Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The empire of nature
 The animal kingdom
 Characters of the genera of...
 Systematic catalogue of the 1st...
 Analysis of linnaeus's introduction...
 Of man, there is but one genus;...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover



"J-N .0 1 r rt.., The Baldwin Library fi) 1 Uni;;rity florid.


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.: 'TH! 'NATURAL HISTO'RY QUA D R U i> D S ; J )N-CLtJIlING -ALL THE' CLASS OF ,: ,MAM'MAb-fA: l TO wafCK 15 PRE FIXE'O, .A G 'ENE-RAL VIEW OF NATTHtE.-; FO'R THE INSTRUC'rIO"N CfF y 0 U N G FER S O N 5 l N TWO VO' LU MES.: VOL. J. ,L,clNDON:. PRINTED FOR J. NO. ,7'1., F. Pl\.I?L'S CHURCH-YARD; ::a<'t D'ICi. AND 1> .... '<11, $-T. ,J0Hl>1'S ---.,. 1801. '\


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" ADV.ERTISEMENT. .. .. 'THE foUowing was begun fom '. time ago, by a prfon whfe' original vie\Y' ws the inftru:ion 'of his family, but who was deft ros .of any advantage which might arife from his plan, to the youth of other families. Want of he<'th prevented him from the defign; and, the tafk has' been executed, fr9m 157 of Vol. I., by another, who hs endeavoured, in th beft manner ln his power, to follow the intentions of his precurfor, and to render 'it an and, he nQt unentertaining 1ketch of the claiS termeq hy naturaliffs MAMM.iA. Since the earlier part was however, a valuable on the fame fubJet} has appeared, which, taJdng the fame Linbrean fyftem the bafis of its has iJil .fome refpetts deviatd


, / iv AD,VE R TIS.I! MENT. , deviated from it with judgment and l' gence. This is the ; te General Zoology'" of George M. D. F. R. S., now finifbed as far publrcaHn which !-ill doubtlefs beome a part of the 'library ofan..,'t40fe who purfue the ftudy of, N atural \ Hiftory in' an extepfive way. 'The, prefent 'fbouid be : in figletfirtg :rl oftetl "i't < a fMal.1,v-a6atiot'i prefl):tdf, t o r.: t'eerry' r this," a fi'l:t,: 6f 'Jh'e tl1ey1\8w)firid, is' vbltiin.', :tl-its 7 thh. lHeJ afid"tt!l:" cbrnhibnt 'dt tnole wlitch have tifert-d ;'in Jti'f Natuf lil lfl!ft'dr{; : rh 6bli'gfnk -hie' tk:'ri 'Hf of :th'e: cuti6t1S Whfh: ,(dr fi' ': .. .... .,', .: . -41. 1 r:; (0 , 1


: '( .. l' .., \:.. ,': t < "(,r,,') Rr:j ':F A . \ . T. ilE Jeneralljr of:,d, evptit!g :ox (o Ifp.e .. l:!,as pl f!t:fi !pfqrmation. ; at' ct'hN ,be ifl l>e,ing: th of. not, altp.ofl; , pf. .. ,": .' : ., hYPl iftry, N Jli,vil as it s h9W fbnneGte4, 'Hifiory, 'Nat,ural ChYJ.1?ifirr are W:it, h fep fible that t-lle'[cientific a 'ead language, the ,mofi metaEhYfical par-t and. lea{f A interefiiog'


1 -, -', II p -R E F ACE.' ; -, .' '. 1. : intereftipg, be forced -u the luttatii' eari y-years. '. ': ". .' :of teaching Latin, by -the ruie c.to : fie I fu i l an ':i-riaUs, !gainft ,Hrlf: -"" : inj'ur.ious to th 'pbjea' 'PfdpofeJi. J ,,;,"',. :1 _: 'The ;'-il; ':to .. .... r -/' JJ,. r /-.. .. :"j" ;,! '." ... liberal Eut acqu'tfitu;)h--.of !,..J, .. -' f .., '... J .,.... r /tbefe b-ranches e'ttei' :acf-i>ted lt> of '. : '." )' ..' . .' --l'11ey of ttention r -its-:CNatural :Ffi' ftory. 'us fe. e / ana obfv: {J. '.', f .... ,!. "l' t1' "'''1'/' .4 4 t ; ': tp .... w 1, '_,' t P, ,. aq:tiol1,., ant} tq proye ",,'. JI .. -' _" '.,.. l' \ : r: .. ... {' ... -. .1 ; "-")" {' .\ ' .' N ,aJural


, / -PRE F A C lIl, N a 'naIHift6ry,"and N atural Philofo 'phy , difplafof thl, ;PCowet;', and Goodnefs of' tIre' D E lTY, on" w (lhe or 'hiF,' ca'thlicrlig 'ion' mav-, be , , r ,' .. ; ,,1. ") ," 1 ;' ') ralle. j & ...... 4'" 'l \..!...... .. '. / hidi' tliet -opeJi:..t\ils, i s iiie:x;hahRible; , in the fields l;>ecomes'uinterefring purfuit; el'ery flower 'ex' cites our: itteri,ori ; :or frif s aequ'ire ' hew and: ra', 'hw'; Oidol to our viw. i;,1, '., The' objeef t'Re fllowiri g is "ta affift ih : fhfe ftudies, the pla n propofeij< Liii'ttu J with 't' he amuflfig i defils ;opj3".(yfon: ',' -0f;) a ; '; irideed tfe.vry fynemtic, or ext'enfive pu bl!tiol hl' Natu1rl '\Hi.fl:d'r.y, "maft neo[-',,: fa' riry b'edb1i)' a g reat.ldegl'eb. (ShiC' 'it . was Dgn'; f !the::Compiler 'has lmet!with'an 'of l Natihl t :)from ) 'o( M j!i R 'lffe, ; Pt;o'felffifo 'il jJ by : : M > Pi 'rhrlt; ': pu in Fre,rzcli, and printeci alSira}-,; fi!' A ,b k ,.' 2 urg r ;l ..


jv > P R E F (Gohfiel'a.!:>l'e; u.f made of this pera;[al, of ;wlaftRh;. rec9II111Jerrdecl to t'hofe undcdland t'1:le $(!ench .'. ,1 Cor:ppiJe1' win o cca-lionally of Ml'. Kerr's of J e'rllngli.ffi Pennan;t's WOl'ks .. .. tha$.e-. of;. omer'. :. .. iJ....: '." . of 'Thqfe who bave triedr the wi fincl, that it: a b o ok whih wi11 lfiHlallGe-;" th-e)\ many w hic4 is imp,offij:)le t o for.etee;1 .and, Ol1'" [ ve v-eIiy d.iifetrent'ry; i ft is.l?M that they ar.e bdt. cbhff qu, e .J!ltly in book for C the plan to be' adoptd br theil" .er, thofe who alli .fi. iIl ) th-&ii" {hould be atte:n;dee;l to: aRd !If .. g;eat' Qb, it. fhe:mld be' calculat ed fe)!:, tllem ; ,!, ilI1 neceffarily n!nder. the Uy le of th.. e book,., and even the maHex: unequ-al. .' .... ,:ti,'" lI\


P R E FA C E. v w of Catechifm will b given; this mode' will be found hether t ,her: reall x-; the r of -"'1' 'Ir (, "rn J SdehCe:," 'u" irdlances, the J'nft'nildr 'mun:: i X'pPainh : ,, -! cj:": }-,,; '; l l;! . This Natural ,Hiftery of he:! cdrifi.llered as, a E .t:Q the N atural Hiftory of for thelnftiuaidn and,' ',0E ; pubJi1hed by' Mr . t and like that; is offerecf to as may incline toavai,lthemfel ves of ') ;; " : n \ (it.I -r. i: ; .... : . LINN.lEAN


_ :"i of (. r LI}iNlEAN : . "l '.' '/ '" l0 .' l', .,' 1.1 'f' \ THOU roy youth and ever until win l . fpeak of thy, orks .' .... .. .. "I,! \ r .t 1: j i' t ". Q J EiHo' V "A\HyOOW maiDifdlq. are thy .' WOiks! ... ,', 'l' . ,la Wifdom haJft thau made them all: .J full 'of rthy'Riches . "' P/film iv. !;I4. ,1 1 ... J.) \ .' G reat Is bUT GQti, Great is. HIS l11s Power is infini te ... INTRODUCTION


.1 'N .. (fDUC TI Q 'N. '. ...... ,< Lt is i; 'i6 whnce is lie deTiv.ed? ; the, of the To 1hould lIe direEl: his :purfuit ? l 'Ti>' ',hapFY what does tht confilt? l!l' :' th wbat means ; and end' ? is natural fo man, i'rf c 'oIiirrl:ort Vii'th' otlier Dinals; who eat, who fpart, and indulge their tra:nftn't their f,llies. are' multipHed, fleep, provi

" ' ,""viii {


, 1 N O D u C t IX we have leii'rl'ltthe e xifien<;e; but h1:5\v1 iy ;ift, we know n9;. How mny things ar of which we.., the : fi.dt k hewledgf! (n this ye.t ther.er are tion W;ill, know. of, whih we are' ,and, ; are refE}x:ved, ,fOl' the }lta U ,.-be ;'no.:-.mollC).;! tihefe :WliiQB ti-rper '{hall brlng Nature. does':'l!lo,t atl; , hc:r "aereil ,Tta.fre. , , .We as wedlane' 'IIli" the Parch of the Temple i l the 'hol:y M}l'fidrms lantl not, inaifcriminluly" rvaled .to aIl her votaries ; they are c Qncealed in, qI er Sanauary: TC4th ,rs inveloped in innf clover ings, ahd tn 1 Ir. yOllth, mfndful ofIlis C 'REA.:TOR, were to "ap-pIY" affiduo ufly to thefe Refearches, if the eIder to : endeavour to, teach. and the younger to fiiIl fcarcely wonld they reach to that depth to which we now expea, with : attention, to find upon the furface: It s of great importance to lay open the receIfes", of. Nalur.el. and D ,Ot contentd with the glimpfe , . of ,/ ; 1


of its t o and examine ils divine Arcana. ",; ;, :t . ::, ... .. 'f: ; -'! ; l'have; -the obfc'ttr, e and entangled 1wirds of JN.aHirei: e ri l.a v o urd' to avoil, as lmuGh1as poffible; i i 'ts' tli'o' rriy froril ianl t : t:llt:"'hbne : cih;:urfifpt,' bntJ t'trbar.:::thtl.J-id:,iligen'l f6inPrrifs! fails thern; ana! ,tha:x.rraio. ft-: d M of,. the ignorant;.ana nhilioiusj IHk.gttilning ; Satyrs, and ,..J in! o! wit;h .... perfvrnce l l 0 whldh! Il Foo-(ul'le( ::;:q;r :.T 10 1;");0'1':..,: : ; ?4!< -:;)J. -; p; J .. :l i ',1)6"J1 .. o ... 0!1!.;, : !! ,j'N': l' .'! . : "Lt) I.,h ! r 19I(Q,r.ant ,Ma{l ,t?em not; '. ,,' .... d"(li>,:l, d L h < h 'i :.r29. an :.t 1 '" .. \ir""_tf. (j .... 1 .... 1,_, 't :...1 1 .. 1 .) i .. ... .. , . '"i,:: :":; 4' ..... 1 .. 1 Ci : 5 .'/ c ... : t.Ji .; .. : ; (1 ... .. :, i'-!.. J I ;l0!) l:,;,iJ Ol d";J';I 1('J .:J :ii:" . ',' i ;} IZ') ','fC,ln 'YI! J: iU Il !),: 0) "i d .. J IT' U J.' t1l!l E,N ,"g JO j ;:.,. !.!i! t; :-It ... ) !(.. I t,._' :;,


'.' -f. l .J "i:...!-:,, ....: . 1-, .' \. . .', B' E 1 N-G awa, ken "[tom, the {leep 'of igaorance. ' ; '.I of.Goi/, 'ternal, ,z'1l:'fini" di1)'liifmt; lfaw, trrz,e'd.: ,his{lopYteiis fn;,fue \ \V6, dt s ;'of \ 't ,i'<5i1, f a a in' die ... J .. '" f \ '. ',appar'ently 'Wha'kpowd : W liaf .. w.iff!C}ih\.! l qijavi bfeiya, their fupp' brt fr6iit ." . r-:' .,' ,'Veget.ables, ; 'vegelbles; and . ,;'eatthy r.-t:1r Eh'h}: nd -the &1'tk i tflf l rV'6'iving hy l-Ws '; rounH the: Suri, w>liih, it the pr-mciple. of 'life. 'An'd 'lal,l'Iy SU7i.1 mcNihg' rorid ;i.tS: ;9* '" axis; :th'e',ieR} of 4fi hld fir c'ai(ft ; .. \"" -' - < if . ". ..


l u J 0/ thl Priferver and Rullr 0/ univ17ft.' the Lord and Crla 'qr of this jjflem Sltoulc!Ji lhou callthis Powr, FA T .E, thou wilt no! err, it.is that, on. wh/ch ait tlzings )houldft thou cali it N A TU R E, witt not er.r, it i:r thal Jrom which al! ,blirig is derivld. Shouldfl' thou cal! it PROVID ENCE, lhou wilt cali it rightly: it is that, by whofi wort uifoid-;il; operations ; il ail SEN SE, aIl SIGHT, al! HEARIN G, dll LIF E,' ,aIl rMrI' N ,p,,) allfoll q/iife!f. 'The V lsa'LE WOR.lCS of t his :p'o.'{l!r ,trarJii;l!J.d.rfl,U'f?1:flJl co,n'C1P!.QTt.' .Jo/lLy is" it hlic.lId rt.h.at .the' is jJ?Z(krivetl, ,unireqt.e4i tJ;itlza.ut IlVhi'C1z :W!.tlzirJ,g e;cift-r, .begun and complet(d qt ,t!i.i)q'medill).. e l;.o,th.Jills and jjgkt r is (onfJ i;l./t4e, cq'lc,ep/iorz,s ,of (/Je min,rI. alJjfuUrf.oJ.,ifly ;facred JRnEllff'rry,'-rif folfl. 'J?he lev,epy lhing w1}.ich j ap the rOQje,qt of QI:lf 'ttie/Slq,rs,. -th.l.EleJnc'T)ts,(a.n;l BartlJ, ,reg1/..' lar r'fTl04iops,.gf thfl .kQ4.Ms" ke t4ft if ':/1IlI, 1 Tf{e Jftl"ct!Jn,t p .,.,de-r cannotJle t,4errrifu.lt if accidmt or 'W.e 1l!-1ffl he ferljibll:th:a(.th,e otlw pr,hs,a.ould.m.ot,:by cqg.liffing tfopt t1lf " heavy


[ 13 ] m'tifs 'if ,ht jhould remain, as' il were, unmoved, .and bchold the rapidly revolving around it. Btars a re vr.ry dillant and luminous bodies \ Ievol ving a motion; thefe are either , ST A RS !hining by their own light, as ,the Sun; and 'the more remQte fixed Stars; or ','PLAN ET, S deriving their light from fixed Stars. The Primary Planets belonging to our Sun are the Sa(urn, .Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Venus, and Matury;' the Secondary are attendant (upon the Primary Planets as the Moon upon the Earth, a.nd Mdons or Stellite s upon other fi jiupendolls a worh could no! JlfYl 'out a priferver, nor could thefe rvolutionS' if Stdl? be th < a fortlfitous ,For tho/e bodies. wlclz ,chance only impels often confounded and JoonJar ELEMENTS are t he moil [Impie of aU Mdies,they' conftilute the atmorphere .of planets and perh,aps fin the fpate bc:tween them. They con. fill of Ill, FIRE, jh.ining; efcaping ttpward!, r.pal'm, jlying off, vivifying. 2d, Al R, daJlic, dl)l, flying about. 3d, WATER, clear,jlid, con. ceiving. '. B .,


[ J 4 il 41h, EA:RTH,' c qU, nl,jta.i le.:' : Thus ail the karmonj if ihi-s world riftllt:s ftom difoords.. 'fHE BAR TH "is chis pJ.anet' n in 2 hou; covered with a fiupegd '0':ls bark of obje6l:s.. The' fiudy of it is the ebjea of human. feience. This terraq.ueous; tbe and mor,e depreffed parts are overflowed with water; an by the &a, which is gradu lly to be din ; lniJhed. The retire froro t h e higher parts, w hich are to be cmteacled inta a dry and nabitable cdntiflent. exhalt-ions of wate.,r . fatm clouds, whihj flating in the air, fbed dews r and rains upon the continent, cover the lofty mountains with perenn ial and de[cend tlie bills in }lreams, which combine perengial 'rivers. Thefe pervading: and ov.er the Earth furni{h nourilh meut to it's procluaions, for the fpport of it's in ,ha. bitaI\ts. WhiUl: 'the winds e K cite motion vivified by the h,eat of fire. So that the lm'ents th, mfilves fiem interohangtd: is ltjl Jrom one pqffis, into an'Ilther. Thus q-nd alternaie ,are.ihe if N1I.T UR-E


[ 15, ] NATURE is the immutable Iaw of Qod, by which every thing is it is, and produces lohat effel. which it was confiituted. to produce., This artmcc::r of thin gs by it's Inherent powers, and untaught by an}', never a&s defultorily it op.eJat ,es' fiI!!-ntly. and pur[ues tho[e means be{J: <;almAted to, it's ClJl.d:S. It does noth'ing. in vain, nothing' f!1plmfluous, giv:' es particular pro!, pertit: s JQ .. ahq prope'J'tres to genef,lllls, fQIJows onlr it's own unvaryi-ng laws-. Ail tlvings '!!f!fl natu7ie, that the ope7'tions 0/ nature m..ay be perfilu/, NIATRAli BcO'D.IES are all tho[e were formecij. by' t-lilc hands of the Creator, confiituting the earth divided into td.l varty. Therifore nature Jrom eertat'n flrms recoriflitu.tts otheTs, 110, t B 2 confining


[ 16 ] co1ifining' herJ!f jlnlly to one U1z!forl1b Un or, but reJoicing in ,the ?iifPlay if unchanged enerf',ies. The KINGDOMS of nature conftituting the of this Ear' th are therefo r e three. ifi; MINERAL K:INGDOM in rude maIres l occupie.s the interior p arts of the Earth, is gencraled by the faIts exifting is indi[criminately mixed, and is modiiied by 1 2d, THE VEG-ETABLE KINGDOM clothes the furface venlure, extraas earthy pr nciples wilh bibulous roots, and breathes ethe rea l prin ci pIes by means of leaves, and by pro cefs which is eH'eaed by hea ,t, the parts of fruai : fication are Jornied, gneraling wh ich are difperT ed, wilhin prefcribed !imits. ,/ j 3d"THE AN IMAL KINCDOM adornsthe furface with beings endowed witn [enration, there lPoffeTs' the power of voluntary loco-m0tion; brealhe, genrate eggs" are ftimulated to a8:ion py the cravings of hunger, the delights 9f love, by pain and grief, and by preying vegetables, and the more numerous tribes of animaIs, limit Ihem wi thin certain bounds; [0 that a prpportion of all may' permanentl}'


[ t7 ] MAN wifdom ws-formed hy Ris CFeatGF; the laD,mofi nobl
eauey" he is difp ,o[-ed . : to venocate the ghi)Fious Canying his vi&ws through g enerations. :w' hibh hve pa.lfed a-w:ay, he [ees., the Cr-eatoF. Looking forward, to the multipueli means a;f he watcbflil' care of Nature. On eac;h Nde Beauty, Mechanifm. Ends, Fitnefs and Ufe, in\lite Qq:r aaention. Divine OmFliporence cmnQ. \ into Vegetables; V in.!> and lhe[e, finally inlo Man; who refleas back the r.ays of wif?om towards Majefty, irradiating with two.fold ViHOL.E WQlq,l) IS FULLOF THE,GLORY while al! creted glorify God

[ ] to us from Hea\-en ; 'and the mind which is a partaker of it, walks in the Light, and fpendstnis life as it \;ere in an earthly Paradife, Neither can Piety towards God, nor the juil Meafures of Gratude which is due to him, be perfeaJy comprehended the Knowledge 'of for Man \Vas deftiIied for the Con!em p,lation and Admiration of God; and the neareft and be!\: courfe to this noble Objel is indcated by the Study of -WlSDOM, an Emanation of the divine Spirit .. is the higheIl Attribute .of. Man; by this he forms a juil opinion of thefe things which rel ate -to the Senfes, and theJe con 'Ii,Il merely in fuch natural objeHs as immediately aroCihd The firIl fiep then towards Wifdom is the know Jedge of things tbis knowledge confiIls in a juil idea ,of objels, by wbicb fimilar boaies may diftingu i fbcd from thofe which arc diffimilar, by peculiar and difc;i!1linating marks j.nfcribed upon th em by the Creator himfdf. And that thi$ knowledge may commrmicable, proper names muIl invariably be affixed to each irtinEt objel, for where names fall into oblivion .every thing that known refpeaing thofe fubjels, to which they referred, ceafes to h communicable Tbefe are .the letters, ana the elemerts.


t 19 j elements, without the knowledge 'of tlle Book of Natu r cannot be read : No defcriptioll', however accurat, can infa)libly corivey the certain knowledge of any objea whofe proper Genusis unkrwwn. : METHOD, which is. the Soul of Scienc-, p

[ ] 'Diftriminating ciucumfi!iJ'.lees 1:nUJ.b be a Hended tQ, for ft is. eIfe:llitial ta oL any thing : to whate ver tQ for if N ames be, onfu f ed!, farily be involved in confufioa: The tlierefore ef the fid.t. Man in' the happy Age of Innoce ru:e was Obfervation o f Beings, and the Names to Spec ie's, aCl'cording tOI ther Genera. ,The Science of Naturoe refis upon the KlllOW, ted : ge ef the Natural and that of the Syfiemati c Nomencl ature; With thi-s, as with the Clrew of Ariadne, we enali>led alene, aMI to tFac6 Windt ngs of Nature's Labyririth. In this A p raEg eme-mt the are ,of lU,l1'Dan Con,trivance ; the-" Gen-4s, and the Species, are in the Order of Natur,e: AH true Knowledge refers to the Species.. th:al which relates to the Genus is nol unim 'portant. One Species of Order: is t hat of the Creator; another is o-f the Creature: The Creator beSins with the moll fimple, the earthy Elements. :.and proceeding tn.rougj' Stones, or' Minemls V egetables, AnimaIs, c0Dcludes with M a n. o 1. Man


( J .: b.egins from hiII}felf, and leaves off witn the Earth, The. Author of a Syilem afcends from Particulars to Univerfals; die Teacher; on the contrary, defcends from Generais, to Particulrs. Springs combining, form Brooks, Rivers; the Navigator afcends there, as far as they navigable, but can never attain their Sources. A dillina Knowledge of Things I;>eing given S, we !hould endeavciu r to farthr in to thrr peculiar Properties, their Phenomena, Mylleries. their and {ince the of the Natural Hillory' of the !hree Kingdoms is the Foundation of ail Regimen, Medicine, and of al!' Economy, either as they regard of Life, or as they r\!fr to the Oper-ations of Nature. Happy curdvators, were you {enf\ble of your Privilegs! 1 .ail created Things are Evidences cif Divine Power and Wifdom, and the Treafuty of human Felicity. In the Ufes to ,,,hich they are adapted. the }oodnefs of the Deity is difplayed; in their Beatty, his Wifdom ; from the Economy obferved jll their Prerervation, their Proportion to one another; and in their Renovalion, the Power of, his Majeny. The ,'-


The In v fr.igation of thefe Subje&s hn..s al ways \>.eeljl br t11e \lIIiI,p.rejdi.ced; al19, by tflofe poHeffed e.f' Leifure, al'ld. pr0PJ,0ted bY. the '-r ,ife; lea!'lilep; br. the igF).orant-, the (0U$t it lias b.een ,dif.G.ounte.m.anpe, , 1 wi11 de,c1are thy. wondrous W or -ks Q Lord,. .. i '" . 1 and W the Generations of the Eartb m![ITt:0f yry Aas CJ ... th,e d .eath of MflfC-Uf Ailre/i uf th!, S oldil!NI ,e)pJ;ed, f-evera1'Einp 'crors, who f"arcely RO'ew 'liow t'o writ'e 'l'heir l .e a rne.d as -Jazy and ufelers Drone" lef{ Learntng enure1y to the CloifreNl r : !Fhe-ll'fIonks, a t p"'ll, h p 1 d rlJte Sludy, of lIratpre-JI). tpey next afp.erred it a, pnattainable, and, lal\ly, .peiifaGutlcdl. J[' I 'lower t!his. 1 1ime; n 'atur, al aop. !e'lc;a!ed Will of God, came to bel ccmfil.ed as -eacih 'other' ; an'd, from HH' thi, s Er. r .o.r, c.veq ts:J thii :Q.l.y., fuR perim l n f anliliC'd 1 9 nonrnce. of 1 T I N E


1 1 ., 1 l, A are provi'ded a zatlOll, feel Dy means of a vlvlfied medul. 1ary p erceive by' nerves; and mOve themCelves by exrtions of the will. The liFe of this ;per lj!letuaUy/ m0bile, hydraulici animal was Iprlma!ly'. communicated to the medullary fubfiance, c01'1tillue an'cl it; j t ts fup.ported by an ethel1ell.11 'le.&l'ic fla.!lle of ilJextinguilhabie fire, which: s by rfl'liration; in this elel:rit: 'are, liefides the incomp.rhertfible power by which the will excites ;voluntary motion. ATU RE is profure in the multiplication of .ail living beings J!.ife originates the .' minuteft :fornis: il begins in the liquia matter of an egg: Hene the D'rervatiori, tht every living thing is produc' d from an egg. .. 'Fhe ..


Th egg within it's coats, which often inc1ude '.a white, cantains a. yolk; the. pun&um faliens,,' or 1'l1diment of the animal, is fixed on the upper fl,lrface of the Joli<; this rudiment veget ates into an is rooted by the umbilical .chord, as a pl. ant by it's {lC!lIl, into it's placenta, the yolk. "The p1,ln&um faliens, or rudime,n t of life is, in every / jnfb.nce, an extenuon, or 'of the medullary (ubfiance a n imated by a p or, tion of the lik primarily 'into it. The egg is therefo!e a bud of the original medullary ','fubflance of the mo,ther, and hence poffe!fed of vitality in common with it's vitality is not to itfeIf, until it has acquired a heart fro,m the paternal parent .' Tl;le, animal hydraulic refembles that of vegetables, but is variollfly modified in dif, animais, ; from the different firu&ure of the brain, on, which the powers and faculties depend. -The internaI medulliuy wbicb may be com p'ared to the piih o{ a plant, is extended : into a !impie fiem frpm it's bulb, the prain; tbis Rem is in its progrefs infinitely fubdivided, and fends to every part of the body filamentous ramifications, of a fubfiance fimilar to itfelf." Thefe are termed nerves. The


[ !:s ] t The covering or fheadr ()f the matter, which a'ft'hvards be'coines hard1 lke the ligneoU's fub ftan ce of a tree, is elon gated from the lkull, as it's into it's llein; the vertebtli!. are unite ta each or joints, ancHentl bra riches on eafdide into limbs, t<>' ,vhich bFari'CI'les tlf fi"brdus, Hefhy, are att,!'chcd" like leaves" fpn:ading in a determidate o rd'r, and fixed br their to the nri "', '. .' : The' extrn 'al ct>rtica) fbh:ance of b o'dj Is' rooted internally in the laelea'l veffe!s, the may termecl its bulb: it'S an! twd iil number, the venous, and the arterial, not fering effedtially ftbm eath other in their forIn 'or ramifiations, which are infinitly numrous and ininute. The camrre, or fat's of the faculties withip r the antmal machine are /ive j-' ,. !:' ). .... l" ... J' lll. The mollimportant of aIl, the animal meduUary, e!earico-motive magazine o'f the living: fecretly aaiog,. willing, thinking, reafoning djvine faculty; which. by threa4s, itfe}f through the organized and influeJ;l.pes., and .dire@:s, the whoJe. c


[ 26 ] -.'2dly Andfecol'idary in the v j taJ the inhale e1ear, ica! v i tal principle from the air, to fupport. flar.pe. 1 3d1y. The hydraulic machine .. \ - i t 1.' : tbat ,from -perp<:;lually rr:oy ir.ig J'lnd' propels j tl : e : whole body the tluids which are insrHfed in quantity. that deficiency 1fqr 1 : l 4th1Y. The alimentary digeflive organs, th i abdomi n al vifcera, that-within th e in canal juices proper ,for the. wJlic.b are thFogb the whole -. t .'" ".-." t ( fi 1 l' .. -: ;,. l' r "." 'f sthly:. c?ntinuing fuc cefIion. -. 1 ? J' The organs of the [enfes are phyfical machi nes, placed at .the e xtremies of nerves, n e a r the fenfo ri u m 'of the bra!n; divine contrivance,is enab led tb percei v e \.,' 'Tll E y e, is .. a obfcura; whic h paints Q o j eas th eir j1:1rf. f orms, and !.,l' JI.1. ) c 'OJOur s. . 1 i is a drum;' of a tight ,mem b r a ne, firetched ove; a h,ony ri 'ng: tl l e and vibrating from the motions of the air. The


,The ,Nofe,is a broad, humid"convohiled mem-,j brane, arrefring the volatile effiuvia floaling in Iheair. TJ1e Tongue" is be[et with bibulous, fpongv papillre, wIiicl attra&' in a fraIe 9f humidity or [ollHion. The refides in foft papillre, which readily afI'ume figure of bodies imprelTed upon tllem. Mon animaIs, but not al!, enjov the of. thee fe' nfes, they migbt have!)olTelfd 'Other fpecies of perc eplion, had it pleafed the Deily to have added to theiI' fellfitive p9wers: as, the Magnet perc;eives the l're[ence of Iron, and Amber, tbat of are givcti InfeCts alone, ufe of which is as henfible tb us, as lhat of our Ears to t4em. The Eye, by the agency of li. ght, Ea'r, means of air, indicate approach,ing the Touch, by c>nla8:, petceives the of foli4 bodies ;-the No[e, examines volati!e .ruh ,,,! by -of it's ;-the TongLJP,; {oluble boqies, br. means of !l'S -Ebres ;-lhat wt!j judge if Ihey), anq.t fdlutary ;-or, if di[agreeable ,;-fOi'biddenj' noxious. C 2 j'1 RefleXion


RefJe i ion i n d.uces to choqfe fU. ch things as are grateful to our fenfes; and to rejel fuch as are ungratcful * * ,Joy gratifies itfelf t h e good thin gs of this life. }<'ear frot)1 by flight. Anger defends itTelr' by Grief mourns for larres kn ... 1 .' : The Econorny '<;lf i s e qua1Jy difpla} : .ed in her 3 Ki.ngdoIns. F or, as are for the fake Qf t}leir Ru1.er$-hut for the .of o(der amon,gn fer.ve purpQfe of reIlr ainil)g, within limits; the vegetahi e Aniplafs vent the exuberapce of the of there; the mor e c powrfl:iJ refhain the exC?elfes of the mor. feeble. Man, in his animal capaC?ity, is irtt 'l'Icled for the of or;der among the moO: powerful and j ndeed among{l::.' ail AnimaIs, principa l' l y however he exi ,O:s for own' avanlage; in fluenced br unfeeling ,he that juO: proportion order inay prevai'i permanently in the Commonwealth of Many


.1 Many individuals of the Citizens of this C orn. m onv.'ealth, in their turn, confpire againfl: th Majdly of rational Mail, their Ruler; whofe dut Y it is, to acknowledge the great Author of the whole < As "Vater, collelif'g from Springs,' fOflllS Sre ams, Brooks and Rowing int o th Ocean; fo the Commonwealth of be ginning amongfl: the, very numerous plebeian orders, afcends through the lefs numerous Patl'i ci a ns, and from them through a few Princes or higher orders of Nobility, to the Governor him felE; whilIl even the fmaliell AnimaIs, by the infinite power and refources refulting from their Numl;>ers, contribute to the ufes .of the larger, more inert; but higher ordcrs .-Hence, Nature is Hever grealer than in il'S mimitell parts. The Mini flers of tbis Economy-have each their proper Offices affigned-varying wilh the yarious Species .of Animais, eacb being ilimulated to his refpeCtive dUlies for his OWI1 Convenience, from their own Exerlio, ns they derive their Support, that nOlhing may be deficient-nolhing fupedluous; and leU fome fhould invade the Provinces of otbers an rob them of the Reward appo inted for their Labours, the of Pqifon \5 efidbl ifhed, iufliling capital Punifhment, and :'CC\. "lrded in the Scnfes themfelvcs, efpecially ip. C 3 th9{e


[ 30 ] tbofe of Smell and TaIle, !eIl unintentional fbould efcape. The principai Occupations of the Inhabitants of Naturre are, 1. To continue the Species, that there may be a fufficient l'lumbey; for the ; plll'poies intended. 2. To' preferve an Equilibriqm, between the of Anim;ils and Vegetables-that a j uft propor tion may be permanently preferved . 3. To eut d own annually the vegetale Crop, that the yearly Exhibition may be renewed. To refirain the qegenerate, leIl the legitimate Species fbould be expelled. To rernove the languid, the difeafed, the dead; dd\led, f\agnant, acid, and putrid ., Matters, that the Elegance of Nature m ay b preferved . 4' To pl eferve themfelves From ExtinRion, JeIl there {hould he a defea in olle part of the S y Ilem. The Economy of Nature is employed in the Generation; Prefervation, and DeIlru&ion of Things-alild ail the Powers 'of Nature combine, l.hat the Works of the Creator may continue unimpaired. Animals-require the Care of others in their Education, and as the Creator, who could receive 1'10 return, provided fO. r the Pr. efervation of t .llC firI,l


[ 3t ] nrlllnd'ivdt,lal of the in the d efcending Line" OffspriBg, who repay the Labours of Prefervation is effeted by daily Food, wllich being widely dirp e rfed, mull be acquired by dif perfes over the Face of the Earth thofe whom the AffeEtion-s' of Qtle' lndividual is neceffary for the Prefervation of mufr be 'fliffaiiled by the laboriou5 acquifition of Carcaffes nt fgr Food, are not in continuai Devafiation of ail is produced.-The more ative by Bravery, by lheir natural lleans Ijt defence, Agility and their while the more Ia,nguid under tbe WaF-. fare, the more } ... dlten on in thir Courfe, that the of may conti. nually flourifh anr .. enjoy Vigour. The of Nature, to incite to a quick I;>i[charge of it',. various DUlies are, J. Affetion. gentle and kind, w hich promotes AITociation and Increafe. la. 'Cra. \ng &nge' r. which difperfes and urges 10 Pre[ervation. 3. Horrible Pin, which excites to deRroy, and repels thefe have theii Ufei. The


" T :he-natur): l)i .. -if{on, of AnimaIs into ClafTes IS : Peculiarities in their -il1trna) Struaure : A withtwo i nclcs, and 'two .... .' ,:" (-, f ... i .}. -, Warm & rcd bood, OVlparous, 1'1' f > ,;/ves, r Cl. 2. Bitds. 'A: heart 'with one *Vohlltary lungs. CI, 3' Amphi L ia. !! ride, and onc ve?-_'" tricle:. -'." , Pi[c'f, <;.old' , & .. red Extfr nal CI. 4' Filhes. \' wilh nc;> An ;tennz, ride, and one ,'en-\ 1 -. tr ic1e: ' Cold whitifh fanies. Having 1. :' .; 11 .. , 1,"!ftElfJ, CI 5" Infc:s. I Vermu ; Cl. 6. Worms. -If Lungs : he Powe r 'of bra'thing al the, Will ef t?e, A11:imaj .. : .ot regulal l'nlervals. \ , 1 ".,' CHAR,AcTERS i 1",( , : i 1 (; l . i'" 1 '-'1 s


CHARACTERS of the CLASSES of the ANIMAL -Kl'NGDe>M. 1 1 1 A ., /. 1 The heart has two auriles, al'hwo Ventrides i the blood Is warm, and red. .: ;, .... )ungs refpire by alternat ly infpiring; ar;t&: expiring air. The jaws are incunibent on e'ach and covercd with foft parts; as the cheek:s ana lips; mon of them have teeth inferted in the jaw bones. They, their young live, and them with milk. . r,j;1 organs of fenfe are, the poIIdls, eyes, ears, and the papilla: of the Ikin. They are covered with hair, which is, thin ,in the quadrupeds of warmer regions, an fcanty on the aquatic rnammalia. " Their' organs of moti>n are four legs; exccpt in thofe which are entirely confined tO.,the water, in whorn the hi nd feet a,re united into a tail.-Mo!! have tails.


1 l [ 3 4 .' ] A VlS, or 2. BIRDS' : The' ht:a 'rt' hai auricles, and two ,>:entricles; the blood is, Th lungs rerpire, as in Ihe mammalia. ,. The or incumbent on each other, without covering, projeaing,' and without taeth. , They are oviparous! the egg being tove, red with . a Ql.ell, , .; t. (. 1 : .... 1 .. Their organs of are, the tOngue, nollrils eaI:S whih' np organ : feathers ar e inc;'u n beJ.1t as, the [c a l It ',,: .... 1 Jo.. '"\ ,. motiqn a,re tWQ, two wings, and ci tail. ,', RIA. The heart' has one aur1de, and one vei1tricle ; .' 1 1 f.!. t th,e 'blood is cold, and red. to will '?f the animal. Thejaws' 'are incuinbent on other: are oviparous, and th!!, eggs in mofr have cove'fings: ,', 1 Their'.'orgatls 'of' retire are "ll1e longue, nofirils, yes' ; and' ears in many [pecies: .. They IIr covered with a naked Ikin: ,,) Theil' organs of motion are ih fpecies, (lnd entirely wanting ip [orne. Pifces, ,


PifctS, or {. FrSHES. [ M,' ] :" The one ,and o1l7' vntrilt:; the bJood is 'cc;Jd;', and red. '. t. are ompr:fTed .on their lurffc; 'irfflead'Of lungs. ,-, .' Thejaws on each other: ,":' : They are the ggs cQntiri 'ne 'ivh: ite. ,,' .:' ... :" Their organs '(jf [en're are, a tongue, noflrils; ) "" eyes, ears; covered wito fcals that' 6th Jr)'\s files on the ro'of of a holl[e. ;, .r,,: : '" "': 1,1 Thejr organs of motion are fins; fitted for fwimming. Ir!feEla, 5. IN SEcrs: .... l, 1 The he art hs no auricle, and one ventricle ; , 1 inflead of blood they haye a cold Y-bey by pores 0;, the fides' of their 1 \ ': jaw t open laterally, or cro[swi[e. Their .or [en[e are, th!! tongue, e yes" and antennre on the h"ead which is deltitute of brai 'n.-They hve neither ears, nor i '\ "The' are c'vered by a bony coat of mail > J'heif oigans of motion are legs in all, in,Ihany WlllgS. ,


[ a6 ] Vamu, 6. WORMS, The heart has one ventricle, and no auricl-j inead of. blood. they hve a cold '{'anies, Their pores are obfcu re, and uncer. tain. Thei, in ( 1 r : l 1 \ .1 Their o rgaas of fnfe are tentacula; no head, nofir-ils, they can faid to : have eyes TI : ex cver.e.d -lhelIs, 0 ; have no except fpines. They have neher fiet nor fins. --Thus Nature in her Menagerie preferves AnimaIs in fix differnt F orms ';-Mammalia, covered with hair, walk on the earth, ./pean.. --, -Birds, with fea thers, fly in the air, jing. Amphibi ,aj cqvere with !ki n, creep in warm places ; hifs Filhes, covered with fcale's, fwim in the water, cluck., ,or l'mach with their tips. InfeRs, covered with lkip on dry ground buzz. Worms' without lkin, crawl in maifi places,.filent. CLASS


[ 37 ] CLASS tll. THE MAMMALIA._ T H E ' Mammalia, are thofe that nouriIh their young with milk ; in their {lruUure, and organization, bpth externa1 and internai, t hey clofely refemble Man;-the greatdl: number of them are quadrupedes, which inhabit the furface or the earth along with us, as among inveterate -enemies; while others, fewefi in number, but fllperior in fize, furnifhed with fins, and reIide in the ocean. The clOalhz"ng of quadrupedes is compofed 'O' f extremely foft, flexiole, ana feparate hairs, hence iefs fubjeU to in jury, and more abundant on' the animaIs of cold, than of warm climates. Hairs con'Crete or f as to form fpihes 'on the porcupine, and hedge hog; fpines ar fIttened lnto fcales on the -manis; fcaes are united, fo as to form a Ihell upon the armadill. ,In the horfe, and dog, promineJ;lt Iines of long hairs divide the the common coat, thef lines ,or ridges are elongated ioto a mane in the horfe, and pig. The aquatic Mam excepting thore that are fometimes dellined t ; o go on dry land, are defiitute oChairs, which D wonld


,'Wou Id be an w ilen wt; befide lhe[e peculiartties, lh face is in fome furnilhed with tufts of briIlles, the !ips whifke.rs, and the chin whh a beard) as in Man, the ape, and the goat; the feet and breafi with callolities, as ill the hOi-fe, and came!. The ju: ra or fupports, the infirumenh of i'loLon, deGgne to render fligh t expediliollS, when an enemy is to be avoided, or prey purfued, are in quadrupedes the four reet, the anterior pair ,of which are provided with paIms, fometimes fhaped as a hand, with the thumb placed oppofite to the fingers, as in the order primates, jlnd the opoffllm: the pofierior pair have foIes to firengthen and their motion, and the[e are either palmated, i. e. have toes c;nneEled by a mem.' for the purpofe of fwimming ; or defl, i. e. have fep.arate .toes for running rapidly,or are fupported for fianding firmly, as in man, and b ear; to obviate mechani ,cahn)ury d uring Dight over a rugged furface, the are armed with.a tl), i ,cJ.<, as in the common hare, araic fox, and noth; p r hoor'd, i. e. it;cIofed Jn hoiJ\lw nails, as in a {hoe, in the ami 13eIluce; in thefe alfo the heelis' of tep. ,hoof'd, when the toes are by nature v"anting: bll.t the -more ferocious are daw' ed, i. e. bearded as it w.ere with nails lixcd 10


. [ 39 J ta the extremities of the toes, Jar Ihe purpof o( [eizing their prey, wounding their enemies, aml digging tbe ground, in moU OF the daws are po inted, and ; ,in others, that are fierce, they are oval, and flatten' d. The Ferre, the mofl' of the quadrupedes are armed with lliarpl recun'ated c1aws. FI)'ing animaIs, of this c1afs, a[cend the erial l : egions by the aid of elpngated, palmated fore feet, as bats; or [ail bLJoy;;lnt thrbugh t'he air, b)' means of membra)1es between the fore and. hind feet, as the 'f1ying a nd Squirrel. The aquatic Mammalia may be termed defeElive, i, e., are deItitute of <:laws and hoofs; their fore legs are retraaed their fides, and the pofle'rior extrelIiities to form an horizontal tail, a s in the Order Cele, or the Whales. . The arms of the Mammalia, ellclllfJve of the daws before noticed, and the leeth 10 he de[cribed afterwards, are chie.fly cartilagin ous horns fixed the h:ad, toe[e are eithet folid, and perennial, as in the Rhinoceros; or branchy, and anL1ual,' at firfi hairy on the furfa ce; and growing from c' the } r Deer: or, lhe-at.hing an internaI fubfiance, nd increafing at the ... ) as in Ihe Cow, GOalS, ad Sheep ; with tl;f>f,; the y attack, firik, and by that meafis elu

The inflrul1unts employed in preparing food for digdlion, are the teeth; whi.ch are 'of three kinds, the primores, or fore teeth, that are fome limes fhaped a wedge, broad at the ba[e, a Ihrp edge, and termed incifores, or cutting teeth; the[e ferve for p-Iucking, gnawing, and cl:ltting the fQod. Tlie. laniarii, or tufks, which are conical, than the other teeth, have no oppofites that meet them when the mouth l 1S clofed, and are emplo}'ed in taring the food (Q pieces. The molares, OT. grindersr which are b roader th an the others, are defigned to bruire, and grind the aliment; thefe are obtufe in herbi vorous, and more aCUle in carnivorous animaIs. Anteaters, and Manis, are the only Mam malia defiitute of teelh. The Tai! is fOl"med by a multiplication of the vertebree of the fpine, extending backwards; in a few of the mammalia there is rio tail, as in man, fome of the pes, and [ome mice; others il' is {bort, not longer than the thigh, as in the Hare, Satyr, Mole, and Hedghog. In others, reaching to t4e feet, or /lill farther, as in Dogs, Mice, &c! the tail in fome is naked, as in Mice ; pr:ehenfile, i. e of being twioed round an objea, and then drawing it towards the animal, the purpofe of a fifth hand, as in fome Apes, the Porcupine, and OpofTum; or coverd with ,,'


r 41 ] with long flowing hair, as in the Hor[e; and Cow ; or' wf(ed, with a penc;il of hairs at the as the or with hairs ranged in two lines fi.des ofthe tail. as the Gra in in an Ear _oJ Barley, it is [0 in the Squirrel, and Ant The guards, or difel!five, a"fmour of the Mammana are parts formed for the defen of the different fenfes.-Thefe are, The eXternal ears, which a re wanling i n the aquatir. Genera they render the fenf of heal'ing more perfe8:, and are in form either rounded: nearly oval, !barpi or cleft; in pofIti09, or pendulous... 1 Thepupif of tne cre, which is orbicular in the fpecies that employ the fight chieRy by day ; and fuaped like a line, and capable of dilatation, in eilher an horizontal, or vettical direlion, in thore that prowl by The winhing 17lernbrane, contri\'ed to COVeT die pupil without entiTely excluding the Iighf, this is in very few of the Mamma1ia. The tyelit/s, which are moveabJ"e in every fpecies, in fome with eyelallies on both lds, as in Man, and Apes ; ln others, Including the greatefi part of theMammalia, with a la!b on the upper /id Qn.ly. D 3 The:


[ 42 ] The nqfi, comprefs'd, f1atten'd. crodked, -br bifid; {horter than the !ips, in Apes ; fomewha t longer, as moU 'of the Fera! ; 'or elongated int o probofcis, as in the Elephant. The nqjlrils nearl y oval, or orbicular. tongue, in general fimple, fometimes edge d 'with papill, or fmalI flelhy eminences, aS i e Dogs; with fpines on the fur face, as i l Cats; or {haped like a thread, as in the Manis, and Ant Eater; bifid in the Phoc. The upper lip, .. whjch in tiIofr fpecies has a vertic .al furrow in the ,middle.-In the Glires, it is bifide The organs fot fupplying the milk in the female are ahvays in and of a numbel in each fpecies.-They vary in their ln different fpecies. The utili t y of the Mammalia is conIiderable many of the Pecora are bred to fupply us wit L fldh, milk, leather, tallow, hair, and wo _oI; we employ the Elephant, Camel, and Horfe fer drawing or carrying burthens: fome of the Ferre are trained up to hunt vcrmin, as Mice, and more uncommon of the Mammalia are kept 10 Menageries, .as o!Jjeas of \ The


t '43 ] 'the, princi pal ,Aul?OrS on tbe fubjea are, of the preceding age pefner,' Aldrovandus, and JohrSoh; of the prerent Ray, Briffon, Hout tuyn, Buffon, Petinant, Pallas, Schreber, Klein. Cetti, Erxcleben" Elum-enbach, Camper, and Sforr. ' ", The fubjea is to : be of fcientifically, by giving a defcription of each fpecies, with an account of it's food, and ecoilOmy from tbe to the termin'ation of it's exift-. .",' \ '," \ . en ce, tbat benc!'!, final oi: the defigns of the Creator may be of, fueh hiftories may be feen in the Effays on the Dog, Rein Deer, 'Guinea Pig, c ommon Hog, and in the Acadeinica:: ., -' f '" : '-, The


[ 44 J The ORD IN A L CHA,RACTER' S oC1his :GLASS are principatly taken the Teezh ;.MA MM ALI A. , RavinIT Claws or NailS, and Teeth. o . ORDERS: No fore .in' ithcr jaw, Br"!'a, Tw o incilive fore teeth in Glires' -1 no tulks, .-:. Four incifi:ve fore teeth. in hpth,} > tulk. on each fide, in Primat es, 1 Jaws, ", Si x or ten fore teelh in}.. bath jaws, one on each fide; in bath, -'-.' Having Roofs (3 Teeth-. Fore teeih in bath jaws, BellutZ, 6 Na fore teeth in the upper jaw, Fecora,' S Dif}live-Hamng 'lIO Feet. The in the .. fpenest 7


[ 45 ] CHARACTERS of the ORDEES. :l ... THE r;re' teelh ncitive: thofe in the upper jaw four in' numbet, and par'aHel t6 eath olher; the tu!ks il:anding fingle. ,: ',1 The organs for fupplying the young with milk \ ." two in number, placed on the breafi. . The fore feet are of a peculiar form, termed hands ; the nails flattened, and ,:, l ,'-: The arm.s are kept at ; 3: ,from. e:i!ch other, by the interpo fition I?f, clavicle ,s, or. car. bones; hence their gait is aukward, when they: attmpt to walk as quadl'upedes. They live ptin-' c ipally on fruits, they sa' ther h,Y t r ees, and cut in pieces with the fore teeth. OR.DER 2.-BRUTA. No fore teeth in either jaw. ;" The feet armed with firong nails. 1 l :,' ; Clumfy, and flow ici their motions. l n eating they bruire, or comprefs thir food. ORDER.


. 0 R DER 3.-F E R JE.. The teelh are coniaf. frequentl)' fix 1l'f each jaw. , The longer than the other teelh. The grinders armed with conical proJeaioU's. The feet armed with fharp: hooked c1aws: Their fubfifience 'is on deadcarcaffes, which 'Jley tear pieces; or animaIs which they delhay for . Two iircitive f9re teelh in each jaw.,No tufks. Feet prqvided with': c1aws. They: bound in their motion From plac tO" plae They live by gnawing the bark. roots, and other pilIts lf vegetables. '." ';: j < ORD E R S.-P CO RA. . Fore teeth in lower ja, w incifive, and The feet llOofed. a,nd' c)Qven. They on y,rhich, they pludqlP, and afterwards rumina te. They


They hilve fo'ul' !l.omacbs; the Rutner! in which the foou is macerated, to be afterwards thrown u? iilto the and chewed perfeaIy, ls lermed ruminating: theReticulum divided in ta fmal} and receiving the food after fhe The Omafus, which food and furnirii. ed with foids OF! its The Abomali.ls, in whjch an acid is produed to pre' vent the putrefaaion ,of the aliment. ' , The fore te,eth blunt. The feet hoofed. In their prog-reve : motion Dow, and heavy. They fubfi!l. on vegetables, which they drag or :tear From their fl:ems. -DRD ER 7.-CETE. lnllead of feet they have peaoral fins, and in place of a tail their hind feet are united fo as tlt form a broad fin, to affifi them in (wimming. They have no nails, or claws. The teeth are cartiJaginous. The nollril in many is a blowiog hole on the upper part of the head. They


). "r"hey -dweH III the {ea, aRd-live Olimirine infeas, and fifh. .. Tpis 'ORDER i from the filhes, nd ipclllded iI,l. the : Mammalia, 'OP oi :t;o the latter Thefx ; h:art has two auricles, .and two ventric;les, their blood . -'. il! warm, they brea,theby means of Lungs, have eye lids, and open ears: J The femaleiUckles her CHARACTERS t' / ( .. 1 l'II 1 il' !. ""'.


t 49 ] Q F THE G EN E RAO F M A M',M ALI A. ORDER I.-PRIMATES. GtUUS 1. MAN 1. HOM .O. 1. Ape. li. Simia. 1:. 'H', B"aboons. *-MO)ukeys. Simiat. ptJPionu. CercoPith,ci. ,**** Sap ajous. Sapa}i. "'1141 Sago ins. Sagoi"i. Wa, lks erea. tulks, dillant from the other No tails. Short tails. Long, not prehenCile tail s upper acid back part of the thiglt naked. Long prehenfile lails, n cheek-pouches, the upper and back part of the thign clothed Long, not tails. no check-pouches, the pper }nd back part of the thigh c1othed. 3. Macauco. 3. Lemur. 3. Have li" fore teeth in the lower 4: 13at. jaw. 4. VifptTtilio. 4. Their fore feet are palmated, for the purpofes of f1ying; A. Four Nott.-The figures preceding the Lotin names exprefs the order of the as' arroged by Dr, Gmelio; thoCe which follow the Latin names are prefi"e in his edition, apparently to mark the order followed by Linnoeus in the former edition ; fuch as have no numeral after the Latin nll1Tl'es are new Genera adopted by Dr. Gm elin. The Iig-ures which precede the Englilh &3mC!: /how the ordtr obferved in this 'edition.-T.


