SOAS Centre for Music Studies musical instrument inventory, Fall 1997

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
SOAS Centre for Music Studies musical instrument inventory, Fall 1997
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
O'Sullivan, Brendan M.
Publication Date:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis- University of Florida
System ID:
AA00013035:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
- `- I -, --,_ -,-Ii_,-- j- I -yWQ4vWWWW S,_MQ 1 -r- -Y"Q ".
,,- ,,,, ,I !, .'-,', `-_ .1 I 4 -,:, 4'-' W ,
"I __ 1 .1- 'I-.. -,-, I ,
11, 11 I 1114, 1 I 'I" .- _XW U, W
'A.- r ,n, v ",'-, ;O --- ii, ,: 111__111 ,_ 7iw _, --- ,,it-,- A,,
I,, ., ,_ -, ,, e. 1, '7 -jv t"W A. W 1 MW -a QQ._ Q KO'S mxr--VM 0 St-li-,ml,,,- 4,.,,. __`_%'-,'- ,,,,,;, 1 ,,
__ A "py- p '- -,,_, ''
= -;,, ,,, I 11 4, i k -- ,. ,
ou I P," A -4 -Qu ,- &I -1, ,-. 11 %, 1_ I I t -". I n 1 Q-&Q, A7 xo"--,
W M R74"Am I,- Q A vv''J` ill I ,'. ., --', Z ,
1111;1111, o I ,_ 11 -,,.,,-.,,-,.,,,,,."".-, -, ,
-,,,, _-,,,-?-.-,!,'; j,":- ,; -1, -, ", -,-- -_ '_- --i I'., ...-'( I ., ,", ,4, 1, -_ -
, evil IAWA;Ai,. f,'__ W --,`---_`-, -,-,_ ". I, "'. ,
11 "Wn- J-O? P-my ,,,, -,-_- .,
', 11 ,- *, ". I-,,,'z_- ,-_
4 -,
1'1 -; ,l _'. "; ". _-, "W ,
;- ,50 ,i C, ,,,, 1" ,,, _t,4 ,, ,,-,' .
-, i -, ". "o-, .1
'x-p,,',- !, :., : _, I I '%I-PQ Km -W W W-K 0Az- 1
: I ; ',,:-, ,-, .1. -, 'te--i.- ,.f- a --:; .", ,f
.., 'L.,,,,z A _e _,, I ., '-,- ,
O WN V, T, M ,JW S is 0 1 11 -f"-,_,, ""v -, "'l-,""." 0 To __-, -, ,4_, -11 ,,.,, ,,, ,_
;i. 1, v, .,II_ I n Ir ,; -,- .; .I
-,- yf '. ,
., ,. ., ,. ,- "%k- -,, -.. -, i, ,
I I ,,, ,,;, I o ... ,,t,q "'..
11 ;,, 11 "l-', -', .,,.,'--,,, ,- I 'i "_,, ,- 1- __,, 11 11--
"'. ,,-,;'Ik --, 'i, '__-,-%:, I i 1-, ,,..'__ .
.,. ', ', -,Z,: ri"7.1%11,_,_1.2, -
",7,i -, _; '.
", i,4,, _-,'_ Q n A q y"Nan a:
'' 1-11-0 00, -A W=""
-W kphb- 6 ,7 %-,,- ;-, ,, ,7,_.,,- 0"Y
", *. `_ ._ >NY 11 ""VA -"O_ ,
11-,V"-'- ,;4,. :Y-- __11 -.:- Ay-j. 00 !"_.- j.-.4Q .."1,,W jq I
n--, ,-z 11 '"A
,,, ii ,4 I-- I ., ."
'r -- : ,- .11
,'. e 1,,,,,,- -' 1.'.- o4, ?-..-"1, ;- ,1- -,' -,_- ', ", ,,2',,,, V- A" ""m T-6 Q ; WQ N% Sn"W"Q 11.
I ", I .1 -i '. ,,.,N,- ,, jii,_ -. ":- ,,,,
---, ,,- ,,'-,,, 1 Mwpll I., 1."'.111 .,
", A Y,,, C 0j h, -_ -, -I-"
-."ix 4 My -, __ --' ?,Q 1- -.-'. -,
jW!'""", '" ,; vj,;, ;-,j.__
i 7 0"y 0 A-"_ W, -_, ,:, I- xj X --cog ,-,"',, ,3' ''A' z- f ", V" `-V--' -
I .11 __ I Jf: 4 -_- ,,, ; jl'w, I 1, I ", 0 KQ -_ -- -,A 0 ", WAS A "- A N 1 ... ...
i .,','.>F,.,, ,-,",,',,.-,,,., ,,,',,:,'.,,,,
I -, i, .". ,_ 7z' _: ,", .:, N .,
I _. I ? J ,- ,,;;_ ..""bi" __,,i",_ -,-',,- ;""j -, -,, p '..- ,11 1 V -, "'i ..,,;, ` t, -"_I,
1- in 0. Qi ". ,;_--,:, -', -j;- .` -.
il 11 11 I "I ,,,-, i so f i 11- 1, ,%'r, _, _-'
1 !- ,' 1 0 41 I n,-nv : K" 'y 5" ,
,"51.n,_W .- W a A N-Ut-VIU,"'I" ., ,-
'' o' n ,, .,. "
i "I : 1. W V I _t, j 1 ", 1- W, s "S I m 7 '. ,4. 111-,'---_
-, Z !, ,r,7,. ,17 '! '' .' ', 11 ,.,., _.,. .;-. ., `_;-,% -1 -'- ,IrI' 1. i,,, ( ._ 11_ ',_,._ '. ,t-_ .,- ;,,I4,-',,Z'l r5.k."; ,
-, 'n j 5 -- -,';'_',' ,:-'i,,',4._
", 1, I Jo", ,-*;""-"Ii,111_a*,'
--,,-, '-, ;, i ,.'c,i! ,.- -
'n- C 1 ,% .., ", ,,, ,, S,
',,- -, -, -1 '111.11 11 '.
_]-, -- ', ,: ,-,, _- '_ ,,'- -1, "I, ., ", I I ,_', I 1% V:
I I, ,. 1- -, WW_- yv,-,-,.,,jp -_ ._.;:.,yv,, ., _11-. I """,
j, J--- ,_ '.,,,,' .%_ ,A,,1'-,4,.4-'! -i.,:,,,F ,-.%ZF.;.1'1-1, _', ,,,_- ,,,:
_,-f -, -_- -- -, .1 ,,,,, !, ,.,. ,,- .7, ',' -.-
,.,, : 1 ", i a %" e I ,p
-1 11 1:11 ,,,
." -, ,I I I __ '- _., 1- -,,, -- t ,,,,-,j' ,J-_ '
,,- ,,, .__,%, _., I T 1- ,_ 00"',-,
,- ,_',J, _"N .WW;0.jNf_, ;, '-."I"d .,
;L ', i i -, -: ,_, t 's V 4 A "~ x VQ, "- ,., Q 0" W"Q4, 1.
"', ,, 4,., V_, '. A W W ou -
1_.-,A ,,, _;. 'i" _,_' ", Z- -, I A -1 ", "', I ,,, _2",m. I", '-::
., 'W. I .,Ar, _,- ', 1 i 1-1 "', I ,,',,,Ii'',. ,
-:', ip", -\,IT1114 1j. .-
1i ,,,, 1 M,* "i .
-, ,_ -0 -4mv 1 PAV I '' ,0- ,"-- I V ). 1, I ,4?
,1 n I I I 1;,,& -, ,7" 1 1_11'. ":.. -, ", '_ -,(. ,. 'i "' ,
,, ,,, I TA 54 ,JA 4. n/ ", n Y, 1 1 ,-" Jj- ,j,1"-_, lz'-,-I,7i*,,-tz%kp -' ,,,,-, ", %., -0, jjQ"Ty0_v"fju,
q .I- ,,, 11, -- 11 ,
`- ,V '" 14 k ,, ,.-- -_,_., ,.1'11 -,- -- .__ 1. 1
'. ': I ,,, ,, ,,, ,,, '.-, -".. -- _, _40e, I 1. ,:,, ",-, 1jv ""'i,.,
I _? e_ 'r, -,,, ," ,,-,' ,-, ,-, ,_ ,, ,-" -,r-",41":,,i' z -.0 ": ___...1. ,.,,_ ."-
', ".., -, -, ... ---
;"i,,4',- ,,, -, 1 -0 1_, _il I I "I .. _,,- "', ,,-". ,, ",
,-_ _,;_ W,-,:L-` -_11 1. jl ,, ,, 1- e,,---- m._ = Am -1 -I. ". 11. "
,,, -.:,.x_,.. ...8 I -Q A 1 u ". i' ,,"".4,
K, -V 04 >j WQ, -,-:W,i, :"'-, 7 ,)_ 6", -,-- "Y 4,W ,'.I .1 Q-,1,,-
;- ,', 4 ,e,,- 1-4 ', iP, ,,,, -j, ,o
,111_ ,,:,,- __ ,,7;07'-'_ ,, ,",, I i ,Z Z 0 _, ,_ -"I--- Arn An MIA ,;
,,.,.Ij, 11 _--A ,G_WTJS"Q 'AWW WA M ; 4 A.
,,,-, ,"-,, -j r -m, .-, go,- q I mm
: 1 L ". ,- I I ,QW, I V -' Q- 'all, -&ON V,
i. ,_;.'-.` ., -0-
,Ii,!,Y.,` _-, -, 11 1' k, ,,. O-_,!, "r ',--- ,'o' I
,%--_,- ,; .1 -R66_',,-, TAVA-Mm _03a I -kol'A',710. -0 ,_
.; I il., I __;',. ,-_"_-. I -?'-"J,i,, ,_,,,._', 1 1; A i
Q&T < 7.
I.. I I -1 _; i, --_`,, %, ,' _, 4- ,,, "'i" J .,
_- 1 "IT-042,5- 1 a .? I 1. ,
,, t-, : '. -, I'l. ,, -, I -, '' ,: .... .. ,
... W _4 -.' ,0 vj,""-W ,nmnq 'a., ,;, 1--l',iil'-1 .,
,i -, ` ', R; 1 1. I 11 ,_` p ', ,-,, 1". X _, 11* .i f- ,j 1,'
k e I-- I; ,
,, 'i 1, ,' 5 ,"_r -,,-;-,nnf"- 1 L ,,, .", j "',". A ,',, "V''
,,i;' my"U-, j ,, ,,,,, .. .,, a ""', I,"! Am Wn ., '. e S, i -- I': r,-
f 0 Li4. ".. "", ,,Wy h JN ,0"Q..-,,.,_- -, 4. ir
_,1 ."" I :., -, n,, ,,,",",,, "
'! _.Z',,- ,- T '. _. .'..".,,, -,;,._-,L_ ,
an AW T. e ,_,O,7 ,J
K-; ,WA. 1' ,,, -'; -, ". ",--.'.."7 e ,i -j".x A .
"%. ,. _- -11 ''
-, `-- ,,,- -, ,." 'I 1-ii,_1 ;1 -;' ,,, ,C.5,_,i.,,
,, i -,il;,.-."....11";;,-',,.,.. 'A I 11 I .,,+ -
"' e ,,:4j ,."".` ,., j e
-, ,, ,,.Z,,,,a,- -. "" ;__';",.',, *_"m I TY I'll -_e- ,. _m or xvn _Q
- ''Y' ,_ ,,, -, I '.
I, 1.1"Z. 1 I ,- ,, 1,7;Yf ., 1
"." ,_ "" .,--_,n q-;L:T,', ., __ ,." 'A
,*,,,,,,,r, "'. t, "" ,%,,,!,","','-,:.:,,,,: "_' A>, !%A I Q y ,!W K ., $ -.`,4iY
,,,,- -,-,,.'-_,_ .1 I ,J',
X v. 'X', .,. ,,....
_-,-,___. n ,, ,_ .. 11. ; -- NT __ .,,_N
1 I "I 1-
11"T ,, '' ,q, 1 "n 0- jm IN W -; A _-. ",:, .-, ', _', 0 1' ,
"',-''.'l, "-'1',-,-,_ ,,,,,-,,,,,_ ,,,-1,,'-- ;" I _, I 6; ,. ._,,.:;,,,
,, .,_:- ,,, -,. ,'' 11
,-i_% ','5, I, 'I k'' ,k%. z __ _,'. ,,, ,,--'VA 2" A 1 0 W : 11 ,_.. --. ,,, 1".
; Z_,.-".i- ,- I, ,
--, 1 ___W ,"- I C Aw- ", ", A, "Qj .., d ,:., i% -- 4
",. I- ", 1 W 1;,4*N`1 %,, ,fi,
-11 ,'. I ,_ w e 1: -, A, 11 11, ,. ,,
1. 11 -, i.1,11 I ,
I I r, -'. I ,11 I
), '. I ._. ,, ", --_ I 1, ,,, ,,,, I ; _,T
11, 9, ,--7, ", ,. .__----f,
: '' I 0 K" ,1_t,,5-,- --,- 11-- -, -; i; ; ;."!% """"",- lz','- %: .,
_ A y- ?i I, "" ., ',,,
,-11 ", ,r -1, ',,. -.jkj. '.", _',' i,` ,, ,,, .1 -, ,iz I.,
,.:, ,,, ''I ,, x .. -- ,-,'__,- I ,
_, 11, .1 I-, .- e_, -,
4, -,I', I' -s,',, I "
1, -Z -_,-,n,,, I ".
,.e-;, ... ; ', -I- i;, I t. ;_
r'"', "'', ,e. '. "; "`!:,,7 ,,.,p-`'- I ;-, __ ;,,,, ., ,,,, _
, ". -- IV" 1,-- s- ___ _1111-- 1-_v--.1:kx 1. ,-,, ,, ,,i5. ", i,-'. I w, ,, i k :_'_',
-
,_ ,71i',-_,,. I -, '' 11:; ,", r l iiq ,,, ,;, ,_ -
, ',': I ., ", 'T, .., 14:, -` I :1 '1 1. I_ I I ,: .. "'! m "" -: 1'__ r- e -,` : -:, "
",7. I '' -f,", ,_. ..; ;;wi_ I I I ,, 11.11 1". ,V>aw ",",
j ', L, ,,, 1, .1, 1 z ,
z ,_, I '11 ,-": ., ____, -0
.1'.. I ,,,,;:,,'t,.," ."z-,,',',."!:_. 11 k -, I ", j"L," ii- 1; ,
/-,_11, _01-1 ,, _e, 4 'p if 10 11 -
-'1'1, ': wl__ 1- .1 O ". O -1"' -,,
_'.,,;,_-ib ,;
-, z ", -, -,:,1,;I;', ", -,-. lw-,
I 'r,- 1, I -.,i-. 3 O 04, ,- '', i-I I WHAN I 0 h V., ,11;11,,(, 1,-,T -1 4 '', -,-; "",
-1-1--l" I I" -;,,., ,-x, ,,, .. -= _W- 4, k. n 40-1 __ "', ,_" _, ,,, I 1,'i ", W -5, I- '-;'-, ,-, _;-1_0777, C '';A, ,"'y'V., '- ,'-. _" I
D'--'11',_,.,. X, ,.-. 'r ylhll&,_-1.4,1,,ym "_
,-,`r ,", __
.p",., 1, 111_ _&" Ov vl-n',,,'-,'', ,,'-',, 1, 00 ,
I ,,, ._ ,' Q .1 -' -,,, I -- ,"
", -0- -",11.1T..-I"I ,.%, ,, ___ ,,
r 1--r-1 __ ., -,', '1100 A ... ,".
r., 74 Y,
,-e, I .4 I ) ._-- 1 -_ :.
,,,,, '' ,'_ ,- .; _; '' _1,",,;7X,,L,, ""J" "" -MG VM S>. to Ax n I -
I", ," ,,',-,-,, ON-1, .,;. 1. ..."01ONT"qN, 4. v ,,, ,,,,
1. 1A',1"_' "I -1 1""': ', _111 I _Z" 4"'.'s, W. W, vWK-o- A am ,, ,_, 5 "
1" "' L .Aol .11.1. ,'- -',-'i'. ;, .,-L;, I _."','. 1 __ _-. ", .t;, ",- '' 'L,,` 11 I
.1 ,-i_ _.. 11-4-j "i",-, ,,,''-L ,,-*
1 "q, ,'! I- ", V I "'o, iw',',. ,','.- i.,`-,_ ., ,-4 .
i"', I9 *..,,' I ;,, ,- I" ,"I _v-,:_ ,,f', ,,Z ',- T, ,.. -, ,i,_,oV-1..__,
-,. ,,r* ,- t ,V-iiW .,-, I I I ,-' "- I I I ,, ; I 1 4
-,,-ai,;, ", i,,-,,, ,,,-,,,-;`:,'%' I I _11 --, 11-- '. ,i I -41 __1 L'`-' "' I 111; I .1 I i., _11,___Cf..- k, .- I --,,...-,:,.,. ,;`,' _, '., ,., -
C!L ,, ,;,",4 .1, I L,
I"'I"),i% _,
"i 11" I -1. ". ,, ., I i, JQ "] -,r,,I-,, 'j,_: 't$4`-- -1-
,, ,.,,'J, -I ':,-","
,. 5 W eA ,' i tft v I ,,. ,, ,,,.. "'t'-, 1.;, 1-1 ,',,'j,.
;, ., a ,,
,,,I,- ,,,,, ,,,, V ,, ,, ':., I f. I ',, I ; : 1 7 "'.
-. ".'' 1 -, '.. -' -,,, ,, ', ,,_ ,, '- ., ,
'_ 4.%,,-, ,,:, P", 3'- -, 1 ,, I --,, 'L 1-11,, _(` ` ,I'-( ,,-, ,,v. T, ;.k, ", "
i, ,,,',J,- i,,._;, -, L""' ,-; ,,, -,,
-, ., -, ", 'Y',,'.- t j,.,, ""
n, ,, -'
,I.i,,,',,?..'i,.,..,",.,,,, _:, 1.7", ;., 1& 1. _", I'.
,1 -, ,,, '.' 1 4 ,., i _' -1 -,-;"', '_ L I _," l..,,.,Il,,,," ,.,.',,__,'/; _1 -
I I-,, ,V 11 -1 ,I I 1+ 11 'I',, ., %:,- ", ,,, ,_ -
,', ,', ",- ,-,,,`!,,,W. -, IN) I I 1 : ;_ ,. -
,. ,-,p .... .. I izA"-,,, ,",, -
,?, f"4 ',` -"I',";'--l'" ''i "' _'L'-V-- .- '. -- _,, -, 'i "L .",'I'i 1. py, ,'-,;X,'
4. n. -, ,-,i;I-.,-,o ._, ,__ '11'. 5?,KE.--:,-_,t-,--,i'
,,. 1,, i,-A'_',., pl-
1 "' ,-_ ,
.- "' Is. A 111"y V.,W- ,+Q, .- ",", W-n-
",_ L,, i -- ",
,, I "" '. ,,,, ... t __ 4 I ,',n' -%, "i-, .--,
r, 1-- .j"_ ,,,:,, -, mm" T""Onfunaw" n 50 ,", a--- & v.,
,_,,, ,-,;", ,-'.Xxvn_ MVQ ,"qA., A A I "IV" 0 A" La, 7 -, 0100
'' -, I.- I I 1 .
nx.fiff W Q -1
"'''t-"' iWi,;--,V,- '. -_. -, "I 1-,
, 7,, ,;;'f"fi.,,q." I r-m '5 1 1., I 14 I,, v"jj-Jy;q- ,Q. '' 'IS _', I" f "'I". I x
'4 _,,--,!', yn' ", 0, "
,- j ,.,., ; 11:, T ", ,_ _, -1, ,_, n Qj- % oil : I- W11
.-,, i- -";2 ,_ Tr, -_ ,
N ",
o ,; .. -i R oyal mxl,, ,,, ,- "', _1 -, '.';
...", -e", ,_, -,.
-_ ,_I V,, ,,d),,,_.,,- _,,W, ''I 11 v T 11-) ip,, ,,, ,, -sown. 4*,,
1 '"'i" 1,1 L'. .% 4; ----, ,,,, -, ); ", ,_ -5 "W" -" I W A 1, '-t,
", W ir -, "- 4 I -.it, _,_
I I "A-, i 11 -,.-_' _,._- I -, -, "', _-.'- ,1,, --'-, -,-,.!,;-%,-__ ., I
"L, I ,,, ,;, ., _,I. I __ -,`-'ri, I 4 i"
,.,,., ,- 1,
,4,,"'','"-, ; "' ,;," ", k,_,_,j. -, I
L,,, l,;.,,,-'.",,'.,-,',,-.,,i', -,, ,.','. -,.- ,, _,-
I L, A ?"A a,
,, i ,
" v ,:, .
,; &a aa I. ., -,t ,,',---T,,V 1, -,-- .+!: -."
"' ''-, ." -1 W o QN, -, ,.,;": ,, ", ,,".ot,.?.' -,: -'F -Ijil,',
1! ,m2jlmo I! W". .. I + S A ," A Q ''
,_ ,"' ,,,i, Q V-y nymp -, ....... ,_ _.- '.. '. .,
., 4 11W INT ,7 !
u ,,' "i I T ,, ';," .-,',,,,,,-'._-.,7"i,.-_,jl,',l. ;],,-i l__ ,"_ '.. I ,,,%,.-;-,-
W M XV, T,'tv I I~" A A ,_- ___" m 'i 0 A, "Oh ,, ', ,- ,,?-, ,i, -,,ijzj__,
,- -'14,1,11- L I _-_ _n 0 To -, : ., 5-;_. L 4 -_', 11 ;--
IV I -',.,, "' ,A,__, __i_-,;7, ..", "m ", ,;y ;14, ,,. (- 't _,,k', ,,, W "", ,, --, I -4, ,,
;. __ "010M.- ,,, '. >; 11 --,,Li N<,., "I I i:, -_, n" ". I a "',_ _,,_
I _V 1 !;, I ,,, -
,,;,7,',,'ij T-', ,11- NQ Tw -, '' 'i ,-.11.1.1 -1, "', I
I ', ., -- i, 1111, _11'.' -L ? ,,_ ,,,,*
-0-*o-:V .__ '. -4 I W Qne '"a-,W ',.N- ) S "j, __ ", 7T
,.,Lo,.' A$ ", +,
T- __ I _, ; ,.q ,! I "y" a In A ,,, I I I ., '- -- .'. _1
I k. W W a u- -111- '. ', I
, 1 1, "', ,4, %, ins "VQW s I "", -', 11 1. I ,i. ", ,, -'r n -, -jj `'.';_, """", .. 1 % -_'',; .; '
--'-,- "S""'. ,,. ,,
,, .'-,-, lio, ,, '' mllllm. ; -, I ,
I ",', ; ,,, _".. 71", ;, ;, "k ,, ,1 ,,-,' -- ,, -,l
,! ,,+7 i,.; I I ..
, ,,,' ',,, I L_ i, f, ., ,,-, -,%, ,, ", e 1.
1, f 1-. 14 "I".." 1"_ I 'Ii"- .. _'. ". I ,-,, -,, 1, -,i- "'.,
"I --- xy". p =000 V -W m -1 11 11 M 0,
":, TAT- :mu X n -A"al 0, --- 1" Q, tv",- I ", "', -
1.1 ,,, !", ,?i,, "' 4. .,. '_ ..., I ,, I ". '(- t" 1%'- 11-i- _. _04, -A
.,;,-:-,,,.', "I ii, ;, I, ,, (" vfo -, t 7 K", .i, '', ic ,,,":I;__%_,- I., .4,, 7_1 ,,, "", ..", ,
I'll, v .; -,:.,-. !,. ,';- (I e, ". .., i 11 1 '" ''.-v;,"
I v ".., I ,I;j -- :
.e. "' i', ;'I .
.- -7 -7'_11.,';.,, ',' "" -,, --.. _'"f _- -)
I e, ,, L, "'., 11t
'' 1 .-I t",- .... ". ,'.- -+ -'--- -, ", .'- L ;',;' -
111._,"I" I ,, ,,,,,
i4i, r "- q .,.'r T ,, P, ", "', ,, : -.V',, ; 1,V ,',,.,:,
I _'--""' -.. 1,"- 4`1,
:, 1 W 1, .1''. -1, ''; A 0 Im" I -;,I O,,' ?,J "I'l I- --,", ,4-. .--:i,-- ,,-.,- .1 ,- .1--i-ar 5 AQ TW"M"Om K J B_, own tvn: "
W 'T"I"d My K ., _14 ", -,"A,, -'r 'I" 1- T ''k;'- e.
.! ..',,.- ,Z,%- ", "
_q, i", 1 m ?, ;, yc_-",.- ,. ,,..__ '.7027
,ilr_-,, .",Y._'_,, ,--. -_e -
'!, ,,, _. ;V, -, ;,L_-
"'."', I K i: ", I _' A ;, _. "._ W", "I I
it, I' ,_,_ --, "., I -, --v ,1 --- 4" i ', 4 V_ ,.,- .. I I ., I .;. y "am.w. W"".- q an -W -- q y-
"''Ill i '. _, I .4 1 ". ,,( o i to
We"10 AKV C _-,_-, --','Y -1 I :>.q J, J. W mt I, -,f.,, ,-,") "" 1. `-..%-_, ) _"' -






