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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Viverra--Weesel
 Lutra--Otter
 Ursus--Bear
 Didelphis--Opossum
 Macropus--Kanguroo
 Talpa--Mole
 Sorex--Shrew
 Erinaceus--Hedgehog
 Hystrix--Porcupine
 Cavia--Cavy
 Castor--Beaver
 Mus--Rat
 Arctomys--Marmot
 Sciurus--Squirrel
 Myoxus--Dormouse
 Dipus--Jerboa
 Lepus--Hare
 Hyrax
 Camelus--Camel
 Moschus--Musk
 Cervus--Deer
 Camelopardalis--Camelopard
 Antilope--Antelope
 Capra--Goat
 Ovis--Sheep
 Bos--Ox
 Equus--Horse
 Hippopotamus--Hippopotamus
 Tapir--Tapir
 Sus--Hog
 Monodon--Narwhal
 Balaena--Mysticete
 Physeter--Cachalot
 Delphinus--Dolphin
 Table of Genera
 Index
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine


BLDN UFSPEC




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The B aldwin Library IV 1 ID Uni;.ity Flood.

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.' r

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. \ THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ll\CLUlIOIC ALL LINNAlAN CLASS 0' MAMMALIA: TO WHICH IS PI.l>;rIXED, A GENERAL VIEW NATURE. POR THE INSTRUCTION OF YOU N G PER SON S. IN TWO VOLUMES. WI,TH PLATES. VOL. 11. LONDON: P RI FOR J. 1 0 HNS ON, NO. 72, ST. PAUL'" CHURCH-YARD; -ay ']I\" AND LAW, ST. JOHS'S SQ...UAR, CL E!
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"j IVI A ]\{ ]\{ A L I A. VOL. H. CiENUS XVI. VIVERRA ...... \EESEL. GENERTC CHARACTER. Clltting-Tu/h, fix, Jl;arpijb,' Canine-trt!lh tW!I, IOllge r, ;11 eac h Jaw: Tongue ;11 JOllle Jmooth, ill others oculea/ed backwards,' Body of a leng/hmed farm. THIS numerous has by Linna::us been divided into two genera, denominated f/iverro, :lnd 1I1111elo, the Intter of which difl-crs from the former in having two of the front teeth placed out of the line of the reft, more interiorIy. It feems unneceffary, however, from [ueh a minute difiinc tion to break a natural family; we have therefore followed Mr. Pennant and Dr. Shaw in making but one genus of the Weerel tribe, detaching from VOL. It. B it

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[ 2 j it Otters, which had place 'cl among the, 'Mullelas, tholloO'.h of a very different nature. The Wec;fel HiDe' CQIlIifts. of carnivorolls ani-mals of the Cmaller fize, flender, aClive, limber, cunning, enterprifing, andcapable ot Cubduing much larger T\ltey have a tharp vifage, fuort legs, generally 10ngHh tails. Their bite is very keen, and they always fuck the blood 6f their prey they eat the fldh. They are very murderous, killing all with in their reach when they fall in with plenty;' but they can live a .long time withollt food. .All or moll of them are furnifhed with fmall glands under the tail, which. an unCluous mitter, that in [pecies is a perfume, in .others the l!l0C!: fetid fubllance in nature. J. VIVERRA ICHNIEUMoN.-IcHN,EUMoN. This fp<;cies' hright ftame-c-olourcd eyes, fmall rounded and alo)()ll naked ears, a long nofe, a body ruther thicker Ih'ln mon of the genlls, ; tail thick at the bare, and tapering 10 th\! e:xtremity: Its hair i.s h.ard and coarre, moCH;' of a pale mottled or the thfOat an brown. There are tWQ ut the mon, the Egyptian of .. .:. T

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,

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. .... _. ----

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(.3] is (!onfidl:!I;ably the hl,rgeft The' Iridia n i s called by Buffim the MangouJle. The r chneumon has from the earliefi: times been famous for. i ts life i n defi:royi (lg vermin fuch a s Rats; Serpents, other nox ious creatures coro nion in the hot climates, whence the fuperffitious ;Egypt.ia ns of old paid it' divine worfhip. It was conlider e d as the peculiar enemy o f the w hofe eggs if diligently fllUghl in the fand ami broke. It is extremely ill purfuit of its prey, fometillles gliding alo ng the ground' like 21 Snake, fo as tQ m ake its approach fUmclirnes making great bGlIlods. In India it at tacks withou.t h e ur-.lti 0 o that dre adful S erpent, the Cobra. di Capcllo, anti rea d ily m n a e rs it, fcizing it by the throat fo as to prevent its biting. The ufuar renj rt of the lchnelunon is n ear t he oanks of ,J;i\' ers, whence it retieils to higher grounds iu timcs of I l f.wims and dives well, and ,can r emllin loog under water. This animal is eaGI}f tameQ,. anm r is a Common. domefi:ic in India and E g ypt, where it i s prererred to the Cat for illg Rats arid Micc It is, however, a 'to poultry, wluch it wilt decoy within r e ach dl:aQ, WbClI11 i t lieeps it draws a 'tpd: tail t pc,(he r th e like a ,ball It fits IJpI Siju im;el ( lEtp olt:l.ln g :f o o d 'W.ill)i ts fo.(e-feetJ.. r is jl-Hb J"r c' B -2. m

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[ 4-J in Ba,rba. ry and at the Cape of Good Hope, and in variolls of the iOands as well as the continent of India., It cannot live in a cold climate. 2. VIVERRA SURICATTA.-SURIKATE. This' animal is diflinglli{hed by a long fharp painted fnout, depreffed head, and fwallen cheeks, an upper jaw much longer than the lower, fman rounded ears, eyes fllrrollnded with black, a prickly tongue, and with only four toes. Its length, exclufive 0' the tail, is about a foot; the tail about eight inches, of a rufly colour, tipped with black. The general colour of the body is a deep grey. It jnhabits the iOand of Java and the Cape of Good Hope. At the (onnc)' the Dutch have named it, fr6m an acid fcent it e mits, Surjktllj4-Sour-Cat. At the Cape it is caJled Meer-ra/; and alfo, from a rattling noife it makes with its tail when pleared, Klapper-mflus. It preys on Mice and other vermin, particularly the Cock-roach. It is continually making a grunting noire, much in motion, ahd often fits upright like a Squirrel. 3. VIVERRA NASUA.-COATI MONDI. ihis fpecies refembles the former in having a long flexible [nout, wifh which it turns up the earth in quefl: of worms, like a Hog. It is of the li:te of a Cat. Its general colour is a cmereol}s brown

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t l) 1 'brown' With a call:' of reddifh. Its talr is 16ng; 3n '(I market! with black rings. It is a of Brafil and Guiana, feeels fruits, birds, and the .fmal\cr quaelmpeds, and chmbs trees flimbTy after :its prey. It makes ,fo.rt, of..whtming noife;' and. .leeps' iinuch during' the day, There is a variet'y of 1he COllti Monlli; 'ot' a browner eololtr, anE! .out difiinCl: rings on the tail, made by Li'nnreus .a different fpedes, undt!r the Name of Yt'Utrra ,Nhricd. '1 4. VIVERRA V 'ULPECULA.-COASSE. .' .' J 5. VI,VERRA STRIATA.-STRIATEU WE.ESEI. .'., ", or CONEPA,TE. # l ',t Thefe ani,ma-ls are natIves of Me'xico and othe of AUierica, refemble each other in which is about that of an European Polecat, or eighteen inches in length; and alfo in..figure anti proTh, e Centre fs or a dark chocolate colour, 'With While in i'ts tail. The Striated Weefel J is difl:ingui/hed by {r.\(:iIJel \-"hite fitipes do",'n the back. Some IHt\'c fuppofed it to be the of the fornier. Tl1ey are both fa\' die horrid vapo ,t.1r which lhe emit ftbrtl bel1ihd ,,,h ich is fueti, that thei' r purfuers:, dogs ill' e generally det erreq all neater approach; and ohlige-d to th{ B 3 fpot.

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[ 6 ] fpGt. Ilf the drop of the fluid, which the animals often djfsha rge at the fame trme, ihbuld fan llpon the cloaths of the hunter, he is rendered an -intolerable nuiTance wherever he appears, and carinot be reftored to till he has thrown afide lJ.is drefs, and_'taken pollible ltiethod to fweeten himfelf. Dogs that have been ,fo hardy as toperfevere an d krJl one of animals, are rendered infuffer able comp!lnions for man y days. It is remarJcable, however, that their flelh is good eating, that of Pig; and that they are fometimes kept tame_ in as they never emit their offenflve fcent but when injured or frighted. They breed in hol. low t'fees, clefts of rocks, or_ holes under ground, and climb trees 'with great agility in purfuit of birds, to rob nefts of the eggs. 6. VIVERRA MEPHITICA.-CiuNCHE or SKUNK. This fpecies very nearly the but is fomewhat fmaller. Its colour is a chocolate brovin, with a broad bed of white on the back, divided by a ftripe of black. It' inhabits the moil: northern parts of America,. and is equally notorious with the others for its bad fmell. Profeffor Kalni @fnti'ons that one of thefe,co,?ing night a:'farm-houfe in P-enrifylvania where he lodged, being. chaced by the dogs, left a fcent behind i.t

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[ 7 ] it that be was almo{l; fiifled, and the cattle roared with pain. Another, wbich was killed in the cellar by the feryant maid, infected the provifions kept there fo that it was ne,ce{fary to throw them away., !lnd the girl yvas py it for days. 7. VIVERRA CA,PENSIS.-CAPE WEEsh This' is a large fpecies, meafuring two feet from the nofe to the origin of the tail. Its colour is a!h-grey above, and br.ownifh-black below, the two colours being feparated by a !tripe of black and white. I ts head is large, fcarcei vifible, fnout {hort and pointed, legs {hort, tail thick., body grofs_ It refembles the as it is aIro one of the fetid tribe, it has ealled by the Stinkbingjml, by frenc.h, Blaireau puant, both fignifying Stinking Badger_ Its hair is fiifF, and its hide fo tough, that Dogs cannot make any impreiIion upon it. It is a native of the of Good Hope. It appears uncertain whether the of Sparrman, Or HONBY WEESEL, alro found at Cape, is the fame with the ilbove, or a different fpecies. This is. a great of the-1:1Oiey.of wild Bees, to the neas' .of which it is faid to be ,J .... dir .ectecl cry of a Cjllleq l;uclfltt,si l!ldi-" or iI,orJey guide, 9uckoo, which the Bees: Their nefis are generally burrows

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[( :] ahitnals; the 'kafel, by means Ratel -el. i mb" aFid is id gnaw through vexat}&n the b';itk;; af 'the -of trc!es which have' .BeeS' .,... ,I -'15y -whilth mai-k..:the d ifcove -jthem 1.1-,.")-1..it.:J.{ ... \I I : ):, ?; If {dme ; hf the preceding fpecies {)iFend :us by it1 tJ:te aff'ortr.:. (pre61'ei1s "preys on' birds a 'nd f!hall quat:lrupe'ds like othel'S t}f i .j rl,! r J I (J ( : r .:,. Ibd?evea fweaf this abi'rtlaJ ; bfit'.it is noW found Ita 'be-ail dudatioll fl'dni'der'faFn tlands iHf6 a : ..... u1 -

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[ 9 ] receptacle fituated beneath the tail. When Civets are kept in confinement by the perfumers, they are occaGonally placed in wOoPen cages fo narrow they cannot turn round, and the perfuming matter is fcraped out of the bags by a [mall fpoon. This is commonly done twice a week, an.d the quantity yielded at each operation is about a dram. It is of a yellowifh colour, of the conGll:ence of ointment, and its fmell when frelh is fo {hong as to be unpleafant. The males yield the moft, and the quantity is increafed by and irritati11g them. The Civet is now only ufed as a perfume. It is extremely fr::tgr:tnt. Moll: modern naturalifts have made a feparate fpedes of what they call the ZIBliT, an animal very nearly refembling the former in all refpeCls, except that it has a fomewhat {harper fnout, a longer tail marked with alternate black and white bars, and neither mane on the back, nor black marks under the eyes. Its hair is fofter, and its variegations more like ll:reaks. I t is found only in India and the Indian illes. 9. VIVERRA GttNETTA.-G.EN!T. This is an elegant animal, of the IIze of a very fmall Cat, but of a longer form, with a {harp fnout, upright flightly pointed ears, and a very long tail. Its colour is pale reddifh grey, with a black

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[ 10 J black line running down the back, and rows of. -. rounrlilh black [pots on the fides. Beneath each-, eye i s a white fpot: the taiI' -is variegated with b'lack l'ings. I t one of the fragrant animals of genus, and e xhales a flight fmeH of mulk. It is a gentle an4 cleanly c?reature, eafily tamed, and is fometimes kept in:' houfes like a Cat for the pofe of clearing thein from Mice and ) Rats. It .. is a of TLi, rkey, 'Syria, and fome par.ts of the ftmfh .of and In a natural Hate frequents die banks of rivers.. -I J.. 10. VIVERRA FOSSA.-FoSSANE. 'This can fcarcely by defcription be ditlinguilhed from the Gcmet, frOll'l' which it chiefly difFers in helng mar-ked! with bolder and more contratl-ed co lburs, probably I}ecaufe it i s a native of :warmer bting : found in Guinea, Ma.dagafcar, Bengal; Cochinchina; and the PI\(lippine lOe:;. It 1S Iihwife mdre fierce and more difficultly tamed fban the It is defiruCl:ive to poultry, and 'is very greedy of palm-wine. ,There are various other f pecies of the Weefd tribe in the hot climates, which are little known, bUt more or kifs refemble fCJltne of. il\ofIJ a.)readyt. defcl'ibrtd. '. We iliall now proeeed to; .thefe of our OVl{n and of' otHer Il<,?rthern Gountries, with which .. 'We aro better acquajnted. u. VJ. VERR.(

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'. [ NI ] : I 1;'his is an elegant aninial, ,'Of confideI:able being about a foot and a half fro m nofe to tail; ten colo ,ur is :'Yi1p. at! a dufky-brown : be1ly. It rounded ears, lively <:yes and a bufuy tail, da1;ker the, qody. Its feet broad, and covered at the bottom with a thick down. ,. The Marti, n is a native of" parts ; of Europe. It chiefly in woods, in hollow trees, in 'Winter talkes fh.elter in Magpies' nefis. It briogs,forth fro.Ql foul' to HK.y
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[ 1-2 J able [111e11; and its fur is finer and of greater value that of the former. It is a _Tare fpecies in Great Britain, but is very common in fome of the woody countries of the continent 1;1 North America it fo much abounds, that be.tween forty and fifty thonfand of the !kins have been brought over from Canada and HuMon's Bay in one year. finea furs of this animal are [aid to dHne from the region of MOllnt Caucaflls: In thefe, the throat is of an orange colour. 13. VIVERRA The Sable has a great refemblance to the Martin in fize and form, but has a fharper head and longer ears. Its general hue is a deep glolfy brown, e:tch hair being aili-colourec1 at the root and bla ck at the tip: its chin is whitiOl, and the edges of the ears yellowifh. Sometimes the whole ikin is of a fnowy whitenefs. A fpecific diain8ion between the Martin and Sable is, that the tail of the former is much longer than. the hind legs; that of the latter, iliorter. The Sable is exc1ufively an inha bitant of very cold climates, particularly Siberia, Kamtiliatka, and moa of the parts of Afia. It is alfo found in North America. It lives in holes under ground, or among the roots 'of trees, and fometimes makes its neft in the branches. It is nimble and efpecially the night, 1t S

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( 13 ] its feakm-of preying, but Qeeps much to the day. t>uring fummer it feeds on [mall er' part-icularlJ on Hares;' in llerries; and in winter on birds. The fe1l1ale brings fpring, trom three to five y04ng at a time. The (ur of the Sable is the moil: valuable com modity -of the defolate regions which produce it; \\;henGe the chace of this al!linal has been made a.n objeCl of great importance, and was once 'the moll: laborious occupation of the wretched exiles to Si beria, who were condemned to furnifh a certailt annual number: At the dellruClion made of them in that difirjCl has rendered it necefI'ary to carry on the chace further to the eafiward. The hunters form themfelves jnto troops, which are fubdivlded into fmalIer parties, each ptovided with a boat, a a n'et, and a quantity of provifions, with which they penetrate into the mofi remote and unfrequentcd forells. There they builo ,huts' and the winter, empl.oyed in catching Sables;. w)liqh is. pone eith(!r iri a kind of pitfal covered a loofe board baite(,l-with fith or Henl; or by *em over the fnow to their holes, at the CJ,ltra-nce of which a net is to entangle th e m :IS come out. In t his drl'ary fituatioll the often endure extreme hunger from the I I ... J I, failure of yet the hopes of gain,' and the love of the chace, indtlce many VO. L II. 'C perfons

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L 14: ] ,. perfons annually to become II: IS" a1:" 1110fi pecuhar to the SaOle filr, th "at ifs Hair will 1ll:f eqt;ally llnooth in any direction. a;e fhe mofi YliluaHk Thofe"' of America are coarfer tl1e .A"fiaric. lip. ViIl\'BRiRIA! FutOR'IUS.-POIsE'(!A!:r., J I This animal, called alfo the Filchet; arrd the ioumarl, (Foul or Fetid'Martln), is aootlt feventeeri incnes in leng.th, eic1ufi've of the whicH is' fix r inches. Its general colour is a very deep oHlckiillor chGcqlate, with a flight tawny carl on the fides. The ears are edged with white, and it has a whitilh (pace about the muzzle. It has the form of' the Martin, is ftrong and active, and will make great (pring.s in attacking its pre y or efcaping from danger, at which time it arcHes its hack greatly'. It runS fill:, with its belly aln'lofi to tHe ground, and can fcramble up ,01 wall with great, agil1ty. The Polecat is' proverbially noted for offenfive fmell; but it does not appear that, Itke fame of the tribe oefore thentioned, it emit's it s {cent in a peculiar degree by way of defence. ft is a native of moll: parts of Europe, and of fom of the northern Afiatic tcgiOllS. If generally makes a fuht e rraneous hablt ati'Oj1, often tedninating under the roots of a large tree; but fOlnetimes it bbrr.ows under hay-ricks or in' b arhs. Thence it carries

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-[}S J ,f:.arries on its are _:v/iry_ tjKter{I'te. ilt '\'ill ne. al : the hep.coop or pigeQP,-hoJ..1fe" flOd off tIle ,he;ld.s qf all it ,can meet :with, will the blood, aru.i aftet;w.arps olf the It will :Vl!it,th!! ,QP,iq fip the milk ; ,am:l .ruck fmp has to ftIe fpr weir hqn ey, P1-!rillg it W "tfrens, wh er e it ( makes .... ,able tp enter the ,l1}ade by that J:t alfo ; game, yPUqg r at s lmic,e. SOq1etime' s it l!P its ip the hpllpw of r\ aud preys up.pn I fiQI, ; and .. is re)ated in which a I have c,QI1V
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[ -16 ] rnefiic flate. The purpo[e for which it is kept with us, is that of chating rabbits, to whicIT ani mal 'it {eems a natural foe, flying upon it with great fury the firft time one is prefented to it. The Ferret is turned into a rabbit-burrow always muz7.Ied, the being not that it fhould _kill them, but drive them out into nets placed over the holes of entrance. If the Ferret chances to get rid of his muzzle, he is often loft; for, after fuck ing' the of a rabbit, he falls aneep, and can not be got out again; He then continues to carry on his depredati o ns in the warren as long as the weather laas, dies of cold in the winter. The Ferret fieeps much, but when awake is lively, realers, al}d irritable. It has the bad {mell of the Polecat, e'fpecialI y when provoked. It ,. breeds in this climate, producing from five to nine young; but it is apt to degenerate in a domeflic flate, and lore its favage nature. The warrene rs fherefore {ometimes procure a mixture between the female Ferret and the Polecat. The progeny is much darker than the Ferret. 16. VIV.ERRA VULGARlS.-COMMON WEESEL. This animal, which gives name to tlle tribe, is tine of the [maIJefl-, bllt with us the moa common I tdength to the tail does not exceed feven inches; that of the tail is about two and a half. I t has fmall

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jJ .. :;CTJCfs the Jif the whole reddilh. of the whole under fide, white: it has a brown fpot beneath each cOl'nar of the : tl1outh. of "it_'fiiUies .qut ,AJRWl jis ,iWhich ,afe ,)}[oul)g ; bjrds, ) apd : Rarticul,rLy )t will ,;eyen' in to itfelf, fl!,ch. 3S yqung rabbits and :whlch"jt .,Q'lafie{s.,Q1, of its great,iagility. I t t<>r.,barns and granarie1/, wne,reit fervice I in Jllupt\ng mice rats, which.it -Pl,lr,fues i .nto their hQles; for O<;Jildernefs ex.t.rclll?e dlexibi.1ity of ils ,b,ody it to 3l1Y cavity. Ifs @cwpfits, Ijlfe cgm tthe ,dj!firuCi ion .. jt,m31kFs ,a{llong.P9p.ltry, and eggs. It rul'!s, l!p,'!"'?I!ls [o.Jhat it is qifllcuJt. Qut?f its reach. The orfjv e .y''()lll)gs at l a of mors or grurs. Sh' e will : caqy her ,oul'!g i.n ,moP,th. Jrqlu .rp,luce to .place"H The W Gefd. is. a, cw' i I cl, !ll)d rc(tlcfs ,Qnil11ul,. tjlFtC a,re of tRo, ir being 1 ,a.m",d t.en M9tW,g, in wh]d,, !xa{e "llmr.,I}a.ye';;bffi0!1le y and careffing. It has the rank fmell belonging to' e 3 many

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[ 1 8 ] many of the tribe. J n the northern regions, Weefels turn white during winter. VIVERRA ERMINEA.-STOA.T. In colour and general appearance this fpedes much refembles the Weefel, out is confiderably Jarger, mea(urjng ten inches from nofe to tail. It is a native of the northern parts of Europe and Afta, iD' cold countries becomes entirely of a pure white in winter, when it is called the ERMINE. Even in E'ngland it is fc)metimes found white, and fometimes mottled with brown and white: but whatever be its colour in other parts, the tip of the tail is always black. It refembles the Weefel in abode and manner of living, except that it does not frequent buildings. The {kins of the white Stoats or Ermines are a confiderable article of trade in the northern countries. The animals are either iliot with blunt arrows, or taken in traps formed of two flat {lones, by the fall of -which, when the bait is pulled, they are killed without injuring the !kin. /' It is unnece{fary to defcribe any more .of this very numerous family, fpecies of which ;lre found in all parts of the world, but gener/llly clofely re fome of thofe already enumerated. GENUS

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GENUS XVII. LUTRA.-OTTER GENERIC CHARACTER. 'Tetth ,as in the prl. ceding Gmus. Feel webbed. I. LUTRA VULGARIS.-COMMON OTTER. THE Otter has a flat broad head; Ihort ears; "brilliant eyes placed fo as to fee every thing above it; very thick lips; a fmall mouth, with large whilkers, and very thong teeth; thick neck; {hart thick legs, capable .of being brought on a with the body, and fer,:,ing the purp ofe of fins; feet naked, with broad {hong wI:;bs petween the toes, which are five in number. Its ufua.11ength is nearly two feet from nofe to tail, which lall: !s fixteen inches. Its colour is a d!!ep brown, with a whitHh fpot on each fide the nofe, and another beneath the chin. It is an inhabitant of almoll: every part of Europe, and of the northern parts of ACia, and North America. The Otter makes his relidence on the bank of n river or lake, forming a burrow) the entrance of which is under water, and which has feveral holts or lodges as,it afcends, in order to afford a dry place in cafe (If floods: it only a fmall hole abov.t' for a
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this, for ufualIy opens in the midft of a thick bulh JQrtrefs he fallies out upon his prey, which is principally fiili; and by the eafe and lheng-t h \oYit,h "'!whkh he dives and fwims, he is enabled to make gre at deftruClion all10ng them. When -M.Jey fail, ... he w,iJI ,gn. land upon [mall quiuln!.peds He gnaws t4e bark and tw!gs of yOl;lng tree:? The female produces four or'five young at t a \ 1i-tter, ear-Iy in the f.pFing. -Otte.s when taken young may be tuined, to ; hili for ,their, mafrer, and J.be rendered very valuable : domqilics. A \lllan near Inverne[s kept ORe which J would f.otnetiilles take '"eightor ten [almon i n a day. As foon as it had b;ought one to i ts mal:er, it immediately dived putfuit of more, t-iI1 it was t ired, when it refufed l to filh any longer. It was rewarded wi th -as much fi1 lh as it could devour, .aftllr which it cur1d itfelf round and wentto Deep. It WG1l1d fi. ili in the near to the ihoFe, as well as in frdh water. fa greedy of' fifh, the Otter will touch them except when quite fre'lh, and generally leaves the tail part. 'On account ef their great depreda tions, I have been -an ebjctl: of ,t.Re chace, es deftructive animals. The' chace is a'lfo amufing from its fingularity. When the .}Jaunt of the "0tter' is difcovered, he is Mmpellpd to .. take the I :water, where he. is putfued by wat'4.1'-oogs", while I men

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[ ] men with fp ears go oh the bank to' difpatch him when he lands. He defends himfelf with great obftinacy from the dogs, and will bite' very feverely, fo as to make his teetb meet. He holds out to the laft gafp, and dies a complaint. The flefh of the Otter is ral1k and fifby. 2., LtTTRA LUTREOLA.-SMALLER OTTER. This fpecies mllch refembles the former, but is not half its fize, meafuring no more than one focit. I n form it feems alfo t.o approach nearer the Weefels, and it has their offenflve fmell. Its. colour is dufky witn a caft of tawny; its chin and throat white. Its feet are broad, webbed, but not naked, as in the common Otter. It inhabits Poland, Lithuania, 'Ruffia, and Siberia, and alfo North AmeriCa, where it is called the MINX. In that country it feems to be larger; and it will defert its watery haunts to prey Qn poultry, which it kills in the manner of ,the Polecat. Its fur is very I 'valuable. 3. LUTRA MARINA.-SEA OTTER. This fpecies has of late come peculiarly into notice, on account of the value of its fur as an article of commerce. It is the largefl. of gel1US, meafuring three feet from oofe to tail, a tail of thirteen inches, and weighing fevcnty or eighty pounds.

PAGE 34

.[ 122 J pountls. !.rite general appearancoe of thi$ !animal ,approaches that of Ilhe Seal tribe. Its head is broad .and blunt; iears ereB:, {mall, fhal1piih ; body,r0und and ifhapelefs; fore-lt:gs thick, and furnifhed with Ifour toes cQvered with hair :and webbed; hind-:feet much refembling of. a Seal, the toes beiI:\g conneCled by a fhong mem brane, with a Ikin {kirting the outer toe. The tail is broad, flattened, and pointed at the end. IThe colour of the ,whple hody is a deep glony }}rownifh-black, with a filvery cafi onfhe forehead. 'Fhe1fur is e
PAGE 35

r 23 ] in Kamtlhatka, Bering's, the Aleutian, and the fox Wands, and genera:l : on the {hores in the ifles of, the fea bet\yeen Afia and America, be tween lat 44 and. '60. N:-'Ehejr w.ere at fidl: ex tremely but have been thinned by the nian.y'lhtnring parties which have gone' in quefi. of fo THey are either taken in nets, or killed J wltlt dulkantNpears. Other of Otters al'e met with in different parts of gl15be, whicfi differ in refpea, to fize and {hape, but'refemble':itl tneir amphibious mode of living. The BrqJilian IS dne of the liu-geft, equalling a middling dog.

PAGE 36

GENUS XVIII. URSUS.-BEAR. GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-lettb,j,X abovt find below, the two ones if the. hwer jaw longer than the rtjl and lobed; wiih fillaller or feCOI/ dary teeth at their intemdl bafts: Canine.;tuth fiHtary: Grinders five or fix on each fide: Tongue jtllooth: Snout prominent: Eyes /umijhfd with a lIillitat ing membrane. J. URSUS ARCTOS.-COMMON BEAR. THE Bear has a long .head; fmall eyes; {hart rounded ears; thong,. thick, c1umfy limbs; a very thort tail; ana large feet. His body is covered with long fhaggy hair, which, together with his c1umfy form,-gives him a very uncouth ?ppearance. In walki ng, he rells upon the hind-feet as far as the heel. The colour of the common Bear is various. The principal varieties are brown and black, which conflitute tWG difft:rent breeds of this animal, the brown being larger and more carnivorolls; the black, fmaller, and living almoft foldy upon ve getable food. In the mountains of Tartary fome :lre found of a pure white; in Norway fome are greyiih, from a mixture of white The 5 Bear

PAGE 37

[ ] Rear is a native of moll: of the northern countries of Europe and Alia, and is even found in Arabia, and in fome of the Indian illands. He is a favage folitary animal,. inhabiting the recelfes of thick forefls, or the clefts and caverns of mountains, in which he makes his den. S01TIetimes he takes np his abode in the hollow of a large tree, for he is expert at climbing. From his bulk and powers of mifchief he is reckoned among the more formida ble wild beafls, yet he is felJom dangerous man unlefs provoked. In fighting, Bears fl:rike with their fore-foot like a cat; 'and riling on their hind legs, hug or fqueeze their antagonifl: till they have aifled him. They feldom ufe their teeth in battle, but often bite a hole in prey ami fuck the blood, like the weere! tribe. The brown Bear when preffed with hunger is ddlruCl:ive to the domeaic animals of the farmer; but from the l10wnefs of his motions, is incapable of catching m;\ch wild game. He often makes havock among the fields of peafe and other cultivated vegetables, and will fometimes the ricks in the farm yard. dears are very fond of honey, and often rob t ht; ne as of wild bees in the wood;;. They will likewife catch filh, and for that purpofe frequent the banks of ri verso In the latter end of autumn the Bears retire to their where they pafs great part of the cold VOL. H. D tC:lfon

PAGE 38

fearon in repo(e an6 ablHnence. They enter their retreat very faq and it is uptm this fuperfiuity of fa't'that their body is fuflained during the period of. .fall:ing, for 'they lar up no provi (ion of food: It 'is fa id that mey fuck their paws, which abound I",ith an unCtuous and flimy juice. They come out very lean and ravenous; and in long winters are 'forced abroad by hunger before the cold weather ceafes. Ttle females retreat earlier than the males in order to bring forth their young, which are com monly two in number. Thefe were fuppofed by 'the ancients to be mere maffes, which the parent afterwards into form; but it is now -khown that the cubs of the Bear are not mOre incomplete in figure than the young of other animals. They are born blind, anti continue fo for nearly a month. Bears when fat are reckoned excellent food, particularly the young ones. The' fat is a1fo efl:eemel:! as an applic ation for firains and old pains, and. for promoting the growth of hair. The lkin lPakes a very warm and comfort 'able fut. The Bear is an animal frequently tamed, and led as a {hew, When it diverts the populace by its awkward imitation of dancing, and other gefl:ures performed at the word of command. But it goes through its exercifes unwillingly, and with many growls .and angr.y murmurs j its obedience is all

PAGE 40

t 27 } all the effea of and its tamenefs 'is never to be tmftcd without caution. ,It bears in mind the ill treatme .nt, it receives, and. is ever on th.e watch to it. The Al\'fE.R'ICAN BLACK BEAR. inlow generalIy as a difiinct fpecies from the though, tire refemblance between the two is much greater-thaln the diJrerence. It has a long pototed l)ofe, a .narmw forehead,cheeks. acrd thFoat of a brown, bllt the hai-r on the body and Ijrnbs pf a glolTy black".and Ihorter and fmoother than of the l!:urope3.111 kind. It is a1ft') faid to FejeClaniroal even when pzeIed by QCcafionaIl.ll to eat fiCh. inhabits all tJle northellll parts of North Amelltca, from which it roallls to the fouthern in quefb of f90,,", It)$ the moft important ob.jeCl: of the ta native Indian tribes, who .eckon its the g'l!eateft 0' 2, uisuk MARl1'IMtrS.-':"PoLAR BEAR. 'This a1Co called the IYhilc Bear,. has a llead amI of a more form t han th common Bear, and a proportionally longer body. It has rOl:lnded cats,. .fmaLl eyes,.. and ell-, trcmely large fhongteeth. Its. hair is long, and \Iniverfally of a white <:0101110 tinged in fome pal'ta with yellow the tip of the uQ[e and the claws are D i

PAGE 41

{ 28 ] jet black. It is a very lar-ge animal fomc:tifnes reaching the length of tw.elve or thirteen feet. Its limbs are very flout, and its flrength prodigiom. It is an inhabitant only of colddl: regions of ,the globe, fuch as tne fhores of HuMan's Bay, Greenland, and Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and the coaft of Siberia. Sometimes they have bee l wafted on ice iflands to Norway and Iceland. ,'The Polar Bear is carn(vorous, preying on filh r feals, the carcaffes of whales; and fuch land ani mals as it is able to catch. It is extremely fero CIOUS, and has not the leaft fear of men, whom it with great courage when they land on thore c oa'fis, and frequently carrie! off from the midft of their tom paniol}s. Bears have even b en known to fwim to veITels at a dillance from fhore, and board them, in order to make prey of the crew: 1n Greenland, they fometimes endeavour to break into the dwellings of the natives. They have -little. dread of fi,re-anns; it is fa'id that they are repelJed by the fmelJ of burnt feathers. In fum mer they refide chiefly among .the ice iflands, fwimming from one to anolher in purfuit of the feals, in which exercire, and ili Cliv' ing, they dic. play great agility. they retire to deep beels beneath the fnow, or caverns in the fixed ice, where the), pafs the difmal fcaCon in a torpid ftate. The females bring forth uCmdly, tw o

PAGE 42

two cubs at a time, to tliey fbew the m'oIf affectionate attachment. The following very [hiking relati on to that purpofe is given in Phipps's Voyage towards the North Pole. A !he-bear and two' cubs Dearly as large as herfelf were reen 011<: morning appro\lching fail: over the ice, allured by the [cent of fome [ea-JlOrfe blubber whi.ch had been. left bumrng the1"e. C( They ran eagerly te the fire, and drew out f.rom the flames part of the flefu that remained unconfumedy and ale it vOl'acioufly. The crew from tile [hip out gFeat lumps of the flefh upon the ice, which tht: old Bear fetched away fingly, laid every hmW before her cubs as {he brought it, and dividing it, gave each a {haJ!e,. re;' [erving but a fmall portion ro herfelf. As {he was fetching away the laft piece, they revelled their tnufkets at the cubs, and {hot them both dead;, and in her retreat they wounded the dam, but not mor .. ally. It would: have drawn. tears 'of pity from any but unfeet jog mi nds;. to have marked the affec th>nate concern ex-pretred bY. this poqr beail: in the' laH moments of hel' ex .piring young. Though ,/he' was forely. wounded,. alld but juft crawl to the place where they lay, !he carri ed the lump of flefh !he had felded away, as {he had done others beror.e, tOte it in pieces; and laid it down before : .hem; and wher: fhe faw that they refufed to eat,. !h.e laid .her paws firil: upon one, and then upon D 3 the

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[ 30 J the other, and endeavoured to raife then=; up all this while it was pitiful to hear her moan. When 1he found {he could not frir them, {he went off j and when {he had gotten at fome dill:ance, looked back and moaned; and that not availing her to entice them away, the returned, and fmelling l"Qu,nd them, began to lick their wounds. She went off a fecolld time, and having crawled a few paces, looked again behind her, and for fome time !toad "moaning. She then returned to her cubs, and with figns of inexprefIible fondnefs,. went round one, amI round the other, them and moaning. Fillding at lall: that they were cold and lj" felefs, the rai fed her head towards the {hip, and growled a curfe upon the murderers, which they returned with a volley of mufket balls. She fell between her cubs, and died, licking their wounds." White Bears become exceedingly fat: their fat is melted for train oil. Their fleih is white, but coarfe. Their !kin makes a warm clothing; and the fplit tendons are ured by the Greenlanders for thread. Thofe have been exhibited here as a {how have appeared untameable, roaring loud, and in continual agitati9n, and never eafy except when pails full of cold water were poured upon 3. URSUS

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[ 31 J 3. URSUS GULO.-GLUTTON. This is a carnivorous animal, larger than a Badger, being fometirnes a yard in length from nore to tail, with a tail about a foot long. It has a round head, thick blunt nore, {hort ears, and thong limbs. The top of the head and length of the back are of a black-brown; along the fides it has a ferruginous tinge, forming killQ of broad band:. but the colours vary in different individuals. The is glolfy, and is finely da:' mafked or watered like a The Glutton has taken its name from its voracity. It preys both upon freih game and carrion, and has been known, when kept confined, to eat thirteen pounds of flelh in a clay It attacks deer, fmall quadrupeds, and birds, ahd wiII even ddl:roy the larger cattle by dropping on them from the bough of. a tree as they pars beneath, and fucking their blood till they fall. It is equally fierce and {hong, and will difpute its prey with tne Wolf and Bear. It has the offenfive fmell of the \Veefel tribe, which in ieveral refpetls it refembles. It breeds 0l1Ce a year, producing from two to four young ones. The fur is valuable, and is much ufed for muffs, linings, &c. The Glutton does not retreat hi the win ter, like the Bear. The

PAGE 45

[ 32 ] The \OLVERENE, QUICKHATCH, or CAR. CAJOU of America, (URSUS feems to be onl y a vari ety of the above, diff eri ng chiefly in having the lateral band of an ath colour, inftead o f ferruginous. It is alfo fomewhat fmaller. In fome parts it is called the Beaver-eo/er, from its habit of breaking _in.to the houfes thofe induf. trious ilnimals and devouring them. J t is alfo v e ry deftruetive to deer, on which it drops as they pafs and no efforts of the animal in rul1ling among the thick boughs can (hake [t off. It is 1")ot unCOffim
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'"f T-

PAGE 47

[ 33 J temperate parts of America, as well the i!lands the continent. It feeds on maize, fugar-canes, various kinds of fruit, birds and their eggs: It is extremely fond of all [weet things, and of {hong liquors; will dell:roy poultry; and at low water will go down to the {hare and catch oyflers, which it dextroufiy picks out of the when they open; but it fometimes is held fall: by the paw and drowned. It has the cunning of a Fox, and the curiality and mifchi evoufnefs of a Monkey. In' eating, 'it generally lits on its hind legs, uling its paws like hands. It <.lips dry food into water be fore eati og it; but on the whole 'drinks little, and is a very cleanly animal. It is eaftly tamed, and is often kept in hou(es like a cat; being amuling f r om its playf u lnefs, but capricious and ealily offended. The Raccoon has an obl i que gait in walking, leaps and climbs w ell, and afcends trees. It inhabits the hollows of trees in a wild (late, and preys chiefly by night. In winter and very bad weather it keeps altogether in its hole. Its voice when angry is a hoarfe bark; at other times [mall and {harp. The female produces two or three young at a birth, commonly in the month of The fllr of the Ractoon is ufed by hatters, and valued by them next to Beaver. 5. URsua

PAGE 48

[ 34 } 5. URSUS MELEs.-BAD(;ER. This is an animal of a c1umfy form, thick necked, thick-bodied, with v ery !hort legs. Its length is about two feet from nofe to tail; the latter, fix incl1es. It is cov c v e d with long rough hair, of an uniform greyiili colour on the upp e r parts, black on t!>le throat, breaft, belly and legs. The face is white, but a band of black fURS alon g each fide of the head, including the eyes and ear s: It' has fmall eye s, and !hort roundep ears. I t s teeth are very ftrOl'lg. and the dawson the fore feet very long and ftraight. Under the tail there is a tranfv erfe orifice, whence exudes a fetid wh.ite matter. The Badger is a native of all the tempe rate climates of Europe and Alia. It is a retired animal, .-efiding in a hole under ground into feveral apartments, in which it paffes the day in fleep; by night it comes forth for food, which. conlifls chiefly of roots and fruits, infects,. worms,. and frogs. The Fox will fometimes, in _the. Badger's a0fence, ta.ke poffeffion of its hole, and by defiling it render it untenable by its lawful proprietor, which is remark ably cle a nly. The Badg e r like the Bear, fleeps much in winter, in a h a lf torpid ftate. Though an in o ff e nlive cre ature, it is capable of making a very vigor o us refifl:a nce to an attack, as is fllewn in the inhuman [port of baiting it

PAGE 50

-[ 35 ] it with dogs. His bite is very keen, and his {kin is fo thick and loofe that it is difficult to inflict a wound upon him. ,The female produces three or four young at a litter, and in providing for them is faid to prey upon animals do not feern to be the ufual food of the Badger, fuch as i)T.oung rab bets, which the drags out of .their burrows. Badgers are ufually fat, their ftelh is good to eat, particularly the hams, cured like bacon. The kin, dreffed wirh the hair on, is tlfed for piflol furniture; and the hairs furnHh painters with brufhes wh-ich they call foftening or fweeten ing tools. The AMERIC AN BADGER feems to be little niote than a variety of the preceding fpecies, dif fering from it only in being fomewhat lefs, and in general of a paler hue. There is a1fo an INDIAN 'BADGER, little known, but feeming nearly to ap p roach the Weefel tribe. GENUS

PAGE 51

, GENUS XIX. DIDELPHIS.-OP0SSUM GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth Jmall, rounded; ten above, the two middle ones longer; eight below, the two middle ones broader and very foort: Canine-teeth long: Grind rs denticulated: Tongue edged with papilla: An Abd o minal. Pot/ch (in mojl /pecies) containing the teals. THIS fingular genus of animals became firrl known on the difcovery of America, and was fup pofed to be peculiar to that part of the globe, but has fince been found in various other parts. It is remlilrkabie for the pouch or bag under the belly of the female, in moLl fpecies, which ferves f6r a temporary habitation, or a place of refuge for the young, after they left their original abode in the womb. The fpecies of this genus are nu merous, and not yet perfeCl:ly difcriminated. We [hall defcribe only fome of the moft remark a bl e I DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA.-VIRGINIAN OPOSSUM. This fpecies is nearly the fize of a caty bllt of a thicker form, owing lo its long and upright hair. It 9

PAGE 52

,

PAGE 53

[ 37' ] It has a long fhal'pened vi Cage, antI very )Vide 'mouth: its ears are thin, naked and round: its legs ihort; feet with five each furniihed with fuarp claws; hut the interior toes of the hind feet have flat nails like thofe of the monkey tribe. tail is covered with hair at the beginning, but thence to the eno is naked and fc'aly much ref!-'!!n bling a fnake, and polfeifes the power of firongly laying hold on any obje8: by coiling rOllnd it. The general colour the animal is a di ngy yeIlo'wilh "white; the belly white ; the legs and hairy part o'f the tail blackifh. 'The female is provided with a large pouch beneath the belly, in which the young lare placed imi11ediately afte!: they are born, when < they appear like embryos, naked and almofr Iefs, and adhere dofely to the teats. They wife take in it afterwards, on the appear. ance of danger. The young are four or five in number. The parent has a power. of c10fing her i bag with 'fuch force, that it can fcarcely be pulled open, arid no tortures will make her loofen it. This Opoffum is a native of the fouthern parts of North Am e rica, and of Mexico, Brafil, and Peru. l!preys on pnllltry, fmall birds and quadrupeds, v v hich it purfues among the trees, being very aCl:ive in climbing, and fwinging from bough to bough by means of its tail. ,It aHo eats fruits arid roots. It walks (lowly, and when overtaken, feigp$ ilfelf VOL. lIe E dead.