[ 5 ] ,; ft. Four fore tecth in eah jaw. B. Four fore .bove .lix be.low C. Four fore teetli : eigl;t belbw. ,-"",: D Two teelh above, li" below. E. Two fore t eeth above, fOllr beiow. F. Two fore tceth none below. G : No fore tteth abave, four helnw. H. No fore teeth in 'cither jaw, 1. The nllmbcr and arrangement of the tee!h UlJ-known. OROER II.-BRUTA. Cmur 5' Sioth. 6. Anl-eater. :1. Manis. 5' Bradyfus, 7. .Have no fore tceth or tu/k-sl the anterior g;inders longer than the rell:. bod y is hair}". 6 Myrmecoph;ga. 8. Have no teeth. The body is hairy. 7 .J.1aIlJ, g. Have no teelh. The body is covered with fcales. S. DaJypllr. 10. Have grinders, but no tulks ,or f9re teeth. The bod y is covered with a Cl una ceous [hello 9 Rhinoceros.g. Rlnoar;s, 36. Has a on the mi ddle .of th forehead. ID. ,Sukotyro. SUCOI) 'TO. Il. Elephant 10. El cpllas. 5. Has haros on lide, below the cyes. Has tufks and grinders, but no .fore Th,e f 'j.out is elongated a flexi ble trn.nk. 12. Walrus. 11. T1ic!ucllllf. 6. Hal tu/ks in the upper jaw i l' OROER III.-F E R}!!:'.C,nu1 13. Seal. u. Phocf!. 11. rougit, boney cxcrcfcences for grindel's. Hind legs .and feet fll'ctchcd bijck. wards. and united thcre. Six fore tecth .bove, fOUi bdow. 14 'Dog.


[ 5 1'. J -' Pel:' 13, r!.' t. Six fore teeth iir eacll jaw: the intermeiate ones, obove, lobcd. Six fore teeth in each J:rw ; the .lower ones .qual The tongue pl'icldy W,ith long tails, nnd plain ears. ** With Ibort. t.ails, and pencilled ears. Lynxc!. 16: Fitchet. 15: Viver;a. 1..4' Six fore teeth in eeh ja, w : '1 JI 17 . Weafel. 16. MuJldll. 15, 1"/ >:rtri, J . : 18. ';Sea' r,.; '7. ,UljU!. 16. I.i. ,,', tO, Mole. . r: 22. Urchin. 21. Er;llceus. 20'-' ORDE-R IV.-.GLI RES. Genus23 P o,cupine: 21. 21. / E 2 the intermediaie ones, be low, Iborter th' an the refi. ' Six fllre teeth in each jaw ; .. lower cri,wded together; .two, alternate, fimding within th rdl:. The feet weLbed. The feet divided. ,1. 'l' Six fore tceth in each jaw : the upper ones hollowed. Ten fore teeth .bov e, eight below S i 'lI f o re tceth ab.ovc : eight Tw fore (ceth aLOI' c, four below: Two fore t ccth in eac h ja\\ ; The bo'dy IS with T!lC bndy lS tovcrcd with long fpin es fore t ccth are wcdge like; Jour grillders on each fide. No collar boncs.


l 52 -J ncaver. 24 Ct1lor 23. 26,1';1 u cine quad rupeds. 5Mus. z 4. The upper-.fore wcdge likc ; four grinders on cach !ide. Has collar bones. The u.pper fore wellgc like; grindcrs on caeR !ide. Has collar bon es, 41 M)'o,ajlquS, 'rhe lail i5 f1attened al tlle end. ** Rats & Mlee. M.ures. The tail is t Myifuri With oak.d tails +t Cuni,u/arii. With hairy tails. "* lIamn.rs. riceti. **** M-ole-rats. M)'qtafpae. !l7. Marmot : '26. Arlomys. Having cheek Ha ,ve 00 exlernal ears; [m alI cyes; and a very !hor t ; tail, or nO,o,e. 1-Jve two wedge-like for e ,t.eet-h in eaeh jaw' l five griners above ; and fouf pel.ow. o.lHJl.Ch f,de , Have co Ilar bones. Ha y e t w o wedge.l.ke fore tuth 3bove ana,two !har!, pointed, below;' fiv/! grillde r! above, and below, on eaeh rid Have collar bones: H ai r on the tai 1 !hed (,d e ways: LQng w hilkers. Climbiog Squirrels. S. Sca ndentu .. Flying SquirreIs. S. VolilanteJ. .29. Dormou{c:


( ] 2g:Dormoufe . 8. M)'oxus. 26. .(l0. Jerba.. 2g. 31. Hare. ao. L,pu s 22. 32. 3" OROER V .-PECORA. Have long whifkt'rs; and a Tound tail, thick at lhe extremity. Have very iliort fore, .nd very long liind legs. The upper fore teeth d'JOble. Have brl!>.d upper fore ;ccth. No tail. C,nuI33' Camel. 3 Calndus. 2", Hornlefs. Has f evfr,.. l 34' Mufk. 33. 'Mofchus: 28. 35. Deer. 34' Cavus. 29' 36.Camelopard35' Cira.Jfa. 37. Antilope. 36. a8. Goat. 37' Capra. 30. 89. Sheep. 38. Ouis. 31'. -i0' Bull. 39' Bos. 32. ORnER VI.-B E L L U,L on e.ch lide of eacb jaw Hornlefs Solitar' y tufks. .. in the upper jaw. projea from the mouth. Has folid, braneh)' decduous horns. No tulks in either jaw. Very iliort horns. The fore legs are much longer than thofe behind. Has [olid Jimple, pertifient horns. No tufks in either jaw. Has hollow, erea horns. No tlks Has hollow rcclined horn!. No tufks. Has hollow extended horns. No tulks ClIIUI 41. Horfe. 40. E'Iuus. 33 Has lix fore teeth in eaeh-jaw. four fore tee th in eaeh. "', jaw. E a 43--Tapi.st.


:. 43. Tapir. ,440 Hog. "<;., [ 54 ]t 42 .'TaPir. '" Fias tn fore teeth, 'in each jaw. 43. Sus. 35. '" Has four fore teeth in' the .. upper, and fix in the lower jaw. OflDER VII.-CETE. Ccnus45' 4!-M.o'ioiJon. 37; in the upp 'er jaw. 46. Whale. 45. Balaena. 3,8. Has hor.no/ teeth in the upper jaw .. 47. 46. 39: Has boney teeth in the lower jaw only. 48. Dolpnin. 47. Delpkinus. 40. Has bC:lIiey teethin' bothjaw5. .. J,'.;. SYSirEM ATIC


:,.-S Y STE MAT 1 C C A TA LOG U E OF . T1tE dl; CLASS-MAMMALIA* .. ORDER TES; MAN. Sapient Man. Wild Men. .Americans. Europeans. Afiatics. Afr-itans. Mpnfters ; Dwarfifb. Mutilated. Beardle[s. Sharp-headed. Flat-headed GENUS i. 1. Homo Sapien s .. H. Feri. (d. H. American i .. ". H. Europaei il. H. Ali a tici. ,; Afri. ,. H. r. Alpini. 2. Patagonici 3 ; .. 4 Imberbes. 5 ; Macrocephali. 6. The lig,ures before the, Englilh Rames exprers the' .running n umber in the clars, thore preceding the Latin nam e s the 'fp cies in each genus, apd the letten d.enole the. v ar icties i n cath


[ 56 ] _\ f G Ji NU' 5 11. APE. SIM 1 A. under 5 divilions 1. r 1. Chimpanzee. 2. Ourang.Outang:3' Pongo. 4. Jocko. , 5. Great Gibbon 6. LeITer Gibbon 7' Sil very Gibbon. 8. Pigmy. 9' Magot. 10. HO, &faced Ape,_ $n1I/. 1. Simia troglodytes 2. Simia Satyrus. (B. S. Satyrus Pongo. .-.;. s. 'si! yI'us' J ocko. 3. Simia Lar. S. Lar minor. ')1. S. Lar argentea. 4. Simia Sylvan u s. 5. Simia 6. Simia nivifton 2. "* BABOONS. II. Maimon. 12. Lite 13, Great 14, 15. Mandril. 16. Hoggiih Babootl. 17. W ood Baboon. 18 Yellow 19' Cinereous Baboon. 20. Blu-faced Baboon. 21. Brown Baboon,. 22. Creited Baboon. PAPI.ONES. 1. Papio neplefr.,rina 2. Papio ap.edi ::\. Papiq 4' 5. Papili Maitnon. 6. Papiq porcaria. 7. r:a,pjo [yi 8. 9. Papio cinerea. Papio li vea. r ... il. p p io platYpygos. 12. Papie criftata. : -Divifion


[ '5"7 ] Divifion g. u:lc MONKEYS. CERCOPITHECI. !i3. Dog-tailed Monkey. 1. 24. Tartarin. 2.Cercopithecushamadrya5 25, Udine Tartarin. /3. C.Jhmadryas urfinus .. '-6. Lowando. 3. Cercopithecus veter. /3. C. veter albibarbatus .. 28. Wahderu. 29, White-bearded bl4fk Wanderu. ao. Tie-tie W 4. Cercopithecus Si1nus. /3; C. Silenus albi;nba ... tus .;. C. Silenus Tie-tie. Wanderu. C. Silenus purpura tuS. 32. Ma1.rouek. 33. Macaque. 34. Dog-headed Monkey. 35. Spotted Monkey. 36. Green Monk-ey. 37. MOLlfi.ache 38. Ma-ng;tbey. 39. Collared Mangabey'. 40. Egret. 41. Monea. 42 Nodding Monkey. 43, B eard cd Nodding Monkey. 44. Rillow. 45' Bonneted Rillow. 46. Doue. 1:7' Monina. Patas. 4 3 Blaek-banded Patas. 5. Cere opithecus Faunus. 6, Cercopithecus cynomolgut. 7. Cercopithecus cynocephaluI, 8. Cercopitheeus Diana, 9. Cereopithecus fabaeus. 10. Cercopitheeus cephus. Il. aethiops. /3. C. aelhiops torquatus .. J 2. Cercopitheeus aygula. /3. C. augula Monea. 13. Cercopithecus niHtans. /3. C. niaitans barbatus. J 4. Cercopithecus finicus. {3: c. finieus pileatus. 15, Cercopithecus nemaeus. 16. Cercopithecus Monina. 17' Cercopitheeus ruber .. ".C.ruber nigrofafci atus. 49.


19. Paras. "S: c. ruber alboF:i[cia[u5. 50: TaTap' o :n. 18. 51. Black l'ala-poin. ,ra.: c. i ,g.e;r. 52. Agi lec:l'1onkey.. 19.Cercopithecu spefaurius 5 3. Negro ,-20. 54. Rolowa:y. 21. 55. Lon'g-no[ed Monkey> Cercopithe' cus nafuus. : 56. Prucje. 23.C'ercopltliecu s phatus 57. 24. Cercopithc s f 1 1u'te' ols. 58. TawnY 'Mo'nk,y 59. Morkey.. 26. 60:JHircine K1onki. 27-Kil)g 'Monkey .J, 6'2' B ay Monkey: .. 29. Cercopitnec s 6j: c :Annulated M6nkey. 30. ... "') ... 1_ 1 l'''. : '. ", Divifion 4-'.. '**!.* .sAPAJOUS'. 'S fi PA J L \ 64. G).IFtuS. 10, Sapajus, [yrichtus. II. Sapaj us varieg a l us. Divifloa.


[ 59 ] 1 .. Div.ifion 5. 1 $UU SAGOINS' . SA GOIN 1. 73. Saki. S,!g'o1nus 2. Sagoinus Jaccbus. 79. Sa nglin. 80. Yellowifh Sanglin. (3. S. J adchus mofchatus. 81. Pinche; 3 2. Marikina. 83. Mico. 8 4. Tarz:ari ,n. 'J' 3. Sagoinus Oed. ipus. 4. Sagoinus roralius. 5. Sagoinus argenleus 6 Sagoiol,ls .J"'" f.i ,( .. .. LEM U,8.., Loris. \ 1. Lemur 8fj: Ta.illers MauaucG. 2. Leq>ur 87. Indri. '3' Lemur Indz:i. . 88..P.otto. 'i (,',; .: r .4. Le)'But Pci.tt,O." 8 Mo.hgqtiS. i:;. .1. J 5. Lemllt Mo.ngo?:. -. 90. Blac'k-faced Mdngous; fl. L. Mongoz maUl:US. 91 Morigous. ,-'. 'Y. L. Mongoz negro. 8'. L. Mongoz albipes. 93. Brown f. L,.Mongoz fufcus. 94 .. Gry Mngous l l, ,t. L. Mongoz ip:reus Varie 1:. .) 6. Le!Uur Macoco, 9 5, Black Varie a.. L. niger. 9 6 Vari, 13. L. Macp .Go fu[cus, 9 7. White Vari, ". L. rv,Tac.oHO a.l.bus. 9 8. Pied Va. L. 99 MaucaucQ. 7. Lemur .catta. : aoe Murine


[ 60 ] 100. Murine Maucauco. 101. American Macauco. 102. Curly Macauco. 103. Podje. 8. Lemur 9. Lemur 10. Lemur laniger. 11. Lemur Podje. 104. Prehenule Macauco. 12. Lemur' prehen ftlis. 105. Coluga. ] 3. Lemur volans. GE NUS iv., BAT. VESPE RTIL 10. A. With four foreteeth in each jaw. J Vefpertilio Vampyrus. 106. Rourret. al. V. Vampyrus niger. 107. Rouget. (3. V. Vampyrusfubniger 108. Leffer Vampire. ')'. V. Vampyrus helvus. 109. Spe Ehe. 2. VeCpertilio 1 10. Bat. 3. Vefpertilio perfpiciHatus. 1 Il. Heut-nofed nat. 4. VeCpertilio SpaCma. IJ.2; ]a.velin Bat. 5. Ve[pertilio hall:atus. 113, Leaf-nofed Bat. 6. Verpertilio [ori.cinus. 11'4, Hare-lip Bat. 7. Ve[p.ertilio leporinus. 115_ Chop-fallen Bat; 8. VeCpertilio labialis. B. \Vith' four foreteeth above, and fix below. 116. Long-e3;red Bat. 9. Ve[pertilio auritus. 117: Common Bat. JO. murinus. 118. Nottule. 11. Vefpel;tilio No8:ula. 119; Serotine. 12. Ve[per.tilio Serotipus. 120. Pipi/brelle. 13. VeCpertilio Pipifrrellus. 121. Barbaftelle. J 4. VeCpertilio B:ubaftellus 122. Bearded Bat. J 5. Ve[pertilio hifpidus. C. With


[ 6t j C. With foreteeth abo ve, and eight below. 123, Striped Bt. 16. Vefpertili"0 piB:us. 124. Reddifh Striped Bat. (3. V. piB:us rubellus. D. With twc. foreteeth above, and llX bdow. 125. Senegal Bat'. 17. verp:ertilio nigritia. E. With tivo foreteeth above, and four Bat 18. Verpertilio MololTus. 126. G reater Bull-dog Bat. 127, Le(fer Bull-dog Bat. V. MololTus major. '(3. V. Molo(fus minore F. With two foreteeth at:ld. npIl.e below. 128. Cephalote. 19, Verpertilio Cephalotesi 1!9' Straw-coloured Ccphatote. (3. V .Cephalotes melinus. G. \Vith no foreteeth above, and four belo w. 130. Purfe-winged Bat. Horfe-fhoe Bat. 131. Larger Horfe-fhoe Bat. 132. Lelfer Horfe-fhoe Bat. 20. Vefpertil io lepturus. 21. ver pertilio ferrumequinum. V. fe,rrum-equil)um major. (3. y. ferrum-equinum minor. H. Wilh no foreteeth in either jaw. 133, New-York B at. 2i. Vefpertilio noveboracenfis, 1. The teeth uncertain. l!l-F Broad-wing.ed Bat. 135, Broad-.tailed Bat. 136. Clayton's Bat. F 23. verpertilio la.[cop .terusi 24. VerpertiHo 25. Vefpertilio Americanus.


[ 62 ] ORI;>EIl. n ..,-B RUT A. EN U S v, S O L 0 T H. J37' Ai. J38. Unau. J 39 Five-toed Slolh. BRAD YPpS. 1. 2. Bradypus didal:y!us. a. Bradypus pentad a Uyll1s G f. u s vi ,ANT-EA TER. MYRMECOPHAGA. ,. 40 Two-toed Ant-eater. 1. M yrmeco phaga didal: y la. 141. Threetoed An t-eater. 2 M yrmecophaga tl"idal:yla. 142. Great Ant-eater: 3. 'hl yrmecophaga jubata. Shol"t-nofeq. Greit{d. M. jubat:a fimil, J 44. Tamandua. 4. Myrmecophag'l tetra. 145, Five-toed Ant-eater. J 46. Little Tamanoir. 147, Cape Ant-cater. 5. Myrmecophaga penta datyla. (3. M. pendal:yla minor. 6. Myrmecophaga capenlis. GE NUS vii. MAN S. MAN 1 S. -148 Pangolin. 149. Phatagin 1. Mani; peptada .J:yla. Manis tetrada&y1il. GENUS


, [ 63 ] GE NUS VIlI. ARMADILLO. D A S y PUS. 150 Apara. J. Darypus tricinUus. 1.') I. FourbandedArmadillo. 2. Dafypus qua dricinUus. 152. Encouberto. 3. Dafypus rexcinUus. '1,53.SevnbandedArmadilloi 4. Dafypus 1 54.E.ightbarrdedArmadiIlo. 5. DafyplJ.S oUocinUus 155. NinebanedArmadillo. -6. no'VemcinUus. 156. Leveria'n Armadillo. (3. D. novemcinEt u s \ leverianus. 157, Kabalfou. .7. Dafy pus duodecemcinUus. 8. l)afypus maximus. J 58. Largefr Armadillo. 159, Cirquinon. 9. Dafypus novemde'em cihUus. 160. Long"tailedAmrdiflo: 10. Da[ypus longicaudatu s 'i' GE NUS lX. RHINOCEROS. RHINOCEROS.t61.e>ne-homedRhinoceros J. Rhinoceros unicornis. 162.Two-hornedRhinoCeros 2. Rhinoceros GE NUS X SUKOTYRO. 163' Javan Sukotyro. ... SUKOTyRO. 1. Sukotyr9 ind i cus. GE NUS Xl. ELEPHANT. ELEPFIAS 1 64. Great Elephant. 1. Elephas maximus. 165. American Elephant. 2. Elephas americanus. t t F 2 GENUS


GE NUS xii. WALRUS. 166. Morfe. 167. Dugon. Filh.tailed Walrus. J 68. Lamentin. 169. Manati. i 7(5. Sea-ape. TRICHECHUS. J. Trichechus Rofmarus. 2. 3. T richjechus Manatus. a.. T. Manatus auftralis. ra. T. Manatus boreali s '1'.,1\ ORDR HI.-F E R JE", . GE N US ... Xlll. S EA L. PIloCA,:' 171. Udine J. Phoca, u-rnna" ,r .. 0. .1 4 .. J _. 172. BottIe-nofe;:! Seal. 2. P.hoea leonina. I73' Maned Seal. 3. Phoeajubat. 174. Common Seal. 4. Phoea \iifulirla. 175. Bothnie Common Seal. fj. P. vitulina botnjca. :1. 7 6 Siberian Common Seal. y. P. vitu,li.I}iI; 177. Cafpian Common Seal. if. P. vitulina cafpica 178 Hooded Seal. 5. Phoca monaehus. 179, Swartude. 6. Phoca groeniandica. 180. Bedlemer. {:3. P. groenlandiea nigr. 181. Neitfek. 7. Phoea hifpida. )82. Ne:-vfoundland Seal. ra. P. hifP.\l. gua,drata. 183. Klap!Dus. 8. Phoca crifl:ta. 184' Great 9. Phoca barbata.


85. Little SeaL 116. Chile [e SeaI. [ 87. Long-necked Seai. 88. Falkland Seai. ( 89. Parrons Seal. 1 go. HarneITed Seal. '[91. Wooly Seat 92. Speck led Seal. 93. Spotted Seal. 94. Black ?eal. 65 ] 10. Phoca pulilla. 11. Phoca c hilenfis. 12. Phoca mutica. 13, Phoca aufl:.ralis. 14. Phoca tefl:.udo. 15, Phoca farciata. 16. Phoca laniger. 17; Phoca punaata. 1 S: Phoca maculata. 19, Phoca nigra. GE N'U s xiv. D 0 G. CA N l S. Faithful Dog. 195, Shepherds Dog 196 Pomeranian Dog. 197, Siberian Dog, i 98. Iceland Dog. 199. Great Water Dog. 200. Lelfer Water Dog-. 201. Pyrame. ' *. King Cha.rless Spani e l. **. french Pyrame. 202. SpanieI. 203, Shock Dog. 204. Lion Dog 205. Little Danifb Dog. 206. Bafl:.ard Pug Dog. 1. Canis familiaris. a.. Canis domefl:.icus. (j. Canis pomeranus. ,.. Can is libericus. Canis iJlandicus . Canis aquaticus mlljor. (. Canis aquaticus mi'nor.. '1. Canis "'. C. brevip. **. C. br.evip. .9. Canis extrariu5 1. Canis melitaeus. "-. Canis leoninus. Canis variegatus ... i": Canis hybridlS .. F a 207 ..


fl07. Pug bog a. bg. 1 b. Alicant Dog. 208. Buii pog. 209. Maftiff. 210. Ger:nan Round. 211. Round. 212. Round. '. 213. [ 66 ] v. Canis frlcator. a., C. fiicator gallicus. b. C. fricator hirpanicus; Cani"s Mllolfus. o. Canis anglicus. 7(., Cants ragax. g. Canis gal!icus, u. 'l'. Canis venatit:us. 214. Pointer. v. Canis avicularis. 2 l 5. Barbet.

233. Wolf. 3. Canis Lupus ll34. Yellow W olf. ... C. Ll1pus fIavus. 235, White (3. C Ll,lpuS albus. Black Wolf. J'. C. Lupus niger. 237' Striped Wolf. C. Lupus fafciatus. 238. Wolf., 4. Can. Lupus mexicanus. 239, White Mexican Wolf. (3. C.Lupusrnexic. albus. 240. Surinam Wolf.' 5. Ca,n. Lupus Thous. Striped, Hyaena. 6. Canis Hyaena.. 1142. Abyllinian Hyaena. 7. C. Hyaenapethiopicus. H3. Spot ted Hyacna. 8. C. Hyaer:a Crocuta. 244, Jacko). 9. Canis aureus. 2'15' ape JackaI; 10. Canis M efomelas. Barbary Jackal. 11. Canis Adive. 217, Black Fox. 12. C. Vulpes Lycaon. 248. COl,Ilrnon Fox.' 13, C. Vulpes vulgaris. Brant Fox. 14, C. Vulp.s Alopex. 249, Arn erican Brant Fox. ... C. V:u1p. Alopex 250. CO,al Fox. 25l. Corfac' Fox. 252. Karagap. 253, Silvery Fox. 254, Grey Fox. Arillc Fox. 255, White Artic Fox. 256. Bluifh Artie Fox. 257, CroCs Fox. ameri-c. anus. (3. C. Vli-lp. Alapex. europael:lS. 15, C. Vu!.pes Corfac. 16. C. Yulpes 17:C, Vulpe, s cinereo, argenteus. 18.' C. Vulpes virginianus. 19. C. Vulpes Lagopus. ... e. V ul p. Lagop. albus." {3.C, Vulp. Lagop. cru' lefcens. 20. C. Vulpes cruciger. 258


[ 68 ] 258. Fox. 259. Antiirtic Fo.x. 260. Zerda. H V uIpes chiIenlis. 22. C. VuIpes au{halis. 23, Canis Cerdo. GENUS XV C AT. PELIS. ,II< W ith tails, and pIai n 261. Lion. 262 : Tiger. 263' Panther. 264. Ounce. 265' Leopard. 266. Leffer Leopard. 267' Jaguar. 268. Ocelot. 269' Guepard. 270. ]aguan:te. 271. Puma. 272. Couguar. 273. Margay. 274, Mexican Tigcr.cat. 275Bengat Tiger-cat. Tiger-cat. 277, Manul.' 278. Serval. 1. Felis Leo. 2. Fclis Tigris. 3. Felis Pardus. 4. FeIis Uncia. 5. FeIis Leopardus. 6. Fdis Leopardalis. 7. Felis Onca. 8. Fdls Pardalis. 9, Felis jubata. 10. Felis dircolor. Il. FeIis concolor. 1 '12. F!!Iis Couguar. 13. Felis tigrina. 14. Feli& mexiana. 15, Felis benganfi's. r6. Felix capenfis 17. Felis Manu!. 18. Felis J 9. Felis Catus. "'. F. Catus fems. Common 279' Wild Cat. 2!l0. Domeftic Cat. 28 [. Angora Cat. f'. F Catus domefticuso;. ,.. F. Catus angorenIlS. 2 82.


282. Tortoife!hell Cat. 283. Blue Cat. 284 Red Cat. 2 85 Chi nere Cat. 286. Long-headed 2 87' Sica: 01< ** 1. Y N X ES. F. Catus hifpanicus. e. F. Catu; caeruleus ,. F. Catus ruber. .,. F. Catus finen{js. S. F. Catus aureus. 1. f. Catus madagaf,. L Y NeES. With !hort tails, and pencilled ears. 288. CaJpia.n Lynx;. J. Lynx Chaus. 2.89. Mourttain Lynx. 2. Lynt! montana* '!90. P.er fian L ynx. 3. Lynx Caracal. 2 91 B engal Lynx. 4. Lynx 2 9 2 5' Lynx nubienfts. 2 93, Barbary Lynx;. 6. Lynx lybienfis. 2 9 4 Common 1.ynx. 7. Lynx vulgaris. 2 95, White Lynx. fi. Lynx vulg. alba. 2 9 6 Yellgw Lynx. ". Lynx vulg. 297 Lynx. 3. Lynx vulgo maculata 2gB. Lynx.. 8. Lynx canadenus. American Lynx. 9' Lynx rura,' GE NUS xvi. F 1TeH ET. V l V .E RRA. 30 0. E gyptian Ichneumon gOI. lndian 302 C a frari a n Ichneumon. 303 African Ichneumon. 304 Zenik. 1. \Tiverra 1 clineumon ; 2. Viverra Mungo. 3. Viverra cafra. 4. -V i verra N ems. 5. Viv erra Zenik.


, [ 7 ] Surikate, 6. Vivel'ta letradaEtyla: 306. Coati. 7 Viverra narua. 3 07. Coati-mondi. 8. Viverra narica. 3 ?8 Coalre. g. Viverra vulpecula. 3og. Quasje. 10. Viverra Quasje. 31b. Striped Skunk. 11. Viven"a Putorius. 311. White Skunk. 12. Vive rra Mephitis. 312. Conepatl. 13. Vivena Conepad. 313. Zorilla. J4. Viverra Zorilla. 314. Mapurito. 15. Viverra Mapurito. 315. Griron. 16. Viverra 316. Ceylon Fi!chet. 17, Vi verra zeylanica. 317, Cape Fitchet. 18. Viverr, a capenlis. 318. Civet. 19, Viverra Ci."e\ta. 319Zibet. 20. Viverra Zibetha. :3 20. Fi tchet. 21_ V iverra hel1ma phrodit a 321. Spanirh Genet. 22. Viverra Genetta. 322. St. Germains Genet. 2'3' Viverra galtica. 323. Leverian Genet. 324. Folrane. 325, Bizaam. 326. Poto. 327. Kinkajou. 828. Ratel. '329' Srripecl Fitchet. 330. Malayan Fitchet. 301. Spotted Fitchet. 24.. Viverra 25' Viverra Foira. 26. Viverra tig rina. 27' Viverra vula. 28. Viven"a prehenlilis. 29; Viverra mellivora. 30. Viverra farciata. 31. Viven" a malaccenlis. 32. Viverra


G Z NUS XVll. W E A SEL. MUS TEL' A. D'ivided rnto '" 0 1;' TER S. 332. Sea Olter. 333. BraIilian Olter. '334. SaricDvienne. 335. Chilefe Olter. 336. Common Olter. 337. Can.adian Olter 338 Leffer Olter. 340. fVIiI;lx l\<* l. Tayra. 3 .. 1:2. Galeril' 343 Vanfire. 344. Pekan. 345. Vifon. 346. Common 347. Pine Martin. 348. Guiana Martin. 349. Cayenne Martin. 350. Sable. 351. White Sable. 352. American Sable "353. Black Sable. 354. Polecat. 1j55. Ferret. LUT R.IE. 1. Lutra Lutris. 2. Lutra bralilienfis. 3. Lulra p araguenfis. 4. Lutra chilenlis. 5. Lutra pifcatoria. 6. Lutra .canadenfis. 7. Lutr. a fulva. H. Lutra guianenlis. 9. Lutra Minx. MUS T EL./E. 1. M uftela barbara 2 Mufte'!a Ga.1era. 3, Muftela afra. 4. Muftda canadenfis. 5. Muftela Viron. ,6. Muftela Foina. 7. Mu!l.ela Martes. Il. guianenfis. '9' Muftela laniger. ,"o. Muftda Zibelfina. fl. M. Zibellina alba; II. M. Zibellina ameriana. 12. M. Zibellina nigra. 13. Muftela Putoria, Muftela Furo.


356. Sal'rnatian Weafel. 357. Siberian Weafel. Ermine: 35B. Stoat. 3 59' White Errnine. 36.0. Corn mon Weafel. 361. Snow \Veafel. 362. YeHow \Veafel. 3. Childe t M uftela farmatica. 16. Muftela libirica. 17, M .uftQ)a Er.mi nea. a;, M. Errninea aeftiva M.Ermineahyberna. lB. Muftela vulgaris. (j, M. vulgo nivalis. 19, M uftela melin,a. 2.0. Muftela GENUS xviii, BEA R. URS US. Common Bear. 364. B'lack Bear. 3 6 5. Brown Bear. 366. Grey Bear. 367. Variegated Bear. 3 68. White Bear. 369. Polar BeaI'. 37e Arnerican Bear. 371. Sand BeaI'. 872. Commen Badger. 373. White Badger. 374. Spotted Badger. 375. American :376. Indian Badger. 377. Raco,on. 379. Wolverene. 3Be. Glulton. 381. White Glutton. 1. Urfus ArEl:os. "'. U. ArRos niger. fJ. U. ArRos fufcus. 'Y. U ArEl:os grifeus. U. ArRos variegatus. to U. ArRos albuso 2. Urfus maritimus. 3. Urfus americanus. 4. Ur[us tetradal:ylus: 5. U rfus Meles. (j. U. Melesalba. 'Y. U. Meles maculata 6. Ur fus labradorius. 7. Urfus indicus. 8. Urfus Lotor. (j. U. Letor mlinus. g. Urfus le. Urfus Guio. fJ. U. Gulo alhus. GENil'


[ 7,3: ) G E N'V S XIX' OPOSSUM. DIDELPHIS. C\ -" 382. Amboina OpofTum. J. Didelphis maTrupialis 383. Brarian OpoITum. 2. Philandeq c', 384. Sarigue. 3, OpolItb. G 385. Molucca OpoITum. 4. Didelphis moluccil. 386. Virginian Opo!fum 5' Didelphis virginiana, 387. Cayopollin. 6. Didelphis Cayopollin. a88. Murine OpofTum. 7. Didelphis mUTina. 389' Guiana OpoITum. 8. Did.elprus 390. OpoITum. g. Didelphis dorligra,. t 391. Cayenne OpofTum. 10. Didclphis canctvbra 392. N ew-HolianciOpolfu'ffi. 1 1. Didelphis caudi vol vula. 393. Short-tailed OpolIum. 12. Didelphis brachyr.a. 391, Oriental 0p0lIum. 13, pidelphis orientalis. 395. Javan OpolIum. 14. Didelphis Bi-unii; 396; Kang'lm. 15, Dic1elphis : gigantea. 397. Phillips OpofTum, 10. Didalphis trida-tyla. 398. Vurpine OpC:llIum. 17' Didelphi-s vulpe.cula. 399. Spotted Opoffum. 18. Didclphis ma.culata. 400. Flying poITum. 19' Didelp' his valans. GE NUS, xx. MO,LE: 'European Mole. 4Ul. Black Mole. 402. V ariegated Mole. 403. White Mole. 404. Grey Mole. TA L PA. 1. Tlpa europaea. u, Tlpa ,eUTop. nigra. (:l. Talpa europ. variegata. y. Talpa europ. alba. Talpa europ. cinerea: G 405.


405. American Mole -406. Crefted Mole. 407. Long-talled 408. Brown Mole. 409. Red Mole. 4.10. Gilded. MQle. :S H RE W. 1 U. Minute Shrew. Shrew. 4"3, Water Shrew. 4-14, Javan S\1rew. 415' Fetid ,Shrdv 416. Labradore Shrew. 4'7' GreyLabradoreShrew. 4IS . Surinam Shrew. 419. Timi d Shrew 4 2 0 .B.raf tlian Shrew. 421. '.P-igmy Shrew 4 2 2. Blue Talpa flava. 3. Talpa criftata. 4. Talpa longicaudata. 5. Talpa fll[ca. 6. :ralp, a rubra ... J. Talpa aurea. SORE X. 1. Sorex minutus. 2. Sorex mo[chatus. 3. Sorex fodiens. 4. Sorex murinus. 5 . SQrex Araneus. 6. Sorex' articus. fJ .. Sorex ara. cinereus. 7. Sorex [ur i!1Al1H;nfls. 8. Sorex pufillus. 9. Sorex brafiliepfj.s. 10. Sorex 11. Sore", cerulae.us. 12. Sorex mexicanus. 13. Sorex albipes. '4, Sorex quadricaud tus. 15' Sorex liricaudatus 423, Mexican Shrew., 424, vVhite-footed Shrew. 425, Square-taile.d Shrew.'12Q Carinated Shrew. Uniform Shrew. 16,. Sqre?" qhcolor.


l 75 ] GE NUS U I{ C fi 1 N ERINACEUS 428. Common 429' Guiart"a Urchin. 430. M alacca U'rchin', 431. Siberian Urchim 432. Tendrac. 433. Tanrec. 1 : Erinaceus europae .s 2. Erinaceus inaris.' 3 Erinaceus 4. Erinace ,us auritus. 5. Erinaceus fetofus. 6. Erinaceus ecaudatu s ; ORDER JV.-G L r RES.: G B N t1 s x xiii. PORC{JP{NE'. RYS TRI X; Crened POl"cupine 434. ltalian 435. Indian Porcupine. 1 : Hynrix crifl:ata. a.. H crifl:ata europaea ra. H. crifiata indica. Bra lilian Porcupine; 436. Larger Bl: alilian Porcupine. 2. Hynrix a. H. p rehenlilis 437. Le!f e r Bralilian {J. H. prehcmGl:is lllinoi: ; Porcupine. 438. Mexican Porcu-pine. 439, Canadian Porcupine. 440. W hite Canaian Porcup'ine. 3 H ynrix mexicana. 4. Hyfl:rix dorfata. '{3'. H. dbrfata alba. 441 Long t ai led Porcupine '5' Hyfl:rix macroura .. 44 2 Brawny Porcupine.. ra. Hynlix torofa G 2


i ']fi ] ,CAVY. CA]7 1 A:. 443. . 1. avia 414. White Paca. (3. alba . .. 1 \ 1 145.!;.ouchy. 2. Cavia Acufchy. . '_'J I! .) .l! 11 : Agout..i. ..3; Cavia Agouti. 146. Ago uti. '.:, a. c. Agouti cunicularis. 447. Agouti (3. C. Agouti lporina. 448. Agoutt Y> C. Agouti americana .' 449. Aperea. __ r 4. 450. Black .. : .) -'. (3. 451 Cobaya. . .... 5-: Cobaya. 452. Patagonian Cavy. 6. Ca via Magcllanica. 153. :.': -:. 7. Cav.la "\. ., ... T #; .... ., :. c l! t ,r. # : J ., :. '. u s xxv B 'EA V ER .. 454. CommonBeavek 455: vVhite Beaver. 456. Terrier Beaver .. 457, Chilefe BeJer. CAS TORe. J, Ga flor Fiber. a.. C.Fiber albus. {3: C. Fiber 2. Caftoi huidbbrius. dEN U 5 Xl!.vi: MURm QUADRPEDS. .: .) .... .. MUS. Divided ir.to BEAVER'-RATS. -.'. NIYOCASTORES. 458. Webbed Beave r-rat. 1. Myocaflor Coypus. 4 5 9. 2. Myocaflor zibethicus: *'le RATS


[ 77 ] "'* RATS AND MICE. MURES .. Subdi vided into + naked' round Piloris. 460. 'White Piloris. 461. B lack 462. Caraco. 463'. American 4 64. Bro w n Rat. 465. Black Rat. 466. Small Rat. 467:Common Moure. 1. Mus Pilorides.

[ 7l3: l .. i J ... .. r tt l:}airy round tairs . 484. Mufe. 18. Mus virginiarius. 485. Rock MO\l[e. .. 19' Mus 48;.. Water Rat. 488. Water Reat. 489. Madh \Vater-Rat-. Black W.ater Rat. 491 Sp6tted Ylat.er Rat. MOl;lfe. 493 .. eger Red Mou[e. 495, Gregarious 496. Eco.nomic Meuf 491'" MouCe 498. WooUy Mou[e .. 499. Monre. 500. B!ackifh Meadow Mou[e. 5o t. Social Motilfe. 50e. : : .. Rihblmg Mou[e. 503. CoUared Mou[e. 504. Lemming 505. Siberf.ag 506. Labra:or-e Moufe 507. Lena Mouf. <".' .: r; !'. 20 Mus yanus 21. Mus amphibius. $. M. amphib. terrelhis. 'Y. M. amphib. paludo[us ... 8'" M. amphib.. niger. e. 1\1. amphib. maculatus. 22. Mus 2:3. Mus ru-tilus. f'. M. rutilus 24. Mus. greg1Jlis . 25, l\'l'us oeconomus f'. glareolus 2 6. Mus laniger. 27, Mils arvalis. M .. arvalis 128. Mus Toeialis. 2:9. Mus lar;urus 30. M lis torquatus. '31 Mus Lemmus. f'. M.:Lemmus flbjricus. 32. Mus }q' uMonius. 3S' . 34. Mus T[chelag .. **'*


[79 l *u ,_ 509' Siberian.-HamJter. 510 Germa:n Ham fter. , 511. Black Germari HalI\fter.' CRICETF., J l Cricetlls 2 Cricetus germaniGus. Criee tus germall. niger 3. Cricetus arenarius. 512. Sand Hamfter., 513, Hamfter .. S14. S -ongar Ham ft:er. SIS Baraba .. '4. Cricetusphaeus., 5' Cricetus 6. Cricetus **** MOLE-RATS. 5I6. Ruffian 517' Black Ruffian Mole-rat. 518. Ca pe SIg. Afrcan M'Ole-rat. 520. Daurim Mole-rat. 521. Blind Mole-rat. MYOTALP/E. 1._ Myotalpa talpna" (3. Myotlpa'talpiha nigra .. z.._ M yotalpa, capenlis. 3'-. Myotalpa 4. Myotalpa Afpalax. 5. .. GE N US :lCixvii. MAR MO T. 522. Common Marmot. 523, 524, Bobak., 5'.!' 5. Canadian Marmot. 526. Hoary Mar.qlot. 527, 528: Zifel 529. Zempi. 530. Gundi. 531. Hudfon's Marmot. 5302 Chile[e Maxmot. A ,RCTOMYS. f. Araomys Marmota .. 2 Arl:omys Monax. 3. Arl:omys Bobac. 4. Arl:omys Ell1petra, 5. p ,ruinofa. (;. Suilica. 7. Ar,l:om-ys itill .u-s. 8 .A.rEJ:Q1IlYs ?:emn,i. g. 'Gundi. l ,O. Arl:omys hudfoni'a. 1 1. Arl:omys maulina.


[ &> ] CE 1'1 U S SQU1RRE1. SCllfR us. Divided inlo '" CLIMBINC SQUIRRELS. SCIURI SCANDENTES. Which hav:e no flying '. Common Squirrel. 533. Red Common Squirre!. 534. White-tailed Common Squirre!. 535. Var-ying Common 536. Black Common: Sq. uirrel. 53 7 vVhite Commonl Sq.lIirrel 538. CommoIl< Squirre!. 539. White-leggedSq.uirFel. 540. Sq uG-rel. 54. 1. White-nored Biack. Squirrel 542. V ul pine Sq. '.lirrel. 543 White Vulpine. Squirrel. 544. G rey SquirreI. 545. Laoradore Squirrel. .54oCarolina Squirrel. 1. Sei urus vulgaris. a.. S. vulgaris rufus. (3. S. vulgaris leucourus. ')!. S. vulgaris o val'ius .. S. vulgaris niger. i. S. vulgaris S. vulgaris argenteus . 2. Seiurus albipes. 3. SGiur-us niger {3. S. niger 4. Sciurus vulpinus. 0 {3. S vulpinus albus 5. Sclurus 6. Sei urus hud[onius 7. Seiurus earoline fills: 547. Virginian Squirrel. 548. Pedian Sq,uirrel. 8. Sciurus virginianus 9 Sciurus perficus.


"t 8'1 ] 5 49Georgian 'Squirre!. 10. Seiur-us anomo,Tus-., 5 50. Javan Squirrel. Sciurus bicolor. 551-. Ruddy Sq uirrel. 12. Sei urus er yth-raeusp 5 52. Ceylon Squirre!. 13. Siu:u.s macroUfllS. 553. Malabar Squirre!. 14. Sciurus maximus. 554. Abyffinian Squirrel. 15. Sclupus 555. Bombay Squ.irre!. 16. Sciurus indic.us'. 556. Fair Squirre!. 17. Sciurus 557. Palm Squirre!. 16. SC\lf'!S 558. Barbary Squirre!. "lg-. Sciurus setpluli / 559. Piaintaill Squirrel. __ 2l. _, Ground Sq,uinel. li 1. .. '., \', 560. A!ialic Ground S. : frriatus auaticus. Squirre!. J 561. American Ground $. S. {hiatus 5quifl'cl'.. : "anus:'; 562. Brafilian Squirre!.. 22. Sciurus ae'fi!tUll'Is. 5 6 3. Striped Bra-filian f1. $.,.aefbtlns fa:fiatu 'S,. S9,uirrel. 5 64Carnatic Squirre!. 23' Sciul'Ull dfchinfehicus.':' 5 6 5, Varied Sq,uirrel. 24, Sciu.rus va ribg,tus. fi1'. $. variegatus minor. 5 6 7. Chilefe Squirre!. 25' Sc'iurus Degus. 568. Mexican Sq uirrel. 26. Sciurus mexi _ca1'lus._ 5 6 9' American Squirrel. 27' Sciurus fcrotalis. 570. Guiana Squirre!. 28. Sciurus bancrofti. 57" Cayenne Squirre!. 29. Sciurus guajanenfis. 572 Madagafcar Squirrel. 30. Sciurus madagafcare n!i s. 573 Cape Sq,uirreI. 31., Sciurus cap.en!is. FLYING.


[ ] .. FLYIN"G-SQUIRRELS. FETAURr. Have an extended flying membrane. 57 America" Flying-1. PetauruS' voluceHa Squirrel. 575 Virginian Flying' '2. Petaurus vliginianus. Squirr). 576. Labradore YIying-3, Petaurus hud[onius. Sq ,uiw;l. E"uropeari Flylng.4. Petauius val ans, Sq,uirr!!l. 57 8 Java Ffying-S q..uirrel. 5. 'etaurus (agi'u a. Indian Frying_9quirreJ.6. Petaurus petaurifra. 579. Red,Indian Flying. P. petaurifracafra-.. 580. Black lndian FI.yingP. petaurifra niger. Squirrel. 581. Sot,tthern YIying7. Peta urus aufrralis. Squirrel. Phillips FlyingS. GE NUS Xxj'x. DORMOUSE. ,5,83' H0ary J;1ormoufe. 584. VVood 885. Garden, Dormoufe. ii86. CQmmon Dor.mau[e. M YO Xl.TS. 1. Myoxus Clis. 2. My.oxus Dryas. 3. Myoxus Nitela 4. Myoxl.\.S Mui'car.dinus


[ 083 ] i G EN U 8 XXX. J E R B 0 A. D fJ P ,U J.h. Coin!J1on J erboa. 1. Dipus ,,88. Arabian Jerboa. 2. Dipus fa' gitta. A. Egyptian Jerboa. A.Dipus aegyptiu 's.. B. Siberian Jerboa. B. Dipus 1ibiricus. 539. Great Silleri.an)erboa. a. D. fibiricus m'r. 59.0. MiddleSiberianJe rboa. b. D. fibiricus medius. 591.SmallerSiberian]erboa. c. D. fibiric4s m inor. 592. Pigmy Siberian J e.rboa.d. D. fibiricus pumilio.; 1193. Cape Jerboa. 3. Dipus cafer. 594. Cafpian Jerboa. 4 595. Madh Jerboa. 5. Dipus tamaricinus. 596. Labral!!SJre Jerboa. 6. Dip,us 597. Ciraffian Jer.boa. .7. Dipus circafficus. GE NUS XXXI. L.E P U s.. W,litp .{hort 598. Peru vian l'lare. .599. Corn mon Hare. {jao. Horned Corn mon 601. Yellow Common Rare. {l02. Varying Hare. Spurious Varying .1. Lepus V ircaccia. 2. Lepus timidus. L. timidus comulus ,.. L. timidus melinus. 3. Lepus variabilis. L. variabilis hybl'idus,


' 604. Black Hare. 605. Ame rcan Har: 606. Bakal Rafe. '607. Chile[e !jare. 608. Cape ',' 609' Wild pla. Black 61 1. White, T ,Wtc, 1 1. r . ltaobit: 613' SilvryTame Rabbiot. 614. HO' 0ded Rabbit. 615. Angora R-abbit. 4. Lepus niger. 5' Lepu$ americanus. 6. Lepus Tolai. '7. Lepus mini.mus. 8. Lepus -eapenfis. 9,

1 [ 85 ] ORDER V. .:..-PE CO RA. G E NUS 'xxxiii. CAM.li L. CAMELUS. ',. 622. A.r.abi,an Came!. 623. Swift 1. i3.Came14s drQIJ;tOs. 624. Bal:rian CameI. 625' Mixed .l',qtl. 626. Glama. 627. Guanaco. 628. Chillihueque. 629' Vicugna. 630' Pacos. 2. Cil-l'I)!=!US bal:rianus. f3. hybrilus. 3. Camelus Glama. 4. Camelus Huanacus. 5. Camelus arcuca nus 6. Camelus Vicugna. 7 Camelus Paco. G E NUS xxxiv. MUS K. M () S CHU S. li31. Thibet Mu!k. 632. lndian Mu!k. 633 Pigmy Mu{k. 634. Stri ped Pigmy 1\1:u!k. 635. Memina. 636. ,Javan Mu!k. 637. Brafilian Mu!k. 638 Formdfan Mu!k, 1. Mofchus mofchiferus. 2. Mofchus indicl,ls. 3. Mofchus pygmaes. M. pygmaeus leverianus. 4. MoCchus Memina. 5. Mofchus javariicus. 6. Mofchus 7. M ofcnus finenfis. -H '. GENUS


[ 86' ] GE N rtl S xxxv. D EER; .. With .639' Elk. 640. 1 rilh Elk. ,,C ER V V S. palmated horns L 1. Cervus {:J. C. Rein Deer. 2. Cervus Taraclds. 641.-Common Rein Deel,'. Ct.. C. jarandus Rangifer. -6:42. Greenland Rein Deer. (3. C T-arandus gron.> landicus 643. CaI

659' Roe:" 660. Aha. 691. Mexican' D!;:er.. J fi. C. Capreo lus albus. 10. Ce rv us p ygargus 11. Cex:vus mexican u s. .r ;:) fpecies. 662. Tem' a-maa ,i;;: ... : CervuS Temama. a.r'" '", ,;-.( 663. Cuguacu-a'parit fi. Cervus Cuguapara : 664. Cuguacu-te. ''Y. Ce!vus Cuguete. 665. Brche des bois. Cervus r y lvaticu s. 666. Siche le' s E'-' Cervu M d z'm e .::..:')" 1 .g. Cervus Ma-zame. -," 668. Ciiriao u. ,>fIC ". Cervus Cariac'ou 669' Barallou Cervus Bar. a llo ll. 670' Wod Pild. 'J. Cervus nemor.ofus; 6 71. Sav 'anm.>Hind. It. Cervus pratenfls. 672. Deer. h. Cervus indics. 673: Sqinaton. 'p.. Cervus 674. Grey Der. v. Cervus guineenlis 675t Ul,lknown Deer. Cervus an?malus. G E NUS XXXVI. " GIRAFFE. 676 Cam,lo?ardalis. ," ANTELQiPE. 677' Bl.ue. Antelope. 678. Lerwee. 679. Chamois. H 2 CAMELOP ARD./ilI S. 1. l ,. xxxvii. ANTILOPK' 1. Antilope l e ucoph aea. 2. Antilope Lerwia. 3. Antilope Rupicapra. , 6 6 b.