': -1, ,,,,te__ -
,
-
-,ilr,"4, ,,'V.'_.;,.` It .. .1 -*- ,. _,, I 11 -I, -,,'. x'ii` I ,Jlt,",N. 4".; 'I', 41i_ ,ii", W '',
1,, ,- i- ,,; ... _,-
,fii`.Il,_--L 1, %- ,, '' A -I I
I- z,
I. 1;,, "'), _- e '" I ", I :,.,, I .,
,- 1, ., ,iI -, _' f I 'i'--''_ ', '' ,. I-,. -, ,:i
i, ,,,,,.,-, ,.'. .- ,e,. VA ,_ ,'. .?, -1
i ", 'L I ". ".e.-_--;,, ,
.,? ,_'%_,---_--., I ;
-1 I ;- ', '' 1'- ", -_ 0. ('.-,
. r_ : i ", I j ; -
., ""; ,:
_
JLl ;_ I I ,_1 L 1 Z,--I,-,7, -, ,-, -. _- '. ',- ,'' ,,-,'
L _:, ,- IQ' ,-; ,,,, ? -, ,,; '7
4 -,I, :,-- _-
Z ''T'ii -K01-4 On _'K.V ", I ,,-,If 11-11'?, ..!...,I ;, '-, i- _',"' -
', L S '%'m I'Q'(' ie_,_?p 1. ,-,,,,-I,_-l .- -- .v I .,,.-- 11 _,' ,:i"%",-,,'., ,,__,-, -,,' _: _,,-," ,r",",
"- '-,, '-',,"J"4,Ll ,,-,-'' I -_-,: '' Ii- _,-,-.,_,
I ". `11,11 I _1 ,,,v '' --, -,
,. __ QJ _k q 0 "'.
'' + ,,_, L' ,' _

'. + : "" _j- 1_-, I", I I 1, I I, L .-; ;:,-, ". --'-, '
":,
,i-,i,,, ,- ,I- V i ". go", '
-_- 4-_ I qf'j _-




-_ ,,;;-,,,,,.i, L_13_ ,, j?
V, Q A X 0 I I ", y W X .-,- ,, ", -, '
v10 -,,-, "I" ,r, ...... I A _"I.,4111ft I 1 _r it% 1 ,4, ,I',Ik,, "',", t ,_ r, _Q '- I .,
I ._,Ieo---,-,.,,."",.!--,-'-,
11, -1, -_;',,', ,,,,,,_,-, r py I I .- -
.. ;, L: I I "., __,` ,d i, ;_,',, 1 A W K-A" 05"W "W "Or A '__,, ,
,','!",,,' I, "L,"'' .,-,,,.-, 11 .; I -,I- ,-- "
.1'.. .. ,- ,, -I -q ,,,,._ 7'!_." :";- 1 11.1--4
I, I I ',,xrA., -'i0-:.,j`)' _-_i4 -1.`::' (, ., :! A oy o ; ,
I "' -, I 1. 1. ; ". jj "" r %, 7,) ',
__. '; T,..,,,..-,:_, _"" L _j
I I I .I.-, -i-, I_ ` I I ". ':,il -
'W. 1, "I :_ 13 ,, jg,-,',Q,,,- ,,.,1ir)i_-1, ,
',,,,r,, ,1+,-,','1 k 1 41"' "k- _" ,-Iy",- _. ', "-,
,r -, 'I", 1. ;'. ." -