PAGE 54

cleau. It is as tenaciolls of life as a cat. Its dif pofition is gentle; its voice a grunting fqueak; and its fmel! difagreeable. The fldh is good to eat, and refembles pig. The Indian women dye thehair and weave it into garters and girdles.' z. DIDELPHIS MARSUPIALIS.-MoLUCCA OPOSSUM. This is a larger fpecies than the former, and of a flenderer form. Its colour is a moderately deep brown, benea th. Its ears are (omewhat longer and lefs rounded than thore of the Virgi in other refpeEl:s there is a great refemblance between the two. This is a native of the Earl: India Iilands, and i& particularly numerous i;l Aroe and Solor, whence it is called the Aroe Rab. bet. It a1fo occurs in Surillam and other hot regions of SOllth America. It is reckoned very delicate eating, and in I ndia is reared for the table, along with rabbets. A larger variety of this fpe. cies is met with in AmbQyna. I 3-DIDELPHIS ORIENTALIS.-PHALANGER. This is the fize o'f a very large rat. It has {hort hairy ears, a thick muzzle, and but two cutting teeth in the lower jaw. Its colour is reddifh grey above, yeIlowifh-white beneath, with a blackifll line from the top of its head down its back. In voice

PAGE 55

[ 39 ] voice .and attitudes it refembles a Squirrel. It is-a native of the Molucca .Iflands. -i-. DWELl'HIS MURINA.-MuR1NE OPOSSU'M .. I This is a fmall fpecies, meafuring only fix or eight inches from f.lO[e t? tail. It has long broad ears, a {harp vifage, and fcaly tail. I ts eyes are, encircled with black: its genera:l colour is tawny Drown a bove,. and whitilh beneath. It has no ab dominal pouch, but a kind of furrow or fold; within which the t e ats 'are firu a ted. To thefe young, which, are ten or ,more in number, adh e re as foon as born, and h ang at them like inanimate. things till th:;:y have attained growth to enable them to run about. s. DIDELPHIS 'DORSIGERA.-MR.tAN Qpos-' SUM. Madame lVterian, the celebrated painter of na tural hifi ory, has giv.en name to thi s curious 'fpe' c ies, the female of which fhe has reprefented in' a plate, carrying fix young ones on its b ack; each' having its tail twifl:ed round that of th e parent. She calls it a kind of Wood-Rat, and, it feems : much to the Iaft fpecies. E 6. DI-

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E 4:0 ] I (,. DIDEl"PHIS BRUYNH.-]AVAN OPOSS-UM. Of this, a figure is given by the trayelIe{ and ; painter Bruyn, who dikovered it in the HIe of Java. He reprefents it in a fittIng puiture, like the Jerboa or Kanguroo, to which laIl: animal it is allied, as well by its leaping pace, as by the form of its hind legs and feet, of which the two to e s are enclofed in a common frin. "It has a large abdomi nal pouch. Its fize is about that '9f a hare. ,-7. DIDELPHIS LEMURINA.-LEMURINE OPOS.' SUM. This elegant fpecies, from New South 'Vales, k named : from its general refcmblance to the Ma cauco It is equal in {ize to a cat, but 1 onger bodied. It has a {bort head, prominent' ':Yes, broad upright ears, and a long, thick, very furry tail. Its colour is a fine iron-grey and pale yellowifh brown beneath. Its fur is ext remeJy thick and foft. It. feeds on [mall birds fruits; and holds its food in its fore-paws when eating. 8.

PAGE 57

[ 41 ] 8. PTAURUS.-PETAURINE OPOS-, SUM. This fpecies, called the Great Flying OpOffilnl of New Holland, is an animal of fingular,beaut y Its body is al;out the fize of a fmall rabbet, and it has the general appearance of a flying fql1irrel. membrane covered with fur :f1:retches from its fore to its hind legs on each fide, which, by its expan-. lion, enables it to to a conGderable dill:am; e .. Its fur is extremely rich and fine; the colour, a {able deep grey brown tinged with ferruginous above, and nearly white beneath. A darker firipe rtms the whole length of the back; and the margin of the flying membrane is alfo dark, with white. The' tail, which is at leall as long as the head and body, is extremely full of long foft flocky hair, thus affilling the animal's flight. 9 DII)ELPHIS SCIUREA.-SQYIRREL Opos-SUM. This is likewife a very beautiful animal from the fame country, greatly refembling a Squirrel, and in colour exactly like the American Grey Sqnirrel. Its large abdominal pouch, however, marks it to be an Opo{fum. It has a {hort lateral membrane for,-the purpofe of' flying, or rather, {pringing. E 3 It5.>

PAGE 58

I}. s tail is Jl}lI and prehenfile; i Is fur wonderfully foft and It is a noCl:urnal animal, re maining torpid the greatefl: part of the day, but ,rery it6live at night. It feems as if the Opoffum charaCter was very general in quadrupeds of New Ho'llahd, at Jeall in that part of it about the fettlement of New, South Wales; for various other fpecies have been difcovered, which from their refemblance to other ;rnimals, or fome particular circumfl:ance in their J form, have been named Piverrine, Pulpine, Porculine, Utjine, Long-tailed; Brujh-tailed, Pygmy, &c. _Little being known of them but their figure, .it is unneceffary here to give particular defcriptions of there fpedes.

PAGE 59

( l'ubli.rhul of .J./o/ul.fon S.
PAGE 60

GENUS XX,. '. MACROPUS.-KANGUROO GENERIC Front-teeth in, the upper jaw fix,. notched; in the lower jaw, two, ; l very large, long, ffiarp, and pointing : Grinders jive on each fide in both jaws" dijltally difpropl'>rtionate to its hopping on i1S like a bird, and balaaciJ1g itCi!1f by a valftail could not but appear a veryextr.aordiJUlry fight te tllOfe : navigators who, with the oelebrated Gaptain Cook, tlif.coveled it in 1770 The Kangpr9'o has a head f0mewhat like that, of a deer, a midd viCage, prettY I l,ar.ge ears, large .eyes, fmall muuth, -'lnd a i,lencler: neck.

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[ 4:4 J neck. Its fore-legs are fo (hort as to reach its n{)fe, and are ufelefs for walking: they have each five toes, with !harp claws. The body thence enlarges gradually to the belly, whi The Kanguroo feeds on vegetables, P!i.ncipall y grafs. In a natural flate they feed in herds o l thirty or forty together, flationing one of the num ber upon the watch; for they are very timid, and at the lj"lfi alarm, fpring away in vafl bounds, fly-, log. oyer bu!hes feven or eight feet in height .. They

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[ 45 ] They ufe forefeet only for digging, or bringing food to their mouth. They have an aCtion of giving a violent kick with theiihind-feet as they fpring; and they fometimes ufe their tail in defence, which is capable of giving a formidable blow. The female brings but one young at a time, which is extremdy fmall, and immedi ate l y faftens it felf to the teat in the pouch. There it con tiope 5 t ill grown of a conflderable fize; and it takes oc-' caflonal ) efuge in the ,afteT it is accu(lomed to go abroad, and fo large that its head and hang out. The Kanguroos have bred in this country, and fee m likl!ly to become naturaliz ed to the climate. Their flelh is good to eat, but is rather coarfe. 2.. M 'ACROl'US MINOR.-RAT KANt' UROO. This fpecies is about the uze of a Rabbet. Its head fomewhat refembles that of a Rat, whence its n ame. In (hape and proportions it is firnilar to the Great Kang\lroo, but lefs elegant. Its hair, o f a dulky cinereous brown, is coarlh than that of the former. In its teeth, ana in the ftruCture of jls hind.feet, it nearly agrees with the great fpe cies. Its fore-feet have only four toes. The male is furnifiled with an abdomina 1 pouch. GENUS

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GENUS Xxr TALPA.-MOLE. GENERIC CHAR ACr,ER. 'Fr.ont-teeth tn If;, upp;r jaw, fix, une qual; in the lower eight: Canine-teed, one on each fide, tbe upper ones large.fl: Grinaers /even iT} tbf jaw; fix in the lower. THIS genus _of animals are by obv ious charaCters, fitting them for the fubter raneous life which is to them. V' eryJmallr eyes, bllrled the fur j no external eats; a long fnout j very broad {hang .fore-feet re[embling hands, and fmall hind-feet; mark their capacity diggi og in the and their prin cipal it. 1. TALPA EU:ROP.EA.--:-COMMON MOLI!. '1 This [pecies has a th ick round body, to which the head is joined any app'ear.ance of neck; a flend, er but and tendiI)olls fnout; v.ety !hart .l?r the body; the fore-feet very {hang broad, directe? obliquely outwards, and furniilled with long al'ld {hang claws: its tail' is Ibort; its !kiD very. thick and tough, and covered

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[ 47 ] with an extremely fine iliort -as foft as velvet, generally black, but fometimes fpotted with white, and now and then entirely white. Its length to the tail is about five inches and three quarters; that of the tail, one inch. The eyes of the Mole aFe fo very fmail, that it is popularly reckoned blind : ; and it requires the \lfe of the microCcope to difcover the variety of humours and other parts in that organ, which however it really poffeffes. Its hear ing is fuppofed to be exquifite, giving it notice of the moll: dif1:' ant approach of danger. Thus that accurate obferver of nature, Shakefpear, makes Caliban, in the Tempefl:," fay, Pray you tread roftly, that the blind Mole may not Hear a foot fall." The habitation of the Mole is under ground, into which it burrows with great celerity by means of its fore-feet; tlirowi ng back the loofe foil with its hind-feet. In its dark dement'it purfues worms and infects, its chief food, directed by its fmell, which is very acute. It throws up the foil into hillocks, and does much damage in gardens and fields by loofening and devouring the roots of plants. It works mofl: before rain, and in winter 15efol'e a thaw, which fets the worms in motion; in 'dty weather is obliged to pe'netrate deep, and there makes no hillocks. If it ever emerges to the furface,

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.l 48 J {urfaoe, the leail alarm caufes it to plunge again. When taken, it utters a ihrill [cream, and oefends itfelf with teeth and claws. Moles often do much mifchief by penetrating the banks of dykes and caNals, and lftting opt the water; but ;in that cafe they are brought into imminent danger 'of High floods are very deftruCl:ive to Moles, which are then compelled to quit their holes, and truil to fwimming. They fwim well, and have been known to pafs to ilands in lakes by ,that means. The female breeds in f pring, and brings fgur or fiveyOUJ1g at a litter, for which {he makes a neft of mors or the fiL1res of roots a littl.: below the furface, under one of the largeil hil locks: from this cavity feveral {\eping palfages are made, through which !he goes in queil of food. Moles are taken tn traps, or deilroyed by poiron. They are inhabitants of Europe in general, and of the fouthern parts of iberia, where they are faid to be unufuallylarge. ,2. MOLE. -This fpecies, which is fomewhat fmaller thall the common Mole, is dillingui!hed by a circle of radiated tendrils with which its nofe is befet, and which probably afiiil its fenfe of feeling, like the antenna: of infeCl:s. hind legs are fcaly: its colour dufky. It is a native of North America, and 9

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t : '49. J : and is fa id to frequent uncultivated fields, and feed on roots. 3' TALPA MOLE.' .This, which is likewife a North American fpe cies, has a cirCle papilla: round the edge of its note, and is difl:inguiilied by a tail two inches long. 4. TALPA RUFA.-RED MOLE' This is of a pale red.brown colour, and has only three toes on its fore-feet, ami four on its hind. I feet. It isa native of America. 5. TALPA FuscA.-BRowN MOLE. The fur of this fpedes gloffy brown at the and deep grcy at the its tail a.nd feet white. Its fore-feet ilre remarkably broad. -it inhabits North From fome pecu.: liarity in its teeth, this fpecies, as al fo the Radiata, are referred by Linnre\ls to the genus Scrcx. Other fpecies of Mole are defcribed, chiefly dilt-inguifl lcd by their colollf; but they all fl:rongly refemble the common kind in form and manner of life. V"O-L. H. F GENUS

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[ 50 ) XX'II. SOREX GENERIC CHARAcrEiJ Frontteeth in tl'e upper jaw, two, /(lng, hifid: in the lower jaw, J.wo, or four, the intermediate ones /hoYler,. Canine teeth Jcvtl:.al on .each fide: r;ril1dm pointed. THIS gel'lUS In. appearance much refembJes the M.oufe tribe, but by its teet h it rather approaches the Moles: and it may be regarded as intermediate between the two. The Shrews have long fiellder n,ofes" fmall.ears; and five toes on each foot. J. SOREX' ARANEUS.-COMMON SHREW. This animal is about two inches and a half from f10re to tail. which lail: is one inch and a half. Its (:01. our refembles that of a Moufe, but with a night ferruginous tinge. It has a (harp fnout, and eyes almofi: hid in the fur.. I t on roots, grains, infects, and an1ma1 fubfi:ances of any kind, and is often rooting in filth like a hog. Hence it has a fl:.rong difagreeable fn-iell) fo that cats, which kill, will not eat it. It inhabits old walls, heaps of Rones, and holes in the ground, ani frequents hayricks, dunghills, &c. The female makes a ne!li

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,

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[ 51 J ndf with mofs, and brings feveral young at a time. There is an annual mortality of the Shrews i.n Augull:, when many are found dead in the paths. This fpecies inhaBits moll parts of Europe, arid the north ,of Afia. 2. J"ODl'llNS.-W A.TE_ R SHRE'>V. This kind, called 1n Germany C",ebel', or the Digger, whence its Latin name, is larger thah the former, and is eafily difiinguitheH by its colour, which is black on the upper part, and a pale aal. colour beneath. Its eyes-.are fo fmall, that it (5 called in Lincolrilhire the Blind Mouft. It utteJls a chirping note, like that of a grars-hopper. It in the banks of rivers, and is faid to fwim under water. female breeds. in fpring, and : produces eigHt or nine at a litter. It inhabits va rio11s parts of Europe and Afia. In the north of -Scotland, where it is called LafJellan, it is fuppofed to poirun the cattle. 3 S0REX MOSCHATUS.-MuSK SHREW. This remarkable fpecies is about feven inches from nore to tail, a tail of eight inclles. Its colour is dulky, or aib-brown, whiter be neath. Its body IS thick, fomewhat flattened: its head {mall, with a ve-:y ICYng',flaftened fnout edged on the fide w i th whilkers; a furrow Tuns along the upper part F 2 -' of

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[ 52 J Gf this organ, which is grifily -and very fiexiDre; The eyes are extremely 'fmalt :no external ears : legs very ,{hort: feet almofl naked; toes, five, by a membrane, which i's widefl on the hind-feet: tail naked, fcalr, comprelTed fide-wife, and tapering. Near the bafe of the tail are fmall fecreting a yellowjfh ftnefling like civet or muik. This fpecies inhabits the banks of the Volga and the adjacent lakes from N ovogorOd to Saratoff. It makes bimows w o rth the entrance b e!ow 'water, working thence npwards, but never to the furface, and only. fo far as to be Ollt, of reach of the higheft floods. It is very low-paced" and never wanders far from its burrow. Numbers arefometimes feen fwimming togethel:. and fnapping their mouths as ducks rio their bills. They feed' on worms, leeches, and water infeCts. They are I caught for their' (kins, are put into ', among doaths to drive away moths, and are fup ; pOled to proteCt thore .who wear them from fevers ahd infection. '4. SOREX C_-tRULESCENS.-PERFUMJNG SHREW. This fpecies has t!.le fame mufky odour with the Iafl, and it is faid to be fo fhong and penetrating" merely by running over a well-corked boltle, the wine has been rendered unfit to drink. It is nearly e ight inches from nofe to tail, with a tatl lefs

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[ 53 ] lefs than half that length: fnollt very long and flender: eyes fmall: ears {bort, round, and femi tranfparent. The fur is foft and fine; ,its colour of an elegant blue-grey, paler beneath. The tip of the nofe, and the feet, are naked and rofe-co loured. It inhabits the continent and ifiands of India,.. and feeds principally on rice. 5. SOREX RADIATUS.-CANADA SHltEW. This fpecies is nearly to the Radi a ted Mole, like which it has a fnout ferminateJ with a circle of foft tendrils, like the rays Qf a {pur: but its long form, and general habit, indi cate it to belong to the Shrew genus. I t is of a bJacki(h hue, with hair rather coarfe: its eyes are hid under the fkin: its fnnlli brifl:ly; its t aiJ.knotty and almofl: naked: its feet naked, and fcaly above. It is addicted to burrowing, but lefs fo than' the Mole, and lives more above ground than that animal. I't is a native of Canada. Various other fpedes of Shrew have been dlF -covered in different countries. One of the fe, the Pygmy Shrew, is prob:lbly the fmallefl: of all qua drupeds, weighing not more than half a dram. it is founei in Siberia. F3 C;:ENUS

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[ 54] GENUS XXIII. -GENERIC; CHARA.C'1ER. Front-teeth tWO.111 each jaw; in the upper, d{jlant; in the lower, near: Canine-teeth on each fide, 'abo've, jive; {jelow, three: Grinders on each fide, ab.o'Ve and below, f o ur: Body covered on the 1!PPf4r part with !pines. THIS genus externally-much refemoles tllat of the Porcupine, chiefly differing in the length 'of its fpines; but the il:ructure of the teeth indicates it to belong to a different tribe. I. ERINACEUS EVROPlEUs.-EuROPEAN HEDGEHOG; I This animal meafures about ten" inches from Dofe to tail, which 1ail: is only an inch long. It has a long fnout, the upper mandible of which projects beyond the lower:: the noU;ils are bor dered with a loofe flap. The eyes are fmall: ears rounded, !hart, and naked: legs 010rt and naked; toes five on each foot, with long but weak claws. 'The upper part of the face, fides, and rump are covered with coarfe yellowiili cinereous hair; the whole .. 5

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\

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[ 55 J whole back is beret wi t h {harp [pihes; whitifl;, with a bar of through their middle. The nofe and legs are of a hue. This weak and animal is well provided by nature for felf-defence: when alar med, it rolls itrelf up into a ba1l, on all li.des fuch a hedge of ll:iff {harp prickies, that few animals chufe to molell: it; and fcarcely any thing but cold water will force it to unfold. 'It inhabits fmall thickets, or ditches with bullies, where it lies in the day concealed under grafs or leaves: the night is its time of prey, when it feeds upon roots, worms, beetles, and other infeCl:s. It lies under tne [ufpicion 'of injuring cows by rucking them, from whirh charge Mr. Pennant thinks it is acquitted by the [mall nefs of its mouth, i.ncapable of receiving the teat. But as it ,is found, when kept tame, to have a great propenfity to fill:en on any [oft piece of fielli, which it will quite fuck away, there is no improbability that it fhould in like manner adhere to the teats of cows as they lie in th e field. The Hedge hog lies torpid in the winter in its hole, cJof e ly wrapped up in a bed of mafs, and rolled into a The female makes a nell: of grars or mors, in which fhe produces four or five at a litter. There born blind, and with the [pines foft and flexible, but in a few days they become ll:iff and filarp. The [pines of the Herlgehog were '.

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[ 56 ] were anciently in. great requell:. for carding wool. The animal is fomethnes kept in houfes for its activity in deyouring cock-roaches and other infects. It is remarkably patient, and has been known to endure dilTecting alive without a cO, mplaint. It is a of mof!: of the temperate climates of Eu rope and Afia, and is common in England, though not often feen. The LONGEA RED HEDGEHOG of Siberia, and -the Volga, and the EARLEss HEDGE HOC of Guiana; nearly approach the preceding {pecies. 2. ERINACEUS MADAGASCARIENSlS .. -STRIPED HEDGEHOG. This animal, called a1fo the randrek, has a long pointed fnout, iliort rounded ears, fuort legs, and no tail. Its general colour is black, with five longituaina l white bands on the body; the black parts are with brifHy hair; the white, with fmall prickles, refembling thore of a Porcupine. From the black parts on the back fpring long fcat tered hairs, reaching to ground: the head is covered with iliort prickles: the [nout white, and eyes furrounded with a white circle. The 'Tandrek inhabits Madagafcar, and, it is '(aid, alf@ the Indian iiles. It walks flowly, and gl 'unts; whence it is called the Ground-hog, or Pig PorclI'" pine. It bul'fows, and r-emains tor-p.id three months in

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in the year. It is a noaurnaJ animaT, and feecTs after fun-fet, chiefly on fruits and Its bo d y is a lump of fat, and is eaten by the natives. Buffon fuppofes two kindred fpecies, which he calls the 'T anrec, and the 'Tendrac, but it feems pro. bable that th ey are the fame animal at different periods of growth. The' fize, whenfull-grown,. is about that of a rabbet. 3 ERINACEUS HEDGEHOG. This fpecies has fo much of the Porcupine in: its appearance, that nothing but 11 ri?id adherence to the arrangement drawn from the teeth, could caufe it to be c1alfed among the Hedge-hogs. Its pendulous ears, and five' toes on each foot, alfo refer it rather to the Hedgehog than the Porcupine genus. It is a pretty large animal, and is covered \\iith long quills, variegated like thore of the <;.om mon It yields that !tony concretion or Bezoar, called Piedra del Porco (Hog or Porcu p ine fl:one) which was formerly fa much valued m e dicine. -:'. ORDER

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ORDER IV. GLIRES" .. GENUS .XXIV. GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-fm'h, two in tath Jam, obliquely cut: Grinders eight: Body covl'red with '/pines intermixed with hairs: "Four toes on the /ore-fiet; five on the hifld. I. HYSTRIX CRISTATA.-CRESTED PORCUPINE. THIS common fpecies of the P"orcrlpilJe is in length about two feet from nofe to tail, with a tail! of four inches. It has {hort rounded
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JI.S8 .' .'

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{ 59 ] 'With alternat.e 'bhck and white rings, and are tac!:ted by a fmall root. Short and flattilh quills, -af.ten blunt at the end, cover the tail. The Porcupine is a native of Africa, India, and the Indian HIes, and alfo of the warmer parts of Europe, as Italy and Sicily; but into thefe it is fuppofed that it has heen f0rmerly imported. It is a harmlefs animal, feeding upon fruits, roots, and herbs. Ifs flelh is eaten, and is lufciotls food. The ancient and fiill vulgar notion of its darting itsquills to a di(bnce aga infi its enemies, is either altogether fabulous, or at leafi greatly exaggerated. It may indeed, by {baking its fkin when the quills are loo[e at the time of cafting them, occafionally throw them off with f0me degree of violence; but its ufual mode is to brifHe them lip when irritated, and oppore them to an a{failant, making at the fame time a fnorting noire. When in a llate of confinement, it appears very irarcible. The Por .cupine inhabits holes underground, which it forms into feveral apartments, leaving only a fingle entrance. It (leeps much by day, and feeds in the night. The female produces two young at a birth. 2. }{YHRIX POR-CUPINE. This fpecies is particularly dillinguifhed by its long tail, whi"h has the faculty of laying hold, like

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[ 60 ] 1ike that of fame monkeys and opcffums. The' animal is about a foot in length, exclufive of the ta' il, which is eighteen inches. It has a fmall head, very blunt hare iliort rounded ears, and feet with four toes on each, and a tnbercle in place of the fifth. The whole and outer parts of the body are covered with 1llOrt, .thong, and very,fharp fplnes, white, tipped with black : on the tail thefe reach only to one third of the length, the re being nearly naked. Th_ e hair on the under parts is duiky brown. Tbis fpecies is ana: tive of South America, particularly BraG!. It inhabits woods, and climbs trees, twifl:ing its tajI round the branches to prevent falling. It feeds noe ()nly on fruits, but on birds. Durjng the day it fleeps in the hollows or among the roots of trees, amI preys by night. Its voice is a -grunt like that of a pig. It grows very fat, and its fleih is white and .eating. The MEXICAN PORCUPINE is a fpecies confi refembling the above.,. but is larger, an(\. has a thicker and ihorfer tail. 3 HYSTRIX MACROURA.-IRIDES1::ENT P URCUPINE. This is an animal of a iliort thick f orm, partI cularly remarkable for its changeaQle colours. It i s coated with iliort, fiiff, needJe-likt: brifiles or

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[ 61 ] (pines, which, in different lights, appear either of a gilded green, or of a reddifh hue. Its feet' have each five toes. It has a very long tail, covered with fpiny hair, except at the which has a thick brufh or tuft of filv e ry white quills, each quill confining of a long fiender fiem, fw<:lI ing out at intervals into knots re[embling grains of :rice, and terminated with the fame. It is a native of the Indian ifieg, and inhabits woods. 4-. HYSl'RIX FASCICULATA.-BRUSH-TAILED -PORCU]'INE; This fpe cies, which is fmaller than the common Porcupine; and has a proportionably' longer head, is by its tail, which is naked, fcaly, and terminated by a tuft of long flat hairs, refcmbling (hips of parchment. It is a native of Malacca. 5. HYSTRIX DORSATA.-CANADA PORCUPINE. This fpecies is fhQft and thick-bodicd, refembling a Beaver in fhape. Its length from !lufe to tail is abollt a foot and a half; that of the tail, fix inches. It has four toes on the fore-feet, and on the hind, armed with firong hooked claws, channelled beneath. All upper part of its bOlly, head, and tail, is c10athed with long, foft, dark-brown ha. ir, in which the fpines are nearly c.oncealed. VOL. II. G There .'

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, [ 62 J There are lharp and {hong, longeil: an the back, where they are about three inches in 'length: at the
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They five on vegetables, and inhabi't holes und'el' ground or beneath the roots OF trees. }". CAVIA COBAYA,-VAR1EGATE.q CAVY. This fpecies is well known among us by the n:um; of GUINEA-PIG. It is lefs than a rabbet, :llld of a thick form; it has large broaCl rounded ears; a half-divided upper lip; h .air ereCt, of a white colour, or' white variegated with orange and I:>lack, difpof\!d in irregular blotches; no tail; four toes on the fore-feet, three on th& hind. Its native country is Braiil and other parts of South America; but its habits and manners have been chiefly ob ferved as dOll1eflicatcq among us. It is eafily made tame, but has little and is indeed a !lopid little animal, fuffering its young to be devoured without oppofition, and even making no refiftance to attacks on its own life. It fleeps much, but is re{tJefs when awake, perpetually run lling from corner to <:orne,> with a grunting fqueaking noife. It IS cleanly, and freq1,lently employs itfelf iq fmoothing and dre(Iing its fur like .a c a t. It will feed OR a great variety of vegetable Jubftances, green or dry, and has the habit of gnawing leather or matters that lie in its way. It is very fufceptible of cold, and cannot live in our winters without artificial warmth. When Guinea-pigs quarrel with each othero; they not only G bitllJ

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bite, but kick with their hind legs like a ho de They are extremely prolific, the female beginning to breed at two mo n ths old, and bringing from four to ten or twelve at a time, fn that it has b e e n calculated that a thoufa n d might be produced in a year from a fingle pair; but numbers of the young die or perilh through accidents. They run with agility the day they are born, and can immediat ely feed On vegetables. Their Hefh is eatable, but with us they only kept for amufe:ment. Rats avoid the places in which they reficle. 2. CAVIA PACA.-SPOTTED CAVY. This fpedes is nearly two feet in length. Its form fomewhat refembles that of a pig, whence it has been called the Hog-RaObd. It has a round head; !hort black muzzle; di.vided lip; large nof. trils; long whilkers; large prominent eyes; {hort, round, naked ears; {hort legs; flYe toc.s on each foot; and a tail fo !hort as to be fcarcely viflble. It is covered with coarfe, thort, thin hair, dufky above, clingy white below; on each fide of the body nm five rows of roundith grey fpots. This is a nocturnal animal, remaining by himfdf in his hole during moll of tl:u: day, and feeding by night. It grunts like a pig, and bites hard when taken. It grows fat, and its Ileal is elleemed a great deli cacy. It is fometimes kept tame, when it thows a remark.

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\'

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[ 65 ] a remarkable fOlldnefi 'for fugar and fweet fruits. The female is faid to produce only one at a birth. It is.a native ot:. Guiana and Brafil, and other partll of that continent. 3; CAVIA CAUDATA.-,-AGUTI. This fpecies inhabits the fame countries with the former; and is very numerous. I t is about the fize of a fmall hare, and moves like that animal. It has a plump body; a long {harpi!h fnollt; a nofe '1Iivided at the tip; round black eyes; {hort broad naked ears; thin legs, the hinder ones the longefl, and furnifhed with only three toes; and a very thott naked tail. Its hair is hard and !hining, .browlJ1 with a can of orange, and blackiOl fteckles; orange on the rump. It burrows under-ground, or lodges ill the hollows of trees, generally fingle in a hole, or one female with her young. It feeds on roots, nuts, and fruit, and lays up flores in the earth. The Agnti breeds fan, bringing from three to five YOllng at a time, during every feafun or the year. Its fle!h is white, and much refembles that of a rabbet, and the natives hllnt them for food. They are alfo kept in a domerHc (laIC, when they wander in the day, and return of thernfdves to the hou[e at night: The LEPORINJI: CA VY is faid to be a variety of the Though u[uaJly called the Javan Har(, G 3 it

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[ 66 ] It 1:; really a native of Surinam arid tb e countries The ACOUCHY, alfo a native of the fame parts, little from the Aguti, but is fomewhat fmaller, thinner, and has a longer tail. Its body is olive-coloured. In manners it refembles thl!' Aguti, ami is equally capable ef being domefii. cated. 4. CAVIA APEREA.-RoCK CAVY. This is about a foot in tength. Its co. Jour is that of a hare, to whicl1 anj.mal, or: a ,rab. bet, it pas a general refemblance; but its ears ate iliort and rounded, like. thofe of a rat. It has no tail. It lives in holes, and in the clefts of .rocks, it'is driven out by dogs and taken. It s flefh is reckoned fuperior to. that of a rabbet. 1 1 is a native of Brafil. 5. CAVIA CAPYBARA.-CAPYBARA. It is fomewhat uncertain to. what c1afs this ani mal iliould be referred,. whence fame natural ills have cenfidered it as a fpecie s ef Hog, others as il but it fee ms to have the greatefl: analogy to the Cavies. Its fize is about tlult ef a hog twO years old, and it has been found of the weight ,of a hundred pounds. It has a very large head; a thick divided DOre with large whifkers; fmall rounded

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1 -try J rounded ears; large black eyes; the upper jaw longer than the low!!r; the grinders divided int() three flat furfaces; a iliort neck; a thort thick body, covered with brown hair;. thort legs; long feet; toes four before, and three behind, conneCled by a fmall web, and tipped with thick claws, or rather hoofs; no taiL The Capybara is a fort of amphibious animal,. making its relitlence in fenny places, near the baRks of the great rivers in South America, its 'native and fwimming and diving with great facility. It feeds on various vegetables, particularly rugar-canes, and alfo on fith, which, like the Otter,. it drags to the thore, and devours on the bank. It preys chiefly by night, and makes great ravages in. fields and gardens. It eats uu, ing up, haWing its' food in the fore-feet. It runs but flow!y, and therefore plunges in the water as foon as pollible wllen purfued. Its voice is h:ufh, refembling the braying of 3n afs. Thefe animals go ,in fhy and timid, but gentle, and capable of being tamed. The female produces but one at a birth. The flelh is eaten, but is rank and fi[lIy. H' 1 :1 r GENUS

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[ 6S ] GENUS XXVI. CASTOR.-BEA VER .GENERIC CHARACTER. Front.tutk, in each jaw; i,l the upper, truncated, and excavated 'with a tranfverfe angle; in the lower, tranJ'Utrft .the lips: Grinders four on each fide: Tail/oTlg d e p r1led, fctl/y. J. CASTOR FIBER.-COMMON BEAVER. AMONG the infbnces. o( fagacity in quadrupeds, that of the Beaver, wh e n colleCled into a .fi'ate of fociety, is the moil: noted. This animal -is ip length from nofe to tail about three f e et. ] t has {hart ears, hid in its fur;. a blunt fnout; fmall fore-feet, and large hind-feet. Its mon obvious chara&er is its tail, which differs from that of all :other quadrupeds: it is nearly a foot in len g th, of an oval form, nearly flat, and infiead of hair, i s covered with fcales, exaClly rcfembling thofe of a fHh. The ufual colour of the Beaver is n deep glolry chefnllt; and its fur conlins of lon ge r and fhorter hairs, of which the latter is remarkably fine and f o ft. The accounts of the labours of Beavers in forming a fettlerr.e:1t, are wond erful almofi beyond be lief;

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[ 6g J .' lief; bnt the following particulars may be reckoilcd :' authentic. Their favourite reforts are watery fitu aliohs in the recetfes of woods. They atfociate in the Cummer months to the number of two or three hundred, and begin to make a ki n d of vill-age, or alTemblage Qf conjoined This is always [eated on the of a piece of water; and if they find a fiill lake, which varies liltle in its height of water, they immediately proceed to building their huts j but it is common for them to pitch upon a piece of level ground into which a rivulet runs, which they convert into an artificial pond, by conllruCl:iog a dam or weir acrors the llream. It is in performing this work that their exertions are moll allonilhing. With their teeth they gnaw down fome tree which grows fo as' to fall into the water, and this forms the bare of their dam. They cut other pieces of wood into proper lengths, which the y fix into the earth as piles, and they interweave them with branches, and fill up the intedlices with earth, well rammed. With the Jkili of an experienced engineer, they make the mound which they raiCe, broad at bottom, and gradually narrowing to the top, perpenc.licular wards the lower part of the itrcul1l, anti flaping towar.ds' the upper. It is affirmed that fO.Jl1oC of their dams are from eighty to a hundred feet long, and ten or twelve feet broad at the bare. Thei.r cabin s

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[. 70 ] or 'huts are built upon piles on the margin of the pond, and are either oval or round, with a vaulted top. The walls are fometimes two feet thick, and' are made of earth, frones, and aicksr put together wilh great folidity. They are covered within with. a plafier, laid as neat.ly as with a tr.owel. Some of them rife eight feet above the -water, and conlla of two or three florie!l. Thei4' llze is according to' the number of the family which: they are to accommodate, and which varies from two to thirty beavers, male and female. All have ORe entrance towards the land, and another in the water. Below are formed their magazines of barks and tender boughs for their winter provilion The fiool's of their apartments are fpread with mofs or leaves. One fe{tlement conrtas of from ten or twelve to twenty or twenty-five cabins, con taining perhaps a hundred and fifty or two hundred .Beavers, generally an equal number of each fex". In making thefe extraordinary works, they employ to a.dvantage their very arong and iliarp forc-teeth, with which they cut wood and their broall fiat [erving to beat down and {mooth the materials; and with there infiruments, by their numb' ers, induary, and unanimity, they perform what would at firfi appear impollible to animals of their fize. They [pend the winter feafon entirely in their cabins, fubfifiing \JPon their nOre of proviliol1

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[ 71 ] I viii on. In hard they break a 1::ommunication with the unfrozen water, and often fwim a long way under the ice. In common they fit with their tails and pofierior pa;ets in the water. The females bring forth at the latter end of winter, two or three young at a litter. The males then leave them, and refort to "the woods; and the females, after they have reared their young,_ alfo quit their fmts: and the party does not affemble again till the next autumn, when they begin with repairing their works. the affociated there are fome called Terriers, which live in a folitary nate, inha biting burrows in the banks of rivers, whicll have an opening below under the depth to which the water freezes. Thefe alfo lay in winter pro vilions, ,but t'hey no extraordinary fagacity ; fa that the ta1ents of this llnimal require fociety to call them forth and give t ,hem full exertion. fur of the Tet'riers is much infurior to that the focial Beavers. Though the proper food of the Beaver is of the vegetable kind, particularly the bark and twigs of the foft woods, yet in the (umlner they alfo eat ,cr.abs, and craw .. fiOl. They do not appear to be fond of filli, yet it is afferted that when tamed they are employed in catching them. When taken young

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[ '7'2 ] YOlmg, the is readily made domeil:ic, and' appears to be of a gentle nature. This animal is a native of the northern parts of Europe and Alia, and of North America. In they are now feldom found, and only in a folitary il:ate; it1 which they alfo occur throughout T artary. They are met with in the affociated ftate about the rivers in A fiatic Ruffia, which floW' into the Oby; but they exill: in the greateil: num bers in the wilds of North America. They are 3 great object of the <:hace on account of their furs which are much valued, and iil particular are the principal material from which the fineil hats an made. Above fifty-follr thuufand of them hay; been fold at a fingle fale 0f the Hudfon's Bay com pany. The drug called Cail:or, tired in medicine, is produced from two glands near the tail of the Beaver. It is an acrid il:rong-fcented fubil:ancc .The Ruffian Callor is reckoned greatly fupcrior to the American. The flelh of the Beaver dried in the fmoke is accounted good eating. 2. CASTOR .HUIDOBRIUS.-:-CHILI BEAVER. This in general the former; but its is grey above and whitilh beneath i the toes of the fore-feet are lobated, or bordered a membra ,ne;' thofe of the hind-feet art; j and the tail is /of a compreffcd lanceolate form, I

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t '73 ] form, and hairy. It i:; a bold and fierce animal, .feeding on. fifh and crabs, and" capable of continuing long under water. It conflruB:s no regular habit ation, nor does it afford any" caftor; but its fur is as fine and valuaJ?le as that of the other. It inhabits the deep lakes and rivers of Chili. GO;t;s XXVll. MUS.-RAT. GENERIC CHARt1CrER. Uppfr !rDnt.fttlh wedge-fhapetl: Grindrrs on elJch fiar Ihrte, jomtlimts only two: CIO'UidN. 'tHIS numerous genus confifis of fome of the fmalJefl quadrupeds, but fuch as from their great multiplication and predatory are no inl:onrt derable foes to mankind. They are therefore generally ranked under thl! title of verlllill, or noxious creatures. Some of them feed on vegctab.les only; while fome are as univerfal caters as mnn himfclf, and. devour every article of food that falls in their wny. Tht;y are ufually quick and alert in their motions, and conceal themfelves in holes, Qr VOL. 1I. H retreats

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, t "74-. J "S@'me k ,i'ridsi 6-f tihc& 'miirate at certain d L ,,-, perIo sine great troops. ; otners are f'{lationarj. 'Tlwugh _nine Linnean gnus of JI1it.s h a s be'eh dimi. nifhed by taking out of the Cavies, the Jefboas; and other animaJs, it ss ftitr fa nHmerousj that it has been neclfar.y' to form fubdivifioilS, man: of which are deriv ,ed from differences in the tail. lVith jlat(ened tails. I. Mus ZI1lETftictJs.-MuSK RAT. This animal, the Mz;fqUlffh -of Ne\v England, and the Ondatra of Buf,fon, is nearly 'to the J3eawer, wit .h, which feme n ar-ura.liftshaye plaeed i.t,: lIs fize i$ that of a fmaUrabbeJ:' it has a ; .{hort l I'lead; large eyes; {hart" haity eatS; fl:rong cutting tho 'fe in the lower jaw very long; toes hairy a nd with0ut membtilrles'; lantl a 10I'lg tail, eomprelfed covered vdth frald amI feaUeted hairs, Its fllf'OiS"Nlft and gtoRY; the cO'T{)UT redditfh lirQwh ; tHat of the t iP!aflry. 'The a:nimal has a fitbng Imell of n1uik, efpetiafJy (luri11g futnm.r, whith proce eds froll1 Ii fluid firecl ill near rhe tar!: '!I!!\e fur reta-rns the faLne' ouotit. ,,' \' I ," I I ,-: The itdt facitll fl:ate,' -in. caBI;1s' bfl' its dwn Iconfl:tilffi6n{ { all

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n' 7

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[ 75 1 on the edge of fo)ne lake or Th,efe habita tions two feet and a half or three feet in dia neatly plaftered with clay on the infide, and covere d outwardly with a kind of balket-work of fo interlaced as to b e ilJ1penelrable by water. Several ufually inhabit each cabin. The animals do not lay up winler-provi!\on, blJt form fl)blerral'leOllS paITages round their h\lts, through wtlich.thtry .paf$ in ql!cfl r;,f their food, which con .. of roots a.nd herbage. During fummer they wander abollt in pairs; and 'th y build new habita tions every winter. They filii aukwardly, nor can they f wirn fp we11 as s, for want 'Of webs iQ their feet. The fe1l1ales bring forth in Ihe be ginning of five ()r fix. young at a time. The Mu!k.nt is a PlItive of North Am e rica, and abounds in Canada. fur is an article of com 2. Mus COypus.-COYPU RAT. This animal is to have the fize1 colour, and general appe:\qnce of the Otter, but to a,gree with the Rat tribe in its teeth. lIS hind toes are webbed. Its tai I is thick and llaHil/l on the fides. It illhubits Chili, fl'cquellling dle wAters, out living oc-. caflonally Of) land. It i.s eafily tamed aod re.ndereq domefiic. The female produces lix a birth. I H2 ffilh

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TVith 1oUJ1..d naked tails. 3. DECUMANUS.-NoRWAY RAT This fpecies, one of the principal domeftic pells" of this .country, is fllppofed to have come originally India or Perfia, though, from its common name, it may probably have been imported hither immediately in fome fhip from the North. Its length is nine inches from nofe to tail, which laft is aoout the fame length, and marked with two hundred rings. The colour of this Rat is light brown mixed wifh tawny ant l alh-colollf. above, and a dirty white benea1h. Its feet aft :naked .and f1efh-coloured: its fore-feet have fOllr toes, with a claw in place of the fifth. It is a creature of great and. voracity, making prey of every thing eatable, whether ani malar vegetable, and attacking fuch quadrupeds and birds as it can mafter. It inhibits fields, the b;l!lks Of waters, being capable of fwimming with great facility; but its great mifchiefs to man proceed from its making a fettlement in houfes and out buildings, where it burrows under walls and floors, and often frriouily inju res the foundations, as well as carries on a perpetual war of pillage. Nothing is fafe from their ravages; and all the defl:ruaion made by cats, traps, and poifon, is often unabte to

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[ 11 j down their flJlm:!>erS, They are aOllrzingly prolific, producing from ten t.o eighteen young a time, and breeding thrice jn the year, In countries they multjply .fo greatly that they migrate in vafl at -certain peri{)ds, croffing rivers, a lnd fill i 'flg -all the in which ,they fettle. They faid 1'Iot to known in Englan4 lIbove feventy and to the Black Rat, the native of the couotr', Weefd, on tbt:: otber hllQd. i:; a fQraaidable to them; and they have alfo the propenfity of de vouring one 'when preffed by' hunget. \;When .c1ofely they will often turn UOIl the aRililant; and their bite keen m"ka$ wound difficult to heaL ,am pnk,now.1l or rare in fev.enil pal1ts of Eurppe. Among the SiXletbodsl of qleilriA.g a honfe of catS, Dnl e .deferves as oftCll prllClifed with cefs. ,This is, to tie a hell fQU.nQ the .neck pf Oil' whieh has QJ.lgbt, tJ]m -i,t loore, when will C-affY fU, ch an i,l!lt9 its fermer hau?ts, af to drive the reft away. \ J'" I. 41 Mus RATTUS.-DLACK RAT. This fpecies 'is dHHnglliflied 'by its colotlt, in the whole upper P ,a-Tt of .i, Rt:lt;p, 1ron 10 lpji\j:k; o;n b.ellx PljIl.l Its JengJ:h tirol@ J1il9,fc:.tp mjl is thilt ,of j H 3

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[ 7 8 ] the taiJ'eight inches, which is alfo naked, fca1y, and marked with rings. It breeds frequently, bringing fix or feven young at a time. In manner of living and ha:oits it much refembles the former fpecies, and was th!:; chief domeftic peft before tha t took its It is ftill the prevailing kind in many parts of Europe, and has been met with in plenty in the South Sea iflands. Sometimes th e y fo overfiock the place of their abode, that they de veur one another, till they all difappear fur a time. 5. Mus MALABARICUS.-BANDICOTE RAT. This feems to be the largeft fp'ecies of d6mellic Rat, equalling a r'lbbet in fize. Its colour is a P'I1e cinereous brown: its fnout long; ears thin, naked, anll rounded j fore-feet with four toes and a claw; hinu-feet with five toes, the two exterior ones tail above eleven inches in length. It is on the Malabar coart, where it faps the foundations of houfes, fo as fometimes to make them fall. Its voice refembles the grunting of a pig. The Perthal Rat is nearly allied to the preceding. 6. Mus MuscuLus.-COMMON MOUSE, This little animal, in its form, manner of living, and relation to mankind, is the Rat in miniature. From the earliell times it has taken up its abode in the

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[ 79 ] the habitations of men, w.J1ere it, has maintai ne d itfelf at their expen.ce, proteCted by that minutenefs which makes it apparently fo contemptible. Its depredations are more vexatious than ferious. Its liquorilh tall:e prompts it to pillage every 'delicacy that is placed .within its 'reach, it oftftn contaminates more than it devours. Senftble of its own weakflefs to refiil, it is {by and timip; yet. it is eafily tamed, and is not un(requently made a favourite by thofe .who view it without difgull:. Its fleek coat, full eye, and agile motions give it real beauty; and the white that is fometimes met wi,th, well defen'es to be admired. The MOllfe is extrel!lely prolific, and were it not for the accidents to which it is liable, would foon overll:ock its qllarters; bllt traps, poi fon, and the cat continually thin its numbers. It is 'met with in almoll: every part of the world, the coldell: regions, and every where is the guell: of man. It ha!! an unpleafant fmell, which indeed belongs to moll: of the 7. Mus SYLVATICUS.-WOOD MOUSE .. This fpecics, called alfo the Lqllg-!fll'led Field Mou}, is of a yellowith brown colour nbove, and whitilh beneath. Its ufual Iength is four inches Ilnd a half from nofc to tajl,. wiih a tail of fonr I inches. I ts eyes are blae k and full; its fnout rather

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r 80 J rather blun1". This animal is Gf the and gardens. It chidly.illhQbits :dry_ elevated grDunds and woody fpots, where it makes its fLrbterraneous lodgment in thickets and under tbe roots of trees, and lays up large {tores of corn, nuts, aeoms, &e.'y{or.: winter FlI1'.o;v.ifiol'l Its n .eft For is near .the Jll!fface, often a 1uft of grafs" where l tbe rernale brings forth from feven to ten young, (nOFe than .once in a "ear. 'Thefe mice extremely nu .meTQms in fome plaoes, efped-ally at the dofe of autumn" ;and they are r eck.lnJ Gl'der at the ir hOflrds. They1ar.e ClIDlmOl'l in all the temperate part s:.of Europe. An Americltn Field MI111e diff ers fltom the above o'hi{!fiy in its colour s h a ving a 'long asthe bodiy,. and is fli.ghtl1 hll!i.IlY, : ; the

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[ 81 ] the ears {land prominent". The late Rev. Mr. White, of Sdl>orne in Hampfhite, h:ts given a curious defcriplion of onc of their neas, which are fabricated above ground, amid!l the {lalks corn, or in thiftlc::-he:tds. "It was moa artificially platted, and compofed of the blades of wheat; perfectly round, and about the fize of a cricket ball; with aperture fo ingeniouO y dofed, that there was no difcovering to what part it belonged. It was fo compact and well fi lied, that it would roll acrofs the table without being difcompofed, though it contained eight little mice that wer-e naked and blind." In winter, the Harvdl Moufe burrows deep in the earth, and makts a warm bed of grafs; but it a1fo inhabits corn-ricks in great nunibers, being carried from the field with the fheaves, and multiplying abundantly in fuch an abode of plenty. It never enters houfes. It is reckoned the fmallefi Britifh quadruped. Several other fpedes of this divifion of longtailed rats or mice have been difcovered in different parts of the 'world, but they differ little from the preceding, except in c910llr and fame incoMider able particulars. WIth

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[' 82 ] TVitll hahJJ tails, qf middling length, or '. jhart. 9: l'y1us CVANus.-BLUE RAT. TJlis elegant fpecies is difHnguifhed by its fine pale blue tolour. It is about tpe fize pf the Wood-rat, and makes burrows in the ground feveral feet in length, communicating with holes in whiCh it {ll:ores its winte.r provifions, fiftillg of tuberous roots and other vegetable ters. It is a timid, cleanly animal; breeds twice a year, proclucing fix young at a tillle. It is.a natiNe of Chili. 10. Mus RAT. The form of tbis fpecies is thicK {h(3rt, fomewhat refembling that of the Beaver. Its eyes are fmall; its ears {hort and almofr hid in Ihe fllr; its {nollt thick; teeth large and {hong. Its hair is Ibnger and thicker than that of tht;: common rats, of a blackilh ferruginous colour above, grey beneath. varies as to fize, but is ulilally about [even inches from nofe to tail the Jatter is five inches long, and hairy. This animal is never do mdl:ic, bllt inhabits holes in the banks of waters, and paffcs an amphibious life. It fwims and with great facility, is not web-footed, as fome .. writer

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. :.

