gathered. And thenceris it .called
. k,7,-grain, and it keeps that cent a long time, provided it be
kept in a dry place- and in fome veffel where.:it .may take
no air. V
In like manner, feveral;other Herbs3 several Shrub, nay
moft of thofe Lienes, or Withies which creep among the, bufhes,
and faften for their support on the Trees growing in the Carib-
-bies, bear flowers as fair and delightful to.the eye, as they are
feet and acceptable to the noftril: infomuch that .many
times as a man.crofles through the Fields, he may come to
places where the Air is perfum'd all About. .
0" ,' ';" .' '. ;... '1 2 s ': .' .. ,J I .

C, P XI I.
,A .... -...

Of five kins of four-footed Beafs found'in
theef Iflands.

. Before the spaniardi and PFortuguez. had planted, colonies
.;in Amerrica there -were not in;thofe parts anyt Hdrfes,
, .... Kine, Oxens Sheep, Goats, Swine, or Dogs.r; BAt fbr
,the better convenience offtheir Navigations and fupply of
: their iShips iwcafe of neccfli iy they left ome of:thtfe crea-
Stures in several. parts of that new-found World, Whare they
- hairelince multiply'd :o exceedingly, that now they are more
common there then in abyipart of Europe. .
Befides thefe Foreign kinds ofCattle, there wetehefo6 ih *
there Iflands certain forts of .four-footcd beafts, fuch as are the
opaffjm, the Javars, the Tatah, the Agouty, and the Mtsk Iat,
whereof we hall here give the several descriptions.
1'' i

T He opaffum is the fame creature which the Brafilians call
Carigueya, about the bignefs of a Cat: it hath a (harp
Snout, the neither Jaw being shorter, then the upper, as a Pigs,
the Ears long, broad, and ftrait, and the Tail long, Hairlefs
towards'the extremity, and turning downwards-: the Hair
on the Back is black intermix'd with grey, and under the Bel-
ly, and about the Throat it is yellowifh: it hath very (harp
Claws, and thence doth eafily climb up Trees: he feeds on
Birds, and loves a Hen as 1ellas the Fox does 5 but for want
of prey he can make a shiftt to live on fruits. .
SWhat is particular in this Creature, is, that by a.remarkable
difference it hath a purfe or bag of its own fkin, folded toge-
ther under its Belly, in which it carries its young Ones, whi-h

7 The Hifaory of BooKIx
it leaves upon the ground when it pleafes, by opening that na-,
tural purfe : when he would leave that place, he opens it again,t
and the young ones get in, and fo he carries them with him'.
where-ever he goes. The Female fuakles them without fetr
ting th iobn the ground for her Teats lye within that purfe,
which on the inside hath a much fofter fkin then that which
appears without. The Female.commonly brings fix young.:
Ones ~ but the Male, who hath fuch another natural purfe un-
der his Belly, carrie them in histurn to eafe the Female, but A
cannot fuckie thicm. Thefecreatures are common in Virginia,
and New-spain : Nature having not thought fit to below on
the Whale the convenience of fuch a bag, gave her the inven- i
tion of hiding her young ones in her Throat, as Philofiratu
affirms. And the Weafil is fo fond of her young ones, that
out of a fear they might be taken from her, the alfo takes
them into her mouth, and removes them from one place to

T Hlneis alfo in fome ofethefe Iflands, as at rabago, a kind
1 I o-fiwild Swine, which are to be feen in like manner in
a r4afif and -icaragax: they are in moft things like the wild
'Boars inur Forefts, but have very little fat: they have (hort
Ears, -almoft no Tail, and their Navels are on their Backs :
fome of them are all black, others have certain white fpots 5
their gruntig is alfo more hideous then that of tame Swine 5
they are called Jwavarr* This Venifon is ofa tafte good enough,
ius verj:hardiy taken, in regard the Boar having a kind of
went, or hole on the Back, by which he refrefhes his Lungs, is
in a manner indefatigable 5 and if he be fbrc'd to flop, and be
purfued by the Dogs, he is arm'd with' fuch fharp and cutting
defenfives, that he tears to pieces all thofe that hall fer up-
on him.

T He Taril, or HedgoHer. which alfo are to be feen in
STabago, are arm'd with a hard fkaly coat, wheiewith
they cover and cure themselves as with armour: They have
a Head and Snout like a Pig, and with the latter they turn up
'the ground: they have alfo in every Paw five very fharp Claws,
Which they ufe the more readily to thruft away the earth, and
difover the roots wherewith they are fatten'd,-in the night
time. Some affirm, that their flefh is a very delicate meat,
and tbathere is a fmall bone in their Tails which helps Deaf-
nef: .eI th been confirmed by experience, that it helps the
Noife or IHgmming, and cures the pain of the Ear, being


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