1-11 "i I
,I I," ". "', '. ,."."', : ,, t ,- .-,'.-,',,- ,,_ ,,
., _;I,.,_ 1, ., 'K 11'- I '. ,,,t-l ,; .i,_, _J', _,,, "- ". ", -
,,,,!,, ,' ,,!, I "., -I -, I : ,,f ,I ,, 11 _% ,%,,,.- z. ,'- ,
,,,,,'-,, -,,,.,y ,4,'-%-, i 1 V "
-, -4 ", ; -.-. -: 'y; vW WW"S Z A -"" -, x V, ,, ', -Z '-
1, 1 ,- ,,, ,,, Y 4 vo X -
rI",x-,"._. .,.,. .,4"I,", -- ,-, --,'_.4 _-,;,, __ ,
,,' r ,,",, -1 ,, ", .. -' '," _,,-- ,-i;- ,,,- ._ ,t,.1'4 ", .. -'IL,.- 1, ljj,., I r .1
", i 7 .:-,.'-,',-''-',',,--',:',',
,: I V ,1;1,, "'' y 1- 1 I I _nQ '. j ,', 1 ,j ,_ -_ ,
.f+ L ",
*`,- ,-;- ,,, I I "."'...-I ,, f.,, ,.,. __ _, ". 'ell" ,- I I 1. ,.-:,"_ '.. .,_ i: '-
11 ,:, 0, L, ', -1 1. P, 'I, 0 _; % ,_ ,_ -,, '_,.i 'm I XT 0 Q N nonw! Q" 1 .. 114v,
;, I I -'-,, ,- .1, : 'A 1 4_S-'
W, ,Tq. I ,f? .- '_- ,i,,.,,,: T ,--: --h 4--y-a -, "no "IX :, ', i I L, "
'f- ".1 -i.- ,'j,'-,I_.-"!_,:L' JIL" I i ., ',.',,, ,-,-.- W v in",zttool A 'Any; T 0i: AX W :0 "
,,, 1 I ,_ '. I "L -_
_,_ ,.-,L._! I --JNgjoom it Q ,,,,
,j,* 'i ." 1.1- 1. -,",- P,,'_',,A -, '. rr., I i T .. ., c, ,,-.>, ". __ ,
., ....... 'r _
": in I :, '_' 1,, ,., !if I _,,',,,j,-11= ` W -W -1 il -
r : I I, ,,,,.,, I_ -- "" -kqAvy go 'V ,: 1 I I I ,",?', '.",'',,,y"-,..,,;,.,,.X,", ,
6: _,;1111 1, 17 ,, ", I ,,.'r', I I A` W -OW S o- W 'my a > an y_,,:
,, _,! J,',;_:: ,_L L,, k _,-, -,.r
"i, L,
,, .1 I -_ Q 1-11 : +
,L;,._*.,, -'L 7, ` ,- ,I ,-,
,I ,,,'.;.,Z",,,I"",,,,,--,,, `ot'?, 4,- "., ,o""I'l"..,'',:K,l,',",". I- lk;, '11 1,
-j,,,,Z.,l,,-,,:,',.,,.'',:', _L- -x,'_ ., ,,, I, 7, --
,' .F, f,` ') _',11'7-,',
1,4 ,., -.""j, ;, I,
'- _'. ,. I I ,, .., I 1 I L ,
-, 1lf
Q.,,S
-A
,
Ir, r I' -' -'' _' ; _,. i, LL _, V 0 b" 1 "to 5"_- An. 0 wyr q. I y Wy 11
, 'I') 1, '','J-, O." """,'. -.- i, ,_ ,,;i,,j,_ ____, __,_ k i,,,
,,, "', I ... t. I I .,, -1 t. W__ 0, I A a ",
- ;'it.w', "t ',, :., ""'9. ; h .1
ii [",;" I? I.` I W__ "" ,,,! 1 ,,;,;":.1'1'1.4",
7, _,'. L ', .!! I I 'j"' '-'i"a'.." "'if,"',"'-,r 1." '. I I
"' : ", -'.9, 7, + L- ,.;,,-_T- _,;'_. 11
;1 .,,,, = IT his zw-WW"Um :m W my Jq X. "
,_ ,.--,,"'1, __
,, 11 1 1 e ri- .., M ys "Pornoy"NQ V, I -W, emvQ q- "Onm Qvq- -- 6_;z"'I'- ;,-, ""WK-SAWK AwAS-0 ,
: ,n,,, i ,, %, ,;, ,'. -.. I I Iii-I A, W= QjQjq" v "I OX Wy -n ,,I ,'.- ,1,',,; ','!
"",, )W" ".., '1_1, ",
- % i 1, 'I I "-I L -I 41%,,_;;,i' V" ..1- ,!',v ,-
,,, 1, ", Tj.1 '' f V, I 11 I 1, '. ` _-,- ,,v-,.,%i,.,,'K,-, ". I 1
." ,], ,,, ,W ".,. ";, I I., '- ".- ." ,, -P ., ."WM OW En ?RAW" -qpjn_"1 W ,%-",Q% -'--11'1,fo:,,?. -, tpt';
.',,, 'i, 1,11,11- I., _., o 4, t vy""-Wqmqmx--"_, _t__,F- I .--11,1, ;-
11" '- -'- -; Z, T-,,- ", ". 'p ,, __ ',,,_-,-,40 fqvjy XT0--*vVWgyW _W
''.1 p -- 11 I~-, ;,_,-_- :`.,_ 2 0',
A J, I IrQ'. ,- "', ., ." '7 "S VL An V A
"-, ,,, Mn S, Z" 0, -"ild KV so- IV" ,,-` 1 W -AWW W" I A W .. A -- I
_- "Asiv "I..", -, ;, M own. J
,. ; m _. I I 1 .,
Z 1 Q Q&A -, f ," .. .". __ -11- i. ,
1 Q a I 2; ,t -: L 1,tv',,, ,, ", ,,
'A Q -:_,`f_- I I 1 1 41 ,.-,,.' n .". -',, -1 ,f,;, j ._ -.1 1.1-11,11! ,,_, 4,
11- 1W W W ,, ., 1 1 ,_ ;, ,.,' ,
m if M -,, ". ; -, 1, .', __` I 11 I 11 1' `1.11 .. '. _: '' -
-I = I 11
1. -I _L ,, ,,,-,, J '' --
,.. I I .4, ,* V, L" ,4 A to e ", jWWQ
-,, :,, _iL- ,', "- I ,+ .1 I il_; --- ,, ?,. f!"_._fJeV,11,
Wvn- f,-,, ., Zi..,..,, .I '.. I ;, ,, I t 1,:) --, ,,- I i-', I, ,,, ,,, ,-,,,i I ,--,- -
rr I I ,_. I ,: ? "'4" ,- i"
,,:, _. j ,- -- --W &V yg I .."y"_ -
,,, ,4
ITA volm "",Y-, ""-4 5 Q, 4
,,,--- ,'r,"), '' -- i_ I 1. I r'L 4, ,.'k-- I ,,ij,. ___ _;,t-'-
,11 tv 1,`,1K,.,.1'1 "I ;. 1, ,no ; Vie n,
1 W '44 p., F. i 4, ; L 1_:,_ _
-,, j -10, n -: _,., _, _,:
,'I' I, `-""- "" '', on, k 4- '!-rr ,, ; "", ""_