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,vriters have reprefented. It feeds on frogs, water infects, fmall fiili, and-probably on roots. The female brings forth in April, five or fix young at !l time. At fome [ea(ons of the year the Water-rat has a mll{ky fmeH. It is a native of the temperate parts of Europe ami Alia, and of North Americ a. 11. Mus LEMMUS.-LEMMING RAT. This fpecies, [0 much celebrated for wonderful migrations, has two varieties; the Norwe gian, Which is five inches in length; and the Lapland and which little exceeds three inches. The colour of the 6rH is variegated above with patches and clouds ot black and tawny; that of the 'fecund is chiefly tawny brown above. The Lemming halt a large, thick, iliort, furry head; flnall ears bhticd ifl the fur; a thick body; {lout limbs; and a very OlOrt, thjck, rOUJld tail, hairy, and tipped like a pencil. The proper of this is the ttaets of Norway and -Laplana.; and in their lIfnal Hate they live fcattered In fubterraneolls holes, feeding on liverWort and the catkins of birch; but without laying up any wi !'Iter pt()villon. iltlb a.\l they breed faft, and lnhaoi-t a region, Illey art! oblerveo afteJ! a period of bout ten years to iIlile forth in im. menfe nUl'l1bers to the plains below, p robably witl\. a view1

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\ a View, like the human inhabitants of the northern regions in former t of feeki Iig a beter fettle-ment. They.feem likewife direCted by a fort of 'foreftght, as their migrations have been remarked cclmmonly to precede -an unufllally hard winter. T hefe 'vafl: armies. move on in a fl:raight line on parallel paths a fpan or two broad, and fame ells arllnder, devouring all the herbage they pars, even t9 the roots. They chiefly march in the night or early in the morning fcarcely any obfiacles can fiop them. They (wim over rivers and lakes, "vade through mar{hes, climb over in equalities, and are only turned aftde ,by rocks, which they go round, and then n;fume their direct COll rre as before. If oppofed by men, they raire thcmfelvcs up, utter a barking found',and fly at th legs: and will fafien upon a flick fo fiercely as to lllffer themfelves to be fwung' round withoutloafing their hold. They are the dread of the countries they vifit, and in [, perfl.itious times forms of exorcifm ha\'e been ufed againfi them, as if they evil fpirits. Their numb' ers, however, are greatry thinned during tlieir marches: many -are drowned, and many are devou red by the foxes, lyn xes, and ermines, owls and hawks, that at ,tend thei r progrefs. It is faid, too, that civil wars fometimes take place among them, in which they dvour onc another. A [mall number are fome-,

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-r ) cfimes dbfervea 'to return to tneit' native mou.tains. The females occ:rfiGnallybring forth during' the1r and -carry their young -in their mouthS, "'()r on their backs A fp'ecies allied .to the -above, and alfo migratory .. 'is the Mus V'orquatus, (Collareti Moufe). -dlIl:inguilhed hy a -white collar round the neck. it is a native of Sib en a, and is common in the coun 'tries that border the river Oby" n. -"Mus ARA. L-IS MoUSE. This fpecies, alfo called tflte ShtH"Iailfd Field' Moufi, is very common in 'England, and is found in the of "EurQpe, in Siberia and North It is about three inches in length, with. a tail of one inch. Its head is large, ndfe 'Cars -{bollt and aIm-of!: hidden, and eyes prominent: ,its colour, duiKy ferruginoU's abo.ve, deep ath be .. 'lleath. It inhabits moift meadows, where it makes its nea, and brings abOt:t .eight yOtH1g at a time. i feeds on -corn, nuts, and is often carried into barns and ricks. '13. Mus OE:CONO.llws.-EcONOMI. C .RAT. This [peties is about four inches and a quarter an length, with a tail I1f one inch. Its eyes are fmall; eats naked Md 'lhOrt; limbs firong: it is ()f a tawny t:010\'\f, dark er above, cinereous be .. VOL. n, InciI, th. L

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1 ] t'leath It is remarkable for the indnllry and kill it ," .. / in its b'urrows.-Thefe are fprmed .inJoft turfy foils immediately beneath the furface, and conlifl: of an arched chamber with which as many as.,.thi}"ty pipes or paffages nkate, fome <>f which go to other .cavities in which they' depofit.> their winter Thefe aremaga of dried pf variolls whicI1 they gather in fumn:ier, a,nd harveH carefully, -fometiml!S bringing them again out of their cells to give them a mrn-e thorough airing. This is chiefly per formed by.the feJD..'4les j the males palling a wanlife in the woC?ds during fummer al1d __ jng on ber.ries, &c. Bath relide t0gether in their b.urrows in winter Th.e female br.eeds feveral tjme..s' jn the year, producing or three at a )irth. At q:rtain periods, there like the migrate in vafr numbe.rs during the fpri'ng; and they h 'ave tme fame inllinCl: of q:eding fl:raight forwards, through aU clangers and obfracIes. F r .om Kam.lihatk.a. the principal refi dence of this (pecies, they take their courre ward, crolling the river Ptnfhink, which that peninfula from the continent, and then turn ing fouthward; (pread in the countries about the rivers Judoma and Ochotfk. Such arc r numbers, that an obfe]:"ver has waited '. hours to fee one of their columns pafs. Their partme

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[ '67 ] p,a-rture is lamented by the Kamtffiadales, a-s be-: tokening 'an approaching bad feafon; and when they return, which many of them do, notwith-' landing the loffes undergone in their march, their arrival is welcomed by the with great re-' jnicrngs. They are, indeed, greatly cdleemed by dIe Kamtiliadales, wner make advantage by plun": oering their !tores, bllt alwllj's leave fome kind of. provificin 'or fuperftilious prefent in fetllfll. Either the fame or a fimilar fpecies is found in Iceland,. and the manner in which they crofs' a flream irr their wanderings is very curious. A party of from t 1ix to tel) is faid to pitch upon a piece of dry flat cow-dung, on the m1ddle of which they place the berries they have cofleaed' in a heap; then, cl'raw ing it to the water's edge by their united force, 1!ley it, and embarking, place themfelves round the heap, with their heads together in t -he centre, ami their hanging in the fiream, and. thus they row themfelves, or are wafted the winds, 14. Mus SOCIALIS.-SQCIAL MOUSE: This fpecies, which is three inches in length,. a thick head, blunt f1ofe, iliort fl:rQnglimbs, and a {hort OcndcJ' tail, and is of n pale grey colonr above, white beneath, is named from its of Ii, ving together in Jarge focieties .... They. are I 2 natives

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\ [ 88 ] natives of the Cafpian deferls, and the coun 'tryof lIyrcania, and inhabit low fa,ndy fituations. There in many places the ground is covered with the littlehillocks which they tlhow up in forming their burrows, which, are about a fpan deep, with eight or more paffages. They always dwell in pairs, or a famf.Iy tpgether. They abound in fpring, but are rardy feen in autu 'mn, when they arc fuppofed to migrate. In winter they frequent hayricks and other'fheltcl"S. Their food is the bulbou,' root of the wild tuli ,p. J#Titk, 15. Mus CRICETUS.-HAMSTBR RAT. The Ham-fier i$ nearly the fize of a NorW31 1I3t, of a much thicker form, and with a Ihort Its gener3>1 cC!>lollr is pale Tt"ddifh above, black beneath; i : ts fides marked with three oval white fpots. On each fldc the mouth is a pouch, which does not appear when empty, but when fuH refembles a blown bladder, covered, however, with the kill of the cheek. The male in this fpe. cies is much larger than the female. Different breeds vary ion colour. Some are found entirely ,black. The Hamf1:er is a native of many parts of Ger. J:Pany, Poland, and the fouthern difl:rias of &,uffia. a ,nd

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[ 89 ] and Siberia. Such are their numbers in fome fittJ!" ations, that in Goiha above eighty" thoufand of../ their lkins wt;ie in one y.ear delivered at the tow ID houfe of the capital. ,They feed on herbs, roots, and feeds of various kinds, and are extremely de ilruClive to the corn, large quantitie!i of which they are enabled by their cheek. pouches to convey away to their hoards. They make their habita tions in the : grollnd, to the depth of from one foo t to four or five, and conliJling of a principal or lodging apartment, lined with dried grafs,. and other communicating cavities, ferving for flore rooms. The entrance is made obliquely, but from its extremity others are fu.nk perpendicwlarly. The diall)eter of the whole habitation is fometimes eight Or ten feet. The males and females have feparate ( ( burrows. The latter breed two or three tithes a year, and bring from five or fix to qxteen or eighteen young, which grow fall, and are foon \ ahle 1 provide for At the approach of winter tlie Hamfler betakes himfelf to his abode, the entrance to which he carefully conceals. In this, when the frofl becomes very fevere, he falls into a torpid flate, lying rolled up, with no external appearance of life. He gradually awakes at tbe approach of Jpring, and on his flore. The peafants make fearch for them ill the winter, llre well repaid for the trvuble of digging I 3 their

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[ 90 ] their retreats by the grain which they finrI, often amoupting to two bu!hels. This animal is of a fierce difpofition, making a defperate defence when at ... tacked. It will even jump at a horfe's noCe that tramples near them, and fa fte n fo as to be difficultly They have battles with each other,' and the Hronger devour!> the weaker. Several other fpecies of. 'Rats with cheek-pouchei difcovered, of which one, in Canada, equal in fize to the above j others ate fmaller, and are rtatives of Siberia and the fOllthern parts of Ruma. With the manners and habits of Motes. 16. Mus MARITIMUS.-COAST RAT. This is a large fpecies, mea Curing a foot from hore to tail, which lail i& about two inches, covered witr 16ng briftles on the fides. It has a large head; black and flattifh nofe; very fmall eyes, hid in the fur j no external ears j very large front-teeth; long and fharp claws on the fore feet. Its colour dnereous brown, paler beneath. This animal jS' a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called the Sand Mole. It inhabits the fands of \ 1he fea {hore, which it renders hollow by i t s bur-rowing, fa as to break in to a conftderable depth under

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[gt J ;tJhdef feet: 'It feeds pnncipaITy tipon: bulbous roofs. The Mus Capenjis (Cape Rat) refembles the but is much [maller. It, is very injurious to gar dens, by throwing up hillockSy and devouring roots. '! 17. Mus TYPHLus.-Bl.IND RAT. TArs fpecies, which is [even or erght inches ill length, 'j's remarkable in being entirely defiitute both of eyes and tail. More deferving the title.of hlind than the Mole, it has only beneath the fldn rudiments of eyes, fmallel' than poppy-feeds. Thefe,. indeed, may poffibly give it enough of the perception ,of light to difiinguilh when it is above ground. It has a large broad head; n6 external ears; a round body; very {hart limbs; and claws fit for digging. It is covered with a thick fUf, of a brown; lighter on the head, on the belly. Its front-teeth are large and bare. It ,in habits the fOUl hem parts ,pf RUala, and frequents and turfy foils. It forms burrows of great extent, with fevcral lateral paffages, and occafionaL openings to throw out the earth in hillocks. It feeds on roots. h fometimes quits its hole in the morning tQ balk in the fUll; but on any alarm. bllrrowll with great agility in a perpendicular direc-tion When irritated, it fnorts and gnalhes its teeth, 1

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-[ 92 ] teth, railing its head in a -menacing manner. It.s bite is very feve re. The female brings from two to four at a birth A fp e cies to'th.e above, but fmalIer, and having very fmall deep-feated eyes, is the 11;[111 Afpalax, or Daurian Rat, inhabiting the Altaik mountains in Alia, and the country beyond lake Baikal. The Talpini: Rat, a native of Ruffia and Siberial belonging 'to the fame divifion, 15 a !!:itl fmaller If.ind. .' CEN.US x.xVllt. ARCTOMYS.-MARMOT. GENERIC CHdRACT'ER. Front-teeth two In edch jaw, Jlr ong, /harp, wedge-Jhaped: Grinders on each fide fiv-e above, four below. THIS. genus approaches fo nearly to that of Mu!, that convenience alone feems to have caufed it to be feparated. The Marmots are of a t.hick form, with large heads, fmall '1l10utRS,. very 111OI't or no external ears, a Chart hairy tail, fore-feet with four toes, w ,ith five. They feed 01) egetables,

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, [ 93 ) vegetables, which they of.ten h0ard; l'ive m fubter.. r.aneotJs holes; ane{ fleep during the winter. I. ARCTOMYS MARMOTA.-ALPINE MARM01'. This fpe<;:ies is f0mewhat larger a rabbet,. meafuring fixteen i ndres from nofe to fail, which laft is inches l-ong, and buffiy. Its .head is large a _nd flattifh; its ears round and I.mried in the fur: it's colour, above, tawny-afb; below, bright tawny.' It is a }}ative (!)f the Alps and Pyrenees, and is ffHfnd only on to'ps of high Flt the of fron amf fnow. It c1im9s a;tnong fexlh, and feed& on infeth,. roo", and herbs.' While eating, it !its in an upright (,onure. ufing its paws to hold its food. Mnrmots arfn the approach oC dongel', when they in(fantly into their burl'o,w. They alfo uttcr a (hange-, noife when llugry, or' before a ilOfoi. When the {Iofis they -, j retire )

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[ 94 J retirt extl'emely fat to thei'r wintct q-oartcrs,. witfl out laying upproviuons; carefu.IJy fl:.op lip -their, holes, and fall into a torpid ftate, which continu e s till fpring. 1 f dilg' up at tflis rime they may be:! removed ftil! OcepiL1g, alid gradually awakened by being br
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t 95 } wiIleral tracts they often direCl: the mirrers to veins Qf, metal from the fragments of ore which they .throw out. They colleCl: a large quantity of hay .in autumn for their' netts; enough, it is faid, c:o ferve for {me night's provifion for a horfe. In winter they become like the former. fpecies, which they :ilfo rcfemble in every particulat of their habits and manner of living. Their fkins a,te -tired forcloaclli.ng, and their fielh for food. It like halle, but is @f a rank flavour. The Bobacs in Chinefe Tartary gr.eatly .contribute to propagate rhe true rhUBarb, which 'grows about l'heir burr.ows, and for the feeds of which they provide a ,proper bed, by the leofe earth they throw out, and their'manu, re. The QyE ,BEC MitRMOT, which is chiefly found i n Canada and Hudfon's Bay, is a fmaller fpecies than the above, ,but nearly fimilar in its nature. 3. ARCTOMYS MONAx.-MARYLAND MAR. MOT. This fpedes, which inhabits the fouthern parts of North America, amI alfo the Bahama iDes, 'is about the fi"Ze of a rabbet; ils colour, a ferruginous brown above, paler beneath, aofe and cheeks of a bluilh-alh. Its fnollt is !harper than' that of the preceding kinds; i ts eyes black ami prominent; its nearly h ,alf the length.of the and bufhy; its

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its :feet hlackilh and furnilhed 'tvith long Omp daws. it lives in h{lles undex the roots of trees ana in rocks, and beaomes in the winter, at leaf!: on the continent {If America. It feeds on 'Vegetables, and its ,flefuis very good to eat. 4. CI'I'ILLYS.-VARIEGATED MARMOT. This fpecies is 11fually abeut a foot in length) with a tail of, four jnches and a 'half; but it varies much in fixe. It is remar, kabJe for having no ex ternal ears, but merely al1 edging to the auditory canal, whence it has bee n called the Ear/ifs Mar. mQf. Its !COlour is iYeauti'ful1y mottled with a ground of yellowifh-brown, and fpots or undulalrons of white; its l parts are 'of a yellowiOl ,white. This animal c inhdbits all the tract from Bohemia and rhllollgh Hungary, to Pedia, India, Great Tartary, Siberia, and Kamdhatka, and through the ifles to the cOntinent of America. principally frequents dry 'hilly fituations in which it forms b01'rows. It lays up ftor.es of grai.n, roots, nuts, &c. for winter provifion ; for it does ndt appear to beoome at that period) unlefs it bo in very cold countries. It alfo preys upon fmall bir.ds and other wnrlTlals. The feltlale breeds in tho. fpring, and brings from ;five eiglTt young at a tinte. Like .. he 1commcin Matmot, tfley baJk round

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round their holes, and make a whi{Uing noire wheo dillurbed. They quarrel much with one anotller. and bite very keenly. The are howeer tamed with great eafe, efpecially the males. In t hat 1iate they are veqr cleanly, and fond of being ca,. relfed. They fiee.p very profoundly llnd ..long; and in bad weather 'Pafs mof!: of the day in repofe. Other fpecies o.f Marmots have been difcovered .in various countries, as North America, Chili, :and Barbary j but they are not remarkable enougll te require a particular defcription here. 'GE1WS XXB:. SCIURBS.-SQ.UIRRE"L. GENERIC OHARAC-rER. Upper front-teeth, wedge-jhapef.l; !Qwer, pointed: Gr;nders on each fide, five above, jGwr /;eJOV.l: :rail (i<1l mofl fpecin), fprrodil1g. THE Squirrels al'e a plealing from tllcir IjyeIinefs, agility, elegance of form, and neatllcfs. They arc inhabitants of the woods" liv(). entirely 011 vegetable food, and make their. nefl:s in the hollow-s VOL. H. K of

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of trees. Sdl't'le of them are furni!hed whh al1 e'X. p-anfile rnernbl'ane from the fore to the hind legs, by the aid of which they can fpring to a conuder able t1ifiance on tire defcent j and the'fe are ufually 'termed Flying S1tJirrels, though the motion is yery rlittetent fr'l1rlt that of the animals. The fpecies of Squirrels which have beel'l di 'fcavered !ire rtbw very : n'umerous, but we 'Qtall only defctibe fome of them'Oil temarkab'le. 1. SCIURUS VUL@ARI-5.-COMMOtof SQYIRREL. ,This well-known animal is about eight inches from Ilofe to tail; the tail, feven. It has large black lively eye 's; upright ears terminated by tufts of long hair; !hort mufcular legs; four toes and a claw on the fore-feet., five toes on the hind, all furni!hed with {hong !harp claws; and a tail co vered with long hair, difpofed fo as to tlIrn to either fide. Its colour is a bright reddifh brown above, white on the breall: and belly; towards winter the tinge becomes greyer or browner) and in fome countries it changes to an elltire grey. There is a variety with milk-white tails; and in fome part5 they are found entirely white, and en tirely black. This fpecies is it hative of almoll: all parts of Europe, and the northern and temperate .ountries of Aua. It inhabits trees, which, by means of its !harp claws, it is enab1ed to climb with

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[ 99 ] with great agility. It makes its nef!: in the fork of two branches, compofed of mOls and dried leaves, 'warm, and impenetrable to rain, with only a [mall conical aperture at the top. The female produces three or four yOlHlg in the [ummer. Squirrels aJle particularly alert in the fpr.ing; when they m.ay be feen purfuing each other in amorous [port with 'great exertions of a4ivity. In the heat of fummer they mollly remain in their nefis during the day, and make their excurfions by night. In thofe feafans their chief food is the buds ;lnd young !hoots of trees, and they are particl1larfy fond of thare of the pine tribe, and greatly injure the growth of the trees by biting them ofi-: winttl'r tAey c911eCt f!:ores of nuts, acorns, beechmail, the like, which they conceal in holes near their nefl>. Wheneating, tbey fit cn:cr, and. ufe their fore-paws like hands. The tail of. Squirrel is not only its greatef!: ornament, but is ureful in covering it from the coluJ and alias it, when extended, in its leaps. It is alfo that it croffes rivers or lakes in the northern COUIl tries, by getting upon a piece of bark, and erea. ing its tail to [erve as a fail. The ful's of the northern Squirrels in their ... "inter f!:ate are ex tremely fine and foft, and are ufed for facings linings. K 2 2. SCIURUS

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L 100 ] z: SClURUS MAXlil1l'S.-GREAT SQy>RRln:. This is the largefl fpecies known, being in. fize to a cat. Its fur is long and full, of a fer. ruginous colour above; black on the fr.E>nt of the. neck and breafi, and otltfides of the fhouldets and: lAighs ; yellowj.ih beneath. The tail is black, and: longer than the body'. It is. a native of the Mala. bar country, and on fFuits, particularly the cocoa-Hut; which it pierces to dri Bk. milk. 3. MAC.ROURUS.-LoNGTATLED, S.Q,yIRREL. This is a large fpecies, ab?ut t hJ1ice the bulk ,of. the European Squirrel;. black on the upper part ofi head and body;. of a duH y ellQw b'enea{h ... It by th;. length of its tail, V\' hich is. nearly twice that of th.e body., pf a light aih,coIDut, and v.ery full of hair. The MADAC. ASCAlR SQya,Rlill. to be very umilat to. the 4. SCLURUS CINEREUS.-GREY 'SQyIRREL. 1-'his i.s abollt fize of a half-grown rabbc:t;. It is Qf a pale grey colcmr above, and white beneath i its ears and ta.il fometimestinged with black; and in fome a yeIlGwi(h .. hue prevail,. The Grey Squirrel is confined to the new:

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[ 101 1 new world, and aoounds from New England to the fouthern parts of North America" It is Cl great plunderer of the fieLis of running up the lalks, and devouring the young ears; on which account it has been among the profcribed Such are its numbers at fome feafons, that the pro vince of Penfylvania paid in one year in rewards for killing them, the fum of .8000 curre'!cy, at: three-pence per head. They make their nells in trees with mo[s, {haw, &c. and feed on acorns, :fir-cones, and fruits of various kinds. They lay in great lores of winter provifion, whkh they !lepout holes under the roots of trees. During the cold weather they keep much in their ije!ts; and in deep fnows many 'of them. perilh for wal)t of Their are often robbed by fwine. They are lefs active than the European Squirr.el; "[eldom leaping from tree to tree, but running IIp and .down the b.oughs and trunks Theya(" e e .a.fily 'tamed. Their fleJll is delicate, and their .!kins are a valuable f.ur. S. SCIURUS NIGER.-13L,ACl< SQVIRREL. This j s enti rcl of a {h ining bla c k colour, el(.cept tl)a;t I the muzzle and tip of the tai.l are fome times wlli :tlc, Illlnd fome have b e e n with a white ring l'ou.ncl t 'he t neck. I t ,is a na.tiY, e of tne fame 'countries with the laa-.I.'ll.e.nti0{led fpecies" K 3 whkh

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[ r02 T which it fo much refemDles in foim arid way on' life, that it might pars for a did not the two k.inds confiaritly keep feparate 6. SGIURUS VARIEGATU.s.-COQ!.JAUN. This fpecies is larger than the common lU1d is diflinguifhed by the variegation of1 colour ,in the upper part of its -bedY-j which i.s verfely with undi.Jla tions ofi blaok, and orangebrown )ts are orange tawny ; its head, tail, and limbs., dn!ky; its ears and 'muzzle, whiciOl. It is a native of Mexico, and! does not make its abode in trees but in holes under their roots, wherc it' forms its of winter provifion, and brings forth 7. SC.IURUS 'This fpedes, called in the Groulld' Srjllirrel; has by fome naturalifls been referred to the Dormoufe tribe, as it pa/fes-i1s tiine chiefly in fubterrancons retreats. It is al fo provided wit h c heek-pouches, which belong to no other fpecies. of Squirrel. The length of iis body is aoout five. inches and a half: that er its tail fomewhat< more. 1 tscolour is a reddiJh brown, with a blaok fireak running down the middle of the back, and two others on each fide, having an intermedi/l>te fpace of pale yellow: benea t h, it is whitc. 'L'he tail

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,

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[ 109 ] taiTis lefs full on its fides than that of 'other Squirrels. Thi-s animal inhabits the northern parts of Afia, and North America ;and. tbough fome have fuppofed the AGatic and Ameri<;:an to be differerrt f.pecies" thei'r differences feem to amoudlt to no ,more than val'leties, They re{ide in J he [oreas, maki ng their bltrr.ews at the oot of and never afcendi'llg but when pn.rfued and in danger Of be.ing Their burrows are long gallerie9, with branches on each. fide, terminating in chambers in which they. {tore their differ.ent kinds of provi'fioll' c0nfifii11g ot gllain, acorns, hiccofIJ nuts, and the chinquapin chefnNt. They are nice in their choice 0f food ; ; and when they ha",e filled their cheeks ..vim rye, have been obferved to throw it oui on meeting. with Lf their provifions fail in winter, they will enter. cellars or, granariCls, 'and plunde( the apples or maize; but the cats then dearoy mal1Y of them.. They.' are of a wild nature, and not to be r.econciled tQ. a {tate of confinc; ment. Their fur,. though flight, is v.alued, for the c:ffeCl: of its contr.afl:.eu colours, w.hen, pr.oFerly diJ pofed. '8. SCI,URUS VOI;ANS.-C'OMM:ON FLYING. SQ.YIRREL. This ,fpecies, which is the only Eurofoan Flyil)g Squirrci, is ftOm fix. to feven inche. s froll) n ,oCe to tail,

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[ 104 ] tail. which laft is !horter than the body. Its ears are naked; its eyes. full; it s tail thickly furred and rounded at the end. The c{)klllr-of the upper parts is an elegant pale grey; of the un
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'. [ ]. caaefuJIy conceals lInder the mors when the leaves: her ne ft. This fpecies does not become torpid in the winter, but keeps dofer at home than ufua1. It can fcarcely be kept alive in 9 SCIURUS VOVUCELLA.-VIRGINMN FLY1NG$.QgIRRF.L This is a fmaller fpecies than the 11leafuring only five inches from nore to tail. Its colour is brown with a tawny call: above, yeltowilh white beneath. The tail is furnifhed with tong hairs fpreading to each fide; and is pointed at the cnd. It is a of the temperate parts of North America, and is alro found in SOllth Ame. It refides conll:antly in. the Hpper parts of trees; making its neft in the hoHowti with leaves, mors, &c.; and individuals often occupy the fame nell:; for., unlike the former fpecies, it is of a focial nature, ten or twelve may be feen together in the ev.eni. ng flying from tree to tree. It may be eafily tamed and is often kept for its beauty, and fed with almonds, fLuits, &c It is attached to its feeder, and rpring to him frum a perCon.ts hand, the whole lengdl ot a room The female three or fuur young at. a birth. 10. Se:IUR.US,

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[ 106 J 10. SCIURUS PETAURISTA.-TAGUAN. This is the largefi of the Flying Squirrels, mea. (uring inches and upwards from nofe to tail, which lail is nearly of the fame length. It has a rather fmall head, very [mall ears without a blu 'nt muzzle, and fiollt limbs. The tail i s not of the fpreadjng form ufual illSqNilTds .. but Like that of a cat. Its colour above is chefout, brighter or darker in different fpeci. mens, and having a hQar;y. cafl: on the fhoulders; the bneaft and under ye\lowiih white. This animal is a native of the Indian ifJes, is parti. cularly frequent in. Java., It ilUhabits woods, and will fpring fro1il1 tree to tree to a great diflal}ce. Witlil its tail it cat<;hes noI.d of the bougbs. The Taguan has a fuoog refembla nce to Petaurine Opoffum,. and has probably been rOnl.climes con. Founded with tbaJ animal. .J GENtlS

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, [ 107 ] GENU$ xxx. MYOXUS.-DORI\10USE. GENERIC CHA RAcrER. Front-teeth two each the upper pair wedge-fhaped; the lower co',lpnlled: Grinders four in each jaw: Wbijkers long: rai!' round, hairy, thickcj1 towards tlu end .. Legs if equal length ; four IGeJ on tht fore-fiel. I. Myoxus GUS.-FAT DORMOUSE. THIS fpecies, the Glis of the Romans, and the df Buffon, is nearly the fize of a fquirreI, but muth thicker in Olape. It is of an afh-colour above, white beneath: its eyes large and black; ears thin, rounded, and nearly naked; tail very furry and fomewhat fpreading. It refides on trees, and leaps from bough to bough like a fquirrel, but with lefs agili ty. It feeds, makes its neft, and lives in general, like that animal; but during great p art of the winter lies in a torpid flate. The y o ung, four or five in number, are produced in the middle of 'Cum-mer. It is a of the [outhem parts of 'and alCo of, Aufl:ria and Ruffia. The ancient Romans kept them in receptacles and f.maned them as a delicacy. 2. Myoxus

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[ 1"08 J '2. Myoxus NITELA.-GARD-EN DORMOUSE, This fpecies, the lerat of BufFon, is abCllt four inches and a half from nofe to tail.; the latter not fo long. 1 t is of ali elegant ferrugli'lous colour above; yellowilh white bene-ath; the eyes iru. 'bedded in a la rge black fpot -extending beyond the eaTS' : the ha"irs of the tail are vety 1hort at the heginning,' bulhy at the extremity, and marked there with a black {tripe edged with w hite. This ani mal frequents gardens, and 1S a great devourer of fruit. It makes its neft in the hollows 'Of trees, in holes of wans, or in t11e ground aoout the roots of trees, colleeting for this purpofe mo[s, grafs, and dry leaves. It collects a ftore of nuts, malt, &c. for winter provilion, to "hich it has recourfc when it occa1iona ,lIy awakens from the fieep in which it paffes moll part of tl1at feafon. The female pro duces fil,le or fix young in fummer. The Garden Dormoufe is a native of the temperate and warmer countries of. Alia .3. Myoxus MUSCARDrNUS.-COMMON DORMOUSE. This fman animal -does not exceed a moufe in. fize, but is of a plumper make, with a blllnt er B ofe. I ts eyes are large, black and full; its ears broad thin; its tail pretty long and hairy, moft fo,

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" ..

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t ] fJj at the tip. The general colour above and neath is a tawny red, but fometirnes rather brown ; the ihroat white. The Dorrnoufe inhabits woods -orrery thick hedges, making its 'J:lefl: of mdfs or grars in the hollow of a low tree, or near tire bot tom of a thick buth. It forms a ma.gaz ine of n,ots, &c., but -palfes moll of t'he winter in a torpid flate, rolled up, and -onl'}' awakes now and theR on a warm day., when it takes a little food, and again falls alleep. The female brings three or four young at a time. This fpedes is an inhabitant of mofl: par.ts of Europe. ..,Frequent ing retired fitna tions, and feldorn nraying far fr0m home, it appears lef common in t'his country than it really is. Other Cpecies of Dormice are defcribed by natll but little is known conccming them GENUS XXXi. DIPUS.-]ERBOA. 'GENERIC CHAR.t1CrER. Front-Ifl'fh Iwo f.lt -l(/ch jaw: Fon lrgs vcry /ho l'l; hiJ/d-lrgs vcrj /!JlIg THIS genus Gf animals, nearly aJlied to thJt of Rat, was fir.fl bI:Ought., into notice as a diflinCl tribe VOL. II. L b y

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[ HO ] by i ls habit of fianding on its hind-leg3, and iJs refembiing the hopping of a bird. Thefe circumfiances are particularly confpicuous in the following fpedes, which was firfl: difeo vered. 1.' DIPUS SAGITTA.-COMMON JERBOA" This animal is about the bulk of a rat, being feven inches and a quarter from nore to tail; the latter, ten inches. Its head is fhort; its cars thin, uprigi1t, and rounded; its eyes large and dark; its fore-legs about an inch long, with five toes fur: nifhed with {harp daws to each foot; its hind-legs very long, thin, almofl: naked, and much refem. tiling a hird's, wilh three toes each, and a [mall fpur or back claw. Th(! tail is fquari (1] and tel' minated with a tuft of black hair with a white tip. The general colour of the J er\;>oa is a very pale tawny brown ab0ve, white beneath, with an ob. [cure du{ky band acrors the rump, more or difl:inB: in different individuals. It is a native of lEgypt, N ubia, Arabia, Syria, Barbary, and alfo ,of the remote randy trach between the Don and Volga al)d [outh of the Irti(11. Its refidence is in dry fiony or fandy deferts, where it inhabits holes in the ground. It digs powerfully with its teeth and nails, and can even make its way through foft itone. It fe, eds on corn and other vegetables. In eating

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[ tIt ] rating it ufes its fore-feet as hand5; and this 1"9 almoft their foIe ufe, unce rt generally fiar1ds on its hind-Iegsf and leaps on them with great fwiftnefs. It is faid commonly to remain en its hole by day, and come abroad at night; yet it is a. ,hilly animal, illld been obferycd to delight in funlhine. Jerboas are proltfic, and Ifve in numerous fiicicties. They are {hy., and fo nimble as not to be except by (lopping up all their holes but oner and watching their comin.g Ol-1t. They :uc of a gentle and quiet difpofition. The 'ALAGTAGA or Sioerwn J erboa fo very nearly refembles 'fhe precedi"ng fpecies that it feems 1ll1ncceffary to defcl'ibe it fep:uately. It d ift<:rs chiefly in being fomewhat longer, in wanting the black (hipe acrofs the rump, and in having upon the hind-feet two fmall toes or fpurs about an incll above the three real toes. It makes oblique wind ing burrows, fome yards ill length, terminating in a magazine or ne a, in which are depofited herbs and roots. It comes abroad chiefly by night. the winter it becom es torpid. 2. DIPUS CAFER.-CAI'E JERBOA. This is the largeft of the Jerboas, meafllTing from noCe to tail fO\ll'teen inches; the tail fifteen. It has a broad head, and fomewhat {harp muzzle; its nofe black antI bare; its e,ars large; its tail very L 3 full

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L rI2 J fun of hair. The general coloHr IS pare fertil-' ginous above, pale a-Ih beneath. It is a (hong andactive animal, and can fpring twenty Of thirty feet 4t a leap; whence the Dutch colbnifl:s call it the Jumping Hare. It bmfows in the ground like the former Other fpecies of Jerboa are defcribed; but it whether they ought t'O'be to this genus,. or to tbat of One of thef.e is at of GltNUS If,XXlI'. LEPUS.-HAREr GENERIC CHARACTERr Froll/-teeth two, belw; the upper pair. duplicale, ltu') illlnl/ infe. ri(ir {me! }landillg behind the o:lerior; 1(1il fol)l/ or.' 1UJIlt. I. LEFUS Hf'RE'. THIS animal, fo wen known among us as an objeCl of the chace, and : one of. the darnties of the table, is about two feet in with large, very pl'cuinent

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r II3 J promine!lt eyes, 'clnd long ears, thus capable of taking in all the warnings of danger, given by fight and found. Its general colour is grey mixed with tawny red, with a 'white chin and belly; its. very!hort tail is black above whhe beneath; feet are furred ab0ve and beTow. Its upper li p fplit, or divided into two parts; whence the term hare-lip applied to a human deformity. The Hare is admirably made for fwiftnefs. Its lon& and vw! mufcular hind-legs give it the power of making vafl fprings, :md particoJarly fit it far running up hill, which it therefore is inclined to do when purrued. It chiefly relides by choice in rich, rather dry, flat favourable to the production of the fucculent herbs on which it feeds. It fometimes gnaws the bark of trees, and eats the young ilioots of !hrubs; whence it is mtfchievous in lS plantarion. In hard weather it frequents gardens, and makes great devallation in the green vegetables. It is particularly fond of pinks and pariley. The Hare urually lies nil! in its com-ealment (calIed its form) in fe(n, or rank gears, during thlt day, from which it is diflicllltly rOll red. This is owing to its extreme timidity, which makes it dread a foe in any thing that approaches; and indeed few animals have more. Dogs, foxes, tht weefel tribe, birds of prey, and nian more than all, watch f.or ddhuCliqn, and it ex.erciCes no other L 3 means

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. ( fl4 j means of fafety than flight. Its time of. eQmfng forth feed is the evenrng, a 'Ad it frifks and gam bols in fine nights by muonl ight. The female is; very proE-fic, bringi.ng forth three or four: at. a time, and breeding morl! than once in a year; thus the fpecies is preferved fiiH numerous, notwhhfianding itsloffe' s, and its beiAg na.tmaIly a !hon-lived animal. When hunted it fi.rfl: t1i-fl:ances hounds by its fpeed, and then endeavours to puzzle the fcentr by many artful d0'ublings It ufuaIl y ta-kes a cir coit, and retmns to' the fpot whence it was put up. voice when. [e ized or hard preITed is like the cry of an The HaFe is a native of almolt every part of the Old Contin.ent;. but it i s dubious whether this fpecies is bFed in America. Eefides the value of its Se!h; its fur is of llCe in the -hat man1!lfaB:ul'e. In the northern regions it turns white in the winteJ'. The proper North American Hare mnch reCem bles the preceding in cotour, but is ccnfiderabl)f fmaller. When purfued, i t takes refuge in the 'hollows or under the roots of trees. ; 2, tEPUS VARIABILIS.-VA.RYlNG HARIl. This has alCo been caHed the Alpil1e Hart, as being a mountain Cpecies. I t is a nati ve of the norlh of Scotland, of all the northern countries in Ell .. rope, of Siberia, Kamtiliatka, anti Hlld .. fon's

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[ 115 ] fon's Bay. It is fmaller (in this Wand at Ieal1) than the common Hare; its ears {horter, and legs more {lender, Its fummer colour is tawny grey: in w i nter it entirely of a fnowy whitenefs, except the tips and edges of its ears, which always remain black. It has a thick, fur, covering even the foles of its feet. This fpecies confines it[df to the higher grounds, never defcending to the plains, or mixing with the common Hare. It .ihelters in the clefts of rocks; does not run faft; is frolicHome, eafily tamed. In hard wiuters it fometimes congregates in troops of five or fiK. hundred, and qlJits the hills in order to obtain fub fiftence in the woody (heltered regions; and returns to the mountains in fpring. 11) very rigorous eli' mates it is always white, but a coal-black variety is fometimes feen among the others. The fie/h, in its white !l:ate, is very infipid. 3. LHUS It is lIngular, that though the Rabbet and the; Hare are eafily diltinguiOleel by a common obferver, yet naturalias have found it very difficult to efiablith any fpecific mark by which the one can be eli rcriminated from the other. Rabbet, indeed, is in general confiderably thy fmaller .of the two; it has illarper ancllonger for th e pu!pofe .of digging, .and its colour in ,;l

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, ( rt6 J 'WIld fiate is a dulky brown above, paler The mofi firiking difference, however, cQnfifis ill the different proportional length of the hind-legs;. fhore of the Hare, mearured from the uppermolt joint ta the toe, being jull half the I'tngth of the {pace from the rump to the mouth; whereas tl10fe of the R.abbet are little more than one third of that fpace. 'The fore-legs, altO, !horter. In manner of life the two_ animals differ nil! more t for the Rabbet refides in a facial fiate In warrens, forming burrows under ground. Their fmel! is likewife different, and ihey -!how the greatell: antipathy to ady mixture. The Rabbet, like the Hare, feeds chiefly in the night, and early in the morn. ing. It eats grafs and herbs of various and makes depredations on the green corn. Its reo. is generally in dry }oote foils, in which it can readily burrow: much moifiuTe is fatal to rt. Rabbets are among the mofi prolific of quadrupeds, being capable of breeding feven times a year, and ofren producing eight young at a birth. It is in a domefhc fiate, however, that this great fertility is' fhown; but n 'umbers of the young die, and the male has :it propenfit'y to (tevour tbem when little. Tame Rabbets are of great variety of colours, as black, white, mottled, tawny, {jIver-grey, &c. They grow to a larger fize and fatter fhan the wild; but {heir fle!h is not. [0 good. Th.e Rabbet is

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[ I17 ] is originaHy a native of Africa, and the warm cli mates of Afia and Europe. -It has been importeu into the temperate and' northern, and i s found 10 thrive remarkably well in Great Britai n. III Sweden it can be only kept in houfes. It i s very fwift in a fhort cour[e; but does not run firaight but lhifts and dodges, and gets as foon a5 poilible into its burrow. It has many the moa formidable of which are thofe which fol low it under-ground, as the feifet and polecat. The fur of the Rabbet is a confiderable articte of trade: it is ufed in the hat manufaClure, and al fo for fluffing beds a}ld boWers. The fur of the {llver-haired kind has been ufed for the lining of doaths. That of the Angora Rabbet is long and of a filky glofs. The BAIKAL HAFE, or TOLAI, a fpedes met with about lake Baikal, appears in fome mcaf4re to be intermediate between the Hare and Rabbet; but it differs from both in manners, not burrowing, and wben pur[ued, immediately taking refuge in the holes of rocks. 4. LEPUS ALPINUS.-ALPINE HARE. This is about the (ize of a Guinea-pig, tncafllring nine inches in length. It has a long head, Glort broad rounded ears, and no tail. Its colour is bright" grey, paler beneath. It

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[ rdf J It is a native 'of the northern parrs of Alia, from the Alraie mountains q uite to K:lIntfhatka, and ill habits middle regions of the fnowy mountains" in rOl1gh woody tratlsr where it forms burrows benaath the Tocks, OF m :t kes IfS abode i n 'natural crevices, and fom etimes in the hoHows of trees that have been blown down. It dwells either fing1y, or two or three together. In bright wea ther thefe animals generally keep thej.r holes during the day, and come Gut only at night; J)Ut in cloudy weather th e y colleCt and run about among the rocks, frequently giving a fott of keeu whiflle,. like the chirp of a fparro w. Quring autumn they; join to make a harvefi of the finell herbs arid gralles for their winter provifion, which they place in large heaps unqer the ledges or in fiffures of rocks, OD round the trunks of trees, appearing like hayricks in miniature, and eafily diaingl1ifhable und.:r the fnow. There magazines are often of great liFe t(} the C a ble-hunters, whore horfes are prevented from perifhing ih thefe deColate regions by the Cllpplies thus occafionally met with. On this account, the Alpine Hare, though fo inconfiderable an and l1' ot ufed for food, has a particular name among all the Siberian and Tartarian nations. The OGOTONA HA RE, a [maller fpecies, which inhabits beyond lake and all over the M on golian defert, to the borders of China and Tibet,.