6 8 0. Nanguer. 68 1.. Nagor. 682. Biggel. 683. Nylgau. 684. Saiga. 685. Tzeiran. [ 88' ] 4. Antilo.pe Dallia. 5. Antilope reduac'a. 6. Antj.lope' 7. Antilope piB:a. 8 '. Antilope Saiga. 9 A ntilope _.' 1 686. Antelp,e. 10. Antilo.pe' 687. White-facedAntelop-.ll. Antilo.pe Eygarga'. 688. Springer AnteIope., 1 2. falta ,:s .. 689' Barbary Dor:i: s : : 690' Kevel. 14. 691. Corine. ) 5. Antilope Corin-pa.,' 692. Bubalis. 16. Bubal .is.. 693. Koba. 17. AntilopeKo:b. a ... 694. Gnou. 18. G :\3-;u" 695. Pa[an. J9. Antilqpe .. Or);'x ... 696 20. Antilop!l: O.l'6otragus 697. 21, Antilope ,Gzella. 698 Leucoryx. 22. Antilof-le 699 Coudous. 9 3. Antilope Oreas. 700. Gui b. 24, Antilope [cripta. 701. Grimm. 25, Antilop Orlmmia. 702. Guevei 26. Antilope pygmaea. 703. Wood Antelope. 27. Antilope fYlvatica. 704. Condoma. 705. Lidmee. 28. Antilope Strepficeros. 29, Antilope GENUS


[ : 89 ] GE' NUS xxxviii 0 A T. CAP R A. 706. Wild Goat. 707. Comm6n Goat. 7 08. Angora Goat. 709. Syrian GO' at. 710. African oat. 711. Vi'hid3W Goat. 712. Juda Goat. 713. Capricorn. 714, Cabonils 'Goat. 715' Ibex. 716, Cauc a ,{fan Goat. 1" Capra Aegagrus: 2. Hircus. 3. Cap_ni angorenfi s. -4-Capr.a mambrica. 5. Capra deprelId. 6. Capra reverra. 7. Capra na,na. 8: Capra Capricorn is. 9. Capra mUlica. 'JO. Capra Ibex. 11. Capra caucafic"a. GE NUS XXXIX. S H E E P. Common Sheep. 717. Hornlefs Sheep. 718 Dwarf Sheep. 719, Ruitic Sheep. 720. Spaniih Sheep. 721. Many-horned Sheep. 722. African Sheep. 723. Shee p. 724 Broad-tailed Sheep. 725, Fat.rumpelSheep. 726. Sheep. 727, Long lailcd Sheep. 0. VIS. r. Ovis Aries. '. a. O. Aries an glica. (3. O. Aries nana. ')1. O. Aries ruitic;1. O. Aries h if panica. '. '0. Aries P?Jycerata. ,. O. Aries a f r i cana. '1). O. Aries guineenfis. S. O. Aries laticaudata. O. Aries iteatopyga. ". O. Aries bucharica. O. Aries lo ngi caudal a Ha


[ 9 ] 728. Cape Sheep. 729. Bearded Sheep. 730. Morvanf. 731. Cretan Sheep: 732. Argali. 733. Corlican Argali. 734. Pudu. . '. p.. O. Aries c:!yenfis. ... Y 6. Aries barbata. O. 2. Ovis StreprlCeroS. ;:l., Ovis '(3. O. Amm,on europaea. Ovis CE N li s xl. o X. Ox. A. Wild Ox. 735. Urus. 736. Bona[us. 737. Bi[on. B. Domellic Ox. 738". European Ox. 739, lndlan Ox-. 741. Surat Ox. .742. Abyllinian Ok. 748. Boury. 744. Tinian 0". 745. Lan!. 746. Arnee 717. American Biron. B 0 S. 1. Bos Taurus. "-. A. B., Taurus Ferus. a.. B. Taurus Urus. (3. B. Taurus Bonarus, ')1. B. Taurus BiTon. B. B. Taurus 8'. B.-Tarus europaeus. '. B . Taurus inicus major. B. T aurtlS in dicus min or. ". B'. incljcus oS; B. Taurus abelliicus. B. T,!urus ma.dag.a[carenlis. lt. B. Taur'us B. Taurus affieanus. 2. Bos Arnee. 3. Bos americanus.


[ 91 ] 748. MuIk Ox. 4. Bos mofchatu5. 749. Grunting Ox. 5 Bos gruniens. 750. Ghainouk. (3. B. gru-niens:Chainouk. 75 r. Sarlyk. ')'. B. gruniens Sadyk 752. Hornlefs Grunting Ox. B. grunic;ns 753. Buffalo. 6. Bos Bubalus. 754. Naked (3. B. Bubalus 755. Anoa. ')'. B. Bubalu$ Anoa. 756. Guavera. B. Bubalus Guavera. 757. Cape Ox. 7. Bos caffer. 758. Baas. 8. Bos barbatus. 759. Dwarf Ox. 9' .B9S pumilus. ORDER VI.-B E L L U.tE. G I!. NUS xli. HO R S E. Common Horfe. 760. Wild Horfe. 761. Domeftic Horfe. 762. DIhikketai. Afs. 763. Onager. 764. Domeftic Ars. 765. Mule. 766. Bardeau. 767' Zebra. 768. Hibrid Zebra. 769. Quach. 770. Chilefe Horfe E Q U US. 1. Equus Caballus. ". E. Caballus Ferus. (3. E. Caballusdomefticus. 2. Equus 3, Equu,s Alihus, (;,. E. Alirius ferus. (3. E. Alinus domefticus. 'Y. Alinus Mulus E. Alinus Hinflus. 4. Equus Zebra. (3. E. Zebr hybridus. 5. Equus Qagga. 6. Equus bifulcus,

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G E l\ U s xIIi. HIPPOPOTAMUS.. HIP POPOT A MUS. 77 1. Amphibions Hippo-1. Hippopotamus amphi. potamus. pius. G E N U 5 xliii. TA P l TA P l America n Tapir. J, Tapir Americanus. G Ji. u s xliv. (; II 0 G. SUS. Common Hoe773. Wild H?g. 77 4 Hog. 775. Single-hoofed Bog.776. Chinefe Bog. 777. Guinea Rog. 778. Siam Bog. 779. Pecary. 780. Leffer Pecary. 781. Patira. 782. Af, can Boz' 783' Engallo. 784. Babyrouffa. 1. Sus Scrofa. S. Scrofa rerus. fi. S. Scrofa domell.icus. y. S. Scro f.a domefiicus unifulcus. S. S. Scrofa domell.i cus fincnrlS. 2. Sus Por cus. (d. S fiamenfis. 3. Sus Tajaffu. (8. S .. Tajaffu minor. y. S. Tajafflj Patira.. 1. Sus africanus. { 5. Sus aelhiopicus. 6. Sus Babyru lfa.

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[ 93 ] ORDER VII.-C ETE. GE NUS xl)'. N AR V AL. 785. H.(jrned-Natval. M ONeD ON 1. Monodori Menocerqs. GE NUS xlvi. WHALE. WI1ale. 786. GreeIlland Common Whale. 787. Iceland ommon Whale.' BALENA. 1. 13alaena My,.cetus. tIO. B. Myfticetus gnoen landica. B. Myfticetus i!landica. 788. ?': B. Myfiicetltls major. 7 89. Fin Whale. 2. 790' Scrag Whale. 3. Balaena BO'O'Ps. Humped Whale. 4. gibbofa. 791 Singl-l'lufupedWhale. /lI,. B. glOb[a gil:fbo umco. 792 Six.humped Wh ale. 793 BrO'adnofed Whale. 794 Beakod. Whale. -'J .,., ; " B. gibbofa gibbis fex. 5. Balaena Murculus. 6. Bala.ena ,,: '1 GtNVS

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[ 94 ] GEl: v B xlvii. CA-cHALOT. 'PHYSETER. 795. j. Phyfeter Cat 'odon. Blunt-nofed'C achiilot. 2. Ph}ifeter 'ti1a, c)'ocep'halilS. 796. Black Blunt-nofed co. Phyfcter macroceph. Cachalot. n1ger. 797. White Blunt-nofed (3, Phyfeter macroceph Cachalot.," .-, albrcans. 793. Grey Blunt-no(ed '1. macroccph. C achalot. cmereus. Sharp-nofed Cachal ot. 3: Phyfeter mlcrops. ) 799. HOnK-toothed Sharp-co. Phyfete'r mic,rops nofed Cachalot. 1 falciderrtatus. Sharp. (3. Phyfetr microlls ," rlOfed Cachatot. re8:identatus. 831. High ; finned Cachalot. 4. Phyfeter Tudio. G E NUS xlviiI. DOLPHIN .. 802. Porpoife. 803. W)1ite Porpoife. 804. Brmyn Porpoife. 805' True Dolphin. 806 : Crampus. 807. Sword Grampus. 808. Beluga. DELP Il/NUS. 1., Delphinus Ph.oq,el1a. (3. D. phocaena albus. '". D. Phocaeria fufcus. 2. Dlphinus Delphis. 3. Delphinus Orca. (3. D. Orca enfidorfatus. 4. Del phi nus leucas. ANALYSIS

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A N A L Y SIS OF LINNh:US'S INTRODUCTION TO TI-lE SYSTEMA NATURh:. 1 GOD s the found!!r of the Empire if NatuI't. The Empire if Nature, (fo far as it is the objeR of our [cnres) confifi of Stars. Slrs are .eilher fi.xd Stars; ?r Stars which rer:olve round a Sun Fi.ted Stars !bine by lher own light! as the S,un. Stars whick revolve round a Sun, are Comets, or I:!anets. Comets their Sun in very eliptic 01 bits. Planets revolve round Sun From which they derive light, in eliptic orbits, approximating to a circle. Planets are Primary, or Secondary Primary Planets are thore which revolve im mediately round a Sun as their centre. The Primary Pla nets belonging to this [olar [yfiem, are feven, viz. Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Herfchel. Secondary

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S econdary Planets revolve round Primary Pla. nets, al ways accompanying them in their rou,}d their Sun, and are Satellites, or Moons to them; as the Moon to the Earth, the of Jupiter, and thofe of Saturn, and of the Herfchcl. The works of creation, fo far as tbey are t ,he objefrs ofnatura l1iilory, are neceIfarily limited to this PlaRet, wbich we inhabit;, and which is called t!te Ea1'th. The Ea1' th may be confidered as confifting of El ements, and of Natllral "i30ds. Elements are the mail fimple of all thofe to Ihis Planet we inhabit, are Fire, A ir, Weller, l'fat!lral belonging lo this Planet are ail thote liy the himd 'of the Great Creator, which conftitute the three Kingdoms of Nature, viz: the Mineral Kingdom, the Vegetable Kingdom, apd 4.rJ.ima.! 'f<..ingdom., .. , l". f'D e lvl,inera( Kz'rg4om of h!!aped together in mtiffes, and poIfeffing neither life, nor feeling. 1 The c.onfifts of organized bodies, endow;ed witl!: lift, pp! 1')..ot with feeling. The Animal. Kingdom con.fiils of bodier organ. ized, lift, with feding, and with the power of volu"!tary mp!i0TJ' Huher!.

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[ 97 ] b 1 A LOG U E. '. FATHER.HUBERT. Hubert. To-morrow will be the fair-day. If 1 do my leffons weli this afternoon, Will you let me go to the Fair, and fee the Orang Outang? 1 have [een Lions and Tigers, and dancing Bears, but J. have Hever {een an Orang Oiltang: Have ) Olt [een an Orang. Outang ? Ft/ur. 1 have never [een one alive, but 1 onee faw an .Orang, Outang pre[erved at Sir Alllton Lever's Mu[eum. Hubert. What kind of a creature is it, 1 like 10 hear about wild beafls: Is an Orang Outang a fort of a Munkey ? It is of the rame Order as the Monkey, but of a different Genus. Hubert. 1 dont know what you mean by faying that it is of the fame Order, but a different Gtllus. f What is and what is Genus ? Falher. Oh that .is a long fiory; and, perhaps, you w ill be tired of it. When you learn Natural HiLlory, 1 will tell you every thing about Orders, and Genera; and then you {hall hear a great many entertaining fiories about Orang. Outangs, and other wild beafis. In the mean time, pray, attend to your Latin. lIltbert. 1 wilh you would. teach me NaturaI Hillory, 1 think 1 {hould like it better than 1 Father.

PAGE 106

r 9 8 ] Fatner. If you were a greater profieient in Latin, you would be better pleafed with il, when )'ou are capable of reading C
PAGE 107

[ 99 ] Hllbat, l have not very weil confIdered the quefiion; but, l {uppo[e, it means the Hifiory of AnimaIs-; hut, l wilr thank you to explain it to me better.' ,-" l t J FaLhe;.' Natu 'rif Hihory, is the Hifi.ory of Or the.' p 'roduaJons of "Nature, or to [peak 'more c6rr:ly, it is the HiLlory O-f rhe \IV ofks bf thill Grea, t Being, who is 1 he of it is Hifio 'ry'of the ,,\Torks of God. Hubert. ram afrid l ne\'ei' {hall be able to Tern Natural Hiffory; when l coilfider that God. created every thing, l think my life not" bet1&ng' ndugh .t i leai'n j : t. Father. :Somer general ieas are al!' thal l can give yo UPOD" the fubjea. Be not however dit< cauraged. Geography feems to be a diffi cult frdy, 'but wl{en we the Warid into Comi. nents, and roefe Contin' ents 'lnto 1<.ingdofm, ani into Provinces, in tillle, acquire a knawledge of the fubjea, which : without fome [uch method, we fbould hefitate ta attempt, Hubert. Supp ore )rOll were to follow t'bis plan in Natural HiLlory. That is what r propofe. In the firfi place, you will remember, lhat GOD is the Creator of the Univerfl. The Univerfi confiIls Qf Stars. l 2 Hubert.

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[ 100 J Hubert. 1s tbis World a Stlr? Failzer. Yes, and a very {mail one, as you lhall foon hear. The Uiliverfi confifis of Stars, and StaTs are of two kinds, fixed Stars and Twolving StaTs : ,fixed Stars are SUIlS almofi al! the Stars you fee are fixed Stars; in a bright night, you may ob[erve them twinkle: revolving '. StaTs are thore which move round a fixed Star, or Sun, and thofe revo/ving Stars are-eher Ctimets or Planets. two kinds, Primary and SecondaT]: Primary Planets are thqft whiclz revolve rpund a fixed Star or Sun s their centre. The Primar)' Planets :fo this {yJfiem, .or to our Sun, are fevern, viz. Mercury, Voenm, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Herr. che!. Secondar) Planeis revolve round PrimaT y and accompany them in their revoluLons round the Sun, tlu) are Moons to, them, a; the MDon is ta our Earth: Jupiter has four of th!'!fe Moons, and Saturn five. y DU fee tben that our Ea-rlh is only a planet; Jupiter, and Saturn, are each larger than ou r Eiirth, and have more Moons, and when y ou ]earn Afironomy, )lou will find th,at Salurn is much more curious in it's ftruaure: .. HoweveF

PAGE 109

[ 101 ] However to confine ourfe!ves to our Earth. with the produaions of which only, we can be intimately acquainted The Earl/'; confifls of Ele'fltnts and Natural j ". : Bodiu. Elements the mofl jimp!t: Bodies in Nature, as Fire, Earth. Natural Bodies are the objeEls of Natural Hifi'ory, fo far as it within our comprehenfion. Natural Bodies three Kingdoms of Nature, the Miner..a4 the Yegetable, and the Animal Kingdom. The MINERAL KINGDOM confifis of Bodies that are concreted, without organization, life or feeling. Can you give any infiance of Bodies belonging to the Mineral Kingdom ? Hubert. Yes, 1 think l can, Stones, 1 fuppofe belong to the Mineral Kingdom. !father. 'Tis. veI;y. Stones, and Ores of Earthy' Subllances, and Salt beJong to th' e Mineral . Hubert. Pray. do S{ones grow?' Nq, they do not grow, but they increa[e in b.zdh, a ,fnowbap, rolled in [now,' bjt <.. mOl:e' [now aUhering to it. ln a tea kttle you forntimes' [ee flony maHer coUefled at the bottom, tbis matter was diLfolved in the l 3

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['102 J waler, but the wter bdi!ink a-war conGiillaily leaves more, and more, (1f, flony matter, unlil a thick crufl is formed. In [orne [uch as t11is many large marres of Stones may have been fdt'med, t'he matter compofing them having ben firfl di'ffolved in water, and then left behind like a [ediment. 'Next to the Minal, is the Vegetable Killgdom; l [uppo[e can tell me wh at 'S\:Ibf.laAces belong to the Vegetable Kingd@m; whic'h: confill-s of Bodies that are organized and poJ!dfed 0/ Lift, but not of Feeling. Hubert. l think l can readily anfwer this <}uefiion, Trees, Plants, and Flowers, mufl belong to the Vegetable Kingdom. Falher. You have an[wered very weIl, and l cfoubt not, but you give me fome information r.efpeaing the Animal Kingdom, whih confifls of Bodies organijd, endo:wed wlz Life; Feelillg, and the powa if .fpontaneous Motion, that s, the power of changing place, at plea[ure. Hubert. 1 fuppofe Men, and Beafrs, belong to the Animal Kingdom ; but, 1 wiIh you wo.uld tell me what you me,an by the word ? FatheT. You do fignt to afk me qqe.!l:ion .. organization means fuh an weh' a or of the part-s of a Body. as

PAGE 111

[ 10' 3 ] as co-operate whh, or affifl one another For infrance, in -a Plant, the root is fo contrived, that it colle&s moiflure, which by means of [rmll tubes in the Plant, is iffu[ed through it. The leaves Iikewife colle& moifrure, which they dif. tribut to the Plant, and theyfeparat nourilb ment for it, from air; this form, or !s organization. You have obferved very jufily that Men, and Beafts, belong to the Animal Kingdom But writers of Natural Hifrory divide 'the Animal Kingdom into fix C IaIfes, viz. 1ft, Mammalia, or AnimaIs that ficHe tlzeir )'oung. !!d, Auu. or Birds. 3d; Amplzibia, or Amphibious Animais. 4th, Piji:es, or Fijh. 5th, JrifeBa, 'OT In:flfls..' 6th, Ver:mes, or T-Vorms. But to avaid ail confufion, we wili, as yo bave confine ourfelves to one of the[e Claffes at prefent, nd we will begin with the Mammalia, which is the 'flibje& of this branch o'f NaLural l'liflory, t1tat {hall of: CL.'\ ,s's

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,"J. CLASS l N AnimaIs of this Cla[s, the heart has two amicles and tWQ vel?tricl.es, the b lood is and The Jungs breathe regularly, drawing in and breathing out the air by tlJ.rns. The jaws are placed horizontally one over !he overed '1ith tips, within which, in mOrll in fiances. the teelh are .:.." Th. e Young ;lre produced alive, the fupports the Young with milk. The Organs of' Senr are a 'Nanril Ears, ." .' '.' .', They are covered hai;. which is thfn on AnimaIs the warmer Regions, and very fcanty on '." L 1.. 1... Their Organs of Motion are four Legs, and t ('" Feet, except in aquatic AnimaIs; in tne[e, the Feet behind are united in a Fin-like Tail. Moll of the Mainmalia have Tails. 1 feaT you will not underlland this De[cription of the Mammalia, at leaft the whole of it. It requires fome knowledge of Anatomy ta know the meaning of the word;' Auricle and Ventricle. tbis you will learn at a proper time, 1 !hall only mention

PAGE 113

mention now, that tbey ate parts of tlt!e neceIfary to make the blood C"r: c ulate, that is move through the blood veffels .} fual\ be contented tben if you w.i, N Temembet that the MammaIia is thal Clafs of AnimaIs -whidh. fupport their V oung with Milk, lIhat they are :pn;>duced .a:li.ye, and ha ve fO"lf Legs, 'n aqm-efl: aIl l Cafes. The Mamnllilia a-re -divided .Sevenofders ORn.ER I.-SP,ECIES l.-MAN. How would you Man from other Animais ? 1 Buber!. Nothing, 1 an hoe more .ea[y; in the .licll plaGe, pe on in the nex,t -he ,caJ.l (peak;. beIides, he bas J'Ci) much more G t\ler uimals. '. With to.,walkiqg rgn. two Is laJld fpeaking, fo do. forne Parfots. Magpies, and Jackdaws, but l you have not made a bad difiinaion, w hen ;you lhat Man ;bas more Senfe, or intelleaual powers fupeor to other :Rlatq, like fOU, defined ,M'l-n te-, be a t:wo.. legg.ed Fataers: DiogenclI a Cock. '{hippe.d the Cock of hi!> xeathers, and placing J1im .in le Middle .of PllIto's School, cried out, Here lS Plato's Man." The

PAGE 114

l 106 ] The Dog, the Elephant, the Beayer, and many gregarious Animals*, difplay on various occafions a degree of Intelligence v.er}' fimilar to Re'afon, fo that it would be difIiu1t to L!hey .drd Dot. poffefs Rea(on; or. fomethiI)g lik!! if; hut then it,is in a much 10wer I lhan in Man. '1;'he, of ,Befl!l:s, fe:em GQnfi.ned almoll entirely to their immediate wants, providing Food for themfelves. apd :Jor, yq\:lng ; ,' out Man is capable of extending his cares, not onTy beyond the prere .ntIllomerit, but beyond this fiate of exifience, to a future me; his comprehenfion of mind indu ces birit to facriprefent to futur good ; to be fn!iblf: his relation to, and upon his Creator, the 'ireat Firft Caure; to be nfluenced by rligi6us, and mora'lConfidrations ; and to feek Happine(s by of Wo' ;lhip. .. 1 However, as we are fpeaking of the Hi!l:ory of Man, we will confine our'felves 'plin cipally to his qualities, as, an Animal; by his fuperior [agacity, he vanquilhes tho[e Species whilfare m0r firong; and [urpri[s tho[e ",;hich are more [wift; the ferocios" andl wild, he fubdues by weapons, or' circumvents t by art; he arrefls the flight of the winged I.nhabitants of the Animah that herd and feed togcthcr, in numbcrs. t Deccives, or enfnares.

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[ 1 ] the Air, by Melfengers of Death, that fly with flill greater rapidity: The Sea itfelf, in vain woulcl prote& it's Inhabitants from the refources his art; he entangles them in their Element, by Nets; or drags them from il, by the infidious llOok. He exterminates thqfe AnimaIs that .he cannot domellicate, and makes [ome Species allifi himln fubduing Qthers. He lames many of the rapacious Birds of the Falc o and emplo y s them in the purfuit, and defl:ruaiol1 of other Birds; and of the Gaze lla Antelope: he teaches the Cormorant to fllpply bim with Filh; Dogs to purfue, and o\'ertake thore AnimaIs, whofe fwiftnefs would elncle bis pur[uit; or to attack thofe, who! flrength, and fury, might endanger bis fafet}": Some of the mofi lavage Genus, as the hunting T yger which in faa is a Leopard, are reclaimed by him, and employed in defl:roying-other AnimaIs. The Cat, an Animal never perfeaJy reclaimed, is !lill domefiicated and the Ferret is kept by him for the rame purpo[e, the defiru8:ion of thore fma!ler but .I!oxious Species of AnimaIs. who[e lurking holes he cannot penet-rale. The Horfe, as weil as the Dog, is employed by hirn i n his war upon other Spedes of AnimaIs f in fine, he makes the whole Creation fubfervient 10 his rapine, or his comfort. Man

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r 108 ] "Man is the moR: de1hoying ef aIl Anim a is; l I e inhabits too every c1imate, he clothes bimfelf, h e is not only a uiing, but Iikewife a TooI ma k ng Animal; :tnd as Mf. BofweH cHerves, he i s a cooking Animal, -or the only Anima l who knows the ufe, an d management of Fire ; In thefe "Fefpes he cliffers from aIl oth 'ers. It has been related that will lie upon 1heir fuffer billets of wood ta be piled :uRon weir fromachs, by other Beavers; ,:and let themfel vesi be dragged i!l this loaded {la te, as I1ho' tl:l e,, 'we WilggOl1S. The Oy!l:er-c
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[ 1 ] ther AnimaIs very foon attain ail that per feaion, of which they are capable, and one generation does not improve upon thofe which went before. Birds build their neIl:s the fame uniform manner, as hey have always done. They never invent, or bring any thing to perfeaion. Wnen any other Animal has been improved, or educated, we do not find that it transfers it's improvements. The Attainments of the Indi vidual are infulated, that is, confined to himfelf, they die with him, and the Species r('milin unimproved. But Man, inllead of following unvarying Inllina, is not Iimited by Seafons, or Climates, he correas, contrats and regulates his natural Propenuties, and bec ornes the Pupil of Education, inIl:ead of remaining the Child of Nature, acquiring new Wants, and aaing ac<:ording to thefe Circum {lapces, in which the artificial State of Socit:ty has placed him. One Reafon of the Superiority of Man is, owing to the Exten t of his Ed uation, and the various Circumllances, to which, during that Education, he is expofed, accordingly if it be negleaed or empioyed, like that of the Brute Creation, in providing merely for the Animal Wants ofLife, he bec omes but liule fuperior to thore K AnimaIs,

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r ] AnimaIs, WJlO feem born to con[t:ln the fruit s of the Earth; to {Jeep, to cDntinue their Spec"ies. and die, as is the:. Cafe with the Hottentots, and many Tribes 01 Savages. Another Cauf of of Man ., IVay be afcribed to his Form. Frqm the Stru8:ure of his Hand, he poffelTes the Senfe .of Feeling in a fuperior ;md the are the tQ ail K ,nQwlj'!dge. he has Means of ml-lc.;.l} the Gener\ltty 'qf This, allifis to dlO[e of .. to Man might be liable from Illformation of his Senfes apd by al'\d Ufe The Brain in Man is muon than in an. y other Animal, and it 1s, generally obferve .that t he Perfetion of Intellea dt:;pbJ.ds very ml,lch Oll . th Size 'of the Br!lin. The Qrgans of Intelle8: feem to \;Je the moi p erft9: in Man, and .t. hofe of Appetiie in l3mtes. But if on the one H-and Man poffeffes Advant ages denied to Bl'ut'es ; the othr, he is liable to Evil-s which they efcpe . The phyncl' Evi1-i> of...r.ife a-re few, and re tnore than :Co'unte;hltlanced by ir's Enjoyments; ) Tet thefe are aU \h.2' 'Ev:t1s to which AnimaIs are fubje8:; but Maa Hable {o' the more affe8:ing. and : ffli8:ing Evils of a d-ifremper.ed Mind. In

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" [ lU ] l'; Man phyfica! Good, and Evil, ,onfihute the fmalleIl: Proportions of Pleafure, or of Pain. We fhould guard then, with efpecial Care, againll: the Imagination becoming difeafed by falfe Ellmates, and wrong AIrociations. Goo exifls only within ourfelves; and it has been beIl:owed upon U3 by Nature Evil is exter nal, and we go in quell: of it. The peaceable Enjoyment of our Mind, is the onl}' true Good. Providence has given Man fuperior intelleaual Powers; by cultivating them, he e\evates his Nature, and increa[es his Happine.fs. It is by degrading the Soul, by engaging it in. low, and animal Purfuits, that we become un happy. Man is more ]jable to Difeafe than other AnimaIs, his Diforders are uf longer Continuanc, and his Life more precarious. The Paffions influenc e our health, the Majority of Men lead a timid, or contentious Life; many of Chagrin. It is curious to in Prieflley's Biographical Chart, that moll: of the Philofophers attained to a great Ag!!. K2 ,Of

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[ lU ] Of MAN, there is but one GENUS; but thm are many Varieties of MAN. The S A V A GE. l-{halI fidl mention Man in a State of Nature, for there are fever,al Accounts of Individuals, who have been found wild. Sorne of thefe 1 {hall mention, not, however, vouching for thdr t;uth. In 1661, a Boy of about 9 Years of Age was in Lithuania, as it is relateJ, amongrl: fome Beal:s, he defended hirn[elf againft thofe who attempted to take him with llis Teeth and Nai.Js; he !lever could be tamed, or induced to live and drefs like olher Men. In '544, a Boy exhibited at the Court of Henry, Landgrave of Heffe. It is pretended, that at J 3 Y cars of Age, he had been arried away by W olves, that they had nourifhed him with their Prey, made a Bed fo-r him in a Cavern with Straw, dried Plants, and -Leaves; that they crowded round hi m, wben he Dept, to keep him warm; that they had taught him their Habits of Life; that he could run as fwiftly as they, and leap in a mofl afionilliing Manner. He was fo much attached, the Account fays, to their Way of Life, that he confeffed, that he preferred the Society of Wolves to that. of Men i and, it was with

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with Difficulty that he was taught to nand upright, by being compelled to place himfe1f in t .hat Atti tude betwcen pons, ereaed for the Purpof\!. 1n. 1694, a Man, about 20 Years of Age, was caught amongn fome Bears, ne was .covez;cd with Hair, had no Appearance of Reafon, he had nC) Language, nor even a Human V oice. He was, at length tamed, made to nand upright, by being placed againn a Wall, to eat like other Men, and to fpeak a little. His Voice was very barlW, and he recolleaed nothing of his former State, which is very remarkable. In Ire1and, a Y outh is faid to have been found grazing, and bleating like a Sheep, and running' fan on a1l fours. Y oilth was faid to have becn found with the of an Ox. In 1724, a wild Boy was found in the Woods of Hanover. In 17t9! two Boys were fa id to have [een in the Pyrenean Mountains. leaping li'ke the Chamois, from Rock to another. But, the mon remarkable Account is the fol lowing, it is faid to have happened in France. A Gentleman going a Ihooting near the River Marne, in Chltmpagne, perc eived, on a fudden. two Black Bodies 4pon the Water, at firn, he miIlook them for. two Moor-hens, and fired upon K 3 them

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[ 1 ] them ; they infi:antly dived, and appeared again upon the Shore, at a confiderable Difi:ance, with. out any Symptoms of being wounded. They proved tobe two Girls, of the Size of Children of about la Years of Age. They came out of the Water with a Provifion of Finl, which tbey irnmediately cleaned, wanled, and eat with cano. derable Appetite. it was remarked, that they did nqt chew their Food, hut triat after biling the Filh, tbey [wallowed the Piece who le ; after this Repafi, they left the Bank or' tbe River, and retired to a greater Difi:ance. One of them found a String o,f Beads, wbich had been loft in the Field; !he began ta leap, and !hew every Mark of Joy; but, foon fearing that her Comp<:!nion would fee what !he had found, !he con. cealed the 13ea9s in her Hand. Her Companion however, who had perceived il, gave her fo violent a Blow upon he.li Hand with Stick, tbat !he could fcarcely move il; 'and wiLh the olher Rand, in wbich {he held a Club, Il.ruck he' r [0 feverely, upon the Head, that!he brought her the Ground, fcreaming moIl violently. The ConqueTor then made herfelf -a Bracelet with the Ribbon, and when fhe had enjoyed her Prize, !he took Compaffion on 11er Companion, who had in[ulted her, and who was weltering in her Blood. She ran here and there to get fome Frogs

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[ li'; J Frogs, which fue lkinned and applied the to the 'vVound ta fiop the bleeding, Che then bound her Head with the Bark of Tree, which fue Ceparated with her Nails, and when the Operation was at an End, they pa.rred. She that. was \Vounded returned towards the River, and the other went towarcls (he Vi.llage of Songi. It \Vas imagined that fue was induced by Thir{/; ta approach this Place, in the Dllfk of the Evening. However that might be. {he was bare foot, her Body was covered with old Rags, and the Skins of and ber Hair \Vas tll.rned up under a Gou rd, which Che \Voie as a Cap; her Fac:e and Bands were as black as ,hofe of a Negro, and fhe carried a Club in her Hand. The fidl Perrons in the Village who faw her, fled, gave the alarm, the Doors and Windows. were immediately fhut. A Peafant, howevr thinking that whatever it might be, a Dog might Impre[s it with Fear, [et bis Maihff at it, the Dogs Neck was armed with a Collar, with Iron Teeth: The Gid feeing the D o g run furioufly towards her, fiopped, and when he was [uf IiientIy near, firuck him fo violent a blow pon the Head. that he inRantly fell down dead : She exprelfed her Jayat this Viaory, by fkipping feveral times round the Dog, as he lay dead j and afterwards fhe to force

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[ 116 ] free open the Door of ci Houre; but not-readi. Iy fueceeding, fhe returned into the and ]iaffed the Night in a Tree. The next Dai, fome Perrons who eonceived that Thirfi: hd eonnrain. ed this poor Savage to come to Songi, reeom mended that a Bueket of Water {hould be carried under the Tree; when {he awoke, ilie looked about on ail {ides, and feeing nobody. {he plunged her Chin into the Buekel, and began to drink; but aflerwards, feeming to cliflrufi: that appea;anee of Preparation, ilie immediately rea[eended the Tree . Seeing Ihat this Stralagem did not fueeeed, the Peafants [ent a Woman to walk under the Tree, with a Child in her arms, and carrying [orne Carrots and Fifh, whieh lhe exhibited to the Female Savage. She hefitated [orne Time, at laft {he came down, and ran towards the Woman, the W oman.on her part, continued approaeh the People who were coneealed: The Savage pur[u. ing the Fifh, was [urprized and taken. She was carried to the Magifirate of the Place, where feeing [orne Poultry, which the Cook had jufi: killd, {he fprung towards them, [eized onc, which {he tore to pieces, an eat inflantly. They gave her then a Rabbit, which {he eat in the rame manner, after ilie had fl{inned il. A

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[ ll7 ] A Shepherd undertook the Care of her, and and t onveyed her to his Houre, in order ta lame her; but indefatigable Attention, and many blows wer e before fue could be pe rmitted t(} remain unguarded in the Houfe. Her Fingers were large, and ilrong, and with dJem lhe eaIily made holes in the Wa1Js, and in the Roof; lhe ran upon the R(){)f like a Cat, and paffed through hales fo [mail, that thei could not conceive how !he could pofIibly fqueeze through them. She e[caped more than once, thvugh the was always retaken, and man)' Years afterwards, lhe ran fo fail that the fwifteU Man could not over take her. She c1imbed Trees as nimbly as a Squirril. She was afterwards placed in a Convent, where fhe remained rome Years longer, in a fiate of abfolute Confinement: Neverthelefs, after that Period flle could overtake a Hare in the open Field, which lhe broLight alive, to thofe, wh<:> c zme to [ee her from curioGty. Although Pains were taken to render her faciable, and to correa her Inclination to raw Meat, and the leaves and roOts of Trees; yet whenever flle [aw a new Face, {he fcreamed aloud ; and when fbe found herfelf near a Pool ofvYater, !he lhrew her[elf into it, with her Clothes on, fearched it to the Bottom, and did not leave it umil fhe had eaten [orne Frogs, on the Spot, and brought others out of il, with a proviIion of Filh One

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[ uS ] One day, a Perron of Di-fIinain, be ing defiro1l3 that Ihe !hould Dine at his Table, :{he not to li K e any .of the Dilhes that compored the Entertainmtmt; Ihe ran from Table, t:o the }<'ilh Pond, and foon returned, delig hted. with a Napkin fu1l of Frog&. a live ; wbich Gle cElhihute d to the Guefis, pUlting them on the Pla
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to fulfer me to die of Hunger ?--No, that ois impoffible; 1 : know himonly,---:"he is my Father, and he will forfake me. At!ill {he died, iN 1754, in extr.eme Indigence. From tbe[e infiances, it fhould [eern that our natura! Powers are very great.-This likewi[e appears from the Feats of Agility perfo.rmed br Rope Dancers, .&c.;t-.Betides ;the S AV. AG E,* LIN NE U S that there are 5 other Varieties :-The European,-tbe 4fiatic,-tbe African,-the American,-and Monsters. The European)s fair, [anguine and mu[cular.; his Hair fIowing and of varioLls fbades of brown : Eyes mofily bIue of a gentle Difpofilion, inl, ventive, and acute.-He dreIfes in cloIe Vefi l1lents:-Is go:verned by Laws. This t 1 have giv.l)n tbis Story merely becaure it was amufing, but 1 d!l not know that it is tru e.-Mr. KERR, tbe Trannater of !.INN.!OUS, obrerv es, th.tthcre InnanceS of Wild Men, ne partiy to he attrihuted to Impolture, and partI y to Exagger;" tion.-That mon prohahly they wer.e, in mail}' innances. Ideols who had flra)'cd From their Friends, &c. The LI N N EAN Charater of the 1 n. Order, l'OU will obrervc i., Thal bheu forcte.eth are intended for cuUing; lhofe in the upper jaw are paraUd, and four in numhcr.-They have two breans, The .n. Genus is, HOMO, or MAN, ,ts Generie Cbar.ter is, Know tbrrclf, Of tbis Genus there is but one Specics, Of which the i, onc Va.ricty.

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[ no ] This Divifion is not accurate, becaufe there ,aconfierable variat ion in the Inbabitants of different Climates, of the rame Quarter 'of tM Globe; and in [orne illaances, the Inhabitants of fi'IUilar Z0nest, hav e a greater Refemblance ihan tho[e of the fame Quarter of the Earth; for in fiance, the moa Northem InhabitaRts of Europe, of Afia, and of America, are very much alike. Their. Figures are uncouth, and their Stature finall; their Complexion [ooty;, tbeir Countenances are equally ravage as tbeir manners. Ali tbefe People have broad large Faces, and flat No[es. Their Eyes ar;e of' a yelllwilh brown GOIOUl', iac1ining tu' black; their Eye-Iids extend t'Owards the temples ; their Cheek-bones are very prominent; tneir Mouths a re Iarge, and their Lips thick and refleaed; the under papt of their Face is narrow; they have a fqueaking voice; the Head is large, the Hair black and [mooth ; and the Skin of a ta',.yny or fwarthy hue. Their Size is diminutive; but, though meagre, t-heir form is [quaI. Mo!!l of them ahe only fouil' feet 1Jigh, and thei r tallefl Men exceed not four feet and a half. Among ail the[e People, the Women are fully as ug l y as the Men, and re[emble them fa fu much, lat the di.fiinaion is not ea.fil y perceived. Theil' t Zone mc,ans a Girdlc, or llere the fpace contaiued be tween the r a me parall e l s of lali t utlc.

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'[ 121 ] Their Breall:s are fo long and pliable, that they can fuckle their Children' oVer their lhoulders. Their Nipples are black as jet, and their Skin is of a very deep olive colou'r. The Danifh Lap!and ers hav a large black Cat, to wliich they communicate thcir fecrets, and confuit ih ali their importa!!t aJfairs; fuch as, whether tbis dy lhould be employed in hunting or fifhing. Among tne Swedilh Lapldnclc rs, a d;u' m is kept in eVerv famU}', fr the purpofe of con[ulting the dvil; ad, 'though they are a robull: a nd nimble People, fuch is their pulillahimity, that they never could be perfuaded to face a field orbattle. Guila phus Adolphus endea\'oured to embody a R;gin1mt of L.aplanders: Dut he was oblige 'cl to rc, linquinl the proJeR. Th' y cannot, it would but in their own country, and in their own manner. To' enable them 10 Iravel on the SIlOW, they ufe Skates madc of fir-wood, about two eils long, ahd half foot broad. TIlefe Skates are raifed b'tfore, wtha l101e the iniddle, for tying them lirm on the f06t. With the'Ce they run on the Snow with Such thal they ealil)' over take the fwiftefl: Ani'mals. They carry with them a Pole, with !ron at one End, and rounded at the other. This Pole ferves to pulh them along, to direa their C ourfc, to prefer ve lhem L from

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[ 122' ] from falling. to flop their impetuouty, and to kiIJ the Animais 'they overtake. With thefe Sk;'tes they de[cend the moil: frightful precipices, and c1imb the fleepeIl and moIl rugged mountains. Among ail the[e Pt::ople, the W omen ure Skates weil as the Men. They. likewiie employ the Bow, and the j and, it is faid, that the Mufcovile Laplanders dart a Javelin with [0 much force and dexterity, that, at the ciiIlance of 30 paces, they are certain of hitting a not larger than a ctown-piece; and that, at the Jarne dif. tance, they ,,-;ill transfix a human body. They hunt the Ermine, the Lynx, the Fox, and the Martin, and barter their Skins for 'Brandy and Tobacc, o. Their Food principally of dried F\lh, and of the of the Rein.deer and Bear. TJ1eir Bread is compofed of the pounded bones of Filhes, mixed with the tender Bark of the Pine or Birch.tree. MoIl of them make no ure of Salt Their u[ual drink is Whale.oil, or Water in which Juniper.berries have been When they come out of the Baths, which are extremely warm, they immediately plunge themfelves into cold Rivers. ln "YVinler, the Laplanders clothc Ihem[elves with the Skin of the Rein.deer, and, in Summer, with the Skills of Birds. The-u[e of Linen is un known

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[ 123 ] known to them. The Women of Nova Zembla' pierce their N ofes and tbe Ears, and or. nament them with pendants ;f blue Stone; and, to in-. creafe their charms, they fireaks acrofs their Forehead and Chin. Theil' Hufipnds cut theit Beards into a roup.d form, and wear no Hair on the Head. The Greenland Women c10the themfelves with the Skin uf the Dog-filh. They likewife paint their .Faces blue and )'ellow, and wear in their Ears. They ail live under' ground, or in almofi below the furface, and covered with the Bark of Trees, or Bones of Filhes. It is a common pralice with dur. ing Winter, to make fubterrafleolls communi c a tions from Hut ta" Hut, by which the y can viot their Neighbours without going abroad. A Night, confifiing of feveral lYIonths, obliges them to illu minate their dreary Abodes with Lamps, rn which they hum the fame Whale-oii that ferv 'es them for Drink. In Summer Chey have bardly more eafe than in Winter, for tney are to live perpetually in a thlc k Smole. This is the only means they have hitherto contri ved to guard tliemfelves againfi the bite of the Gnats, which are, perhaps, more numerous j'n' this frozen Country than in the Torrid Zone. Notwithfland_ ing this melanchol y and lard mode of living, they are feldom or never SiCK, and aIl arrive at extreme L 2 oft!.

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[ 124 ] old Age. Even the 'old Men are [0 vigorous, that it is difficult to di!linguifh them From th young. Blindnefs, which is very frequent among them, is the only Malad}' to whiell the)' are [uhjel:. As their Eyes are perpetually dazzled with the reflexion From the Snow in Win ter, and Spring, and involved in Smoke during Sumo mer, few of them retain tbeir Sight after they are advanced in Y cars. The Inhahitants of.Norway, are a fine Race of Men, remarkably ta1l; and fatr; anl raid' in gelleral, to he very moral. The Danes and Swedes are fair, and handfome. The Swedes are very pro. lific: they have fiequently 8 to 12 Chil. dren; and 18 to 30 are raid not to be uncommon. Lives often exceed 1 "fears; and one Swede Ifved to 161 Years. The Author who gi\"es this Account ,as <1: Swede. Tne Inhabitants of the Archipelago are remark. ably fine Swimmei-s, and Divers. Thevenot tells us, that they exercife themrelves in bringing up Sponges, and e\'en loR Goods, fr0111 the bottom of the Sea; and that, in the 1i1and of Samos, a young Man cannat obtain a Wife, unlefs he be able to dive at leaR 8, or, accorcling to Dapper, 20 fathoms. The latter adds, tbat, in Come of the li1ands, as that of Nicaria, they have a firange praai of converfing with each other at great diflances ;

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[ tlS ] ditl:ances; and. that their Voices are fo {lrong, that, at the difiance of a quarter of a League, and fometimes of a whole League, thofe Iflanders can maintain a Converfation, which is neceffarily interrupted oy long intervals, 'the anfwer not ing for feveral feconds aCter the quefl:ion. The Greeks, the Neapolitans, the Sicilians, the Corucans, the Sardinians; and the Spaniards, being u[1Jated nearly under the fame Latitude, are very fimilar in their Complexions. Ali thefe Popl are more fwarthy than the French, the Britiih, the Germans, the Polaridrs, the Moldavians, tle Circaffians, and ail the other lnhabitants of the northern Parts of Europ'e, till we advance to Lap land, where, as formerly remarked, w meet with anotheiof Men. ' The Afiatic is of a foot Y Complexion, melancholic temperament, ilnd a rigid Feature. The Hair black, the Eyes dark brown :-He is grave, hanghty" avaricious; clothed with loore Vefl:ments, and is governed by Opinions. The Inhabitants of Aja, as has heeri faid before, refemble in and manners, the northern Inhabitar.ts of Europe: The

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The Tartars oc:cupy immenfe Regions in Alla. They fpread over that vaIl TraEl: of Countr.y tending From Ruflia to Kamrchatka . The Tartar,s border with China, the Kingdoms of Boutan and of and the Mogut' and Per flan Empires, as far as the Carpian Sea, on the North and WeIl. The)' fpread along the Wolga and the WeIl CoaIl of the Carpian, as far as Daghefian; tbey have penetrated to th!! North Coafl: of the Black Sea, and have EIlablifhments in Crimea, in Little Tartary near Moldavia, and in the Ukraine. Ali there People, ven in their youth, have lar&e Foreheads; tbeil' are thick and fllort, and their Eyes fn!-all and funk; their Check-bones are very high, and lower Part of their Face is very their Chin is long and prorninent, and the Jaw Falls in; the Teelh are long and diIlinEl: From each o;\ ler; the Eye:brows are thick, and cover the Eyes; the Face is flat; ihe Skin is tawny or oiive; and their Hair is black. Their Bodies ai-e of.a middle Slature, out :!hong and robun. They have but lile Beard, and the Hairs (Ire difpofed in tufts, the Beards of the Chinefe. Their Thighs le thick, and their Legs :!hbrt The Calmuck Tariars are the ma'Il ugly; there 1S. even fomething frightful in their Countenance. They

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They are a1l wandering vagabonds, liviDg in Tents made of Cioth or qf Ski ns. They eilt the Flelh of Horfes, and of An)mals, either' raw, or a little foflened by putri.fyil}g t md,er tbei,r radclles, and 1ikewife Filhes \vilh the Sl\l). Their common drink is Mar,es-, Mill;. fermented with the flour -of Mil let. Th,efe People live perpe tually with their Harfes, and are conlinually occupied in training, dtemng, a!1d exerciling them. They manage them with fuel,! addfefs, that a flranger would imagine both Creai ur e s ta be animat ed the rame Mind. Tbefe Horfes not only obey gendeU mOlions of the BridIe. but they [eem ta kI1O.W tl:e yery intention of their Riders. The Calmucks, who liy e in the:; neigbbourho.gd of tbe Carpian Sea, between Mufcovy and Great Tartar)', are robuIt Men, but the moIt ugly and deformed beings under Heaven. Their Faces are fo large and fo flat. tbat Eyes, which are geilerally fmall, are filuated fiye or lnches afunder. Their Nofes are fa la."', !hat, infiead of two Hales are only ta p e feen; and their Knees bend and their Legs inward. The Chinefe have broad Faces, [mali Eyes, flat Nores, and bardly any Beard. The Women ure every Art to diminilh their Eyes ; the young Girls exten

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ex tend their Eyelids, to make their Eyes [mall, lnd oblong. They blacken their Teelh by chew ing Beetle-nut. They eat with fmall Hicks, and the Females confine "their Feet with Bandages fo as to render them very fmall. In Siam the W omen wear pendant, s in thcir Ears, fo large and he av)', that the \101es gradu3.lIy gro N wide enollgh to admit a Thumb. They bcfmear their Teeth with black '"arnifh, and abnain three or four Days Meat, to make it adhere. The natives of Aracan, which is North Eafl of the Bay of Bengal, and [ubjea to Pegu, are fond of large and Foreheads, and to them [0, they apply a plJte of Lead to the Foreheads of tfleir Children, iml11ediately after birth. Ears are fo long, that they refl on thcir fllOulders; 'lOd, they eat, without difgufl:, Rats, Ser pents, and putrefied Fi{h. Tbe Inhabitants of Ivlalacca, Sumatra, and fome of the adjacent Iilands dijfr from the Chinefe, and the Inbabi tants of Java, who both refemble the Tartars. The Inhabiiants of the Ladrone Hlands, had never feen Fire, until it was fllewn them by Magellan. They live, in man)' infiances, to 100 Years, without difeafe; are of a gigantic Size, and Strength; the Stature of fome, is faid, to be feven Feet high. The

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[ tll9 ] Tbe Qf Guinea, are favage, black, and brutal. They have bldck Te' eth, and crifped Hair. They knolV ,not the ufe of their Clubs, Lances 'al"lq Spears are made of They ure thei!" Teeth as offenHve Wea pons, and bite like Dogs. The W omen have a difguIHul Afpea, they have lpng pendulous BreaIls, f!lall Limbs, the yifa,ge of f\pe, a,n'p'. hideous The natives of Ne\v H>lIand, are the lDoLl miferable of the human Species; the)'. are tall, ,erea an thin; their Eye-lids are half {lmt, from a habit they in their infancy, to guard their Eyes from Gnats; and as they 9pen lheir Eyes, they ,cannat fee to <\' withollt raifing their Head&, as though they .were looking at fomething ab ove them; they pull out, (it {hollid feem fa at leafi) the two fore Teeth of the upper JdW. Their Ski n is black, jlnq their Nourilliment fmall Filli, which they catch in Refervoirs, made with Stopes, in [!paIl inlets of the Sea. They are totally unacq.uainted with Bread and every Species of Grain. The Mogllis refemble the Eljropeans in Feature; tbe vVomen are handfome, pf an olive Complexion; their Legs and Thighs are long, ,n,d their Bodies lll.Ort; the Men often marry al tell, apd the Women at eight Y cars. The

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The Banians in lndia, cat nOlhing that is ani. mated, lhey dread 10 kill t!'c fmalleIl lnfel:; Ihey will riot even defiroy the Fleas ihat molcfi then'!. They I throw Rice and B-eans 'into 'the Ri"crs ro nourilli the Filhes, Graih upon the ground, to the Birds and ln[el:s. 'When the)' meet l a hunter or a finrcr, ihey carnefily beg of bim ('0 Ildefifi: HIle be deaf ta their entreaties, tbey offer him Money for his Gun or Net; and, if he does not comply, they the Waters ta frighten the Filhes, and [et ilp hideous cries la put r.h' e J3irds and oihcr Garne to t fl.ight. They are taIl hardy, full of Courage, a1'}o velihle1l'terous in the management of their Weapons. Among the Naires there are -[orne Men, as weIl as Women, whoie Legs are as thitk the 'Body of an {)rdinary 'Man. This .Dormity is not a con'fe. quence of Dfeafe; for thcy haye from their 'bidh. ln : .[ome t : his monftrous thickn e[s is con 'fi ried ta one Leg only The Ski.n 0f ihefe Legs is hal 1 d and rogh a Wart": NOlwithfianding I this Clumber[ome Deformity, the Per[cms affel:ed, with it are nimble and 'l:ive. h tlie nOTlherh Part of the Tfland of Cey lon, there is a Speces of Savages, caIled &das, who occupy only a [mali Diftril:, and [em ta be of a peculiar Race. The Spot they inhabit is entirely covered Wilh Wood; in which they conceal themfelves

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felves fo clofely, that it is difficult to dircover any of them-Their Complexion is fair, and fome times red, like that of the Europeans. Their Language has no anal ogy with any of the other lndian They have no Villages nor and hold no with the rell: of Their arms confill: of Bows and Arrows, with which they kill a number of Boars, Stags, and other AnimaIs. They never drers their Meat, but they feafon it with Honey, with which they are plentifully provided. We are ignorant of the origin of this Tribe, who are not and who live in detached Families. The Perfians are adjacent to the Moguls, a!ld have a great refemblance to them. The Pedian blood is now highly refined by frequent inter mixtures with the Georgians and Circaffians, two Nations who furpafs aIl the World in perfonal Beamy. There is hardly a Man of rank in Perfia who is not born of a Ge' orgian or Circaffian and even the King himftdf is common Iy fprung on the Female fide, from one or other of thefe Countries. The Perfians, though in general pretty fober, devoljr vall: Quantities of Fruit. Nothing is more common (han to fee a Man eat 12 pounds of Melons; fome will devour three or four times thal Quantity; and many of them fall a facrifice to this exceffive Fruit. The

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" The lii11hitah(s bfP'e:Ila, Of Arabia, 'Of Egypt,' and oLall rtlay be the rame Race 'of Peqpl, in the Time of Mahomp.t thl'!ir Dobyiriv, ding 'iiiimen( Terdt9e' s, came ixdeedrigiy te: rmixlng 'the original 'of tp,e{e Cobhtries. rhe .to Labour. they accufrom to. the greate:latigue,' 'lnd allow to driilk Offce 24 Thelr ,Bodes are :lJleagre, but {wift, and 'almofL Thefe People ]j.ve i n extr:eme m .ifer.y They have neither Bread nor Win,e; sei:p!-:l ; do they ta< Jroubie cultivating the G.round.. p'Iace :of rea\1, they tire wild,..Grail1, wb:ich t he y mix and knead \'\TiLh the ,Milk of thelr Cat\le. Tlte, y Rocks of Sheep' \ iml., \\Thi'ch they ., condt)''t .trom to till they und fuf.cient Herbage for tl1em : Mere le}l era th'ir Tents, which are qf.Goats Uair" and live with their Wives and Chdreh ;tiI1 the is confumed; tl1ey. deC\mp ; nd gEl --in quefi 'or .The

PAGE 141

r J33 ] The Afri ca71, IS of. a black Cdmplexion, phleg matic temperament and reiaxed Fibre. His Hair is and wooly; his Skin foft and filky; h \ s is flat, 1he Lips tjlick; the of the Female are long relaX 6? and pen dllious. His Difp?filion erafty, ind Qlent and, negligent; he anoints himfelf with Greafe, and is governed by Caprice. There feems 10 be feveral Varieties among the Africans. The Inhabit-ants of Cape ,Blanc. are' Moors, and follow the of Mahomet. the Arabs, wander about from Place to Place, pafluring their Horfes, C'amels. Oxen. GO
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: [ ] dwell in Villages. The former are free and Jl. dependent; the J,Hter are {laves of Tyranls; : who The Mours iire ,Cmall, meagre, and have a pu.fillanimous afpea; but the}' are Dy and The on thf ,contrary" are large, plump, and :-vell but the)' are fimple and fiupid. ln fine, the C0l:lntry inhabited by the Moors, confifls of barren Sand s, w here j t Verdure appears only in v ery few, BlIt the Negro Country is rich, ferti1.e in pafl:u!,es, and prodtices Millet, and 'Tr.ees which are al ways green, but few of lhem bar Fruit nt for Food. The, Calle de Verd rriand$ are peopled with Muat'loes, a R ace fprung from the 'who firfl:, [ettl.ed there, .and the native Negroes., The firfl: genuine N egrocs ar.e on the foutbern 13anks of the River Senegal. Ther bathe often, and file thir Teetb, to l7lak them look' more equal. Mofl: of the young Girls mark Figures of Animais, &c. on the, ir Skin. It is a general praice among the Negro '\iV om en, travelFng, to carry their CI;ildreI} on thelr backs. Sorne have afcribed the ,No[e and prominent St.omachs of the Negroes ta this ,Caufe: The in raifing Cbild by fudden jerks, ma'kes the Chjld's Nore againfl: her J3ack; Cbild, to avo.id the 'fe irequcnt' blows, keeps its Head as far back as poilible, by puDling

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[ 135. j ifs Stoma l h t oiward. Father J a ric itlfortns us, that the J a loff Negroe Wotnen, in order to aceufiom themCelves to eal. and rpe ak li ttie, 'fil! their Mouths w illi Water in the Morning, and keep il there till the hour of breakfall. The Negroes of Sierra-Ieona Ear-rings 11lade of teth, hits of wood, &e. l -.' which weigh three or four o unees. Som of theni pierc their 'No-fi' rlls th'eir iIpper p, for il e Purpofe 'offufpeJ ding {Jmifar Their df kiii of Apron, made of the Bark of 'a Tree, covereci with Apes Sk,lns; nd 'to thefe Skns they B elis. They dep upon eat fllh, or Flfh, when tbey can procure it j Yams 'and Banana's are thir prineipal Food. the N, es enjoy go;d Health, and vigo'ros t'h' e)' teldDm a ttai n i d Age; a of 50 is a very ld Man. In certain of Congo, they have fingu lar Cufi:oms. When a Perron d t es ln Loango, l r for exarnple, they place die Corpre on a kind of Amphitheatre, raired about Feet above the: Ground, and ln fitting Ponure,' with the Hands refiing on the Knees. They drers him in bis beft Garments, and then !tres ail round the B o d y In as the Clothes abrorb the M 2 moifiure

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: [ ] ( ) modlure, they c9ver wlth {reOl till the Body be perfeaty lI:'y; after which, they bury him with weat :rhollgh the, have little Gen'ius, thcir f e elings are e Xlrcmely acute. According to the J lllanner tbey are tr'eated" they are gay or melan. c holly, laborjous or flothful, friends or enemies. \iVhen feq, and not ma)etreated, they are contented, and the fatisfaElion ,of lheir Mind is painted in their But, when opprefTed alid abured, they grqw peevilli, oflen of Me. Jancho!)'. ,Of and of ab ure, they ceeding1'y [enfible, an, d again ,fl: thore whQ injure Ihem th\!y bear a mo'rta' l b"atrd. qn theother, lIanel, when they c6ntraa. an AffeElion to a Maner, there is no Office, however hazardous, they will not bold!y their zeal and They na,luraY, affeElionate, iiud have Lbve' 10 th cir,' Chi! d ren, Frie' nds and Counti'ymen.1 The !ittle they po!TeJs they freely dillribul a ,mong J 1 JI' neceffitous, wi ,thout motive lhan l\lat of p.uce Compaffion for the indigent. , ( (1 't. The Hotlcntots arc not Ncgrocs, but Caffres; they are olive, and never lhol:lgh they ploy every mcthod to darken their" It reems

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[ 137 ] [eems to be difficult to pronounce conterning their Hair; for they never either comb or wafu i, but dail y rub on their Hads vafi quantities of greale, foot, and duR, which makes their :Hair refemble a of W 001 [!uffed with dirt. their difpofitions are differnt from thore of the Negroes. The latter are fdentary, love c1eanlinefs, are eafily reconciled to [ervitude. The Hottento. ts, on. the contrary, are a wander'ing, independent People, difguR ingly naRy, and ex tremely j"ealos of their Liberty. Thefe differnces are more than fufficient to convine us that the Hottentots are n o t of the-, "\ rame Race with the Negroes. Tne Al'l1Lrican, is of a Copper-coloured Complexion, Cbblerc Conftiion, and remarkably eret. Has black, firaight, and coarfe Hair; -wide NoRrils, barlh. Feaiu res; and very little Beard. He is obfiinate, fatisfied with bis Condition, and free ; paints bis Skin with red and i& governed by Cuftom. Some of' the Inhabitants of the IJorthern Regions of merica, refemble the Lap'landers; in they dwell in Tents, covered with the Skins of Rein-deer;' in Winter they live under Groune!. ..