,_, T T, ,I_ I --, T -11 11 I I "T "., -
.f 11, 11, 111- -O'_- "", ", ,,, ,_, ,, -- `- -Ol -,`_, T "'T- "T ,'-" t -,:, -
1 l ,,, ., "I "; _- "_ I T, I ,- ,-
,,, -t I 1, 1, I 1, '' 1 4 g __ T; -1, I ,_ I -, T'T, "
-". ,V' _, I, ,u ,,, ,' `IJ, ,' "' I -, '- -- ,-, I 0, '- T _- I f',j z
1, ,, -, ,, 4, f, I I "' -1 ;," ,l ,", I. ,,, I, T, T, ", I,- 'AT""N'-"T-.
I I 11 ,'fll'1_111 I -I,- llf4
'' ,, -.-4 -, _je', --I- ',Io_,; ,,, T-
IT 4, *, 1, I I T I -', I ,l ,_ *,IT I, X, I -_ I ,-- ,
1 _j, ."", ,,, iT 1, 4,--- 1 1. I I fl I, ,
; I I 1, 1, 4i!f; ,-_, ] 'I' ,, I I -4,_-,N -- -- ,, _- T, ,
", ,- '' ,,, ,,,,T_ ", AT -_t, l 'r, ,,,- ", I 1. T ,,-,,, I I III T T I J, 7 ,- i ,
,- ,, ,',,', ',V,,""- I ,,,,, ,I,_, -.-,-'- ,-- 1, I- 4 11, ,', ,,,
I ? VT, 1, I ,,,', ', ,T,, ,, 4 ,, ,-A _,-i,7"*_',' "" ,A*,,,_+ -,,!,-', T I
ill,, 7_ ,__ -T ,,-_-'t' -__:T ,,,- ,,,,, -- --, -,,,,', -,",
,II ,I % !, t, Z. ,,, I I I ,T i I I 1 ,4 1 -, 7_ 'T ;; 1 I ,,,- ,,T ,_ ,
'1 "", 0, I., ,* I "-T-i ,,-- Tt 4 I A:- I T
11 I '1 "Tk *,l 'I ,_ ;" ,- I 1, ,.- "'t, I ", "I ,', 11 1,
I I ,,,' ,,, 4 ;-,'III,,;iA, _- I, I 5e 1 Tt -, ,- ,_ov, _, -,, ,,,- 'o :,l i I 11 I -
I L ,,, ',,";, '! ,-,, ._, ,, -, I,
l I I I I I ,, T, -, 't,- -, iJ4 t TT, I'.,, -1 4 -, ,; I _7 ,_, ,, T, T -
''T I I I All I T-1 I I ,, I I," I 'I'l- ', ,,, -', *,,, -, "T'I ,Iw j ", T, .:T I 11, i" -, -.-, 1- "A '-_ 'f -s,,, 'C '- -T, 1, ", ,TT 1* ,_ m ,,, AO T, I I- ", -1 ,,,
1 1, )l ,,, I i# % -'-' 'T, _',, ",
,w I 1 ;, -T,_",," j_:"A 1, 1, (i ,6,0 "-,r_,-,O, .. -
,- ,,, I", I "I
,` r;:` ,,, ki, ,, ITT, I 1', I ,T,,, IT, f '- "'r, T.,J. -1IP-' I T I 11 `
,, I T, -, ,_ I ,;, "k, ", IIv 4 -'. I I ', I -Ti_ __ 11 -_";-- ` 1 -- I "I
I %1, I I I I -; ,
-. 1 "', i, 1-1.,", ,', IfTA ? -, I T ,--,-,, ;fT I T_! ,
,' I, 4' I, 4- A, I ,'I I 1, ., ,, ,,, _
,,,, r" .' 11 I 4 1, 'Il I -- _', ,'l ,___ I_ I I
I 'T ;'I 1, _,, T-, ,,, !L- 5T,,C4:' ,,
I I 11 T ,,, I 't, ,, .-" 'T ,,"` ",J,,W,g- I ,_.-,t I,;,, 4 -I I" I -, ,,, ,_, -
4- I 1, 11 T, ,"" '"-` ,,,.,,, ,., l
_- IT V : 1, "",I,
I I I I ,:, O t" T 4 "I I I ,, -",w 1, I ,,
'T ,, I I 11_ ) ', V
I ,, ll 1-1, 1, ,
TT ) I? T', 1 I I ,fl. ,, ",_ -- ,
I ,, ,,;,l T- IT, T I I IT' I I T T "t '-' ,
1, ; -,,_c ,,IV -__ 't"I'l 17, I -I T, TI,, ) T, "_ ,,, 1, ,)7-,, I "
: '11 % '. 1' I I, ,,,,I--,,-- -`4, "'I"', A T', ,,,I- -,g 4, Te Tg", ,- ,Z ,,,, T. 'I I _- e -, -, l -l 6, ,W ,,, -, -, -', ,, ,, ,_ ,- _,
T I I I -, ,L -- I _, ; T, "r I -I- ,,- -- 'T
_! _"-,, -, 4 ., j 4: ,,,
1 -1 ,,",,T- ,4 I ,,,,,
_[ 4'I I -t',-, "?, -11, t ," I 1,c' t, T... -, ,,- _, ,, 'I k ,,-,:, % -17, *',,-: I- ,-,, ,,_ -
I I A T I Y." ,"T''l-', -, -,* ,_i;_ -,k, ,," ,,, '44 v t, # ,,
l !T,, T I T ,,, I I I 1;!, -ze 5 V, I
%, ". .1 1, 41, ,
l ., `,,,,-_, N, Tl'.1 I -
%- I I "' I ",'Ti -, t ,*A -- Tr-_",l 'i A I Im -
". l ,!, "' 1, 4 A',IT', ,,I ,,, 'I ,,,`TT-j I I ;J, TraT .,
I *- --l" 1 "I ,*, -- I I .,
I o e
'T I + 11 ,,,, T, -,,:T ,,_U i"`,% -4 Tl ,_ t ; _'ll 4 ,
I I 1" '_ _Tl I 14 1 -1 11 I 1 141, T. I 1, "; -- --,_-,, _,,-
-, ,, T -, ,' ", zll, ,, ,I, ,, 7, '- "", I I I
I T, I 4:1,_:, -, ,, I-, ,-- ,, t ,
"" g ;I I, "_1 "', ,,',. 1.11, I IV 1,
"I ;, : Ll I I I I ', ,, T1;1,T, _
,- I 11 I 4: 'o_-,,' 1, "'r, ,%,,;TIT IT ,-11 I I -^jO, -v, ,'-'. ,., %T I--- ,z I
I I ,, I I t IT 4 -,, k T, -1 ,,, A T ,-` ,,, '. -, ,;
Ti I I I ''. l -,,To ,' Ili ',
',t,_ ;, T, -- 1 -4'- ',
I I : -e",- T7 ii, ,IT!',
T, ,,, "T ,, 1:
-,, ,,I ',, I _,, .,T
4 -1, I .-',. ,,, ', ,, ,2, Tf ', T+T -f -
4 I IIT, "'. I I i I ,, "T'T `,I
l I "i_ ,,,,,i4-;r ,_ 'T.I,,, ',4-"r',I a, I ,- I_ I I 'i. ,
pC '; ,T-. ,,T,,,,, I _- .", I ,, 4 ,,, ,.
'' 'I ', v ,`'. ,- t', -_i, 'I_,:`,"",, 4f, L+ -,',-"A *_ I "
11 1 ',;,T' 1, I _', t -1 I "'T', ,,,, TT,, -, I Tl,,,,. ,
,* 1, I -,, 3: IT 1. I I -1 I _, ,I, Z- ,-I-,-'_,,-,-; 7 I 1, -
I'll lrl ll"_ ,TT -- -, ", t '%-, ,T- r'- ', -, -,,- ,_-,,,, ."T ", 71, _-;, V- ',,' "T -11 ,,, ,IT I I 11 "', _", "
,' I-, ,I T, I '. 'k I ,
1 I 1, 11, 1, ,,,, I I 'T" ." I ", I I I, _T; I lk 11 I, ,T
I 1, I I -, ," I 1(, "", ,L"T"i"', .'._.,i'l -W ", -,T411'-- ", I 'I 1,
I ",4---4, ,4!I I 7"-, ,-,,,T, I, It'
11 V 1 I, Jt I ;4 I T ,I
I ` ,- ) _T "I I I "k, !, t ,-- ,,
1, ,, ., ,,-, 1, I I ,rT,-`. -i;- j,- rLi 7- 'I",- I 'I, I ., IT -
I 111111 .0' ',, -' -,,,T;"l T "", 'J" `, ,i: '' ,, -"-, ,, -, -',',-,.I, ,, 'T,.
',"",' 1, 0, IT I ,, _',-.'_', ,.,;,
-1- I ,. -I ? X,
1, ; I I p ,,,, ,, I'T T. ,,, T, T,- I
` ,1 to ,,, ,' .` ,*- ,,, -'- I 1""T"TT". -`-I T -
,
I k 1, _,Tli ,Z 1 'I ,, 4 I
I I,, I : T ,- ,, I ,,,'- ,,-'_ ,.- -,, ", '1,, '-,'',' '_ T I, r "4 1- -1 -, -,, "
I 11 I I I I ,- ,, I k :' ", -1111T -, I I I, -,
1, I I 'T.- I 11 ,,l ",",-,."',_, 1, -:*4 "'.-; ; ,,,, ,i, I ,II, I,
I 1, I', ,
:",:, T I I l-, ,,- -, -g, ;',_,
1, "r "" 11 1 I i ,,-T I, T ", "" -,,, -, I, --, kT __", ,T I ,' ,,, -T !_, ,
: T I IT I ., I~ I 1, 'l, T ', -v I- I ,-I ,,,
"", T I ', "-,.,. -, -- I 'A ,o
-1 "), ,, 'a o ", ,_ ,4,
1:li .1', lo,_ Tl ". t4 1'- "',- ,,
r: ;v ,,, T! IT I I. ,,,, ,* i ,&,,I-T_ ., "I I -, I
*, ,,, 1 I -T -, :` t*-,-OYT,, k* "4 T i u -4- I lp ,-- 1ITT N"O ,,I I`TI
'T q :,, ,, ,, ,,% ,, I I T ,,-,_., ,, ;A T+T ,41: j "4. ,
% -4- -.', -,,, ,,, IV, I 7 -, lk Tt T, -,- -J
I "I 1, I I ,_, "''."I I,- _', ;; ,
IT ,,, I IT,- -1 11 ;,T 1, _-j '. l 1 "I, I I 11 A"4 ,$,4 --:-j & ,,, T ,'nv_,, ,, ,-'- IQ" f 'A JT' ; -
I ,I j, I 'j, ll', T ,,,, 1_4'l
',' I I ,, T I. ,,, ,, -,T,,,, ,V_, ,,, ,-,,, I ll I -, ,--- ,-,, -,,' ,, I ,
I 1 I ,,
,,,, ,T 41, ;14,Tj-n ,,Ij,,-.TT ,, I 'el. -- ,4 "t ,_ ,
,, .,, I -,, _, ", 1-.1 1, so ,`! ,, k, -, T, ,,, l 1' I 4_1
,,`- IT- ", 'WIT, -,, ,`L-T', ", ", -,; V, N 1, *' It ,1 -, ,, J 1, I -..,. 11 I i '- T 1'.' I'- _, $'o ,,, I -ii ti 'r I ,
T1, .,.',% "', ,,,, '' -, I," --,,_,, I T' ,
11 I I I 1, ,,I I, ;T I ',,, IT, I -,,_ ,,, -,, ,,' -, ;IIT -", ,
1!,,, ,,, I ,, -,," I"T'i ", yl 2 ,, I,
0< k, ,,'w, ,o,
,:, IT I ., I I, """'T, TT, Tl r tT ,,, ,
I ", -4 "ITI-
.. I, l ", ') ( Z _,.-,* ;, ,-', ':, v
'*,,- I I ', ,,,- -v,, -; T", 4 k- tk ,- -:,, T', ,',_",;
., I I 1 ; I ,`,I ., ; To