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tmlch refembles the above in its manner of living. It is like\yife tail-lers. 5. L.EPUS PUSILLUS.-CALL[NG This fpecies meaftlres no more than fix inches -Its head is thickly furred to the tip of the nofe ; ears large and rounded; its legs {hart, and feet furred. I ts fur is long and foft, of a brownifu, lead-colour, the hairs tipt with 'black: yelIowifu on the fides. It is without .tail. The native country of this animal is the fauth-eallern part of Rullia, about the U ralian and Altaic chains, and the river Irtifh. It del ights in (unny vallies and verdant hills on the edge of woods; and being pt a folitary retired nature, is feldom {een, even where moll cominon. In' winter they are often taken in tlie ermine traps. They make their bur: ,rows in the dry hufhy declivities (If hills, chiefly on the weltern fide, forming long intricate gal leries, with only' a very fmall hole for the entrance. TI)eir betrayed by their voice or call; which is like tlie piping of a quail, but deeper. fa loud as to be heard to a great difl:ance It is lI.ttered chiefly in the morning ann at night, and is repeated from three to fix times at regular inter vals. Thefe animals never go far from their holes, feed by night, {Jeep little and with open eyes, and are eaGly tamed. T.heir pace is a lcaring motion, but

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( 120 ] :t>ut not quick. They generally fit in a contracted form, and then jtift fill the hollow of the hand The female produ ces five or [IX young at a time, which are born blind -and naked. A ftill [maller animal of the Hare tribe is foundin Chili, where it .is <:aHed the Cuy. This does not exceed the meadow moure in fize. 'GENUS XXXIII. HYRAX 'GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-leeth, in tlx jaw, /'WQ, hrQad, jomiivha/ d!flant: in tm /07.uer, four, broad, flat, d o ubly nQ/cbed: Grinders, jbur Oil each jide, abQve and be/()'UJ: FQre-jeet with jour taes: Hilldj"ut with /bru: Tail none: Cla'Vides none; THIS newly-formed genus is taken out of that of Cavy, the difference ariling principally from the numb e r am.I ftruCLure of th e lower front-teeth. I. HYR,.\X CAPENSIS.-CAPE HYRAx. This animal' is about the fize and colour of a rabbet, but whiter beneath. It has a rather [mall head; 5

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/

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, [ 121 ] tlead; the nofe divilied by a furrow; BlOrt rounded ears; large black eyes; and {hort limbs, the hind longer tban the fore. The toes arc foft and pulp}", and furnifhed with rounded nails, except the interior ones behind, which are {harp and crooked. It :is a native of the mountainous tracts about the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called the Rock Badger. It refides in the cavities of rocks, making a bed of dried herbs. It feeds by day, on vegeta bles only. It is eaflly tamed; and in a domefl:ic ilate is cleanly, lively, ami acti\'e. 2. HYRAX .sYRIACUS.-SYRJAN HYRAX: This fpecies is called Ajhkol:o by Mr. Bruce, its principal defcriber. Its total length is about feven teen inches. Its ears are round; upper jaw longer than the under; toes and nails fimiJar to thofe of the former fpecies : i.ts colour that of a wild rab. be,t; the fllr all over the body mixed with fcattered {hang hairs or bri11:l6$, above two inches in length. The Afhkoko ;is a native of Ethiopia, Abyilinia, and Syria, where it inhabits the caverl)s of rocks. It feeds on vegetables. Thefe animals are grcga ri('l\Is, and fcveral dozens of them are frequently obferved to fit upon the great fiones at the muuth of caves, bafldng in the or to come out :lnd enjo:y the cool on [lImmer's evenings. They do not fiand erect, but fieal along, with the belly clofe YOL. n. M to

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[ 122 ] to the advancing a few fieps, and then p:lUling, and intheir deportment exhibiting cl mild, feeble, timid character. They are gentle and eafily tamed, though when roughly handled on being firft taken, they bite feverely. Mr. Bruce fuppo 'fes the !i!h.koko t6 be the Saphan of Scripture .()RDER V. PE,CORA CENUS xxx'! V. CAMELUS.-CAMEL. GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth ill tM lower jaw, fix, thin and broad: Canine-tttth dijlont, three ab'ove, two below: Upper. lip divided: Roms 1foll(. L CAME'LUS DROMEDARlUS.-ARABIAN CAM' E:L. --THIS very ufeful animal, the nave of man from the earlieft periods of hiftory, is one of the Jirgefi quadru peds. lts : height fram the top of its ,buncn

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L 121 J bunch to the ground is .about fix feet and a haTf; bllt from the top of the nead when held lip, it meafures near nine feet. Its head is fmall, and ufually carried horizontally on a level with the back, in which {late its very long neck is much bent: its body is long and meagre; its legs {lender; tail, which is tufted Cjt the end, reaches only to the upper joint of the hind-legs. Its feet are very large, divided 110t quite through into' two lobe.s, the ex tremities of which are by a fmall hoof: the under Pilrt of foot is covqed with a very tough pliable !kin. There are hard' or callolls fpots in the !kin on each knee, on the inlide of \!ach fore-leg at the upper joint, and on the inlide of each hind-leg at the bottom of the thigh : there js alfo a large rough callus on the lower part of the brealt Upon the back rifes aJillgle large bUf\ch in ihis which ill compo[ed of a fie thy [lIb {lance. The colour of the Camelis an uniform: dulky brown, tinged in different degrees with fer, ruginolls; the hair fine and [oft. Unfightly as this anilll,\l is, it is lmpofTible Can be better for the uCe of man in the climates where it is found, which are the dry and hot regions of the northern part Qf Africa, Egypt, Arabi:lt Le(ft:r Alia, and Pcrfia, beyond it does !lot extend northwards, The foIe of its foot is peculiarly adapted for treading fecurely M Z on

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[ 124 ] -OIl ll:ony and faOlly ground. Its Cacl,c admits tlie placing of a great load, and its docility and fllb mifIivenefs are fu<:h-as fuit a beall: of burden. Dut temperance in .living, and patience under hungcl and thirll:, are qualities moll: neceffary in travelling o ver the vall: and dreary fillitlldes fo in the countries above-mentioned. Camels will journey many d:qs with no other full:enance than a few dates, or fome [mall balls of barley or bean meal', with the few prickly and withered herbs they pick up in the defert; and they are enabled to abll:ain entirely from drink for a long period, by means of a pecu liarbag or fiomach with which they are fllrniflieo, holding "Yater alone. This they fill when they come to a drinking place; and it will' keep in an incorrupted flate; -fo that tIavetrers, when ex:' tremeIy preffed with want of water, have killed their camels for the fake of the fuppI y this recep tacle affurds. They have four nomachs be fides ; alld are in the c1afs of thofe q'uadrupeds whith chew the cud, or.ruminate. The Camel is trained from its youth to carry burdens, and to kneel at the word of cOlTIlTIflnd to receive its load. A large one will carry 1000 or 1200 t5, with which it will travel about thirty miles a day. They rire frani the ground when loaded a s muc;h as they Can bear, and will not per mit more t9 be hid on. In traveJIing, the y cannot

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[ 125 1 Dot pe R}ad<; to quicken their pace by blows ; but go if ch ef(red by goo;] ufage, or the found of m)Jfic. They generally are ufed in la(ge droves, (.arming caravans; and every night they are un': .loaded! and turned to graze.. In the deferts they will fcent water at a great diflance, and after long pbilincnc will redouble their fpeed on approachiilg it. The female goes with young near twelvc months, and generally brings one fo al at a time, which arrives at its full growth at the age of fix years .The flefh of the young ones is much eflecmed by J the Ar{lbs, and Camel's milk is a principal article tof d ; eir faod. Its dung is u fed for fuel; :lnd of it.s feveral kinds of fluffs are m\lrllfaClurecl. ?-f e various of Camels, differing hom eadlpt}ler in fize, !l:reijgth .. hardinefs, fw, iftnefs I CAM'ELUS BACTRIANUS.-BACTR.IAN CAMEL. This fp.ecies differs from former alm9fl ft1ldy in h\l'ving Iw? 1 mllche!r on its back. It is a qalive of AGa, a ,Rd is bei\fi of burden in ute among the Tartar,sa})d Mongols, from the Cafpian fea to C),i1).a. It fOlll)r if,! l he UC'flrts between and J ndia. T)us fpe c ics is more hardy thaJ1 tlte bearing colsl ,of fouthern part of M 3 Siberia,

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[ 126 ] .siberia, where numbers a re kept apolJt the lake' BaikaI; but they become fm o aller in that Abreed' peculiarly f\Vift is known in China, called Camels wilhJeet 'I wind, which are ufedfor riding. A mixed breed" is fometi mes obtained between "the Eachian and the Arabian fpecies. The name Dr011!edary ured formerly to be to the kind with two bunches, but Buffon has ap propriated it to that with one bunch. o 3. CA.!vIELUS GLAMA;-GLAMA .or, LLAMA. The true Camel is confilled to the Old World; out the New has an refembling it, and bearing the fame relation to mankind. Th"is is the Glama, called by the firll difcoverers of America, the Pe;:uvjan Sheep, as being particularly abundant in Peru. In a wild llate it inhabits the highell and coldell regions of South America, feeding in large herds, and flying at the app.roach of man: but it has long been domefiicated by the 'Datives, and was the only beall of burden employed by them The Glama is about the fize of a llag, in height four feet and a half to the top of the illOulders, and fix feet in length from Dofe to tail. Its head is flliall; its eyes black and o large; its neck very long and bent'; its back a little arched ; its tail !hart: its colour light Turret, paler beneath; fometimes patched with fuades of hues,

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. r r

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: [ 127 ] hues, and having a black fl:ripe running along the back. The hair of the wild fort is fhaggy; that of the domefl:ic, fmoother. The Glama is able to carry burdens from a hundred to a hundred and fifty pounds. It lies down to be laden; goes in an uniform flow pace; and when wearied, no blows can compel it to proceed. On fuch occafions it ejeCts from its mouth a quantity of faliva, which is of an acrimonious quality, and raifes a flight in flaaimation on the 1kin where it lights. The voice of the Glama is a kind of ihrilI neighing. When attacked, it bites and fl:rikes with its fore-feet. It is temperate in food, and can bear abfl:inence from drink for feveral days. Its flefh refembles mutton. Its wool has a difagreeable fcent. 4. CAMELUS VJCUGNA.-VICUNA. This animal greatly refembles the preceding, but is of a lighter make and fmaller fize, with a fhorter head, and fharper ears. Its colour above is partly a reddifh brown, or wine colour, partly fawn colour: below, white. Its hair is wavy, foft, and wooly, and may be wrought into very beautiful cloths, of a filky lufl:re, and extremely warm. The Vicunas are hunted for their fielh and wool; and are fre quently taken in the pa{fes of mountQins, by tying acrors the path, cords with bits of rag fixed at cer tain difl:ances, which, by fluttering in the wind, fo terrify

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t q8 ] terrify the fimple af}:impls. they huddle .. tb!!f ill coafuuPll; clare flot pafs. They-are J3j1tjye,s fJf lJ,S Glama. 5. CA1)1EJ,US PACO.-:-PACO! .' Tliis ff:ft!la1ble is 9 '" robull make. ,It is with "\I)',q01, .of a colour refembling ,drie.d It is confin .ed to Peru, and is in a wild fiate in the difl:ri,61s. n..a-tiyes Jc$!,ep large of t:betci for of they lpilDUr faCllJfe. is a.lfo ufed for bur",' fJom fif.ty t9 feye,nty-;ive pounds weight 6. CAMELUS This is the largeft animal of all there kindred [pecies, fometimes arriving at the fize of a horre. l-tj be,ad js ro.und; poXe p,<1inted; ftraight; : t;lillhort and turning L .ft' -C910ur is tawny whi!e below; its coat COIlflas not of wool, but long fmoQth pair. It q1,1cnts the fame ;with the 'GI, ama ;,np faco; inhabiting the tops of the ip fumrn,.er, apd to the :;rallJ.es in wjnteE' .1t WJ1Lh gre at fWiftJ;lc(s, tln q bOIjl,Qdjng like a Ib1,lAl<: Th,c natives 1 1 :lwn f)r flfter ,1), POll fwi-Ct Jlprfes, 41)ld fatqh

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'.

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l t29 ] them by throwing noofes. The Belli of tP. e young ones is much efteemed. l:!lpon the whole it appears that fome confuCion yet prevails in the defcriptions of the preceding South-American animals; and that it is probable fome of them are not feparate fpecies, but only varieties, or different breeds, of the fame. i An animal of a fimilar kind, refembling in appearance a large ram, and callc:d the Chilihuque; is known in Chili, where it was employed by the ancient in' habitants as a beaft of draught and burden) and, yielded a wool for manufaClurc. GENUS XXXV. M,OSCHUS.:-MUSK. GBNERIC CHARACTER. Hom! mnt: Frontteeth in the lower jaw eight: Tufts tw( in the upp;,. jaw }landing filitary, llIlco'1)md. I. MOSCHUS'MosCHIFERUS.-TIDET1AN MUSK. THE appe:lr:lllCC of this animal is' nearly that of a rmall Roebuck. It is three feet three inches in

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( 13 ) tn length; two feet tnree inches high from the 'i'op of the fholllders, two feet nine inches from the tOll of the haunches. From its upper jaw, whic h i& confiderably longer than the lower, d!;fc\!nd tW() fiender tufks, which ftand e",pofed to view when the mouth is lhut: they are {harp-edged the inner fide, of the fubftance of ivory, and two iriches long. There are wanting in the female. The. ears are long 3nd OIJqoVV; the hopfs long and \:tlack; the tail extrewllly fhQrt, apd. almofl: hidden ill the fUf. The general coloijr of the animal i$ a deep h'oP gfllYl the hairs .being. cinereous at their origin, black near the end, and ferruginous at the tip. The hair grows thick, up right and waved; in fame it is marked with whitilh fireaks, in others uniform They are inhabitants ef Tibet, the of China, Tonquin, Boutal1, and the country about lake Baikal, as far as the 60th degree of latitude. Their f
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[ 131 ] ";agl1hoUt the fize of a fmall egg, hartging under the belly. This bag is cut out by the hOnters as as the animalls killed, and is tied up for fale; but on account of its great value, it is very quently adulterated. Mulk is one of the moll: powerful and penetrating perfumes in nature, com municating its fcent for almoll: any length of time to a large fLKtounding and very difficultly difcharged from any thing it has touched. Its fragrance is greatly admired by fome perfons, and as much difiiked by others; but it is never agreeable when too near, or in large quantity. As a medi. cine it is much elleeme'd in nervolls and convullivc diforders. The bell: comes from Tibet. "2. MOs,nI'us PVGMJEUS.-PYGMY MUSK. .. This elegant ao imal, Which-likc a 'Or antelope in miniature> meafures littje more than nine inches from note to tail. I ts colour is a bright bay, white beneath. It is of a beautiful {hape j and fo flender are its kgs as not to exceed a fwan's quill in thicknefs. The eyes Imd ears of thi. s animal are' large; its afpeCl: mild; it has two tufks in the upper jaw: its tail is bout an inch in its feet are without thofe falfe hoofs which belong to the Ante'ope genus. Though it baa -l1fually been caUed the GW'I/M Dm', it not t'o be a native of that C'O\1lltry, but ,of, the EaA: Indies

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[J'I32 ] r,idies and Indian Wands, where :it is frequently caught in and brought to. market in cages, :rhe legs are fQmefimes capped at the upper joint with gQld {jIver, and ufed as tQbaccQ-ftQPpers. 3. MOSCHUS MUSK. ThiS' hfpecies .is abQut the ,AZ} o.f., a Roebuck, with IQng ears, large black' eyes, wide trils, and a black muzzle; Its' head and neck are '.. 'of a tawny CQIQur ; all the upper and outer paris of the body befides, : pright Tuft-olour; white be neath. It is a native Qf South America, chiefly of I< Brazil and..: Guiana,:;ill which latter country the French fettlers call Does, from their refem. blance to deer, and t heir want of horns. It is 3 ycry timid animal, fwift and 'l"flDning'on the ledges and points of rocks like, the wild goat; They are hunted by the Indians, who, .take the QPpertunity Qf their fwit?ming acrofs to. catch them. Their fie!h is reckoned a g'i-eat delicacy. There are fome ether fpecies of the Mu!k genps, more er lefs appro.aching to. the preceding. Tllllt called the MEMINNA, a native of Ceylon Java, dillinguilhed by its white fpots. Non of them, however, except the firfi, yield the fragr ... t fubfiance wheh(:e name of the genus has beeJl> (improperly) taken; -,* GENUS i

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,

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[ 133 ] GEN11S XXXVI. CERVUS.--"DEER. GENERIC CHARACTER. HQrnsj(}Jid, oran(IJtti, annually deciduous, while young with a hairy jkin: Front teeth in the kwer jaw eight: Canine. gf,!erally noJZe, jmzetjmes filitary in the upper }OU'. I. en vus ALCES.-ELK. THIS is the I:ugeft animal of the genus, when. full-grown equalling a tall horfe in fize. It is clumfy and deformed in its appearance; having a large head, wit h a very thick, broad, over-hanging upper lip; fmall eyes; long flouching ears i wide nolhils: a very /hort thick neck; very high !noul ders; long legs; and very thort tail. Its horns have beams, which fpread into large and broad palms, one fide of which is plain, the other fnrnifhed with tharp fnags. It has a kind of mane on the' neck; and generally a fmall excretcence under the throat, covered with a tuft of hair. The hoofs aft: brond, anu clecply cloven. The hair is (hong, coarl'c, longeft on the thoulders neck, and in of a dark brown; white on. the legs and beneath the tall. The VOL. 'Il. N grcate{l;

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[ 134J greatefl: height to which the Elk has been known to arrive is feventeen hands; and its greatefl: weight about 1230fu. The horns have weighed S6l1i. and meafurfd thirty. (wo inches in length. The female is fmaIJer, and without horns. She brings forth two at a time in tlte fpring This animal is found only in the cold regions of 1he globe; in Europe, chiefly in the northern PaflS of Sweden, Lapland Norway and RufTia; in Alia, in the north-eaftern parts of Tartary and Siberia; in America, abollt the great laRes, in Nova Scotia, and Canad:l. The American Elk has the name of the Moofo Decr. The relid encc of the Elk is in thil:k fordls where it brollzes thc' boughs of trees; for the Ihol'tnefs of its nec k makes it difficuhy. It is a mild harmlefs creature, except wheu wounded, or in the rutting fearon, when the males become furiolls, and purfue the females from ifie to ifie. This is jn autumn. In defence, the Elk ure s his and alfo his fore-feet, with which he will kill a dog or a wolf at a blow. Thei r pace, w hen alarmed, is a high, !hambling, v e ry fwirr tr ot, attended with c1att ,ering of the hoofs They lectl roomy by night, and chew the cud. During rllmlner they keep in families, the young ones following' tlwir dam; but in the Inows of winter they colleet

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[ 135 ] in herds in the pine-forefis, where they find both lhelter and food. The chace o( the Moafe-deer is an important -objecc among the North-American Indians, who purfue it various ways. Before the rivers and lakes are a party of them furround a traa of ford!, and with loud cries and the aid of dogs drive the animals towards the water, into which they plunge for refuge, where another party waiting in difpofed in a wide crefcent, folloW' and difpatch them. Another method is to enclofe a large fpace with flakes interwoven with branches, forming two fides of a triangle, the bottom of which opens into another triangular fpace. The Indians then drive the Moofcs and other deer into the liril endofure: when, in preffing 011 to the fe cond, they are either caught in noofes and fnares placed :It the angle, or killed by arrows after they have got into the fllrther enc1ofure. They are alfo purfued by fingle fportfmen with the gun. This is ufually praetifed when the fnow begins to melt onthe furrace; and if the hunter mi Ifes his aim at the fira unharbouring of the animal, he follows upon his fnow-lhaes, which bear him lip whilc.: the Moore links through to his IhulIlders, and falls an eafy prey. The 1klh of the MClofe is reckoned nourifAing; the tongue is excellent, but the is accounted the prime delicacy, being like a lump N 2 of'

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-" [ 13 6 ] of m:lrrovv. Its frin makes very {hang buff lea ther ; its hair is Ured for fiuffing faddles and mat. treffes; and ladles ... are made of its horns. The hoofs have been fuppofed to pOITefs extraordill<\ry virtue in the cure of the epilepfy, but this appears to be a fuperfiitlous notion. 2. CER vus TARANDUS.-REIN DEER. This animal may 'be reckojled the mofi ufeful of 'all the ki'nd, fince it is ahfolntely neceffary to the exifience of a whole nation. It is one of the larger fpedes, meafuring, when full grown, about four feet and a half. Its body is fOJ11cwhat thick and fquare: its legs proportionally I1lOrt lIs horn S are large, flender, bending forwards, and palmated at top; with broad palll1ated brow-antlers. Both fexes have: them, but the male much the largeft. A pair has been known to meafure, three. feet nine inches in length, and to weigh nine pOlmds tWel,ve ounces: they vary, however, extremely in pilferent ind:viduals, and at different ages. The general colour of the Rein Deer is brown above and white beneath, but it becomes grey or white with age. The fpace about the eyes is always black. The hairs are fet very c1ore; thore on the under part of the neck are and for m a kind of beard. The hoofs are long, large, and black, and there are fecondary hoofs, which arc

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c J 37 J loofe, make a clattering when 'animal runs. The tail is lhort. The Rein Deer Js confined to the very northern regions, and cannot live in the temperate. It inhabits Norway, L;pland, Samoiedea, Sibaia, Kamtlhatka, Spitz bergen, Greenland, the north of Canada, and t 'he country about Hudfon's Bay. This quadruped exifl:s both in a wild and a do mellic fl:ate. In the latter, it is ufed by many of the northern tribes a beafl: of draught; but the Laplanders have a1fo derived great part of their fu{lenance from it. They keep herds of Rein Deer as other palloral people do of theep or cows; and' fome of the richcfl: among them polTefs as many as five hundred. Thefe during the winter lire kept in the low grounds, where their chief food is a fpedes of lichen or liver-wort, which they dig up from beneath the fnow; and they are occafionally houfed, or amidfl: the cottages. In fummer they are driven up to the mOllnt'iins to pall:ure, as the multitude of infetts renders it im poillble for them to live in the plains. Hence they are brought down to the herclftnan's cottage morning and evening to be milked, II fire being Srct kindled to (,rive off' the illfetts by its fmoke. Their milk is thinner than that of the cow, but fweeter and more nourilhing. A cheefe made ftom it, which is. a principal article o{ the Lap-N 3 landec's

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lander's food. They alfo eat the flelh, cloathing and bedding of the {kin, bowflrings and thread' of the tendons, glue of. the horns, and fpoons of the bones; fo that the Rein Deer is 2lmofl: every thing to them, and admirably fupplies their wants in a regi on which yields fcarcelyany thing elfe for human u fe. It is, befides, their rrn:ans of conveyance from place to place. They train it from an early age to the fledge, to which it yoked by a collar, from which a trace is' under the belly, and faflened to the fore part of the fledge. The perfon who fits in it, holds a cord tied to the animal's horns, with which he guides it; and he ufes a goad to urge it for wards. The breed, procured by a mixture with ,the wild Rein Deer, through much the firongefl, are apt, to prove refniClory, and will fometimes kick with fuch violence, as to oblige the driver to cover himfelf with his {ledge. The thoroughly domeflicated ones are very gentle and traClable. They proceed on a brilk trot, and will travel without inconvenience as far as thirty miles on a flretch. They are pu{hed twice that dHlance in a flage, but this exertion often proves fatal to them. It is only in winter and over the frozen fnow that this mode of carriage can be ufed i but it is thus that perfons and goods are conveyed

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[ 139 J r veyed in Lapland, Sam9iedea, and many other of the arcHc regions. One of the greatell: enemies of tile Rein D e er is a peculiar ki-nd of gad-fly, which piercing -{kin, depofits its eggs it: tllefe, when hatched, prod,!ce ulcers in the flelh whi<:h generally prove fatal. The poor animals, knowing the ir enemy, fly from it with the terror, and a fingle gadfly will drive a whole herd full fpeed to the tops of the mountains for refuge The female Rein Deer begins to breed at two years of age, with young eight months, and generally produces two at a time, to which Ole isl1:rongly attached. They follow her two or three years; attain their full firength at four, and are ferviceablc:: for the draught four or five years. The extent of their life is fifteen or fixteen years. I n the northern parts of A merica this animal is called CaribIJu, and is a confiderable objeCt of chace for its fleOl and lk in. It is extremely nu merous about HuMon's Bay, where bodies of eight or tcn thoufand are feen pafTing fouthwards in the months Qf March and April, driven Ollt of the woods by the mofkitoes, nnd fccking n retired place on the Olore tG drop their young. Thefe migrations are followed by wolves 5lnd other beans of prey who pick up the weak and firagglers. In aut\lmn they return northwards with their fawns. 'fhe

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r 140 ] The Indians kill.many of them for their tongues alone, which are a great delicacy. -3. CERVUS ELAPHus.-STAG. This fpecies, ufually called with us the Red Deer, is mQf1: fightly inhabitant of the in the temperate parts of Europe and Afia. J t varies ih fize and rtature according to foil and climate; in general, its height is about thre e feet and a half. I IS form is elegant; its motions light; ils limbs vigorous. -It carries upon its he:!'d an attire of branching horns, long, upright, cylindric, with flender and fharp brow antlers. The horns do not come to thdr full fpread till the fixth year, when there are fix or feven antlers on each fide. The Stag fheds them in February or the beginning of Marchr foon after which the new ones fprout, covered witl! cl velvet down, and gradually bud forth and expand like the graft of a tree. When full-grown, the velvet {kin dries up, and falls off, the animal haftening its fall by rubbing his horns again!t the trees. The ufual colour of the Slag is reddifh-brown above, with a black flripe down the neck and {boulders; whiti{b beneath: but fome of a very dark brown; of' a pale yellow brown; and they are now and then met with quite white. The Hind, or female, which, like moll of the femates of the Deer tribe, is without g.oes

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[ 14[ ] goeswith young eight months and a few d-9s, and [eldom produces more than one at a time. She brings fo{th in Mayor June, and conceals her fawn in the obfcurefi receffes, even from the Stag, which would be apt to de/hoy it. The fawn ac companies the dam during fllmmer. Towards au-' tumn', the nlales, which had lived apart while renewing their horns, begin to (eek the females, and are for fome time extremely ardent and furious, holding fierce combats with each other, and uttering a loud tremulolls kind of braying. At this fcafon an old Stag is dangerous to meet In winter the Stags and Hinds of all ages atfemble, and keep together in herds. The Stag has a fine eye, a keen nofe, and quick hearing. At a n(life, he lillens, creels his e:m, and manifefls deep attention. He is plea fed ami attraeted by muCic, which is often employed to en gage his notice. Playford, a writer on mufic, re lates the following anecdote. "As I travelled fome years fince near Roycton, I met a herdQf Stags, about twenty, on the road, following a bag, pipe and Iviolin; which, while the mulic played, went forward, when it ceafed, they all 1100a Hill : and in this tmllll1er they were brllllght out of York (hire to Hampton-court." The Stag is curious in his difpotition, at pafllng objcels, ancl is not fufpicious til) he had reafon for alarm He eats

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[ 14.2 ] eats flow 1 y, and chews the cud, but not without effort, on account of the length of his neck. He is choice in his food, and is particularly fond of cropping the tender flowery !hoots of llirubs and trees. In winter he gnaws the bark, and eats mofs; or reforts to the green corn, on which the herds of Stags commit great depredations in coun, tries where they are preferved for the chace, and proteCled by fevere game laws. The chace of the Stag has always been reckoned one of the nobl efl fpecies of this diverfion, and has been purfued with great ardour, and with large troops of m e n and dogs. It has often occafrolled bloody feuds be tween neighbouring barons, of one of which we have a popular record in the old ballad of ChcvyChace. Th' e Stag has been accounted an extremely long.lived animal j but late obfervers have proved the common notion to be an error, and that they fcldom arrive at the age of thirty-five or forty years. The Belli 'of the males of this fpecies is lean and ill flavoured ; that of the females is bet ter; and of the fawns very good. The {kin makes excellent leatha; and the hurns are ufed by cuders and other artificers. The Rt:d Deer have in Eng land almon entirely given way to the Fallow-Deel', of which the venifoll is mu<.:h fllperiol'i and they are now only met Wilh in fmall numbers in fOlT)c of the old forens, Or arc kept in parks out of cu riolity:

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[ 1 .... 3 ] rioGty. In the Highlands of Scotland they are Rill numerous. The mountain Stags are the fmalleft. Thofe of Codica are not more than half the height of the largeft breeds. 4-. CERVUS DAMA.-FALLow DEER. With a great general refemblance to the fore fpecies, this in being [malleI', in having a longer tail, and particularly in the make of'its horns, which at the upper part fpread out into palms. From the bafe of each horn, and alCo from Come difbnce above, proceed fharp antlers which point forwards. This fpec.ies takes its Englifh Ilame from its colour, which is ufllalIy of a brownifh bay, whitifh beneath: but the hue varies in different individuals, and fome arc met with almoft black, others w h it e and others bt;auliflllly fpotted. The laft are fllppofed to c ome originally from Bengal. The Fallow Deer is found in mf'ft parts of Europe, bllt is lefs general than the Stag. With us it is chiefly kept in parks, as well for its beauty, as for the excellence of its BeOl, which when fat and in feafnn, is a highLy delicacy. The male of this kind is c a lletl a buck i the ICl11alo a duc. The rlltting fealim is a fortnight or three weeks later in thefe, than in the Stag, nor arC' the rnd1es fo furious under its in fiuen<;e. Deer affociate in herds1 which fometimes divide ./

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. [ 1# ] divide> into two parties, and obfiinate COD;. flias with each other for tlie poffeffion of fome favourite part of the park. They draw up on each fide in regular order of battle, fight with courage and perfeverance, and it is not till after feyerul de feats that the. weaker party re/igns the field. In the circllmfiance of fhedding their horns, and in malt other points of manners and way of life, the Fallow Deer refemble the Stags, but are on the whole of a gentler natu(e! 5. CERVUS DEER. This is of the fize of the Fallow Deer; its colour, a light a(]l-brown, deeper on the head j the belly, fides, fhoulders and thighs, whitifh mot. tIed with brown: the tail ten inches in length: the horns' {lender, bending forwards, much branched on the interior fides, and without brow antlers. It is a native of North America, and is fcen in va(t herds grazingthefavannas on the Miffiffippi and communicating rivers; in company with fiags amI buffaloes. They are refilefs and migratory ani mals, changing their abode according to foud and feafons. In winter they feed much on the ufnea or firing-moCs, which hangs from tree to tree in the woods. They refort much to places impreg nated with f a It, which they are fond of licking. They are an important objea. -of the chace to the Indians) 8

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[ 145 ] '. who preferve their Belh Jor winter proviapd fell their ficins, which are exported in g{eat numbers. They are fomctirnes tamed, anti into the woods in order to decoy others of the fil.me fpecies within gun-lhot, r -, ;. 6, C.ERVUS AXIS,-SPOTTED AXIS' : '" t'fhis: beautiful fpecies is .about the fize of a FaHow Deer, of a light reddilh-brown colour, ma'rked with numeous diftinCl: white fpots: its loWer parts are paler, and a line of white ufually the two h\les. I IS horns are flender, and trifurcated, the branches poil l ting It is common ill India, about the banks of, the Gange!'" and alfo in the iUe of Ceylon; and will bear the .climates of Europe, where it is fome .. tilnes k,ept in parks. 7. CnRvus CAPREOLUS.-COMMON ROE. This is the fmaUefi fpecies of European Deer, ... its height before being two feet inches hind, two feven inches; its hmgth from norc to tail, three feet nine inches; the weight of a fullgrown male, abollt lixty pounds. Its horns are Hr{)ng, upright, rugged, and trifurcated. It$ gellCfal c210ur is br-own,. more pr lefs deep; 'that of the rump, white: its<:o9,t dean, and glolfy. The figure of-the Roe is ... a.na VOL. H. 0 elegant-;'

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[ 14,6 ] elegant; his limbs fine and {lender; his eye lively' and brilliant; his motions graceful and alert. He, bounds with eafe, and runs with great fpeed. Few dogs are able to overtake him in the; chace; nor does he trull: entirely to his fwiftnefs, but makes many artful doublings, and fometimes lies fquat on his belly till his are paffed. Roes are of a more wild and timid nature than other Deer, .and are never thoroughly tamed. They will run againll r trIe walls of an enclofure with fuch force as feverely "to injure themfelves. They delight in dry elevated fituations, ,with a large and free range. They are delicate in their [floa, which in winter confifts of broom, furze, heat 'h, the catkins ?f the willow and hazel; in fpring, of the yot}ng {hoots and buds of trees and {hrubs; in fur:nmer, of leaves and wild herbs. They do not herd like Deer, but live 'in feparate families, con(1(ling of the parents and their young. The female goes with young ollly five months and a half, and generally brings two, fometimes fawns, in April or May. She hides them in the c1ofell: thickets, and to fave them, will often offer herfelf to the chace. Many, however, are dell:royed by beafl:s of prey, 01' dir. covered by men, before they can rlln with their d3ll1s; whence, in cultivated dHhlCls the [pedes is rare, and has \leen from many colllltrics. Roes are met with in 'Europe as far as Norway, but

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r 147 'J but with great intervals. In Gre.lt Britain none are at prefent to be found except in the Scotch Highlands, in fom: parls of which they are derably numeroUS. The Roebuck {beds his horns in autumn, and regains them in winter, in whidl he differs. from the Stag. The flefu at a proper age is delicate, but'it is never fat. There are v.arious other fpeciesof. the Deer kInd in different parts 'of the world, mote or lefs refeD'\. blin' g thofe alteady defcribed. ( I GENUS XX.XVII. CA.MELOP ARpALIS.-CAMELOPARD. GENERIC HtJrnl permanent. bony, cfl'lJmd u;;th a hriflly /kin: Frontfuth in th, IQwt/' jaw eight, tbe tWtJ outerlll11 duply bilobate. I J. CAMnt:OPARDALIS GlR.AFFA.':"GlRAFFE. I Tl-lE figl1re of 'his animal is fo that a roprefenta!ion of it might well be taken for cari.cature, were, it not authenticated by exaCt and Before" it}s the () 2 knoWllc, I

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[ 14 ] known a full-grown Giraffe baving meafuredfevente.en feet from the top of the head to the fore-feet; though fifreen or fixteen is the more u[ual height. Ofthis length, (viz. rt-ven teen feet) that of. the neck is feven feet. From ',he withers to the loin s, the fpace is only fix feet'i ami the back flopes in Juch a manner towards the tail, that the dif1ance ffom the top of therump t o the bottom of the hind-hoofs is only nine feet. This extraordinary difproportion between the fore and hind parts is chiefly owing to the van depth of the !houlders j the mere legs being eqllal before and behind. rhe horns of the Giraffe differ from thofe of all other qJladrupeds, being a fort of ex cre[cence of the ikulI, and confifiing of a porolls bony fubfiance: They covered with filort brimy hair; terminate blunt and tufted. Their length is only fix inches: both fexes are provided with them, and they are never !heel. Between them, in the forehead, rifes a bony tubercle, largefl: jn the male. The head of the Camelopard is fmall, and re[embling that of a Stag, with a mild afpeCl; the ean large: the neck is fUfldhed with a !hort mane: the tail is moderately lon g, ancl :tufted. The genera l cololll' of the animal is' a dirty marked with br
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..

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[ -14-9 J faid alfo to be met with in Its food is herbage, particularly the leaves and {hoots of trees, wfiich its ftature fo well enables it to 01]. the other hand ,it grazes with difficulty, being obliged to out its fore-legs in order to reach the ground wit, h its mouth. It is a harmJefs and timid taking to Bight as foon as and ufing no ,deferice 1ainft, the dogs whell chafed, than kickIng. It runs aukward ly, but with conliderable fpeed, fo that a man 011 horfe back cahnot eafily overtake it. It kneels like a camel, when going fo lie down. Giraffes fometimes feen in fmall herds of fix or [even toge .. ther. Their fieth is eXocellent food. GENUS xnVIHl. ANTILOPE.-ANTELOPE. GENERIC CHARACTER.. Horns hollow, WIt" 60llY GDr" poihting upwards, ()r wreathtd .. pcrmOl1tnt: Fnm/./tttl, ill, Ihl' jaw light .. ninl-teeth n(Jnt THE numerous ramify of Antelopes has butt late:1y been included in a feparate genus, the few o 3 ,.