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C 13tf. ]: The natives.of Chili a re df a good" Gze, t.hey have thick Li mbs. a large Citefl. adifagreeable Vi(agej fmall Eyes, Ears, an' d HraighuQ1y' black Hair. In Terra MageJ1anica, tbere is a \ gigant;c Race of Men, but 't?ey' feem fi,up' id, 'and mi(erable. ,_ Having mentionecl the lnhabi',ants of Afa, El/l'ope, Aji 'ica; and America, r fhall now flighdy tah notice of' MOlvlers '.of the Hu.malt Spaies ; the feveral" Varit't' ies 'of there are either produced Climate, q., by Di(CCl(C, b, or Artifi cial c 5th Variely. Mor!f/ers. l a b 1. The Alpints,. they inhabi't the Mounta-nous Parts in .the northern ClinJates, the y are fmall, aEtive, and timid; forne are fubjeE't te? Goitres, or large Swellings in thdr Throats ; : tbey are f;e-. qent in the in SW,itzerland. a 2. The Patagonians, are gigantic; and indolen t, ; and inhabit Terra dei Fuego, in South America. c 3' Hottentots, who inhabit the Neigh-. bourhood of the Cape of Good Hope. and are faid tO themfelves. c 4. TIte ir!fajlza.ped Ladies. who deform the 'i;' Figures. and defiroy their ConHitmion by tighl lacing.-:They inhabit E:,rope. c 5 Macrocepalz:

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r ii1-6 J c ,5. or fore tbeir Heads by comp;dIing. them Form.-Chinife c 6. Plagiocefhali. or-.flat headed, who flatten the fore Parts of their Heads by Ca nad jan 1ndians. a b 7. Tlie Chao-das are white, and fair,.-their Eyes are fo weak, that tlley cannot bear the Sun, they go ab,?ut in the Day with the 'ir Eyes half {hut, and looking on the Ground, but .they fee bell during the Night.-They are found in Java. Buffon, and cven L _irin;:us_ and Lord Monboddo-ef }1aving Tails, quote the of' Marc P-aul, Gemelli, Cameri, Struys, Keoping, .&c. but the Accounts are not generally believed. In. this Cafe, l\1l. i:s 0f ohe contain:' mg the foJ\owing Varieties, viz. 1 fi, 20, T.l1e Afi 'li: . 3d, _The European. 4th, The African. 5th,. The American, and 6 th; eirher From C1imate; or From Difeafe, o r The above Divifion of lVian is incorrea, w.e obferve aU Animal s that are dome!licated, and ceafe t6 live in a natural undergo .veiy fihgular Changs in thir external Appear.ances and, in Confequen'ce,indivicfals of tl;e fame Species,

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Speeies, differ as mueh in thore reCpel1s, as Animais of dilferent Specics: For Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Poultry, Pigeons, and Caqafy Birds; it is not then a mattr of tbat Man, who inhauits every Climate, and who/e Life is [0 artificial, and ununiform, fh0111d be fubjel1 to endleCs Varieties, incapable of being weil diCcrimillatd. ' Dr. Gllulin [uggeIls the following t. Formed by the RuJes of fymmetrical elegance a!1d beauty; or, at leafl: what we confider -as [ueh. This Divifion incll1des almoIl ail the l nhabitnts of urope; thore of' Afia on this Sicle of the Oby,: the Cafpian, Mont' Tma; afid the Ganges; likewile the natives o r the North of .(\frica, of Greenland, the ECquimeaux. Br.own.-b, .. ;-:fI. Badius. Of a br;own Col our ; h!ls [canty Hairs. flat Features and l'mali Eyes.This Variely takes the whole Inhabitants of Afia not included .in th\l, pIceding 'Ihaek.-c.-lI, Of black Compleliion; frizly Hair, a flat Nore, and thick Lips.-The whole Inhabitants of exccpting thore of' its more northe:n Pans: copper-

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Copper-coloured.-d.-lf. Cupreus. The Comple xion'-of the Skin refembles the colour of Copper, not bmnifhed.The whole Of America, except the Gteeiilalldera a-nd E.fqilimeaux. Tawny.-e.-H. Tzifc's. Cbidly of a dark blatkifh Colonr, hav. a and harfh coarfe fireight Hair. Tlie Inhabitant$ of the fouthern Hlands and O J mofi of the lndian Iflands. Thus, Man. diftrs From other AnimaTs in his ereEt and nake &kip, having a hairy Scalp, lfeing furnillied with Hair on the Eye b'rows a:nd and having. when arrived al Puberty, the Breafi, Arm-pits, and the ChiIr of the Males, covered with Hair. His Brain is large'r t:han trat of any other Animal, even tHe m 6 ;fi enor mous ; ne is provi:ded \Vith an uvula, cind has organs of His Face is plit'ced i? th e fme Line \Vith 'bis Body i he has a projeting compreffed No.[e, and a pro minent Chin. ,firs Feet, in walkiog, refi on the Heel. 'He has no Tail; and, !afily, the Species is difiingui/hed, from other AnimaIs, by fome peculiarities of the Female COllfiitulon. GENUS 9

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GENUS 2. S ,IMIA.-APE. \Ve no. w c?m, e to the SI;:ON,D G ,ENYS of PRIMATES, the GEN us SIMlA; r . AnimaIs 0/ (bis GE Nt:1 S have four clife fit fore teeth in each :Jaw; Jingle Tl!foson eack Side.' ',bath :Jaws, which are ionger (han the other Tuth, and Jomullhat removd .Irom. Grinders obtufl.-Thez'r Feet ,are flrnud Hands. Anim!lIs of GeQus, in m11Dy infian ces, fo nearJy refell}Qle Man, tb11t it is afionilhing they' J,hoqlq differ fo. wideJy t!:te tota.l want of: E,eafon. ill'hahft eve ry Clinwe; tbe Ape is to the warmer Regions. It is evident that Jl1dgment is not tQ ,Figure alone, otherwire the Ape would be th.e rival of whereas, an Elephant nearer tbe man Species ; with refpea to Power-s; may h, t .. bat he is a long .lived mal, and his Education more flow; 'on tbis cir,CumfiaJ;lce mu cl) of the Ierpe&ability of;ln Animal lepel)ds.

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depends. But Gon bas given a higher Capacity, a divine Mind to IMan, and ehdowed him the Powe;s oLfpeaking and -of think.ing. the Tropics, in India, there are numeTOUS Chady Gro,ves , inhabits. This is a fufpici'ous Race of AnimaIs, nd enclowed \vith a very retentive Memory: They are forwar d, fond of imitation, and full gefticu Jations; are with diffilty brought to learn any thing; ure lhreatening geflures, chatter with their Teelh, and [eem to lallgh : Th.er mollly mace rate their }:"60d in t11eir Cheks forne Time before '\hey chew it; are fond 'hunting ,after F!cls in their own Fur. and that of their Neighbours; have a very delicate [enfe of feeling, ?-nd ure Arms in Swimming. They live moitI)' on vegetable Food: a1l (llck le their young,; but very of the Species are hitherto ellher fully kno' wn, ,r de[cribed. ____________

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[ 145 ] defcribed : They leap van Agility From Tree to Tree, even when loade.d with their young. which ding to them. They are the prey of Leopards, and other Species of the feline Tribe, and of Serpents, which purrue "them ta the ru m mits of the Trees, them elltire. The principal marks by which the Species of this GerJUs are dininguilbable from eath other. are derived, 1 n, from the Tail, which is either long, Ibort, or altogether wanting, or it is firaight. or prehenfile; 2dly, from the BUltocks, which a!e naked, and furnilbed with Callofities, or are cov ered \.vith Hair; ad1y, from the Nails, are flat and round ed, like th ofe of Man, or Ibarp pointed, like the Claws of Beans in generalo 4thly, from the prefence, or abrence of a Beare! on the Chin; and 5th1y, from the Cheeks being provided with, or wanting. poue hes in their un der P a rts. For greater convenience, the Species of this Genus, which are very arc: arranged under five fubordinate D i vifions. The AnimaIs of the firfi Div ifion have no Tails; and confia of the Simia:, or tho[e u[uall1 called Ap es. The [econd Divilion have {hort ,Tails; and are Papiones, or Baboons. The third Diviuon have long TaiJs; and are the Cercopitheci, or Monkeys. N The

PAGE 154

'ilu twofollowing Dz'vifzons inhabit America, viL. The fourth Divjfion have prehenfile Tails, or Tails by whiSh they ean lay hold of the Branch of a Tree, and [u[pend themfelves; they have Y{ They are the Sapaji, or Sap'C;ljouS. The 5th, Divifion haye long, but not prehenfile Tails, and are only found irl America; they are -called Sagoini or Sagoil1s. THE FIRST DIVISION CONSISTS OF SIMlJE.-APES. Have no Tails.-The Vijge is flat,. Tatlt, Rands, Fingers, Feet, Toes, and Nails, fimble thife qf Man,. and tlzey 'wall!. nalurally ereEl.-.:...This Divifzon i7Jc!udes the Simi, or Apes, properly Jo called, qf the anlien/s, 7iJkich' nol.. flund in America. APES are only found in the warmer Parts of Afriea and Alla; they eat Riee, Millet, Citrons, Oranges, Nuts, almoR ail Kind of Grain, Fruit, and' leguminous Plants, or thofe Plants whore bloffoms the Pea bloffom; they drink Water, Milk, Beer, and Wine" when they it, and hav been known to intoxicate them[elves Wilh Brandy. The

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t 147 ] The Ape iS'never fiill; he is continually fpy. ing, every Corner of the Houre, when he is left at liberty, in order to find romething that he likes, or ail opportunity of doillg Mifchief. The Females prodllce a little one once a Year. They carry their young 4pon: : their B a c ks, like a Female Negro, or as bggars [ometimes the little Ape, clafps ilS Neck, and clings faIl: to her Back with its hind Feet, and the Parent fuckles it as W omen do little Children.They live 20,3, and fome Species 40 Years. They herd together in conuderable nllmbers, and each Ape knows his own Company; from whic:h he never They appoint Chi'efs, to whom they are very obedient; they have rarge Affemblies, and unite together, for the purpofe of common defence; they affiIl: one anolher; they have a common fiock of Pro viuorls; they appoint Sentinels; they relieve them; they punifh the negligent; quarrel with one another, and imitate fe' "eral of the habits or Men. They are very malicious, and thievifh, they eat, drink, and plunder whatever they find ; always fpoiling more than they can ufe or carry away. If, for inflance, they go i nto a Field of Rice or Millet, they do not begin by examining the Ears w hich are ripe; bat they pluck them. N 2 without

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[ 148 ] without feJeEtion, and tbrow away fucb as they 00 not like. fa that a Troop of thefe Plunderers faon fpoil a confiderable Harveh. Wh en tbey are pillaging Corn, or Rice. t1iey each take fome Slalks in their fome uhder eacb Arm, and fome in each Band;. then tbey decamp with their fpoil,leap. ing forwards on their bind Legs; they climb_ the fidl Trees they come to, and eat tbe Grain: But if they are purfued. Ihey let fall what ley ]leld in their Hands, fcampering away with only wbat Ibey carried in their Mouths. If lheir objeEt be ta {lrip a Tre. e, they beg i n by fending a Spy,who climbs a Tree, looking round on ail udes, ta tee lhat there Ois nooanger j if he perceive nothing fufpicious, he makes a Signal, and at his Voice tbey ail affemb!e togrther, but they 00 not ail climb the Tree, only Dve or llX are employed ta {lrip il, as thefe galber the Fruit, tbey lhrow it, ta thofe below, who are difpofed in a Line at a little diftance from each other, each throwing or rather handing the Fruit to his Campan ion, until the laft, who heaps it tog "ether; thus they continue umil the Tree is firipped, the Line then advances, and thus a1l tbe Fruit is colleEl:ed in their Store. During 'this Buuners t tbey are very wdtcbful; they have

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[ J-i9 ] llave SeHtinels on all fides, and if they fhould be furprized bran Enemy, without being ). informed, they freatn violently, e[cape as quickly as poffible, and punifu feverely their negligent Watch. From their l1abit of Imitation, and Sprightliners they capable of l earning a Variety of Tricks. they may be to walk and d<\nce upon a to beat to perform the manual Exercife, to Shoot," to w)leel a B arrow, to carry Wood, to Dance, to ride on a Horfe, to turn a Spit. They have heen employed to gather Fruit from Trees, and throw it t? a Man at the bottom; fometimes, indeed, a Man begins by gathering fome, and placing it at the b9ttom of the Tree, the Man th en retires, and the Ape cornes. and imitating him, gathers aIl the Fruit, 'and places it ther; afterwards the Man returns and carries it away. Dr. Leifom, fap, thllt the Chinefe avail themfelves in fome fuch manner of Apes, to gather the Leaves from the Tea Trees. which grow fometimes in Places very difficult tQ Come at; or, they irritate the Apes, who off the branches, and throw them at their Enemy. Sorne Apes are very fond of Oyfiers, and othe. fhell Fifh; their method of taking them is very ingellious; they wait until the Fiih opens. his '. Na lheIJ,

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1heIl, they hold a Stone ready which tbey in. :ll:antly place between the Ihells, this keeps them open, and Ihey take out the OyRer at their Leifure; but if the Stone flip out, or be too fmall, the two Ihells clore, and the pOOT OyUer-catcher is fo completely caught, thal he eilher perifbes mifeI:ably, on the Spot, or perhaps, leaves a Finger or two behind; fometimes, indeed, it is faid that he gets a Stone in his other Hand, and breaks the {heU to pieces. lt'is difficult to take them alive. becaufe are in great nurnbers, and defend thernrelves againfl the comrnon Ellemy. If they are at. tacked on the Ground, they bite, grin, fcralch, imd throw Siones. If they are artacked on Trees, they break off the Branches, throw them on the Enerny, or pell him with the Fruit, or let fall fomething very dirty up0l! his They are fometimes taken in the following ways; a Pot of Water, andanother of Glue, are placed under the Tree where the Apes are, fo that they may obferve them; a Man then ap proaches, wallies his Face frequently with the 'Vater; which 'he carries and leaves the Glue behind, and then he conceals himfelf; the Ape immediately cornes down from the Tree, waOles his Face with the Glue, which fo c1ings bis Eyes together,

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toge/her, that he cannot fee, and tben he is eafily taken. Somemes little Boots, or Shoes, or Brc eches, are conveyed under the Tree, the in fid e of them are fmeared with Glue or Pitch, a Boy goes and frequently puts on and off his Drefs, lilving thofe behind that !ire fmeared with Pitch, &c. The Ape, who imitates every thing he fees, cornes down, dreffes himfelf, is ent a ngled, and caught. Looking-glaffes are occafionally em ployed, tfiefe are left on the Ground, but fo con neaed with a noofe, that wh en the Ape cornes down to take them up, he finds himfelf caught. At other limes, Yeffels are left for them, filled with Brandy, with which they intoxicate them. felves, and go to fleep. Anolher method is to make il hole in a Cocoa Nut, fo fmall, that the can but juil: fqueeze in his Hand, and that with difficulty; this is placed near him, the Perfon withdraws, the Ape cornes down, forces in bis Hand, wbicb he cannot with draw time enough to efcape thofe ,:',\'bo have fet this Snare for him. What has been faid of the Apes, applies to rnany of the GENUS SIMlA, which Apes, Baboons, Monkeys, Sapajous, and Sa. goins.-:-Kerr. Tbere

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, There are Species of Apes, l '{hall only deCcribe fome of thoTe: wliich !ire the mail il'lterefiing; my lntcpti
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J .

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{ 1S3 ] -Breafi and Be1ly, are the Hair of the Head defcends on DO th Temples, in the form of Tref[es; the Hair on the Back and Loins, is fmall in QuantitY. His'Legs have no Calf. The Pongo inhabits the lfland of Java, and the 'in terior Parts Of Guine a. Battel, fays, that they feed on Nuts and other Fruit, that thc:y fleep in Trees, and build fhelter againft the Rain. Sorne Travellers fay, tJ1at they erea Huts, and ufe Bldgeons in their own Defence,_ That they go in Herds, attack the Elephants, who come into their Quarters, with their Fifts, and with Clubs, fo as to drive them roaring away; and that fome' times they carry off young Negroes; but the more interefling Variety is the 2. ')1. SEMIA SATYRUS.jOCKO.-jOCKO. A. Il refembles the Pungo, but is only two and a hal f Feet high.-Buffon, defcriuing one, fays, that his Air was melancholy, his Gait grave, his Move ments meilfured, his Difpofitions gentle, and very different from thofe of other Apes. He had neither the Impatience of the Barbar)' Ape, the Maliciouf nefs of the Baboon, nor the Extravagance of the Monkey. Itmay be alledged, thathe had the Benefit ofInftruaion; but the other Apes, w hich llhall com pare willi hi m, were educated in the fame manner. Signs and W ords were al one fuflicient to make our Orang-outang a; But the Baboon reqqired a Cudgel,

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[ 154 ] Cudgel. and otherApes a Whip ; for none of them would obey withoqt' htows. l feen this Animal prefent his Hand to condlla tht; People .... ';ho came to 'vi-fit him, and walk as ,gravely along with them as if he had formed a part of the Company. l have him fit down at Table" \I11fold his Towel, wi. pe his Lips, ufe '1 Spoon or le, put .in poured out the:; Tea, and allowed it to cool he cl,ra-nk it. Al! thefe aaions he performed, ny other Infiigation thC\n the Signs or verbal Orders of his Mafier, and often of bis own accord. He did no injury to any Perfon: He even ap proached Company with circufQfpeaion, and pre fented himfelf as if he wanted to be careIfed. He was very fond of dainties, which every body gave him : And, as his Lungs were difeafed, and he was affiiaed with a teazing Cough, this Quantity of Sweet-meats undoubtedly contributed to' ihorlen his Life. He lived one Summer in Paris, and diedin, London the f o llowing Winter. He eat almofi every thing; b ut preferred ripe and dried }'niits to al! other kinds of Food. He drank a little Wine; but fpontaneouily left it for Milk, Tea, or other mild Liquors. Monfieur

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t 155 ] Monfteur de la Broffe, who purcbaft'd one; fays, "The[e AnimaIs will fit at Table like Men. They eat every kind of Fooa, withollt diIlincIl tion. They ure a Knife, a Fork, or a SpOOIl, "ta eut or Jay hold of what is put on their "Plate. They drink Wine and other Liquors. At Table, wben they wanted aDy thing, tlrey 1 .. made them[elves to be undedlood by the Cab" bin -boy: And, when the Boy refufed la give them what they wanted, they fometimes became enraged, feized him by the Arm, bit, and threw, "him down. The Male was feized with Sickne[s in the Raad. He eaufed himfelf .. to be attended as a human Bei.ng. He was even .. bled, twice in the right Arm: And, w henever he found himfelf afterwards in the rame Con "dition, he held. out his Arm ta be bled, as if he knew that he had formerly received Benefit from that Operation." Francis Pyrard relates, ,. That, in the Province of Siera Leona, there is a Species of AnimaIs called Baris, who are flrong and well Limbed, and [0 indu!hious, that, when properly trained and fed, they work like Servants i th'ey generally walk on the two hind Feet i that they pound any Snbfiances in a Morlar; that they go to bring Water from tbe River, in [maIl Pitche>fS. wh-icA. they carry fuB oa thei-r Heads. Eut, they arrive

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arrive at the Door, if the Pitchers are 110t [oon taken off, they alIpw them to faIl; and, when they perceive the Pitcher over-tumed and broken, they weep and lament.'" With regard to the of the[e Animah! the teflimony of Schoutlen accords with (hat of Pyrard. .. They are taken/' he remarks, "with Snares, Jaught t'a Walk on their hind Feet, to ure their fore Fcet as Hands in performing differentOperations, as rinfing GlalTes, crying drink round to the Compan)', turning a Spit," &c. "I faw, at Java," (ays Guat, a very extraordinary Ape. It was a Female. She ""as very taIl, and often walked ereE on her hind Feet. On the[e Oc cau ons, {he cealed. with he.r Hands, the Parts which dillin. guifh the Except the Eye-brows. there was no Hair on her Face, which pretty much re[emb led the grote[que Female Faces l faw among the Hottentots at the Cape. She made her Bed very neatly every day, la}' upon her Side, and covered her[elf with the Bed-c1othes. When her Head achel, {he bound it up with a Handker chief; and it was amuung to fee her thus hooded in Bed. l could relate many other little Articles which appe ared ta be e4trem.ely fingular; But 1 admire.d them not fo much as the multitud e ; becau[e, as I the defign of bringing her to Europe, to be .exhibited as a Show, 1 was inclined ta-

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[ 157 J to think that 01e had been taught many of there Monkey-tricks, which the People confidered as' being natural to the' Animal. She died in our Ship about the Latitude of the Cape of Good Hope. The Figure of this Apc had a very great reCemblance to the human." 1 It is the Opinion of Dr. Shaw (General Zo%gy, V. 1.) that there are two diftin: Specie s of Orang-Outang; viz. the PONGO, or Great black Orang-Outang, a native of Africa; and the J OCKb, or redtliJh-brown or chefnut Orang-Outang, a native of Borneo, and fome other of the Indian Iflands. The latter is diRinguiilied from the former by ha v ing no Nails on the grcat Tocs. 3. SIMlA LAR.-L0NG ARMED ArE; or GIBBON. This extraorinary Animal !s diftinguiilied by the cxcefrive Length of its Arr1!s, which louch t he Ground when it Rands upright. There are two. Varieties (lf it, a greater and fmaller, the former reaching to four Feet in Height, the latter not ex-. ceeding three Feet. They are Natives of the interiar Parts of 1 ndi<" and of fome of th Indian IOands. Notwithflanding a \'ery [:nage and fel'O CiOllS Appcarance, thi g Ape is gcntl and tra:able It feeds 011 the Lcaves, Fruits, and Barks of Trces. o

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[ 158 ] 4. SIMlA INuus.-R<\RBARY ArE, or MAG0T f This Is the of the Genus, bei'lg found .in Ai'ba, :'ana through the who e Extent of,Africa. It is fr:0ii'l'two Feetand a h-alf .to Might; Dog-like Face; naturally fierce and may be taughu exhlbited in Shows. ",', .: :! ;,' ,.,," .. ,. 't' !" .. t "\ ': !' A i ,'1 -' PAPI ONES.-;BA.BOONS, .' 1 .. H;ve jhort Tails, andihi;k Bodies, walk uJually on four Legs; and :zre .. iitry : firotioiu and' untralaule: ,( ,. ;.,..:: ','> .' -', 1 1 '1 /. X. SIMlA B.A-B OON. \ This is a formidablf;! fhongl and inufcular, four Feet 'in Heignt '\vh"erri4landing, on its hi nd Legs, of a. r.aging nder canj ne Teeih t ; o a grcat il1d; m, y,'l)e" Tufks. .lt is a of pf Africa and AUa; .and in .":'
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t 159 J Jltlmerous Troops, doing greai: Dam:lge ta th.e alid cult. ivated Fields . 2.' MORMO"N".-VAR I E G \.1: ED or l : '. . This ,Js :rgr t'han tHe -1lf1:,: fiaheling Cldllri 'w1'ten' c10felYl : fpek1id with 'Yllow ahl' 'black but it red to blue ori 'the' Hips, and itk Rl!mp is vermilion: Ji vermilion Line run? dOWll the middle of the Nofe for its whole Lerigth, bordered on each Side wiih a Space of a fine violet blue, deeply marked by oblique.' Furrows. Its Bear.d is ol: ange-yellow" and the infides Of ;its Ears', blue and purple. Mannets rt re'ftll'bles the lfi eXGcedingly and .-in.[-olefit. Its V0ice refmbles the flig4t o a .yi9.n. Thollgh fut .. nilhed \Vith flrong 'Ind fharp Tuiks;ir 1S 110t car nivor
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[ 160 ] the Length of the Body . It is equal in Size Strength to the laft, and is a fierce and dangerous Animal in its native Woods of Afia and Africa, where it refides in va:ll Troops. lts COlllitenance cxpreffes an extraordinary Degree of Sagacity; when in a tranquil State, it appears rolemn and' contemplative; but on being irritated, it immediatelyexhibits the mofi violent animo{ity. It is more obfiinate and morore under Con,finement th an the other Baboons, and its Mallners are pecu liarly rude and indecorous. In thcir native Woods, they' run up the Trees when Paffengers go by, ihake_ the Boughs at them with great Fury, and .chatter loud. They are among the mofi formida ble Plunderers of Gardens and Plantations. THIRD DIVISION. MON KEYS.-CERCOPITHECI. Have Tails longer than the, Body, with a bare or mllous Space on each Side of il; and aJ Pair of Pouches in the lowet Jaw. 'The Spectes of Mon keys are very numerour; il will oe Juificient 10 de. fcribe a few of the 11Iojl atflinguiJhed. 1. SIMlA MONA.-:-V.ARIED MONKEY, or MONE. This Species is raid to hav e given Name ta whole Trib8. lt is about a Foot and a half in Lcngth,

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S; (J?"lrt/Ct;;. (

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[ J -D ngth, of various : Hues, buf. in ' general of a olive-grey above; aniL w.hitiih : lt' ;nhabits Barbary, lEthiopia, of Afrca. -. -.., (2. S'IMIA ,SA BlEA.-",;,PR EE N MON KEY ..... ... ... .,' '" T4is, an >e}egnt bmlt tbe 8ize :pf' Cat. 1 t5 p r .va'ilfng C!ol,lr is .. a 'oU ve green; varied with : gry' its . native Regions itfter into Europe. Its Face j s !Ears much Ii.Iee' the human. It is arr Parts of 1 : .. -: If Of. r '. ; 1 3. S,!1i P E TAU V A U LX IN'ct Mi)'NKEY. ",' ,"t:' J ... J 1 '."",!;' 1 .... 1 ., This 's 'Itepgtq'l Spot on the this Tribe ;gihty;l.' tts', MotiQqs o being to that it :Jly. th;r\ .. "Jt is familial', pray'f,uh. anlli Hs \ .' i s Gllinea. "',, ..',.' .i,'.'.. ',' ) -; .. ,.',1':: 1 r '\,! t '" -.. 'p (. J 1 \,. \.:r ./ -t.; t., ,of .... 4 : \' 0 ,'r.1.. .... f ...., This is the mO, a fi'nguJar in its Afpel: the Tribe, its !oll' g Trunk-like Nore in Profile like a Caric at ure drawn in Spor.t . It is a l a rge Species, ferociolls, and a pproaching ; in JI :;! 1 6 3 Cha-

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[ 162 ] Cha ral:er to the Baboons. It is chiefly found in Cochin-china, and is a rare Animal. 5 : SIMlA COMOSA.-FuLL-BOTTOM MONKEY.. This Species is remarkabJe for its long Rowing Hairs, which cover its Head and Shoulders a full-bottomed perriwig. It has a \ ery long Tail, of a fno-wy whitene[s. The Colour of Body and Limbs is black. It is a Native of Siqra Levna. 6. SIMlA RUBRA.-RED MONKEY This Species takes its Name from the Col our of the upper Part its Body, which is of a high bright bay. Over each Eye a black Line runs from Ear to Ear; bllt there is a Variety in which it is white. Monkeys are cam mon on the Banks of the River Senegal, where they are often led by their CurioGty to defcend on the Boughs as :Soats are pa ffi ng, which they examine with great AttentiQn ; and frequently throw down Pieces of Stick on the Crew. Hiliot at, they raife hideous Cries, and enc1eavour to revenge thetPfe1ves by throwirig Dt and Excrem<;nts at their Enemies. }'OUR,TH

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F ,OURTH DIVISION. MONKEY$ OF THE NEW WQRLD, WITH PREHENSILE 1. SIMlA BEELZEBUB.-PREACHER MONKEY, or THJ'S Species is of a black ColQur and bearded. It inhabits the Woods of Brafil.and Guiana, which it to reCound with -its horrid Ho!ylings. from wh'ich it dcrives its Name ," .. is vry fingular. One_ of fomet imes mounts a higher Branch, wh'i"le the others [eat themfelves beneath . The firlhhen begins in a very loud and {harp C:ry, : as if he was reft, who remain filent, til! h gives a Signal with his Hand; llpon which the whole Affembly joins j'n' Chorus: Tley are filent agatn at another Signal, w"hen he proceeds in his Oratior, till he thinks fit to calI for their united Voice s. This very remarkable Refemblance to a human Congregation, which lIan harcily bt: fuppofed void of fome rational Mean ing, is atte!l:ed by the befr Authorities. 2. PANISCUS.-QyA;A, or FOUR. , lV10NKEY. ...... This,is a plack Monkey, of a flender forl1l, beard .ed., and diflinguiIhed by the Want of Thumbs on

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on the Fore-feet. It is very numerous in Guiana, Bralil, Peru, and the Neighbourhoocl of Cartha-, gena. Dampier gives the following curious Ac ount of its Gambols. "There was a great Com pany, dancing from Tree to Tree ove. my Head, chattl'i.ng and making a terrible N oife, and a greai ri'Ia'i1y grim Faces and antia Geftures. Some clown dry ,Sticks '!ln. d', flung : at me; fcctttere? w.eir and pung my Ears: J:a;fl:. ,,; : bigger ; than: t : hy ',to a fmall Li'mli j.ufLabove !fead,' and leaping direl.ly at p1 .. made me jump, back, b!;lt '!the ;t'4qnkey caught hol of the Bough T:ip his Tail, and rhere f winging to and fro,1 making lYlQ).lths' a( me. The', Females with their young r:nJ.!ch lyap after Males;" YY. ommonly' young; one .. her ,Arm".,'tj"{e.:OrhFr;, fits on her Back, and Neck." When fl:iq'J" thefe Monkeys cling with their Tails to a }3ranch as long as Life rem,aiI)s. The Utility lf ,hfe prehenlile Organs is fhewn when they w,nt'to p afs fr9m TQP to Top of too diftant for a Le:Jp; when they will Jorn: a Chain by h'anging down, linked to ech other 'by their Tails, and thus fwing till the loweft cat l 'hes h 'Gld 'of a Bough, and up the 're ft. They are fai:cJ..even t0 pafs 'Riversby this EXpdiefrt : , FIFTH

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[ 165 ] FIFTH DIVISION. MONKEYS OF THE" NEW WORLD, WfTH STRAIGHT T A'S, NOT PREHENSILE.SAGOUINS . I. SIMlA MONKEY. THIS Species is of the Size of a large Cat, with a dark Face furrounded with white d6wny Hair" and a long, very bulhy Tail. It is a N:ative of Guiana. 2. SIMJA IACCHUS.-STRIATED MONKEY, or SANGLIN. T)1is is an elegant little Animal, about the Sizc of a Squirre!, of a Colour, undulated with dulky Shades, and furniihed with a very long furry Tail barred with black and whit. It habits Brafil. 3. SIMlA MONKEY, or PINCHE. This is about the Size of the la{1:. Its-Head is covered with long fmooth white Hair; contra!tins with its black Face. !ts g e neral Hue is reddi!l;l lt often throws its long Tail aver its Bac.:k, wqen i.t alfum e s the Appearance of a Lion Miniature. !ts Voice is a foft WhifUe, like the lfote

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Note of. a : Bird. It inhabits Guiana, BraGl, :m the Banks 'of -tbe River of Afuazons. ,_". ,",. '1"'-" ,_ MON KEY, or , M1\RIKIJ:I'A. This is diftiIiguiihed by its fin, .1 ong" foft Hair, of a bright yellow COrOUI, refembling yeIJow Silk. Round Face it is fo long aS,to .form a Mane, whenc c the the Lion-Ape: lt is hi it!i N ,ature; a Native of Gia.;: .; ..... MONKEY, or TAMARiN. .' -..... '" 1, .'fs: a a flelh. ':ands and Peet. "Its Ears are remarkab1y large ; its Tail very long. It )s a Native of, the holtefl: Parts of America ; and at low VI ater comes clown to the Sea-fide to prey on Mufdes and Periwinkles. r" :. : 6. -tvfo'NKEY, or ; M Ieo. 0r-the is beau. Excpt .its Face Ta,il' it is entirely :.n'th a brigbt iilvery :Hair. l ts F ace and 'Eal:S' 'a,' lively vermilion; its Ion"g Tail of li deep lhs. a Sp e cies, and chiefly found on the Bahks M 'th : Ri ver of Amazons. "GENUS

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" GENUS nT. '. '.LEMUlt.-.:.MAAUCO. 1 l Pour. {;ntng fl: I. LEMUR TARDIGRA.DUS -':"'T MACA'uCO. from the tal,"dirtefs of its has by, (o.me been ranked arnong the 1 $loths,' which" it refembles irino refpea. /

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refpeB:. ,It is of the Size of a [mali Ca t, of an elegant pale-brown Colour; with eyes large, [0 protuberant as to appear like perfeB: Hemifpheres, and [urrounded with a Circle of clark brow n, which al[o runs clown on the Back. It is a :Native of Bengal'arid other Pal : ts of 1nclia, and is a noturnal .. Aniinal {]ecping,. or lyiqg 1T1oti'onlers, the greateft Par, t qf:, th, Day' ' S ir W: Jones" who' k ept one in givn,1e f011bw' ing Ac'count ofits Manners. He was 'fur 'tIje. tn011o,Patt 'eicept in the. "'; ,olct :Seafan" w hen.', fiis' .. -i.vholly changed. Whcn ,'1 .. ili'Wi-riter, was u(\lally, inqignant, fee\l1eq to reIlr6a'ch ine 'wit"h' the Uneaflne[s whlch he felt,' At aIl he V:as pleare ( wi;h being firokd the Head and and frequently fuffel'ed me ta touclthis, ext 're.melY iliarp Teeth; but, at all Times his Temper, ,vas quick, and when he was un[ea fonal:ily he expreffe? a little Re[entme ,nt. oy a n ,Murrpur like that of a Squirrel, or by a peevifh Cry. From half an HouT after Sunrife to "ha1E an Hour before Sunret; he' fi' ept ;ntermiffi0I1, rolled lik a : as,' foori' as he awoke, he began to for the Labours of bis 'lPproaching Day, liking and dreffing himfelflike a Cat.: He was then ready for a flight which he generally took a {bort Nap; but ",hen

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C 169 ] wh en the Sn was quite 'Cet, h!'! ail his VivacY. "His Food w.as the fweet oJ thi,. Milk he l.i!pped eagerly, but was .coritented"W:th plain.:.Wte. r ; lH : gf!neral he ,vas 'Dut never with and .palrd the c whqle .Nig, ht, while the hot Seafoll !afied, in prow ling, for them . When a Grafshopper, or any .l'nfel;. figlt d within Reach, his Eyes, which l1e fixed
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r 2. LEMUR INDRI ...:....INDRI MAC.AUC. O This Species" b,lack -ifj Col OUI: af.Jd of I;rge uze, is alfo tail'-lefs, andis fo far From the fluggilh Na ture 6f the)irft, that it is trainecl. for the Chace, like ci Dog. It is a Nativ.e of __ t:: ; \ ". . . 3. LEMUR MONGOZ.-\tVQO'L-Y MAC,AUCO, 01\ .. '.' MONGOqz.-.' ---. This is tlle Siz 6f, a or' a dufky brown Colour, and -'with a very long Tail: Whim it is aRd fp0l'ti ... e; lt is a Native of Madg;&ar and t he Indian Iflands, anili"ves' on Fruit. 1 1 -" 4. CATTA This Species, to which the Natne:of jI1acaucu"of' has been peculiarly applied, is the moll' beautiful Animal 'of the h is the l Si,te ofa fmall eat, of a pale greyifh brown .hwe, with, a very Ibng-furry Tajl, marked wLth altemate <::ircles of black and white. its Manners gentle and livei y \ 1 t is ative; and its Motins are more eafy elegant than thore of almoft ally other Qpadruped\ ln its wild it in the .Woods in Troo'ps of thirty' or fort y, and fc:eds 09Fruits. It inhabits the fam e Countries wit h the former. Various

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L 171 ] Various other Species are ranged under the 'f \ Genus Lmzur, 'which it is unneclTary to particularize. One of them, the VARI of Buffon, i:s faid to be a very fierce Animal in its, wild State, and to have Faculty of uttering an aftonilhingly loud and piercing Cry: another, the TARSIER, is 1 by Length of its hind Legs, ih which it approaches the Jerboa. An AniUlal called by Linnreu5 LEMUR VOLANS, or the FLYING MACAU,CO, 15, by Dr. Shaw, re ferred to a new Genus, named COLUGO. By Means of a loofe membranous Skin extending from the fore to the bind Legs, it can waft itfelf in the Air 'like the Flying Squirrel, though it lB tnllch larger th a n that Animal. /' .. --------GENUS IV. .. VESPERTILIO.-BAT. GEN,ERIC CHARA.CTER. Tee/h ma, Jharp.-poitJ/ed, c!lnliguaus ta each ather: Fare-fiet divided ;11/0 very long
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'. -[ 172 ] to the of Birds and yet a f1ight Examination will-ihow that in every effential Pro_pert y they Tank exclufiv1ly in that of the latter, and have no OEa]ity of Birds but the. Power of FI' igh t vvhich is alfa poffeffed in fome by other u!)doubted O!:Jadrupeds, by Infel:s, and even by a Srecies of Fi lh . The 1 nfl:rument -of Flight polTefferl.by the Ba t s is alfa total1y different from .. the Wings of Birds, .being a fine Membrane, capable of being folded up in nUlller ous Wrinkles, Iike an UmbrelJa,. fo as t-o occllpy a fmall wh en the Animal is at reft, thOllgh expandecl to a great 'Extent when in Ation. Tohe Species of Bats are numerous, and are found in the warm and temperate Climates both of th o.ld and the New World. The larger are Inhabitants of the hottefl: Regions; The Genus may be di. vided into the tailei and the lail-Iefs SfJecies. The. Teeth very uncertaill Difiinl:io'ns, fince Number and DifpoGtion yary fo greatly, that by follQwing them, almofl: every different Species 1!ligbt be made a ilew Gemis. l J TAi LED BATS. J. VESPERTILIO MURINUS.-COMMON BAT THIS Species is about lnches and a half in i.Length) and 'nine lnches from the Point of one Wing

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[ 173 ] Wing to -that of the other. It is of a reddiCh Moufe-colour, 191ack Wings and Ears. So much does its Body refemble that of the Moufe, that it has acquired the very defcriptive Engliili Name of Flittero; Flutter-MouJe. 2. AURITUS.-LONG-EARED BAT. This Species nearly reCembles the former, thongh Comewhat Cmaller, but is eafily dill:in. gui{hed by the vall: Size of ifs ars, whicp are more than an Inch long, and very wide. They appear as it were double, having on the InCide a fecondar; Flap or Valve, .to guard the auditory PaITage. As thefe two are the commo .nell: E nglifh Species, we {hall here colle fome of the moll: remarkable Circumll:ances relative to there AnimaIs. Bats lodge in gr.eat Nlimbers in the nfide of oid Buildings, under the Projeions of Walls, in Holes of Rocks,' hollow Trces, &c. whre they pafs the Wjnter in a torpid State; ClIfpended by the Claws of the Hind-feet, and up in theit: Membranes. Early in the Slirnmer they make their Appearance in the DlIfk of Ihe Evening ana, chieRy frequent the Sides of W o ods, and {hay \Valks, thollgh they are alro feen ab Qut Hort s. As their chief Food is InCets, they fol1ow their p 3 Prey,

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[ 174 ] Prey, and often fkim the Surface of Waters, iio;h for the Sake of drinking, which they perform on the Wing like Swallows, and of catching Gil ats and other nol:urna1 In[eas. Mr. White of S el borne menti ons feeing myriads of them on the Thames n e ar Richmond on a warm Summer's Evenilig. They a1[0 enter Larders ta eat the hung up in them, and defcend Chimneys ta gnaw Bacon. Their Flight is irregular and jerking, but firong and capable of long Continllance. They utter a !hriU low fL'ream, like that of th_ e Moure. They are fometimes caught by throwing up jnto the Air Heads of Burdock whitened with Flour,_ which they dafb, and are held by the hooked Prickles. They can walk, but in a very auk ward grotefque Manner. Bats produce two young at a Bi rth, whi c h they fuckle a Time. The young adhere very firmly to tne Teat, and the Parents fly about with them in this Pofition. Eye of the Bat is very fmaIl; and it appears from Experiment that they can avoid Obn-ac1es in flying as weil when blinded, as fedng, which is probably owing to an exquifite Senfe of hearing. 3. VESPERTILIO NOCTULA.-NOCTlTLE, or GREA, r BAT. This is alfo an Englifb Species, though raTer than the lan. It has, however, been found il\ great

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, [ 175 ] great Numbers under the Eaves of old Buildings"'; It is about four Inches and a half in Length,and has fifteen 1 nches of Expanfe of Wings. Ils Ears are fmall and rounded, ilS Nofe ilighlly bilobaled, ilS Body plul11p, and its Fur foft and gloffy, of a bright chefnut Colou-r. It flies high in the Air, in fcarch of Food; and has a !l:rong unplea. fant fmell. 4. VESPERTILIO FERRuM EQgINUM.-HoRS:r::'; SHOE BAT. This Species receives itsDenomimHion from a at the Tip of the Nore, of tht; of a Horfe-fllOe" It is found in France, and very rarely in England. The PISSISTRELLE and BARBASTt:LLE, are two [mail French Species under this Divilion. The VESPERTILIO LEPORINUS or PERUVIAN BAT, is a large one, which Linmeus has clafTed among the GLIRJ;S on Account of its having only two. cutting in each Jaw 1 'BATS. J. VESPER':ILIO VAMPYRUS.-VAMPYRE BAT or ROUSSETTE. THIS is a truly formidable Animal, furnifhed 'Wlth long Teeth and !hong fuarpTalons; and ia

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r 176 ] ) Size, a Foot in Length 'with four Feet Expanfe of Wi'ngs, t6 an Expan[e of fix Fet. Hence they have / been called Flying Dogs, and are the Terror of the tropical Regions they inhabit, which are Madagafcar; and the l !lands of the lndian Ocean. Tho[e of the HIe of Ternate are Teckoned the largefl: Vaiieties of them l.\re alfa found in New Holland, New Caledonia, the Friendly IDes, and other I!lands in the South Sea. Tney hang in Clufters from the tall Tl'ees, [warm ing like Bees, and, if diflurbed, darkening the Air i n their Flight. They' a great Noi[e 'iVhile eating, have a rank SmelI, and bite with great Fiercenefs when taken. They are dreaded \ on Account of a fingular Faculty they po{fefs f '. filCking Blood of Perrons in their Sleep, which they eftt by inferting their !harp Tongue into a 'Vein without giving Pain, while with the Fanning of their Wings rnder the Sleep more pro, found. Many have been much weakened by this Operation, and have beeri near paffing fro:n Sleep to Cattle are alfo liable to have their Blood fucked in this Manner. 'The great South American Bats have the fa me Habit; and it is af. ferted that in Come Parts they have deftroyed aIl the large Cattle introduced by the Miffiona-ries. Buffon [uppofes that the ancient' Fables of the Harpies have beell grounded upon exaggenited Accounts of there large Bats. 2. V llSl'ER:",;

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[ ,F77 ] '2, VESPERTUIO SPECTRUM,'::"-SPECTRE V A:MPY E of Buffon. This is' the South-American Species, which is by a funnel-lhaped upright Membrane growing 0n : !h e Tipof the Nore . Its Extent 'of Wing i : s two Fet two lnches, and more. I! freqpents the Plni Juice of which il is very -,;. .... -. 3, TED-BA T. ...... l This is a Species of middle Size, diJ1inguilhed by a heart-f11iped Me;nbrane: projeling from the Nore. It is a Native of Cey}on and the Molucca IOes. .. The ,HASTATU'S or JAVELT'N 'BAT has a Membrane on the Nofe refembling the Head of an anciet)t Javel in. The, ures of t/liefe fingular appehdages i va rious Spe"ies of Bats-dg nOt feem to be afcertained. G E"N uS

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" [ ,178 ] Il. .. ','GENUS V. -....... y\ GENERl..C. qHARi'rER., Cutting mue' jn eitherJaw: obtufe, ftJ1/t.le"plaad oppojile: Grinders, ]ive on Side, oblJ: Fore Legs ?fluch l(mger th' a';"tht Hind; very long. l, BRADYPUS TR,IDAeTYI,qs.;THREE-TOED : t.; _. ...-t SCARCEL y any of tlle Produaions of Nature a ppear fo imper ,fe-t ',!lS the Sloth. Ucouth and difgullln g its p)oving with extreme Slownefs ;n
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PAGE 195

[ I7f} ] ; Life itfelf is a Bleffing to very ,Kind of Crealurlls on which it is The Species now under Gonfideratign is about the Bulk of a middle-uzed Dog. Its Head is fmall; SnolJt runded;. Eyes fmall and round i. Earsfmall, s.at and' rounded; Body thick; Tail very ort; Hair extrernely coarfe, pretty long and. thick, of a grayilh brown' Colour, with a Patch of pale Orange on the upper Part of the of its Feet is arrned three very fl:rong, large, and !harp flightly curved. Its Mo .. tions are extrernely aukward and l1uggilh; and though its Slownefs has beeQ exaggerated by forne W riters, it appears that a few hundred Yards 1S. Extent of its Day's J ourney. l t lives entirely on Vegetables, efpecially LefJ,ves and Fruit; and. when it has with great Labour aCcended a Tree, it flings off the Fruit, then drops to the Ground, and cloes not quit the Spot till it has devoured the whole. It is capable of fultaining a IQng Abfii nenee. One which had fafiened itfelf to a Pole. remained in that Situation for fort y Oays without the lealt Suftenance. When rno'ling frorn Place to, Place it utters a rnolt plaLnlive Cry, which is principal Defence, for other AnimaIs are faid to be fo aH::ea.ed by it, as to quit iti with Ho.nror or Ji)ifgult. Kircher affirrns that it has a Note' fifiing of an and defcending Hex'lhord'J )vhich

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{rSo ] it utters only by Night. Stich Tena city with which it holds any Thing, t'hat it haS be.en'known to {eize "",ith it s Claws, a Do, g whih was Cet upon it, a nd detain itin Spite of ail ils Efforts, till the Dog pedlhed with Hunger. This Spec ies inhabits the Rot ter Parts of South America., 2. BRADYPUS DIDACTYLus.-TWQ-T.oED SLOTH. T'bis Species is Comewhat flenderer than t he forwith fm00t1I er Hair. 1 Its proper DifiinBion, noweve1', is that it I has only two Claws on the Fore feet. It is more a8:ive t'han th(Aormer, and can afcend and deCcend a tall Tree feveral Times in a Day. It is Natiye of South America, nd alfa of Ceylon and Come other Parts of India. 3. B .RADYPUS URSINUS.-URSINE or FIVETOEfi SLOTH. This is a lately Anima l, from India, which N have referred to the 810th Genus, though in external Appearance and Manners it i'efernbles the other Spcies. It has, in faB, the ACpe4 of a Bear, being nearly the Size of that Anima ,l, with a proje8:ing Snout, and covered ll over with long Ihaggy black Hair. Its VOice, -too, is a Sort of mar. -It is however a gentle and Animal, feeding chieBy on Vegetables and

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,1 ;

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[ Ilh. ] :fnd Milk, and fond of fweet Tlngs. Its Mo, tions are not Iluggiili, but moderate)y lively. It is faig to burrow in the Grund. '.-1 :YJ. -E-ATER '.) GENERIC .. Teeth none: Tongu/J cylindric,. ext;'!file: MfJullj iel'!glhened info a tubular F.orm: Body covered Bair. . ( '"' 1 '. THE Animars of thj -...GeI,HlS, though fome of them large, l(ve entire!y"pn Infels, efpecially -AnIS, which they procure,by i nferting their long worm-like Tdngue in.to the NeRs of the Infels, wllich crawJiog upon )!, pre held by the vi[cid Moillure witb. co:v.ered, and fuddenl1 dra:wn into th Mouth. They are flrongly marked by th Abfend: 0[, Teeth, which Circum !lance takes in no other Genus of Q:.ladrupeds except t.hat of the Mariis. The howeveq have certain bony Proce{fes not unlike l'eeth; feated at the lowei.'End of J I. MVRMECOl'HA9 JUBATA:-GREAT ANT. This is the largeR: Speies of the Genus, be-ing 'five Feet and a half from the Nofe to the L of

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[ 182 J ,of the T a il, which laft is about a Foot and a h:iH long. It has a Cmal1 Head, CmalLround E a r s a very OIig SnmIt, a tapering Body, thick {!:rang Shoulders and Th ighs. J ts Col our i s a deep grey. a broad Band of black rl!nning f r om the 'on each Si de the Body. hs T a i l black and bu!hy: the Hair on the whole Body harfl.l and coarre. It h'as four Toes on the Fore-feet. ami five on the Hind., The middle Claws of the Fore f eet are extremely large, f that this Animal, though deftitute of Teeth, is a formidable Adver fary when molcfted; foi' ilS Slre ngth enables it ta hold faft AnimaIs l'arger than itCelf, in whom it has fixed its Claws; and its Obflinacy caures it ,to adhere til1 bath perifh, for it will not direngage itCelf a dead Foe. It fleeps in the Day and preys in the Night. It runs flowly, but will fwim over large Rivers, throwing its Tail over its Back. Jt overturns or tears up the great Anes N'efls of : the Country, and then thrufis ilS Tangue into the Cavities. It brings but one young at a Time, and cloes 'not arril/e at its full.Growth till.four Years of Age. In' a State of .Confinement it readily eats raw Meat minced. Its Flefh a firong diCagreeable Talle; but is eaten by the Natives of the 'Countries where it inhab.its, which are Brazil .and GuiaJila. { 2. MYR-

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, { 'TETRADACTYLA '"'Vrzo-. DLE A NT-EATER. This Species is mu c h fm a ller th a n the Jaft, a nd iS-furnifled with a h a lf-na k ed, pre henGl e Tail, wiih which, it cUngs to the Branc h e s of Trees gen ral Form and Manners it r e r e mbl e s the for mer, and is a Native of the fame Countrie s. 3. IvhRM'ECOPHAGA DIDACTY L A.-LITTLE ANT-EATER. This Animal i s net larg r thal) a Sqlli l'r e l. l t c ommonly refides on Trees , and o n the AnI s which build in them. It'ha s only t w o Toes o n il\> Fore-feet, the Claw of the exte ri o r b e ing mll c h the largeft. lt has a long prchenflle Tai!. It is overed wiih long foft woolly Hair of a y e ll o wj(h brown Colour. 'It inhabits GLJiana. The' re are fome other American Species or rieties. The give themall the Name 9f Tamandua. 4. M ,YRMECOPHAGA CA PENSIS.-CAPE AN'r.EATER. This Species, at the C a pe of Good Hope, is th e re c allecl the Grcund Hog From ilS J :hbit o L living und e r Ground. It melrure s ab o ut three Feet and ahalffrom the Nofe to t\'le beginning of the T a il, Q. 2 the

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[ 184 ] the Lngth of which is one Foot nine Inches. ;lt is of a gre y C61our, with a Snout Ii that of a B og long thin Ears, and fhong Claws, four in the Fore-feet, ana five in the Hind.. In Food and o f preying itag"rees with the Rd!: of the Genus. The Hottntots dig it out of ils Retreatt ,and reckon it good Food. 5. MYRMECOPHAGA ACULEATA.-AcULE.I\1'I!D ANT-EATER.This Species, iately difcovered in New Holland, curioufly difplays the Gradation obferved by Nature from one Genus of AnimaIs to another. Witl'l the Snout, Tongue, and Mode of Living of tbe Ant-Eaters, it has the {bar? Spines of the Pbrcu pin, with which the upper Part of i ts Body and' 'Tait is covered. It has very {!:rong Feet and Claws with which it can burrpw even under a Wal! o r Ston Pavel;Ilent. It is about a .. Foot in Length. fJENUS

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j,t/ II." /.,-,,'.