-,, ,, -, 14_,-,.T ,,, ,N i `- ,, ,,, ,,, I I
I .- I Ii ,-,,, V"T 11 li I '.' Y, -, ,, -
-; 11 I I I- t & III- I- ;%4
I I i r I I lf, .;MT, ;,, I "I", '
,t, T. "T 4, "
", I I "', I -- ,,,, f, -, I __ ,Vle"",, ', -,, ":T ,,,I *` ;lII:-T
I I I ,_ I ", -_i V-, I !,, -,',_o-- ,- ""', T", __ ,,
,':,%` ,2", I, I,, ,,-
_1 I ZT -, "l I -
-.I i 4 I I ',--, ),;, -;,,-,, I I "n 4, -b '
1, ', I 1, I l I, "I, ; -,'l I ,- '. 1 -7 ,__
I -I I ,
'' ,j l ", ll" "I ,
I ;, p 1.,T,, I ,, I,-, I, T, ,I,,, ,,, ,Tz-" ,IA_ 4 -0 -', -l v Q 4 1
p -1, I _' I -- X -" ,1 ,* ,, ',T` ', _, -',A
I ,T I I I _11 i, IY' n Z,_ I~ ,,-,,,,., ,,,,, ,,,;_
z, ,I, ; T ". ,, _- ""IT `- _,Ty ,,,,,,,_ f' -, s -4 1,' 1, ,: *1, "" I"4-'- -,, '_1 T-1, I '' ,
, -14 T "I ',*:l I
1, ; '. I ,- ,- -,."4 I : I, --I ,
,j. j"t,oj MI.! 4 ,,I ,, "I 111 "i,, -4 '_,_ --j% ,
I -. ,,I ,,r,, ;, T" I 1 ll' _- '4 "r -,
,,, ,, ,, I -1, 1 44 ,,',, -, t' T',` ,,, 1 I -,- ,, ,,, ,4 I 't, %
. I -0 "'I,", t ,,, I z T I, )t%, ".,-_,,-:,, 11 C.,If ..., "., I cI, 1: ,,, 'T" I t I'- ,_ 1, I I :.l T ,, _,_,N,, "-
I "4v ", T, I I 1-t
,,,;,,iv, ,; ;, -_ 1 ,4, N I I T"I"A 1 : ;, IT ,,, I T_ ,
-, ., '_', ,, 'o, T ._- ", --,i I, 't -- -1,I '. "ll" II-', ",- i t
17- 1 II, ,. i, ,. i. 4 "i" I I ` II, ., '6""', _.
1' I I -, ._ ; ,,,, ce ,_T I -
I 1;., -6. '. i -, ,,_ ", ,,,
i'll, ,. 11 1 I .v ,, fy 1: I I -,, ,,, ; I i ,, T-_,-, ,, ,.,T.,v ,, I, 3 1, I x -,- `- T
1 I 11.1 I I T I., I < 1 I 4 I4 A ", .1, -TI'l ,k ., _% ," ""', ', ,W ",,
,,, ,,, 1 ,, :- 1 ", '. ,.j-" I "', ",, I I I ,, ,, t, "', Y-- -4 ,,, *- -, 1, ,rl I,,, II
'. ", ,- ", 14 ,,, `- ,I I I I 1, `,l I
"I I 1 Y., A T A, ", V ,,,, --. 11 ,,, I, T ,,, -,, i -, ,I,. ,--,- ,- 11 t r Il-, -T,
4.1 ,,, .,-, I T I IT- I I I I "', ,, _
I '. '. 1. IT, _,., ", "- .,, ,` _':
1 1; -1 ,, I 4 ,- I Tf yilil-l;," 4, "I I ,, -' TT -
., ,,,, 4 1 I `,- ,,,,,T,,,, t I -,.4 I I T -', l I, I '12- N `_ -,,
-4, ,1, r I TT i ,,,T _,,_ -- -I 'I'T I, T, T, I !
., I.. ; ,, -f "", I .. .... I ", I ,T "N TT-',; ,,,lTT_-i--,,'.jV 11, I -, -,
.., -. "I' I 14,,",t,7, ,, 'l-t 1,
,i ... PA _'%F__,14,,"t, v f, T 4_ 7, ;, "
IT, ,w. 0 ", *,,;,, ,,, 7',,l ..,T ,-,k,",,,;T .r _'
.. 4 '. I I 1, 4: ;, I.
I t ., i I Y, "' i:,, ,i, ,, I : ", _' 4 -1 "I I ,T V I; -*
11 .k 'IT I I I ;,, i i -, ,,,-I ,,
I ,- ,l ". 11 ,. IT. K ,-, -A t -,,-, y'J,., ,,.-";", r ', r- `, `,_, "" -I'
11 41'1 1 I", I T_,' i- '', ." 1,_,, T,_ ,, `j r
I % t 'I, r' _"' ,I _1
I : !: -
111"- k I -4,. _,," ,l ,, r I, ,_
-, V l_,`, I l 1, I 1, -T T _,,_ 1 11 I --- W I,
'o. .". ly, i ,I _'1'1'1 ," I I -, 4 ,,
I.., l`. .11, ". ., : v _,
I -
.. ; 11 1;, nt ,rl 1,1.,, -,,,T, T,,Z,,IL,,, ; ", '11 ""', IT ,-- T; TV T ` -_ ` ", '4' I, "I "" I
. I I 'A z .., ". I 'T ,- ,, -1 ,!, I
l I I ,,- I T -1 .,,
I I I I I't, ',lf ,l
', "Ti,*", _,_, ,r, --, ,4 ,,, I ". "' :'
I I _
%,T, I), I I 11 "P, ", ,' -t 4', ,'t
I I z ;_ I V L ,, -- ", I I ,C, I T, J .-*, ; ,
: ,- 7,; ,,,,, ,,, I I ,", I '_ l T ,T ,,:,,,, 4 I ,: ,. ,,,, ", "' -,
" ,. 4 .. I I I 14 '. 1 ,,,-', ; I T ,', .", I; I I I _" IJ,,, ',-,, n I ;- I -. I 'I -,I I 'r I 'T. I
. h I -,, ", I ., ,,, I ,- 1, t4l ',,, ,.;-,t;., 14* 7 1 ;;j ,, ,- I "I" ;. T ; 1, ,, ".1 I ', ,- ,1, r, ,T, '_ I- I .1. I r _, 'T l_ :_T, _, ,_ ,
,, ." I I -, l I I I A X"
", 1' t 1*T 1. ", fl, 41' I- T ,,,,?, '- T-
.. .. 1. I i 6 'r' ,, ;_ ., I ", 1 114 I Tt I k" ,, I ,-_ I,- IT ,
), 1 ', I r- ,I I tl,, I- _(e T ? ,
.. I I 01, I I I I T11 'I" _T,
.., '11 .- T; ,.llk, ", l I .1 t I I I I, ", IT, l 1, -.,T -
I' I 11 11 I ,I4 T 11 I .-t IT .
; -, 4 1 T, :I ,, ., f I I I", I _''r _' -1 ` """ I It I' 't ,' -l"',
i ,,., 12 ., 'je.,. 1, i 1,lv I I ". 1, I r'' "`C'l :'l "I ,,, ,%
I '.. .'.1, j "i, '. ',V' ., 'L !, :", -, 'I", I,'. I -o T "' I 'I ,- 'r." I -, ., _",.,- :,,,- __ _, TT, '?., ,_ ,4 "T, :!r I_ I .,
I ,,,, 1. I I I A ,,
,, .. ,4 ,., 1, I ". 1, _' 1, I I T '. T Z P 7 "i --I -A I. I ". -. ,; 'I, T, 41'- _1 -
,., 11 1-1 I I 4, __7 j, T 4 A _, ', ,t TJ
, I 1, I -- l ',, -, ";k 7, -' :' ", _', ,,_ '.1-
1'4 '.., 1, I e -,' I 4 t __
le I ', T '11,
I, I I :-" ` ., ,,, '% ,".J!T __ r ,l ,,
-, III 4 I l
.1 I I ., I '4 ,, ,, T I, I IT T _, -V ,11,1, l t r `- ,, 3t, "'T
"t ,, i I, I, I ,,,,,,- -,, '. i I 1 ` l -J: 11 I I I r I I _' ,q T
rv ", I I I, 1, T, ` 1, ,'II+ ,,, ; ,,,,, ", :_ I
q ', ,' 1 I I ,4 -,r -1 .,. ." I I l
1, Tr't "k ,',- ." I ,,, ,, "- .. A X ., l ; T, -
'T ,l ., I i ,,- 4; I ,;, _1 I I _t ,,, I, I 1 '1114.,T, 1 4 1". I T I TI I I I 7TI ,"I i 14 111 ,-',TI--.,T', I % 41 T, I 'I I "", I", ., I I T-'-, -,-,-,,,'l,,,",'[",,,];,, ', -1 -_ '_ .1
,.; ., ,__,. Tr I ", ., ,!, ,, ,, ", %,,Tl r I -, "T "' I I
I, 11 I I I ,, I r ., ,T,
1. ,.- "A ,- ,,' ,I., ,- f, ", I "I, TI I I I -,,, I T ,, j ,-TT, ,4 i I I T : T.. I .,.
,,, ,, ) r I I I _' I,,
". ", T ` ,.r-T"l- 1-1 "',T,-'- .,-",, ," t, .",- I ,
$ -.11'. 1.1,%', ; ; I _,", I 11 1 I ; ,,,, ,*-T-T, -, ,,, -T' I 1,,, t, 1.4 1 T%-, T'k r _1111
,, _,j
A _, I I I-
". .. I I ,,,,, II i, -,,; -, T,5'- V `, I ;T'. ti,
I'll ", ,,?. 41' .1 '. 1 .a, I., l I I Tl -,, I T I 11 I, ,, I ,TT I I I V- _t' "- ,"* "T I 4," _tT 11
,"- -i _, I I I 111T ,* 1. I ,- : -,, I, ", i" ", ,_, k e .,
I, I -,I, ", "'ll, -:rI, T, -- 'IT --,, V,, "
1,l I :,T,, ", .-, "T"", ,$" ,,
'. I I I, ,,T t" 1 I I, J. T'. 41 ,--', 1, '_ 'T I ,
I ... C', T 'A"', 'u, I, I, "T, ,,,, -, ,T 4 1TI'l ''' -1,
,, I I 1 I 1, I ,..,,t, ,_,T11 -,. -.., .. ', ,,T` -TT, I 'l- ,I'l ,!t, -,*` 4 1, 1 ", ", ,,;-Y- -,, I 1 ,,, I I -, T'
I ", I I .- I T ` 1' ". 'Tr I T, I __ 1,
,,;I ,, ', W, 'l TV ,- 1, r t,:, ,"';T% 1, ,
I I I ,_ ,
.1 11 A -, I ,,,,I Tv ,,,, I
11 1 'k l .'14 ,_" ',, T, I i ", I ,k, -,,, I T,'Tl 1,
. ,._., p ., TlTi I I 11-1 ', I I ".I I _.', .,T T-T,., ', 'lr,,,-jT, T ` ': ` ,_ ,,, ,, _T 'T 1 1 1
I _' ', _L I. 1 4 I ,,,
.., "', :.'_ r r ,s;',f` ` -'_" er '_ I r I -'l _' ,-,' I T 'T ll'r ", Tl ;, 'I I, ,6, 1 n '! T` ,
:, ,,, T I, ,, ,,,, Ii: ", "'I, t'z
,r .. r I 1, ,. '11k, I 1, ,,, --IT ,, I, ,
_- ,, : 1 ,
I -1 _l "i-, 11, 11, -y 4*', r ,-- -" ,
l 1 I I I I I ,
.1. -,',,I- '', it II, T- I ,,, '' -1 ,,, ,'",'l I 1*1`_' ,'-- 1, r$ ,_ 'T, ,.,"T"P'_T-- r- .'H7 -, T I ,