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[ ISO ] fpecies having been placed under that of Goat. In reality they form a link the Goat and the Deer kind, but poffers rufficient diflinctive marks to entitle them to fland apart from both. They-are in general natives of the hotteft parts of the globe, and pt:culiarly of Alia and Africa; Europe having but two fpedes, and America none. Moft of them have a flender ('le' gant make, and are < fingularly agile fwift in their motions; of refilefs and timid difpofitions, vigilant and full of animation. Their ch:lce is a favourite a1!lufem' ent in the Eafl j and fuch is their fpeed that the fleet eft dogs cannot overtake them. on which account, falcons are trained Ib a \fail them, and by p e cking at their eyes, to check their cOUTfe and throw them into confufion. Afpecies of Leopard is like'wife employed to flea I upon them unawares, and feize them by a few great bounds The Antelopes have the unglllar pro perty of fometi mes floppi ng inort in the midfl: of t.heir career, and gazing at. their purfuers. The beauty Qf their eyes affords a favourite objcCl of comp i aifon to the Eaftern poets. They llC\lully refide in hilly countries, though fome pref e r the open plains. Some of the fpecies affociate in n\llner OilS herds; others in troops or families. They ,gnize Oll the herbage, or the !hoots of tree s and

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[ J .;Md th'eir fieth is generally of a very delicate ff"avour, but muiky 'ffT.itlt horns ji-raigltt 01' 'tiearly.fo. I. ORyx.-EGYPTlAN ANTELOPE. This fpecies, called alfo the Pa/an, is eafily dif tinguithed by its horns, which are almon en.tirely !haight, annuiated about half way from the bare, fmooth in the upper part and tapering to a point, and nearly three fect in length. It is nearly four feet high from the lhoulders: its length, fix feet and a half. The head is white, fingularly marked with black, dirpofed in a patch on the furehead between lhe eyes, met by a band running from the roots of each horn, through the eyes, and down the checks. The colour of the body above is a pale blueilh grey with a tinge of blolfom.colour; white beneath: .a dark firipe runs al9ng the back to the tail; another along each fide; and the outfide of each leg is marked with a limilar one. The tail is covered with fang black hairs, fome what refembliug thofe of a hurle's tail. The hoofs and horns are black. This animal is found not only in Egypt, but in Ar:lbia, Ferna, India, and ",bout the Cape of Good Hope. The lh'arpnefs of its horns rellders it a dangerous animal when wounded

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[ 152 ] wounded or IT'ade defperate. They do not herd, but go only in pairs. Tl>e J EUCORYX o r WHITE ANTE"LOPE greatly refemblts the pr ced;ng in it'; roms, and is fimilarly marked with bl.3ck ill the face; but its coluur is fn6wy whi e, tinged in Jimle parts with red. lis body is of a thick and c1umfy form: its fize that of a fmall cow. It is a native of an ifJand in the Gulf of BaIrora, and ptrhaps is a variety of the former. 2. ANTILOP GAZELLA.:.....ALGAZEL. This fpecies is about the fize of a Fallow Deer; of a bright bay colour wilh a white brt :afl:. Its horns are long, flcnder, and nt: arly fmooth, having only fome night rings near the bare. It is met in India, Perfi'a, and part s of Africa. In its fiomach is found the moft valued of the bezoar fiones, formerly [0 much prized in me(lieine. 3. ANTILo.PX OREAS.-INDIAN ANTELOPE. The horns of this fpecies are firong, fJraight and fharp, and marked with two promjnent wreath s or fpiral ribs. The animal is nearly as In rgc llS a. cow: the colour of its head bright bay; of its body blueilh grey. It has a black mane extending from its ne,!k down its back i and ft=om thl; dewlap Iprin&s

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[ 153 ] fprings a large tuft of black hair. Its tail is tipt with a black tuft. It lives in numerous herds; is .!lOllt and {hong; and grows fo fat as to be eafily run down. ltsflelh is very good, and /kin durable leather. 4. ANTI LOPE, OREOTRAGUS.-KLIPSPRINGER: This fpecies, a native of Africa, and known at the Cape of Good Hope, takes its Dutch name from its habit of leaping with furprifing from crag to crag. over the mon frightful abylfc:s. It is of the fiz.c of a Roebuck; of a pale yellowilh tawny colour, lightly tinged with green. Its horns are ftraight, upright, flender, lharp-pointed, and nightly wrinkled at the blfe: its tail fcarcely viii .. ble. Its flelh is reckoned very delicate. 5. ANTILOPE SCRlf>TA.-HARNESSED ANTELOPE. 'This fpecies takes its name from the fingular manner in which it is marked. Its colour is a tawny chefnut aoove and below: on each fide the body run two longitudinal bands of white, crolft!d lit nearly eqllal dillances by two tranfverfc orles; a )'\'hite nripe runs down each fide of the rump; the thighs are variegated with feveral white fpots; and there js a white patch beneath each eye. The animai 'ii one of the fmaller ofr the Its t<;il

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. r 154 ) tail is ten inches long, covered with rough hair: ii$ horns point backwards, are black, and marked with two fpiral ribs. It irthabits Senegal, livingin the woods in large herds. It is fuppofed that' the Bonr:-ODCk Of. Spotted Gl.lat of the Cape is the fame animal. fit A"NTJLOPE GRIMMIA.-GUINEA ANTELOPE. This elegant fpecies is but about eighteen inches' in height. Its above is a beautiful yellowilli brown; beneath, and on the throat, pale cinereous. I ts peculiarity is an upright tuft of fhong black hairs {pringing from the forehead, between the horns. The ears ate large j the 'pit beneath the eyes and deep j the tail thort. The horns -'.lre thort, thick at the bare and flightly annulated, black, and tharp-pointed. It is a native of feveral parts -of Africa, from Guinea to the Ca.pe of Gaol! Hope, and frequents places overgrown with brufh.., wood, intO which it may retire in cafe of danger. fVith cU1'lcd 01' t'tvUled horns. 7. ANTILOPE PXCTA.-:-NxLOAU The name of \1iis fpedes Ggnifi ,es it'! the languagq of the country Ulue or grey ou/l, alluding 10 the or flate-colour of the male, which is with a large fpot of throat,

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, -

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[ ISS ] tntOat,. and two white bands above each foot. wh,;:nce it has heen calied the Antelope. Its ears are and white with,in, but crolfed, by two black ftripes. Along its and fome way down its back runs a thin black mane; from its breaft proceeds a black tuft of much longer hairs: its tail is pretty long, and ter. minated by a tuft. The horns are {hort, fmooth, pointed, dillant at the bare, and flightly bent forwards. The female is of a pale brown colour, but fimilarly marked; and hornlefs. The general appearance of this animal is between the cow and the dee r kind, its body being like the former, and its head a.nd limbs like the latter. The Nilgau is a nalive of the interior parts of India, and was formerly a great objeCl: of the chace to the potent Mogul prince s Several of them have been ported' into Europe, ana they have bred in England. They are for the moll: part gentle and tame, lick the hand that feeds them, :lOd are pleafed with any familiarity. They {nuff keenly when any new perfon comes in fight, and 31fo examine by t!ir. fcent any food' prefented to them, and rejeCl: it if it has contracted u (hong odour. At c e rtain fcaCons they become fierce, and the males fight with each other. In their combats they drop on their knees and lhuffle in that polture towards each other, and when a\ a fmall difiance, make a fpririg, and

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[ 156 ] dart at the antagonift with great f o rce. One of them in an Engliih park made a puih at a laI who was on the outfide of the pales; with fuch ,viole nce as to break a pale in pieces, and fnap off one of i t s hurns dofc to the root. The f emale goes with young about nine months, brings one ,or two at a birth;. 8. ANTI LOPE BUBALIS.-CERVINE ANTELOPE. This fpecies is fuppofed to have been the Buba/ut of the antienls., fls form is ,.a compound of the flag and the heifer. Its head is large, and noCe thick, like that of ox; its height about four feet at. the fho1Jlders. Its ho!ns grow neai' tqgethcr ; bend outwards and backwards; are firong, bl ack, and thickly annulated towards the bafe. Its ge neral col9ur is a reddifh brown, white beneath marked in various parts with duiky patches and firipes. A black band runs along the face, termi nated betWee n the horns by a tuft of hair. It in habits 1JI0fi parts of Africa, from Barb:lry to the Cape of Good Hope. Its young are eaCily tatned, and then herd with other cattle; whence it has heen called the Barbary Cow. At the C:lpe it is called I-larlcbuft, and is met with in great herds. They have a heavy kind of gallop, yet go fwiftly. They drop on their to fight, like the Nilgau. Their fiefh is ine, -grained, but dry. 9. ANTI LOPE J

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. '[ 157 J 9. ANTI.LOPE CERVICAP.RA.-COMMON ANT.. LOPE. This to be the whence the idea of the elegance and beauty of the Antelope has been principally derived. I lJ fize it is fllrnewhat fmaller thall the Fallow-de::r. Its colour is reddifh-tawny and duiky above; white beneath, and on the infide of its limbs. The eyes are furrounded with a white patch, continued to the forehead, \\'" hich finely contrafl:s its dark full The tail isfhorf. The horns are peculiarly beautiful, being blae,ko, marked througl; their whole length with prominent rings, and doubly bent, nrlt inwards, and then wards; in length, abollt fourteen inches. females are hornlefs. It is a native of Africa and India, and is efpecially common in Barbary. Some of the Indian breed have been brought to Europe, where they lived feveral years, and produced yOU'1g. If not of too wild a nature, they would make a very agreeable addition to the animals in our parks. 10. ANTILOPE'SAIGA.-S.I\IGA. This (pedes, called alfo the Scythitm Alll t / o pt, is abet!t the lize of n hllow-uecr; of a yellowHl1grey" colour, above, with a dulky {hipe running along the back; white bClleath. It is particularly difl:inguifhed by. the colour of its horns, which a ,re I VOL. II. P pale

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-pale yellow, and femi-tranfparent. They are an .. tltrl'llted -about twb rlriTdsof their length, fotm!"wh:u reclined, and triply C1trved. The is large; nole very' thick ancl arched; neck Render, but pro' mir1ent about tHroat; ears fmall; knees futniOlcd with a tuft of hair; 'tail about four inchClS lORg. tilfttd. The horet aT(! fubjea to vary in nNmber, fome individuals having three, others only one. The f-emales ate hQrrilefs. The Saigs:s inha.bit the defert tralfis from the Danube and Dnitper to tHe Irtilli, and freqnent the open naked plains ill which fait fprillgs abound, where feed up:m the acrid and aromatic plants peculiar to the foil, which gives their flefh a fingular flavGur. feed in flocks, Ihales and fe males. f(!)mecn them always keeping wate'h againll: ftnprize. They are clttremely timid, aoo f0 f wift; that rlo anilne.1 in a {hort cotlrfe overtake them. They are, however, fOQn run Qut of breath; and when hit by a dog, they intl:antly 'fall down) and will not att-empt to rife again. In autumn they collect into herds of fome thoufands, and migrate rtl the In /jlring they return in [mall companies, at the time the Tartars change th<: ir quarters. The females go with Ytlutlg dUriAg the wnole winter, and in May br-ing only ana 'It a birth, which is coveted with a fMt curly like that of a lall1b. Duting J'lim,. mer,

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[ ] meT, the fun, with fmm the fand, the They voio6 inTwild frate, f)ut w hen tame, utrer 3-cry.J\ke bkating. When taken they are ; b.'tf.the refufe food and die. They are the hace, ;md are either Ibot, Br cawgf1t with dogs. A fpeci{!s of Eagle lS fvmelimes :tiown 'aftU their fi.ght. The againfl: the wind, 2vold dreiling "in any colourswhicb might attraA notice. Their fielh" and {kw are innde ufe of: laller mak<:s exccl-14nt.leather for gloves, b eltti, &c. Tbe CH,lNEsa ANTELOl'H ;Ippear..s to be very umilllr lQ t41! lts horns yellow .. oot apd it has a fwell ing "WIl itt. dlrQat. J t 1s inbi\'bita nt of the dc-fert. n. AI'ITILO' P E EUCHOR.-SPRI,NGiR. I. 1 ... ':". :rhis Cpedes is. Jlather lefs thall Rocbuck. Its nOtr;lfl Oencler, half way, .arUllCiiooblr /INiiltd I el\lS Jtery Jong: face, th .. o.a.t lUld under put of m:ck dulky Hno !p1II4iJ.lg fi-om ilh# bnfe of 'hm tQ cortllr of dq. f .l3olo\.lf,of' the body .amove a PMC ,ellQw.idft :bJ.Y)W.ll, tbQ fides and 1le11r bJy.l a : QWnut. T/l-e .e f.. P 2 white,

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[ 160 1 white, and from the half way up the back is a white firjpe" which being formed by a doubling of the ikin, white on the edges and infide, can ,be pand e d by the animal at pleafure. fpe
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[ 161 J h.e1p.' bL-.a, o.r ftiok. Indeed, 1IJ1er prefs 0nc-another or' ward fe 1t'1>l,at the vaogll'3lvd is obliged re It is. obferVied, on their afi>'.Iloaehi-ng ID!} Cape, th 'at the patlties iR .tihe fr0nt .are 1V.e.l]l. Fat ; -t.fleru .ifR (!he :c.ent-re lefs .fo, anm, tnofe i o n .he reM, -as they have nothing'to 1ublifl:: 1I1on 'Gwt fhe" bare 4eaV1.Rgs ef .the former; hut tOll tinei.r .petum, Ithe takes p.lape. T.h_eSpriog. when taken young a17e e8!fdy d01Dltlticated, arrd .the lJllalos are wwy wantan with their :horns. a'heixJldh -is Y ,e:ry l!a!ting. 1 '2. ANTlLOPE J)QR,cAS.-BARBARY AJ)ITELOPE. This fpecie!l, the af Buffop, Qnd Jupj ti0 the Do.rcas pf i bAlf ltibe. ,of a reqdiili bray/a. white beneath., two colours v a. ,firipe, Its hOlinl\ !\Te round, plllqic, bqloW;, Jir{t IUld f in lrooked norn8. 1 \ 13. ANTILOPlt GNOU.-GNOU. '. I t {pecies readily its px,. l-t, almoLt f/oDooth, thick at P 3 ih{'

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t ] the b:Jte, bending forwards clofe to the heaa, and tthen ft!ddenly turning upwards. The female is horned like the male. The heall is.large, with a fquare hriftly mouth; The chin, and throat are bearded; and a ft' fOng mane runs fcol1.1 the top of the neck fome ";'ay down the I back Th\! tilil. is. fuH of hair, and rerelllbles that of a horre. In f4ze, the Gnou equals the ftag. Its colour i s dull rufous brown, with very long black hair hanging from the breaft. Its neck is {hart and [omewhat arched: body thick: legs long and !lender. From this defcription its form appears fingularly compound e d from feveral animals. It has the head and horns of a bull; the mane, body, and tail of a horfe; and the limbs of a ftag. Its name is derived from its voice, which has two notes, one refembling the bellowing of an ox, the clearer. It inhabits in great herds the in the country of the great Namaquas, north of the Capp of Good Mope. It is a fierce animal, and on any alarm, drops its heatl, and puts itft:!f in a pofture of defence. fiefu is excellent venif.on. 14. ANTIJ,OPE This animal, caltt:d 1]arrl nnd Gm!ft, is the only fpecies of Antelope, except the It is well known to the frequenters of the the crags and [nowy ulmmits of which it contributes

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""

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r 163 J contribtlte to enliven. It is about the ftZc of. a.. (lommon goat a dufk.y c ,dtour, with the cheeks, chin, thwat lJnd .belly of yel low.Hh, white. I ts hair i!i l0tlg.; its tJlil OWrt and hlackiih. The horns are blapk, up(ight, bent batk at tips,.. ami flightly iWc'hkrC1d bafe. The hoqfs a1:e.tDuch diviUed and 1both thofe of a goat. The inhabits the Alps of Dauphine,. Switzerland and Italy, the Pyrenees, the mountains of Greece and Crete, Caucafus and Taurus. It goes in flocks of from four to eighty or a hundred, the large males generally apart, except in the coupling feafon, which is autumn. They feed before funrife and after wofet, and are' extremely vigilant furprj'Zc. One in every flock is fiatibned \lpon a heig!.lt centry, and if he fees any danger he utters a fort of filarp hifs! fo loud and thrill that the rocks re-echo with the found. He is at the fame time in the greatelt agitation, {hiking; the ground with his foot, l\nd ,running to the edger of the precipice. The ren, on recei\ling alarm, fly with the greatdl: fp\!ed to tha inacceffiblc crags. The Chamois has a fine Ilnd piercing eye, a quick ear and ncute, [cent wonderful. They run with great clIfe along ledges of rocks, leap c .J'ag to cl]lg, aml cHmb and dt;fcend ]?recipices no, can

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f 1'64 ] can follow. Theyalwafs nwm:rt atJld 'defcend Qft. 1iquely; aDd the can throw thomfelfeS fecl,Il-e)r frmnlleigltts 9f thi.rty feet', jd ftri.k:i:ng the to check the .of their motion, and light 'firm up.on 10Jhe jiroje8ion onl, iargemltmgh 10 frand tlpon. .FOr ti oh aDe lI.Tticula-J1ly wcll the hind legs bemg fomewhat longer lhau t't\e fore, and bem foas b.y the .elafticity of the joints te break lhe ifQtce of a fall. They aJIC delicate ill thek food, broufUlg0l'dy upmliine: herhage, andcrepping the lcnl1er tfuoots anci burls 1!Jf herbs and JbrUbs. They drink Dwing winler they lodge in the ihoUows rocks, to be fecure the ave. lendhes or fnow:..falls. In that feafon they upon tfll'e twigs IQf trees, aT a'aots 2nd herbs which they dig fremlbenellth liRe fnow. T.hey 'cannot bear heat; 'ahc1 in the fummer fJ'lequea.t cool ca. ve'rIlS, thady woods. Chamois is an clbjett of the chace, ibatb for flefu and fuet, whiCh laft muth fUI'poffes of the goat in fumnets, t and fl!1r -its {kid, which malaes exoellent leather. The cnace iof hi"s extremely laborious, ana :tt-t6hded 'Witll much faH. ing down 'fue tprccip-ices, or perifhing If'rom cold anCl Few who makt .an employment of 'it, die a 113ttrral ic:l ath; jt>t fucihis lie a,cIlour .it fpires, that ihey who are cam fe:ldbllll Ttlinqui/h it. 'The on1y'mef,OOd. of p.uduillg ill as

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[ 16 5 ] either for a fingle perron to hide in the cleft of a rock and wait their lIflproab with a gun ; or for a number to encircle the rof. which, hO"Yever, turaliHs Juppgfc;,jJ' to : bethe orjgifll\l, and, I I

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which-it, UJ1ecd. I la he'ld is rather fmall: eyes large : hams extre 'Luely long, meafuring three foot, and the whole length Of i the "body, roughly knotted, and of a deep brown colOur.: body and Jegs. flrong: hoofs and."t'a:il lhort4 colour is :deep hoary hrown. pa:ler beneath .and on the j nfides of.1he limj,)s. The chin -a : doilql "bear.d. The let1:'lale and has proportionally !horter and fmilo.ther horns-. The Ibex is a very hardy and agile animal, fre quenting the loftiell: mountains amid perpetual [now and ice, climbing among the crags, and delighting to hang over preci pices. In Europe it is fonnd in the Carpathian and Pyrenean mountains, and in various parts of the .. efpecially thofe of the Grifons: in Alia, it inhabits the mountains of Taurus, and thefe which Tartary from Siberia. It is alfo a native of the mountainolls '. patts of. Arabia, and of, -<;rete. h is extremely wild, and o(tne reaCtt:-'of. dimgel' '; but in the de pth jt -ill ob1iged to defcend tor pall:ure. '"he en ace of the Ibex is ail! more laborious lUld than that of the Chamois; for when hard pr.ef'red, it fo,metimes turns'upoR''the '\'l{)rfit:ier;' and tllmblJree him a unle4l;; ke14r-rem -the, gr0\'Jnd fuffel's theanima'l par-s t011fe1' lhhl'l. wilt f,'Otl'l'et,i-m1!S" : i n QJ'der to ef.ca pe, I'like', a f> BOWil a iteep

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[ iCry ] Rreciple'e, lighting. on its hems, the firellglh of wl\ich 'p'5citetts it from injury. in the fall. The males litter a leud and harfh braying in the rut ting [eafoo. The females ge five months with Y@lmg, and forth flpart by the of fumerj,n. The iiHh @f the lbex when young is efulelJled good Tb<: blood of grca t fame in tlle pleurify. "" The CAUCASAN IBix. confJ.dered as -a... dWinct tRc:,abQvc, tbough it .feems to diff'er .little e.xcept.-iB. the wh.iqJ,. inftead of be.ing knotty, are [mooth in tileit' [urface, but Iharply rrclged their upper parts, and bollowed on their outer fides. In lTlannets it perfedl.)' refembles the CGtnmon Ibex. ,Lt inhabits the fummits of .IOOl(nt Caticafu' s the h iUs of .Aft4 Misor.. :lnd tho{<: in of Laar wd Cbora[..u1 in Pr(}bn,bly the Cretan \lnd African Ibex is this fpedes. 2. q.URA HIR'US.-COMMON GOAT. jig one of ((A'1H: Imi-ttlits whit : h Man, ha' in-3 rnure pl!t ul i at 1l111't1f1e't 1.0 tire, and Which in co uurrhu of, the glO'oo mak.e 3 part Qf the r iche's I)f the pa{oora.l (late. It is lcfs tban / e i th e r ,of the I be.xes, ud in its horns ('noa refembld5 theJatter fpecies: they a-re furrowed en

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[ 168 ] or carinated; and have commonly a bend outwarils at the .extremity. The colour of the Goat, like that of moft domellic animals, is various; blacK, brown, white, or fpotted. In Wales they are mofily white, with very long hair and large fpread. ing' homs; in and the Alps, generally {hort-haired, and fmall hOrI=led. As they are bred in aImoft every part of the globe, frolU the tropics to tne cold regions of the north, they undergo great varieties from 'climate. They are more prolific in warm countries than cold, and are [aid not to breed ih Canada. : The Goat is hardier animal, and more eaflly kept, than the fheep. It delights in wild and mountainous traCts, climbs among the rugged cliffs, and brouzes 'Upon the native herbage. Hence Goats are chiefly kept by the inhabitants of barrd and hilly countries, to whom they afford many valuable proJuCts. Their milk is f weet and nourifh. ing, fuperior to that of the fheep, and lefs apt tQ cur dl<: on the ftomach than that of the cow. The female -Goat has alfo the quality of keeping its milk longer up' on dry food than any other animal, whence it is extremely ufefllf to navigators; and there have been inHances of Goats giving milk during the whole of a voyage round the globe. Very goot! cheefe may be made from it. The flefh of I kid .is nearly as good as lamb. That of the gro'wn 4 animals

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/ [ 170,-] Of the varietieS' of this animal the -mofl: rema:rk. ;rble is the Angora Goat, a native of the-clifiriCi -round Ango:ra and Biebazar in L!!ffeI'-Alia. This kind is ihort-legged, with fpiially twifi'-ed horns, afn;i : hanging ell-r-5: -iottseelour i6: Itfl'la+fy of a Ijlvery. white; and the hair of its whole body is as-foft-fiilk, arid ha.ngs in eight 01' nine inches in lengtfr. This v.aluable hair-ibrms the materiar of toe firrell: C'amletS'. In-oroeJ: to pr.efer.ve its biautYt the goar-hcrdS: aire Vet!!y at:ren1ive te walh andi comb \ter.y fr.e-qnentl1. They arc faid to degenerate: Wlil"C!ns reme:ved. te (jther pafturcs. The' Syrian GMf, which is th & cemmon bree d at Aleppo and in many parrs of tlie ean, is gpiilied by' rue gr.ear: length of its ears, whie h on the ground as it fl'leds.' colou.r is iVfcddi!h.brown. -11& hOl1ns are tlrort and. blllcK,. GltNU'S

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animals is wholefome food, if not delicate. The are fometimes falted an _cl pr.eferved as bacon. The flcins with the hair on make foft beds; '
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\

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:.' G ENUB XI.. I. ovrs .....,SHEP, (;EhlERIC CHARACTER. H orn; bo/low, wn'r! '. ,/ded, twiJIed JPirally, and t.urning oll/wards. }lr..onf-leeth ',tight jn tbt lower jOlt/,): Can;m./t'flh I nolle. X. OVIS AMMON.-ARCAL1. ,THIS no'imlll fup' pofed to bear the fiune re!:tilqn to the dOlllerti<; Sheep, that the Ibex does to the. Gnat, and to been its origwl. It is the MqJimdn '0' .the ancients, or Buffon, and il$ a',native of Greece, CatUca, Bar-"bar}!, and Itle traCbs i(}f Alia quite '.l\il:l,l1lti:hatka. II s l\1;e that 1of.a;fmaU deer. it : i.$: greyifu.fel'rpginous above, whitifh beneath; the wQite; a daiky fpot behind eah {boulder. Its muth refembles that of a r;ltn) but has fmaller ears; the neck is Oender, .bouy Jarge.; limbs flender, but nervous; {hort S hoofs {mall, The hor.ns, I tne ful["grbwn :Ulil'\lai, are exand outwards like thofe of a ram. The coat in fummer is a frnooth hair,. like t!lat of a (kcl' i in winter it IS r?ughl "!"J.vy. Q.

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, L [72 J and curling, confining of a coarf e wool intermix e d Wi1l1 hair, with a fine down at its roots. The Argalis ufual1 y go in fmall flocks, and frequent the tops of mOllnrains ill parts expofed to the fUll, and open. They feed in fummer" in the little Alpine "ales, and are pariicularly fond of the young 1h90ts of plants; towards winter they di::fcend to the lower pail:ures. They are very {by animal s and when purfued run obliquely from fide to fide, afcending to the fllmmits of the mountains, and running nimbly over the crags and ledges of the rocks, like the wild goat. The males often fight with each other, and are fometimes tumbled by their antagoniil: over the precipices. The cha<;e of the Argali is laborious and dangerous, but is thought to repay the toil by the value of the ikin for doath. jng, and the fle{b for food. The lambs are excel It'llt eating, and the old aniQ1als are good when roafled. In Corfica the MuJrf}, as it is there call ed, is fa wild as fddom to be taken except by {booters who lie in wait am()ng the mountains. The YOllng, ltowever, are eafily tamed. The female Argali proollc( S in March and brings one or two at a birth. From the preceding account, it appear s that this primary Hock of the Sheep kind is far from being a help!t :fs animal, but is fully able to [lJpport : lIld protect itfe)f :2. OVIS

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,r d' i't. .1 ',2. ::0VIS ARIES.-C()MMON SHEEl". :bf, a1.1 which man appropriatetf o ufe, the Sheep is the moll: valuable. thi: fMlenanceafforded by-its milk a 'nd Jot" w 'hfch',the lilHe+ is wl1oIefome and delicate';' the wool with which it is doathed, forms the'mofi' ufefnl material for girments" efpecial1y in the colder climates, and is adapted as' wen to the ravage irt its natural ll:ate, as to the man luxurious .... vnen manufactured. Hence the Sheep has from time immemorial been domefiicated in all tlle tem perate regions of Europe and Aria: and the va produced in it by breeding, climate, and management, are become almon innnmerable. The Sheep is almoll: proverbiaTly reckoned an animal whofe mildnefs and timidity borders upon ftu, 'pidity. Eut he onfy appear.; flllpid when bred' to an Urlwiddy (ne, :rnd rnrrde entirely dependent on man. In hilly conntries, wll:ere a lean 'breed llncontron'ea, they cfrfplay much of the charaCter of the original flock, and make gretic exertions both rn-cfcape and defeoce. ')'he Ram 'WiH often atraC'lt a fingle dog and, him flrght; and when grea:rer tla-nger urges, al't the fil:rongc1-ones In the flock draw lip into a cOl'npa'L'l body, tfie young and weak in the t1etltre,. and firrnlj wait the attack. Sheep an ni-ce and' Q.. 3 ciou' s

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[ 174 J cious in the fe1eClion pf tReir food; and (hew great "' cunning in eluding the vigilance of the file pherd, and ll:ealing from a forbidden pafiure. On the ap proach of a fiorm, they colleCl under the lhelter of a hill, or a building; and it has .. been found th:\t whole flocks buried under a fnow drift have kept themfelves a-live many days by their mutual warmth. Of a1\ domell:ic animals lheep are moft fubjeCl to difeafe, which is chiefly to be attributed to keeping them in low moill: fituations not natu rally for them. In thefe, they are pecu liarly liable to the rot, which is a diftafe of the liver, owing to. a kind of worm which breeds in it in great The varieties in the breeds of !beep depend upon :fize, !hape, difpofition to fat, and efpecially UPOfl the quality of the wool, which affumes every dif ference from the fille!l curi to the )ongell: flake. The wool of temperate climates is the bell:; in very hot ones it turns to hair; and in very cold ones, th e 'Outer wool is hard and coarfe, tho u g h a little of the inner is extremely fine. The find!: ,wo: 'known is the Spanilh, and the fuperfine bload-cloths cannot be made without a portion of it. But for variety of excellent woo) applicabl e to a\moll: every kind of manufaClure, no country equ a ls England, where, indeed, the great ell: atten tion has been p aid to its perfeClion. The long fla k y

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. [ lis J flak,. wool ured for the wOJOrled ll3anufaClures is more peculiar to England than any other kind. The fize of' the animal, and the proporlional .quao tityof flelh and fat to bone, have likewi re been I \ carried by our breeders to the h.i.gheft degree. The Leicefteriliire breed is particularly famous on the latter account. It is without horns. The Ewe go.es about five months with young, and produces, in the fpring, one or two lambs at a birth, rarely more. Of tHe foreign varieties of the Sheep, the moll remarkable are the Cretan (Strepjiceros) having twilled horns: the Many-horned, moll common in h'e1and, which has from three to five horns: the ;Vhcall, with long limbs, hanging arched and a dewlap: the Broad-laj/t4, diillnguifhed 'by tails fo large and heavy, as fometimes to reqnire a kind of machine with wheels for its fupport; it prevails in Darbary and in the Earl, and in Tibet has an extremely fine fleece: the Fal-rumped, the tail of which is (hort and enveloped in a monfl:rous lump of fat, fwelling on each fide into naked he mifpheres: it is met with in Tartary, erpecially in the fait pallures of Come of the deferts. GENUS

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t i.76 J -" /'. GENUS XLI BOs.-oX. GENERIC CHARACTER. Hayru !;ending 6tJ! .. ward, luna/ed, Jmoath: Franf-Juth light i,l.. the /O'Wer jaw: Canine-feeth nonr. ,I. Bos T.AURUS.-B.{S0N. THE 0" kind is one of tile 1lwfi wideTyex fam.lies among quadrupeds, being found in fome of i ts varieties in every climate from the to I he arCtic circle. Tfle original Rock of the' domemc breed i-s fuppofed 10 be' the animal 'called Bijrm, Bomyuf, Yt:U1, or Wild Bull. This is a large, {hong, and' formidable creature, di-ftinguilhed by the fhagginefs of its haIr, which about 'the heao, neck and fhoulders is often fo long almoft to rea'ch the graancf ... The horns are rather {hOTt, fharp-pointed, Very' {hong, aortd f1:anding ai l1ant a1 the bafe. The eyes are larg'e ancl fierce; the limbs extremely flout; and the gcnernl' appear ance favage. The urual colour is black-brown or reddilh-broVl'n. When Europe was for the mofl: part in an uncultivated ftate, the Wild Bull was found in rooft of its woody At prefent it l S

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[ 177 J is chiefly met with ill the forefls of, Polan:l :tnd Lithuania, and the Carpathian mountains. In Alia it re fides in the neighbOl;rhood of Mount Caucafus, and al[o in various other parts. The Ame rican Bifon whi0h from Hudfon's Bay to Mexico j s very limi!ar to that of the Old World, at1d differs only in being more fhaggy, and having a greater protuberance upon the (houlders. It rai1ges in vafl herds in the wide Cavanoas bordering the Miffiffippi and its conneCled rivers, where it.is intermixed with the flags and deer, in the morning and evening, and retiring during the heat of the day into the thickets of tall reeds 'oll water's fide. They arc extremely wild, and fly: the approach of man; but if wOllndeq, turn with fury agaiuft their purCuer. As they arc much afraid of fire, the r ndians Cometimes the grars rOtlOd the fpot where they are feeding, and thus drive them in heaps into a fmall Cpace, where they kill them 'in great numbers. Their fteIh is eaten; the hides are made into leather; and the hair, which i:; of a woolly nature, is manllfaClllred intQ firong cloth, anti gloves. A lingular breed of Wild DlIll was long preferved at Orlllnlnnrig in Scoti:tnd, al1(Ulill exilts in the park of Northumberland. They are white all over, exc:ept the ears, which are'in part red) or-b["ck. $:Jme of the bulls have a thin

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[ 178 ] :1\ thin upright mane, but there is no .,ppearance o! a hllllcll or protuberanc.e. They have all the man ners of wild animals, and are when pro yQkcd The COMilwN OXj of which the male is called a Bull, and the female a Cow; is one of the prin cipalof domdlic animals, and conflitutes a great part of the riches of rural life. It is fubjeCt to great varietjes .of fize, iliape, and <:oIQur, accord ing to climate and foil, a.od the arts o.f breeding The. largeft in general are thofe of rich and low grounds in moW: anJ rather cold clilnates, as Hol. land, J utlahd, Hungary, PoJolia, ami the U krai.n; The natives of mountainous countries are fmall, and often hQrnlefs, as the Scotch ahCl Welch runts1 there is alfo a laTge breed wilhout horns. The. fame attention has been ihown in EnglaJld to the rearing of this:-domeftic animal, as t
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[ 179 ] a1: a time. In lie pr-eters the Iongell: and iankefi. herbage, and therefore rathet improves a pall:ure than injures it. Every part of this animal is ufefilt. The ,fldh botn of fhe young and old is among fhe moft valued artides' of animal food. Tile' fuperffuous fat is ufed as faHow' for candles The lkiu maks leatner of vatious qualities. The bair, horns and ))ones are' all applied te purpofes 'of manufacrure'. The Ox: has alfo from the earlieR times be 'en' 'I tmployed : a"S-a" beafl' of dtaught .. and has been par .... ticularly affociated to the labours of the hulband. man. Ploughing has peffol'med almoft folely by him, as it ftill is in moft parts of the world; though in this country, and in fome others, the liorfe 1'Iils obtalnert tIte preference, on account of' his fuperior agility inteiligence In the eaft, the ale is aifo mud! ufed to ride upon. The Bull ofren' acquires a favage dlfpofitioll, and a very animal. Their fh.ocity is' fome times purpofdy. encoorage'd for the fake 'of the inhmnan fport of Bull baiting, and the IfuIl-fTghts which are fo favourite a diverCion in Spain. The Bull, when enraged, paws the groond, and run s lttaight forwards at his adverr.1ry, pull\:ing at him with all his force, and endeavouring to throw I tim Iilp into the :tir. His horns are commonly {hor ter than thofe of the' Cow' and Ox, and' his neck 6 thicker

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[ 180 ] thicker and more brawny. The loofe {kin hang ing ftom the die ft, called the dewlap, is 'common to both fexes. The chief permanent varieties of this animal are the Inflian Ox, of a very great fizfj, with fhort horns bending clofe to the neck; and great bunch or 'pr0l!lberance above the {houlclers: the Zeou, re fembling the former by its buncil, but of a fmall fize, in fome parts o r -India not taller -.than a deer: ;ind the Looje:hrm1ed, fOllnd in Abyffinia and Ma dagafcar, with pendulous ears, and horns attached only to the {kin. '2. 130s Viith a {hiking refemblance to the Common Ox, the Buffalo is a decidedly different re fufing all m ixtlfre and fociety wilh the It is rather the larger animal, and has a larger head in a higher forehead, and a longer muzzle. 1 ts horns are nOt round, but of a flat tened form, with a {harp outer edge. They are la rge, run firaight to a confiderable length from their bare, anc;\ the n have a flight bend upwards. The is without dewlap; jts limbs are long j its fquare; its tail {barter and llenderer Ihnn that of the Ox. .Jts prevailing colour is blncki!11 j the hair on the forehead and at the tip of the ta!1 is a yellowifh white. It has a more feroci'otls and malignant

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/

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[ 1St j malignant a[petl: than the BulI, owing to the flat .. nefs of its face, and [mallne[s of its eyes. The Buffalo is a native of the warm parts of Afia and Africa, in Come parts of which it is Hill wild, and is regarded as a very fierce and dangerous animal. III Europe it is only an imported and domefiicateti -quadruped. In its habits it is much Ie[s cleanly. than the Ox:' delighting to walIow in the mud like a hog. Its voice is deeper and more terrific than that of the Bull. It has a muiky odour, with. which it iofects the water that it has long fiood in. The female alfo widely differs from the Cow in going twelve months with young, inflead of nine. Its milk in a domefiic flale is more copious, at lean in hot coulltries, than that of the Cow, and is tired for making cheefe and butter. fleal is e:ltable, but is ooarfer than beef. The {kin is very thick, and makes the firong leather commonly called buff. The horns take a fine polilh, and are valued by cutlers and other artificers. The Buffalo is u[ed for purpo[es of labour, and its firength is fuch that a pair will draw as much as four common hor[es. As they carry their head and neck low, the whole weight of the bodyaml1:s in drawing. They are ufuaJly directed by means of a ring paffed through the 11ofe. They, however, con[lantly n:tain [omewhat of a fllllen and dirpofiiion, and are lefs traCtable than oxen. In VOL. Il. R India

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[ 182 ] India they ate much ufed for tIiefaddle. -'Tery:<.:Ommon in a domeftic {late in Egypt. -Italy is almoil: the only Euroeean country in which !hey are met with;" and it is raid that fome are become wild in Apulia. There are feveral vari et'ies of the Buffalo, of which the moil: remarkaDfe is The Jmall Nak e d Blf la/(), a native of the Eaff IflQies, not than a rllnt, with the fore-part of the body thinly covered with lJriiUy hair; the rump and thighs quite bare. 3. Bos MOSCHA Tus.-MuSK Ox. Th1s f'pecies does not exceed a deer in height, 1 but has a larger and thicker body. Its horns are, fingular. They are clofe\y Ilnited at the b:tfe, and' there [pread to a gre at b'read'th tiling lip to the top of the forehead thence they and' inwards, having a turn outwards at their extr emities. They are lhorf, but very {!:rong and heavy. The body is cov.ered with hair; in the male, of a rlufky red., very fine, and fa long a$ to trai'! orr the ground, and render the appearance of the anim a l that-of a lhapelefS ma[s; beneath the lon g hair is an extremely fine alh-col'oured wool, [aid to be mOre beautiful than filk: the female is generalt'y b-lack. The legs of fhe Mufk Ooc are very {hort ; the {boul ders thick and lumpy; the tail {hort. The Cinwmftiance which it takes its name is a

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.\

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[ l83 l thong flavou-r of mulk with which jts llefh is )0.,' feB:ed.! is particularly powerful in the heart. It is a JUltjve of North America, 'tt:weea it and the South Sea, from latitude 73" to New Mexico. It abounds mof!: in the p .ar.ts, and delights barren tains, feldom frequel}ting the wctods. It rUDS nimbly, climbs with agility. The Indians !hoot them for their fleth and {kins, the la,tte., of which I make warm The make: a cap of the tail, the hairs of which fall over their and them from infcCl.s. .' I 4. Bos G.aONNIBNS.-YAK. I' This animal, called the Grunting Ox, raN of tf(1Tlary, a.Qd the Bujhj-fai/td Bull of Tioet, is about the Height of an Eng!i(h Bull, which it refembles in j 't,s figure. ,It has a thort head; fmall ears i full eyes; a pro(Ilinent bufhy forehead; and I fmooth round horns, arched inwards towards each other, but bending back a little qt the extremities, and very !harp pointl;d. The legs are lhort; withers .high, apd ut hed j un4 rifes llP09 th, e Lhoulders' l with a proiufion of foft hair. The rump, and upper part of the b?dy are d?athed with thick foft wool; the R 2 lower

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[ 184 ] lower parts, with firaight pendent hair; falling below the knee, and fometimes touching the ground. A tllft of a ftmilar kinp fprings from the cheA:. But the tail is the mofi diftingui!hing part, in a prodigious bunch of long flowing gloffy hair, that has the appearance of a duller arti, ncially fet on. The voice of the Yak is a low indifiintl: grunting. It has a heavy downcall look, indicating fullennefs and fufpicion, which is its real charaCter. In a wild fiate it is fierce and fuI : and when wounded in the chace, will turn up?n the purfuer, and never de(i{1: from its attacks till one of the two is killed. Its motions are Co rapid, that it is difficult to elude them. Even when domefiicated it retains a fiercenefs of difpoft lion, and is eafily irritated, efpecially at the fight of 'led or gay colo\lrs. The native country of there animals is Tartary, and efpecially Tibet, the coldefi and mofi mountainous parts of which is their favourite refort. They pafiure upon the fiJOrt herbage on the fummits in fumm'er, and re fort to the glens for food and !helter in winter. They are never employed in the labours of agriculture, but are much ufed as beafis of burden, as they carry a large-weight, and are fure footed. The wandering Tartars find them a very valuable property. They yield abundance 'of rich milk, from wllich excellent Ituner is made. Tnis the herdfman

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1 1&5 ] and he has colleCted a fuf .. fiore, he lDad$ the with its ow,n pm .. duce, and drives both t o market. Of the hair -of the Yak are manufa&ured tents .and ropes. The: are ill great \hroughout India an article bOlh of lux.ury and parade. Under the name of ChllWnts they ;Ire ufed by perfoJls of all ranks for the purpafe pf dri-ving away infeas, the rich having rhem mpunted on or ivory ; -and they ar e a mVQurite ornunent fOf the furniture of horfes and elephants. The dye them red, and dec" their fummer bonnets with them, Yak will with the common Cow, and prCiIP duce a Qrecd. 5. Bos CAFFER.-CAP,E Ox. kind to make approach the Mulk 0"" but is larger, ex.<:eeding the qf the biggdl EngliIh Ox. Its hE>IlS e14tremely broad at the bafe, but have a narrow fpace betwcclt them: they are black and long, bending down on each fide of the neck, and turning backwards and upwards at the ends. The ears are long and halfpendent. The general colour of the animal is a deep cincreous brown: the hair on its bocly is rather Chort: that on the head and breall: IOllg, black, ;Illd hanging down. A loofe black mane runs from the hind part of the head to the middle R 3 of

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[ 186 ]. of the back. The body is very {hang and rnuf. cular; the afpeCl: fierce and malevolent. It in habits the interior parts of Africa, north of Cape, to Guinea; and is more dreaded by travellers than the lion or tyger It feeds in large herds in 1he morning and evening, retiring into the thick forefis in the heat of the day. Hence it rufhes out fuddenly on the unwary paffenger, goring and trampling under foot both man and horf.e. It even delights in licking the flaughtered 1x>dies, the frin of which it will firip off by means of the rough nefs of its tongue. Thefe oxen have frequent confliCls with the lion, which can only maller them by leaping upon their back, and fufFocating them with his claws fixed in their nofe and mouth. He often perilhes in the attempt, but leaves the marks of his attack. The fleih of this animal is coarfe, but juicy. The thick 1kin makes very thong leather, much valued for harnelT4Is.

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VI. BELLU.IE. GENUS XLII. EQUUS.-HORSE. GENERIC CHARACTER. Fronl-Ietth;n each jaw, fix: Conine-tttth in each jaw, one on enchJide, jlanding apart: Fell with undivided hoofs. 1. EQ.Yus CABALLUS.-COMMON HORSE. THOUGH other domeftic animals may furpafs the Horfe in extenfive utillty to mankind, none can vie with him in beauty of form and noblenefs of nature. Rather made to be the companion and favourite of man than his nave, he contributes to his pleafure, minifters to his pride, partakes in his and his quarrels, amI deferves his at-1achment. He is, indeed, alfo made his drudge, and often wears out I his life with wretchednefs in his hard fervice. The horre, in his moft perfeCl: form, appears in to poffefs more fymmetry and juft proportion of parts than any other animal. His head is elevated upon an arched termi-' nating

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\ [ J88 J nating in a fwelling cheft. A flowing mane de[cends upon his {houlder. His back is a.. line, finely rounded into the croup., His limbs are a jufl: medium bet ween the fiender and maffy, and 'unite flexibility with' fire'ngth. His folid hoofs reft firmly on the groun.c!. withoutJuperfluous weight. His full and fpreading tail is at the fame time a covering and an His air is fiately and dignified; his motions eafy and Horfes are at prefent found in a wild fiate onlyin a few' p.uts of the W{)rld. Large heEds of them are met with abotlt the lakE' AFai, in the fouthern parts of Siberi ,a, and in the Tartarian de fe rts. Thefe are fmaller t han the domefiic breeds, with a larget' head and arched forehead and their body thickly :witl;l mDufe-coloured hair. They a:t:e and (fly; and while they feed, always a centinel to give notice of approaching dang.er, which he does by a loud neigh: at this j)gnflil they fly off with all tb.eir fpeed. The wild hoTfes in South Americl!;! are hown to pTogCtly of thofe which, the Spaniards io,.lro,. auced on theFr difcavery of that continent. domefticated breeds of Harfes are extremely varied by climate, fQil, the attentiolll of ID\U1 to form foJ' particular i$ accounted the feat of mofi generous cqurfers. (' They are the moil: valued poifeffion or'the inhabitants; are treatei

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I treated with great mildnefs and affection, aTmoll as children of the family; and the purity of the races is preferved wi.li religious care. They are extremelyelegant in their forms, and agile in their motions. The horres of Barbary and of N ubia are alfo of a fine kind. In Europe, the Spani (h are reckoned to excll in ff'ted and gracefulnefs of carriage. Thore of Flanders, Holland, tt.!e north of GermaAY, and Denmark, are large and {hong, but heavy. Further north they decline in fize, though they preferve vigour and fpirit. Towards the tropics, on' the other hand, they dwindle, and lire alfo and waOlY. In England the breed of horfes has been improved by every pomble attention, and no coun.try equals it in the variety of kinds, and the excellence of fome of them. The Englilh r:ke-hoi-re is fwifter than its Arabian progenitors, nor arc there any infiances of fpeed, ancient or modern which come up to thofe exhibited on our courfes. The' Englifh hunter, to great fwiftnefs and agility, joins a firength and bottom which render him one of the mofl: valuable of harres. Of none equal in flrength and fize the black breed of Leiceflcrfhirc and Lincoln{hirc: und between thefe there are all the intt:rmediate varieties which fuit every different purpore. Ollr harfes are only defective it;l that /irace of attion and pliability of limb

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limb which are fuitable to occafions of (how and parade. The Rorfe of a generous breed is a fpi. rited and courageous animal, without being favage. or mifchievous. In war and in the chace ardour rifes with the occaGon and in the race he exerts himfc1f with all the emulation proceeding from a defire of victory. HI! reaJily attaches himfelf to his malter or feeder, and is docile to inltruaions His ufual mode of defr;:nce .againfi: an enenw is qy kicking with his hinder feet; bl,lt in his combats he paws with his and eve!) makes ufe of his teeth. His is a OHil\ neighing. He comes to h.is fuB li'l.e IIbollt the age of four years and will live thirty or forty. The goes with young months, and one foal at a time. Horfes are fubject to a great number of difeafesj molt of them brought on by hard'tiCage or improper die.t and managt;ment, Green ll.erbage is the food of the fIorCe in a wild ilate; the domelticated ones ar.e :lUO fed with-dr)l herbage, and with grain. The Horfe in rnofb countries is kept merely as an of draught or burden, for which pur pores, where there is a choice, he is preferred to all others. He particularly for purpofe of riding, and for all CO!lveyance that rc. quires [peed. The Tartars al[o derive great of their fubfiftence from this animal. They cat its

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[ 19I ] Its llefh, mix its blood with meal, drink its milk, and prepare .from it a kind of cheefe, and a fer. mented liquor. The lkin of the Horfe is ufed to make leather for collars and harnelfes. Of its hair are made chair-bottoms, ropes, and 6fhing lines 2. EQyus HEMIONUS.-DsHIKKETEI. In general appearance, this fpecies much rerem ... hIes the Mule. 'It has a laTge head; flat forehead; longifh ereel: ears lined with hair; a flender flat. tened neck; a prominent !harp bl'ean; a long body; and l1ender limbs. The tail is like that o f a cow, naked for half its length. The general colour is grey'ial brown; hair long and foft in winter, fmooth in fummer: tip of the muzzle, buttocks, belly, and infide of the thighs, white. It has an uprigh t fhort mane, from which a dulky line extends to the tail. The native country of this animal is the fouthern part of Siberia, and the vaft defert region of Tartal'Y. They particularly frequent a faIt lake called Taricnoor, which is dry In fummer. They avoid both the clore woody traCl:s, and the fnowy mountains. They feed ill [mall herds or families, confilling of {he male chief, his fl:ud of females, and fome young colts. They are very fhy and fufpicious; and the male is always upon the watch agaif.lll: a [urprife. If he defcries 8

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[ I92 ] defcries a hunter making his approach, he' takes a circuit round and round' him till fatisfied of the danger. and then rejoins the herd, which fet off at full fpeed. It is :in vain to attempt to overtake them, for they are fwifter' than even the antelope; whence the people "f Tibet have mounted Chammo, their god of Fire, upon one of them. When they run, they hold their head upright, and erect their tail. Their neighing is louder and deeper thal1 that of a horfe. The DDl..ikketei is a fierce and untamabfe animal; and even taken young, proves fo untractable as ro. be fit for no domeflic purpofe. The Tartars kill them for the fake of the flefh, which they prefer to that of the horfe. The !kin is ufed for boots. 3. EQYus ASTNUS.-Ass This animal, like fome of the races of kind, has from all times had the fate of the infe rior refemblance of a noble fpecies. Its relation fllip to the horfe is rnanifefl: at the firfl: glance; but differences are foon perceived, which are almofl: all fo many degradations. He is lefs in fize, has a c1uin!ier head, large DOllching ears, a dull eye, !l:raight neck, n back, a thick body, {hort mane, and a flender tail. The colour of Afs is generally an afh-brown, more or lefs deep, with a blackifh !tripe running along the back, crofTed

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[ 193 ] cro(fed by apother over the {houlclers, the conllant mark of the fpecies. The-Afs like the Hor[e, is found in a wild as well as in a domellic fiate. Its native country is princ i pally the c1eferts of Tartary, and the' fou thern parts of I ndia and Perfia. It .alfo occurs, though rarely, in Syria and Arabia, I where it was formerly extremely common. Some are likewife mt:t with in Africa. The \Vild Afs, or Kou l a n, is generally of a ilvery grey cololSr, with bright, foft, filky hair. It lands higher on its limbs than the tame, has finer legs, and is in general a handfomer animal. It is extremely fwift and {hy, and has the manners of the Dlhikkete i. The d O lllcfiic Afs is in perfeClion in the wanne r clim a t e!:, in which it grows to a larger {jzt:, and more vigour and fpirit, than in the northern. Its charaCter, however, ill all places is that of tardiners and patien ce, aki 'll to fiupidity. So long ago as the time of Homer, it was the emblem of per[everance and infenfibility; and at this day its inferiyrity to the HorCe is Lhongly denoted ill fome M a hom e tan countri e s, b its being the only leed whi c h Chriflians are permitled to mount. The ACs i s t emperate in hi s d jet, and will t a ke up with thiflles and the coarfcn herbage, whenc e he is eafily kept. He is nice in his wat er, dril1king from the clearell brooks j and bas a {jngular d,iilike of wetting his feet. ,He is lrong e r in. VOL. II. S prop o r-

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[ J 94] proportion to his ftze than the iIorre, but lefs tractable, being occaftonally taken with fits of fiubbornnefs and obll:inacy. The thickners of his ikin renders him little fenftble of blGws, and alfo protects him from the attacks of infech. His voice is a loyd and moll: difcordant bray, which he utters when hungry, and alfo when under the ftuence Gf a1l10rOUS or focial propenuties. He is more healthy than the !:tor[e, !leeps lds, and very, tarely lies for that purp9[e. The She-Ars, like the Mart', goes eleven months with young, and produces feldom mote than one at a time. It has been obferved, that the Afs is to the poor man, what the Horfe is to the richer; and were the latter ani 'mal unknown, the fer vices of the former would be much prized. At pre[ent, it is employed only in the loweft and hatdell: drudgery, and its life 'is generally worn out in wretchednefs under fcanty fare-and cruel ufage. The value [et upon ihe milk of the female often fecures her a more comfortable lot under the. proteaion of the wealthy. This fluid is thin and fwee!, and is an excellent aliment for thofe who are too weak to ftronger diet. The Mule is the mixed progeny of the fIorfe and the Afs, and by its barrennefs proves the perfea diftinanefs of thofe fpecies-it being a general of nature that the of different fpecies cannot produce a farther offspring. It has the un ited

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! ..