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" ,f 1 .. GEN.1UC Cl'lARACTER. j TifJ/h none: 'Tbnguc', .. ' '4 and : Moa/h ',nar-rawed nto . Sif5,!: Bf/dy c.overed wiZh Scales:'; -{ . . -.,. Genus entirely agrees y.rith the laft, except',:.( rit h i'n,g the BodX co/'"\ . ,-, ... v ered Scales, irl:ead of 'Hair; From which, : of the Body and Tails, they t .( have been d enominated S'caly Lizards, thQugh they \ are md have no Conformity '. ..... .. witn tHe re"l' Thr' in the Came A:,Jhhe Specis r'e Ihdi : a and l h e l'tidiafi ' ';-.. 1.. .. .... Il MANIS TETRADACTYl.,A.":'LoNG-Ttl.lLED' .( ,.,r -MANls; or piIkTAGi'N;: has a : Booy, tapering Tai! m6t.e thi m twice the L engt h of. toe Body, {hort fcly l1dfout Claws On each the Fet.:It grows .. ie the Length of five Feet, iJlclucling the Tail... ,.,' '. MKNIS 1 ,

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1 .8& } 2. MANIS PENTADACTy,LA.-SHORT-TSILEIJ MANIS, >r PANGOLIN. Th)s is thicker and {horter tha n the former, and has a hroad Tail not fo long as Bdy. Its: Feet have five Toes eachr .. hofe .of t he Fore-fcet being arnied w1th very !lrong laws. Its Scales are t4id and extremely hard, whence the of Bengal hav glven t Name of o}; the Thunderbolt Reptite. It walks flowly, an wheri roBs itfelfup, fo as ta prefent aI! Armour on ail Si des, whidi refifts: the even af the Leopard. It is faill fome times to deftroy twifting round and its Tr"lmk : Small Stones are 1lfually found in its Stoma,eh" which 1t probably fwallows to affia Digefi;ion. lt is reckCJned deli cate Food. A Species called th BROAD-TAlLED MANIS is. perbaps only a Variety of the Jaa

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f CENUS VItI. . DASYPUS.-ARMADiLLO. . GENERIC CHARACT'ER N() cutting or (T'eeth' ; coated with a jhelly Armour, divider;{ jnfs 1-onu . THIS' GeBus of Ammals is remarkable for the Suit of .A:rmour with has them, and which js curiouily contrive d [0 as tg accommodate it[e1f .to aU their Motion:; and Po!1:ures. When attacked, they roll themfelves up into a BalI,. and tl1\:l9 are nearly invulherable. As a further Defence, they burrow ,in the Ground, which they readily by Means of their {hong Clayvs. They live chietly on Roots and' Grain, but oc c fionally prey pon Worms and InCls. In a State of ... Confinement they will eat Animal Food in conliderable They drink frequently, often grow extremely fat, and are accounted excellent ,Food; but when old, their Flelh acquires a muiky Flavour. They u[ually wander about by Night. They breed three or four Times' a Year, and bring feveral young at a Time. Ail the Spe!. des are Natives of South Ame'rica, where theyare known by the Name of T'olu: Ihey a.re diain guilhed by the Number' of ihelly Zones into which their

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[ 188 J tlleiiArmour on the Back is divided; but it isrrot a:lways eafy ta numb'er thefe with Accuracy; as Zones or Bands are fometirries confounded with the fcaly Bivi{ions of the fore and h!nd Parts. The fullowing Species feem the beil: afcertained 1'. DASYPUS TRI'CINCTUS. -THRE,E.BANDE'D .... ARMADILi!O,. The Pattern of the Armonr of this Species is peculiarly e1egant, being drvided into regular Hexagons, curioufly il:udded . IfS are very, diil:inl. It Iras a very thick flwrt Tait 2. MADILLO. This much refel11bls the former, but has a re.:. marki)ly broad and Ilat Head. 1. DA.SYlIUS NOY'EMCINC'TUS.-NiNE-BANDED ARMADILLO. This has a {harper Snout and lnger Tai!' th i m any other Species: its Ears are pretty large and upright: its Bands are well ddined, but fome vecur with onlr. eight Bands" which Buffon fup.;. p ofes to be the Males. . 4. DASYPl'1!

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-4-. DA!lYPU'S CINGULIS BANDED ARMADILLO. The N umber of Bands in this Species is not very accu ratel y marked. It has broad upright Ears, a broad Head, and a Tail not fo long as, ilS Body. Il s one of the large Species, fa me Specimens having meafured from Nofe to Tail two Feet ten Inches, and th Tail, one eight Inches. S. DASYPUS CINGULIS OCTODECIM.-EIGH TEEN-BANDED ARMADILLO. This has been called the TFejel-headed, from the Slendernefs of its Head. GENUS IX. RHINOCEROS. GENERIC CHARACTER. HornJolid, conical, fiated on the Naft. THE AnimaIs 'of Ihis Genus are next in Size .and Strength to the Elephant, and like it, are con fined to the hottd!: Regions of the Old W orld,. and {eecl upon Vegetables. They are among the hoofed the Hoof being cloven into three Parts. The Species are very few. 1 RHINOCEROS.

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'1'. RH1NOCEROS \' The Fonn' of t'he Rhinoceros is' unc 'o1lth'";(hd 2ukward. !.ts Body is lohg" with a .. hollow Raok \ : its H;-ead large; Ears' large and eref; EYes.;dull and fmall ; upper projetfi.ng above the iow : er, el'lrlin' g in a and very pliabJe, fo as t0oanf.wer the E-nd of a fmaU ill 'c0JJeCl:ing Fbod and : delivering it to the Mouth. Its Horn is flrong, Irg,e at the lli'ghtly curvc; lharp-. 1 pointed, and { in the Ani nil rcaches l tnre!! 'Feet in Lengtlf. n has-four cutting Teeth, .. one at the Corner' of eah Jaw,. and ft( Grinders in each Jw, the firft ftandjng diilant from the cutting Teetn. Its Belly is pendulous, like tnat' of a Hog; its Legs very fliort and tliiqk ; its Tail and rt: i"?is .cloathed in a fott of Armour, the Sk-in lfaked, a few firaggling r-ifiles,., thic ,k, r.ough, full of caUous Tuoerles, in' vaft Fdls al:i;unhe Neck, Shoulders, and Thighs, fo as tu y-ield to ti,e Animal's 'Tt is OP a blackHh Hue. . This Skin is -fo' on aU the. uBP:r and .ol!lter Farts as to a Simetar ancl'll ,lead
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'[ -1<91 ] ;Feet, amI" its 'Length frOlh the "End' of the Nofe to the 'Infertion of the twelve Feet. Thus ainply provided for its the Rhino-_ 'reros lIves fearlefs among the T-ygers and other Animais of Pr' ey with wnih 'its native Regions abound. It loves !hady Forefis, Marfhes; and the Neighboufhood of 'Rivrs; nd delights to' ;alIow in the Mire, lik-a Hog, by whih it proteas itfelf agairifl -Infeas which rright otherwife burrow 'be-' tween the Folds of its Skin. Itis a folitary Arri maI, and inofFenfive; but ;when provoked, it is furious ... and runs at -_the Alfailant with all irs regardlc:fs of Danger. With its Horn it rips up the Delly of an Antagbnilt, and then tramples him under Foot. It can run wi-th grcat Swiftne[s, but having an indilferent Sight, and tuming with Difficulty? it may be ay a nimble Motion. Its Scent is exquifite: its Hear : ing acute: ilS Voicc a Grun; Ijke that of a Hog. 'Though c::apable of being tamed in [orne Mea{ure, if is rude and indocile, and to Paroxyfms of FlIry, which nothing can appea[e. It brings one young at a Time, to which it is greatly The Rhinoceros feeds on gro[s Herbs; not the moR priekly. It is fond of the and devollrs !aN S0rts':of Corn" whence it is.:a mi[chievollS Nigh'bbur to cultivated Lalilds. at is :hunted as well for its }Iorn as its Ffe(]l: tlle HunIers ...

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[ 192 J Hunte, rs make ure of Iron Bullets, and altempt to 1hoot i t in the Belly as it is lying down. The confiant Enmity it and the Elephant feems to be a Fable; as weil as t hat with its rough Tongue it will lick aH Fleih of an over!hrown Enemy from his Bones: its Tongue, on the contrary, is remarkably [mooth. This Species inhabits Bengal, Siam, Cochin-china, the fouthern Part of China, and the lfies of Java and Sumatra. '2. RalNOCEROS BICORNIS.-TWO-HORN Elf RHINOCEROS. This Species is from the former by an additional Horn, placed higher on the Nofe than the firft, and [maller. The ,Homs are f aid to be loofe when the Animal is in a quiet State, but to become fixed by Means of Ml.lfcles and Tendons when it is roufed to Exertion. Anothe!' Diflinc tion of this Species is that its Skin is void of the armour-ljke Folds of the (ormer, and has only a Wrinkle anofs the Shoulders and the hinder Parts: it .is however ;ol1gh or though lefs fo than the other. In other Refpels, and in Size, Habits, and MaNner of Living, the 'Two-homed clofely rtlfembles the Single-horned It .is an Inhabi.tant of Africa, and is Frequen t jn Abyffinia and about Cape of Good Hope. It a,ppears

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r 19-3 ] :;l'Ppears 'to 1,e the Kind with which the Romans \Vere ac-quaiu1'ed,,' and which they exhibited in their Aniphitheatres. 'i[:he JyIartial has an Epi.,.., 'gFam :upon a Ruinoceros : toffing into the .Air >'v, i th 4ts,tDo..aUe-h,.rlf.n..A TW0. : horned Rhinocr-os is alfo met with in the '
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;r :194 ] :lnllabitant s, the molt fo(midable 'of w hom 1t may -:fafely defy. Man alone, br tfuperior i s -<;.apable of fubduing it; and one of his proudefl: : Conque!ls is over this Animal, the amazing Powers of which he has macle coqJpletely fubfervient to h$ Purpofes. < Th Elephant; thogh fo majeftie" is br !lO Means a fightly Creature, acc()rrling to our of animal BeautY His rough Skin., of, a deep .brown or blacki!h Colour, is full of Knots and Fjlfures like the -Bark of an oldOak, and fcantily furnifhed with brfl1y Hairs. His Back is arched; l1is Body thck; his Legs like malfy Pillars, with round edged by five fmall Hoofs; his Head large, and '
PAGE 216

, 1 lifls wirn Water; which it fpirts into its Mouth. The ,ois tetminated,' by a -flat circular ,Tip, perfQtated tir o HoIes for Nofl:rils, with ';r projeeting like a Finger from its upper Side, br Means of ',which it can tlke up the Ohjea f10m the Ground; ""hile the mazing Flexi-bilily of atl the Parts uf the Tru,nk, 1l1akes', it [erve t he Purpofc of a HancL and Arm, for laying hold of any Thing, and compr({ffing with great Force w:htevercames withrn ilS Grafp. It Iias:been fe:eneight Feet long, al1d f]ve in fl'r ence at the thickefi. Prt.-The Tail. IS of mo-' denate bmn,gth' terminated Dy a few [cattered black Hairs. 1 TJie 'l'eats of tlile Fem:il>le are placed bc:hin(J. the ,Fore-legs .. Wilh Refpel:' to th:;: Elepliants .. of di.ffc:renL Countrtcs and Breeds vary Jnnch. Nine Of ten Fee [eemS' to be the ufual Size lit fU Growtli; but fome have ariih:d at:the Heighf of twe1ve Feet, and perhaps of E1phnt feldOln brings forth more thaii a fingle one at a Time, whjch .. tm fixteen or twenty Years of Age. They are t(> live fro.m il hundred to a hundred and hif-ly; Yea($. .,. l Th Fo.od of Ele .phamts is the tl!nder Branches of. '<18 weIl aS Grail15 and Fruit.s of aU Ki.llds; Y.Jhene, like the they are der;:fs qf cuLti yateEl. F' ejds. 1 l'lrey R 2 go J

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go' in Herds,. fome o( which, in C.ountFies remote from are very numerous. When they re move from Place to. Place,. the largefl:-tLllked Males lead the Way, the Females and young I;)'eilrg in the Centre. They are' fond of Water, and f wim welt, raift.ng their Trunk ol1tof the Water; whilc the Refl; OL their Body is immerfed. Their ordinary WaJ-k is Dot [wi.fter than that of a Horf:, but, when they faH int) a Kim! of Amble, which is equal to 'l fiow Gallop; but as they turn with DifficLlhy, a nimble lndian can generally. avoid them. They fly from Man, however, unlefs irritated, and few Animals are of a more gentle N atme. They utter two Kinds of Cries; the one t1uowgh the;: Trunk, loud and piercing llke the Sound of a Trumpet, which may be heard to a great Diftane; 0ther by the Mouth, interIllpted by Pau[es and Sighs They are incapabl of tleariil.g 'Cld, and alfo fuffer from Her, which they avoi& ill th'
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[ :197 ] Indian .ocean. Ceylon is faid to yiel"d the large!l ; and in general the lndian Elephants are la rger th aIl the J).frican. tIaving thus given the Hiftory of the Elephant in aState o.f Nature,: we {hall proceed to defcribe it in a pomefl:icate State. From' the eadieJ1: Pel'iods this Animal has been an ObjeB: of the Chace,. cither for the Sake of its Tufk.s a 'nd its orfor. the Pur-pofe of enflaving In the firO: Cafe it been (hot with poifoned Avrows ,. Oftaken in. PitfaUs ,j.p. which Stakes '\Vere fixed up.right .;, but in modem Times is gencratly kil lcd by Firea:rms. Ttle Dtltch Colonilts at the Cape are very expert in this Sport, whi'ch is ufually purfued by a l'art y of Hor.femero, who alternately difmount and tire at the Animal fr9m a la .r.ge Gun placed on a ReO:. The Markfman immcdiately remounts, anct flies before the Elephant, who, if only flightly wounded, purfues, with aU his Speed ',. tilt he js; drawLl off by Shot. Sometimes, by the: FaU of his Horfe the I-hmter has 100: his Life,. being overtaken by the enraged Beaft, and tram. plcd to Death, or impaled upon his Tu.lks-. ,Taking alive i.s a Matter. of more Art :l1ld . ) SometLtmlS a large Party of Men furround the WpocL in which a Helit! of Elephants has been difcovered, and with Shouts Noires, ,!nd Torches, drive them on all Si'des to a R3

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[ 'l98 ] Kind Of Pa.rk prviouflY 'endo[ed wi th firong Pillr (iides, from whidr the Males are lingTy enticerl by tame Femles into a narrow Spa, th"Ht \iVit& Ilrong Bars, whte tlley are fecu red with Ropes. Sometimes fingte a -te feparated ff,o!h rtll Berd,. and purfued till an, ative and "lntrepid; Hunter gets an Opportunty of paffing Roperound a hind Leg,. and windi ng it round a Tree;_ the Al'limal is )\eld,. till by Mcans of t.wo t31m Elephants, one 011 eaen Si de" he is Jed away. i n Sometimes troined' Females re fcnt into the wild Herd to inveigle Indiyidoals from : lhc:ir Compa-nions, and' bTing them to a Place where they can he' AIter. aH thefe Mmls of. Captl1rejt remains tl reduce the favage to a ta me Sta,te; wnich il! generaUy done in a very !hort Time, hy the Ad' of thof'e already tamed" whieh l empl'oy either Blows or Ca!fes.,. \vhi1e the {;apt ,ive is further fubdued by Bonds and 1i mes by the Wa'nt of Sleep. The Space of 3 f e w Days wilhfually Cffiee ta render the Jargefr. wild El 'ephant completely domee" fo doeile are' they by Natur. W h e n tamed, the Ele ph-anls conftitutc an im .. portaFlt Papt of the Grandeur. of the Eall.er-n MO' -narchs, bei.ng decora-ted with gorgeons Trappings,. and ftlmilhed on therr Backs with rieh Scats or L itte.rs in which Princes and Gr-andees ride on fo-6 lemn

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[ -199 TI -Ierim Occafiol1s" The Elephant is guiaal Oy'a Man feated aftride on hi'S Neck,. who holds a hooked Iron RotI.. They are l'ikewife ufed for a Variety of Pu-rpofes in which great Strengthis, required; to cany Burdens, diraw Canl1l
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[ 200 J Favours. They urually ml>lch attched' to thei' r Keepers, but if afFrontcd by them" will often feverdy revenge th!mJelves,. An Elephant, in a ,Fit, of once killed his or Keeper. The Man's Wife, ren dcred defperate at Sight, took her two Children, and tlir.ew them befol'e the faying, Now yml have kitled thei r Father, you mayas well put an End to their Lives and mine." The Animal fudde ,nly. f1:opt, relentedr and taki'ng up the. oldeft of the Childn with hi;s ,Trunk, placed him on his Neck", adopting him for his Cumac; nor would rufFer any orher Perron to mount him.,. Another Elephant, kept in City, of Adfl11eer,. was accufiomed to be taken through th e Market-place, when an Herh woman by whore SlaU he paiI'ed, al ways, !reatl"d him with a handfnl of Greens. ln Olle of his periodical ,Fits of Rage, he broke hi6 Fetters,. and rllllning through the Market, put ail the Crowd tJJ Flight ... The Herb-wPIp an in herFright left her little Chi Id on the GroUlld. The E!ephal'}.t, on comig up, the Child of his Benefatos,. and ta.kJng it up gept1 y vth his T.ruok, placed i t in l on a ncighbQuri 'ng Stail. .. They fometimes difplay their Spirit of RetalifltiQIt -io an h).lmb.urotls ,Manher., An Elephant-paffing along the Stre et!!. ,of Dehli chanced to pllt his Trunk SllOp, for which he rqceived a.'prick with a Nccdk

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[ ZOI ] li Needle from one of the Workmen. On retnm ing, he filled Trunk with muddy Water, anl1 as he repaffed the 'Shop, he fpirted the whole Contents over the Taylor) Work-board. Another. which a Painter wilhed to draw in the Attitude of raiong his Head and opening his Mouth, was fatigued and baulked by his pretending to throw up femething for him to catch. This Infult he re venged by fpirting Water from his Trunk over his Paper, and fpoiling the Drawing. Another lefs innocently punifhed his Cornac for atternpting to break a Cocoa-nut on his Head, by fei7.ing a Nut .frem a Sta11, and beating it \Vith fuch Force on the Man's Head as to crack his Skull. Elephants have a quick Senfe of Glory, and Fear of Shamc. This was exhibited by one which was employed in rawing a Veffel into the WateT. His Eflorts Froving in6tfelual, Maeter exclimed, Take away that Jazy Beaet, and bring me another.'r ;ne poor Animal,' !1:imulatcd by the-Reproach, rcdoubled his Efforts, and faHing, fralured h13 Skt111 and died on fhe Spot. The of a Rewarcl will induce them to make extraotdinary Exerti;ons. Theil" Fondtiefs for Spirituous Liquors. is orten employed for this and lhey are llCtc by poillting to a verrel of Arrack; but it i. angcrr '\l3 l') ifappoillF them of. the Pri:t.e when thl Y have carned it. An

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, [ 202 J An Elephant is a very eofl:Jy Domefl:ie j and it is; faid that the .Jndin Princes, when they wilh to win a Man, make him a Prerent of an Elephant LIom the Royal Stables, wbich he eannor av.oid. keepdng, and feeding iLl the mo(l; expcnfive Manner. In a wild Siate they wiU devor a hundrecli and fifty Pound 0f Grafs ur green Herbage daily. W11en tame, befides herbage, lbey are fcd with Riee, Bread, Pottage, or Spirtuoos Liquors oeeauonally to Iil"rink. 'Vith every Care they eannot long be EIl tope, whep.ce they are Iiever leen here at thtir. fun Growth. It is a remarkable Circumft.a-nce that Elephants, ro thorough 'ly domefl:icatcd, win nevejl : breed in COnfinel1'lent 'Thcre is 0 'AIy' one propeT Speeies of ,Elephant, -though it is [ubjea to feven.l Varieties with rerpe& to 'Size, pr-0portipnate Lengthof Tt:unk aL1d Colour, &c. .. An whien, were it better known, might probably eonfritute a kindred Genus to : the Ele ph 'ant, is the SUKOTYRO, a Native of Java, ,raid to be the Size of' a large Ox, wilb a Snout l'ike a and Horus or, Tufks projB:ing from each Sicle the Head, neau the Ils only DFcribei is Traveller Niewhoff, who bas given a Figure Of itJ but Frobably not very aecuratc. GENUS

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,f/jll {1,. 2i11/;I 1 (

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' r 2{)-3 J JI. I ,XI. f-' :,. -: GENERIC CHARdCTER. Mou/Ir Jhaped like the Bill of a Duck: Feet J.: ANA:tINS:-DuCK-BILL"ED PLA TI-IlS rnofl: extraordinary Animafhas been f.erred by Dr. Shaw to the Ordc!..: BRUTA, but in Point of natural Refemb1ance it is difficult to rank w ith any krlown Family of Spe cimens of it h av e been fent From New-Holland; the Coun.try in which Nature w have cx crted her creative Powers upon a Plan different from that obforved in othe-i-Parts of the Globe, 'an, d to have prodl lced Coaibinations that violate aU the recei 'ved Principles .of Clafiificat1on, HeTe 1s a whicn in,fread of a Mouth, is fur nifhed with an Organ exal.ly re[cmbling a Duck's Bi, n. 1 t is rath ,er a fmall Animal, mea,furi ,og tbir teen itic: hes from the {)f the Bi1l1o that of the 'Tai!. It is of a fiattened Form, [omewhat like 'that of the Otter" covered '\Vith a very thick loft Fur; its Hcadis [mail and .fiat; its Eycs almofl: buricd in Fur; its broad, rlluy and fi,l!; its Legs very !11
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[ 2C4 l <:onne&ed by a broad Web) extending beyolld the Claws, whicQ are fl;rong and ilirp ; the Hind-feet dt..,.ided iuto fix Toes, w.ehbed only to the Roots of the Claws. Nothing [eems at prefent known of its Hillory;' but it ,canno, t he .doubted to be a R.efident in watery Situati.cms, ,and to fd {ln qu,atic Pla;tts AnimaIs. f, }'fl;lturalifl cannot but _.. J J .... 1 _. long for a further with [0 extraordinary a rea\ure.. ... GENUS xIi ... 'TRICH'ECHUS._ i W ALRUS. . ,GENERIC CH.dR!1 CTElR ., jo/ira)"!! in' the upper. Jaw, :,poiritlrg : Gnders jftur on each ,Side in r'l: :Lips doub/ed, : RindInl al tbe Exlrcmity of Bt;dy, uniting in/!) a 'F. THIS, Genu; confi-fl:s ellt'rely of ,marine At;r:. Inals, and few Species. ..."', l,.', ':' , I!. 1 1. TR'ICHECHUS -ROSMARUS.-ARCTIC WALRUS, cal1ed aIra tlle Sea-ho.fjc, dt 'is or il very la'rge Size, reic'hng to C'ightee'ri F e J t , ) Hl

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1 / ;{ ... q,Q5 J afl d ten or twe1ve.in Cir. It has a I:Iead, 'thick co.V, ered with .a)ho;r NeSJc, tik .J3Qdy', tepl)inated by fiv.e wbbed .,lP.ort T Jt. s .ar.e ,fp;1,aJ. 1 i It. i s co . with fpri .!1k1ed fuprt ,brown.Ql.H,!lr. \lpper.J ra,W. Pt:etwoJarge ,}VI)ich. Qeen. (>und ,'of the \ of ea<;..h, and ,are for lhey are .ri0l!s, .. uft:el), __ me.t.\w.iJh ,in gr,eat .. on Thei r ci). ief are .the. J\ortl}ern Parts ,of A11IerJ. a, .... '?cl N Qva t41!ij1ba. ',P-X9dlJce YO, ung .\lfll!llly J)y ou &a-p}ap', ijQ1. The W ... 1lr \ls.s ,unWo but . r .the I<;e" :i7f'l}: \W; the t,.kc tbem to a fecure .D,iftt1J)ce. On woun ded, lhey atternpt 10 nk \he ,:which .arries Ihcir cither by :;.it, or endeavo\lripg to fl:riJ
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[ 206 J Cook t!Jus defcribes their Manners from his own Obf ervation. "They l i e in Herds of many Imn
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[ 'io7 J yon are of the other. The Dam, when ilt the Water, holds the young one between her fore Fins." The[e AnimaIs are noW' kiffed chieAy for their Oil; and it is raid that : a very (l:rong dafii<: Leather 'ma y b e prepared f>om their Skin. 2. TRICHECHUS BREAL1S.--WHA-TAILED TRICHECHUS, or MANATF. This Animal nearly approaches the being :\ltogcther an Inhabitant of the Water, and fcarcdy d e [erying the Name even of a Hip, d. Its Fore-J'cet are little more than pectoral Fins, ferving only for Swimming; and it is quite ddlitllte of Hind-feet, having in their Place a hOIhontal Cref:: cent-fot;med Tail. It is of a vall: Bulk, fome, when full-grown, mea[uring twenty-eight Feet in Length, and twenty in the greateft Circumference,. and weighing eight thoufand Pounds. The Head is [mail and fquare; Gapefmall;. Lips furnilhed with Brimes; Teeth_ none, but a fiat white Bone in each Jaw, with an undulated Surface; Eyes very fmall; minute Orifices inll:ead of Ears; Neck thick; Body tapering to the Tail; Skin thick, !lard, black, and rugged like Oak Bark. Beneath the Skin is a Coat of Blubber containing a fine mild Oil: the Flelh is like coarfe Beef; that of the young like Veal. It inhabils the Seas about S the

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[ 20!t J tile 1I1ands lyilig betWeeri Kamlfhatka and America ; 3"nd alfo ;he 1 {land of Rodigllez near the Mamitill.s; .and the fame, or a kindred is found about Mindanao. The Manati is extremely voracious, feedng on Fuci or Ihat grdw i.n the Sea, 01' Ihat are thrown 10 the Shore; and during their Meals Iltey feern to have no Senfe of Danger, will foffer any to go among and choofe whili he DeCl:. Whil fuIJ,. th -i faU a{!iep; :'!tld Ineir Bcks being gener'ally ab ove Watr" prched upon by Gulls which pick out t'he lnfel:s by i-hich they are The.y fre_ qnent the Edges of Shores and' Mouths of Rivers, and in Tim of Flood approacfl. the,_ Lahd fo' near tna'f a ,Peifon tn 'em wi :rh, his Hand; They in conftlling of a a Female, a young on half-grown, .and anolher very-fmail; a< they' arc much attathed ta eadi t>'t1-i'i. Wnn a 'Manati j ;s'finick wilh a Harpoon, fis' C01l1panions come to ifs AiliCl:ance: fome fo overfel th' Boat' by under it; others-,prers IIpon tLe Rilpe tO' break ,it; olhers Ifrik the Ha'J;pooJl 'with' Ih't'ir t'ails in ordt!r to fo'ofen it, in H;cc' eed. They no Voice, but' make a Kind" of fnorting in l:li'elllhing. nothcr

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[ 2 ] Anotller Species of Manati, called the Rfiundtoiledr of the Length of fou,rteen or fifteen Feet,. s found in the Rivers of Africa, particularly the' SenegaI. A third Frequents the Rivers of Guiana;; and a very large Kind ' is fid fo be found in the River of and the Lakes adja
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, CElIltJS :JUIl,. PH'btA.-SAL. GENE>R..JC' CH r HMcrER:. ln/he l {jJfn' Jaw, fix; ip'dinfted, _pll1"a/M, "/-hi! moe1iar one in rbe!lawer.!J11W. jil1ii':, ...para/M, f!fjua/ -. n[n'r!-'teeth; 'one' -eh ,Side in both ].aws) lrg e, Ijointed: GTinde.r-s, fil.fe. an 'lJach Side b-'1J'liJ., qbtufoly.ll'lctifpidled-; -THiS (}ehtl"s is 'lifo Marine, but ifs Spe'cs come lQ Lfd at Inrervls, and 'fo'ine'times continue long upon it, efpccially dj;ji'ig th 'Sa'foh dt 'llv}ng. They have five palmated T?es on each Foot" and a Body thick' ,at the Shoulders, and tapering '10, the Tail. J. PUOCA VXTULINA.-COMMON S EAL or SEN CALF. This Species has a large and round Head;. large Eyes; no external a Tongue cleft at the Tip; Whiflcers at the Corners of the MOllth;. a fmaIl round Neck; v.ery iliott the hinder t>nes fo placed as to be of no Ure except in Swim-11ling j Feet firongly webbed,. with. five Toes. 6 each,

PAGE 235

[ 211 ] Mch, armc:d wiih Claws; a veJI"y {bort Tai.!. Its Boy s coveJecl wltih fhmt thick-fet Hair, va,. fO\!S in Colmr" grey, hrown or blackifh, and {9m. mimes {polled. Ils general SUze is from f:i'l to nx Fee!'. The 'Females pr.olltuoe' thcir )'oung in Winter; -f:eldt>m' more ithan -ll.Wo at a which they fuckle about a Fortnight 'w.here they 'Were-born,. and then takc ot to' Sea, and 'n(1r ,ul: ln / prociITing !(lheir4'ood, which confif1:s .of Fj(h Sea-weeds "The V.oiee ;f 't'Re fiuU grown Seals rs hORrl, and 'Rot \Io1(l
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[ 212 J for the Sake (:Jf the Oil procured fro!J'.i' their Fat, and for their Skjns; the latter are much ured for overi 'ng Tnmks a nd 0ther PurpOfes. The FlefJt of tihe young enes is good Food, and. often eaten by. Voyagers. Seals are gentle Ani mals, and capable of being tamed and taught Ya,. rious Atlions,. A Species m 'Mch refmbEngthe eommon ;,' caUed' the G','eaf Seal, is found in ScotJand and further NorMl. lt gmws to the Lenglh of twelve Feet_ The GreenlandeIs make Thongs fOI their Fialery, from its 2. PHOCA GROENLANDlCA.-HARP SEAr: This is caUed l the Heart Seal; and is: difiingutllied -by an irregular black Arch (:Jr Crercent proceeding fr0m the upp.er Part of t .he Back, along each Side, towards the Tail,. which is u[ually termed the Sadd/e. lt has pointed Head, and a thick clumry Body.,. and grows to. the Length of nine Feet. It is round in aH the Seas within the artic Circle,. and as loV\' down as Kamtl11atka. The ThickneCs of. its Skin, and.its great Pr.oduce of Oil,. render it ope of: the moil: v.aluable of. the Seal Tr.i'be ; and its Cap,ture is a pdncipal! Objet of the and Courage of the Grcenlanders, who it in, the open Sea frol;tl their littLe Eoats ..

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[ 2I3 J 3. PHOCA URSIN.A.-URSINE S.E:AL. or, SEABEA:R. This SeaI gl'0WS te the -Length oveight Feet, and the Weight of eight Pound, but !:ha Female is far !hort of. the Bulk of tha Male. 1t der'ves its N'ame from its long af.ld Ihagg;y J HaiF, of a black' Col'our, but il} the old tipped w Jtth grey: bl'IeatlY it is a foft bay Dow.Ili Ils Nore projeB:s like that of a pug Dog t its Ears are [mail and fharp-pointed itsFore-legs a):e IeCs immer{ed in the .sody than thoCe of other Seals,. :lod its Feet, having only the Rudiments. of Nilils, reCernble a Turtle's Fin its hind tbotJgh pro-jeting Hraigh.t 1 behind t he Bocly, aEe capM>.le of being brought fOl'wards) [0 as to rub the Head. Thme Itnimals-grow exccffively;fat: the Fletlil of the old Males is very rank; but t'hat of the Fe(l1ale rertmbles [alnb, and the young ones are to he as Pigs. 1 The Udine Seals chifly inhabit the J !lands !lind Shores of the Sea betwet!ll ACla and Americ a. They frequent the Inands from June to duri'ng whlth Periodtliey breed, and bring up yolmg;. and afterwards refort te the A liatic or American Shores. The Males are each having fl'Olll eight to Bfly Females, of wh'ich they re very j'ealous i and en thC!ir Ac;. count

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count are often the Caufe of furious Combats, lIT which they give eacp. other very deep W oum!s. They lie on the Shore rn feparate Families, each. :apan From the reft. They are mw:::h attached 10 therr young; and on the App.r.oach of an Enemy, the Male !lands on te while the Fema' le enaeavours to retreat with her Cwb in her Month. If fhe drops or lofes it,. the Male qllits his AntagoniLl:, and coming to the Female,. falls on her, beating her with' fllCh againfl: the Stones, as to leave her for dead. On flle crawls fllDmiffively to hel: Lord, and ,,,-ailles his Feet with her Tears, while he fl:alksabout with aIl the Airs of Pride and AHogance. At length he [oftem, and bath mte in teaderly inenting their 10fl:-young. The Affetion of tfie Female to fuch a Ma1l:er cannot be fuppofert to be very great; and when a Mal. e is vanquiilied ill fingle Fight, his whole Seraglio goes over to Vilor. There are always fome old Males deT ferted by the Fema1es which live aparttJ and arIJ extremely irritable and qllarrelfome. If a Neighbour intrudes upon their tl ley faIl upon 11im with the utmoLl: Fiercenefs; and as, during the Baule, < the Combatants generally diflurb ano'T ther, the bloody Fray is thws often propagatcd a[c1ng the whole Shore. Thefc AnimaIs a very tenacious Of Lire, and Wounds whichi WQuhl

PAGE 239

l 21:5 ] w0uld lmofl: immeditely moll: other Ani. mals. They fwim with great Swiftne[s; and when from' a Boat, [eize on it, and carry it along wit'h Rapidity, or even [ometimes fink it. They can continue long while unde-r Water. They c1imb Rocks by fafl:el'ling on tRem with the fore Paws, and drawing them[clvs up. l -' 4. PHOCA This Specie'S, which is the Seo-Lion of Arrfon 's Voyage, is dill:inguifhed, in t11e Male, by a pro jeaing 'Sn out, :hanging fevera1 lnches over the 30wer J aw, and confj{f.ing in its upper Part of a loofe wri nkIed .5kin, which the Animal has a Power of inflaling., fa as to give the a hooked Form. The Fore-feet ane {hort; t'he hinder ones exp : mdell, into a Kind !Jf jagged Fin. The Hair 011 the Body is and 'of a de cp dUll -or rua Colour ; it is [omewhat longer 011 the Neck. The Skin is extremly rhik. A fuIJ-grown mearures in Length twenty Feet, and in the greatelt Circum ference fifteefl. T'he Females are much lefs: they 'hring young at a BiTth, and are fierce : in proteting them. One of them kiIled a Sailor of AnCon's Fleet who had robbed her of 'D'Cr 'Cub. At olher Times thefc Seals nrc very timid ; .and when fuddenly furprizel, fall into great Con{UNOO, tumble down in thei.r hurry tocfcape, .'aiM' tremble

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[ .21.6 J tremble all rtwer. They colJ.etl: into Families like former-Species, but JeCs n umefGUs. They are equalrly jalous and qu.arrelCome about thdr Fe males. They .. are of. an indolent Iethargic Nature on hmd, Iwallowing and grunting At they purClle :(i'h and the I fmaller Kinds.of Seals, becOlpe [0 fat as ta {eern Iike a grcat Skin-full 0 ( Oil, which has a tremulous Motion in Brubber : be-neath. irhey a.re' likewiCe very fuI], of Blood, Their, Fleili is eatabk. They, are InhabitaElts of the South Seas, and have been found on juan New Zealand, and the Falk .land Iilallds. 5: PHOCA jt1'BATA.-LEONlNE SEAL. This, Speciesy the ;Se.a L ion, of Cook lInd oth me1'iled that {\ppellation by' the Ia.rge Jloal .ing Mane the Neck and Shoillders of the Male are decorated. The reft of the Body a iliort, fmooth! gloffy .Coat; the whole a deep brown, with a reddiih Tit;lge in thofe of, Kamtiliatk.a. The Head of, this Species is large, with. a fuort turned up NoCe; 'the Shollld e rs thid{ ; and the hind Parts greatly Cwef.1ed out with Fat. T.he Fore.feet refemble a flat Fin, without any extcrn;! Appearance -of Toes l t he Hiad fect are very broad, and ftlfniihed with fma ll N ail/1, bor- .Iered with a Stripe of Membrane. The Males, which

PAGE 241

' [ 1r17 "] which are mllch larger th an the Females, are in Length from ten ta Feet, 'and weigh from twelve ta fifteen hundred Pounds. But thofe of "Falkland lllan, ds are Caid tp reach the 'of. twenty-five Feet. Kaffltlhatka and rhe neighbour-. ing Illands, and the Coaet of Pat a-' apd the Straits of Magellan, are the only Place s where tlley have been III 'Manners they reremble the' two laft Species. They have a fierce and the Males make a formidable roarif'lg and fnorting, but By with Precipitation on the Appr"oa'ch of Man. They afe very careffing ta the Fcmale's, of whom eaeh 'Mal pondls a Number. "In the breed ing SeaConthcy Jall From their \J ClI al "Food; but' keep tl;eir Stbltlahs diftended by f wallowing large Stones. There are feve ral90ther Species of Seals, which il is ta particu!arize. T GENUS

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[ 218 ] ,1 ':1 GENUS XIV., CANIS.-DOG. ENERIC CHARACrER. Cul/ng-tuJh Ji>,: lit eacb Jaw: Canine-teelh Iwo in each Ja,w, j'oli/ary, curved: Grindersjix or feven J: CANIS 'FAMILIARIS.-COMMON DOG. OF, ail AnimaIs which Man has appropriated to '11is ure, there is none which he has fa completely domefl:icated, and auopted for his Companion and Servant, as the Dog. He has been t oo, as' it were, to multiply this Anmal into mny ones; forby feleaing Ipdividuals eminent for ticular Qyalities, and forming them into feparate Beds, he has at L ength produced Varieties r9 difl:ina, that it is di.fncult to ho w they ihould have fprung from a corn man Origin. ln Sizes between the LapIJog and Mafliff-in {hape, the Greyhound and Newfciundland Dog -in the SpaIiel and Bull Dag, the Diverfitics are fa great that we fcarcely recognize the fame Animal. Y ct al! there, and the numberlefs olher Varieties, readily brecd togetber, ['roduce a Progeuy, aud Cemble eacl1 other

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[ 219 J other by a Number of llriking Properties whih c1early point out .a common Nature. The wild Progenitors of moll dome{l-ic AnimaIs can readily'be {hown, as f1ill exi!ling in thtir native Woods and Deferts; but the Dog has been fo long domellicated, that his original feems loft. There are, it is true, wild Dogs exilling in var/ous Parts of W orlt! ; but it is fllppofed that they are rather the DefcenJants of, the tame; e10pe d fror:n the Dominion of than th e ir Ancefl:ors. Thefe are fierce pre datory which hunt in Society, and dilfe r little in their Manners OInt! others of the fame Genus. The tame Dog, of whatev e r Kinrl, is diOil1gni[hed by revcral remarkable O!, a liri e s. He is carnivorolls, but will occalionally feecl on farin a ceolls Vegetables. His urual Voice is a Bark'; which he exerts on the Approach of St rangers: whether Dogs or Men; he howls unrl e r Confinement, or Pain, and at certain mllfi c al Notes. He difiinguifhes Perrons by the Scent; rare1y [weats ; lolls out his Tangue when hot; rnaps at a Stone thrown at him; frequently g0CS round the Place where he intends ta lie down; dreams in his f1eep; and is fubjea to
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r ] Puppies, which are lit fir a blind. The Dog to furpars ail AnimaIs in Dncility and in what may be callen a Kind of Morality. His Fidelity tu his Ma{l:er is inviolable, and h 'is Attach almo{l: beyond human. He, his Per fon, proteas his Property, accompanies him in bis walks and rid e s, runs rOllnd hi m, gambols in his Eye, comes whcn called, crouchep at his and is .happy at any Notie b::,f1owed IIpon him. He bears 1 njuries from him with Patience, and recei.ves. Favollrs with Grat' ituJe. He goes thy ROUtlds Dy, N ight, and keeps off Plunderers and Intruders. He foon becomcs acquainted with the F,amily where he lives, both human and agimal, and permits Freedo!ns From them, pt: ,will al\ow in no Strangers. He has a partic;qJar -Anti. pathy to Beggars, wl;om he cOl)liders RivaIs. He is con[cious of any and after cotn mitting a Theft, !links with Tail qetween his Le.gs. He comprehends the iJightef1 Sign from his Mafier, and appears alm0fho !lllder{l:and hil> Speech. He, follows hititl out of Sight, and di[covers him in the Mid{l: of a Crowd: When travelling with him, he will fiop at a Divifion of the Roads, look back, and wait tiU is direl:<.d which ta take. He is capable of being taught a VaJ;iety of Tricks, fome of which nearly r Jpproa ch the Al!ions of ReaCon.' He !Illas. Man in 1

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E. 221 ] in taking and fubduing other AnimaIs, and can exercife fuch a Degree_ of Self-denial as tD leave Ult touched for his Mafter's Ufe the Game which lnfiint prompts him to catch. The principal Varietles of the Dog-tribe are the following : The Sf,l'pherd:S Dog. This is a mofi ufeful Creature in the Capacity of Guardian and Con dutor of the Flocks, which could not be managed without his Aid. In Countries where W olves and other Animais of Prey are fO!Jnd, his Strength and Courage are wanted in protehng his Charge, and the Breed is there larger; with us he is a fmall Dog, remarkable for Sagacity. He will keep the Sheep of a numerous Flock together, prevent them from fi:raggling, threaten without injuring them, condu} them Pa(tureto Parture, bring them up at the Marter's Signal, and not fuffcr any of another Flock to mlx with them. He has upright Ears, and a Tail remarkably' foll of Hair beneath. Buffon fuppofes this to be the Origin of ail the other Varieties. The Cur Dog exercifes the fame Authority over Cattle that the' former does ov 'er Sheep. He is thong, fierce, and bites kcetily. He attaks the Heels, and will thus maficr the 1l10n f()t: m idahl!! Bul\, and put him to Flight. Some of thefe are T 3 wheiped

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[ 222 ] whelped with 'f'ilils (hort if tlle)' ha <:.ut; and are thence ca1led Self-tailed. The PWlleranian, Siberian, Kamifhalkan and Gr,een-' land Dogs have a generaJ Similarity, and are di. ftin guiihed by iharp Snollts, ihort erea E
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[ 2.23. ] The Ne".f1foulIdlan.d Dog is a fine' Bree& .of a umilar Kind, and in the Country whence it takes its Name. is ured to draw Sledges loarled with Wood from the interior Parts to the Coall:. 1 t is very large and ll:rong, an excellent and Di'ler, very failhful aud faga cious. They are oflen kept on board Ships for their Ure in bringing back GOQds or Perrons that fall into the Water. In a fevere Storm in th Winter of 1789, a Ship was loft off Yarmouth, and l'jO living Creatur efcaped, cxcept. a Newfoun.dland D0g, fwam to Shore with the C a ptain's -Pocket-book in his Mputh. of the Byll:anders attempted to take it from him, but he would not part with it. At leilgth, feteting one Man from the Crowd, he teaped againQ his Breall: in. a fawning and elivered the ])00k to his Care. He then retumed to Ihe Beach, and in bringing ta Lnd every Thing that fl.oated from the W r eck. Many Inf!ances occur of their Faving Lives in the Thames and other Rlv.ers; and fometimes Ihey d'o not wait for a Signal ta excrt thei;. Powers. A J3oat-man p.lunged iota the Water ta. with another for:1 Wage r .. .' His Newfoundland Dog, mill:aki ng the PLlfpofe., and fuppofing him in Danger, plunged after him:, dragged him to the Shore by tQ tbe gr. eat Di verfion of the Spetator.s. The

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[ 224] The' Rough Waler Dog is difl:inguifhed by its curly liair like Woul, and its great Attachment to the Water, in which Element it is perfetly at its Eafe. 1 t is ure d for hunting Ducks, and for bring ing out of the Wat any Game which has fallen in it after being Chot. l t s likewire kept on board Velfels for limilar Purpofes. The Large and Small 117ale r Spaniel have cllrled -Hair, long Ears, anl a remarkably fagaciolls Arpe0". They are both fond of ta ,king theWater, and are ured in d!rcovering the Haunts of WateT Fowl. The lall Kind is difl:ingui!hed for its Do<;ility in learning Tricks, aI)d obeying the Mafl:er's flightefl: Signal. Of Dogs of Baltle, as th ey may be termed, the Bull Dog fiands pre-eminent. It is perhaps the mofi courageous Animal exifling, and the mofi pertinacious in its Attacks. The principal Trial of its Ferocity has been in the favage Sport of BlIllbaiting. A thorough-bred Bull Dog flies di l'etly to the Nore of its Antagonifl:, and wllen once faflened, will permit itrelf to be cut Limb from Limb r.atller than let go. Repeated tollings are inrufficient to daunt it. With its Bowels hang ing out, it will crawl to a Iiew Attat:k. This Kind is [mooth-haired, low, but fl:rongly built, with a projel:ing uncler Jaw, and a fierce maligl'lant Arpea, ltrongly indicating its Nature. As it always 1

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[ 245 ] always makes its Attack in Silence, it is partieu-' lady dangerou s. The j1iltfliff, with much greater Size .and Strength, has a more / generous Courage, and is con {idered as an Example of truc Magnan imity. He is a tnoll: luardjall of his Mafl:er's : Perron and Property, alld is ufual1ycalm and placid when not rou(ed ta the Dcfellce of his Charge. He will (ufter himfelf with great Gond-nature to be hauled about and teized by the Children of the Family, and is not forward tu conea. the In,lpertinences of his Fel1ow-animals. A l arge Mafiiff trlal had been long rnolefted by the fnappith Barking of a mongrcl CUI, bore il till his Patiene was ex haufl:ed, whenhe took his petly ntagonill by the Back, and contented h!nfelf with carrying it to a neighbour:ng Qyay, and dropping it into the River. The Britifh Mallitfs were fought by the Romans, f o r the bloody Sports of the Amph(lheatre. In l;lter Times, three of them have been faid to be a Match for a Bear, and four for a Lion. Pliny, however, relatt!s a Story in which a lingle Aba-: nian D9g vanquifhed a Lion. This WOlS perhaps a fimilar Breed to The Irifb G,rryhaund, the largefl: of moerr\' Dog Kind, and tpe tnofl: beautiful. It reaches the Height of four Feet; is of. a white Colour, and a FO,rm ref<;ml;>lin& the Gryhound, but more ro-bufl:.