?, I,, (" T ,;' I I 4 ,I
11 ,,-,, jI* ,,*',` "', -, 1 )"o, -, ';' % T1 ,1, ,, ,r
,,, ,, .. T. I ,4' ", ,- I 'I A, "', -,' T ,,, f,4
, ,' Y l :-" ,, 1 ,p + r -- 'r" -,-,
, _",, -, ,,.- r, I, k" I I ,, I I _' "' _0, ZT I -",.,,,, 11 ,- I % .'-O',T*li"_.11'11._ ? T r ,
,,, I I -, V, ,v I I -.4$ T,1,4 L, 1\ 4 'I ''r ,I r'll, "'I"; ,p
,I ,-,-f,,, -,, _iT_ T, I'- ', 1_
I I I I I T '"Tr_l I' I ', -T TTT, % 1, I I ", "" T _
I, 4,ct, -,,, ,,,, ,,I,,,, I -
: ,,,, N ; .j ill I I. 1, I "I I., I -11 I I I r' ,l P 1#' -'_1 ,- ,- I ,,,-, T, ,4,
Y; 1. ,,t'* 'it I
1 _j ,I 4 4'T'r, ',, ,1`I ,l 'T _, ,, 11 1' -, I Tl -,. ,
11.1 '. I I l "', "' t 'i ",-It 1, I r T, -,A ,',' 1, ,,,, "', ,,, --, I I -
,I ,_`,' I I r I -) 1, I 'r %,_ ,I,
"' '. I ''"` ,, I 1 4 ,,I ,,,,
,, ", ,, I ,4 A l Pl T I t ,,' 1,, t 4, '', ,, 1, ; ',''! r' ,- t I ; -
1. I ,:, IZ fl -,) ._, y W, I ,', r'l -T,1'-'
11 j,,l ,).,%,_, ,- -, ,`,,4 'I I 1 R_;,
, I 'o, ,I I I "I', 11 "; l 1% T-', -1 I ,
, I 1 1, I I : I : I,- ,,`*
,. A .1 I I I .," "I ? ,l I ',, r, I I, ,4 'o I ", ., -, 4' -", ", ,,, .' r, ,
iT, 7 1 1 I IT I _" ,__ T
': v., % I ,." ,I I -1 'T r T -' "T -T"-,t,- ", IT- ",., I -'," ,,,, `,:A I,,,,, ;"'_', ,' _' :_ ', -, t ., ,, .g, :_ ` T "i l-, -1 ',* I
I I A ,,', 4 ,_ I I, I.
,I T, -,, Tl, 11 ,- "ITTI-, ,`!": ,r ,' j ,_,, I
i ,, P I,,' I IIIN, ,I I lll '4 IV` `, To f", V',"_ T, 4 11 ` 1, "Ill I Ll I !,, j l I ,I ,, ',I I I I 0 ,I ,,, ', ", -,- 1,, -,
4t I 11 _f, T, ", ,:" I I'T I ,I:,, ", I 11 -_
I 11 ,-II4 ,e -, I )',, '. ", 't, ,,, 'I e,
"'. I I ,,, ,,,,, I T I I I' I I ,V" "f' i,`., i -1 I I ,I I I : ,f I ", .I _% ,,, "', "
T .- : ,I ,,, -. "I I. I,'- I, ,TT ,,, :. ,' ,;' ,, ,. I.
T, I .t ), 4 ,_11' ,,, _:
,,,, It Tr I i" ,' -'-', 'k -1 I I .- I I "I ; 4 I" -- I ,:r I ,, I I
I e, 1 I 4 I _;',
I I I I -4, ., ", TTi _,; v ,,:,', ,,, IT I jT I 1. "t ,3t %, 't ,,,,, 1;j ", I -1
: I -, "' ', I 11, ,,,,,. ,,I, r- -- ,, ,,T _,,'T',17*- _),'t q, I '-,,,, '-*_ I 11 l 1, I I
I I 11 I 1 1,
I I I 11 "I T I ,, I 1 '4 1 I _, 1,1;ol I;-. If -, j, 7 ,, I I
IT:, I;, I I'TT- t "; -,,, 4
IT `- ,, "" I Ir' I -- I 'I ,,, I ; IT' 'I ,l I ',
11 '-, ,,, I 11 1-T, ,,,, 'TIT.l ,,'- ,l I,, c-
-1 "I T Iv ,_', I, I "" ,T'-'J I, I l ,.;T, 4"4-I r T :l 'J, ,,K, ,- "_ !" ,, lr' ,l 1,
t 1, 4, 'I -,' r. 1,1 I 'I' '_ ,, 1 1, :", I4,j r -,-,,,,T, -, ` I-, P ", ,,, ,,,' '
11 1 ` ,4 I _r I ,, I, 1TT
-
I'- ,l 'k,,, ,,_,_ ,_ ,- ,,'qj -. I, -, 1, -, T 4 ""', -% "_ -,-
IT T_l >
11't" T A 'r' I' I "' I I I l I 'I- ".', --.- ";!T -1, 1 ", Z -",T ,',,,`, --,,,T`J, ,', -,,,I,,,',, I _- l "ll, t ,,, ',L ,." 11 I `Q ", I I I ,,, ,'' I ,,', 't'-_;T:; -,, ',,',',,T`Tt-"U, t; "_ ,.-, V,", I T 't ,
1, ,,. ,I ,,,, _' ., 'r. ,, 1,
'T ,$,_ ,.'__ _"," I -JI -" '',' 'I, ,' "" T;
I I T' *1 1,
,I .;- ", T, r __,, ----,- t 1. -,, t ,'T -1, 11 I ,
I ,,, 1 "I ,, ,, ,_ t -. I I _; `,Ti',, i I lrl I 1, :" IT
1
"": X ,.- _e, T, ,
1' I I ,, 4LT, I r_ A; I I ("'. T[I ", ,A y 1,
,, ,, ,T T, I I ,I --"' I -7 -, 1*
", ,,, ,,,I ,l ,T, ,,f fe ,- -, ': `11: "I'll 'I" II', __ T .1 I T_TI,., 4 ." dl -1
5 I L, T." ,,, ,. I I, T I I- -4, ,,,I
T ,, "' 'V 11T` "T I 4 I' :1 TT TI I' It -1 -,*.-" -TP Tt ,! ,I,- I,,nl -, I, 4,
I,, ,,,T I ,il I ,- ., ,- -,.,,
I I I -t- -,-,,- T,, I I _.;yr ___ _' -4 I r';*' I 11
-,4 ,?l ,; T -,.* lr- "" -I ',- I *,' Tr-l' Ir'_ -
r I -, r, ,, I "k -1 I ,,_, I I -- ,,, ; 4-li- 5 1 T .- ", r ,
,.Ik?
L _
-1, I 1 44 ,, ,, --l --r"" '. I ". ` ; : 1, I _',,- -- -x i I ly r,- -_
I I I 1, _, ,,, I I, ", ,,, ,' X;t, T'4 T- ,, .
,I_ I T I I i, 4 ;tv ,, : ,,, 4-
Il I 1, 4, ,z "4 _,,',r I I I I I _N ,, -
', ,,, r W I ,y 11 I %il I I ,-4"." ,,,,,, -, ,T T IT, '$
I _' ,' I ',I r .- 1 ,4, 1 I --; ,-', 4T V 4 ,
1, ,,,, j" *, ,,I, -'- I i 4 'T 1, I ,7-; 1--T -1v 1, I I ''
I ,I, e -, ll, l j ". I I ,,, ,T-*,-4 1,,,, "
', ,-T, ,T I I 1 14 $, I I 1, I
I I- ,, I 1, ,!,, 4 e ,**' r _, 1l
I ,T ,, L j "", "" ,,% Tl 4 ; I ,, 11 ,,, l IT, ,- I" vi "', I
I 11 I I 1, I, t, i ,., T' _"T, ,T,;.
lr I 1, I 42 I I 1 1, TT 1-1- I
I %- I "I''
-1 ll I r I ,T 4
-, ", o:, I I ,y
I ; I I t I r. .. .. ... "'
', ,'4tI ,;" ",_ I I I I- ,, -, 'T,,, TT, I -
-k ; L, zI ,,",`I;,'*,,,_--.' ,I, I- w ,,, -, :" ,,,
,` 'I T 1', I ,. ,,' r', ?,-,,TI''4,_,- 4" ,',` ,, -, ,, 11 4
` `, "', I I I I" "I jl I ,.' 'r '._176kt--,:-_ r. ,, -II J, t ,, ", _' "'' "' I ,1 ,,,'11- I i -, 1-
T 'k I -1 I I "; I I I I III
,, r q ,, I ,, ". 'k i I 'T" "T, '_ 11 .; '
I I 11 ,, _, ... t- ,:,_,, ", ,v -, i j ', `, c "', -, I I I ,, I, 1,
T 1, ', "' I "t 1 ,,
t, I, i,,, I ljjT T-* 1, IT ` t -, 4 ':,', ",_ T' ,, "' ` T` -
-, T" --, ,-' ,T j", '"',
I" ,, : -111, -,% `,11 l ; A T, I I p _, _,T+ ,I 'r 4 $ __ I ,,_,, ,; A ,'I 1 k l ,- I _,, : I ;, % ,
,, j ,-I,
,,, ", I 1- I 11 i, 'k I ,
"I I _, I ', ',I g-"- -, _4 -, I '. I I 11 --, Ii 't ) -T',
I-, t -e, 1, 1-1 ", '-, .1'7 ,I ,,, i ,"T,*,Tt,
I I '(1 ,4 -1 I t ", 4 TiM4 ,,, I
T, *1 'i, -' ,% ", I _, ", r I -,v- ,It,-`T`- I- ""TI Il 'r ., ,' i4 I ", ,,,, ,T,',, 1 ;- ,,-i- -, 1,
t : ']'I I A( ., 'IT,
I ,: ,,, '11. i le ,,,, .v I -," -, T-l
I ,, ,I I I IIi, IT T ,, T -_ -W ".
,, 11 I I I'- 4, ` f _1 11_ ,, _, `,' .,, T, ,, ,;o f- ,,,
,T7 I ', ,i,-',", ., I ,- ,- ,,- ,_ 1, I, "-,T,-, T, T ", ,[ ", 1, I' I, I I, ,,, '", ", r, I, I ,,,,V,! ,,,,,, T_ I
", .' 'i AT- I I
I 'i 4 'r, : I -,",",: lw ,,,::, (- -
I V, i, x #,, ,11 11`,, ,1- ,
", "', ,' 9 ", 'i" I 4111- ,. I 'T k
-J, ` V L ., --+,, I;O- ,, ,`*, ,tl,(," ,,,,,
-4 A f T,, I ,,, -,,,,,, 'r .), iV, I,
I I I T, TT'l_ 'T`,,, ., I ,;, ,, '' c, ,, ,,- ,
T I 1, I ", ,,, _T- T, I I I
`, TI, I, I -- ',P ",,f I I 1 I -,' ., ", r ',, j, ,
-, 'f !, 'T ,TI,',,` 'f Z ,j
k I I _, el'':N l,"_ lof4 'T 1'l t;l ITT
,,,T e I .,L`- !%,,,,- .- 1 :R I I 1, 1, ,- '. TI, 1,
j I" ,T : ', ",T` I : r. I :` ,,,I' _,'X ei 11 ,,,
I 4 T 2 I ", ,IT I I llll"TI, I il. "'I, I I", 4, ,
-',',' r I "' T, I -, A A, :1.!r,, "', I 1-14 ,,_Tl ,
,;,,- :',- -,,, ,I6_ I 1', 1, I 'J -'r ; ,"L ,; I- ", ,,' 'T V, "' ,,, ,14 T4 -, I _; T i*tA '4, 1, I TTI- ` e yll i,i. ,-
'; -, T', A- "" rt ,