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[ 195 ] united qualities pf both pare nts, and IS a very ll[e-ful animal. In Spain, and Come othet of the warmer climates, Mules arc .1he principal beafts of draught, and are employed in the carriages of perfens of the firft rank. They are al[o much ufed in countries on accou nt of their fure' footednefs. They generally retain fomewhat of tIJe fiubbornnefs of the Afs, arid are apt to be reflive. The befl. Mules are thofe which have an Afs fpr the fire, and a Mare for the dam. 4. Eo.,yus ZEBRA.-ZEBRA. This beautiful a nl\tive of all the hotter of Africa from Congo nd Abyffinia to the Cape, i$ fomewbilt larger than th,e AA, and of a e!eg4nt fMlll, hlJvipg a head, l\nd, ears of moderate fize. It is peculiarly tjHliuguilhed by its colours. The gro 'und is either white, or cream-colour with a caLl: of buff; .and it is marked all over with black or dark-brown firipes, difpofed in regular order, and running downwards in elegant curves on the body and head, and crofswife on the thighs and legs. It has a lhort erect mane: its tail is like that of an Afs, with a tuft at the ex.tremity. The Zebra is extremely fwift; apd refembles in its manners the wild Horfes and Aires above defcribed, being equally fhy and watchS ful.

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[ 196 ] ful. It is even more untameable than they, and has fcarcely ever yet been broken to domeftic ufes, though taken at an early age. The QUAGGA, an animal met with in herds near the Cape of Good Hope, m\!ch refembles the Zebra, but is marked with fewer and larger bands, and has more of the bay in its ground colour. It is thicker made, and of a more traClable nature, fome of the Dutch colonifts having brought it to draw in carts. It never affociates with the Zebras. In Chili an extraordinary animal of the Horre genus has been difcovered, which hilS cloven hoafs. I t frequents rocky and mountainous parts, and is very wild, fwift, and ftrong. The natives call it GNEMEL or HUEMEL. It feems little known to naturalifts. GENUS

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" v ,//7uruv(rUU?

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( 1f}1 ] ; It G}:NtTS X;LUI. HlPPOPOT AMUS,..,...HIPrOPOTAMUS. GENERIC CH.4RACrER. Frqnt-t.eelh /" eqch jaw [opr; the upper, jlnnp;l1g df/lpnt, by p airs; the lwer, pnmillenl: fa/ita?: two in lach jhe Imper onef w? klTge, long, and obliquely truncated: Feet with [our fJOfJji at margjn. I. HIPPOPOTAMJ]S AMPJ;lJBlUS.-AMPHIBIOUS HIPPOl'OTAMU,s, THIS vaft quadruped has long .been a fubjeCl of admiratiQn, as wdl from its bulk and appearance, as its .extmordil'laIlY mplie .of Jiving. Its iize is about .that of the Rhinoceros, l)r larger. oome have been found meafuring feventeen feet in length; fuen in height, an,cl fifteen in and twelve oxen have been found neceffary to draw on 1l}ore one that had been {hot io a river. The. hide alone is a IQad for :1 camel. I.ts fll:lpe as uncouth as its IbulJc is formidable. Its head is very large ; mouth .e-xt.remely wide ; teedl v.aill, y and fi:r-of.lg, the tulks C?f the .lower J .aw" s, 3 \\ 'hich

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[ 198 ] which fometimes are more than two feet in length, and weigh fix pounds each; lips thick, broad and brifily; eyes and ears fmall; body very fat, aDd round; legs !hort and thick; feet very large; tail {hort, wrinkled, and almofi naked. It is co, vered with {hort hair, clofer on the upper parts than under: its colour, a dyll brown above, fle!h-coloured beneath. Its ikin is extremely tough and {hong, except on the belly, where it is fofter. Its voice is a broken roar, between that of a bull, and the braying of an ele phant. The Hippopotamus, or River-HorJe (this name is the former tranilated) is a native of the hotter and interior parts of Africa, making its rcfidence in large rivers, efpedally fuch as run through ex tenfive forefis. It walks about on their bottoms, rifing at intervals to the furface for air. At night it leaves its watery abode, and comes to land, grazing on the rank herbage, or devouring the tender branches of trees and Climbs, and fnmetimes making inroad$ upon cHltivated fields, where it commits great havoc, as weH by its feef as its teeth. Its gait on l and is {Jow and aukward, but when. alarmed, it moves with confiderable fpeed to regain the water, into which it infiantly firiking to the bottom. Its diet is wholly ve getable,

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[ 199 ] getabJe, ann it molefis no other animal; but fome. times, in the more unfrequented regions, it fud. denly rulhes out of the river, trampling down every thing in its way; and is then dangerous. Sometimes herds of them are feen, proceeding f<.>me miles from their refidence in quefi of food. When wounded in the water, they become furious, and are faid to overfet the boats whence the injury proceeded, or link them by biting a piece out of the bottom. They have been known in fuch cafes at once to bite a man i n two. In rivers near the abode of man, they learn to be cautious, and but jull: put up the point of their fnouts to breathe; in remoter places they raife the whole head from the furface. By means of their great tulks they make deep holes in the beds of rivers, the better to con ceal themfclves. Thefe infiruments alfo enahle them to get at the roots of trees growing on the bank, on which they feed. They fleep in the reedy iUets in the middle of firl!ams; and in thefe places the females bring forth their young, one only at a birth.. The young ones are capable of being tamed, and arc then hannlefs, but it does not appear that they have been put to any domefiic ufe. Variolls methods are employed in taking this animal. Pitfalls are dug by the fides of rivers in their paths. boards full of !harp fpikes are

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[ 100 ] are placed about the corn-grounds, into wbich they ftrike their feet when they come to pluntter, and thus become an eafy prey. They are iliot in the water, or ftruck with harpoons with rop.es faftened to them. A very ftngular mode i s mentioned by Haffe1qulR; which is that of laying a great quan, tity of dry peas in way, whieh they greedily oevour, and then growing thirfiy. they drink fo much, that the peas fwell in-.:their ftomach, and ourft them. Their flefh is eaten by the poor na tives, and their fat is efi:eemed equal to the beft lard The dried {kin is ufed to make impenetrable b ucklers. The teeth yield an ivory fupe rior to that or' the tufk. The Hippopotamus feerns formerly to have frequented the Nile in Egypt, but it is now only known in the higher parts of that river. ,The Romans exhibited it, though rarely, in the aillphitheatre. It is fuppored to be the Behemoth of Job) though that animal is n.ot mentioned as being amphibious. It is fome times feen at the mouths of rivers, and even fome way out at fea, but this does not feern its proper refidence, for it wili neither dlink fait water, nor eat fiih. '" ... ....

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, I -,' --.-

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t 201 1 GENUS XLIV. TAPIR.-TAPIR. GENERIC CHARACTER. Fr.ont-teeth in both jaws len: Canine-Ieetl) in oath, Jingle, cunxd: G.rinders in both, jive on tacf; fide: Feet with three boofi, and afalJe fille on Ihefon-ftet. i I. TAPIR AMERICANUS.-AMERICAN TAPIR. THIS aQimal at full growth is nearly as large as a young heifer. It has been refembled to the Hippotamus, and alfo to the Hog, but it really confH tutes a feparate genus. Its head is large; eyes fmall; and ears iliort. The male has a fort of probofci$ formed by a prolongation of the upper' lip beyond the lower, and this P'lrt can be extended or {bortened at pleafure: it is nearly a foot long, and contains the noarils The female is faid to be without this part. The neck of the Tapir is fuort, and furni{bed with a mane: the body thick and grofs: the back much arched: the tail {hort, thickifil and pointed: the legs fhol't: the large; the toes covered with thick hoofs. The colour is a dull brown, which is that of the {kin, fcantily

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[ 202 ] fcantily covered with hair. The native country of this animal is the eaftern fide of South America, from the ifthmus of DaFien to the river of Ama 7.ons. It the woods and rivers, fleeping during the day in the thickeft covert near the banks, and feeding by night. If diaurbed, it plunges into the water, either fwimming, or linking to the bottom, on which it walks like the Hippopotamus. It is perfectly barmlefs, and feeds on grafs, leaves, fugar canes, and fruits. It has a quick ear, and is fuon alarmed. Its motion is flow; it makes a kind of hilling noife, or whiftle. The female produces one young at a birth, of which it is very careful. The Tapir is capable of being tamed, and fometi mes kept with other dOlDefiic animals in the .farm-yards in Guiana. They feed them felves with their long [novt, as the Rhinoceros does. Their common attitude is fitting 011 the rUJnp. They defend themftllves vigorouDy againfi aDd win {!:rip, the {kin off where they take '\ a ....... GENUS

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, [ 203 ] GENUS XLV. SUS.-HOG. CENERIC CHARACTER. Fron/-feeth In the upper jrrw four; in the lower, fix: Canine-Ietth in the upper jaw tW!J, rather jhort;, in the lower, long, }landing out: Snout truncated, prominent, 71Ioveable : 'Feel c/O'llm. I. Sus SCROFA.-COMMON HOG. THE original of this fpecies is the WIld Boat, which is a native of almoll: all the lemperate parts of Europe and Alia, and the north of Africa It is not found in the very cold climates, nor. in Great Britain. In fize it is generally lefs tHan the' do .. mefric Hog, though infrances are given of its attaining an extraordinary bulk. Its colour when full grown is a dark brinued grey, fotnetimes ap proaching to black. Beneath the bril\Ies i'S 11 'foft' hair of a woolly nature. Its ears are {hort and upright; it9 fnout is fomewhat than that of the domel1:ic breed; and its tu{ks grpw to the fome inches, and are very formidable wea'potl's. The Wild BQar inhabits the -depth of woods, e[pe '. cially

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[ 2.04 ] cially the marlhy fpots. It feeds on roots, acorns, beech-mafl: and the like, and will not refu(e animal food-when it comes in its way, yet it is not pro perly carnivorous. The young oIJes do not venture to ramble alone till after their third year, when they are able to defend themfelves againft the wolf. An old Boar is a fierce and dangerous animal, and the chace of it has always been accounted one of the mofi venturous kinds of this divedion. As he runs {lowly, and leaves a firong [cent, the choicer kinds of hounds are not employed for the purpofe, but rather, common dogs of fize and courage. The Boar when overtaken fl:ands upon his defence, and the attack generally prov.es fatal' to fome of the affailants. his long tufks he gives terrible .wounds, and rips up the belly of dogs, or even of which impede his courfe. The hllntfmen armed with fpears and other weapons; yet it is not uncommon for them to receive hurt, or even to lofe their lives. Many fiories are reconleU of wild Boars becomjng the terror of a di!hiCt, and employing the courage of heroes and warriors in their defhuction. On there occalions, the poetical narrators have in imimltcd language the erettoo brifHes, the fiery eyes, the foaming tllfksj and the thundering onlet of the enraged animal. 80 lately as the year 1787, a Boar of extraordinary was killed near Cognac in France, which

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t j-. _'tihich : had been the death of dogs 1n different ch aces, and had received many gun, 1110t wounds without wele found between his lk;in and fieih wheIJ cut up. Domeltic Hog has fmaller tufks than the the 'Boars even of ,this a ,r-e -oft61\ Its are larger., and g6nerally. dent. It mCLY beteared to an enorm{)us fize fatners. 'Df all dome!lic .animals it .is \he moll: in its luibits, (lelighting'to roll in mud, and footing into every 'kin4 cif impurity. Its grors form, harlh voice, and manners, have made it an objeCl: of difguft to many peoplc, and havC'. eau fed it to be regarlIecl as the very emblem of ,uneleannefs. Its fielh was lhiCUY!prbiCldon to the Jews, 'and the fame prohibition i's by the Mahometans to this d ay. Yet no animal feems by ri' ature more peculiarly ada pted to become food for. man. As it is almolt an univerfal 'eater, it con fUlJles reflife wbiCh would otherwife be wafted. It is of no ufe when alive; but its flefh is nourilhing, ngreeable, and eafy of' digef1:ion, and poffeffes the 'Valu;lble property of t;iking fait better than any oi}\t!r, whence it is of grcatdl: utility as proV'i. flan for long voyages. Further. the Sow is among the mon prolific of all female animals, prGlctudng twice a year, from 'ten to twenty at a litter, m ,oil: of which the is enabled to fuckle by mean'S of her VOL. ,Il. T -, numerous

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[ 206 teats; lier, brutal nature,. lJ.owever. (ometiine s ner to part or" her -1'..... N .-: I I, j" f.\' "i th: if nClt the, whole brood The fat of'fwine,caJied lard, is of .. it t a fofter conlifl:ence than that of. mof!: animals, and is difpofel [0 a;' to fOfm a thick beneath the I i< \ briftfes are ufed by Ihoetna'Kers, and alfo for brufi)es. The Hog, lI:up1d, is of It 1 .- "I f'" t ".1_ fagacity in difcover.ing its food. It has a quiC;k reetit, and emp}oys its fnout as well in "'\ "'I. \, I. t) as in turning QP the earth for roots and other con i' ... "rf r. I ,." cea1ed provifIon. In woody fwine art? turned into the woods during the acorn prqvi1e fQt: 1 they f{loo' come to know and follow the f w 'lOc;-herd wno has th;' of' them:' are vf;ry realers ...... .... "', L ......,' j of e:ptdaJly ; in run aqput fcreaming horribly; and be, they in thtir to the J'( -... .. r ,I ,4 t .' Rye, as if to .a covering from the co1d. ;.,. '; ri' __ .. I I r .... of, Swine var,)' greatly in cci1our, and !hape. One of the mof!: re is tl) e Btaek l lireed, is' frr;;lI;'\v',th: and belly often nanging to w r t) \ .' ." the"grqund' : its fi, efu excels iQ whi tene ,fs and deliJ,lr '1\' t'7 ., t \ cacy A finguhlr variery occurs in fome pla<;es" \ ,-t I ,'.' I I 1'-" 'hav1l1g undivided hoofs. ;" \" S ,-2.. VS

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"

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[ '1.07 J ,2. SUS lETHIOPICU's.-ETHroPIAN HOGr The principal m 'ai"k' by which this Cpecies differs horn i s a pair of fell1ici}cufar lObes or wattles beneath the Its [noin is iJco broader and very ,I ", }I, The {kin of the-face above the lobes is loofe and ; and the re is a callou s cor;ler of t ne rilou;h. O(the n':ore in the fower are tflO:Ce In th e uPR"er br' ge, harp, aud curved, in ifie old hend fe::l1!icircularly t;rihei\d.. fegs a re {hart i the body the brown. It is a native of the parl ,!! GC Africa, and is illfo found in It holes groti'ria, which it with its fnout and nooTs. It a [..vift and Berc e iufhing on its foe when a ttack ed, and hr' j'k'ing ", Ja. ils tulks, which are capable of inflicting dangerous wounds. One at the Hague killed its keeper by a wound in the thigh. reCufes to breed with the comnion fow. 3. BABYRUSSA.-B.A:BYROUSSA the of this upper which tl1e Jkj'u o'f and bendIng t'n the alel tRe foiehea"d1 ; \ T1. to

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[ 208 J to turn again. They are of a fine har. d.:gr.ain like ivory. The lower tOl{kS are long and !harp, but grow like thore of a common boar. The animal is nearly th e ufual llze of a hogl but of a longer form, with flcnderer limbs. lnftead of priIHes, it is covered with a fine, iliort, woolly liaii [ of a blackifh colour ; on the back with a .few brifiles. Its tair is rather long, and ends in a tuft. It inhabits Java, Amboina, and ether Indian HIes, where it is foun d in large herds, feeding on herbage and leaves. In the it is fa 'id fometi-mes to reft i ts head by hov-kj:ng its tulks on the rOW branches. When purrued,. they fome times fake the fea, in which they fwim weIr, parsing from ifle to i fie. The BabyroulTa has a 'luick :fcent. Its voice refembles that of a common hog, intermixed with a growl. It is fome times kept in a domefiic fiate. Its flelh is good .food. 4. S"S This ani maT, call-ed alfo the Mexican Hog, is' the only one of the genus which is an original na tive of the New World. It is confi.clerably fmaller than a common Hog, and of a !hort compaCl: form. Its he ad is large; tuIks rather !hort; fnout long; ears iliort upright; no tail. Its peculiar dif. tinCl:ion is a glandular orifice fomewhat above the rump,

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rumpt Curronnded by brHlles, from which exncfes 3' firong-fcented liquor: this part nas been impro perIy caned thi The WeT! of fAe Pecary is thickly covered above with {hong o-Iackilh brir. tIes) each marked with yeJJowilh-}Vhi.te. rings,. the gene 'rill colour :,. lleck is [u !r?ul!ded ,!lth. a is found in Filrts of t ,he continent of America,. and in fome of .. '" .. ) the Antilles. It frequents wooded' ?lpunin to marfhy lefs ,fat than the g,! in large drc,Jves, are fierce, and will Wrn upon :!I,l<=; I, .... ., '. IlUnter. The J agllar i s their mortal !lncl' t'hat bean1 of prey is' dC}lCl, fur rOfmded with the bodie1s of {lain Pecaries, ,,,hie/) \ ., .'revenged their :They iry l}ke-manner fur.ro\,lnd and kitH dogs which chaGe The fllbil:an'ces,. alfQ, ferpenfs, laft it ,at,tack$ witli weat alacrity, aqd --them between its fore. feet. It even kills the Rattle-.. \ {nake with impnnity. It is bunhe on the baf,::, k ml' lll be alVl'ay as it i:s athervvife rhe f1elh beGomes fa as to be uneatable. T3

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[ 2IQ l ORDER CETJr IT will doubtlefs extraordinary to one who has not much refleCted upon the principles of in natural hifiory, to find, aQ' nexed tq the an order confifiing of Whales and other refembling fillies. "But. it is to be re that the c!afs of Mammalia is formed upon circumfiances of the animal economy which have no JO feet. They are fuch as Juckle their and have warm blood; and it is not more furprifing lhat fome inhabitants of the fea, and -",hich', move by the help of fins infiead of legs, fhould be among this number, than that many four-legged land animals, fuch as l,izards, frogs, &c., lliould be excluded from it. The reader mull:, alfo, have been prepared for admitting the Whales into this c1afs, by the previolls infertion of the Walrus and tribes, fome individuals of which can fcarcely be faid to have the ufe 'of feet. The Ma nati, particularly, is entirely without and has only the obfcure vell:iges of fore-feet. It may therefore be regarded as the immediate link conneCting the marine quadrupeds with the Whales. GENUS

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,,' '.

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[ 21J J 1 T .1 .< GENUS XLVI. -. GENERIC :CHARAcrER. projeBingfrom the upper jaw, very /dng, jJraight, wnalhed: Spi (or vml -hole) on the head. J. MONODON MONOCEROS.-UNICORN-N:ARe WH.A!L. THIS fpecies is fometirries fonnd : to exceecl ',.). \ '. In to tail. Its. hl!ad IS alarp; mouth. fInall; iklll [mooth, DIad:,. or marbled w ith black and white. Its dif tinCtion is a very long tooth, perfectly flraigh.t, of a cqlour, (pirally wreathed, and tapering to a point. It proceeds from a focket on: one fide of the upper jaw, and grows to the lengtH of fl'
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, ben y. I ts tail (like that of all the Whale-tribe frands horizontally; it is divided into two lobes" forming a crercent. The NarwhaI inhabits the Nortflern feas, and is particularly plentiful in Davis's 8ral(5, and North Greenland. It feeds on the fmaller kind of flat filh; arid' on 'Medufre other tmfrinc! a ,ni'm'al's. It rerorts in numbers to the fmall unfro?en fpots: in the rea near the {hores, as well for the advan tage of breathing, as in fearch of food. They fwim fwiftly, ar'td are not eafiFy ftruck wi.th the harpoon, tlnfers when Co together as to be obftruCled by each others The Greenlanders iat tlie Reffi and dri-nk toe oil; the ten
PAGE 263

GENUS XLVn. i I CETE. (jENERIC CHfiRAC1ER. plain ill upper jaw in place of teeth: Spiracle 'on Ihl of the head with a ()TijiCt. r. BALlENA MYSTIC'ETUS.-GRMT MYSTICETE. TarS fpecies, ufually called the (411/111011 Whale; -is Jargefl: of all known animals At earHe, periods ,of the it was fonnd of the Je' ngth of a hu.ndred feel or uj}wards i' bllt as thoCe ?o' ithin the reach of ma'n now feldom live to their full age, Jt isuocommon to meet with them exceedi \lg the length of fixty Or fe.venty feet. Of this mafs, the head conll:itutcs nearljf one trurd; and it is furni!hed with a mouth oE mpn/hous containing a tongue eighteen Ot twenty feet long. Within the tlpper jaw lie a. great 'numbrr of long a n 'lI broad plates Ot blades, regularly on' each fide, which the fnbll:ance called wbalebone. A double tpout"': hole on the top of the head gi yes palfage occa(ion, -' \ .... alII ;-..... t J ,. i. .!.. l.

PAGE 264

[ ZI4. ] aITy to jets (it water thfQwn up from the mowTI,. a great height in the air. The eyes are placed very low, and are' riot 'nllic'h hirger than thofe of ox. On both lips are iliort hairs in front. Long hairs hang from the whaleoone within the mouth,. and almoll: cover the tongur". Somewhat beyond the eyes a'1'e placed the two'otllyilns, wlikh -are large and finewy, and contain hones like the fpliead fingers of a ml\n's hand. The tail is broad and The general colour of the Whale is bla-ck .rbove artd white beneath; bl.)t it is fome times marbled and variegated. The !kin is fmooth and void of fcales, as in all the cetaccous tribe iJie fat is aifpofed in a layer be tween the !kin and all 6ver th e 'body. The fie'Ch IS coarfe and llard. The fema l e nas tea"ts like thcke o f a cow, with which !he fuckles her fi.,glc young one. The llfuill refidence of this 'fpecies is in the nor 'theni teas, and it is larger, the f'arther it i s found. Its t?bcI feems very inadequate to its vaft blJlk chiefly of the foft rea animals calJ'ed Mol I u'fd, as the Sepire, MeJufre, tic., wnl'ch it i\raiils arid cfuihes by of hair of its mo'ui:h ana the whalebone. Sometimes, hQwever, ilerrings anti other fifh have been found in its fto macho TBat this rOl'midable creature fliouia be purfued by man tor rhe purpore of making prize (it rati'ti:r than iliunned as.an objeCt of terror) is one of the;

PAGE 265

t 215 ] proofs of an4 of; huma!l Throu,&h feras, menfe fields and ilJands of ice, the whitle-fiher ; -. ,.. '. eagerly hunts _his mighty prey, watches for. his fp, Quting o .uhe .appe3rance ahov
PAGE 266

t 2If; ] the 'European to eat. The whalebone is a Cub. fiance of. clanicity, \\)1ence it is lI[ed for a variety pt,rpoJes, particulaTly fOl" whips women's nays. "2; BALlEN.A ,PavsALus.-FiN-BACKED 'C ii:Tl. is diffjnguiihed by a fmall fin on the lower p art of. tbe 'back, which has given it the <:Ommon name of tbe Fil1-fifh. It 'is as long as the preceding, but of a flenderer 1 t has a very wide mouth, arid its lips are marked with a number of oblique plaits, like the twin' of a rope. It is (If a dark olive colour whitith beneath This Whale 'is fwifter ana more violent in its mo trons than tbe former, :whence if lS more danger ons la attack. It is a1f0 a lefs va1uable prize, its whalebone being lh(}lter, and its fat in lefs tity. This is li'kewife a native of the norihern feas. 3. BALlENA B00 P .S.-PIKE-HEADEB M:YSTfeliTE. vVhale takes its name froIn the {hape of its head, which tape rs to the nofe like that of a pi'ke. It is about fifty feC?t in length, .rather flen der, b1.'lt thick on the fore-parts. The tipper o t it s belly is by many longitudinal plaits, t he infides of which are led. It has a fmall dorfal 5

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[ 2.17 ] fin; and on the hind part of the back is a horny protuberance. This fpecies is found both in the northern and fouthern ocean. It is very timid;' blows with lefs violence the other kinds; and is often feen to float unmoved on the furface of the y water. Its principal food is a [mall fpecies of 'From a lkinny membrane at the root of its tongue, and its inteLl:ines, the Greenlanders make windows. ROSTRATA.-Ro $..TRATED MYSTI. CETE. -This fpecies is the fmallef!: of the genus, feldom arriving at the lel)gth of twenty-five feet. It is alfo the mof!: elegant and filh-like in its form, be ing free fram the clumfinefs and difproportion of the other kinds. Its head is [mall, and its fnout is lengthened to a taper in a point., whence it is called heaked. The upper part of its booy is of a dark blueilh brown;, fides and belly of .a fine white, with a flight carnation tinge .. The belly, like that of the laf!: [pecies, is plaited. It is a native of the .north [cas Two other fpedes of Myfiicetes, or Whalebone Whales, are the Bunched, anti the Undl!r j awed, it is unoeceffary to pefcribe them particularly. 1 VOL. lI. U GENWS

PAGE 268

" CENUS XLVIIl'. .... LL GENEl,Ud CH.t1R.,AG'TE. R, .ietth vjJibJe in the lower jaw only: Spiracle on the he(1d or/nou!. t. PHysiIT-E R MA"C'R:(jCEPH.ihus .....,'BLtAlT. HEADED CACHALOT. 'tHE name by t'll1S is ufually i:s the 8Jtrltiaceti Wh'f1re. I I'n fize it nea 'r1y equals the greht cdmmoIi Whale, and iri fOhti it is lidt lefs uncouth. The heau I md're han one third b'f HIe anim{!1. it is termhlatell by an thick uppet lip, into VI' hich the Ynuch narroWer under lip fits as in Cl groove. Th' e Vifible teeth in toe lower jaw ate numerous, ta:btu 'n!', conical, nent a little inwards. They are. received into ftefuy holes df the upper jaw, ,which conceal fmall {harp teeth, meeting tlie firlt the rrtouth is c1Qfed. The fpiracle appears tingle externally, but is double within. The ey:s are fmaH ar1d black; the auditdry paffages very mi flute. There is no fin on the back, but in its l'lace a callous tubercle. The throat is narrow in -'proPOl fion

PAGE 269

.;

PAGE 270

[ V2 p,oportion to th,e T91s r will.lS fWiftly, pur[U!!S with great the Shark. It alfo feele capt!lre, but c,lifficqlt t<;> teoaclCUl.5 91 life, apd fl!rviviJ}g wQ,lJ.nqs for feyeral Its peculiar va]l!1! cPQfift\P in the fubLl:ance c;llle4 which is <;'9[} tained in a val: cavity of its head. This, in its natural fituation, is a nearly fluid oil, but when expofed to the into a white opake mafs. It is one of the pureft of the animal oils, and is ufed for medicinal purpofes, and alfo for making candles, and other l)fes. From this Whale is alfo procured the perfume called Ambergris,. which is found in large lumps within its bowels,. and is to be l!P. 'ts excre ments. The TODPN,. 8111f,l1/ Gachqlo,z, differs little froql the apove excep in being much. inferior in fize. 2. :PHYSETER MICROl'S.-SMALL-EYED CACHALOT. This fpecies i,s as as the firft, or even Its pead is nearly hO!lf th, e length of theQody, which malces jts [mall eyes appea.t; flill more difproPQlti9lled. On its back is a long, narrow,. U 2-pointed.

PAGE 271

[ 220' J pointed fin. It fwims very fwiftly, and is a great enemy to the porpoife. It inhabits the Greenland feas. Nearly refembling this, is the PJiYSETER TU.R. SIO, High-finned Cachalot, the back:fin of which !lands almoll upright, appearing at a like a fmall mall. It is one bf the largea Whales, fome. times growing fize of A hundrr:d fl:et. GENUS XLIlr. DELPHINUS.-DOLPHIN. I GENERIC CiU.RAC'I'ER: Teeth t'n Both jaws. Spi racle 'Un the head. J. DELPHINUS PHOClENA.-PORPESSE. THE name of this is written Porpoift ; but the other fpelling is probably the true one, as uerived from Porco and Pifce, $ea Hog, a name given to it in various langua&es. The Porpdfd (eldom exceeds tlie length of fix or feven feet. It 1S of a thick !hape forwards, 4 gradua1Jy tapering towards

PAGE 272

"

PAGE 273

r 1Zl J tow-arcTs the tail. Its head is of moderate fize.; 1l1e fnQUt !hort and terminating fomewhat lharply : the eyes fmall : mouth of mi'ddling width, con taining from forty-fix to fifty fman !harp teeth in each jaw. It a back fin,. fituated neaTer the tail than the head'. The colour of the body is: blueiCh or d'ark,brown above, white beneath. The Porpeffe is found in almofi all the European: feas, and fometimes runs with the tide up the' :targer It feeds upon the fmaller kinds of /jib, and in quefi of them roots with its fnoul:' about the /hores, like a hog. They fometime:l' collea: in great herds to purfue the {hoals of her ring, mackrel, and other congregating which they drive Lnto creeks and bays,. ami there make hiiVock among They are frequently (een to gilmbol in the ocean, efpecially before .!tormy weather. The Porpeffe becomc:s very fat,. being cloathed with a coat of lard f1cin" yields a good quantity of oil. 2. "DELP
PAGE 274

I [ 222 ] IndianJeas, and its fporting, like that of the pe{fe, is re-ckoned to forebode a florm. It fwims witn gr;;at rapidity, and wjIl eafily pafs round a {hip in full fail. It preys on other fifh, and is even bold enough to attack the whales. :rhe ancients were accuflomed to reprefent the Dolphin in a very crooked form, whereas its {hape is perfeCtly ftratght. In its gre ateft ex e rtions, indeed, it may perhaps bend Its body. Ttley likewife a nation that it was remarK:'abl y fond of the human fpe{:ies, and various fteries are of its carrying men and boys on its 'back; but' tliefe are not confirmed by any, thing obFerved In modern times :' -3. UELPHJNUS .-GRAMPUS. The Orc. lias ran g been int-roduced by poets in their fiaions as one of the terrible and furoclous of tlie inh a bitants of tlie ocean;' and if tlie Grampus was int e nded under thts name, the raBer was found e d upon reaJ.'ity. It i s the largell: of the : genlls, fometimes .ar, r iving at the l e ngth of tw enty-five feet. In form it refembles the oefore-mentioned, except its body is fomewha.t broader and deeper; and its lower jaw much wid e r than the upper. l:ts teeth are fi'rong and blunt: its back-fin larg-e and thick. The Gramp. lls is found in the Medit e rranean and Atlantic feas, and thore ab.out. eaclt It is the tyrantot the oseari,.. 1

PAGE 275

[ 223 ] preying upon the l'arger fillies, as the Do'lphin Porpe{fe, and even feizing upon the greateft Whales, in wtich it [ets its teeth, li ke a bull-dog upon a bull. It alfo devours Seals, wnich it dif.:. lodg!!s from the rocks by means of its back fin. 4. DELPHI'NUS This fpedes i s from twe lve to eighteen feet ill' length. Its head is fmall ; fnout blunt and and bent downwards: mouth rather fmall: teeth \ {mall, blunt, and not numerous. Its p.eCl.oral fins are thick and fatty; and it is defiitute of 4 back fin. When fuB-grown its colour is milk-white,. lightly tinged with rofe-colour or blueilli The Belnga is a native of the northern feas, and occafionally. runs H p They ate and are often feen fwimmiflg in large llioals, the young ones accompanying their dams, when they afford a beal:ltiful They. fometimes fOl low bo:(ts for. a confiderable way. They fwim faft, and prey upon all. the middJe-fized fifh. 'Table-

PAGE 277

TABLE OF GENERA., 0rder.l. P.IUMATBl. Genus I. Homo 11. Sitnia U 'l., Lemur IV. Vefpertilio Order H. -BRtlTA. V. Bradypus VI. Myrmecophagil VII. Manis VIII. Darypus Man Ape Macauco. Bat Sloth Ant-eater Manis ArmadiIle IX: Rhinoceros Rhinoceroa. x. Elephas Xl. Platypus XII. Trichechus Order IIIL FIlR.tl!. XIII. Phoca JOV. Canis -, Elephant> Platypus Walnls, Seat Dog XV:.,

PAGE 278

." [ 226 1 Cenus xv. Felis XVI. Viv erra XVII. Lutra XVIlI. Urfus XIX. Didelphis xx. Macropus -XXI. Talpa XXII. Sorex .: XXIII. Erinace\!s .. -. -Cat Weefel Otter Bear Opo{fum Kanguroo Mole Shrew Order IV. thIRd. XXIV:. Hyirix xxv. XXVI. Cafi:or XXVII. Mus xx V II I. ArClomys. SdunJl> xxx, MYOXlIS .. :XKXJ, Pip. us Leflus XXXPI. fJy{ax Order XXXIV. Camel liS xxxv. Mofc:hus XXXVI. -., T v. PECORA. Beavet: Rat M!\Jm Hllre fIysJS Catnel Mu!k peer XXXVII. Camelov,!-rd1 X-x.x.VUL.

PAGE 279

t 227 ] GJ::nus xx!,vlIi. Antilope XXXIX. Capra ... XL. Ovis XLI. Bos Antelope Goat Ox Order VI. BELLUlE. -XLII. Equus XLIII. Hippopotamus XLIV. 1:'apir XLV. Sus Horfe HippopotamUs Tapir Hog Order VII. CETK., XLVI. Monodon XLVII. BalfCna XLVIII. Phyfeter -XLIX. Delphillus Narwhal Myfiicete Cachalot polphill

PAGE 281

INDE, X. -, page page i\COUCHY H. 66 Antelope, Springer Agouti H. 65 ---White ,JSZ -African charaGtcrifec1 i. 133 ---White-fuoted IH Alal:tag.a ii. J r I Ape, Barbary i. ISS "'Igaze! ii. 15:& -Long-armed 157 American charaGterifcd i. 137 ArgaJi ii. 17' Amphi bia defcri bed i. 34 Armadillo, Animal kingdom defcribed i. Z:l i. 189 !\Ot-eater, Aculeated i. 184 --Nine, banded ,8S ea!,e III 3 ---, Six-' banded ib. Great IS, --_. Three.banded ib. Little )'83 ----Twelve-banded 189 Middle ib. A/hkokll ii. IZl Antelope, Barbary if. r6I Aliatic i. as Cervine IS6 Afs n. I9z Chinefe 157 Axis ii. J4S' Common ib. IS' BAllOON, Common i. 'SS Ouinea 154 .......... _-Dog faced 159 HarnelTed 153 --Ribbednore ib. !ndian '5:r. --Variega ted ib. Scythiatl 157 BabyroulTa ii. .:r.01 "VOL .11. X lJadger, -.

PAGE 282

I N 0 E)t p.ge 'Badger, iL 35 Cat, Common i. 2Slt Common 34 Cavy, Leporine ji. 65 Bat, Common i. 172 --Rock 66 C ordated 177 ---Spotted 604-Great 174 --Variegated 63 ..... Horle-Iboe 175 Cbamoi; ii. 16 .. --Javelin 177 Chinche ii. 6 --Long eared 173, Civet ji. g -SpeCl;re 177 Coafre H 5 ,_: Vampyre.. 175 Coatimondi ii. 4 Bel r, American n. 27 Colugo i. 17 I --Common 24 Conepate H. S __ Polar 27 Coqualin ii. IOZ Reaver, Cbili ii. 7'1. Couguar i. '1.57 ---Common 68 Beluga -ji .. DEER, Fallow H. 143 Birds defcribed j. 34 '---Moofe 134 Bjfon it. 176 --Red J'l-o lIobac JJ, 94 ---Rein 116 E oar, Wild ii. 203 ---Virginian 144 i i 180 Dog, Common i. 21i Dolphin 1i. '2.1.1 CACHALOl T, Bh mtheadcd Dormoufe, Common )i. 108 ij. 218 Garden ib. High-finned Fat '107 Small "19 DJlIi kketci ii. 191 Small-e;ed ib, Camd, Arabian ii, IZZ EL"Ll'lIANT i. ---Baarian 125 Elk H. 133 CamelQpard ii. 147 Europea n chamatlerifed i. 119 Capybara Ht 66 Carat'al i. 261' F,r.NN!:c j. 24" ii. 3 2 Ferret jj. IS J::ari boy. j ,i. Fillies defcriblld i. '35 4-

PAGE 283

fN DE X. page pate Folt.ne H. 10 HY:lena, Spotted 23if. Fox, Ara;c i. "'4 0 Hrax, Cape ii. 12.0 ---Syrian 12{ GENET ii. 9 hEX ji. 165 Gibbon i. 157 Caueafan i67 Giralfe H. 147 Ichneumon ii. Glamll ii. 12.6 Infeas defcribed i. 3S Glutton it. 3 1 Ifatia i. 240 Gnemel ti. 196 Jackal i.234 Gnou ii. 161 Jaguar t 256 Goat, Common H. r67 Jerboa, Cape 'ji. III --. Rock 165 -Common 110 9rampu5 H. 212 --Siberian-III Guanaeo ii. a8 Jucko i. 151 Guinea.pig H. 63 KANGIlROO, q,eat H. 43 HAMSTEIt ji. 88 -Rat .45 Hare. Alpine H. 117 Klipfpringer ii. 153 --Baikal ib. 119 LEMMING H. 83 --Common llZ Leopard i, 254 Ogotona 118 --Hunti", ib. .......... Varying 114Lerot ii. 10S Rartebee1\ ii. 156 Lion i. z43 Hedgehog, European i i. S4 Llama ii. 17.6 Malacca 57 Loir ii. 1 Striped 56 Lynx, Common i, 26' 0 Hippopotamus 197 -. Pedian 261 Hog, CdmmoQ. ii. 2003 -Eth iopiaD 20 7 M'J\CAUCO,' Indr i i. 170 Mexican !le8 -----Ring tai led. ib. Hode ii. 181 Tail-Iefa 1G7 Hyrena, Common .1-. 232 ,--Wool,! 17Q X z

PAGE 284

1 N DEn page page Maj;ot 1. IS8 Monkey, Striated 1 65 ,Mammalia defcribed i. 33 ---; Varied 160 Orders of 45 -Vaulting 1 ,61 Genera p( 49 Mone Man, Arrangement of i. 14' Mongooz i. 178 Man3ti i. '1.07 Moofe H. 134 Mangoufte ij. 3 Morfe i '1.04 Monis, tong-tailed i. 185 Mouflon ii. 17' I ---Short.tailed 136 Moufe, Common ii. jS Marikina i. 166 --'.Harveft Marmot, Alpi.ne H. 93 --Meadow Ss ---Maryland 9S --Social Si ---ib ---Wood 79 ---. Variegated 96 Mulk, American il. 132. Martin ii.. 1"1 --Pygmy 131 ---Pine 11 -Tibeti=-f:!.g Meminna i' 1-57-MuUtllallr ji. 74 Mico .' .. 1Mr= Myfncet:eo-F"mrbackc ii. 2.16 .M ole, Brown H. 49 -, Ul ---Common 4 6 Pike-headed 2.16 --. Long-tailed 49 Roftrated 2.17 --. Radiated 4 S --Red 49 it 2.11 Monkey, Fair i. 166 Nilgau ij, 1-54 --,-Four-fingered Nollule i. 174 ....I..-.-.. Fox tailed 16S. ---. Fullbottom 167li. 74Great-eared 166 Opofi'um. Ja.an 11, 40 --Green 161 Lemurinet ib. ---. Preacher J63 Merian 39 ---"-' PrQbofcis 161 Molucca 3 S ---Red 16:& Murine 39 Redtailed 16S 41 ni6 Squirrel ib.