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[ -22 ] bllil- .Its Afpetl: is mild, and its Nature gentle. 1 t was f o rmerly of great Ure in-clearing Ireland of Wolves; and that being now efFeled, the Breed is become extreniely rare. The' Gnat Danijh Dog is [uppofed to' be a of this. Of DogS of th; 'Chace there, is :i great Variety, diflinguifhed by various The Greyhound is the fwifte!l: of ail the Kin' d, and there is not an Animal of Chace which in a {hart Courfe he cannat overtake; His Form is f1ender, his Legs fine and l o ng, Iris Snout {harp, !lis Ears Chort and hall' pendent. He hunts fol el y by the Eye; and from the Defea of his Scenf, g e nera1\y lofes his Game, if it efc apes his Si,ght. He is tnllch ufed for taking the Bare, in the Di,. verGon of Collrling, formerly a favourite Amufement of Gentlemen" ''vho alone, in th'is Country., were permitted by the Laws of King Canllte ta hep Greyhounds: at prefent, from the' Facility (lf catching Game by Courfing, it is much prac'" tifed by Sport[men of inferior Rank. In fome Counties there are annual Races of thefe Dogs, which exhibit aftonifhing Pronfs of Speed. The !talian Greyhound is the rame Kind in Miniature, but{lill more_ delicately proportioned. It is kept here only as a dome{lie Favourite. The Lurcher is a rough-haired Dog, {horter and thicker than a Greyhound, and pofTeffed, of a fine Secnt,

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[ .227 ] : 8cnt, the peculiar Property of which is its Art in catching Hares and Rabbits by Night. Vvhen taken to a Warren, it approaches by Stea lth, fud denly darts upon the Rabbits while fceding, barh, and thl;s makes g[eat Havock in a {ingle Night. When duly trained, it c arrTes off its Boat y ta [ome Place where ils M aner waits ta receive it. Another Oogu[ed for {imilar Purpo[es, called the '1umbl c r, has the {ingular Infl:inl: of approachiqg the Rabbits in a gamboling, playful Manner, fo as not to alarm th em, when it feizes by a [dden Spring fuch as are within its reach. The '1errier is a low, long-backed, lhort-Iegged Dog; -!"cugh or fmooth, with an exct:llent No[e, and remarkable for its Hollility ta aU AnimaIs of the Vermin Kind, as Weazels, Polecats, Budgers, Rats, Mice, -&c. One of thefe generally accom. panies every Pack of Fox-hounds, and is of great Ufe in entering the Hole or Coven of the Fox, and forcing him out. The Terrie r is keen, an' l.ardy, and fufbins fierce Combats with the Badger ?r other refifting Focs. The Dogs above-mentioned chiefly pm[ue their Game fngly; but the ge nerolls Family of Houllds bunt in Packs, and form the principal Appendage ta the noble Diverfion of the Chace. Thcfe, for the moft Part, are [mooth haired, mottled, with long pc;ndent Ears, and high curling Tail, giving while -.

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[ '228.] while they fun a fondrous VoiC, whicl1, well matched and varied, his atm<;>fi a:mu!ic;1 ff e t, and is peculirly animatin$ ta Men and Horfes. Of HOl.lnds, Ibe Beagle is the fmalleft, and only ufeel in hUnlillg the ,Hare. They are much lefs fwift than their Prey, hut by the Exqllifitenefs of fbcir Scerlt, and -their Perfevcrance in PlIrfuit, fel dom fail in the End to tire il down. The H arrier is a larger and f wifter Breed for the fa' me Purpofe The Englifh F ox-hound is tle mon: diftingnifh e d of ail the Tribe for Vigour and Swifthe(s, and U11-commonPains have been t a K n t? bring it to fe.ion. It is a tall, light .. made, but firbng Dog; full of Spirit, and will its Game at full Speed for an extraordinary Length of Courfc The Stag-hound is' a Variety o( this, of fupe!'iot Size and Strength. In Countries' whete Inore for midable AnimaIs are the Objel:s of eh ace, as the Wild-boar, the Wolf) the Leopard, &c., Hounds ;re bred of Size and Fiercenefs equal to the Con. (eft in whic h they are el'lgged .. A Kind of Hound remarkable for its Qyalities j s the Blood-h o und. This is a tall handfon1e Dog, \ eminent for S'reed, Strength, and Finenefs of Scent. l t was in great Requeft in thofe unci vilifed Times when the Affaffin and Robber toamed at large. It wOllld follow t!le Tr
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[ 229 1 Paths, and never eeafe the Purfuit till it had feized the Felon in his inrnofi Retreat. It was partieu lkrly ufed on the difputed Borders between England and Seotland, whieh were long the Abode of lawlefs Pillagers. The few that are now left are ployed to difeover the Harbour of Deer, or to detel: the nol:!lrnal Deer-fiealer. Other Dogs of Sport are partieularly the Attend. anls on the Fowler. The needfary for. this Purpofe are a very delicate Nore, and great Tral:abili4" Ranging in the Stubble, they are fuddenly !l:ruck by the Seent of the Partridge,. Pheafant, or other Bi-rd of Garne which lies eonceaIeu, and fiopping {hort at onte, they 'ower to the Ground in perfel: Silence, and only by the wagging of their Tail give Notice to thcir Mailer ta approach with his Gun or Net. The, Spanijh P?inter is moR remarkable for its aptneCs in lcarn ing this Dirci pline, but the Setter or Englifh PlJinter is more brilk and hardy, and hunts with greater Perreverance. Pointers weIl broke to the Sport are highly valued, but gr!!at Severity is often ufed in training them. It would be tedious to enurnerate an the Breeds of Dogs, which are reared by M a n for fome Pur .. pore of Amufement or Utility. T herc are few Parts of the World in which they are nQt afro. ciated with hi-m 11l his Toils amiPleafures. In U fOID\!!

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[ 23 ) fQmo, th.ey are even ufe! for Food, as in Chin 21ild t'lie -South-Sea Iilands, but in that Cafe they ar.e f.ed Vegetables only The Mahometans s:e?n D ogs impure AnimaIs, yet ere a: a Kind of HoIpitaI for t .hem, when oid or deTerted .. 2" CA,N.IS . 'Vith Refemblance ta Dog, this .t\,flIllimal di1fers fironger Lhnbs, a more Hody coarfer Hair, a broader upper .of: the Fae, Eyes pIaeed more fironge.II Jaws, imd larger . Its 'Tail is bulhy aRd turned in\,'Vards. 'Its Height is that of tbe tallell Greyhound. '. 'l'he generai Colour of the Wolf 15 .a: paIe tinged with yellowilh, but it varies ac.coiding to Country and The FemaIs go with young about ten Weeks, :lOci' bl'ing from Bve to nine Whelps, which, like Pppies, born blind. . Wolves are Nativs of .almoO: aU the temperate cold Regions of the GI<1be., They. a-re found from the Arli<; Circle to the Cape of Goqd tIope, and particularly frequent mountainous and w00ded Countries. Thore of Africa are faid to be the largell, and thofe -of America the fmallell . They were in GreatBritain, but a bcing fet' upon their Heads, they were graduallyextir patcd, as they have likewif been in lreland The thick

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thick ForeO:s and iilaeceill1rIe Mountains of the .Colltinent will al ways give th6m Snelter. The Wolf is ah extremely greedy dt Carnage, and feell",!s urged by almoO: perpetuaI hunger. He has a fine Sent, and hunts hi!> prey by the Nofe. He ufua.l1y Hies fr6Jn Man,. except whn reduced to great Extrrpities; l;mt Is faid that when once he has ,ta-Ued hman Flelh, he prefers it to al! ofher .Food, and at tcks Women and Children. Sorne Wolves with .thef.e H'ilbits have been the Terror of a whole. DiMil, and have by the Vulg,!r beel'l fuppofed to be pof feCfed by an ev'il Spi rit, etr a human Soul. b general, the PIIey.of W0lves ar. e Sheep and weaker Animais; and in feveral Parts it is necef fary on their Account to houre the Flocks by Night. In Winte'r they tferrible in great t'roops, and em by Hunger., make d readful Ravag s a).11ong Villages, fallinguf,) o lHhe la FgerdomeO:ic ami attempting t 'ent 6 T rh Houres, and de .. vour the Il'lhabitants. Whel1 dirappointed of liviDg Prey, they will eat a rrioI1, and tear up human Bodies from t heir Graves. They arc capable of enduring long Abflinence, which they fupport. by filling their Stomachs with Muel. As they arc the univepfal ,Enemies oJ Man, they are evel'y where prorcribed, and are dellroyed by PoiCon, and pjtfals, and fometimes chaced by Dogs, which U 2 -are

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E 232 ] ;ore their nalur.al Foes, though to near in Kindred. They are fubjel: to the fame Ma'dnefs as Dogs. When ta ken Jcung, they may be tamed; and:it is certain that a rnixed Breed between them and Dogs rnay be procured, which will f!;lrther propagate it ,felf. Sorne wi .ld of Dc;>gs are fuppofed to have originated from f.uch a Mixture. The. Wolvs li)f North America are faid to have becn trained by the Natives to hunt in Packs like Dogs, before tne latter AnimaIs were introduGed by the Europeans. The WOLF, and the BLACK WOLF, are by Lorne confidered as difiinl: Species, by others only as Varieties of the preceding, with :which tliey : a gree in Manners. . 3. CANIS HYJENA.-HYiENA .;The fpecific Charaer of o this Species is .. that it has lHack Srri pes, an upright Mane,. naked Ears, ftraight Tail, afld four Toes Qn each Foot. is of the Size of a large Vog, but rernarkably {hang limbed, and has a thick blllnt Snout. Its Colom is a pale greyifil-brown with a tawny and ils whole Body is marked by tran[ver[e blacKith Band" mo[!: nllmero1l5 and deepefl: on the L e gs. l t is a Native of many Farts of Afia and Africa . The Hyrena is almo!!: proverbially a fierce and favage Animal, having a clark malignant Afpcl, :lnd .general!y,

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[ 231 l nel'ally, whet'r In Captivity, appearing in ai aoft .... fiant Fit of Rage 1 t has been fuppofed ab fol utely untameable, but there are fome Il1llances ta the' contrary. Its Cry "s peculiar, beginriing with a: Soit of moaning Iike that of the lrumart : Voice,. nd end ihg with a Sou.nd like a fuol'lg Effort tavGmit. Hncf: it has fabld to im.ifte human Voice, fn arder tu detoy the ftom thei-t Houfes, It refldS in Caverrts ai Qlefw Gr RGK!s;or in Hales whicrh it Iras itfelf at.lrt ehiefly pt"owls for Food. in fhe Night-. : Tt feeds< equally upon Irving Prey a-rid. upon and tears li?, dead Bo(hes from their 'F0tti>IH.. Thogti afraid 6f facing a Man, will erttr H.Glt:s' lfj Nigfit, and (teal away Ghildrefl From t1l'e Slde 6 ttiej r Pa't'entS'. Its nat'u.rar FOOH Part,. feems ta be Vegetable; fbr' fn fome I?l;;es it Ghifl.y Fives upon and fuc::culenf Roots, -whkh: it dlg9' up euf of the Oro' uifd, lit 1s cewarJly i.ri th -go Light,. and may be pnl1ed along by the Ea r.s. intl1 Day-time wit:hot making any other tl:lall drawing back. The Hunters will' go to a Hya:ha:1 n.i, s G.we; with a fiaming Torchl' and ta faf<:inate: hjm by repeang. a Jargon (lf Words,. wiH' tHro'w a l BJaRket ove): Him, and 'rag him When attatked by other AnimaIs they !how a deCprat-e and w'iil defend againfi the Lit>n Or Tiger. '11leir Ryes U l fui ne

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[ 234 ] iliine in Diuk like Fire, they fee with very little Light. 4. CANIS CROGUTA.-SPOTTED. HVlENA. 'This Species is larger than the former, and is dif!:i. ngtihed by the numerous roundiih black Spots with its Body and Legs are marked. It inhabits Guinea, Ethiopia, and the Cape of Good Hope, where it is termed the Tiger Wolf; and in Ferocity and Man"ner of Living nearly reCembles the. Species . Duriig the Night it utters almofi incifantly dreadful Howls, by which it terr.ifies aIl the domefiic AnimaIs. 1t was formerly fo bold as to enter the Ruts of the Hottentots, but fince the Introdutjop of .Fire-arms, it, -like other AnimaIs of Pry, has bec6me more cautious and timid. The Strength of this Hyrena is [uch, that it hJS .known to throw a Female Negro over jts Back, and holdJng her by one Leg, run off her. S. CANIS AUREus.-JAcKAL. or SeHAKAL. Tls Animal, which in Appearance is between a Wolf and a Fox, is about the Size 'of a middring Dog. Its general Hue is a light orange-yellow or tawny, with blackiill Shades about the Back and Legs. Ithas a !horter Head and blunter Nore than a Fox, and fiands higher upon "its Legs. Its 5 Tail 1

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[ ] Tail 1S bufhy and hangs lt.raight. It is a Native of ail the warmer Regions of Allaand Africa, and is partilarly common in Barbary: The J ackal inhabits Woods and Holes iil Rocks, whence it makes Excuriions for Prey chiefly in the Night. It devours ail the weaker AnimaIs it Can catch, and occaCionally feeds upon Vegetables. Jackals frequently hunt in large Troeps, like Dogs, and purClIe Chace dreadful Yel/s and Rowlings: This NoiCe is raid to TouCe the Lion, who follows .at a Dill:ance till the Jackals have hunted down their Prey, and then cornes in for the Spoil; from which Circumll:ance Ihis Ani mal h .as popularly been called the LiQn's Provider." When prefTed )Vith Hunger, they oft!!n enter Vil lages, and devouT every Animal Subltance they can meet with. They make great Havock among the Flocks and Poultry, and fometimes will Even at"7 tack Children. the H y::ena, they will tear up buried Carcafes, and follow Caravans and Armies in hopes of making -Spil of the dead. ,Thelr Rowlings in the Night are Co loud, that in Places People can fcarcely hear one another Cpeak. When one fets up a Cry the whole Pack join ; and fometims a Sort of .l3ark is intermixed witli the Howl. They are eafily tamed when young, and then have many of the fportive Attions of DogsJ which they alfo refemble in various Refpeas both

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r 236 J bothof Manners gnd internaI Strul:ure; whenc:c feveral Naturalifl:s have fnppofed that the Jackal is the x:eal wild Original of the Dog. The Femalesr bree d Year, go with young four Week:;., and bring From fix to eight at a Litter. 6. CAN.lS VULPES.-Fox. This Animal' has from the earlieft Times oeerr feIel:ed as an Example of Cunning and Sagacity,. and the CharaB:er .of Reynard is one of the firft to which Children are intx:oduced rn the Courfe of their Reading. A. petty Plunderer, known rather for his Arti fices than his Ferocity,: though he is confrdered as an Enetpy, he excites no violent Averfion, and he amures by J'iis Tricks,. whi Ie he is profcri'bed fOl: his Depreclatlons. The Fox is di!linguilhed his Ganine Kin .. dred, b.y a very lharp Nofe, a broad and fiat Fore ... he ad, lharp erea EaFs, liy ely hazel' Eyes featecL o bliquely, a: .Body thickly furred, and a long f!>r-aightr bulhy Tall, tipt -...vith whj.te. Its Coloul' i s yeHowi'fh rd, mixed in variolls Parts with white or it is however fubjel: to ble Var.iety of HOe,. as weIl as of. Shape a nd Slze:. / the lattet: is that of the fmaJ./er Kinds of Dogs. The is a Native of Inoft of the northe!!D a.nd: temperate Parts of the Glob e. H-e

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r 237 '] H is a folitary Animal, making his Abode in a fuoterraneous Dn or Hole in fome woorly retired Spot, frequently one From which he has difpoireired the This he enlarges into feveral never failing to make an Aperture different fron'!. the Entrance, through which to efcape in Time (jf Danger.' Here he paires mu ch the Day in Sleep, occafionally coming out in fine Weather to balk in the Sun, in which Cafe the Crows, Mag'pics, and other Birds perch near hi m, and by Cries point out their common Eoemy. At the Approach of Night he fieals out on his pillagil}g ExcurIion. He furprifes the Partridge on her. Nefi, and the Hare in his Form, catches deferted Lamos, firay Rabbits, fmall Birds, and Field Mice. He prowls about the Farm outlying Poultry, fllcks Eggs, and ufes al! his Arts ta enter the Hen-r. oofi, unfeen by the Dogs. There he makes terrible Havock, killing al! within his reach, and carrying them off one by one to Plac.es which he digs in the Ground, whence he takes them at his Leifure. When difappointdl of better Pry, he will eat Frogs Snails, and In!. [cls. Foxes are fond of Hone y and will boldly attack Bee-hives; and when the Inha bitants rufh out upon their Invader, he will fr e e himrelf from their. Stings by l'olling 011 fhe Grouno. The y alf6' re1iili fweet Fruits, and if.! the Wine Countries makc

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ma-ke' great DelhutiOll in the Vinevar(Js. In' the Neighbourhood of the Sea they will 'feed on Crabs, Mufcles, and other Shell-filh. The Fox has an exquifite N ofe, fo as to difcover either his Prey or his Enemy at a great His Cry is a quick fharp Yelpl often ending in a l(ind of Scream. ae is playful in his Manners, and is fond of run, lling round after his bulhy Tai,L, in cold 'Weather he "'raps about his Head t o keep his Nofe warm. His fmei! is extremely rank, and that of his Urine fo fetid, that he fomerimes efcapes by fpti, nkling it with his T'wi!' in the Face of his Purfuers. The Female brirgs for-rh, in her HoI, a Year, in Sprif.lg,. fJ:om three to' fi" Cubs, which a 're born bIind. If difiur.med III her Retr.eat, lhe wiU carry them off one by one to a -, faf.er Place. As are univerfally reckoned noxious Ani maJs, a Priee is ufually fet upon theiI: Heads, and they are deltroyed by the Glln, by Poiron and Traps. Such, however, is tllleir fufpidous Cun ning, that great Care is neceffary to deceive 'or 1 entice them. In this CouRtry the y are fo fa vourite am Obje8. of the Chace, that they are commonly preferved by Gentlemen from other Modes of Deltru8.ion. The Fox-chace is the molt animated Species of Hunting, and that which re quires nwlt Speed and Perfeverance_ in the and

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r 239 ] and A Fox: when put up from Cover immediatel.y repairs !o his Hale; and finding that ftopped, which is previoufly done, he generally flies at full Speed Llraight and has been known to run fifty Miles without Intermiffion. The Snt he Ieaves behind him,. is f6 rank that the Dogs feldom lofe it, and ail depends upon Strength and Swiftnefs. An old Fox, howe ver, will ofteIi employ extrJlOrdiqary Craft to foil his Purfuers, and the Annals of tte Chace are fiIIed with won derful Staries of this Sort. 'Though the Dog thus feems the natural Enemy of the Fox, yet by particular Management they may be made to breed to gether, and produce a mixed Progeny. The Skin of the Fox makes a good Fur, and is much ufeel for MufFs, Linings, &c. There are feveral Varieties of the Fox in dif.: ferent Countres. The Crofs Fox is dill:inguilhed hy a black Line paffing from th Nore along th. .. Rack the End of the Tail, cro/fed by another over the Should ers and down each Fore-Ieg, :fp. the ., Feet. It is a Native of the northern Europe, AGa, and America, and its F,u-r is / thuch valued. 'The Black Fox is a of the fame Regions. ft is reckoned fuperior to a1l othees in Cunning, which is perhaps owing to the Eagernefs with which it is purfued for the Sake of its Skin, which 15

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(' 24-0 J is the moil valuable of aU Furs. A fingle one has been fold for fOllr hundred RubJes. .The moil: perfeB: are found in Kamtiliatka and the northern. Parts of Afia, but they are rare. The Brant Fox is a fmall Specie s, having a Tai! tipt with black. It is found in North America. The Cotjac Fox is alfo a fmall Kind, inhabiting the Deferts beyond the River Jaik from the Don to the Amllf, where it lives in deep burrows, and makes great Havock among the Game. Great Numbers of them are caught for their Skins, by the Aid of Falcons and Grey.hounds. Their Fur is much ufed il1 Turkey. The Si/very Fox, dill:inguiilied by having longer or exterior Hairs of a fil very white, w hich gives ths: Animal a very Appearance, is Native; of Louifiana. 7. CANIS LAGOrUs.-ARCTIC Fox or ISATIS. This is il:rongly marked as the Inhabitalt of a cold Climate. Its Colour is a bllleifh grey, fome times changing to perfeB: white': its Hair v e ry thick, long and fofr.: its fhort and ronnded Ears are almoit buried in Fur; which alfa thickly cloaths its Toes both above and below. Its Nofe is its Legs iliorl, its Tail, Ihorter ann mor e bufhy than that pf the common Fox, to whic:h it is alfo inferior in gencral Size. Jt il> thus

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[ 241 J '. thus fittd .to th Rigours or" its native Re gions, which are Spi tzoergen, Nova Zembla, Greenland, Iceland, and the van: naked T raBs bordring the frozen Se, where Ccarcely any, Qladruped is abl to exifl:. Ir lives 111 deep _Bur rows,t he bottom of which i t fl:rews with _Mo Cs, 'or in Clefts of Rocks, two or three Pair inhabit ing the fal;'e Hole, piobably for the Sake 'of Wa;mth. l t barks Iike a pog; and poffe(fes the Craft of the Fox in taking its Prey, which is the unfledgecl of Water-Fowl, GrlUCe, Hares, Bird's Eggs, S!1ell-filh, and, in CaCe of Ben-ies, and almofl: any Thirig it ean meet \Vith. J n Lapland and the North of Afia it devours the Leming, and ful\ows that fingular Animal in its Migrations. The Arlic Fox Cwims well, and orten crolTes from one llland ta another in purCuit of Prey. Through Hunger and little Acquaint ance with Man, il s eafi.ly taken in Traps, into if will Cometimes infrantly -pnt its Head afte r {tanding by ta Cee them baited. They are caught fur the J Sake of their Skins, which afford a light and wanD Fur,. but not dutablc. The blue are efteemed above the white. -The Gl: eenlanders eat thcir Flefb, and make Thread from their fplit Tendons. There is a l [o an Antar;lic Fax, a Native of the Falkland Ifles, a larger and fl:ronger Animal tha;l X the

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[ 24-2 ] the 1aft, poffeffing fo much of the Appearance of a Wolf, t'hat the French have it Loup Renard-Wolf-Fox. hs Colour is cinereous brow.n. 1 t dwells near the Shore, kenl)els like a Fox,. and fonns regular Paths from Bay to Bay. It feeds chiefly on Water .. has a 'rank Scent, is tame, and bai, k s l ike Ir Dog. "8. CANIS' ZERDA or F)':NNEc. . This is a little-known Anilnal, which has been J:eferred to the Dog Gemis for want of a btter Arrangement. 'It is a Native of Africa and Arabia. ,The Length from Nofe to T;1il is about ten lllches; the Tail firaight and taper; the Colour a pale brown or dirty white; the {harp; the Eyes large, bright, and black; Ears (its cJiief E)i[ tintion) very llpright, covered int etnally with f oft white Ha,ir, but in the middle of a or and furnifhed with a Valve or _DoubliBg at the bottom. It, is faid t? be a very fwift and vigilantAnimal, teding on Infets) barking like a V og. alHl burrowi ng in tbe Sand. Mr. Bruce, however, who gives ii the Name of Fennec, fays that it livs the Tops of on the Fruit of which it feeds. Acc6rding 't!? hi m, it pa;takes of the Nature of the Hare apd of the Squirre!. GENUS ..... ;--------

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r 243 ] CEN US XV. FEJ,;IS .-CA T GENERIC GH ARAG:(E.R., F r p nt-t.eelh jix ; t he"' intermediate' G" U l f l'S t h n e 011 e aeh B ide' : 'l':r" lgue Glaw s rttrfl/i/e. THIS Genus of AnimaIs is entire1y carnivorous, and contains the mofl: formidable Bea lts of P r ey. In Size it varies from the domefl:ic Cat to the Li o n and Tiger, bllt the fmallefl: and larg e lt SIi ec i e s remarkably refembl other . One o f the prin cipal Difiinlions of the Genus is, thafthe Cla w s, which are 'long andlhar.p, arc of being withdrawn into a Sheath, (0: to be out of th e Way in the ordinary .Alions of the Animal, and put only they al' wa1.lte Wea pons AnimaIs of the Cat.-kind a11 fl:ealllp0ri their P rey ; wi, th a cautious and ctooching M>t ion, and mak'e a fudden Spring upon "it; and molt of them play the before they give it the fatal Gripe. I. LJw.-THE LION. This Iwbl Creatll re h a s long been popll!arly fermed the K ing of the Animal Creation; which X 2 Title

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[ 244 J Tille he has acqllired by his I?aj ell:ic Prefence, his Strength and Bulk, which are fuperior to thore of any other Beall: of Prey, the Tiger exce.pted, and the fuppofed Magnanimity of his Charaler. A ,l,ion of th larg efl Dimenflons has meafurecl above eight Feet [rom the Nofe to the Beginning of the Tail, and fyom four to five Feet in Height. He: has a very large Head, rounded Ears, a Face co ve;ed with fhort clofe Hair, fiery Eyes, a COllnte.,. ilunce longer th an Ihat of rnoll: of the Gemis; fhe upper Part of the Head, the Neck and Shouldrs, coveied with long fhaggy Hair, forming a Mane; very {hong bon y Lirnbs, and a TaiI of confidera ble Length, terminated by a Tutt of Hair. The general ColQur is a pale tawny, whiter onthe mder Side of the Body. T h e Female about one-fourth 1111aIler than the Male, deflitute of Mane, and of a paler Hue beneath. Sbe goes with young nve M{)nths, and produces once i n a Yea.r, from two to five Whelps at a Time, which fhe fucles for a Twelvemonth, and which are four 'or five Years in coming to full Growth. She is extrernely to her young, and furpaJfes the Male in Ferocity when engaged in their Support or De ... fcnce. The Lion is a long-lived Animal, and has been to reach the Age of fixty or fevenly Years in Captivity. The

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[ 245 ] The Lion is:i only of the hottefl: Parfs of the Globe, particularly Africa, in the parched defart Regions of which he arrives at his greatefi: Bulk and Courage. He is alfa met with in Arabia, PerGa, Mefopotamia, and lndia, but the Indian Lio' ns are faid to be weak and timid. In ancient Times he was an Inh'!,bitant of the northern Parts f Greece, arid of leffer Afia; and Homer's Poems are fllll 'of Sirnilies in which the Ravages of Lions, "ud the Mocle of chacing tnem, are ,But ail AnimaIs of Prey recede Man, and, confciolls of his Superiority, either lofe their C b u rage in his Prefence, or cmircly quit the Field, and retire to Trals wQ.ere they have no RivaIs but eadi ather. The Lion reigns the llndoubted of the Wildernefs. At his Roar ail olher AnimaIs tremble. Horfes and Oxen f:1I1 into cold Sw.eats, and crouch to the Ground in Agony. The Roflr of the Lion refembles difiant Thunder, but his Voiee frequcmtly varies into a Sream or Yell which)s fiill more hideolls. His,. Scent is indifferent" and he hunts by the Eye followimg fecretly till he approaches n ear enough to feize his Prey with two or three van Bounds or Leaps. He nrikes witb his Paw with fuch force as to beat down a large Animal; and fuch is his Strength that he can with Eafe carry off an Ox or a Buffalo. He, frequently conceals hi.mfelf beneatB-. X l'a. Thicket,.

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t j a.o:fhickct, in the Ncighbouchoo<) of a S"pring or Poel, wherrce he fprings upon the Admals' that ome to drink. He generally begins his for Prey at the clore of Evening, and purfues it tilt Dark: Dr. Sparrman mentions that a Hottentot perceiving he was chaced by a (Lion, which feemed only to wait for the Du!k to ilevour him, ufecl the following Stratagell1 for his ECcape. Coming to the Edge of a Precipice, he fat clown, and obferv e d that the alCo made a Rah He then gefltly let him(elf down to a Ledge a : lit rle below the Brink,_ and fl:uck. up his Cloak and ,Hat en his S t ick, giving it a waving Motion. When i t was almoll dark, the Lion came up foftly, and making a Leap at the Obj e l:, new over the Preci pice, and ,the Man -took the Opportunii-y 'of withd'rawing unmolefl:ed. ;' The Lion feltlom kills than wHl ferve his prefent Neceilities j and after as much Fleih as will ferve him for two or _,three Days, ufually retires to his Den: When: fatiated, he of(en fuffers Men and AnimaIs to ', pafs him i n 6afety; and it has probably ben in [uch Circumfiances that the Infl:an ces popularl y re1ated 'of his merci fuI and 111agnanimou' s Difpofition have hap pene'd. When taken young, Lions re ealily 1ame; and to [uch a Degree, that they will foffer their Keep'ers to take the gre.atdt bberties' with them,

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.::. t .hem, fuC'h as 'way their Food whfi hungry, chafiifing rhem. Some Keepers hav been feen fo foolhardy as for a fmall Reward to put their Head down the bon's Throac ; but This l{afh:;. nefs has fometimes cdfl: them dear. Lions are ca :' pable of :ftrong Attachment; and they have been know.n firfi to fpare, and then to contrat an ex .. traordinary Affetlion 'for, little Dogs thrown into their Cages as Vitims. The Chace of the Lion !Jas often been the Diverfion of Krings and Warriol : s, and has been c0l!duted with a great Apparatu's of armed e nC'ircling the Place of his Retreat, and forcing him out of the Thickets into open Ground., The Colonifls at the Cape of 'Goo Hope fometimes 'bunt the Lion with no other Aid than a dozcn or. fifteen large Dogs, before whom, when rouzed, he wi 1\ 'fly Jor fome Time, till fee'ing no Chance of Efoape, he flops, face s about, fhakes hi:. Mane, and receives th eir united A ttack with Courage of,TIefpair. He ufually defiro)"S forne ,of the .firn: who come withih'&each of h.m iPaw, nd is then torh in Pieces by the Rea. The Hottentbts, armed only with Javelins, and holding a Skin Clo'ak in their left Bands, will furrmmd Lion, -and 0verpo:wer hitn with re.peated W ounds. He generally ru!hes with Fury op the fidl: who darts at him, who endeavours to receive 9nfet his Cloak, while he nimbly nips out of \Vay;

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Way; in the meantime his Companions pOl1'r il'l their Javelins on ail Sides. This, however, i s a very dangcrous Diverfion; \ and is often attended with the 'peath or maiming of fome of the Party. Lions, like other f e rQcious AnimaIs, are afraid of Fire, and Trave11ers generalJy protea themfelves From thein in tHe W 60ds by kindlinglarge Fires l'Olmd them; but fometimes this Precautionfails of its E!Fea. The L.ion when funy emaged is terri bLe. He utters a piercing a{hcs his Sicles and the Grollnd with his Tail, agi tats his Mane, draws the Ski n of his Face over his Eye-brows, thrufl:s out hi s rough pckly Tongue, and difplays his dreadftil Te.eth. The Lion's Breath is very o!fenfive, and his general Odour r.ank, .owing to carnivorous Nature; yet his FIefh is eaten by forne Savages and is faid to refemble Vcal. .His Skin ferves for a fubfl:antial Cloak, or a Bed. In forne Countries of the Eall:, tame Lions have been ernployed to enhance the Dignity Monarchs, being fafl:ened with golden Chains on each Si de the Throne. They have lfo been yoked to triurnph al Cha riots. The Romans fometimes exhihited great Numbers of tllem at once, in their Amphitheatres, wC\r.e they fought Wilh Men,. or with other Ani .. FEUs'

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[ 249 ] This is the Gnly Beafl: of Prey which in Size and Strength can diTpute with the Lion. The Kind cal'Ied the Royal Tiger is inded fometimes found Bulk to the Lion, Jiaving been lhcafured fifteen Feet from the Nofe to the Ex, tremity of the Tail. Its Form is rather longer than that' of, thLion; .its 'Head rounder and fm.aIler1 nd more rfembling a Cat's. What pe culiarly dlfl:inguilh the Tiger among AnimaIs of the rame Gnus, are the long black Stripes with which its whole Body is marked, and which, con, trafied with a Ground of tawnyor or.ange-yelIow,. or v(>th pure white in the Fac and Fbnks, pro du:e a vry firiking EffeCl:; fo tllat th Tiger has been accounted one of the mofl: beatitiful as well as of the mofl: terrible Animais. hs Tail is one-third {horter than its Body, and has b.lack Rings. The Tiger reems to be confined to th hcittefl: Parts 'Of Afia, efpecally lridia and the lnd,iarr !flands. The' Difpofition of the Tiger iB reckoned pecu'" liarly ferocious and cruel, and this he exhibits -as weIl in a State of as in that of Na-' turc, He s fcarcely capable of being tamed, nd cannot be trufted by his Keepers. He watches under ,Thickets for his Prey, or approaches by and feizes the ViB:im Wilh a fudden Sprin _g, acompanied

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[ 250 J accomp a nied by a mof!: hideous If he m)ffes his firft Stro ke, h owcver he generaTly retreat s and a flight Refif!:ance will oft e n dri\'e hi ln aw':ly. A Party of Gentlemen and L adies being once taking their PleafUl ; e on the Banks of ;t River in Bengal, a 'Tiger obfel'ved to have approached them, and was juf!: preparing to make hrs fat;rl when one of the Ladies, with extraordi:' nary Prefence of Mind, fpre a d an Umbrella full in bis Face, which fo -daunted him, that taking a weat Leap; he immediately withdrew. There are many Inf!:cl.nces, ho w e ver, of Tigers making Prey of Men in thofe Countries. One has.been known to leap over a GardeN Wall, and fnatching a Perfop from the Midft of a Company, to carry him off in his Mouth, repadIlng the Wall with the greatefi Eafe" Nor-can Fire always be relied upon as a Protel:ion from their nivenmJs Fury. A melancholy Infiance of this occurred not mally Years f1nce, by which a young Englifhman of Family met with a lhocking End, which il> thus related. We went aChore on Sangar I!land to fhoot Deer, of which we faw innumerable Tracks, as weH as of Tigers; notwithfianding which, we continued our Diveruon (l'Clock, when, ulting clown by the Sicle of a Jungle (Thicket) to refr e fll ourfelves, a m a r like Thunder was heard, and an immenfe Tiger fcized on our" unfortl!nate Friend, and 1

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[ 251 ] and rufhed again into the J ungle, him thrbugh the thickeft Bulhes and Trees, every Thing -giving \Vay to his monfl:rous Strength. A Tig;efs accompanied his Progrefs. The united Agonies ,of Horror' Regret, and Fear, rulhed at once upon us. 1 fired on the Tiger: he feemed ag.itated: my Companion fired alfa; and in a few Minutes arter, this, our unfortunate Friene! came np us, bathed in Blood. Every medical Affifl:. ance was vain, and he expirecf in the Space of Hours, having receiv;ed fuch deep Wounds from the -Teeth and Cla ws of the Animal as rendered his Recovery hopelefs. A large Fire, confifl:ing 6f ten or twelve whole Trees, was blazing by us at the Time this Accident tooI{ Place; and ten or more of t he Natives with us. The hllman Mind cam Scarcely form any ldea of this Scene of Horror. Wc had hardly p.uOJed our Boat Trom that Sh.ore when the Tgrefs made her Appearance, almolt raging mad, and rel11ained on the Sand \ all the while we continuee! in Sight." In the l{!and of Sumatra,' where the lnhabitants have a Superfl:ition againfl: defl:roying Tigers., whom they believe to be animated with the 80uls of their deceafed Relations, whole Diflril:s ha ve been abandoned in Confequence 'of Ravages. The Tigr:efs prod4 ces four or five young at a Litter, and i.s extr.eme1y furiCius in thei!" Defellce. The 2

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[ 252 ] The BuGneCs of taking the Whelps was formcrly pratifed in the following Manner: The Hunter watchecl a when the Dam was ab, fent, and enteting her Den, took up }'01illg ones, and mounting a fwift Horfe,. flecl with the utmofi Spced. The returning Mother, on miffing her Whlps, and by her ama-zing Swiftnefs, ovei-tobk the Hunter, who thereupon threw 'clown one of the With Ihis the Mother returnecl tp her Den; l and then reom menced the Pllrfuit. A fecond, and perhaps a third, )'Vas dropt in like 'Manner to retard her, til! at L el)gth the Hunter got to a Place of Safetr., or the Edge of the Sea, where a Doat waited for him . The Tigrefs oh arri ving at the furthell: Limit ,of PmJuit, and findil'lg her remaining Lofs irretovej' expreffed her Agony by the moll: terrifie Howlings, and aH the Signs of Rage. In the Royal Cliace of the Tiger, whi c h is on duted like that of the Lion, by Circles of anned Men, the Horfeman who firfi wounds him with a Dart orten finds it dJfficult to efeape his Fury; for thOllgh Tiger retreats from -Danger as long as he can, yet when beco.me defperate and wourided, he tums with ail his Force againfi his Purfuer. The Tiger and Lien fometimes e!lgage in and both have been known to perifll in the dreadful Conflil:. 'So lhirfl-y is the Tiger of Blood, that he

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[ J he will often plunge bis .,Head up to the inBody of his Prey, and as we;e drink it oui, before he tears it in Pieces. The Skin of the Tigex' is high1y vluedfor its Beauty, and makes a l'ich Oecpration for Horfe Furniture, .QI; Carriags. The Fleih is faid. not to-' .(.'. .. be unpalata!)!c. ( . 1\: ,. 3. FU1S:P.A ,-' =. t .; :.' '. This is the next Anima19( the G.enus in Point -ef Size FeJocfty : It: fi,x feven Feet From Nofe tp Tai1, is about three Co.Jour)5 thickly mark,ed over ail the Bpdy with foyndi .fh black Spots, difpofcd .9f four Dr tive Spots, and Jlaving commqnly a centr;ll Spot in eah Circle. This lall: Circumftance the chief Mark 'of Diftinl:ion ;twcen ;heiantPer and the greatly Jc::ach, in. b qt the Panther is al (0. of a deeper CoJour) anq 'Size. -lts' native Coun. try is from ta GuiTiea. Irs Habits and Manncrs are like Thore of the Tiger, a.nd it is equally tierce and unlame b!ll)t Icfs difpofed to hum:\n Spe; y confi,nes ilS ravages to other AnimaIs. It bas the Faclilly of climbing its oeftrlllivc lts Afpel: y u

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[ 2-54J malignnt, -antl it is "continuilly grOWIing '\V,l1en
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[255, J-. Dog, h,af M"lP' in l ,he Chae .. In lndia, its natve Country, it is bred tame" and. is into the Field in a fm all Waggon, chainecJ and hQQded; P,}:Gautions w.hich fhow that its Tarpene.(s is i;0f r.eli,e.d: on. When a or !?e,e( is de(cr ied, it is ,polflP'J" the.n fet 1 t Ap{'J"oar.:4 w.ith grea,t CalltiQn, the Grol)nd, fiopping and cQJ;lealing it(elE .: at tiU it g(;!t, s wit A in Reach. 1\ then qn Prey with van by'lI; Le'aps: if it miffes its Aim, it does not pur[lIe, l;>ut feturns abafhed to its l'y1alter. 6. PELIS UNCIA.-OUNCE. This the but is 9f white Colpl!r, Tinge of nli.ovyjlh,. 1 ts Spots are Ycr.y iq Siz, e and round or oV4r wi ttl a $pace" 9th ers The Ounce has a large Head and it firongly made, long backed, and {hart legged: its Length from No[ ta Tai-J., about thr.ee Reet anc.La Half; the Tail Hpwards of three Feet. It is of a. N ta!pel, a!lq liJ.ce \he fOtmer, 2tl !n the It is. car l lO the Fielel on the l-lorfemap's is fH'lIy u,lcer the 'Command of its Mafier. It is y 2 a Native

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[ 256 ] a 'Native of Barbary, and of' a large Traa f middle ,. < 7. FELIS ONCA.---JAGUAR. This Animal, which has been cal led the Alne riean Tiger, is about the siz of' a large Wolf. 'Its, Colour is a pale browni{h varegdtetl \Vith Streaks and open oblong Sp9tS. It' i'nhitbit's the : hottefi Parts of South America, and is a very raveholls 'Animal; poffeffing the Crudty b160d' thirfty of the Tiger., It is cowirdly, and eaflly put to Flight by the Herdfman's Dogs, or hr, a lighted Torch. A G n gular Combat fometimes takes Place between the Jaguar and the Crocodile or Alligator. When the Jaguar cornes to drink, the ever !h e 'Wtch for Prey, raires Jlis of the Warer j which the Jaguar perceiving, in.fi:mtly plunges his 'Claws into the gator's Eyes: the latter then dives under Water, al1d drawing down his }foe with him, they of tel) perilh tl)gether. 8. FELIS TIGER or J A" GUAR. This Species is entiri y 'of a deep brownilh black on the uppf Parts; an a a pale grey or 'whttilh beneath. lt is a and Animal, much d-readed

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PAGE 290

[ 2.51 ] ttreaded for its Ferocity. It inhabits Bram and Guiana, bt is a *:ind .. 9. FELIS P.IJ,M,A.-PUMA qr OUCUAR f". -1 -1"- ........ ,.. "' ( l.lt.rgeft of th$! Atnerc:. n Hf Prey, and h.,!$ \l t;!!; 4nW*lIn J..iOIl, c. tnough H> i \ha): 'jlq\>Js: l t is, a w .nniqla.ble G:rt:lll).lre, tr.emelJC defrruli V e to .. Cattle, wltich i.t jVjll f:Jl! over the broarleCl to '1ttack; C\nd. not f.p.aring .the .nllqjan IJ is and Q91er, !:tp"tex sr, .. ilph!! ho! ,.of So uth AmeJ.ica, J,hin in c9lder .. 9qf:li ,of r!;w NOJth. The' Pl. fiv, :Eeet .11>1.;01; 19 Tail, flnd ilS T i}.jI js ]lalr Itfi J:Iead i {lTI. au, ElIrS p .Oilltl!d, .)Il!ry i,t lOl1:g.-.b.0.diJ:!d; Sind fr.anqs. high Qn ils The genera-l Cpl9l<1J pa.le : br owni r ,e.d, ;\:Vith dllf!
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10. FELIS CATU'S.-oMMON CAT. We pafs over feveral more of the Genus, chiefly clifl:inguiilied by Size, and the Manner of being marked or fpotted, and proceed to that which has given the generical Name to them ail . The Common Cat in its domefl:ic State is too weIl known tu need a Defcription. In its wild or natural State, in which it is found in mofl: Parts of Europe and in AGa, it is larger and ftronger than the Domeftic Cat, with a flatter and larger Head: its Colour generally a pale yellowi(h grey, wit. h dufky Stripes. It frequents woody and mountain';;' ous and preys upon Birds and fmalI Qyaclrupeds, -which it defl:roys in great Numbers. It will even extend its ravages to Pouitry, and young Latnbs, Kids, and and is the mofl: de firutive Beaft of Prey with which this Country is acquainted. It is taken in Traps, or by iliooting. When wounded, it will attack the Perron wh gave the Injury, and is no derpiCable Foe. It breeds in hollow Trees, and produces about four young at a Litter. It readily couples with: th e Domefl:ic Cat, and mixed Breed of the favage Nature of the wild Parent. The tame Cat is a Domefl:ic in moft Countries, and is valued for its Enmity to Mice, Rats, and other V e rmin, which it attacks from Inftint even while s

PAGE 292

[. 259 ] while a Kitten .... The Cat is much Iefs fufceptible of Attach ment to Individuals than the Dog, and' has the Charater of being felfi(h and deceitful in its Society. with Man. Yet Inf!:ances are not wanting of its contrating pauicular Friendlhips, and it is '1;lfulIy fonder cf, fome Perfons in a Fa-. mily than othens.," It is, h6wever, more attached to the Houfe than to its Inhabitants, and will ge' nrally f!:ay behind when a Family makes a re moval. It is remarkably cieanly in its Habits; and an its Motions are extremely light and grace fuI. The young Kittens are full of play, but Gravit y is rather the Chl\.ral:er of the grow n Cat. The Female is very prolific, breeding twie ',or thrice a Year, and gel1erally producing Rve or fix at a Litter. She goes with young fifty-five,,,Qr fifty-fix Days. She is very fond of her Xittens, and wil.l rem ove them in her Mouth to anpthet' Nef!: when {he fufpeb Danger. A !he Cat has fuch a Propenlity to nurling, that on loling her own young, ihe will often adopt thofe of AnimaIs, even of very d ifferent Kinds, and turally her Prey. A Cat has thus been known t fuckle a defertcd Levt:iret" and a Brood of young Cats pur when pleare d, hifs and blew when angry, and utter difmal cries at. the Seafon of Courtlhip. They' dr, ink little" aod are av., erfe to Water, Coldl and bad Smells. They are parti-cularly

PAGE 293

[ l fond of fQme RerUs, Va .. -triallt Matu: m,thyme, aJ>l.d Cat-mint. .an (ee witb 3 Light, and 1!h_e.ir Ey..es. in t the Dar-k. The Har' of 'J:he Cat wm ele&r.ic Sparks wben Il,lbbecl in dry .fmfly Wea.th.el'. Sorne of the moir sernarkahle of the : Do," ine!Hc sCat are the 'iPartqifi-jhell,.'.or Spanifl; tthe i-latj:!-ooloured or blue.gt:er, alled the CharltJeufe; the fi-ate,coloured with ver y long :Eur, pf, ; and the filvery w,i'th :vhe -fall'le Length of liai.r, or dng'.ata of ; 1 .. ., 1... ... r p: .. 1y.:tli. There a fmalI of the -clif tiogu.i{hed by. a thol\'t Tai! alJd fharp Ers. Of this the I}'>rJnclpal js the Lyn){, an Animal found in alm{)flc al .r.he cold ftegi.ons of E\lrope, AJia, and Am-ric. '116 gMetiil lSi-ze is .that of, a rrii ... dling Dog. ,y.(s l'oImis 4110rl and thick. -Lt is d<>athed with a -ver.y 'Wfi: thick .geperally of a l ilight .T.EdHifh .a'!1.d ':Oblo f-eucely m.a.t:lood in the du{ky Spots; whe 1:m ,the Thto.at, J3eUy. )IlS Ears are ',tuf.ted black -Hairs. lts fhort Tail i6 lipt with ) black. The Lynx is a 4j,er Animal-, makes its abade i{1 !hc;: Moles cl or in. thick Woods, 4lRd pJie;ys .on :Birds, Deer, and JitllJ:ry J Creature .it can m-afler. It

PAGE 295

[ 26t J It climbs Trees, when ce it drops on the paffing and openlng a Vein : fucks the Bl06d tilI the Animal falfs exhauaed. 'In a State of Confinement it is favage and fe'rocious. Its Voice 18 a like that qf a Wolf, or a [narling Sfeam. The Female proouces three or four young ai a Litter. Fur of the is highly va1ued for Warmth and S'oftne[s. The' Ancients related many Fables 'of this and particularly celebratd its _Acutends f Sight, which, howevr, daes not [eem fuperior to that of others of the Gerius. -The Bay Lynx feem5 to differ little fromO-the above exc ,ept in Golour. lt is a Native .o( North America. 12. F ,ELIS or LYNX. This is ca1led in PerGa Siyah GhuJh or Black-ear, from one of its moll ariking Marks of Dirlintion. It is about the of a Fox, but mucli aronger made. !ts Colour is a pale reddilh-brown, whitifh benath: its Head fmall, Face lo'ngifh"Ears iharp and !lender, and tenninated with a Pencil of blak Haits. Ir is a arong and very nerce Animal, and has been known to fcize a Hound abd -tear it to Pieces in an Inaant. 1 ts ufual Prey is the fmaller and larger Birds, fuch as Cranes, Htrons, &c., which it furprifes with great

PAGE 296

[ '26. 2 ] weat After G.a.r;ne" il lie&, fol' Ti.me )t is faid tp' the .J,.ion at a in' order to feed on the Relies of :prey,: It is oftrn: brought up. tame hi. '!o"c! for. th f!I1allef Kin(I 'of aruf is fuppofed tQ be Variety of tr.e r ; l.ther tl) be dill:inl Mt:. a l;'igure of: h 'l!ndc;:t the of the LYf!x, f9. ealled frtn a black Ban4 {rqm \he of aIl the Fet., J3' FEUS This is a Kind of !hort-tailed Cat with' pointed :lrars, of a 01', feFf.ugil1P.i1fi yeHowi!h white beneaih, fpotted almof!: aIl over wiw. bla.k; w)1e{le .it bas be<:fI the Chat-:par4 LeqpareJ-ea\. is nerce living ehiFfly qn Tree's, flnd leaping g):eat Agilit y fr .om ppe to another il1 of hs Prey, which Bi,Cfis. lt a f Ipd'll apd Tib,et. iEi "!Jf9 an 4meria.n Serval nearli la t}W calle4 q f V0.h,,l.. P-rinted br Bye and Law, St. Jolul's-S'luare, Clerkenwel1.

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The natural history of quadrupeds, including all the Linnaean class of mammalia
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00013049/00001
 Material Information
Title: The natural history of quadrupeds, including all the Linnaean class of mammalia
Physical Description: 2 v. :ill., chart (folded) ;19 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: J. Johnson
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1801
General Note: to which is prefixed A general view of nature for the instruction of young persons. Allegheny College Library has vol. 1 only. Miscellaneous after 1825 Collection.
General Note: Mammals Juvenile literature Natural history
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Source Institution: UF Special Collections
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    The empire of nature
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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    The animal kingdom
        Page 23
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    Characters of the genera of mammalia
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    Systematic catalogue of the 1st class--Mammalia
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    Analysis of linnaeus's introduction to the systema naturae
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    Of man, there is but one genus; but there are many varieties of man
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin Library

A l- &t-

' \ v' ,-Ar A H'-'ivV1' '** N" --^
^ ^ \ ^
- V\ < Tt*' *i

NO. 72, ST. Paul's church-yard;

THE following work was begun fome time ago, by a perfon whofe original view was the inftrudtion of his own family, but who was defirous of extending any advantage which might arife from his plan, to the youth of other families. Want of health prevented him from completing the defign; and the talk has been executed, from page 157 of Vol. x., by another, who has endeavoured, in the bell manner in his power, to follow the intentions of his precurfor, and to render it an exaft, methodical, and, he hopes, not unentertaining Iketch of the clafs termed by naturalifts Mammalia. Since the earlier part was printed, however, a valuable work on the fame fubjedl has appeared, which, taking the fame Linnasan fyftem for the bafis of its arrangement, has in fome refpefts.

deviated from it with judgment and intelligence. This is the General Zoology of George Shaw, M.D. F. R. S., now finifhed as far as the Mammalia; a publication which will doubtlefs become a part of the library of afl' thofe who purfue the ftudy of Natural Hiftory in an extenfive way. The prefent writer thought that he fhould be culpable in. neglefting ari offered improvement, although it fhould produce a frnall variation from the tabular arrangement prefixed to the defcrip-tive parr. To fe&ify this, a lift of the generathe^Ao^ftand is' ftibjoined. tb the fecond volume. The plates by which this work are illuftfated, are felefted from the beft and leaft common of thofe which have been inferted in modern books of Natural Hiftory; and through the obliging permif-fion of Dr. Shaw, copies have been taken of fome of the moft curious which appear for the firft time in his publication.