L ,, "L :, 'T
'- r I lz li .v I .1 't ,
r, I I I L', I v 'A', _"6-1 -'_ I, ,- I I "I I ,T ,
I+ ,' j I "T, ,, I ,,, ,, -11, I L, ,
t ,;, ,, ,,I4 A ', ,x --';, -
r_, 'Ic A, T. 'T I i, '-" "" ,
Ll ',, ,,I -, ,,
fl "I L ,4 --, -,, .- ,T' 't'_- L ,,,, ,
-1 I 1, I I I I ` L'' I I -1 I I '1 I '''T'_,"L "4 ,- t t, tT 11 'L I
I I,, "-'4 I ., 1, L_ I 1' 1 ", ,:*, L' 'T _, ", I ,
T Zv7 "., 4" V, T, ,,, T twI`
"' `":, ,,: ', I 4 ,,I, 1, I -, -"-- _" 'T, ,, ,l 1, ,TI -4, ', I-' ,,, l _*, ,,,,
j 1# I7,1 -4 I
4", ,-, l -T-L, "_ ;_; .1, I -1,1,1 AT, ,,,, I I .,, I 11 Tk, I ", 11 4 llLf :I'l 1; 'Tr,'!O._
I I "I I I "4 ; T,,' L I j I -', '% IT LL ) ii, _- 1, L', T11 11; T f ', ,,, ,--
" 1, 4, ., I I ,I L T'I ', I, T
TL i 1, T, T 'A I L,, '4 'A '.- -;,, -,,,,4-j- l '-!' ,," ,,- 11 ,l + F
L _T, Ill, r-, ,,T _T ,-;, -, I .TlI,:,,,,,,,vk', ,,,-: `_
LZ I -L$;- -
-, X FA IT I %', ", I ., T, 1.
4 I I "" 4 ,I Lt-' I .j_,I`-:",L,*-", :j'!- ` "4" 7' :L I; ; 'A ,h 'l 1- -4,_ 1 ,4 -t ,,, T ,,- 1 I ,, *
,,, L ""I 'r Itk J'L,,Z. I I,'') .,' _":' -'I_ I -_-'1*1,-T -t- L Tv*4+11-"l 1
I_ _, 'ITT` "TIT %*, 1, 'I,, T- -. "I, 's I -, +, L -_ ., ,4z IT ,
+ '?, T, I, L,
,T'--I ',-,' Ir ., I V,"V ,,, T+ L, ;, ,'
,, IT A % 4 f Trz- "'! V, I, I k i .,i
"4 t ,I7't 1 I 'I"L'" 'I'
I 11, ", r '.' I A' 'I L"M I Y" 4 '4' -,' -* 'L" L"., ) I ,W I'; P, i ; ,-, ", ," 'L -' "K' '
,, I L I ,7 4,: I- I "t", ,, TT ;'t, T ,-I L, t,4,,',',,,,"'-",;6 :-,,, ',71T, Y4-- "' I'Tjt,':','
I' ,TL '' "' L II I I 4' "I, +' L _-",, _: ,"ilj,, T'Z,4,.,, r6r" I -ItT _t, L, T, 111 "I V
_"t I ., !", 'tn"4 N, -
,,, I I T 111`I ,I IT, T 1 e S'+ t, ,. I- _1': '- 'T "r`_' j jfl I V 1 I
L 4,4', 4:N L* L, "'* +'
,` 'I I KT'I 'TI" ,`4,- A ,I' +4. ,.-', I ,1, 'N' T -, 1,+ ,,)
Lr, 4 +, ,t 4 II ', TT, ,Tl L' A I V l, ',",' 1 ; I t, "'I- ,,, ,,, _- 11', ', __ r _'- Tj,'a I L + L" q .- ,- "T,
'0 ", -P*-', t`,-:'P`ll "'; -1 1_* i?`l 1* ) I + 4i- TI, T A -,, "l
,r,+. I ,I + "k r. I I I 4' I I -1 t"1+11' ,!+
+ I 't ,,, L', -1 I TT, I T-* ,qt, ? ", 1, -,4'T L n T', ,,,, K,,', L- ,e I __ + + I I "+ L -,41'
I f, I,
-