PAGE 285

D EX' page page OpoITUlIl, Virginian 3 6 i. J63 Orang.Outang i. H. 3: Otter, Common ii. 19 -'---Sea 2.1 ii. llS --Smaller ib. Raccoon ii. 32. Ouarine -j. 163 Rate! ii. 7 Ounce i. 2.55 Rat, Randicote Ht 7 8 Oi, Cape ii.' 18S --Black 77 --Common 178 --Blind 91 -Grunting 183 -Blue b--Inaian J80 --Cape !)l Mu/k IS" --Coaft 9 0 --Coypu 7S PACO/ ii. nS -Economic: 85 PanllPlin;. i. r&& -HamJler 88 Panther i. 2.S3 -Lemming 83 Pa(aJI> ii. 151--Mu/k 74-Peury it. :108 -Norway 7 6 PlIalanller ib :rS --Water h Phatagen I. 18S Reindeer ii. 136 Pinche i. 165 Rhinocero!) Single-horned i. J90 Platypu, i. 303 Two-horned J9a Polecat ii. r", Roe ii. JH Pongo i. IS" Rouff'ette i, 17$ Porcupine, Brulh-tailecl jj. 6r Canada ib. SABLE ii. la Crefied 58 SaJOuins i. 165 Iride(cent 60 Saiga ii. 157 Muic.n lb. i. 165 Prchonlile 59 Sapajou, i, 163 Porpeff'e n. uo Savage Man i. Il:l Puma i. 2.57 Sea Bear i. 2.13 --('alf 2.)0 Q2AIJGA ii. 196 _liorfe 204-se;.

PAGE 286

page page Sea Lyon :tl& Sorikat/! ii. 4 Seal, Bottle-nored I i. :t1.9 .-Common :tIO TIAC,ujAN H. J06 --Great :tIlt T1!'llandua i. 183 ":--. Harp or il1. i. 166 --.Leonine 7.15,216 ii. 56 --lJrJine 7.,13 T apir ; H. :t01 Serval i: 'I'at\l : i. 187 Sheep ., !I. 173 Tiger r" i. 7.49 Shrew, Canaoa H. J 5 3 """"';B I at k 7.56 ---Common 50 'Po)ai U? --. Mulk SI' 'j;ri"hecbus, Whale-tailed i., :to? ----Perfuming ,/ Sz. .,--'Vater S-. -( Vrc 1I'}q A ii .. 1:t1 Skunk ii.0 Slbth, Three-toee. ( I. 19.s WALiu, 8 i. ...-;-Two, toed 18.0 Weefel, Cape ii, 7 --Urfine ib. ---,' Common )6 Springbock ii .. --; Slriated S Squirrel, Black H tOl Whale, Common ii. :t13 .----'-1_ Common 9 8 :-"--'i-SFermaceti 'IS ..,.-.-...,Common FLy!og. Wolf. 1 7.30 .---....Coqualin un Wolveielle iit 31---+-Great Worm s deCcri bed i. 3 6 ---, Grey ib. '" .. I : Long tailed ib. YAK H. 183 ---Striped 102 yfard' ii. -1620 "------"Tagu an 106 -'---'-Virginian Flying r05 ZEBRA H. J9S Stag ., ?ii. li4 Z1!bu, U, ,80 H .. 18 (leedai: i. :142 Sukor,yro I. 10:1 Zibeti' ii. I Printed by Bye and Law, St. john's Square, Clerkenwell,

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.. .".


The natural history of quadrupeds, including all the Linnaean class of mammalia
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013049/00002
 Material Information
Title: The natural history of quadrupeds, including all the Linnaean class of mammalia
Physical Description: 2 v. :ill., chart (folded) ;19 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: J. Johnson
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1801
 Notes
General Note: to which is prefixed A general view of nature for the instruction of young persons. Allegheny College Library has vol. 1 only. Miscellaneous after 1825 Collection.
General Note: Mammals Juvenile literature Natural history
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Source Institution: UF Special Collections
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 27241682
oclc - 43411401
System ID: AA00013049:00002

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Viverra--Weesel
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 2b
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
    Lutra--Otter
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Ursus--Bear
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
    Didelphis--Opossum
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
    Macropus--Kanguroo
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Talpa--Mole
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Sorex--Shrew
        Page 50
        Page 50a
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Erinaceus--Hedgehog
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Hystrix--Porcupine
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Cavia--Cavy
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Castor--Beaver
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Mus--Rat
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 74a
        Page 75
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    Hyrax
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    Camelus--Camel
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    Camelopardalis--Camelopard
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    Antilope--Antelope
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    Ovis--Sheep
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    Equus--Horse
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    Hippopotamus--Hippopotamus
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    Tapir--Tapir
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    Sus--Hog
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    Balaena--Mysticete
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    Delphinus--Dolphin
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    Table of Genera
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Full Text


The Baldwin Library






THE
NATURAL HISTORY
OF
QUADRUPEDS;
INCLUDING ALL THK
L IN N JE A N CLASS
OF
MAMMALIA:
TO WHICH IS PREFIXED,
I
A GENERAL VIEW OF NATURE.
FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF
YOUNG PERSONS.
IX TWO VOLUMES.
WITH PLATES.
VOL. II.
LONDON:
PRINTED FOR ]. JOHNSON,
NO. 72, ST. Pauls church-yard ;
V EVE AND LAW, ST. JOHNS SQUARE, CLERKENWt.il,. 1801.


X


MAMMALIA.
VOL. II.

OKNUS XVI.
VIVERRA.WEESEL.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Cutting-Tecth, fix, fharpijh: Canine-teetb two, longer, in each Jaw: Tongue in Jome fnooth, in others aculeatecl backwards : Body of a lengthened form.
r|THIS numerous genus has by Linnseus been divided into two genera, denominated Viverra, and Mujiela, the latter of which differs from the former in having two of the front teeth placed out of the line of the red, more interiorly. It feems unneceflary, however, from fuch a minute diftinc-tion to break a natural family ; we have therefore followed Mr. Pennant and Dr. Shaw in making but one genus of the Weefel tribe, detaching from vol. n. B it


[ 2 1
it the Otters, which Linn^us had placed among the Muftelas, though of a very different nature.
The Weefel tribe confifts of carnivorous animals of the fmaller fize, flender, adtive, limber, cunning, enterprifmg, and capable of fubduing much larger animals than themfelves. They have a fharp vifage, fhort legs, and generally longifh tails. Their bite is very keen, and they always fuck the blood of their prey before they eat the fiefh. They are very murderous, killing all within their reach when they fall in with plenty ; but they can live a long time without food. ,A11 or ranll of them are furnifhed with fmall glands under the tail, which, exude an un&uous matter, that in fome fpecies is a perfume, in others the moft fetid fubftance in nature.
i. Viverra Ichneumon.Ichneumon.
This fpecies has bright flame-coloured eyes, fmall rounded and almoft naked ears, a long flender nofe, a body rather thicker than moft of the genus, a tail thick at the bafe, and gradually tapering to the extremity; Its hair is hard and coarfe, moitly of a pale reddifli-grey colour, mottled witltbtvwn or dufky; the throat and belly of an uniijb);tn brown. There are two varisti'cs of the Ichneumon, the Egyptian and-Indian, of which the former
is






[ 3 J
is confiderably the Iargeft. The Indian is called by Biiffon the Mangoujie.
The Ichneumon has from the earlieft times been famous for its ufe in deftroying vermin, fuch as Rats, Serpents, and other noxious creatures common in the hot climates, whence the fuperftitious Egyptians of old paid it divine worlhip. It was conlidered as the peculiar enemy of the Crocodile, whole eggs it diligently fought in the fand and broke. It is extremely agile in purfuit of its prey, fometimes gliding along the ground like a Snake, fo as tp make its approach unperceived ; fometimes making great bounds. In India it attacks without hefitation that' dreadful Serpent, the Cobra di Capello, anil readily mailers it, feizing it by the throat fo as to prevent its biting. The ufual refort of the Ichneumon is near the banks of livers, whence it retreats to the higher grounds in times of flood. It fwims and dives well, and can remain long underwater. This animal is eatily tamed, and 'is a common domcftic in India and Egypt, where it is preferred to the Cat for deflroy-ing Rats arid Mice. It is, however, a great eneitiy to poultry, which it will decoy within reach by-feigning itfelf dead. When' it lleeps, it draws its head and tail together under,the b.elly like a ball. It fits Up like a Squirrel to eat, holding its food with its lore-feet. The Ichneumon is found alfo B 2 in


[4 3-
in Barbary and at the Cape of Good Hope, and in various of the iflands as well as the continent of India. It cannot live in a cold climate.
2. Viverra Suricatta.Surikate.
This animal is diftinguifhed by a long (harp-pointed fnout, deprefled head, and fwollen cheeks, an upper jaw much longer than the lower, fmall rounded ears, eyes fnrrounded with black, a prickly tongue, and feet with only four toes. Its length, exclusive of the tail, is about a foot; the tail about eight inches, of a rufty colour, tippwi with black. The general colour of the body is a deep grey. It inhabits the ifland of Java, and the Cape of Good Hope. At the former the Dutch have named it, from an acid fcent it emits, SurikatjeSour-Cat. At the Cape it is called Meer-rat; and alfo, from a rattling noife it makes with its tail when pleafed, Klapper-maiu;. It preys on Mice and other vermin, particularly the Cock-roach. It is continually making a grunting noife, is much in motion, and often fits upright like a Squirrel.
3. Viverra Nasua.-Coati Mondi.
This fpecies refembles the former in having a long flexible fnout, with which it turns up the earth in quefl: of worms, like a Hog. It is of the fize of a Cat. Its general colour is a cinereous
brown


t V ] .
brown with a caft' of reddrfh. Its tail is long* and marked with black rings. It is a native of Brafil and Guiana, feeds on fruits, eggs, birds, and the fmaller quadrupeds, and climbs trees nimbly after its prey. It makes a fort of-whiffling noife; and fleeps much during the day. There is a variety of the Coati Mondi, of a browner colour, and without diftin£t rings on the tail, made by Linnaeus a different fpecies, under the Name of Viverra JVarica.
jv;vi4t Uyt'A i'jV.ii.'tiU 1 r "rT.
4. Viverra Vulpecula.Coasse.
5. Viverra Striata.Striated Weesei,
or Conepate.
ij ; *.f- i-
Thefe animals are natives of Mexico and othetr parts of America, and referable each other in fize, which is about that of an European Polecat, or eighteen inches in length ; and alfo in figure and properties. The Coaife is of a dark chocolate colour, With white in its tail. The Striated Weefel 'is diftinguifhed by five parallel white ftripes running down the back. Some have fuppofed it to be the female of the former. They are both remarkable for the horrid Vapo.tlr which ihe.y emit from behind "when irritated, which is fuch, that their purfuers, whether dogs ormen, are generally deterred frdni all nearer approach, and obliged to relinquifh the B 3 fpot.


[ 6 ]
fpot, If the leaft drop of the fluid, which the animals often difcharge at the fame time, fhould fall upon the cloaths of the hunter, he is rendered an intolerable nuifance wherever he appears, and cannot be reftored to fociety till he has thrown afide his drefs, and taken every poflible method to fweeten himfelf. Dogs that have been fo hardy as to perfevere and kill one of the animals, are rendered infuffer-able companions for many days. It is remarkable, however, that their flefli is good eating, refembling that of Pig ; and that they are fometimes kept tame_ in houfes, as they never emit their offenfive fcent but when injured or frighted. They breed in hollow trees, clefts of rocks, or holes under ground, and climb trees with great agility in purfuit of young birds, and to rob nefts of the eggs.
6. Viverra Mephitica.Chinche or Skunk.
This fpecies very nearly refembles the Striated, but is fomewhat fmaller. Its colour is a chocolate brown, with a broad bed of white on the back, divided by a {tripe of black. It inhabits the molt northern parts of America, and is equally notorious with the others for its bad fmell. Profeflor Kalm mentions that one of thefe, coming one night about a farm-houfe in Pennfylvania where he lodged, and being chaced by the dogs, left fuch a fcent behind
it
4


C 7 1
it that he was aim oft ftifled, arid the cattle roared with pain. Another, which was killed in the cellar by the fervant maid, infedted the provifions kept there fo that it was necefTary to throw them away, and the girl was made fick by it for feveral days.
7. Viverra Capensis.Cape Weesel.
This is a large fpecies, meafuring two feet from the nofe to the origin of the tail. Its colour is afh-grey above, and brownifh-black below, the two colours being feparated by a llripe of black and white. Its head is large, ears fcarcely vifible, fnout fhort and pointed, legs fhort, tail thick, body grofs. It confiderably refembles the Badger, and as it is alfo one of the fetid tribe, it has beeo called by the Dutch, Stinkbingfem, by the French, Blaireau puant, both fignifying Stinking Badger. Its hair .is ftifl', and its hide fo tough, that Dogs cannot make any impreflion upon it. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope.
It appears uncertain whether the Ratel of Sparrman, or Honey Weesel, alfo found at the Cape, is the fame with the above, or a different fpecies. This is a great devourer of the honey of wild Bees, to the ncfts of which it is faid to be directed by the cry of a bird called Cuculus Indicator, or Honey guide Cuckoo, which feeds on the Bees. Their nefts are generally in the deferted
burrows


i -s ]
burrows of animals, which the Ratel, by means of its ftroiig claws, tears open. The Ratel cannot climb, and is faid to gnaw through vexation the bark at the bottom of trees which have Bees nefts; by which mark the Hottentots difcover them.
8. Viverra Civetta.Civet,
If fome of the preceding fpecies o'ffend us by their ill fcent, the Civet makes amends by affording a precious perfume. This animal, ufiially calldd'a Civet Cat, is about the fixe of a Cat, but fufficiently diftinguifhed from it by its long fharp head, fhort rounded ears, and general vveefel-fonn. Its ground-colour is yellotvifh afh-grey, which is marked with large dufky fpots, difpofed irt rcVws on each fide, with fometimes a tin&ure of ruft-colouh Its hair is coarfe, and ftands up on the back fo as to form a fhort man£. Its face is light*coloured above, black below, and from each ear three black ftripes run to the neck arid fhoulders. IlStail is chiefly black. The Civet'inhabits feveral pai'ts of Africa arid India. It is 6f a favage nature, and preys on birds arid fmall quadrupeds like others of tKe gerius.
The perfume called Civet was' fcit'merly Relieved to be the fweat of this animal; but it is now f6und "to be an exudation from certain glands into a doublfe
receptacle




C 9 ]
receptacle fituated beneath the tail. When Civets are kept in confinement by the perfumers, they are occafionally placed in wooden cages fo narrow that they cannot turn round, and the perfuming matter is fcraped out of the bags by a fmall fpoon. This is commonly done twice a week, and the quantity yielded at each operation is about a dram. It is of a yellowifh colour, of the confidence of ointment, and its fmell when frefh is fo ftrong as to be unpleafant. The males yield the mod, and the quantity is increafed by teaming and irritating them. The Civet is now only ufed as a perfume. It is extremely fragrant.
Mod: modern naturalifts have made a feparatc fpecies of what they call the Zibet, an animal very nearly refembling the former in all refpecls, except that it has a fomewhat iharper fnout, a longer tail marked with alternate black and white bars, and neither mane on the back, nor black marks under the eyes. Its hair is fofter, and its variegations more like ftreaks. It is found only in India and the Indian illes.
9,. Viverra Genetta.Genet.
This is an elegant animal, of the fize of a very fmall Cat, but of a longer form, with a iharp fnout, upright flightly pointed ears, and a very long tail. Its colour is pale reddifh grey, with a
black


[ IO ] black line running down the back, and rows of roundifh black fpots on the fides. Benea'th each eye is a white fpot: the tail is variegated with black rings. It is one of the fragrant animals of this genus, and exhales a flight fmell of mufk. It is a gentle and cleanly creature, eafily tamed, and is fometimes kept in houfes like a Cat for the pur-pofe of clearing them from Mice and Rats. It is a native of Turkey, Syria, and fome parts of the fouth of Europe ; and in a natural ftate frequents the banks of rivers.
10. Viverra Fossa.Fossane.
This can Tea reel y by defcription be didinguifhed from the Genet, from which it chiefly differs in being marked with bolder and more contrafted colours, probably becaufe it is a native of warmer Climates, being found in Guinea, Madagafcar, Bengal, Cochinchina, and the Philippine Ifles. It is likewife more fierce and more difficultly tamed than the former. It is deftru&ive to poultry, and is very greedy of palm-wine.
There are various other fpecies of the Weefd tribe in the hot climates, which are little known, but which more or Lefs referable fome of thbfee already defcribcd.
We fhall now proceed to thofe of our own and of other northern countries, with which we ara better acquainted.
*i. Viverra


C xi ]
ii. Viverra Toina.Martin.
This is an elegant animal, of confiderable fize, being about a foot and a half from nofe to tail; ^ the tail ten inches. Its colour is blackifh-tawny, .with a white throat, and a dufky-brown belly. It has rounded ears, lively eyes, and. a bufliy tail,
darker in colour than the body. Its feet are broad, and covered at the bottom with a thick down. The Martin is a native of moft parts, of Europe. It lives chiefly in woods, breeds in hollow trees, and fometimes in -winter takes fhelter in'Magpies nefts. It brings, forth froqi four to, fix young at a litter. It is nimble and aftive, preying upon poultry, game, and fuch other animals as it can catch. I t-may be tamed, and made to ferve the pur.pofes of a Cat; but it is prone to regain its liberty, and return to the woods. Its fkin has a mu£ky fmell, andraffords a valuable fur.
12. Viverra Martes.Pine Martin. :
This fpecies is fcarcely diftinguifhable from the farmer except by the yellow hue of its rthroat and brcaft, whjoh xpntr^ftjflg with the deep chefnut co-lour p^H^ body, jpakp? r\,ft,liking and beautiful appearance. It frequents deep forelts, efpecially tlipfe of pine, and never quits them to approach houfes, like the common Martin. It has an agree-i able


[ 12 J
able mulky fmell; and its fur is finer and of greater value than that of the former. It is a rare fpecies in Great Britain, but is very common in fome of the woody countries of the continent. In North America it fo much abounds, that between forty and fifty thoufand of the fkins have been brought over from Canada and Htidfons Bay in one year. The fined furs of this animal are faid to come from the region of Mount Caucafus: in thefe, the throat is of an orange colour.
13. VlVfeRRA ZlBELUNA'.SABLE.
The Sable has a great refemblance to the Martin in fize and form, but has a fharper head and longer ears. Its general hue is a deep gloffy brown, each hair being a(h-coloured at the root and black at the tip: its chin is whitifli, and the edges of the ears yellowifh. Sometimes the whole fkin is of a fnowy whitenefs. A fpecific didinftion between the Martin and Sable is, that the tail of the former is much longer than the hind legs; that of the latter, fliorter. The Sable is exclufively an inhabitant of very cold climatcs, particularly Siberia, Kamtfhatka, and mod of the north-eaftern parts of Afia. It is alfo found in North America. It lives in holes under ground, or among the roots of trees, and fometimes makes its ned in the branches. It is nimble and adlivej efpecially during the night,
its


r *3 ]
its feafon of preying, but fleeps much in the day. During fummer it feeds on fmaller quadrupeds, particularly on Hares; in autumn, on berries ; and in winter on birds. The female brings forth in-fpring, from three to five young at a time.
The fur of the Sable is the moft valuable commodity of the defolate regions which produce it; whence the chace of this aminal has been made an objeft of great importance, and was once the moft laborious occupation of the wretched exiles to Siberia, who were condemned to furnifh a certain annual number. At prefent, the deflrudlion made of them in that diftrid has rendered it neceflary to carry on the chace further to the eaftward. The hunters form themfelves jnto troops, which are fubdivided into fmaller parties, each provided with a boat, a dog, a net, and a quantity of provifions, with which they penetrate into the moft remote and unfrequented forefts. There they build huts and pafs the winter, employed in catching Sables ; which is .done either in a kind of pitfal covered with a loofe board baited with fifh or flefh ; or by tracking them over the fnow to their holes, at the cptrance of which a net is fpread to entangle them as they come out. In this dreary fituation the hunters often endure extreme hunger from the failure of their provifions ; yet the hopes of gain, and the natural love of the chace, induce many vol. n. C perfons


t ** 1
perfons annually to become adventurers. It is al-nioft peculiar to the Sable fur, that it's hair will lie equally fmooth in any direction. The1 darker Iking are the moft valuable. Thofe' of America' are coarfer than the Afiatic.
1$. Vl]VERRA- PUTORIUS.POLECAT.
This animal, called alfo the Fi/cbef, and the foumart, (Foul or Fetid'Martin), is about feventeeri inches in length, exclufive of the tail, which is fix inches. Its general colour is a very deep blackifli-brown, or chocolate, With a flight tawny caft on the fides. The ears are edged with white, and it has a whitifli fpace about the muzzle. It has the form of the Martin, is ftrong and a£tive, and will make great fprings in attacking its prey or efcaping from danger, at which time it arches its back greatly. It runs faff, with its belly almoft to the ground, and can fcramble up a wall with great agility. The Polecat is proverbially noted for it: ofFenfive fmell; but it does not appear that, like fome of the tribe before-mentioned, it emits its fcent in a peculiar degree by way of defence. It is a native of moft parts of Europe, and of finite of the northern Afiatic regions. It generally makes a fubterraneous habitation, often terminating under the roots of a large tree; but fometimes it burrows under hay-ricks or in barns. Thence it
carries




[ 15 1
.carries on its depredations, which are very extep-five. ;It will (teal into the hen-coop or pigeop-houfe, and biting off the heads pf all it can meet with, will fuck the blood, and afterwards carry off the bodies to,)t$ retreat. It will vifit the dairy to fip the milk; break and fuck eggs; and has been known to attack the bee-hives in winter for their honey. During fumnjer it frequents rabbit-warrens, where it makes great havock, b^ing able to enter all the recedes made by that animal. It alfo hunts ;game, ypurjg birds, rats and mice. Sometimes it takes up its relidence in the hollow .banks of rivers, and preys upon ,fi(h ; and an in-ftance is related in which a Polecat was found,to have conveyed a number pf,large eels to its.hol/e, in a fall of fnow. The. female breeds in the fpring, producing three or four at a birth, which it fuckles but .a (hort time, enuring them early to drink the Jblopd of its prey. The {kin is drelied by furriers, fo as not to be offenfive by its fmell.
15. Viverra Furo.Ferret.
This fpecies refembles the Polecat in form, but is fmaller, being in length about fourteen inches from nofe to tail. Its eyes are red and fiery; its ears round ; its fnout very {harp ; the, colour of, ys body a very pale brownifh-yellow. It is ? native of Africa; and is only known in ;Europe in a dp-C 2 meftic


[.i6 ]
meftic ftate. The purpofe for which it is kept with us, is that of chacing rabbits, to which animal it feems a natural foe, flying upon it with great fury the firft time one is preferred to it. The Ferret is turned into a rabbit-burrow always muzzled, the intention being not that it fhould kill them, but drive them out into nets placed over the holes of entrance. If the Ferret chances to get xid of his muzzle, he is often loft ; for, after fucking the blood of a rabbit, he falls afleep, and cannot be got out again. He then continues to carry on his depredations in the warren as long as the warm weather lafts, and dies of cold in the winter. The Ferret fleeps much, but when awake is lively, refUefs, and irritable. It has the bad fmell of the Polecat, efpecially when provoked. It breeds in this climate, producing from five to nine young; but it is apt to degenerate in a domeflic ftate, and lofe its favage nature. The warreric'rs therefore fometimes procure a mixture between the female Ferret and the Polecat. The progeny is much darker than the Ferret.
16. Viverra Vulgaris.Common Weesel.
This animal, which gives name to the tribe, is one of the fmalleft, but with us the moft common. Its length to the tail does not exceed feven inches ; that of the tail is about two and a half. It has
fmall


I M ]p
fmall rounded -ears and black ey<^s: the colo.ur pf the whole upper part, of the body andrhead is a. pale reddifh- brown ; of the whole under fide, white: it has a brown fpot beneath each-corner of the -rpouth. The .Weefel is,,na£ujally-an jy^ab.itant of ,-banks near rivulets, and holes at the-raots of trees, tphepce it Tallies o,ut ^pqn :i$s prey, which ,are young birds, ,apd particularly field-mice. ,It will ,.-eyen attack fome animals-mpch fuper^r in fize ,to itfelf, fuch as ,young. rabbits and hares, .which,,it matters by means of its; great, agility. 11 frequently jreforits torjbar.ns and granaries, where it performs :good-fervice,in hupting mice ,^nd rats,, which it purfues ipto .their hples; for the flendernefs ^ijid extreme .flexibility of its body enable it ,to en^r ;almo(t any cavity. Ifs benefits, however, ,ftre ;;fme>yhat cpmpenfated hy. jthe dgftruftion it.^nakes apioiig-jpflpljfy, and tfieir eggs. If runs, up .wp,l!s i with great e^fe, fo that it is difficult to plpcc any thing put pf its reach. The female produce^ (opr or;five,:youogj at ,a t^pje, for which it njakes,a bpd of mofs or grafs. She will, carry her young in Iver mopth.frpfn.^ace ,to place, (if djftytbed. The Weefcl. is. a.wjld and r,chiefs,npiipal, yet tjiprc. ye inftapces of their, being tajjj^d .\vhen taken y(ppng, in which cafe th?y, have_bcj:ome ex^tjriely playful and carefling. It has the rank fmell belonging to'
: v C 3 many


[ -S 3
many of the tribe. In the northern region?, Weefels turn white during winter.
17. Viverra Erminea.Stoat.
In colour and general appearance this fpecies much refembles the Weefel, but is confiderably larger, meafuring ten inches from nofe to tail. It is a native of the northern parts of Europe and Afia, and in cold countries becomes entirely of a pure white in winter, when it is called the Ermine. Even in England it is fometimes found white, and fometimes mottled with brown and white: but whatever be its colour in other parts, the tip of the tail is always black. It refembles the Weefel in abode and manner of living, except that it does not frequent buildings. The fkins of the white Stoats or Ermines are a confiderable article of trade in the northern countries. The animals are either fliot with blunt arrows, or taken in traps formed of two flat ftones, by the fall of which, when the bait is pulled, they are killed without injuring the fldn.
It is unneceflary to defcribe any more of this very numerous family, fpecies of which are found in all parts of the world, but generally clofely rc-fembling fome of thofe already enumerated.
GENUS




C *9 ]
GENUS XVII.
LUTRA.OTTER
GENERIC CHARACTER. Teeth as tn the pre-ceding Genus. Feet webbed.
i. Lutra Vulgaris.Common Otter.
THE Otter has a flat broad head ; fhort ears ; "brilliant eyes placed fo as to fee every thing above it; very thick lips; a fmall mouth, with large whifkers, and very flrong teeth ; thick neck ; fhort thick legs, capable of being brought on a line with the body, and ferving the ptirpofe of fins; feet naked, with broad ftrong webs between the toes, which are five in number. Its ufual length is nearly two feet from nofe to tail, which lad is fixteen inches. Its colour is a deep brown, with a whitifh fpot on each fide the nofe, and another beneath the chin. It is an inhabitant of almoft every part of Europe, and of the northern parts of Afia, and North America. The Otter makes his refidence on the bank of a river or lake, forming a burrow, the entrance of which is under water, and which has feveral holts or lodges as it afcends, in order to afford a dry place in cafe of floods: it has only a fmall hole above for the admiflion of air, and even
this,


[ too Q
this, for concealment, ufually opens in the midft of a thick bulh. .From this fortrefs he fallies out upon his prey, which is principally fifh ; and by the eafe and ttrength with which he dives and fwims, he is enabled to make great deftrudlion among them. When they fail, he will prey on land upon fmall quadrupeds and poultry. He fometimes gnaws the bark and twigs of young trees. The female produces four or five young at a litter, early in the fpring. Otters when taken young may be trained to fifli for their matter, and be rendered very valuable domeftics. A man near Invernefs kept one which would fometimes take eight or ten falmon in a day. As foon as it had brought one to its matter, it immedialely dived in putfuit of more, till it was tired, when it.refufed to fifh any longer. It was then rewarded with as much fifh as it could-devour, after which -it- curled itfelf round and went to flecp. It would fifh in the fea, near to the fhore, as well as in frefh water. Though fo greedy of' fifh, the Otter will not touch them except when quite frefh, and generally leaves the tail part. On account of their great depredations, Otters have been an objedl of the chace, as deftru&ive animals. The chace is alfo amufifig from its Angularity. When the haunt of the Otter is difcovered, he is compelled to take the water, where he is purfued by water-dogs, .while
men




[ 3
men with fpears go on the bank to difpatch him when he lands. He defends himfelf with great obftinacy from the dogs, and will bite very feverely, fo as to make his teeth meet. He holds out to the laft gafp, and dies without a complaint. The flefli of the Otter is rank and fifhy.
2. Lutra Lutreola.Smaller Otter.
This fpecies much refembles the former, but is not half its fize, meafuring no more than one foot. In form it feems alfo to approach nearer the Weefels, and it has their offenfive fmell. Its colour is dufky with a caft of tawny; its chin and throat white. Its feet are broad, webbed, but not naked, as in the common Otter. It inhabits Poland, Lithuania, 'Ruflia, and Siberia, and alfo North America, where it is called the Minx. In that country it feems to be larger; and it will de-fert its watery haunts to prey on poultry, which it kills in the manner of .the Polecat. Its fur is very Valuable.
i 3. Lutra Marina.Sfa Otter.
This fpecies has of late come peculiarly into notice, on account of the value of its fur as an article of commerce. It is the larged of the genus, meafuring three feet from nofe to tail, with a tail of thirteen inchcs, and weighing fevcnty or eighty
pounds.


I 22 J
pounds. The general appearance of this animal approaches that of ithe Seal tribe. Its head-is broad and blunt; ears ere£t, fmall, and fharpifh ; body .round and fhapelefs; fore-legs thick, and furnifhed with four toes covered with hair and webbed; hind-feet much refembling thofe of a Seal, the toes being connedted by a ftrong membrane, with a fkin fkirting the outer toe. The tail is broad, flattened, and pointed at the end. The colour of the whole body is a deep glofl'y brownifh-black, with a filverycaft on the forehead. Thetfur is extremely foft and fine, with thick,long hair externally, and a down beneath ; they have been fold at from 14I. to 25I. fterling each. The Sea Otter is evidently calculated for a maritime life. It fwims excellently in all poflures, and frequents the fhallows abounding with fea weeds, where it feeds on lobfters, fhell-fifh, and other cruftaeeous animals, which its broad grinders are .well adapted for breaking. They are gentle and fportive, frequently embracing and even killing each other, ..and fondling and playing with their yonng, to which they are moft affe&ionately attached. The female is fuppofcd to bring forth only one at a birth, on land, which it fuckles for a year, and carries about^both on fhore and to fea. The young are delicate food, refembling lamb.
Sea Otters are very local animals, being found, only
in


I 23 ]
In Kamtfhatka, Berings, the Aleutian, and the Fox Iflands, and in general ctn the fhores and in the ifles of the fea between Afia and America, between lat 44 and- 60 N. They were at firft extremely numerous, but have been thinned by the many Hunting parties which have gone in queft of-fo valuable a ptey. They are either taken* in nets, or killed'with clubs and'fpears.
Other fpecies of Otters are met with in different parts of the globe, which differ in refpedt to fize and fhape, but refemble in their amphibious mode of living. The Braftlian is one of the largeft, equalling a middling dog.
OENUS


C 24 ]
GENUS XVIII.
URSUS.BEAR.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth, fix above and below, the two lateral ones of the lower jaw longer than the rejl and lobed, with fmaller or fecon-dary teeth at their internal bafes: Canine-teeth folitary: Grinders five or fix on each fide : Tongue fmooth: Snout prominent: Eyes furnijhed with a nictitating membrane.
i. Ursus Arctos.Common Bear.
THE Bear has a long head ; fmall eyes ; fhort rounded ears; ftrong, thick, clumfy limbs; a very fhort tail; and large feet. His body is covered with long fhaggy hair, which, together with his clumfy form, gives him a very uncouth appearance. In walking, he refts upon the hind-feet as far as the heel. The colour of the common Bear is various. The principal varieties are brown and black, which conflitute two different breeds of this animal, the brown being larger and more carnivorous; the black, fmaller, and living almofl folely upon vegetable food. In the mountains of Tartary fome are found of a pure white ; in Norway fome arc greyifh, from a mixture of white hairs. The 5 Bear


[ 25 ]
Bear is a native of mofl: of the northern countries of Europe and Afia, and is even found in Arabia, and in fome of the Indian iflunds. He is a favage folitary animal,- inhabiting the recelfes of thick forefts, or the clefts and caverns of mountains, in which he makes his den. Sometimes he takes tip his abode in the hollow of a large tree, for he is expert at climbing. From his bulk and powers of mifchief he is reckoned among the more formidable wild beafts, yet he is feldom dangerous to man unlefs provoked. Infighting, Bears (trike with their fore-foot like a cat; and rifing on their hind legs, hug or fqueeze their antagonift till they have ftifled him. They feldom ufe their teeth in battle, but often bite a hole in their prey and fuck the blood, like the weefel tribe.- The brown Bear when preffed with hunger is deftru&ive to the domeftic animals of the farmer; but from the flownefs of his motions, is incapable of catching much wild game. He often makes havock among the fields of peafe and other cultivated vegetables, and will fometimes plunder the ricks in the farm yard. s3ears are very fond of honey, and often rob th In the latter end of autumn the Bears retire to their dens, where they pafs great part of the cold vol. ii. D fcafon


[ 26 3
feafon in repofe and abftinence. They enter their retreat very fat; and it is upon this fuperfluity of fat that their body is fullained during the period of -fading, for they lay up no provifion of food. It is faid that they fuck their paws, which abound with an unftuous and flimy juice. They come out very lean and ravenous; and in long winters are forced abroad by hunger before the cold weather ceafes. The females retreat earlier than the males in order to bring forth their young, which are commonly two in number. Thefe were fuppofed by the ancients to be mere fhapelefs mafles, which the parent afterwards licked into form ; but it is now known that the cubs of the Bear are not more incomplete in their figure than the young of other animals. They are born blind, and continue fo for nearly a month. Bears when fat are reckoned excellent food, particularly the young ones. The fat is alfo edeemed as an application for drains and old pains, and for promoting the growth of hair. The lkin makes a very warm and comfortable fur.
The Bear is an animal frequently tamed, and led about as a (hew, when it diverts the populace by its awkward imitation of dancing, and other gedures performed at the word of command. But it goes through its exercifes unwillingly, and with many growls and angry murmurs j its obedience is
all




C 27 ]
all the effefl of feverity, and its tamenefsis never to be trufted without caution. It bears in mind the ill treatment it receives, and is ever on the watch to revenge it.
The American Black Bear is now generally considered as a diftinft fpecies from the European, though the refemblance between the two is much greater than the difference. It has a long pointed nofe, a narrow forehead, cheeks and throat of a yellowifh brown, but the hair on the body and limbs of a glofly black, and lhorter and fmoother than that of the European kind. It is alfo faid abfolutely to rejeiS animal food, even when prefled by hunger ; but occafionally to eat fifh. It inhabits all the northern parts of North America, from which it fometimes roams to the fouthern in quefk of food. It is the moft important object of the chace to the native Indian tribes, who rcckon its flefh the greateft of delicacies.
2. Urstjs Maritimds.Polar Bear.
This fpecies, alfo called the White Bear, has a head and neck of a more lengthened form than the common Bear, and a proportionally longer body. It has fmall rounded ears, fmall eyes,, and extremely large ftrong teeth. Its hair is long, and univerfally of a white colour tinged in fome parts with yellow: the tip of the nofe and the claws are D X jet


{ 28 ]
jet black. It is a very lar-ge animal, fometifties reaching the length of twelve or thirteen feet. Its limbs are very (tout, and its ftrength prodigious. It is an inhabitant only of the coldeft regions of the globe, fuch as the lhores of Hudfons Bay, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, Nova Zembla, and the coaft of Siberia. Sometimes they have beet wafted on ice iflands to Norway and Iceland.
The Polar Bear is carnivorous, preying on fifh feals, the carcaffes of whales, and fuch land animals as it is able to catch. It is extremely ferocious, and has not the leaft fear of men, whom it attacks with great courage when they land on thofe defolate coafts, and frequently carries off from the midft of their companions. Bears have even b en known to fwim to veffels at a diflance from fhore, and board them, in order to make prey of the crew. In Greenland, they fometimes endeavour to break into the dwellings of the natives. They have little dread of fire-arms; but it is faid that they are repelled by the fmell of burnt feathers. In fum-mer they refide chiefly among the ice iflands, fwimming from one to another in purfuit of the feals, in which exercife, and in diving, they dif-play great agility. During winter they retire to deep beds made beneath the fnow, or caverns in the fixed ice, where they pafs the difmal feafon in a torpid ftate. The females bring forth ufually.
two


[ 29 J
two cubs at a time, to wh:eh they fhew the moft: affeftionate attachment. The following very ftriking relation to that purpofe is given in Phippss Voyage towards the North Pole. A fhe-bear and two cubs nearly as large as herfelf were feen one morning approaching faft over the ice, allured by the fcent of fome fea-horfe blubber which had been left burning there. They ran eagerly to the fire, and drew out from the flames part of the flefh that remained unconfumedr and ate it voracioufly. The crew from the fhip threw out great lumps of the flefh upon the ice, which the old Bear fetched away fingly, laid every lump before her cubs as fhe brought it, and dividing it, gave each a fhare,. re-ferving but a fmall portion to herfelf. As fhe was fetching away the laft piece, they levelled their mufkets at the cubs, and fhot them both dead ; and in her retreat they wounded the dam, but not mortally. It would have drawn tears of pity from any but unfeeling minds^ to have marked the affectionate concern exprefled by this poor beaft, in the 1'afl: moments of her expiring young. Though fhe was forely wounded,, and could but juft. crawl to the place where they lay, fhe carried the lump of flefh fhe had fetched away, as fhe had done others before, tore it in pieces, and laid it down before them ; and when fhe faw that they refufed to eat,, file laid her paws firft upon one, and then upon D 3 the


C 30 J
the other, and endeavoured to raife them up : all this while it was pitiful to hear her moan. When ihe found'(he could not ftir them, (he went off; and when (he had gotten at lome diftance, looked back and moaned ; and that not availing her to entice them away, (he returned, and fmelling round them, began to lick their wounds. She went off a fecond time, and having crawled a few paces, looked again behind her, and for fome time (tood moaning. She then returned to her cubs, and with figns of inexpreflible fondnefs,- went round one, and round the other, pawing them and moaning. Finding at lad that they were cold and lifelefs, fhe raifed her head towards the (hip, and growled a curfe upon the murderers, which they returned with a volley of tnufket balls. She fell between her cubs, and died, licking their wounds.
White Bears become exceedingly fat: their fat is melted for train oil. Their flelh is white, but coarfe. Their (kin makes a warm clothing ; and the fplit tendons are ufed by the Greenlanders for thread. Thofe which have been exhibited here as a (how have appeared untameable, roaring loud, and in continual agitation, and never eafy except when pails full of cold water were poured upon them.
3. Ursus


[ 31 2'
3. Ursus Gulo.Glutton.
This is a carnivorous animal, larger than a Badger, being fometimes a yard in length from nofe to tail, with a tail about a foot long. It has a round head, thick blunt nofe, fhort ears, and ftrong limbs. The top of the head and w'f^ole length of the back are of a black-brown ; along the fides it has a ferruginous tinge, forming a kind of broad band : but the colours vary in different individuals. The fur is gloffy, and is finely da-mafked or watered like a filk. The Glutton has taken its name from its voracity. It jireys both upon frefh game and carrion, and has been known, when kept confined, to eat thirteen pounds of flefh in a day. It attacks deer, fmall quadrupeds, and birds, and will even deftroy the larger cattle by dropping on them from the bough of a tree as they pafs beneath, and fucking their blood till they fall. It is equally fierce and ftrong, and will difpute its prey with the Wolf and Bear. It has the offenfive fmell of the Weefel tribe, which in feveral refpedls it refembles. It breeds once a year, producing from two to four young ones. The fur is valuable, and is much ufed for muffs, linings, &c. The Glutton does not retreat in the winter, like the Bear,
The


C 32 ]
The Wolverene, Quickhatch, or Car-cajou of America, (Ursus Luscus) feems to be only a variety of the above, differing chiefly in having the lateral band of an afh-colour, inftead of ferruginous. It is alfo fome what fmaller. In fome parts it is called the Beaver-catcr, from its habit of breaking into the houfes of thofe induf-trious animals and devouring them. It is alfo very deftru&ive to deer, on which it drops as they pafs, and no efforts of the animal in rufhing among the thick boughs can (hake it off. It is not uncommon to find pieces of the fkin of the Wolverene flicking to the trees in the forefts.
4. Ursus Lotor.Raccoon.
This agile, fportive, and familiar animal has little general refemblance to the others of the genus in which it is placed. It is two feet in length from nofe to tail, which laft part is about half as long, bufhy, tapering, and annnlated with black bars. Its vifage is fharp, like that of a Fox its eyes large, ears fhort; the upper jaw longer than the lower; body broad ; back arched ; limbs rather (hort. It is covered with thick long hair,, generally of a dark grey: the face is white, with a black band acrofs the eyes. The feet are dufky, and have five toes each, furnifhed with very fharp claws. The Raccoon is a native of the warm and
temperate




[ 33 J
temperate parts of America, as well the iflands as the continent. It feeds on maize, fugar-canes, various kinds of fruit, birds and their eggs. It is extremely fond of all fweet things, and of ftrong liquors; will deftroy poultry ; and at low water will go down to the ftiore and Catch oyflers, which it dextroufly picks out of the fhells when they open ; but it fometimes is held faft by the paw and drowned. It has the cunning of a Fox, and the curiofity and mifchievoufnefs of a Monkey. In eating, it generally fits on its hind legs, ufing its paws like hands. It dips dry food into water before eating it; but on the whole drinks little, and is a very cleanly animal. It is eafily tamed, and is often kept in houfes like a cat; being amufing from its playfulnefs, but capricious and eafily offended. The Raccoon has an oblique gait in walking, leaps and climbs well, and afcends trees. It inhabits the hollows of trees in a wild ftate, and preys chiefly by night. In winter and very bad weather it keeps altogether in its hole. Its voice when angry is a hoarfe bark ; at other times fmall and (harp. The female produces two or three young at a birth, commonly in the month of May; The fur of the Raccoon is ufed by halters, and valued by them next to Beaver.
5. Ursus


[ 34 ]
5. Ursus Meles.Badger.
This is an animal of a clumfy form, thicknecked, thick-bodied, with very Ihort legs. Its length is about two feet from nofe to tail; the latter, fix inches. It is covered with long rough hair, of an uniform greyifh colour on the upper parts, black on the throat, bread, belly and legs. The face is white, but a band of black runs along each fide of the head, including the eyes and ears. It has fmall eyes, and fhort rounded ears. Its teeth are very ftrong, and the claws on the forefeet very long and (Iraight. Under the tail there is a tranfverfe orifice, whence exudes a fetid white matter. The Badger is a native of all the temperate climates of Europe and Afia. It is a retired animal, refiding in a hole under ground formed into feveral apartments, in which ic paffes the day in fleep; by night it comes forth for food, which confifts chiefly of roots and fruits, infe&s, worms,, and frogs. The Fox will fometimes, in the. Badgers abfence, take poffeffion of its hole, and by defiling it render it untenable by its lawful proprietor, which is remarkably cleanly. The Badger, like the Bear, fleeps much in winter, in a half-torpid ftate. Though an inoffenfive creature, it is capable of making a very vigorous refiftance to an attack, as is Ihewn in the inhuman fport of baiting
it




C 35 3 .
it with dogs. His bite is very keen, and his (kin is fo thick and loofe that it is difficult to inflidt a wound upon him. The female produces three or four young at a litter, and in providing for them is faid to prey upon animals which do not feem to be the ufual food of the Badger, fuch as young rabbets, which (he drags out of their burrows.
Badgers are ufually fat, and their flelh is good to eat, particularly the hams, cured like bacon. The ftin, d re (Ted with the hair on, is ufed for piftol furniture; and the hairs furnifh painters with brufhes which they call foftening or fweeten-ing tools.
The American Badger feems to be little more than a variety of the preceding fpecies, differing from it only in being fomewhat lefs, and in general of a paler hue. There is alfo an Indian Badger, little known, but feeming nearly to approach the Weefel tribe.
genus


[ 36 J
GENUS XIX.
DIDELPHIS.OPOSSUM.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth /mall, rounded; ten above, the two middle ones longer ; eight below, the two middle ones broader and very Jhort: Canine-teeth long: Grind-rs denticulated: Tongue edged with papilla: An Abdominal Pouch [in mojlJpecies) containing the teats.
THIS lingular genus of animals became firft known on the difcovery of America, and was fup-pofed to be peculiar to that part of the globe, but has fince been found in'various other parts. It is chiefly remarkable for the pouch or bag under the belly of the female, in moft fpecies, which ferves for a temporary habitation, or a place of refuge for the young, after they have left their original abode in the womb. The fpecies of this genus are numerous, and not yet perfectly difcriminated. We fliall defcribe only fome of the moft remarkable.
i. Didelphis Virginiana.Virginian Opossum.
This fpecies is nearly the fize of a cat, but of a thicker form, owing to its long and upright hair.
It
9


ty J-tJbl,a aWdJi/mSM.