P R E F A C E.
r P H E plan of education, generally adopted, of devoting five or fix years exclufively to the imperfect acquifitiori of a dead language, has been frequently cenfured by men of the firft information. They ,have fuggefted, that, the faculties at thaf: early age, (would be more agreeably and more ufefully employed in being direfled, in part at leaf!, to the, acquifition of the knowledge of things; ,and not almoft entirely to that of words.
Hence Natural Hiftory, Chymiftry, Natural Philofophy, and Civil Hiftory, have been propofed, as proper objects for an early period of education. And when it is confidered how intimately connefted, Natural Hiftory, Natural Philofophy, and Chymiftry are with fenfible Ideas, it feems very fingular that the fcientific part of a dead language, the moft metaphyfical part of education, and confequently the leaft A interefting'

interefting, fhould be exclufively forced
upon the relu&ant attention of our early years.
The very mode of teaching Latin, by giving the rule in the language which is to be acquired, tends to confufe the youthful mind, and induces a difguft, in fome inftances, againft education itfelf; highly injurious to the objeft propofed.
The knowledge of the dead languages is admitted to be an eflential part of a liberal education: But the acquifition of thefe branches of fcience, juft mentioned, is ftill of considerable importance j they are more amufing, more generally the fub-je£ts of converfation, and better adapted to the opening faculties of youth..
They naturally induce habits of attention to the objects which furround us:Natural Hiftory teaches us to fee, and obferve.
Chemjftry teaches us to reafon, to infer with caution, and to prove by experiment.

Natural Hiftory and Natural Philo fophy prefent us with a ftriking difplay of the Wifdom, Power, and Goodnefs of the Deity, on which the fuperftru&ure of a rational, and catholic religion may be raifed.
: The fource bf-amufement which thefe ftudies open to us, is inexhauftible; a walk in the fields becomes an interefting purfuit; every flower excites Our attention;' our fenfes acquire new objetts, and. a new Creation fs unfolded to our view.
The objefl: of the following publication is to affift youth in thefe ftudies, the plan propofed is to unite the fyftem of Linnccut> with the amufing details of Bujfon. Of courfe, this is profeffedly a compilation ; indeed every fyilematic, or extenfive pub- -lication in Natural Hiftory, muft necef-farily be fo in a great degree. Since it was begun, the Compiler has met with an Abridgment of a Natural Hiftory for youth, imitated from the German of Mx: Rajfe, Profeflbr at Gottingen, by. M. Perrault, publifhed in French, and printed at Slraf- J
rr 5
A 2 burgh,
S -

P R E F A C E.
burgh. Gonfiderable ufe will be made of this book, the perufal of which- is ftrongly recommended to thofe young perfons who underftand the French language.
The Compiler will avail himfelf likewife, occafionally of Mr. Kerrs tranflation of Linnceus ; of the Englijh, Encyclopedia ; Pennants Works ; and:, thofe of other Writers of Eftimation.
Thofe who have tried the experiment', will find, that it is impracticable to write a book which will enable Childreii to learn without other afiiftance ; they require many explanations, which it is impofiible to forefee; and different Children, con-[ ceive very differently; it is by converfation that they are beft informed, confequently in conftru&ing a book for Children, the plan to be adopted by their Parents, or thofe who aflift in their education, fhould be attended to, and a great part of it fhould be calculated for them ; this will neceffarily render the ftyle of the book, and even the matter very ununiform and unequal.

In the courfe of the .Work, a Specimen of a Catechifm will be given ; this mode will be found efferitial to difcover whether they really underftand the Principles of the Science. In many inftances, the Inftruftor muft explain the terms.
This Natural Hiftory of Quadrupeds, may be co'nfidered as a Companion to the Natural Hiftory of Birds for the Inftru&ion and Amufement of Children, publifhed by Mr. Johnfon, in London. It was com-pofed for the fame Family, and like that, is offered to fuch as may incline to avail themfelves of it.
vx.noaTKi A

Thou haft taught me, O God from my youth up, and ever until now will I fpeak of thy wondrous "W orks !
O Jehovah, how manifold are thy Works!
In Wifdom haft thou made them all: The Earth is full of thy Riches.
Pfalm civ, 34.
Great is our God,
Great is. his Power,
His Power is infinite.

Let us enquire what is man, when he is about to enter upon the theatre of this world ? From whence is he derived P. From the anceftry of the creation. To what fhould he dire£l his purfuit ? To a happy life.In what does that confift ? In the contemplation of nature.By what means, and for what end ? Curiofity is natural to man, in common with other aninals; who eat, who fport, and indulge their appetites, tranfmit their fpecies, are multiplied, fleep, provide convenient habitations, are ufeful to fuch of their fpecies as-they of their lives, feel, and perceive.-It is for
nobler ends than thefe, it is the exclafive and invaluable privilege of man to be capable of obferving, with difcrimination, thofe objefts which are expofed to his fenfes; and by reafoning more wifely from appearances to draw juft conclufions, and thence be led to admire the beautiful Works of the all-wife Creator.
How contemptible a thing is man, unlefs he elevate his attention above the mere purfuits of animal life! For what reafon fhould man rejoice

tliat he is brought into exiftence ? Is it merely that he fhould confume the fruits of the earth ? that he fhould pamper this perifhable and perifh-extreme ne.ceffity has imrnerfed earthly carps, that forgetful of nobler pursuits, he fhould turn
*S3VZl3£); Oft ?l OPM
away from thefe higher Objefts ?
.Many I believe would have attained wifdom, had, they no^by being inflated with the pride refulting from large poffeffions, vainly-imagined that tljey were wife already. He is.a.>vif "the Wor.fis,.\ofl feature, tjirough.^an:. .alone of fo much importance then is the Knowledge of the Works of Nature; indeed there is no purfuitin.fcie.nce: of equal value!-The confider-: |,tira,o^;thefeTub|e% has this .peculiar excelleijcgjjT that, whilft they contain ipanyjthings,unreyealed, the obje,6l of. future d^cg^fy>;.afld:offuture ufe,. yet it chiefly attrafts us by its magnificence, and
$&>&&aHiGftves joit wonder,;rather than by. prpfgfftstof radyantagel; How great a part of fo-immenfe'a 'WQJik, is.fub-jefted to ou.r.fenfes,. and how much, befides what we fee? remains concealed, n^yeri.vp^rh^ps^t^^ii, difqpyere.d^j jfpr ^tferfipt-Jfvea^ .ewjgt. thing to man. There are many things of which
ing body ? Wh?t
'r,'j?.i srf milV, man fo deep in rr

we have learnt the exiftence; but how' they exift, we know not. How many things are there of which we have acquired the fir ft knowledge in this age, yet there are many that the next generation will know, of which we are ignorant, and many are referved for future ages, When the memory of ours fhall be no more; the- period will arrive, when thefe things which are now concealed, time and the diligence of! future- ages (hall bring to light: Nature does not at ortce difcover her facred Treafure.
We vainly confider ourfelves as of the favoreds number of the initiated, whilft we Hand only in the Porch of the Temple; the holy Myftdries are not indifcriminately revealed to all her votaries; they are concealed in the inmoft recefles of her San&uary: Truth is inveloped in many coverings, and concealed in the deeps. If temperate youth, mindful of his Creator, were,to apply afliduoufly to thefe Refearches, if the elder were to endeavour t<*. teach, and the younger to learn, ftill fcarcely would they reach to that depth whence Truth is to be dug, which we now expeft, with flight attention, to find upon the furface: It is of great importance to lay open the recefles of Nature, and not contented with the glimpfe

of its exterior, to penetrate, and examine its divine Arcana.
I have, with this view, entered into the obfcure and entangled wilds of Nature, I have endeavoured to avoid, as much as poffible, its thorny brakes; from experience, I have learnt that none are fo circumfpe6t, but that their diligence fometimes : fails them, and they aie -liable :to error: This confideration has enabled me to fupport' the feoffs of the ignorant and malicious; who like,grinning Satyrs, and chattering Monkeys, have befet me in my progrefs: I have begun my courfe, and with perfeverance purfued that track which Fortune' has pointed out; / :T sJ: :
O Jehovah how great are thy Works! The ignorant Man knoweth them not, Neither doth the Fool underfland them.

BEING awakened from the deep of ignorance, I had a glimpfeof the Deity ; of God, eternal, infinite, dmnijcient, and omnipotentd faw, and was aftbnifhed !- I traced his foot/leps in the works of creation, in all of which, even in the leaft, and thofe apparently the mcift infignificant, What power What wifdom What unfearchable perfection I have obferved animals deriving their fupport from vegetables; vegetables-, from earthy fubftances, and earthy Tub fiances from the Earth : and the Earth stfelf revolving by regular laws round the Sun, from which it receives the principle of life. And laftly the Sun moving round its own axis, with the reft of the heavenly bodies, and the fyftem of Stars, in fpace unlimited, and in number .indefinite, held fufpended in empty fpace, through the intervention of motion, by- the incomprehenfible firfi moving eaufe; the Being of beings, the Caufe

[ 1 ]
of caufes, the Preferver and Ruler of the univerfe, the Lord and Crea or of this mundane fyfiem. Shouldji thou call this Power, Fate, thou wilt not err, it is that, on which all things depend. Shouldji thou call it Nature, thou wilt not err, it is that from which all being is derived. Shouldji thou call it Providence, thou wilt call it rightly: it is that, by whofe counfel, the world unfolds its operations ; it is all sense, all sight,all hearing, all life, all mind, allfull of itfelf. The visible works of this power tranfcend human conception. Juflly is it believed that the Deity is eternal, infinite, an derived, uncreated, felfexiflent. That, without which nothing exi/is, which-has begun and completed all things, which at the fame time both fills and eludes our fight, is only tobefeen in the conceptions of the mind. Such awful Majefiy delights to refide in the Jacred JanEluary of the foul.
The UjN ive.rse comprehends every thing which can become the objeft of our fenfes. Thefe are the Stars, the Elements, and the Earth whirled round with unerring velocity. The regular motions of thefe bodies, we fee, proceed under the direElion of an eternal law. We fee, that this order cannot be the refull of accident or chance. We mufi be fenfible that the other orbs could not, by coalefcing fortuitoujly, be combined with fo much art, that the

C 13 3
heavy mafs of the earth fhould remain, as it were, unmoved, and behold the heavens rapidly revolving around it.
Stars are vcyry diflant and luminous bodies revolving with a perpetual motion; thefe are either Stars finning by their own light, as the Sun, and the more remote fixed Stars ; or Planets deriving their light from fixed Stars. The Primary Planets belonging to our Sun are the Herfihel, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Earth, Venus, and Mertury ; the Secondary are attendant upon the Primary Planets as the Moon upon the Earth, and other Moons or Satellites upon other Planets; foflupendous a work could notfubfifl without a preferver, nor could thefe revolutions of the Stars be the refult of a fortuitous mpulfe. For thofe bodies which chance only impels mujl often be confounded and foon.jar together.
Elements are the moft fimple of all bodies, they conftitute the atmofphere of planets and perhaps fill the fpace between them. They con-fill of
lft, Fire, finning, e[coping upwards, warm, flying off, vivifying.
2d, Air, tranfparent, elajlic, dry, flying about, generating.
3d, Water, clear, fluid, zvet, penetrating, conceiving.
B 4th,

C *4 ]
4th, Earth, opake, fixed, cold, inert, fienle.
Thus all the harmony ofi this world refiults firom difcords.
The Earth is this planetary globe, which turns round its own axis in 24 hours, and revolves in its orbit round the Sun, in the fpace of a year, involved in an atmofphere of elements, covered with a ftupendous bark of natural objefts. The ftudy of it is the objeft of human fcknce. This globe is terraqueous ; the lower and more deprefled parts are overflowed with water; and by the Sea, which is gradually to be diminifhed. The waters retire from the higher parts, which are progreflively to be extended into a dry and habitable continent. The exhalations of water form clouds, which, floating in the air, fhed dews and rains upon the continent, cover the lofty mountains with perennial fnows, and defcend from the hills in Jlreams, which combine and become perennial -rivers. Thefe pervading and wandering over the Earth furnifh nourifhmeut to its produ&ions, for the fupport of its inhabitants. Whilfl the winds excite motion in bodies vivified by the heat of fire. So that the elements themfielves fieem interchanged, and what is loft firom one paffes into ansther. Thus reciprocal and alternate are the vicijfitudes ofi things.

[ *5 ]
Nature is the immutable law of God, by which every thing is what it is, and produces that effefi, which it was conftituted to produce. This artificer of things by its inherent powers, and untaught by any, never a£ts defultorily, it operates filently, and purfues thofe means beft calculated to produce its ends. It does nothing in vain, nothing fuperfluous, gives particular properties to particulars, and general properties to generals, follows only its own unvarying laws. All things ajjijl nature, that the operations of nature may be perfeEled,
Natural bodies are all thofe which were formed by the hands of the Creator, conflituting the earth divided into the three kingdoms of nature, whofe boundaries meet in the zoophytes.
ill, Minerals, bodies concreted, neither pof-feffed of life nor feeling.
2d, Vegetables, bodies organized, and endowed with life, but not with feeling.
3d, Animal bodies, organized, living and feeling, and endowed with the power of voluntary loco-motion. Nature does not limit her operation to one model, but glories in variety. Therefore nature from certain forms reconfiitutes others, not B 2 confining

[ *6 J
confining herfidfifin Elly to one uniform tenor, but rejoicing in the difplay ofi unchanged energies.
- The kingdoms of nature conflituting the Planet of this Earth are therefore three.
lft, The mineral kingdom in rude mafTes occupies the interior parts of the Earth, is generated by the falts exiiling there, is indifcriminately mixed, and is modified by accident.
2d, The vegetable kingdom clothes the furface wiifc verdure, extrafts earthy principles with bibulous roots, and breathes ethereal principles by means of quivering leaves, and by a pro-cefs which is effe&ed by heat, the parts of frivfti-fication are formed, generating feeds, which are difperfed within prefcribed limits.
3d, The an imal kin gdom adorns the furface with beings endowed witTi fenfation, thefe poflefs the power of voluntary loco-motion, breathe, generate eggs, are flimulated to aflion by the cravings of hunger, the delights of love, by pain and grief, and by preying upon vegetables, and the more numerous tribes of animals, limit them within certain bounds; fo that a proper proportion of all may permanently exift.

C *7 ]
Man endowed with wifdom was formed by his Creator, the laft, moft perfe£l, and nobleft of all his Works on Earth; diftinguifhed by wonderful Marks of the divine Majefty, he judges according to his fenfes, of the amazing intelligence evident in Creation, admiring its beauty, he is difpofed to venerate the glorious Author. Carrying his views backward, through multiplied generations, whifch have palled away, he fees the Creator. Looking forward, to the multiplied means of prefervation, he acknowledges the watchful care of Nature. On each fide Beauty, Mechanifm, Connexion, Ends, Fitnefs and Ufe, invite our attention. Here Divine Omnipotence ennobles Earth, into Vegetables; Vegetables, into Animals; and thefe, finally into Man; who reflefts back the rays of wifdom towards Majefty, irradiating with two-fold Light. Thus, the whole World is full of the.Glory of God, while all created Works glorify God through Man; who formed by the quickening Hand of God, from the inert Soil, contemplates the Majefty of his Author from the end of Creation. He is appointed the Gift of the moft High, and the Herald of his Praife. This contemplation of Nature, may be confidered as a pleafure derived B .3 to

[ *8 ]
to us from Heaven ; and the mind which is a partaker of it, walks in the Light, and fpends this' life as it were in an earthly Paradife.
Neither can Piety towards God, nor the juft Meafures of Gratitude which is due to him, be perfe£tly comprehended without the Knowledge of Nature, for Man was deftined for the Contemplation and Admiration of God ; and the neareft and belt courfe to this noble Obje£t is indicated by the Study of Nature.
Wisdom, an Emanation of the divine Spirit, is the higheft Attribute of Man; by this he foims a jult opinion of thefe things which relate to the Senfes, and thefe confift merely in fuch
- natural objefts as are immediately aroCind them. The firft ftep then towards Wifdom is the knowledge of things, and this knowledge con fills in a juft idea of objefts, by which fimilar bodies may be diltingu:lhed from thofe which are diffimilar, by peculiar and difcriminating marks infcribed upon them by the Creator himfelf.
And that this knowledge may be comnJtmicable, proper names mull invariably be affixed to each diftinft objeft, for where names fall into oblivion > every thing that Was known refpe£ting thofe fubjeft?, to which they referred, ceafes to be communicable. Thefe are the letters, and the

[ 19 ]
elements, without the knowledge of which, the Book of Nature cannot be read : No defcriptiorr, however accurate, can infallibly convey the certain knowledge of any objeft whofe proper Genus is unknown.
Method, which is the Soul of Science, points out at the firft glance any natural bo^y, fo that it.may be known by its own name, and this name conveys whatever has been difcovered upon the fubjeft, thus in the greatefl feeming confufion of things, the greateft real Order of Nature is difcoverable.
This fyflematic arrangement is very conveniently difpofed under five fubdivifions, fubordinate to each other, thus ;
1 2 3 4. 5
Clafs. Order. Genus. Species. Variety.
HigheftGenus-IntermediateNcarefl-Spccies--Individ Sal.
Genus Genus
Unlefs bodies are reduced into regular orders,
and diftributed as fofdiers in a regular encampment, tumult and diforder would be the neceflary
Names fhould be conformable to the fyflematic arrangement. Therefore, let there be Names of
i 2 3 4 5
ClafTes, Orders, Genera, Species, Varieties.
CharafterofClalTes, Orders, Genera, Species, Varieties.
f Difcriminating

[ 20 ]
Difcriminating circumftances mult be attended to, for it is effential to the accurate knowledge of any thing, to know whatever belongs to it; for if Names be confuted, Science mult necef-farily be involved in confufion: The employment therefore of the firft Man in the happy Age of Innocence was the Obfervation of created Beings, and the giving Names to Species, accord-ing to their Genera.
The Science of Nature refts upon the Knowledge of the Arrangement of Natural Bodies, and that of the Syflematic Nomenclature ; with this, as with the Clew of Ariadne, we are enabled alone, and with fafety, to trace the Windings of Natures Labyrinth. In this Arrangement, the Clafs and Order are of human Contrivance ; the Genus, and the Species, are in the Order of Nature : All true Knowledge refers to the Species, but that which relates to the Genus is not unimportant.
One Species of Order is that of the Creator; another is of the Creature: The Creator begins with the moft fimple, with the earthy Elements, and proceeding through Stones, or Minerals, Vegetables, and Animals, concludes with Man.

f 2 I
Man begins from himfelf, and leaves off with the Earth. The Author of a Syflem afcends from Particulars -to Univerfals; the Teacher, on the contrary, defcends from Generals, to Particulars. Springs combining, form Brooks; Brooks, Rivers; the Navigator afcends thefe, as far as they are navigable, but can never attain their Sources. A diftinft Knowledge of Things being given us, we fhould endeavour to penetrate farther into their peculiar Properties, their Phenomena, Myfleries, their Nature, Power, and Ufes; fince the Science of the Natural Hiftory of the three Kingdoms is the Foundation of all Regimen, Medicine, and of all Economy, either as they regard the Arts of Life, or as they refer to the Operations of Nature. Happy Cultivators, were you fenfible of your Privileges!
AH created Things are Evidences of Divine Power and Wifdom, and the Traafury of human-Felicity. In the Ufes to which they are adapted, the Goodnefs of the Deity is difplayed; in their Beauty, his Wifdom ; from the Economy obferved in their Prefervation, their Proportion to one another; and in their Renovation, the Power of his Majefly.

The Inveftigation of thefe Subjefls has always been efteemed by the unprejudiced, and by thofe poflefled of Leifure, and promoted by the wife, and truly learned; by the ignorant, and the barbarous*, it has always been difcountenanced.
I will declare thy wondrous Works O Lord, and all the Generations of the Earth fhall fpeak of the might of thy terrible A£ts!
* After the death of Marcus Aurelius the Soldiers elected feveral Emperors, who fcarcely knew how to write their Names; thefe illiterate Princes,, confidering learned Men as lazy and ufelefs Drones, left Learning entirely to the Cloifters : The Monk-s, at firft, hpld the Study of Nature in Contempt, they next afperfed it a* unattainable, and laftiy, Jrhoy .perfecuted its. Followers as Sorcerers From this Time, natural Knowledge, and the revealed Will of God, came to be confidered as contradi&ory to each other ; and, from the Influence of this Error, many Bigpts, eve tp this Cay, ftili perfift in fan&ified Ignorance,

A NIMALS are provided with a living organi-zation, feel by means of a vivified medullary fubftance; perceive by nerves; and move themfelves by the exertions of the will.
The life of this perpetually mobile, hydraulic* animal machine was primarily communicated to the medullary fubftance, and afterwards continued and propagated with it; it is fupported by an ethereal eleftric flame of inextinguilhable fire, which is fupplied by refpiration ; in this eleftric fire, refides the incomprehenfible power by which the will excites voluntary motion.
Nature is profufe in the multiplication of all living beings. Life originates in the. minuteft forms: it begins in the liquid matter of an egg: Hence the obfervation, that every living thing is produced from an egg.

I 34 ]
The egg within its coats, which often include a while, contains a yolk; the punftum faliens, or rudiment of the animal, is fixed on the upper furface of the yolk ; this rudiment vegetates into an embrio, which is rooted by the umbilical chord, as a plant by its ftcsi, into its placenta, the yolk.
The punftum faliens, or rudiment of life is, in every inftance, an extenfion, or ramification of the medullary fubftance animated by a portion of the life primarily infufed into it. The egg is therefore a bud of the original medullary fubftance of the mother, and hence poffeffed of vitality in common with her ; its vitality is not appropriate to itfelf, until it has acquired a heart from the paternal parent.
The animal hydraulic machine refembles that of vegetables, but is varioufly modified in different animals, from the different ftrufture of the brain, on. which the powers and faculties depend.
The internal medullary fubftance, which may be compared to the pith of a plant, is extended into a fimple ftem from it's bulb, the brain; this flem is in its progrefs infinitely fubdivided, and fends to every part of the body filamentous ramifications, of a fubftance fimilar to itfelf. Thefe are termed nerves.

[ *5 ]
The immediate covering or fheath of the medullary matter, which afterwards becomes hard like the ligneous fubltance of a tree, is elongated from the fkull, as its root into its Klem, the vertebras. The vertebra: are united to each other by moveable articulations, or joints, and fend branches on each fide into the limbs, to which branches the1 fibrous, flelhy, contra&ile mufcles are attached like leaves, fpreading in a determinate order, and fixed by their extremities to the near ell: joints.
The external cortical fubflance of the body is rooted internally in the Ia6leal veffels, the heart may be termed its bulb, its Hems are two in number, the venous, and the arterial, not differing elfentially from each other in their form or ramifications, which are infinitely numerous and minute.
The camerae, or feats of the faculties within 1 the animal machine are five ;
ill. The moft important of all, the animal medullary, eleftrico-motive magazine of-the living, fecretly a£ling, willing, thinking, reafoning divine faculty ; which, by eleflric threads, diffufes itfelf through the organized bulb, and influences, and direfls the whole.
2dly. And

[ *6 ]
adly. And fecondaty in confequence, the vital pneumatic organs the Lungs, which inhale the eleftrical vital principle from the air, to fupport the animal flame.
gdly. The natural hydraulic machine, the vafcular fyflem, that from the perpetually moving heart, reciprocally receives; and propels through the whole body the fluids which are occafionally increafed or diminifhed in quantity, that there may be neither deficiency nor redundance.
4thly. The alimentary digeflive organs, the abdominal vifcera, that prepare within the in-teflinal canal juices proper for the lafteal veflels, which are afterwards circulated through the whole vital fyflem.
^thly. The faculty of continuing the animal fucceflion.
The organs of the fenfes are phyfical machines, placed at. the extremities of the nerves, near the fenforium of the brain; by thefe the animal, through divine contrivance, is enabled to perceive external objefts.
The Eye, is a camera obfcura, which paints objefts in their jufl proportion, forms, and colours. '
The Ear, is a drum, compofed of a tight membrane, flretched over a bony ring, the cochlea, and vibrating from the motions of the air.

[ 27
The Nofe, is a broad, humid, convoluted mem-
brane, arrefting the volatile effluvia floating in the air.
The Tongue,- is befet with bibulous, fpongy papillae, which attraft fubftances in a flate of humidity or foluiion.
The Touch, refides in foft papillae, which readily a flu me the figure of bodies imprefled upon them. Moft animals, but not all, enjoy the ufe of thefe fenfes, they might have pofleffed other fpecies of perception, had it pleafcd the Deity to have added to their fenfuive powers : as the Magnet perGeives the prefcnce of iron, and Amber, that of eleftricity.Antennas are given to InfeEts alone, the ufe of which is as incompre-hcnfible to us, as that of our Ears to them.
The Eye, by the agency of light, the Ear, by means of air, indicate approaching objefts ; the Touch, by contafi, perceives the prefence of folid bodies ;the Nofe, examines volatile fub-flances, by means of its nerves;the Tongue, foluble bodies, by means of its *fibres;that we may judge if they be grateful, permitted, and* falutaiy or, if difagreeable forbidden, and noxious.

[ *8 ]
Reflexion induces us to chooft fuch things as are grateful to our fenfes, and to rejeft fuch as are ungrateful
n * * *
Joy gratifies itfelf with the good things of this life.
Fear efcapes from danger by flight.
Anger defends itfelf by arms.
Grief mourns for Ioffes and difappointments.
The Economy of Nature is equally difplayed in her 3 Kingdoms. For, as Nations are not created for the fake of their Rulersbut Kings inftituted for the prefervation of order .amongft the Peoplefo herbivorous Animals ferve the purpofe of retraining, within proper limits, the vegetable tribesand carnivorous Animals prevent the exuberance of the herbivorousand of thefe, the more powerful reftrain the exceffes of the more feeble.
Man, in his animal capacity, is intended for the prefervation of order among the mod powerful, and indeed amongft all other Animals, principally however he exifts for his own advantage; influenced by unfeeling intereft, he exercifcs a defpotic fway, that a juft proportion and order may prevail permanently in the Commonwealth of Nature.

E 29 ]
Many individuals of the Citizens of this Commonwealth, in their turn, confpire againft the Majefty of rational Man, their Ruler; whofe duty it is, to acknowledge the great Author of the whole.
As Water, colle&ing from Springs, forms Streams, Brooks and Rivers flowing into the Ocean; fo the Commonwealth of Nature, beginning amongft the very numerous plebeian orders, afcends through the lefs numerous Patricians, and from them through a few Princes or higher orders of Nobility, to the Governor bim-felf; whilft even the fmalleft Animals, by the infinite power and, refgurces refuhing from their Numbers, contribute to the ufes of the larger, more inert, but higher ordersHence, Nature is never greater than in its minuteft parts.
The Minifters of this Economyhave each their proper Offices affignedvarying with the various Species of Animals, each being ftimulated to his refpeftive duties for his own Convenience, from their own Exertions they derive their Support, that nothing may be deficientnothing fupeifluotis; and left fome fhould invade the Provinces of others and rob them of the Reward appointed for their Labours, the Law of Poifon is efidbiiflied, inflifling capital Punifhment, and 'rec in the Senfes themfelvcs, efpecially in
C 3 thofe

[ 3 ]
thofe of Smell and Tafte, left unintentional Tranfgreflors fhould efcape.
The principal Occupations of the Inhabitants of Naturre are, -
1. To continue the Species, that there may be a fufficient number for the purpofes intended.
2. To preferve an Equilibrium, between the Species of Animals and Vegetablesthat a juft proportion may be permanently preferved.
3. To cut down annually the vegetable Crop, that the yearly Exhibition may be renewed.
To reftrain the degenerate, left the legitimate Species fhould be expelled.
To remove the languid, the difeafed, the dead, uncleanly, defiled, ftagnant, acid, and putrid Matters, that the Elegance of Nature may be'preferved.
4. To preferve themfelves from Extinflion, left there fhould be a defeft in one part of the ; Syftem.
The Economy of Nature is employed in the Generation, Prefervation, and Deftruftion of Thingsand all the Powers of Nature combine, that the Works of the Creator may continue unimpaired.
Animalsrequire the Care of others in their Education, and as the Creator, who could receive no return, provided for the Prefervation of * ic

[ 3 3
firft Individual of the feveral Species, fo this Truft paffes, in the defcending Line, to their Offspring, who cannot repay the Labours of their Parents.
Prefervation is effected by means of daily Food, which being widely difperfed, mull be acquired by aftive exertion.Thus Hunger dif-perfes over the Face of the Earth thofe whom the Affe&ions affemblethe Deftruffion of one Individual is neceffary for the Prefervation of anotherLife muft be fuftained by the laborious acquifition of Carcaffes fit for Food, which are not in abundance.Thus, a continual Devaftation of all Things is produced.The more aftive fefcape by their Bravery, by their natural means KA defence, their Agility and their Stratagems ( while the more languid fink under the perpetual Warfare, and the more vivacious h'dften on in their Courfe, that the Wor^ o{ Nature may continually flourifh ani^ enjoy perpetual Vigour.
J he bti^.uii of Nature, to incite to a quick Difcharge of its various Duties are,
1. Affeftion, gentle and kind, which promotes
Affociation and Increafe.
2. Craving Hunger, which difperfes and urges
to Prefervation.
3. Horrible Pain, which excites to deftroy, and
repels Deftru£tion.All thefe have their

[ 32 ]
The natural Divifion of Animals into Clafles
is marked by Peculiarities in iheir internal Strufture l
C A heart with two au-} Viviparous. Cl. i. Mammalia, j y ricles, and two ven-f
J) tricles; jr Avcs,
C Warm & red blood.) Oviparous. Cl. 2. Birds.
A heart with one au--} ^Voluntary lungs. Cl. 3. Amphibia, ricle, and one ven-f
tricle: C Pifce'^
Cold, & red blood.) External gills. Cl. 4. Filhes.
A heart with no au-} Having Antennas. Cl. 5. Infefts. ricle, and oneven-(
tricle: £ Vermes^
Cold whitilhfanies.) Having tentacula. Cl. 6. Worms.
* Lungs, whiciY havfc-ihe Power of breathing at the Will f the Animaj, and neceflarily.at regular Intervals.
Characters 5

[ 33 3
Characters of the Classes of the Animal Kingdom.
The heart has two auricles, and two ventricles; the blood is warm, and red.
The lungs refpire by alternately infpiring,' and expiring air.
The jaws are incumbent on each other, and covered with foft parts, as the cheeks and lips; moft of them have teeth inferted in the jaw bones.
They produce their young alive, and.nourifli them with milk.
Their organs of fenfe are, the tongue, noftrils, eyes, ears, and the papillae of the fkin.
They are covered with hair, which is thin in the quadrupeds of warmer regions, and very fcanty on the aquatic mammalia.
Their organs of motion are four legs, and feet, except in thofe which are entirely confined to the water, in whom the hind feet are united into a tail.Moft have tails.

: V /
[ 34 ]
Aves, or
2. Birds.
The heart has two auricles, and two ventricles; the blood is warm, and red.
The lungs refpire, as in the mammalia.
The jaws or mandibles are incumbent on each other, without covering, projecting, and without teeth.
They are oviparous, the egg being covered with a calcareous fhell.
Their organs of fenfe are, the tongue, noftrils, eyes, _and ears which have no external organ : They are covered with feathers which are incumbent upon, and overlap each other, as the fcalcs upon a fifh.
Their organs of motion are two legs, two wings, and a tail.
3. Amphibia.
The heart has one auricle, and one ventricle; th,e blood is cold, and red.
The lungs refpire, according to the will of the animal.
The jaws are incumbent on each other.
They are oviparous, and the eggs in molt have membranous coverings.
Their organs of fenfe are the tongue, noflrils, eyes, and ears in many fpecies.
They are covered with a naked fkin.
Their organs of motion are various in different fpecies, and entirely wanting in fome.

[ 35 ]
Pi fees, or
4'. Fishes.
The heart has one auricle, and one ventricle; the blood is cold, and red.
They have gills which are coraprefTed on their external furface, in/lead of lungs.
The jaws are incumbe;nt on each other.
They are viviparous ; the eggs contain na white.
Their organs of fenfe are, a tongue, noftrils, eyes, and ears; they are covered with fcales that overlap each other, as tiles on the roof of a houfe.
Their organs of motion are fins, fitted for fwimming.
5. Insects.
The heart has no auricle, and one ventricle ; in (lead of blood they have a cold fanies.
They breathe by pores on the fides of their bodies.
Their jaws' open laterally, or crofswife.
Their organs of fenfe are, the tongue, eyes, and antennas on the head which is deftitute of brain.They have neither ears, nor noftrils.
The are covered by a bony coat of mail.
Their organs of motion are legs in all,-in-many wings.

6. Worms.
The heart has one ventricle, and no auricle; jnftead of blood, they have a cold fanies.
Their breathing pores are obfcure, and uncertain.
Their jaws vary in various kinds.
Their organs of fenfe are tentacula ; no head, noftrils, and ears; they can fcarcely*be faid to have eyes.
They are covered with calcareous fhells, or have no covering except fpines.
They have neither feet nor Jins.
Thus Nature in her Menagerie preferves Animals in fix different Forms :
Mammalia, covered with hair, walk on the earth, /peak.
Birds, covered with feathers, fly in the air, (ing.
Amphibia, covered with fkin, creep in warm places, hi/s.
Filhes, covered with fcales, fwim in the water, cluck, or fmack with their lips.
Infefls, covered with armour, fkip on dry ground, buzz.
Worms, without fkin, crawl in moift places, filent.

[ 37 ]
CLASS ill.
The Mammalia.
H E Mammalia, are thofe animals that
nourifh their young with milk ; in their ftruflure, and organization, both external and internal, they clofely refemble Man r the greateft: number of them are quadrupedes, which inhabit the furface of the earth along with us, as among inveterate enemies; while the others, feweft. in number, but fuperior in fize, are furnifhed with fins, and refide in the ocean.
The cloalhing of quadrupedes is compofed of extremely foft, flexible, and feparate hairs, hence lefs fubjeft to injury, and more abundant on the animals of cold, than of warm climates. Hairs concrete or coalefce fo as to form fpines on the porcupine, and hedge hog; fpines are flattened into fcales on the manis; fcales are united, fo as to form a fhell upon the armadillo. In the horfe, and dog, prominent lines of long hairs divide the furface of the common hairy coat, thefe lines or ridges are elongated into a mane in the horfe, and pig. The aquatic Mammalia, excepting thofe that are fometimes deftined to go on dry land, are deftitute of hairs, which

[ 3 ]
.would be an incumbrance when wet ; befide thefe peculiarities, the face is in fome furnifhed with tufts of brillles, the lips with whifkers, and the chin with a beard, as in Man, the ape, and the goat; the feet and breaft with callofities, as in the horfe, and camel.
The fulcra or fupports, the inftruments of motion, defigned to render flight expeditious, when an enemy is to be avoided, or prey purfued, are in quadrupedes the four feet, the anterior pair ,of which are provided with palms, fometimes fhaped as a hand, with the thumb placed oppofne to the fingers, as in the order primates, and the opofTum: the pofterior pair have foies to ftrengthen and accelerate their motion, and thefe are either palmated, i. e. have toes connefled by a membrane for the purpofe of fwimming ; or cleft, i. e. have feparate ioes for running rapidly, or are fupported by heels for ftanding firmly, as in man, and the bear; to obviate mechanical injury during flight over a rugged furface, the toes are armed with a thick fur, as in the common hare, arftic fox, and floth; or hoof d, i. e. inclofed in hollow nails, as in a fhoe; in the Pecora and Bellua:; in thefe alfo the heel is often hoofd, when the toes are by nature wanting: but the more ferocious are clawed, i. e. bearded as it were with nails fixed

C 39 1
to the extremiiies of the toes, for the purpofc ot feizing their prey, wounding their enemies, and digging into the ground, in moft of thefe the claws are pointed, and curved ; in others, that are lefs fierce, they are oval, and flattend. The Ferae, the moft rapacious of the quadrupedes are armed wiih fharp, recurvated claws. Flying animals, of this clafs, afcend the aerial regions by the aid of elongaied, palmated forefeet, as bats; or fail buoyant thrOugh the air, by means of membranes extended between the fore and hind feet, as the flying Macauco, and Squirrel. The aquatic Mammalia may be termed-defe&ive, i. e., are deftitute of' claws, and hoofs; their fore legs are retraQed within their fides, and the poflerior extremities united to form an horizontal tail, as in the Order Cete, or the Whales.
The arms of the Mammalia, exclufive of the claws before noticed, and the teeth to be defcribed afterwards, are chiefly cartilaginous horns fixed on the head, thefe are either folid, and perennial, as in the Rhinoceros; or branchy, and annual, at firft hairy on the furface, and growing from their points, as in Deer : or, hollow, fheathing an internal fubflance, and increafing at the bafts,1 as in the Cow, Goats, and Sheep ; with thefe,: they attack, pierce, ftrike, and by that means elude-the attempts of their enemies.
D 2 The

[ 4 ]'
The inJlr unit n!s employed in prepari7ig the food for digejlion, are the teeth ; which are of three kinds, the primores, or fore teeth, that are fome-times fhaped as a wedge, broad at the bafe, with a fharp edge, and termed incifores, or cutting teeth ; thefe ferve for plucking, gnawing, and cutting the food. The laniarii, or tufks, which are conical, longer than the other teeth, have no- oppofites that meet them when the mouth is clofed, and are employed in tearing the food to pieces. The molares, or grinders, which are broader than the others, are defigned to bruife, and grind the aliment; thefe are obtufe in herbivorous, and more acuie in carnivorous animals. The Ant eaters, and Manis, are the only Mammalia deflitute of teeth.
The Tail is formed by a multiplication of the vertebrae of the fpine, extending backwards; in a few of the mammalia there is no tail, as in man, fome of the apes, and fome mice ; in others it is {hort, not longer than the thigh, as in the Hare, Satyr, Mole, and Hedghog. In others, reaching to the feet, or Hill farther, as in Dogs, Mice, &c, the tail in fome is naked, as in Mice; or prehenfile, i. e. capable of being twined round an objeft, and then drawing it towards the animal, ferving the purpofe of a fifth hand, as in fome Apes, the Porcupine, and Opolfum; or covered

r 41 ]
with long flowing hair, as in the Horfe; and Cow ; or tufted, with a pencil of hairs at the extremity,-as in the Sea-Lion, and- Jerboa ; or with hairs ranged in two lines on the fides of the tail, as the Grain in an Ear of Barley, it is fo in the Squirrel, and Ant Eater.
The guards, or dejenjive armour of the Mammalia, are certain parts formed for the defence of the different fenfes.Thefe are,
The external ears, which are wanting in the aquatic. Genera, they render the fenfe of hearing more perfeft, and are in form either rounded, nearly oval, fharp; pointed, or cleft; in pofition, ereft,. or pendulous.
1 The pupil of the eye, which is orbicular in the fpecies that employ the fight chiefly by day; and fhaped like a line, and capable of dilatation, in either an horizontal, or vertical direflion, in thofe that prowl by night.
The winking membrane, contrived to cover the pupil, without entirely excluding the light, this is found in very few of the Mammalia..
The eyelids, which are moveable in every fpecies, in fome with eyelalhes on both lids, as in Man, and Apes; in others, including the greateft part of the Mammalia, with a lafh on the upper lid n.ly.
D 3. The:

[ 4* ]
The nofe, comprefsd, flattend, crooked, or bifid; (horter than the lips, as in Apes ; fomewhat longer, as in moll of the Ferae ; or elongated into probofcis, as ill the Elephant. The nojlrils nearly oval, or orbicular.
The tongue, in general fimple, fometimes edged with papillae, or fmall flefhy eminences, as ir Dogs; with fpines on the upper furface, as ir Cats; or fhaped like a thread, as in the Manis, and Ant Eater ; bifid in the Phocas. The upper lip, which in rnofl fpecies'has a vertical furrow in the middle.In the Glires, it is bifid.
The organs for fupplying the milk in the female are always in pairs, and of a determinate numbei in each fpecies.They vary in their fituation in different fpecies.
The utility of the Mammalia is confiderable many of the Pecora are bred to fupply us witl flefh, milk, leather, tallow, hair, and wool; we employ the Elephant, Camel, and Horfe for drawing or carrying burthens: fome of the Ferai are trained up to hunt vermin, as Mice, and Serpents.The more uncommon of the Mammalia are kept in Menageries, as objefts of cuiiofity.

[ 43 1
The principal Authors on the fubjeft are, of the preceding age Gefner, Aldrovandus, and
1 Johnfon; of the prefent Ray, Briffon, Hout-tuyn, Buffon, Pennant, Pallas, Schreber, Klein, Cetti, Erxcleben, Blumenbach, Camper, and Storr.
The fubjeft is to be treated of fcientifically, by giving a defcriplion of each fpecies, with an account of its food, and economy from the commencement to the termination of its exiftence, that hence, final caufes, or the defigns of the Creator may be difcovered.Examples of fuch liiftories may be feen in the Effays on the Dog, Rein Deer, Guinea Pig, common Hog, and domeftic Sheep, in the Ameenitates Academicze.

[ 44 ]
The ordinal Characters of this Class arc principally taken from the Teeth
Having Claws or Nails, and Teeth.
No fore teeth in either jaw, Bruta, z.
Two incifive fore teeth in both jaws,"! QHre no tufks, J res> 4*
Four incifive fore teeth in hoth.'V
one tufk on each fide, in both \Primates, 1. jaws, J
Six, two, or ten conical fore teeth in~\
both jaws, one tufk on each fide, Perce, 3. in both, J
Having Hoofs & Teeth.
Fore teeth in both jaws, Bellucc, 6.
No fore teeth in the upper jaw, Pecora, 5* DefectiveHaving no Feet.
The teeth varying in the different'! r fpecies, J e e'

C 45 ]
Characters of the Orders.
HE fore teeth incifive: thofe in the upper
jaw four in number, and parallel to each other ; the tufks Handing fingle.
The organs for fupplying the young with milk two in number, placed on the breall.
The fore feet are of a peculiar form, termed hands; the nails flattened, and oval. ,
The arms are kept at a difiance from each other, by the interpofition of clavicles, or collar bones; hence their gait is aukward, when they attempt to walk as quadrupedes. They live principally on fruits, which they gather by climbing trees, and cut in pieces with the fore teeth.
Order 2.BRUT A.
No fore teeth in either jaw.
The feet armed with ftrong nails.
Clumfy, and flow in their motions.
In. eating they bruife, or comprefs their food.

[ 46 ]
Order 3.FER
The fore teeih are conical, frequently fix ira each jaw.
The tufks longer than the other teeth.
The grinders armed with conical proje£lions.
The feet armed with {harp, hooked claws!
Their fubfiftence is on dead carcafles, which they tear in pieces; or animals which they deftroy for their prey.
Order 4. G LIRE S.
Two incifive fore teeth in each jaw.
No tu{ks.
Feet provided with claws.
They bound in their motion from place to place.
They live by gnawing the bark, roots, and other parts of vegetables.
Order ,5.PEC OR A.
Fore teeth in the lower jaw only, incifive, and numerous.
The feet hoofed, and cloven.
They feed on vegetables, which-they pluck up, and afterwards ruminate.

[ 47 3
They have four ftomachs; the Rumeti in which the food is macerated, to be afterwards thrown up into the mouth, and chewed more perfectly, this is termed ruminating: theReticuIumdivided intofmall cells, and receiving the food after the rumination. The Omafus, which digefts the food and is furnifh-ed with numerous folds on its inner, furface. The Abomafus, in which an acid is produced to prevent the putrefaction of the aliment.
Order 6.BELLU^E.
The fore teeth blunt.
The feet hoofed.
In their progreffive motion flow, and heavy.
They fubfift on vegetables, which they d/ag or tear from their Items.
Order 7.C E T E.
Inftead of feet they have peftoral fins, and in place of a tail their hind feet are united fo as ta form a broad fin, to aflift them in fwimming.
They have no nails, or claws.
The teeth are cartilaginous.
The noflril in many is a blowing hole on the upper part of the head.

[ 48 ]
They dwell in the fea, and live on marine infefts, and fifh.
This order is feparated from the fifhes, and included in the Mammalia, on account of the fimilarity in ftrufture to the latter. Their heart has two auricles, and two ventricles, their blood is warm, they breathe by means of Lungs, have moveable eye lids, and open ears.
The female fuckles her young.

[ 49 ]
.0 1 THE
genera of
Gams i. MAN 1. HOMO. 1.
2. Ape. s. Simia. a.
* Apes. Smiae.
** Eaboons. Papioncr. *** Moakeys. Ccrcopilhcci.
.*** Sapajous. Sapaji.
*t Sagoins. Sarcir, i.
3. Macauco. 3. Lemur. 3.
4. Bat. 4. Vejpcrtilio. 4.
M M A L I A,
Walks ereft.
Have tulks, diftant from the other teeth.
No tails.
Short tails.
Long, not prehenfile tails* theek-p ouches, upper arid back part of the thigh naked.
Long prehenfile tails, no cheek-pouches, the upper and back part of the thigfi clothed.
Long, not prehenfile, tails, no cheek-pouches, the upper and back part of the thigh clothed.
Have fix fore teeth in the lower jaw.
Their fore feet are palmated, for the purpofes of flying.
A. Four
Note. The figures preceding the Latin names exprefs the order of the Genera, as arranged by Dr. Gmelin ; thofe which follow the Latin names are prefixed in his edition, apparently to mark the order followed by Linnaeus in the former edition ; fuch as have no numeral after the Latin names are new Genera adopted by Dr. Gmelin. The figures which precede the Englifh names (how the order obferved in this edition,T.

[ 50 3
A- Four fore teeth in each jaw.
B. Four fore teeth above, Jix below,
C. Four fore teetli above, eight below#
D. Two fore teeth above, fix below.
E. Two fore teeth above, four below#
F. Two fore teeth above, none below.
G. No fore teeth above, four below.
H. No fore teeth in either jaw.
I. The number and arrangement of the teeth unknown. Order II.BRUTA.
Cenus $. Sloth* 5. Bradypvs, 7. Have no fore teeth or tufksj
the anterior grinders are longer than the reft. The body is hairy. Myrmecophaga. 8. Have no teeth. The body is hairy.
Have no teeth. The body is covered with fcales. Have grinders, but no tufks .or fpre teeth. The body is covered with a ciufta-ceous fhell.
Has a horn on the middle .of the forehead.
Has horns on each fide, below the eyes.
Has tufks and grinders, but no fore teeth Th.e fnput is elongated iijto a flexible trunk.
Has tufks in the upper jaw; rough, boney excrefcenccs for grinders. Hind legs and feet ftretchcd backwards, and united there.
6. Ant-eater. 6.
'/. Manis. 7. Manis, 9.
8. Armadillo. 8. Dafyput. 10.
9 Rhinoceros.9. Minoceros, 36,
10. Sukotyro. Sucotyro.
11. Elephant. 10. Elcphas. 5.
12. Walrus. 11, Tiichcchus. 6.
Order III.FER^E. Genus 13. Seal. 12, Phoca. 11.
Six fore teeth above, four below.
14 Dog.

C 51 3
14. X5og. 13. Canis, 12. Six fore teeth iff each jaw;
the intermediate ones, above, lobcd.
Cat, 14 Fclis. 13. Six fore teeth in each jaw ;
the lower ones equal* The tongue prickly.
* With long tails, and*plain- ears.
** With fhort tails, and pencilled ears. Lynxes.
16. Fitchet, 15. Vivcrra. 14.
17. W'eafel. 16. Mujle/a. 15,
* 6tters, Lutrae.
** Weafels. Mujiclact
18. Bear. 17. Urfus. 16.
ig.Opoffum. t8. Didelphii. 17.
*0. Molei ig. Talpa^iS.
. ,.// !' ; <
21, Shrew. 20. Sorcx. 19.
22. Urchin. 21. Erinaccus, 20.'
Order IV.G L I R E S. CcnuszQ. Porcupine. 22. Hijlrix. 21.
24. Cavy. 23. Catia.
Six fore teeth in each jaw j the intermediate ones, below, fhorter than the reft.
Six fore teeth in each jaw ; the lower ones crowded together; two, alternate, {landing within the reft.
The feet webbed.
The feet divided.
Six fore teeth in each jaw ; the upper ones hollowed.
Ten fore teeth above, eight below.
Six,fore teeth above, 'eight below.
Two fore teeth above, four below.
Two fore teeth in each jaw ; The body is befct with prickles.
The body is Covered with long fpines.
Thet fore teeth are wedge like; four grinders on each fide. No collar bones.
25. Ceaver

[ 52 3
23. Beaver. 24 Cz/?or. 23.
26.Murinequadrupeds.s5.Waj. 2 4.
* Bcaver-rati, Myocajlorts. ** Rats Sc Mice. Mures.
*** Hamfters. Criceti.
**** Mole-rats. Myctafyac.
27. Marmot. 26. ArSomys. a8. Squirrel, 27. Seiums. 25.
The upperfore teeth wedgelike; four grinders on each fide. Has collar bones. The upper fore teetli. wedgelike ; three grinders on each fide. Has collar bones.
The I ail is flattened at the nidi
The tail is round.
With naked tails With hairy tails. Having cheek pouches. Have no external ears j finall eyes; and a veiy fliort tail, or none.
Have two wedge-like fore teeth in each jaw 1 five grinders above, and four below, on each fide. Have collar bones.
Have two wedge-like fore teeth above and two (harp pointed, below ; five grinders above, and four below, on each fide. Have collarbones: Hair on the tail Ihed fide ways: Long whilkers.
Climbing Squirrels. S. Scandentes. Flying Squirrels. S. Volitantcs.
+ Myofuri ++ Cunicu/arii.
29. Dormoufe,

[ S3 1
ag-Dormoufe. 28. Myoxus. 26.
30. Jerboa. 29. Dypusi
31. Hare. 30. Lepus. 22.
32. Afhkoko. 31# Hyrax.
Genus 33. Camel* 32. Qamdus, 27.
34. Mufk. 33. Mo/chus. 28.
35. Deer. 34. Cervus. 29.
36.Camelopard35. Girajfa.
37. Antilope. 36. Antilope
38. Goat. 37. Capra. 30.
39. Sheep. 38. Ouis. 31.
40. Bull. 39. Bos* 32.
Have long whifke'rs ; and a round tail, thick at the extremity.
Have very fhort fore, and very long hind legs.
The upper fore teeth double.
Have broad upper fore teeth. No tail.
Hornlefs. Has feveral tufks on each fide of each jaw
Hornlefs. Solitary tufks ; thofe in the upper jaw projeft from the mouth.
Has folid, branchy, deciduous horns. No tufks in either jaw.
Very fhort horns. The fore legs are much longer than thofe behind.
Has folid, fimple, perfiftent horns. No tufks in either jaw.
Has hollow, ere£t horns*; No tufks.
Has hollow reclined horns* No tufks.
Has hollow extended horns* No tufks.
Order VI.B E L L U JE*
Genus 41. Horfe. 40. Equus. 33* Has fix fore teeth in each jaw\ 42.Hippopotamus.4i.ifr/>/o/0faMWJ.34.Has four fore teeth in each
£ 3 43, TapLm.