C 37 1
It has a long (harpened vifage, and very wide mouth: its ears are thin, naked and round: its legs fhort; feet with five toes each furnifhed with (harp claws; but the interior toes of the hind feet have flat nails like thofe of the monkey tribe. The tail is covered with hair at the beginning, but thence to the end is naked and fc'aly much re fe rn -bling a.fnake, and pofleffes the power of ftrongly laying hold on any objedl by coiling round it. The general colour of the animal is a dingy yellowifli white ; the belly white ; the legs and hairy part of the tail blackiih. The female is provided with a large pouch beneath the belly, in which the young 'are placed immediately after they are born, when

[ 38 ]
dead. It is as tenacious of life as a cat. Its dif-pofition is gentle; its voice a grunting fqueak; ancl its fmell difagreeable. The flefh is good to eat, and refembles pig. The Indian women dye the hair and weave it into garters and girdles.
2. Didelphis Marsupialis.Molucca
Opossum.
This is a larger fpecies than the former, and of a (lenderer form. Its colour is a moderately deep brown, paler beneath. Its ears are fomewhat longer and lefs rounded than thofe of the Virginian : in other refpefls there is a great refemblance between the two. This is a native of the Eaft India Iflands, and is particularly numerous in Aroe and Solor, whence it is callcd the Aroe Rabbet. It alfo occurs in Surinam and other hot regions of South America. It is reckoned very delicate eating, and in India is reared for the table, along with rabbets. A larger variety of this fpecies is met with in Ambqyna.
3. Didelphis OrientalisePhalanger.
This is the fize of a very large rat. It has fhort hairy ears, a thick muzzle, and but two cutting, teeth in the lower jaw. Its colour is reddifh-grey above, yellowifh-white beneath, with a blackifli line from the top of its head down its back. In
voice


[ 39 J
voice and attitudes it refembles a Squirrel. It is a native of the Molucca Iilands.
a.. Didelphis Murina.Murine Opossum,
I
This is a fmall fpecies, meafuring only fix or eight inches from nole to tail. It has long broad ears, a fharp vifage, and fcaly tail. Its eyes are encircled with black : its general colour is tawny-brown above, and whitiih beneath. It has no abdominal pouch, but a kind of furrow or fold, within which the teats are fituated. To thefe, the young, which are ten or more in number, adhere as foon as born, and hang at them like inanimate things, till tlK-y have attained growth to enable them to run about.
5. Didelphis Dorsigera.Merian Opossum.
Madame Merian, the celebrated painter of na~ tural hiftory, has given name to this curious fpecies, the female of which ihe has reprefented in' a plate, carrying fix young ones on its back, each' having its tail tvvifted round that of the parent. She calls it a kind of Wood-Rat, and it feems' much to refemble the laft fpecies.
6. Di-


[ 4o j
6. Didelphis Bruynii.Javan Opossum.
Of this, a figure is given by the traveller and painter Bruyn, who difcovered it fn the Ifle of Java. He reprefents it in a fitting pofture, like the Jerboa or Kanguroo, to which laft animal it is nearly allied, as well by its leaping pace, as by the form of its hind legs and feet, of which the two exterior toes are enclofed in a common Ikin. It has a large abdominal pouch. Its fize is about that of a hare.
7. Didelphis Lemurina.Lemurine Opossum.
This elegant fpecies, from New South Wales, is named from its general refemblance to the Ma-cauco family. It is equal in fize to a cat, but longer bodied. It has a fhort head, prominent' eyes, broad upright ears, and a long, thick, very furry tail. Its colour is a fine iron-grey above, and pale yellowifli brown beneath. Its fur is extremely thick and foft. It feeds on fmall birds and fruits, and holds its food in its forc-paws when eating.
8. Di.


C 41 ]
8. Didelphis Petaurus.Petaurine Opossum.
This fpecies, called the Great Flying OpofTnm of New Holland, is an animal of fingular beauty. Its body is about the fize of a fmall rabbet, and it. has the general appearance of a flying fquirrel. A membrane covered with fur ftretches from its fore to its hind legs on each fide, which, by its expan-Jion, enables it to fpring to a confiderablc diftance.. Its fur is extremely rich and fine; the colour, a fable or deep grey brown tinged with ferruginous above, and nearly white beneath. A darker ftripe runs the whole length of the back ; and the margin of the flying membrane is alfo dark, edged with white. The' tail, which is at leaf! as long as the head and body, is extremely full of long foft flocky hair, thus affifting the animals flight.
9. Didelphis Sciurea.Squirrel Opossum.
This is likewife a very beautiful animal from the fame country, greatly refembling a Squirrel, and in colour exactly like the American Grey Squirrel. Its large abdominal pouch, however, marks it to be an Opofliim. It has a fhort lateral membrane for the purpofe of flying, or rather, fpringing.
E 3 Its.


H #2 J
Its tail is full and prehenfile ; its fur wonderfully foft and delicate. It is a nocturnal animal, remaining torpid the greateft part of the day, but Very a£tive at night.
It feems as if the Opoffum chara&er was very general in the quadrupeds of New Holland, at lead in that part of it about the fettlement of New South Wales ; for various other fpecies have been difcovered, which from their refemblance to other animals, or fome particular circumftance in their form, have been named Viverrine, Vulpine, Porcu-line, ZJrJine, Long-tailed, Brujh-tailed, Pygmy, &c. Little being known of them but their figure, it is unneceflary here to give particular defcriptions of thefe fpecies.
ENUS


/u/.s>o
Published by J. Johnson. SFPtmls Church, lard Sep. utfoi


[ 43 ]
GENUS XX.
MACROPUS.KAN GUROO.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth in the upper jaw fix, notched; in the lower jaw, two, very large, long, Jharp, and pointing forwards : Grinders five on each fide in both jaws, dijlant from the other teeth : Fore-legs very Jhort: Hindlegs very long: an abdominal pouch in the female.
i. Macropus Major.Great Kanguroo.
The country of New Hblland, in which nature feems in many refpedts planned on a different fcale from that obferved in other parts of the world, has prefented fcarcely any objedt more worthy of the curiofity of the naturalift than the Kanguroo. A quadruped as large as a iheep, with its fore-parts totally difproportionate to its hind-parts, hopping on its hind-legs like a bird, and balancing itfelf by a vail tail, could not but appear a very extraordinary-light to thofe navigators who, with the celebrated Captain Cook, difcovered it in 1770.
The Kanguroo has a head fomewhat like that of a deer, a mild vifage, pretty large upright ars, large eyes, fmall mouth, and a ilender;
neck.


[ 44 1
neck. Its fore-legs are fo fhort as fcarcely to reach its nofe, and are ufelefs for walking: they have each five toes, with fliarp claws. The body thence enlarges gradually to the belly, which is large and convex ; below this it fomewhat decreafes to the tail. The thighs and hind legs are very long and bulky. The hind-feet have four toes, of which the two interior are united under a common Ikin, with their claws placed clofe together. The middle toe is much the largeft, and is armed with a claw of great fize and ftrength : the exterior toe alfo has a ftrong claw; and the whole foot has a refemblance to that of a bird. The animal refts upon the w'hole length of the foot, which is callous underneath. The tail is long and thick, tapering towards the point. The colour of the Kanguroo is an elegant pale brown, lighter on the belly.. The dimenfions of a full-grown one are about, eight feet from the tip of the nofe to the extremity of the tail, of which the tail itfelf is three feet and an inch. The weight of the largelt fpecimen yet found has been about a hundred and fifty pounds.
The Kanguroo feeds on vegetables, principally grafs. In a natural ftate they feed in herds ot thirty or forty together, ftationing one of the number upon the watch; for they are very timid, and at the leaft alarm, fpring away in vafl bounds,.flying over bufties fcven or eight feet in height.
They,


[ 45 ]
They ufe their fore-feet only for digging, or bringing food to their mouth. They have an a&ion of giving a violent kick with their hind-feet as they fpring; and they fometimes ufe their tail in defence, which is capable of giving a formidable blow. The female brings but one young at a time, which is extremely fmall, and immediately fattens it/elf to the teat in the pouch. There it continues till grown of a confiderable fize ; and it takes oc-cafional refuge in the pouch, after it is accuftomed to go abroad, and when fo large that its head and fore-feet hang out. The Kanguroos have bred in this country, and feem likely to become naturalized to the climate. Their flelh is good to eat, but is rather coarfe.
2. Macropus minor.Rat Kanishjroo.
This fpecies is about the fize of a Rabbet. Its head fomewhat refembles that of a Rat, whence its name. In (hape and proportions it is fimilar to the Great Kanguroo, but lefs elegant. Its hair, of a dufky cinereous brown, is coarfer than that of the former. In its teeth, and in the ftru&ure of its hind-feet, it nearly agrees with the great fpecies. Its fore-feet have only four toes. The female is furniflied with an abdominal pouch.
GENUS


[ 46 J
GENUS xxr.
TALPA.MOLE.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth in tht upper jaw, fix, unequal; in the lower jaw, eight; Canine-teeth one on each fide, the upper ones largejl: Grinders Jeven in the upper jaw j fix in the lower.
THIS genus of animals are diftingnifhed by obvious characters, fitting them for the fubter-raneous life which is allotted to them. Veryjmall, eyes, buried in the fur; no external ears; a long fnout; very broad ftrong fore-feet refembling hands, and fmall hind-feet; mark their capacity for digging in the earth, and making their principal abode-in it.
i. Talpa Europea.Common Mole.
This fpecies has a thick round body, to which the head is joined without any appearance of neck; a (lender but ftrong and tendinous fnout ; very fliort legs, fcarcely projecting from the body ; the fore-fcet very ftrong and broad, directed obliquely outwards, and furniflied with long and ftrong claws: its tail is fliort; its flcin very thick and tough, and covered
with




[ 47 1
with an extremely fine lhort fur, as foft as velvet, generally black, but fometimes fpotted with white, and now and then entirely white. Its length to the tail is about five inches and three quarters ; that of the tail, one inch. The eyes of the Mole are fo very fmall, that it is popularly reckoned blind ; and it requires the ufe of the microfcope to difcover the variety of humours and other parts in that organ, which however it really pofiefles. Its hearing is fuppofed to be exquifite, giving it notice of the moll; diftant approach of danger. Thus that accurate obferver of nature, Shakefpear, makes Caliban, in the Tempeft, fay,
Pray you tread foftly, that the blind Mole may not
* (< Hear a foot fall.*
The habitation of the Mole is under ground, into which it burrows with great celerity by means of its fore-feet; throwing back the loofe. foil with its hind-feet. In its dark element it purfues worms and infefts, its chief food, direfled by its fmell, which is very acute. It throws up the foil into hillocks, and does much damage in gardens and fields by loofening and devouring the roots of plants. It works mod before rain, and in winter before a thaw, which fets the worms in motion ; in dry weather it is obliged to penetrate deep, and therefore makes no hillocks. If it evei emerges to the
furface,


L 48 }
furface, the leaft alarm caufes it to plunge down again. When taken, it utters a fhrill fcream, and defends itfelf with teeth and claws. Moles often do much mifchief by penetrating the banks of dykes and canals, and letting out the water; but in that cafe they are brought into imminent danger of drowning. High floods are very deftruftive to Moles, which are then compelled to quit their holes, and truft to fwimming. They fwim well, and have been known to pafs to iflands in lakes by that means. The female breeds in fpring, and brings four or five" young-at a litter, for which flie makes a neft of mofs or the fibres of roots a little below the furface, under one of the largeft hillocks : from this cavity feveral Hoping paflages are made, through which fhe goes in queft of food. Moles are taken in traps, or deftroyed by poifon. They are inhabitants of Europe in general, and of the fouthern parts of Siberia, where they are faid to be unufually large.
2. Talpa Radiata.Radiated Mole.
This fpecies, which is fomewhat fmaller than the common Mole, is dillinguifhed by a circle of radiated tendrils with which its nofe is befet, and which probably affift its fenfe of feeling, like the antennse of infefls. Its hind legs are fcaly : its colour dulky. It is a native of North America,
and
9


t 49 }
and is faid to frequent uncultivated fields, and to feed on roots.
3. Talpa Longicaudata.Long-tailed Mole.
This, which is likewife a North American fpecies, has a circle of papilla: round the edge of its nofe, and is diftinguilhed by a tail two inches long.
4. Talpa Rufa.Red Mole.
This is of a pale red-brown colour, and has only three toes on its fore-feet, and four on its hind-feet. It is a native of America.
5. Talta Fusca.Brown Mole.
The fur of this fpecies is gloffy brown at the ends, and deep grey at the bottom ; its tail and t'eet white. Its fore-feet are remarkably broad. It inhabits North America. From fome peculiarity in its teeth, this fpecies, as alfo the Radiata, are referred by Linnasus to the genus Screx.
Other fpecies of Mole are defcribed, chiefly dift'ingui/hcd by their colour; but they all ftrongly refemble the common kind in form and manner of life.
VOL. 11.
F
GENUS


I 50 ]
GENUS XXII.
SOREX.SHREW.
GENERIC CHARACTER:. Front-teeth in the upper jaw, two, long, bifid: in the lower jaw, two, or four, the intermediate ones Jhorter ; Canine-teeth fevcral on each fide : Grinders pointed.
THIS genus in appearance much- refembles the Moufe tribe, but by its teeth it rather approaches the Moles: and it may be regarded as intermediate between the two. The Shrews have long (lender nofes, fmall ears, and five toes on each foot.
I. Sorex Araneus.Common Shrew.
This animal is about two inches and a half from nofe to tail, which laft is one inch and a half. Its colour refembles that of a Moufe, but with a flight ferruginous tinge. It has a fharp fnout, and eyes almoft hid in the fur. It feeds on roots, grains, infe&s, and animal fubftances of any kind, and is often feen rooting in filth like a hog. Hence it has a ftrong difagreeable fmell, fo that cats, which kill, will not eat it. It inhabits old walls, heaps of ftones, and holes in the ground, an^ frequents hayricks, dunghills, &c. The female makes a
neft




[ 5* J
ncff with mofs, and brings feveral young at a time. There is an annual mortality of the Shrews in Auguft, when many are found dead in the paths. This fpecies inhabits moft parts of Europe, and the north of Afia.
2. Sorex Fodiens.Water Shrew.
This kind, called in Germany Graber, or the Digger, whence its Latin name, is larger than the former, and is eafily diftinguifhed by its colour, which is black on the upper part, and a pale afh-colour beneath. Its eyes are fo fmall, that it is called in Lincolnfhire the Blind Moufe. It Intel's a chirping note, like that of a grafs-hopper. It burrows in the banks of rivers, and is faid to fwiin under water. The female breeds in fpring, and produces eight or nine at a litter. It inhabits various parts of Europe and Afia. In the north of Scotland, where it is called Lavellan, it is fuppofed to poifon the cattle.
3. Sorex Moschatus.Musk Shrew.
I his remarkable fpecies is about feven inches from nofe to tail, with a tail of eight inches. Its colour is clufky, or afli-brown, whiter beneath. Jts body is thick, fomewhat flattened : its head fmall, with a very long flattened fnout edged on the lide with whifkers ; a furrow runs along the upper part FJ of


[ 5-2 3
ef this organ, which is griftlyand very flexible. The eyes are extremely fmall: no external ears: legs very fhort: feet almoft naked; toes, five, connected by a membrane, which i-s wideft on the hind-feet: tail naked, fcaly, comprefled fide-wife, and tapering. Near the bafe of the tail are fmall glands, fecreting a yellowifh fluid Tmelling like civet or tnufk. This fpecies inhabits the banks of the Volga and the adjacent lakes from Novogorod to SaratofF. It makes burrows with the entrance below water, working thence upwards, but never to the furface, and only fo far as to be out of reach of the higheft floods. It is very flow-paced, and never wanders far from its burrow. Numbers arefometimes feen fwimming together, and fnapping their mouths as ducks do their bills. > They feed on worms, leeches, and water infe61s. They are caught for their fkins, Tyhich are put into cherts among cloaths to drive away moths, and are flip-pofed to protect thofe who wear them from fevers and infedtion.
4. Sorex Cjerulescens.Perfuming Shrew.
This fpecies has the fame mufky odour with the lad, and it is faid to be fo ftrong and penetrating, that merely by running over a well-corked bottle, the wine has been rendered unfit to drink. It is nearly eight inches from nofe to tail, with a tail
le!s


' [ 53 3
lels than half that length: fnout very long and flender: eyes fmall: ears fhort, round, and femi-tranfparent. The fur is foft and fine ; its colour of an elegant blue-grey, paler beneath. The tip of the nofe, and the feet, are naked and rofe-co-loured. It inhabits the continent and iflands of India,, and feeds principally on rice.
5. Sorex Radiatus.Canada Shrew.
This fpecies is nearly allied to the Radiated Mole, like which it has a fnout terminated with a circle of foft tendrils, difpofed like the rays of a fpur: but its long form, and general habit, indicate it to belong to the Shrew genus. It is of a blackifh hue, with hair rather coarfe : its eyes are hid under the fkin : its fnout briftly ; its tail knotiy and almoft naked : its feet naked, and fcaly above. It is addi&cd to burrowing, but lefs fo than the Mole, and lives more above ground than that animal. It is a native of Canada.
Various other fpecies of Shrew have been dif-covered in different countries. One of thefe, the Pygmy Shrew, is probably the fmalleft of all quadrupeds, weighing not more than half a dram. It is found in Siberia.
GENUS


C 54 ]
GENUS XXIII.
ERINACEUS.HEDGEHOG.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth two in each jaw; in the upper, dijlant; in the lower, near: Canine-teeth on each fide, above, five; below, three: Grinders on each fide, above and below, four: Body covered on the upper part with fpines.
THIS genus externally much refembles that of the Porcupine, chiefly differing in the length of its fpines; but the ftrufture of the teeth indicates it to belong to a different tribe.
I. Erinaceus Elkop^us.European Hedgehog.
( This animal meafures about ten inches from nofe to tail, which laft is only an inch long. It has a long fnout, the upper mandible of which proje£ts beyond the lowerthe noftails are bordered with a loofe flap. The eyes are fmall: ears rounded, fhort, and naked: legs fhort and naked; toes five on each foot, with long but weak claws. The upper part of the face, fides, and rump are covered with coarfe yellowifli cinereous hair ; the
whole
5


HiiUsh&L ~byJlJohnson, SfJBruLt Church Hard fqjjudoi.


C 55 ]
whole back is befet with (harp fpines, whitidi, with a bar of bla^k through their middle. The nofe and legs are of a dufky hue. This weak and inofFenfive animal is well provided by nature for felf-defence: when alarmed, it rolls itfelf up into a ball, prefenting on all fides fuch a hedge of ft iff {harp prickles, that few animals chufe to moleftit; and fcarcely any thing but cold water will force it to unfold. It inhabits fmall thickets, or ditches covered with bufhes, where it lies in the day concealed under grafs or leaves : the night is its time of prey, when it feeds upon roots, worms, beetles, and other infedls. It lies under the fufpicion of injuring cows by fucking them, from which charge Mr. Pennant thinks it is acquitted by the fmall-nefs of its mouth, incapable of receiving the teat. But as it is found, when kept tame, to have a great propenfity to fallen on any foft piece of flefh, which it will quite fuck away, there is no improbability that it (houkl in like manner adhere to the teats of cows as they lie in the field. The Hedgehog lies torpid in the winter in its hole, clofely wrapped up in a bed of mofs, and rolled into a globe. The female makes a neft of grafs or mofs, in which (he produces four or five young at a litter. Thefe are born blind, and with the fpines foft and flexible, but in a few days they become ftiiF and (harp. The fpines of the Hedgehog
were


[ 56 ]
were anciently in great requefl for carding wool. The animal is fometimes kept in houfes for its adlivity in devouring cock-roaches and other infedts. It is remarkably patient, and has been known to endure differing alive without a complaint. It is a native of moft of the temperate climates of Europe and Afia, and is common in England, though not often feen.
The Long-eared Hedgehog of Siberia, and the Volga, and the Earless Hedgehog of Guiana, nearly approach the preceding fpecies.
2. Erinaceus Madagascariensis.Stripee Hedgehog.
This animal, called alfo the Tandrel, has a long pointed fnout, fhort rounded ears, fhort legs, and no tail. Its general colour is black, with five longitudinal white bands on the body ; the black parts are clothed with briftly hair ; the white, with fmall prickles, refembling thofe of a Porcupine. From the black parts on the back fpring long fcat-tered hairs, reaching to the ground: the head is covered with fhort black prickles: the fnout white, and eyes furrounded with a white circle. The Tandrek inhabits Madagafcar, and, it is faid, alfo the Indian ifles. It walks flowly, and grunts ; whence it is called the Ground-hog, or Pig Porcupine. It burrows, and remains torpid three months
in


r 57 j
in the year. It is a no£turnal animal, and feeds after fun-fet, chiefly on fruits and herbs. Its body is a lump of fat, and is eaten by the natives. Buffon fuppofes two kindred fpecies, which he calls the Tanrec, and the Tendrac, but it feems probable that they are the fame animal at different periods of growth. The'fize, when full-grown, is about that of a rabbet.
3. Erinaceus Malaccensis.Malacca Hedgehog. ,
This fpecies has fo much of the Porcupine in its appearance, that nothing but a rigid adherence to the arrangement drawn from the teeth, could caufe it to be cla fifed among the Hedge-hogs. Its pendulous ears, and five toes on each foot, alfo refer it rather to the Hedgehog than the Porcupine genus. It is a pretty large animal, and is covered with long quills, variegated like thofe of the common Porcupine. It yields that ftony concretion or Bezoar, called Piedra del Porco (Hog or Porcupine (lone) which was formerly fo much valued in medicine.
order


t 58 J
ORDER IV. GLIRES.
GENUS XXIV.
HYSTRIX.PORCUPINE,
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth, two in each jaw, obliquely cut: Grinders eight: Bod) covered with fpines intermixed with hairs: Four toes on the fore-feet; five on the hind.
i. Hystrix Cristata.Crested Porcupine.
THIS common fpecies of the Porcnpine is in length about two feet from nofe to tail, with a tail of four inches. It has fhort rounded ears, a bluntl nofe, and its upper lip is divided by a deep furrow. Its foreteeth are very large and ftrong ; its claws ftrong and hooked. On the top of the head it has long briftly hairs reclining backwards like a creft. Its head, belly, and legs are covered'with dufky briftles intermixed with fofter hairs. The upper parts of its body are formidably armed with hard and f^harp quills, of which the longeft, on the middle and hind parts of the body, are from nine to fifteen inches in length: they are variegated
with


JTSS


C 59 ]
with alternate black and white rings, and are attached by a fmall root. Short and flattifh quills, often blunt at the end, cover the tail. The Porcupine is a native of Africa, India, and the Indian ides, and alfo of the warmer parts of Europe, as Italy and Sicily; but into thefe it is fuppofed that it has i>een formerly imported. It is a harmlefs animal, feeding upon fruits, roots, and herbs. Its flefti is eaten, and is lufcious food.
The ancient and dill vulgar notion of its darting its-quills to a diftance againd its enemies, is either altogether fabulous, or at lead greatly exaggerated. It may indeed, by (haking its (kin when the quills are loofe at the time of catting them, occafionally throw them off with fome degree of violence ; but its ufual mode is to bridle them up when irritated, and oppofe them to an alfailant, making at the fame time a fnorting noife. When in a date of confinement, it appears very irafcible. The Porcupine inhabits holes underground, which it forms into feveral apartments, leaving only a (ingle entrance. It deeps much by day, and feeds in the night. The female produces two young at a birth.
2. Hystrix Prehensilis.Prehensile Porcupine.
This fpecies is particularly didinguifhed by its long tail, which has the faculty of laying hold,
like


C 60 ]
like that of fome monkeys and opcfTums. The animal is about a foot in length, exclufive of the tail, which is eighteen inches. It has a fmall head, very blunt nofe, fhort rounded ears, and feet with only four toes on each, and a tubercle in place of the fifth. The whole upper and outer parts of the body are covered with fhort, ftrong, and very .fharp fpines, white, tipped with black : on the tail thefe reach only to about one third of the length, the remainder being nearly naked. The hair on the under parts is dufky brown. This fpecies is a native of South America, particularly Brafil. It inhabits woods, and climbs trees, twilling its tail round the branches to prevent falling. It feeds not only on fruits, but on birds. During the day it lleeps in the hollows or among the roots of trees, and preys by night. Its voice is a grunt like that of a pig. It grows very fat, and its flefh is white and good eating.
The Mexican Porcupine is a fpecies confi-derably refembling the above,, but is larger, and. has a thicker and fhorter tail.
3. Hystrix MacPvOura.Iridescent Porcupine.
This is an animal of a fhort thick form, particularly remarkable for its changeable colours. It is coated with fhort, fliff, needle-like briftles or
fpines,


C 61 ]
fpines, which, in different lights, appear either of a gilded green, or of a reddifh hue. Its feet have each five toes. It has a very long tail, covered with fpiny hair, except at the extremity, which has a thick brufh or tuft of filvery white quills, each quill confifling of a long {lender Hem, fwell-ing out at intervals into knots refembling grains of rice, and terminated with the fame. It is a native of the Indian ifies, and inhabits woods.
4. Hystrix Fasciculata.Brush-tailed
Porcupine.
This fpecies, which is fmaller than the common Porcupine, and has a proportionably longer head, is particularly chara&erifed by its tail, which is naked, fcaly, and terminated by a tuft of long fiat hairs, refembling ftrips of parchment. It is a native of Malacca.
5. Hystrix Dorsata.Canada Porcupine.
This fpecies is (hort and thick-bodied, refembling a Beaver in fhape. Its length from nofe to tail is about a foot and a half; that of the tail, fix inches. It has four toes 011 the fore-feet, and five 011 the hind, armed with ftrong hooked claws, channelled beneath. All the upper part of its body, head, and tail, is cloathed with long, foft, dark-brown hair, in which the fpines are nearly concealed. vol. ix, CJ Thefb


[ 62 j
Thefe are (harp and ftrong, longeft on the bade, where they are about three inches in length : at the tips they are barbed with fmall reverfed prickles; they are very (lightly attached to the (kin ; fo that the animal, purpofely brufhing againft people's legs when difturbed, will leave feveral (licking in them. The common colour of this Porcupine is brown, but it is fometimes found white or cream-coloured. It is a native of North America, and is plentiful about Hudfons Bay. It makes its neft under the roots of trees, and will climb among the boughs. The Indians are fond of the flefh, and ufe the quills for ornament.
GENUS XXV.
CAVIA.CAVY.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth two in each jaw, wedge-fhaped: Grinders eight: Toes on the fore-feet from four to five ; on the hind-feet from three to five: Tail very fhort or none: Clavicles (Collar-bones) none.
THE animals of this genus have generally a flow creeping pace, and fometimes a leaping one.
They


I 63 ]
They five on vegetables, and inhabit holes under ground or beneath the roots of trees.
1. Cavia Cobaya.Variegated Cavy.
This fpecies is well known among us by the name of Guinea-Pig. It is lefs than a rabbet, and of a thick form ; it has large broad rounded ears ; a half-divided upper lip ; hair ereft, of a white colour, or white variegated with orange and black, difpofed in irregular blotches ; no tail; four toes on the fore-feet, three on the hind. Its native country is Brafil and other parts of South America; but its habits and manners have been chiefly ob-ferved as domefticated among us. It is eafily made tame, but has little attachment ; and is indeed a ftupid little animal, fuffering its young to be devoured without oppofition, and even making no refiftance to attacks on its own life. It fleeps much, but is reftlefswhen awake, perpetually running from corner to corner, with a grunting fqueaking noife. It is cleanly, and frequently employs itfelf in fmoothing and drefling its fur like a cat. It will feed on a great variety of vegetable fubltances, green or dry, and has the habit of gnawing leather or pther matters that lie in its way. It is very fufceptible of cold, and cannot live in our winters without artificial warmth. When Guinea-pigs quarrel with each other* they not only G 2 bite,


[ 64 }
bite, but kick with their hind legs like a hor(e. They are extremely prolific, the female beginning to breed at two months old, and bringing from four to ten or twelve at a time, fn that it has been calculated that a thoufand might be produced in a year from a fingle pair; but numbers of the young die or perifh through accidents. They run with agility the day they are born, and can immediately feed on vegetables. Their fiefh is eatable, but with us they are only kept for amuftment. Rats avoid the places in which they refide.
2. Cavia Paca.Spotted Cavv.
This fpecies is nearly two feet in length. Its form fomewhat refembles that of a pig, whence it has been called the Hog-Rabbct. It has a round head ; fhort black muzzle ; divided lip ; large nof-trils; long whifkers ; large prominent eyes ; fhort, round, naked ears ; fhort legs; five toes on each foot; and a tail fo fhort as to be fcarcely vifible. It is covered with coarfe, fhort, thin hair, dufky above, dingy white below; on each fide of the body run five rows of roundith grey fpots. This is a no£Uirnal animal, remaining by himfelf in his hole during moft of the day, and feeding by night. It grunts like a pig, and bites hard when taken. It grows fat, and its flefh is efteemed a great delicacy. It is fometimes kept tame, when it fhows
a remark-




[ 65 ]
a remarka1)le fondnefs for fugar and fweet fruits. The female is faid to produce only one at a birth. It is a native of-Guiana and Brafil, and other parts of that continent.
3. Cavia Caudata.Aguti.
This fpecies inhabits the fame countries with the former, and is very numerous. It is about the fize of a fmall hare, and moves like that animal. It has a plump body ; a long fliarpifh fnout; a nofe divided at the tip ; round black eyes ; (hort broad naked ears ; thin legs, the hinder ones the longed, and furnifhed with only three toes; and a very fhort naked tail. Its hair is hard and fhining, brown, with a cart of orange, and blackifh freckles; orange on the rump. It burrows under-ground, or lodges in the hollows of trees, generally fingle in a hole, or one female with her young. It feeds on roots, nuts, and fruit, and lays up ftores in the earth. The Aguti breeds faft, bringing from three to five young at a time, during every feafon of the year. Its flefh is white, and much refembles that of a rabbet, and the natives hunt them for food.
I hey are alfo kept in a domeftic (late, when they wander in the day, and return of thetnfclves to the houfe at night.
The Leporine Cavy is faid to be a variety of the Aguti. Though ufually callcd the Javan Hare, G 3 it


C 66 ]
it is really a native of Surinam and the countries adjacent.
The AcouCHY, alfo a native of the fame parts, differs little from the Aguti, but is fomewhat fmaller, thinner, and has a longer tail. Its body is olive-coloured. In manners it refembles the Aguti, and is equally capable of being domefti-cated.
4. Cavia Aperea.Rock Cavy.
This fpecies is about a foot in length. Its colour is that of a hare, to which animal, or a rabbet, it has a general refemblance ; but its ears are fhort and rounded, like thofe of a rat. It has no tail. It lives in holes, and in the clefts of rocks, whence it is driven out by dogs and taken. Its flefh is reckoned fuperior to that of a rabbet. It is a native of Brafil.
5. Cavia Cafybara.Capybara.
It is fomewhat uncertain to what clafs this animal fhould be referred, whence fome naturalifts have confidered it as a fpecies of Hog, others as a Tapir; but it feems to have the grcateft analogy to the Cavies. Its fize is about that of a hog two years old, and it has been found of the weight ot a hundred pounds. It has a very large head; a thick divided nofe with large whifkers; fmall
rounded


L *7 ]
rounded ears; large black eyes; the tipper jaw longer than the lower; the grinders divided into three flat furfaces; a fhort neck; a Ihort thick body, covered with Ihort, coarfe, brown hair; fhort legs ; long feet; toes four before, and three behind, connected by a fmall web, and tipped with thick claws, or rather fmall hoofs ; no tail. The Capybara is a fort of amphibious animal, making its relidence in fertny places, near the banks of the great rivers in South America, its native country, and fwimming and diving with great facility. It feeds on various vegetables, particularly lugar-canes, and alfo on fifh, which, like the Otter,, it drags to the Ihore, and devours on the bank. It preys chiefly by night, and makes great ravages in fields and gardens. It eats fitting up, and holding its food in the fore-feet. It runs but fk)wly, and therefore plunges in the water as foon as poflible when purfued. Its voice is harfli, refembling the braying of an afs. Thefe animals go in pairs, are fhy and timid, but gentle, and capable of being tamed. The female produces but one at a birth. U he flclh is eaten, but is rank and fifliy.
genus


[ 68 ]
GENUS XXVI.
CASTOR.BEAVER.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Front-teeth, two in each jaw ; in the upper, truncated, and excavated with a tranfverfe angle ; in the lower, tranfvtrjt at the tips: Grinders four on each fide: Tail ling, deprejj'edyfcaly.
i. Castor Fiber.Common Beaveb.
AMONG the inflances of fagacity in quadrupeds, that of the Beaver, when collefted into a Hate of fociety, is the mofl noted. This animal is in length from nofe to tail about three feet. It has fliort ears, hid in its fur a blunt fnout; fmall fore-feet, and large hind-feet. Its mofl obvious character is its tail, which differs from that of all other quadrupeds: it is nearly a foot in length, of an oval form, nearly flat, and inflead of hair, is covered with fcales, exactly refembling thofe of a fifh. The ufual colour of the Beaver is a deep glofTy chefnut; and its fur confifts of longer and fhorter hairs, of which the latter, is remarkably fine and foft.
The accounts of the labours of Beavers in forming a fettleme.it, are wonderful almoft beyond belief ;




[ 6g ]
lief; but the following particulars may be reckoned' authentic. Their favourite reforts are watery fitit-aiions in the recelfes cf woods. They alTociate in the fummer months to the number of two or three hundred, and begin to make a kind of village, or allemblage of conjoined habitations. This is always feated on the bank of a piece of water; and if they find a {till lake, which varies little in its height of water, they immediately proceed to building their huts; but it is common for them to pitch upon a piece of level ground into which a rivulet runs, which they convert into an artificial pond, by conftrudting a dam or weir acrofs the flream. It is in performing this work that their exertions are mod afloniffiing. With their teeth they gnaw down forae tree which grows fo as to fall into the water, and this forms the bafe of their dam. They cut other pieces of wood into proper lengths, which they fix into the earth as piles, and they interweave them with branches, and fill up the interftiees with earth, well rammed. With the {kill of an experienced engineer, they make the mound which they raife, broad at bottom, and gradually narrowing to the top, perpendicular towards the lower part of the Itream, and Hoping towards the upper. It is affirmed that foanc of their dams are from eighty to a hundred feet long, and ten or twelve feet broad at the bafe. Their
.cabins


[ 7 ]
cabins or huts are built upon piles on the margin of the pond, and are either oval or round, with a vaulted top. The walls are fometimes two feet thick, and are made of earth, {tones, and fticksr put together with great folidity. They are covered within with a plafter, laid as neatly as with a trowel. Some of them rife eight feet above the water, and confift of two or three ftories. Their fize is according to the number of the family which they are to accommodate, and which varies from two to thirty beavers, male and female. All have one entrance towards the land, and another in the water. Below are formed their magazines of barks and tender boughs for their winter provifion.. The floors of their apartments are fpread with mofs or leaves. One fettlement confifts of from ten or twelve to twenty or twenty-five cabins, containing perhaps a hundred and fifty or two hundred Beavers, generally an equal number of each fex. In making thefe extraordinary works, they employ to advantage their very ftrong and fharp fore-teeth, with which they cut vvood expeditioufly, and their broad flat taiJs, ferving to beat down and fmooth the materials; and with thefe inftruments, by their numbers,, induftry, and unanimity, they perform what would at firft appear impoflible to animals of their fize. They fpend the winter feafon entirely in their cabins, fubfiiling upon their ftore of pro-
vifion.


E 71 ]
vifion. In hard fro (Is they break a communication with the unfrozen water, and often fvvim a long way under the ice. In common they fit with their tails and pofterior parts in the water. The females bring forth at the latter end of winter, two or three young at a litter. The males then leave them, and refort to the woods; and the females, after they have reared their young, alfo quit their Imts: and the party does not aflemble again till the next autumn, when they begin with repairing their works.
Befides the affoclated Beavers, there are fome called Terriers, which live in a folitary (late, inhibiting burrows in the banks of rivers, which have an opening below under the depth to which the water freezes. Thefe alfo lay in winter pro-vifions, but they difplay no extraordinary fagacity; fo that the talents of this animal require fociety to call them forth and give them full exertion. The fur of the Terriers is much inferior to that of the focial Beavers.
Though the proper food of the Beaver is of the vegetable kind, particularly the bark and twigs of the foft woods, yet in the fummer they alfo cat crabs, and craw-fifli. They do not appear to be fond of fifli, yet it is aderted that when tamed they are employed in catching them. When taken
young


t 7* ]
young, the Beaver is readily made domefiic, and appears to be of a gentle nature.
This animal is a native of the northern parts of Europe and Alia, and of North America. In Europe they are now feldom found, and only in a folitary ftate ; in which they alfo occur throughout Tartary. They are met with in the aflociated ftate about the rivers in Afiatic Ruftia, which flow into the Oby ; but they exift in the greateft numbers in the wilds of North America. They are a great objedt of the ehace on account of their furs which are much valued, and in particular are the principal material from which the fined hats arc made. Above fifty-four thoufand of them hav; been fold at a fingle fale of the Hudfons Bay company. The drug called Caftor, ufed in medicine, is produced from two glands near the tail of the Beaver. It is an acrid ftrong-fcented fubftancc. The Ruffian Caftor is reckoned greatly fuperior to the American. The flefh of the Beaver dried in the fmoke is accounted good eating.
2. Castor Huidobrius.Chili Beaver.
This fpecies in general refembles the former; but its colour is grey above and whitifh beneath ; the toes of the fore-feet are lobated, or bordered with a membrane; thofe of the hind-feet arc webbed ; and the tail is, of a comprefled lanceolatc
form,
I


X n 1
form, and hairy. It is a bold and fierce animal, feeding on fifh and crabs, and capable of continuing long under water. It conftrudts no regular habitation, nor does it afford any caftor; but its fur is as fine and valuable as that of the other. It inhabits the deep lakes and rivers of Chili.
G nNUS XXVII.
MUS.RAT.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Upper from-teeth wedge-Jhuped: Grinders on each fide three, Sometimes only two: Clavicles.
THIS numerous genus confifts of fome of the fmalleft quadrupeds, but fuch as from their great multiplication and predatory habits are no inconfi-derable foes to mankind. They are therefore generally ranked under the title of vermin, or noxious creatures. Some of them feed on vegetables only; while fome are as univcrfal caters as man himfclf, and. devour every article of food that falls in their way. They arc ufually quick and alert in their motions, and conceal themfelves in holes, or fubterraneous vol. ii. H retreats.


[ 74 ]
retreats. Some kinds of them migrate at certain -periods in great troops; others are ftationary, Though the Linnean genus of Mus has been dimi. niflied by taking out of the Cavies, the Jerboas, and other animals, it is ftill fo numerous, that it has been thought necelfary to form fubdivifiotis, mod of which are derived from differences in the tail.
With flattened tails.
I. Mus ZiBETkicus.Musk Rat.
This animal, the Mufquajh of New England, and the Ondatra of Buffon, is nearly allied to the Beaver, with which fome naturalifts have placed it. Its iize is that of a fmall rabbet: it has a fliort head; large eyes; fhort, rounded, hairy eats; ftrong cutting teeth, thofe in the lower jaw very long; toes hairy and without membraft^ ; and a long tail, compreiTed Tideways, covered with fcales and fcattered hairs. Its fur-.is foft and glofly ; the general colour reddilh brown ; that of the tail'afhy. The animal has a ftrong fmell of mufk, efpeCially during fummer, which proceeds from a fluid depo-fited in glands near the tail.' The fur retains the fame odour.
The Mulk-rat/ltke the Beaver, paffes the wintef in k focial ftate, in cabins of its own conftrtJdHC'n,'
Oil




[ 75 ]
on the edge of fome lake or river. Thefe habitations are two feet and a half or three feet in diameter, neatly plaftered with clay on the infide, and covered outwardly with a kind of bafket-work of ruflies, fo interlaced as to be impenetrable by water. Several families ufually inhabit each cabin. The animals do not lay up winter-pnivifion, but form fubterraneous paffages round their huts, through which they pafs in queft of their food, which con-fifts of roots and herbage. During fummer they' wander about in pairs; and they build new habitations every winter. Tliey rim aukwardly, nor can they fwim fp well as Beavers, for want of webs to their feet. The females bring forth in the beginning of fummer, five or fix young at a time. The Mnfk-Tat is a native of North America, and-abounds in Canada. Its fur is an article of commerce-
2. Mus CoYPUS,-CoYFU RaT.
This animal is faid to have the fize, colour, and general appearance of the Otter, but to agree with the Rat tribe in its teeth. Its hind toes are webbed. Its tail is thick and flattifji on the fides. It inhabits Chili, frequenting the waters, but living oc-cafionally on land. It is ealily tamed and rendered domefVtc. The female produces fiva or iix young ?t a birth.
H 2 Wish


[ 76 1
JVlth round naked tails.
3. Mus Decumasus.Norway Rat.
This fpecies, one of the principal domeftic pells of this.country, is fuppofed to have come originally from India or Perfia, though, from its common name, it may probably have been imported hither immediately in fome fhip from the North. Its length is nine inches from nofe to tail, which laft is about the fame length, and marked with about two hundred rings. The colour of this Rat is light brown mixed wifh tawny and afh-colouiv above, and a dirty white beneaih. Its feet are naked and flefh-coloured: its fore-feet have four toes, with a claw in place of the fifth. It is a creature of great boldnefs and voracity, making prey of every thing eatable, whether animal or vegetable, and attacking fuch quadrupeds and birds as it can matter. It inhabits fields, and the banks of waters, being capable of fwimming with great facility; but its great mifchiefs to man proceed from its making a fettlement in houfes and outbuildings, where it burrows under walls and floors, and often ferioufly injures the foundations, as well as carries on a perpetual war of pillage. Nothing is fafe from their ravages ; and all the deftru&ion made by cats, traps, and poifon, is often unable
to