43> Tapir. 42. Tapir.
44 Hog. 43. Sus. 35.
Genus45. Narval. 44. Monodon. 37,
46. Whale. 45. Balaena. 38.
47. Cachalot. 46. Phyfetir. 39.
48. Dolphin, 47. Delphinus. 40.
5 4 ]
Has ten fore teeth in each jaw.
Has four fore teeth in the upper, and fix in the lower jaw.
Has two extended boney teeth in the upper jaw.
Has horny teeth in the upper jaw.
Has boney teeth in the lower jaw only.
Has boney teeth in both jaws.

OF T a E
ift ClassMAMMALIA*.
Genus i.
Sapient Man. Wild Men. Americans. Europeans. Afiatics. Africans. Monfters. Dwarfifh. Gigantic. Mutilated. Beardlefs. Sharp-headed. Flat-headed
i. Homo Sapiens*
a. H. Feri.
&. H. Americani. y. H. Europaei.
H. Afiatici. e. H. Afri.
H. Monflrofi; r. Alpini.
2. Patagonici.
3. Monorchides.
. 4. Imberbes.
5; Macrocephali.
6. Plagiocephali.
* The figures before the Englifh names exprefs the running
number in the clafs, thofe preceding the Latin names denote
the fpecies in each genus, and the Greek letters denote the. varieties in each fpcciej.

C 56
Arranged under
1. Chimpanzee. 1.
2. Ourang-Outang. 2.
3. Pongo.
4. Jocko.
5. Great Gibbon 3.
6. Letter Gibbon
7. Silvery Gibbon.
8. Pigmy. 4
9. Magot. 5-
10. Hog-faced Ape- 6.
n.Maimon. 1.
12. Little Baboon. 2.
13. Great Baboon.. 3.
14. Mantegar. 4.
15. Mandril. 5,
16. HoggiQi Baboon. 6,
17. Wood Baboon. 7,
18. Yellow Bahoon. 8
19. Cinereous Baboon. 9,
20. Blue-faced Baboon. io
21. Brown Baboon. n
22. Crefted Baboon, 12
5 divilions. i*
Simia troglodytes. Simia Satyrus.
(S. S. Satyrus Pongo. y. S. Satyrus Jocko. Simia Lar. ft. S. Lar minor.
7. S. Lar argentea.
Simia Sylvanus.
Simia inuus.
Simia Suilla.
Papio nemeftrina.
Papio apedia. ,
Papio Sphinx.
Papioi Maimon.
Papio porcaria.
Papio fylvicola.
, Papio variegata.
Papio cinerea*
, Papio livea.
. Papio platypygos.
. Papio criftata.

[ 57 3
93. Dog-tailed Monkey.
24. Tartarin.
25. Urfine Tartarin.
26. Lowando.
4 7. White-beardedLowando.
28. Wanderu.
29. White-bearded black
30. Tie-tie Wanderu.
31. Purple-faced Wanderu.
32. Malbrouck.
33. Macaque.
34. Dog-headed Monkey,
35. Spotted Monkey.
36. Green Monkey.
37. Mouftache.
38. Mangabey.
39. Collared Mangabey.
40. Egret.
41. Monea.
42. Nodding Monkey.
43. Bearded Nodding Monkey,
44. Rillow.
45. Bonneted Rillow.
46. Douc.
47. Monina.
Pal as.
48. Black-banded Patas,
Divifion 3.
1. Cercopithecus cynofurus
2.Cercopithecushamadryas /?. C.Hamadryas urfinus.
3. Cercopithecus veter.
/3. C. veter albibarbatus.
4. Cercopithecus Silenus. /3. C. Silenus albibarbatus.
y. C. Silenus Tie-tie.
C. Silenus purpuratus,
5. Cere opithecus Faunus.
6. Cercopithecus cynomolgus.
7. Cercopithecus eynocephalus.
8. Cercopithecus Diana.
9. Cercopithecus fabaeus.
10. Cercopithecus cephus.
11. Cercopithecus aethiops. /S. C. aethiops torquatus.
12. Cercopithecus aygula.
13. C. augula Monea.
13. Cercopithecus ni&itans. /3. C. ni&itans barbatus.
14. Cercopithecus finicus.
(3. C. finicus pileatus.
15. Cercopithecus nemaeus.
16. Cercopithecus Monina.
17. Cercopithecus ruber.
49. White-

I ;]
I((). While-banded Patas,
50. Talapoin.
51. Black Tala-poin.
52. Agile-Monkey.
53. Negro Monkey.
54. Roloway.
55. Long-nofed Monkey.
56. Prude.
57. Yellowifh Monkey. 5$. Tawney Monkey.
59. Greenifh Monkey,
60. Hircine Monkey.
61. King Monkey.
62. Bay Monkey.
63. Annulated Monkey.
64. Guaribi.
65. Arabata.
66. Quato.
67. Exquima.
68. Sajou.
6g. Grey Sajou.
70. Homed Sapajou.
71. Brown Sapajou.
72. Sai.
73. Whil^-throated Sal.
74. Sahniri.
75. Chefnut Saimiri.
76. Magu.
77. Variegated Sapajou,
$. C, ruber albofafciatitf,
18. Cercopithecus Talapoin,j,
G. Talapoin niger.
. ig.Cercopithecuspetauriftus
20. Cercopithecus maurus.
21. Cercopithecus Roioway,
22. Cercopithecus nafuus.
23.Cercopithecus capiftratus
24. Cercopithecus luteolus.
25. Cercopithecus fulvus.
26. Cercopithecus viridens.
27. Cercopithecus hircinui
&8. Cercopithecus regalis.
29. Cercopithecus badiue.
30. Cercopithecus fufcus,
ifion 4.
SA P A jft. -
1. Sapajus Beelzebub.
2. Sapajus feniculus.
3. Sapajus panifcus.
4. Sapajus Exquima.
5. Sapajus trepidus.
13 S. trepidus fulvus.
6.- Sapajus fatuellus.
7. Sapajus apella-.
8. Sapajus Capucinus.
(3. S. Capucinus albulus.
9. Sapajus fci\ireus.
(3. S. fciureus mortus.
10, Sapajus fyrichtus.
11. Sapajus variegatus.

C 59 ]
Div-ifion 5.
73. Saki. 1. Sagoinus pithecia.
79. Sanglin. 2. Sagoinus Jacchus.
80. Yellowifh Sanglin. 0- S. Jacchus mofchatus.
81. Pinche. 3. Sagoinus Oedipus.
32. Marikina. 4. Sagoinus rofalius.
83. Mico. 5. Sagoinus argenteus.
84. Tamarin. 6. Sagoinus Midas.
Genus i ii.
$5. Loris, 1. Lemur tardigradus.
8,6. Taillefs Maucauco. 2. Lemur ecaudatus.
87. Indri. 3. Lemur Indri.
88. Potto. 4. Lemur Potto.
89. Mongo,us. 5. Lemur Mojigoz.
90. Black-faced Mongous. |3. L. Mongoz maur.us,
91. Blade Mongous. 7. L. Mongoz negro.
92. White-handedMongous. L. Mongoz albipes.
93. Brown Mongous. t. L. Mongoz fufcus.-
94. Grey Mongous. f. L. Mongoz cinereus. Vari. 6. Lemur Macoco,
95. Black Vari. a.. L. Macoco niger.
)6._ Brown Vari. /3. L. Macoco fufcus.
97. White Vari. 7. L. Macoco albus.
98. Pied Vari. £. L. Macocovariegatu?.
99. Ring-tailed Maucauco. 7. Lemur Catta.
oo Murine

[ 6o ]
100. Murine Maucauco. 8. Lemur murinus.
101. American Macauco. 9. Lemur bicolor,
102. Curley Macauco. 10. Lemur laniger.
103. Podje. 11. Lemur Podje.
104. Prehenfile Macauco. 12. Lemur prehen filis.
105. Coluga. 13. Lemur volans.
Genus iv.
A. With four foreteeth in each jaw.
V ampire.
106. Rouflet.
107. Rouget.
108. Leffer Vampire.
109. Speftre.
110. Spear-nofed Bat. hi. Heart-nofed Bat.
112. Javelin Bat.
113. Leaf-nofed Bat.
114. Hare-lip Bat.
115. Chop-fallen Bat;
1. Vefpertilio Vampyrus. <*. V. Vampyrus niger.
V. Vampyrusfubniger y. V. Vampyrus helvus.
2. Vefpertilio Speftrum.
3. Vefpertilio perfpicillatus.
4. Vefpertilio Spafma.
5. Vefpertilio haftatus.
6. Vefpertilio foricinus.
7. Vefpertilio leporinus.
8. Vefpertilio labialis.
B. With four foreteeth above, and fix below.
116. Long-eared Bat.
117. Common Bat.
118. Noftule,
119. Serotine..
120. Pipiftrelle.
121. Barbaftelle.
122. Bearded Bat.
9. Vefpertilio auritus.
10. Vefpertilio murinus.
11. Vefpertilio Noftula.
12. Vefpertilio Serotinus.
13. Vefpertilio Pipiftrellus.
14. Vefpertilio Barbaftellus.
15. Vefpertilio hifpidus.
C. With

[ 3
C. With four foreteeth above, and eight below.
123. Striped Bat. 16. Vefpertilio piftus.
124. Reddifh Striped Bat. j3. V. piftus rubellus,
D. With two foreteeth above, and fix below.
125. SenegalBat. 17. Vefpertilio nigritia.
E. With two foreteeth above, and four below; Bull-dog Bat 18. Vefpertilio MolofTus.
126. Greater Bull-dog Bat. a. V. Mololfus major.
127. Lcffer Bull-dog Bat. 13. V. MolofTus minor.
F. With.two foreteeth above, and none below.
128. Cephalote. 19. Vefpertilio Cephalotes; isg. Straw-coloured Cephalote. (3.V.Cephalotesmelinus,
G. With no foreteeth above, and four below.
130. Purfe-winged Bat. 20. Vefpertilio lepturus. Horfe-fhoe Bat. 21. Vefpertilio ferrum-
131.LargerHorfe-fhoeBat, oc. V. ferrum-equinum
132. Leffer Horfe-fhoe Bat. £. V. ferrum-equinura
H. With no foreteeth in either jaw.
133* New-York Bat. 22. Vefpertilio novcboracen/is,
I. The teeth uncertain.
134. Broad-winged Bat. 23. Vefpertilio lafcopterusi
135. Broad-tailed Bat. 24. Vefpertilio lafiurus.
136. Claytons Bat. 25, Vefpertilio Americanus,
F Order

C 62 ]
Order II.BRUT A.
Genus v.
137- Ai-
138. Unau.
139. Five-toed Sloth.
140. Two-toed Ant-eater.
141. Three-toed Ant-eater.
142. Great Ant-eater.
143. Short-nofed Great
144. Tamandua.
145. Five-toed Ant-eater.
146. Little Tamanoir.
J47. Cape Ant-eater.
1. Bradypus tridaftylus.
2. Bradypus dida&ylus.
3. Bradypus pentadaftylus.
us vi..
1. Myrmecophaga dida&yla.
2.Mvrmecophaga tridaftyla,
3. Myrmecophaga jubata. -(3. M. jubata fima.
4. Myrmecophaga tetra-
5. Myrmecophaga penta-
/3. M. pendaftyla minor-
6. Myrmecophaga capenfis.
Genus vii.
148. Pangolin,
149. Phatagin,
1. Manis pentadaQyla. Manis tetrada&yla.

150. Apara. 1
1.51. Fourbanded Armadillo. : 152. Encouberto. ;
l£3.SevenbandedArmadillo. <
155. NinebandedArmadillo. ( i 56. Leverian Armadillo.
157. Kabaffou.
158. Largeft Armadillo,
159. Cirquin9on. 1
iGo.Long-tailedArmadillo. 1
161 .One-hornedRhinoceros
162.Two-hornedRhinoceros 2
163. Javan Sukotyro. 1
164. Great Elephant. 1
165. American Elephant. 1
. Dafypus tricinftus.
:. Dafypus quadricinftus. j. Dafypus fexcin&us.
[. Dafypus feptemcinftus. 5. Dafypus oftocinftus. i. Dafypus novemcinftus. |3. D. novemcinftus leverianus.
. Dafypus duodecem-cin&us.
. Dafypus maximus.
1 Dafypus novemdeCem- cinftus.
>. Dafypus longicaudatus.-
1 ix.
1. Rhinoceros unicornis.
. Rhinoceros bicornis.
i x.
. Sukotyro indicus.
.. Elephas maximus.
:. Elephas americanus.

[ 6* ]
Genus xii.
1, Trichechus Rofmarus.
2. Trichechus Dugon.
166. Morfe.
167. Dugon.
Fifh-tailed Walrus.
J 68. Lamentin.
169. Manati.
170. Sea-ape.
3. Trichechus Manatus.
a. T. Manatus auftralis. (3. T. Manatus borealis, y. T, Manatus Siren.
Order III.F E R - 171.
177. 378.
Urtine Seal. Bottle-nofed Seal, Maned Seal.
Common Seal.
Bothnic Common Seal. Siberian Common Seal. Cafpian Common Seal.
Hooded Seal. Swartfide.
Newfoundland Seal. Klapmus.
Great Ssal.
P H 0 C A.
Phoca urfina.,..
Phoca leonina,
Phoca jubata.
Phoca vitulina.
(3. P. vitulina botnica. y. P. vitulina fibirica.
P. vitulina cafpica.
5. Phoca monachus.
6. Phoca groenlandica.
j3. P. groenlandica niger.
7. Phoca hifpida.
|3. P. hifpida quadrata.
8. Phoca criftata.
9. Phoca barbata.

C 65 ]
85. Little Seal. 10. Phoca pufilla.
U6. Chilefe Seal. n. Phoca chilenfis.
87. Long-necked Seal. 12. Phoca mutica.
88. Falkland Seal. 13. Phoca auftralis.
189. Parfons Seal. 14. Phoca teftudo.
190. Harnefled Seal. 15. Phoca fafciata. '[91. Wooly Seal. 16. Phoca laniger.
92. Speckled Seal. 17. Phoca pun&ata.
93. Spotted Seal. 18. Phoca maculata.
94. Black Seal. 19. Phoca nigra.
G e N- u s xiv.
DOG. Faithful Dog.
195. Shepherds Dog
196. Pomeranian Dog.
197. Siberian Dog.
198. Iceland Dog.
199. Great Water Dog.
200. Lefler Water Dog.
201. Pyrame.
*. King Charless Spaniel.
**. French Pyrame,
202. Spaniel.
203. Shock Dog.
204. Lion Dog.
205. Little Danifh Dog.
206. Baftard Pug Dog.
1. Canis familiaris.
a. Canis domefticus.-(3. Canis pomeranus. y. Canis fibericus.
Canis illandicus.
E. Canis aquaticus major. £. Canis aquaticus minor. n. Canis brevipilis.
*. C. brevip. regalis,
**. C, brevip. gallicus*
9. Canis extrarius.
1. Canis rnelitaeus.
*. Canis leoninus.
A. Canis variegatus*
/i, Canis hybrids
3. 207

[ 66 ]
207. Pug £>og. v.
a. Artois Dog.
b. Alicant Dog.
208. Bull Dog. f.
209. Mafliff. 0.
210. German Hound. w.
211. Hound.
212. Blood Hound.
214. Pointer.
215. Barbet.
216. Greyhound
217. Irifti Grey-hound 4'-
218. Turkilh Grey-hound. a.
219. Common Grey-hound.a.
220. Rough Grey-hound. (3/3.
221. Italian Grey-hound. 77,
222. Oriental Greyhound. **.
223. Naked Dog.
224. Lurcher. ee.
225. Rough Lurcher. tg.
226. Boar Lurcher. w.. Turnfpit. SS.
228. Crook-legged Turnfpi t.
229. Shaggy Turnfpit.
Alco. it.
231. Techici.
532. New-Holland Dog. 2,
Canis fricator.
a. C. fricator gallicus.
b. C. fricator hifpanicus.-Canis Moloffus.
Canis anglicus.
Canis fagax.
Canis gallicus.
Canis fcoticus.
Canis venaticus.
Canis avicularis.
Canis aquatilis.
Canis curforius.
C. cur'forius hibernicus. C. curforius turcicus. Canis Grajus C. Grajus hirfutus.
C. Grajus italicus.
C. Grajus orientalis; Canis aegyptius.
Canis Laniarius.
C. Laniarius aprinus.
C. Laniarius fuillus. Canis Vertegus,
a. C. Vertegus reftus.
b. C. Vertegus valgus.
c. C. Vertegus villofus. Canis americanus.
a. C. americanus obefus
b. C.americanusplancus. Canis antarticus,

C 67 ]
233. Wolf.
234. Yellow Wolf,
235. White Wolf.
236. Black Wolf.
237. Striped Wolf.
238. Mexican Wolf.
233. White Mexican Wolf. 240. Surinam Wolf.
£41. Striped Hyaena.
242. Abyflinian Hyaena.
243. Spotted Hyaena.
244. Jackal.
245. Cape Jackal.
246. Barbary Jackal.
247. Black Fox.
248. Common Fox.
Brant Fox.
249. American Brant Fox.
250. Coal Fox.
251. Corfac Fox.
252. Karagan.
253. Silvery Fox.
254. Grey Fox.
Arftic Fox.
255. White Arftic Fox.
256. Bluifh Arftie Fox.
257. Crofs Fox.
3. Canis Lupus.
a. C. Lupus flavus.
/3. C. Lypus albus.
C. Lupus niger.
e. C. Lupus fafciatus.
4. Can. Lupus mexicanus. /3. C.Lupusmexic. albus.
5. Can. Lupus Thous.
6. Canis Hyaena..
7. C. Hyaena,lethiopicus.
8. C. Hyaena Crocuta.
9. Canis aureus.
10. Canis Mefomelas.
11. Canis Adive.
12. C. Vulpes Lycaon.
13. C. Vulpes vulgaris,
14. C. Vulpes Alopex.
a. C. Vulp. Alopex
(3. C. Vulp. Alopex. europaeas.
15. C. Vulpes Corfac.
16. C. Vulpes Karagan.
17. C. Vulpes cinereo-
18. C. Vulpes virgtnianus.
19. C. Vulpes Lagopus.
a. C. Vulp. Lagop. albus. /3. C. Vulp. Lagop. ceru-lefcens.
20. C. Vulpes cruciger.

258. Chilefe Fox.
259. Antartic Fox. 2C0. Zerda.
21. C. Vulpes chilenlis.
22. C. Vulpes auftralis.
23. Canis Cerdo.
Genus xv.
* With long tails, and plain ears.
261. Lion.
262. Tiger.
263. Panther.
264. Ounce.
265. Leopard.
266. Leffer Leopard*
267. Jaguar.
268. Ocelot.
269. Guepard.
270. Jaguarete.
271. Puma.
272. Couguar.
273. Margay.
274. Mexican Tigcr-cat.
275. Bengal Tiger-cat.
276. Cape Tiger-cat.
277. Manul.'
278. Serval.
Common Cat.
279. Wild Cat.
280. Domeftic Cat.
281. Angora Cat.
1. Felis Leo.
2. Felis Tigris.
3. Felis Pardus.
4. Felis Uncia.
5. Felis Leopardus.
6. Felis Leopardalis.
7. Felis Onca.
8. Felis Pardalis.
9. Felis jubata.
10. Felis difcolor.
11. Felis concolor.
12. Felis Couguar.
13. Felis dgrina.
14. Felis mexicana.
15. Felis bengalenfis.
16. Felix capenfis.
17. Felis Manul.
18. Felis Serval.
19* Felis Catus.
a. F. Catus ferus.
|3. F. Catus domefticus.;, y. F. Catus angoreniis.

[ 69 3
282. Tortoifefhell Cat.
283. Blue Cat.
284. Red Cat.
285. Chinefe Cat.
286. Lor.g-headed Cat.
J1. F. Catus hifpanicus.
e. F. Catus caeruleus.
f. F. Catus ruber.
>}. F. Catus finenfis.
S. F. Catus aureus.
i. F. Catus madagaf-carenfis;
With Ihort tails, and pencilled ears.
288. Cafpian Lynx.
289. Mountain Lynx, "go. Perfian Lynx.
291. Bengal Lynx*
292. Booted Lynx.
293. Barbary Lynx.
294. Common Lynx,
295. White Lynx.
296. Yellow Lynx.
297. Thibet Lynx.
298. Canadian Lynx.-
299. American Lynx.
1. Lynx Chaus.
2. Lynx montana#
3. Lynx Caracal.
4. Lynx bengalenlia.
5. Lynx nubienfis.
6. Lynx lybienfis.
7. Lynx vulgaris.
/3. Lynx vulg. alba.
y. Lynx vulg. melina.
J. Lynx vulg. maculata.
8. Lynx canadenfis.
9. Lynx rufa.
Genus xvi.
300. Egyptian Ichneumon.
301. Indian Ichneumon.
302. Cafrarian Ichneumon. 3. Viverra cafra.
303. African Ichneumon. 4. Viverra Nems. 34> Zenik. j. Viverra Zenik.
1. Viverra Ichneumon;
2. Viverra Mungo.

[ 7 1
305. Suvikate. go6, Coati.
307. Coati-mondi.
308. Coafle.
309. Quasje.
31b. Striped Skunk. 311. White Skunk, g 12. Conepatl.
313. Zorilla.
314. Mapurito.
315. Grifon.
316. Ceylon Fitchet.
317. Cape Fitchet.
3i3. Civet.
3ig. Zibet.
321. Spanifh Genet.
322. St. Germains Genet.
323. Leverian Genet.
324. Foflane.
325. Bizaam,
326. Poto.
327. Kinkajou.
328. Ratel.
329. Striped Fitchet,
330. Malayan Fitchet.
301. Spotted Fitchet.
6. Viverra telradaftyla;
7. Viverra nafua.
8. Viverra narica.
g. Viverra vulpecula.
10. Viverra Quasje.
11. Viverra Putoritfs.
12. Viverra Mephitis.
13. Viverra Conepatl.
14. Viverra Zorilla.
15. Viverra Mapurito.
16. Viverra vittata.-
17. Viverra zeylanica.
18. Viverra capentis.
19. Viverra Civetta.
20. Viverra Zibetha,
21. Viverra hermaphrodita
22. Viverra Genetta.
23. Viverra galtica.
24. Viverra annulata.
25. Viverra Fofla.
26. Viverra tigrina.
27. Viverra caudivolvuta.
28. Viverra prehenfilis.
29. Viverra mellivora.
30. Viverra fafciata.
31. Viverra malaccenfis.
32. Viverra maculata.

[ 71 3
Genus xvii, WEASEL. MU ST EL A. Divided into
332. Sea Otter.
333. Brafilian Otter.
334. Saricovienne.
335. Chilefe Otter.
336. Common Otter.
337. Canadian Otter.
338. Lefler Otter.
339. Cayenne Otter.
340. Minx.'
341. Tayr?.
342. Galera.
343. Vanfire.
344. Pekan.
345. Vifon.
346. Common Martin.
347. Pine Martin.
348. Guiana Martin.
349. Cayenne Martin.
350. Sable.
351. White Sable.
352. American Sable,
353. Black Sable.
354. Polecat.
355- Ferret.
LUT Rs£.
1. Lutra Lutris.
2. Lutra brafilienfis.
3. Lutra paraguenfis;
4. Lutra chilenfis.
5. Lutra pifcatoria.
6. Lutra canadenfis.
7. Lutra fulva.
8. Lutra guianenfis.
9. Lutra Minx.
1. Muftela barbara.
2. Muftela Galera.
3. Muftela afra.
4. Muftela canadenfis.
5. Muftela Vifon.
6. Muftela Foina.
7. Muftela Martes.
8. Muftela guianenfis.
.9. Muftela laniger.
*0. Muftela Zibellina.
|3. M. Zibellina alba;
11. M. Zibellina americana.
12. M. Zibellina nigra.
13. Muftela Putoria,
14. Muftela Furo.

356. Sarmatian Weafel.
357. Siberian Weafel. Ermine.
358. Stoat.
' 359- White Ermine.
360. Common Weafel.
361. Snow Weafel.
362. Yellow Weafel.
363. Chllcfe Weafel.
BEAR. Common Bear.
364. Black Bear.
365. Brown Bear.
366. Grey Bear.
367. Variegated Bear.
368. White Bear.
369. Polar Bear.
370.. American Bear.
371. Sand Bear.
372. Common Badger. 373* White Badger.
374. Spotted Badger.
375. American Badger.
376. Indian Badger.
377. Racoon.
378. White Racoon,
379. Wolverene.
380. Glutton.
381. White Glutton.
15. Muftela farmatica.
16. Muftela fibirica.
17. M,uftela Erminea.
a. M. Erminea aeftiva, £?. M.Erminea hyberna,
18. Muftela vulgaris.
(3. M. vulg. nivalis.
19. Muftela melina.
20. Muftela Quiqui,
s xviii.
1. Urfus Arftos.
a. U. Arftos niger.
/3. U. Arftos fufcus. y. U. Arftos grifeus.
U. Arftos variegatus,
1. U. Arftos albus,
2. Urfus maritimus.
3. Urfus americanus.
4. Urfus tetradaftylus.
5. Urfus Meles.
0. U. Meles alba. y. U. Meles maculata.
6. Urfus labradorius,
7. Urfus indicus.
8. Urfus Lotor.
0. U. Lotor melinus.
9. Urfus lufcus.
10. Urfus Gulo.
U, Gulo albus.

C 73 ]
Gesds xix.
382. Amboina Opoffum.
383. Brafilian Opoffum.
384. Sarigue.
385. Molucca Opoffum.
, 386. Virginian OpolTum.
387. Cayopollin.
388. Murine OpolTum.
389. Guiana OpolTum.
390. Surinam OpolTum.
391. Cayenne OpolTum.
392. New-HollandOpoffum,
393. Short-tailed OpolTum
394. Oriental OpolTum. 395* Javan Opoffum.
397. Phillips Opoffum,
398. Vulpine Opoffum.
399. Spotted Opoffum,
400. Flying Opoffum.
European Mole.
4m. Black Mole.
402. Variegated Mole.
403. White Mole,
404. Grey Mole.
. -C K
1. Didelphis maTfupialis. .
2. Didelphis Philander*
3. Didelphis Opoffum.
4. Didelphis molucca.
5. Didelphis virginiana,
6. Didelphis Cayopollin.
7. Didelphis murina.
8. Didelphis guianenfis,
9. Didelphis dorfigera,
10. Didelphis cancrivora.
11. Didelphiscaudivolvula^
12. Didelphis brachyura,
13. Didelphis orientalis.
14. Didelphis Brunii.
15. Didelphis gigantea.
16. Didelphis tridaftyla.
17. Didelphi-s vulpecula,
18. Didelphis maculata.
19. Didelphis volans.
1. Talpa europaea.
a. Talpa europ. nigra.
|3. Talpa europ. variegata, y. Talpa europ. alba. Talpa europ. cinerea.
Genus xx.

C 7-4 ]
405. American Mole.,
406. Crefted Mole.
407. Long-tailed Mole.
408. Brown Mole.
409. Red Mole.
410. Gilded Mole.
Minute Shrew.
412, Mufky Shrew.
413. Water Shrew,
4-14. Javan Shrew.
415. Fetid Shrew.
416. Labradore Shrew.
417. Grey Labradore Shrew,
418. Surinam Shrew.
419. Timid Shrew.
420. Brafilian Shrew.
421. Pigmy Shrew.
422. Blue Shrew.
423. Mexican Shrew.
424. White-footed Shrew.
425. Square-tailed Shrew,
426. Carinated Shrew.
427. Uniform Shrew.
2. Talpa flava.
3. Talpa oriftala.
4. Talpa longicaudata*
5. Talpa fufca.
6. Talpa rubra.
7. Talpa aurea.
' S xxi,
1. Sorex minutus.
2. Sorex mofchatus.
. 3. Sorex fodiens.
4. Sorex murinus.
5.. Sorex Araneus.
6. Sorex arfticus.
P. Sorex ar£t. cinereus,
7. Sorex furinam?nfis
8. Sorex pufillus.
g. Sorex brafiliepfis.
10. Sorex exilis.
11. Sorex cerulaeus.
12. Sorex mexicanus.
-13. Sorex albipes.
14. Sorex quadricaudatus.
15. Sorex liricaudatus.
-J6. Sorex uhicolor.
;G situs

L 75 1
Genus xxii.
428. Common Urchin,
429. Guiana Urchin,
430. Malacca Urchin",
431. Siberian Urchin.
432. Tendrac.
433. Tanrec.
1. Erinaceus europaeus.-
2. Erinaceus inauris.
3. Erinaceus malaccenfis'.
4. Erinaceus auritus.
5. Erinaceus fetofus.
6. Erinaceus ecaudatus.
Order IV.G LI RE S.
Genus xxiii.
Crefted Porcupine
434. Italian Porcupine.
435. Indian Porcupine, Brafilian Porcupine, 2.
436. Larger Brafilian
437. LetTer Brafilian
438. Mexican Porcupine. 3.,
439. Canadian Porcupine. 4,
440. White Canadian
441. Long-tailed Porcupine. 5
442. Brawny Porcupine.
Hyftrix criftata.
, H. criftata europaea>.
PI, criftata indica. Hyftrix prehenfilis.
<*. H. prehenfilis major.
|9. H. prehenfilis minor.
Hyftrix mexicana, Hyftrix dorfata.
(1. H. dorfata alba.
. Hyftrix macroura,.
|3. Hyftiix torofa.

[ 7<5 3
Genus xxjv,
443* Paca l. Cavia Paca.
444. White Paca. |3. C. Paca alba..
445. Akoucby. s. Cavia Acufchy.
Agouti. 3.- Cavia Agouti.
446. Leffer Agouti, a. C. Agouti cunicularis,
447. Larger Agouti. (3. C. Agouti leporina.
448. American Agouti, y, C. Agouti americana.
449. Aperea. .. 4. Cavia Aperea.
450. Black Aperea, (3. C. Aperea nigra,
451. Cobaya. 5,. Cavia C-obaya.
452. Patagonian Cavy. 6. Cavia Magellanica.
453. Capib.ara. 7. Cavia Capybara,
Genus xxv.
454. Common Beaver. 1. Caflor Fiber.
455. White Beaver. a. C. Fiber albus.
4>;6. Terrier Beaver. |3. C. Fiber folitarius.,
457. Chilefe Beaver. 2. Caftor huidobrius,
Genus xxvi.
458. Webbed Beaver-rat. j. Myocaftor Coypus.
459. Mufquafh, 2, Myocaflor zibethieus;

[ 77 ]
Subdivided into + Myofuri.Having, naked round tails.
460. White Piloris-.-
461. Black Piloris.
462. Caraco.
463. American Rat.-
464.. Brown Rat.
465. Black Rat.
466. Small Rat.
467.' Common Moufe.
468. Varieties of the Com.
469. Field Moufe.
470. White Field Moufe;
471. Harveft Moufe.
472. Ruftic Moufe.
470 i American Ruftic Moufe.
474. Minute Moufe.
475. Yellow Minute Moufe;
476. Shrew-like Moufe.
477. Wandering- Moufe.
478. Beech Moufe.
479. Dwarf M-oufe,
480. Striped Moufe.
481. Cherofo.
482. Barbary Moufe.
483. Mexican Moufe,
. Mus Pilorides. a. M. Pilorides albiduS*. (2. M. Pilorides fulvu-s.
. Mus Caraco.
. Mus americanus.-. Mus decumanus.
. Mus Rattus.
/2. M. Rattus Minor.
. Mus Mufculus.
(S. My Mufculi vatietates;.
7. Mus fylvaticus.
/3. M. fylvaticus albus.- .
8. Mus mefforius.-
9. Mus agrarius.
(3. M. agrarius americanus.-
o. Mus minutus.
M. minutus flavus.-
11. Mus foricinus. .
12. Mus vagus.
13. Mus betulinus.-
14. Mus pumili.o.
15* Mus ftriaiu'V
/3. Mus mofchatus-.-
16. Mus barbarus.
17. Mus mcxicanus.
G 3 It Cuniculariir

[ 78 3
++ Cunicularii.Having hairy round tails..
18. Mus virginianus.
484. Virginian Moufe.
485. Rock Moufe.
48,6. Blue Moufe.
487. Water Rat.
488. Meadow Water Rat.
489. Marfh Water Rat.
490. Black Water Rat."
491. Spotted Water Rat.
492. Garlic Moufe.
493.. Red Moufe..
494. Lelfer Red Moufe.
495. Gregarious Moufe.
496. Economic Moufe.
497.. Laland Moufe.
498. Woolly Moufe,
499. Meadow Moufe.
500. Blackifh Meadow-
501. Social Moufe.
502. Rambling Moufe.
503. Collared Moufe,
504. Lemming.
505. Siberian Lemming.
506. Labradore Moufe.
507. Lena -Moufe. :
508. Kamtfohatca Moufe.
19. Mus faxatilis.
20. Mus cyanus.
21. Mus amphibius.
/?. M. amphib. terreftris. y. M. amphib. paludofus. Ji M. amphib-, niger.
e. M* amphib. maculatus.
22. Mus aliarius.
23. Mus rutilus.
P. M. rutilus minor.
24. Mus gregalis..
25. Mus oeconomus..
|3. Mus glareolus.
26. Mus laniger.
27. Mus arvalis.
(3. M, arvalis nigricans.
128. Mus facialis.
25. Mus lagurus.
30. Mus torquatus,
31. Mus Lemmus.
|3. M, Lemmus fibiricus.
32. Mus hudfonius.
33. Mus lenae.
34. Mus Tfchelag.

C 79 3
509. Siberian Hamfter,
510. German Hamfter..
511. Black German
512. Sand Hamfter.
513. Rice Hamfter,
314. Songar Hamfter.
515. Baraba Hamfter^
516. Ruffian Mole-rat-
517. Black Ruffian
518. Cape Mole-rat-
519. African Mole-rat.
520. Daurian Mole-rat-
521. Blind Mole-rat.
522. Common Marmot.
523. Monax.
524. Bobak.
525. Canadian Marmot.
526. Hoary Marmot.
527. Souflik.
528. Zifel.
529. Zemni.
530. Gundi.
531. Hudfons Marmot. 53a, Chilefe Marmot.
1. Cricetus Acredula.
2-. Cricetus germanicus.
/?. Cricetus german, niger.
3. Cricetus arenarius.
4. Cricetus phaeus..
5. Cricetus Songarus.
6.. Cricetus Furunculus-
1. Myotalpa talpina,
0. Myotalpa talpina nigra*
2v Myotalpa capenfis.
3.. Myotalpa maritima.
4. Myotalpa Afpalax.
5. Myotalpa Typhia.
1. Ar&omys Marmota-
2. Ar&omys Monax.
3. Ar&omys Bobac.
4. Arftomys Empetra.
5. Ar&omys pruinofa.
6. Arftomys Suflica.
7. Ar&omys Citillus.
8. Arftojnys Zemni.
9. Arftomys Gundi.
10. Arftomys hudfonia.
11, Arftomys maulina.-
G E NttS-

[ 80 3
Genus xxviir.
Divided into
* Climbing Squirrels. SCIURI SCANDENTES.
Which have no fl
Common Squirrel.
533. Red Common Squirrel.
534. White-tailed Common
535. Varying Common
536. Black Commorv
537.. White Common. Squirrel..
538. Silvery Common
539. White-leggedSquirrel.
540. Black Squirrel.
541. Whiie-nofed Black.
542. Vulpine Squirrel.
543. White Vulpine
544. Grey Squirrel.
545. Labradore Squirrel. 546: Carolina Squirrel.
547. Virginian Squirrel.
548. Perlian Squirrel.
ying membranes.
1. Sciurus vulgaris.
a. S. vulgaris rufus.
P. S. vulgaris leucourus,
y. S. vulgaris- varius,
S. vulgaris niger.
e. S. vulgaris albus..
£. S. vulgaris argenteus.
2. Sciurus albipes.
3. Sciurus niger.
(3. S. niger albiroltro..
4. Sciurus vulpinus.
S. vulpinus albus,.
5. Sciurus cinereus.
6. Sciurus hudfonius..
7. Sciurus carolinenfis:
8. Sciurus virginianus..
9. Sciurus perficus.

[ ft 3
549.. Georgian Squirrel.
550. Javan Squirrel.
551. Ruddy Squirrel.
552. Ceylon Squirrel.
553. Malabar Squirrel.
554. Abyflinian Squirrel.
555. Bombay Squirrel.
556. Fair Squirrel.
557. Palm Squirrel.
5-58. Barbary Squirrel.
559. Plaintain Squirrel. Ground Squirrel.
560. Afiatic Ground
561. American Ground
562. Brafilian Squirrel.
563. Striped Brafilian
564. Carnatic Squirrel.
565. Varied Squirrel. 566.SmallerVariedSquirrel
567. Chilefe Squirrel.
568. Mexican Squirrel.
569. American Squirrel.
570. Guiana Squirrel.
571. Cayenne Squirrel.
572. Madagafcar Squirrel,
573. Cape Squirrel.
10. Sciurus anomalus.
11. Sciurus bicolor.
12. Sciurus erythraeus,
13. Sciurus macrourus.
34. Sciurus maximus.
15. Sciurus aby {finicus,
16. Sciurus indicus.
17. Sciurus flavus.
i'S. Sciurus palmarum. ic^. Sciurus getulus.
20. Sciurus Badjing. it. Sciurus ftriatus.
. S. ftriatus afiaticus.
- I 1 vi
S. ftriatus ameri-: canus.' .'i' .oSj
22. Sciurus aeffiuans.
|9> S. aeftuans fafeiatuj.
23. Sciurus dfchinfchicus.
24. Sciurus variegatus.
/3. S. variegatus minor..
25. Sciurus Degus.
26. Sciurus mexicanus..
27. Sciurus fcrotalis.
28. Sciurus bancrofti.
29. Sciurus guajanenfis.
30. Sciurus madagafcarenfts.
31.. Sciurus capenfis.

[ 8* ]
** FLYIN'G-SQUIRRELS. petaurt.
Have an extended flying membrane,
574. American Flying- 1. Petaurus volucella;
575. Virginian Flying- 2. Petaurus virginianus.
£76, Labradore Flying- 3. Petaurus hudfonius. Squirrel.
577. European Flyings 4. Petaurus volans.
578. Java Flying-Squirrel. 5. Petaurus fagitta. Indian!Flying-9quirrel.6. Petaurus petaurifla.
579. Red Indian Flying- . P. petaurifla cafta-
Squirrel, neus. ,
580. Black Indian Flying- jS. P. petaurifla niger.
581. Southern Flying- 7, Petaurus auftralis.
58?. Phillips Flying- 8. Petaurus norfoiccnfis.
Genus xxix.
583. Hoary Dormoufe. 1. Myoxus Glis.
584. Wood Dormoufe. 2. Myoxus Dryas.
585. Garden Dormoufe. 3. Myoxus Nitela.
586. Common Dormoufe. 4. Myoxus Mufcardinus.-

C 3 3
;G F. N U S XXX.
537. Common Jerboa. 1. 588. Arabian Jerboa. 2.
A. Egyptian Jerboa. A
B. Siberian Jerboa. B
539. Great Siberian Jerboa. 59P. MiddleSiberianJerboa. 59i.SmallerSiberian Jerboa. 592. Pigmy Siberian Jerboa. 393. Cape Jerboa. 3.
594. Cafpian Jerboa. 4.
595. Marfh Jerboa. 5.
596. Labradore Jerboa. 6.
597. Circadian Jerboa. 7.
D I P U S..
Dipus jaculus.
Dipus fagitta.
.Dipus aegyptius.
. Dipus fibiricus.
a. D. fibiricus major.
b. D. fibiricus medius.'
c. D. fibiricus minor.
d. D. fibiricus pumilio; Dipus cafer.
Dipus meridianus. Dipus tamaricinus. Dipus labradqrius. Dipus circafiicus.
Genus xxxi.
* With .fhort tails.
.598. Peruvian Hare. ^599. Common Hare. 600. Horned Common Hare.
6ot, Yellow Common Hare.
602. Varying Hare.
603. Spurious Varying
1. Lepus Vifcaccia.
2. Lepus timidus.
(3. L. timidus cornutus.
y. L. timidus melinus.
3. Lepus variabilis.
#. L. variabilis hybridus*

604. Black Hare.
605. American Hare.
606. Baikal Hafe.
607. Chilefe Hare.
608. Cape Hare.
609. Wild Rabbit.
|6io. Black Tame Rabbit.
611. White Tame Rabbit.
.tontpn rv 1 i-
612. Pied Tame Rabbit.
613. Silvery Tame Rabbit,
614. Hooded Rabbit.
615. Angora Rabbit.
4. Lepus niger.
5. Lepus americanus.
6. Lepus Tolai.
7. Lepus minimus.
8. Lepus capenfis.
9. Lepus Cuniculus.
a. L. Cuniculus ferus. ft L. Cuniculus domef-ticus niger. y. L. Cuniculus domef* ticus albus.
L. Cuniculus domed, variegatus. t, L. Cuniculus domeft. argenteus.
10. Lepus faccatus.
11. Lepus fericeus.
1 Having no tails.
Brafilian Hare. Calling Hare. Mountain Hare. Ogotona Hare.
12. Lepus brafilienfis.
13. Lepus pufillus.
14. Lepus alpinus.
15. Lepus Ogotona.
Genus xxxii. ASHKOKO. HYRAX.
Cape Afhkoko; Syrian Afhkoko.
1. Hyrax capenfis.
2, Hyrax fyriaCus.

C 85 ]
Order V.-
622. Arabian Camel.
623. Swift Camel.
624. Ba&rian Camel.
625. Mixed Camel.
626. Glama.
627. Guanaco.
628. Chillihueque,
629. Vicugna.
630. Pacos.
631. Thibet Mufk.
632. Indian Mufk.
633. Pigmy Mufk.
634. Striped Pigmy Mufk.
635. Memina,
636. Javan Mufk.
637. Brafilian Mufk.
638. Formofan Mufk,
s xxxiii.
1. Camelus Dromedarius.
0. Camelus dromos.
2. Camelus battrianus,
Camelus hybridus.______
3. Camelus Glama.
4. Camelus Huanacus.
5. Camelus arcucanus,
6. Camelus Vicugna,
7. Camelus Paco.
s xxxiv.
1. Mofchus mofchiferus.
2. Mofchus indicus.
3. Mofchus pygmaeus.
|3. M. pygmaeus leve-
4. Mofchus Memina.
5. Mofchus javanicus.
6. Mofchus americanus.
7. Mofchus finenfis.

[ 86 ]
Genus xxxv.
* With palmated horns*
639. Elk. 1. Cervus Alee?.
640. Irifh Elk. |3. C. Alces ioffilis.
Rein Deer. 2. Cervus Tarandus.
641. Common Rein Deer. a.. C, Tarandus Rangifer. -642, Greenland Rein Deer. #. C. Tarandus groen-
643. Canadian Rein Deer. y. C. Tarandus Caribou.
644. Fallow Deer. 3. Cervus Dama.
** With rounded horns,
645. Stag. 4. Cervus Elaphus.
646. Maned Stag. £. C. Elaphus Hippela-
647. Corfican Stag. y. C. Elaphus corficanus.
648. Canadian Stag. C. Elaphus canadenfis.
649. Chinefe Stag. e. C. Elaphus minutus.
650. Virginian Deer. 5. Cervus virginianus. Axis. 6. Cervus Axis.
651. Spotted Axis. . C. Axis maculatus.
652. Middle Axis. /3. C. Axis unicolor.
653. White Axis. y. C. Axis albus.
654. Large Axis. C. Axis major.
655. Porcine Deer. 7. Cervus porcinus,
656. Spotted Porcine Deer. 0. C. porcinus maculatus.
657. Muntjac. 8. Cervus Muijtjac.
658. Roe. 9. Cervus Capreolus.

C 87 3
659. While Roe. /3. C. Capreolus albus.
660. Aha. 10. Cervus pygargus.
661. Mexican Deer. 11. Cervus mexicanus.
3 'I i\ ' .
*** Uncertain fpecies.
662. Tema-mafame.
663. Cuguacu-apara
664. Cuguacu-ete.
665. Biche des bois.
666. Biche des puletuviers.'
667. Mazame.
668. Cariacou.
669. Barallou Hind;
670. Wood Hind.
671. Savanna Hind.
672. Indian Deer.
673. Sauinaton.
674. Grey Deer.
675. Unknown Deer.
676. Camelopardalis.
677. Blue Antelope,
678. Lerwee.
679. Chamois.
a. Cervus Temama.
Cervus Cuguapara. y. Cervus Cuguete.
S. Cervus fylvaticus.
£. Cervus paludofus.
f. Cervus Mazame. n. Cervus Cariacou.
8. Cervus Barallou.
7i. Cervus nemorofus. x. Cervus pratenfts.
7\. Cervus indicus. f*. Cervus Squinaton, v. Cervus guineenfis. Cervus anomalus.
s xxxvi.
1. Camelopardalis GirafFaj
1. Antilope leucophaea,
2. Antilope Lcrwia.
3. Antilope Rupicapra.
2 660.

698. 6gg.
702. 73-74-7 5-
Perfian Antelope.
4. Antilope Dama.
5. Antilope redunca.
6. Antilope Tragocamelus.
7. Antilope pifta.
8. Afitilope Saiga.
9. Antilope gutturofa,
10. Antilope fubgutturofa.
White-faced Antelope.11. Antilope pygarga. Springer Antelope. 12. Antilope faltans.
Barbary Antelope. Kevel.
African Antelope. Algazel.
Wood Antelope. Condoma,
13-. Antilope -Dorcas...
14. Antilope Kevella.
15. Antilope Corinna.
16. Antilope Bubalis.
17. Antilope Koba,
18. Antilope Gnu.
19. Antilope Oryx.
20. Antilope Orebtragus,
21. Antilope Gazella.
22. Antilope Leucoryx.
23. Antilope Oreas.
24. Antilope fcripta.
25. Antilope Grimmia.
26. Antilope pygmaea.
27. Antilope fylvatica.
28. Antilope Strepficeros.
29. Antilope Cervicapra,

[ 89 ]
Genus xxxviii.
706. Wild Goaf.
707. Common Goat.
708. Angora Goat.
709. Syrian Goat.
710. African Goat.
711. Whidaw Goat,
712. Juda Goat.
713. Capricorn.
714. Cabonas Goat.
715. Ibex.
716. Caucaffan Goat.
1. Capra Aegagrus.
2. Capra Plircus.
3. Capra angorenfis.
4. Capra mambrica.
5. Capra deprelTa.
6. Capra reverfa.
7. Capra, nana,
8'. Capra Capricornis.
g. Capra tnutica.
10. Capra Ibex.
11. Capra caucafica.
Genus xxxix.
S I-I E E P.
Common Sheep. r. Ovis
717. Hornlefs Sheep. a. O.
718. Dwarf Sheep. (3. O.
719. Ruftic Sheep. y. O.
720. Spanifh Sheep. J O.
721. Many-horned Sheep. e.'O.
722. African Sheep. O.
723. Wattled Sheep. . O.
724. Broad-tailed Sheep. S. O.
725. Fat-rumped Sheep. t. O.
726. Buchanan Sheep. x. O.
727. Long-tailed Sheep, O.
0 V I S.
H 3
Aries. '
Aries anglica. Aries nana.
Aries ruftica.
Aries hifpanica. Aries polycerata. Aries africana. Aries guineenfis. Aries laticaudata. Aries fleatopvga. Aries bucharica. Aries longi cauda ta.

[ 9 ]
728. Cape Sheep.
729. Bearded Sheep.
730. Morvant.
731. Cretan Sheep*.
732. Argali.
733. Corfican Argali.
734. Pudu.
O X.
Common Ox.
A. Wild Ox.
735. Urus.
736. Bonafus.
737. Bifon.-
B. Domeftic Ox.
738. European Ox.
739. Indian Ox.
740. Zebu.
741. Surat Ox.
742. Abyffinian Ox.
743. Boury.
744. Tinian Ox.
745. Lanl.
746. Arnee.
747. American Bifon.
/*. O. Aries capenfis. v. O. Aries barbata.
f. O. Aries jubata.
2. Ovis Strepficeros.
3. Ovis Ammon.
/?. O. Ammon europaea.
4. Ovis Pudu.
u s xl.
B 0 S.
1. Bos Taurus.
A. B. Taurus ferus.
a. B. Taurus Urus.
|3. B. Taurus Bonafus.
y. B. Taurus Bifon.
B. B. Taurus domeflicus.
B. Taurus europaeus.
e. B. Taurus indicus
f. B. Taurus indicus
minor, ij. B. Taurus indicus minimus.
S. B. Taurus abeflinicus. >. B. Taurus madagafca-renfis. x, B. Taurus tiriiane'nfis. A. B. Taurus afrieanus.
2. Bos Arnee.
3. Bos americanus.

[ 91 ]
748. Mufk Ox.
749. Grunting Ox.
750. Ghainouk.
751. Sarlyk.
752. HornlefsGrunting Ox
753. Buffalo.
754. Naked Buffalo.
755. Anoa.
756. Guavera.
757. Cape Ox.
758. Baas.
759. Dwarf Ox.
4. Bos mofchatus.
5. Bos gruniens.
/3 B. gruniens Ghainouk. y. B. gruniens Sarlyk.
S'. B. gruniens ecornis.
6. Bos Bubalus.
/S. B. Bubalus feminudus. y. B. Bubalus Anoa.
S'. B. Bubalus Guavera.
7. Bos caffer.
8. Bos barbatus.
9. Bos pumilus.
Order V-I.B E L L U A.
Genus xli.
HORSE. Common Horfe.
760. Wild Horfe.
761. Domeftic Horfe.
762. Dfhikketai.
763. Onager.
764. Domeftic Afs.
765. Mule.
766. Bardeau.
767. Zebra.
7G8. Hibrid Zebra.
769. Quacha.
770. Chilefe Horfe, .
1. Equus Caballus.
. E. Caballus ferus.
E. Caballus domefticus.
2. Equus Hemionus.
3. Equus Afinus.
a. E. Afinus ferus.
/?. E. Afinus domefticus, y. Afinus Mulus.
E. Afinus Hinnus.
4. Equus Zebra.
(3. E. Zebra livbridus.
5. Equus Quagga.
6. Equus bifulcus.

C 92 ]
Gek us xlii.
771. Amphibious Hippopotamus.
T A P I R>
'772. American Tapir.
H O G.
Common Hog./
773. Wild Hog.
774. Domeftic Hog.
775. Single-hoofed Hog.
776. Chinefe Hog.
777. Guinea Hog.
778. Siam Hog.
779. Pecary.
780. Leffer Pecaiy.
781. Patira.
782. African Hog.
783. Engallo,
784. Babyroufla.
1. Hippopotamus amphi-bius.
1, Tapir Americanus.
s xliv.
S U S.
1. Sus Scrofa.
a. S. Scrofa ferus.
(S. S. Scrofa domefticus. y. S. Scrofa domefticus unifulcus.
J. S. Scrofa domefticus finenfis.
2. Sus Porcus.
|3. S. Porcus fiamenfis.
3. Sus Tajaflu.
P. S. Tajaflu minor. y. S. Tajaflu Patira.
4. Sus africanus.
5. Sus aethiopicus.
6. Sus Babyruffa.
Genus xliii.