Table of Contents


Introduction .................................................................................... i-v

Individual Instruments

Atumpan .................................................... .............................. 1
Balafon ................................................................................. 3
Changgo ........................................ 5
Darabukka ................................................................................. 8
Djembe ............................... .................................................... 10
Haegum ................................ ................................................... 12
H ne ............................................................................................. 14
Kanun ................................. .................................................... 16
Kayagum ................................ .................................................. 18
Khaen ................................ ..................................................... 21
Komun'go ............................... ................................................. 24
Kora ................................. ...................................................... 27
Koto .................................. ..................................................... 29
Mbira ....................................................................................... 31
Mong ........................................ 34
Nepalese Instruments .......................................... ................. 35
Pakhavaj ............................................................................... 38
Phin .................................................................... 40
Piano ....................................................................................... 41
Pipa ......................................................................................... 44
Ponglang ................................................................................... 47
Puk/Yonngo ........................................................... 49
Qin ............................................................................................. 51
Ruan ..................................................................................... 53
Sarangi ..................................................................................... 55
Shakuhachi ................................................................................ 57
Shamisen .................................................................................. 59
Sitar ........................................................................................ 61
Si Wa ....................................................................................... 63
Tabla ......................................... .............................................. 65
Tambourine ............................................................................... 68
Tambura .............. ............... ............... ....................... 70
Tanso .......................................... ......................... .................. 72
Ugubhu .................................................. ................... .................. 74
Vahila ......................................................................................... 76
Vina ................................................. ................................... 78
Yangqin ....................................................................................... 80
Unidentified Instruments ................................................................... 82









................................................. ................. 83


Chablek and Chabyai .......................................... ................. 84
Ching ................................................................. 86
Glong Khaek .............................................................................. 87
Glong That ........................................ 88
Grab Puang ............................................................. 90
Grab Sepha ............................................................................ 91
Grajappi ................................................................................ 92
Jakhay ................................................................................. 93
Khawng Wong Lek ....................................................... 95
Khawng Wong Yai ................................................................. ... 96
Khlui ........................................ 97
PiNai .................................................................................. 99
Ram Mama Mahori ........................................ 101
Ranat Ayk ........................................ 102
Ranat Thum ........................................ 103
Sawduang ........................................ 104
Sawsam Sai ........................................ 106
Sawu ........................................ 108
Tapone ........................................ 110
Thon Mahori ............................................................................... 112


Balinese and Javanese Gamelan Ensemble ...................................... 113

Javanese Gamelan: General ...................................... 114
Balinese Gamelan: General ...................................... 116
Instruments of the Gamelan ...................................... 118
SOAS Information for Gamelan (Brunei Gallery) ................................... 124
Gamelan Ensemble Photos (Brunei Gallery) ....................................... 128
SOAS Information for Gamelan (storage) ...................................... 129


Bibliography .............................................................................. 137


Thai Mahori Ensemble








Introduction

This project is the culmination of several months of work in a study-abroad

program in which I participated throughout the fall of 1997. The program itself, taken

through a curriculum of dual enrollment between both the University of Florida

(Gainesville) and Rollins College (Winter Park), featured an academic internship at the

University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). Within SOAS, I

worked in the Centre for Music Studies (now a Department) under the leadership and

guidance of Dr. K. Howard, Chairman, Dr. D. Hughes, and Dr. R. Widdess. The

incredible amount of tutelage I received over the course of my time at SOAS has

provided me with not only a renewed interest in the field of ethnomusicology, but a new-

found fascination with the field oforganology.

Organology is the general term for the study of the world's musical instruments, a

field that has been steadily evolving through the academic realm over the last several

centuries. Musical instruments naturally fit into people's curiosity about material goods

originating in foreign places. Because of this, exotic examples of instruments began to

find their way into various collections as different explorers started mapping out the

unknown world. Ever since this time, musical instruments from both familiar and

unaccustomed lands have captivated people, provoking many to search for more

knowledge about instruments, and to eventually discover organology.

Between modem ethnomusicologists, a fair amount of disagreement exists

concerning just where the proper limits of organology should begin and end. Some

believe that the field's focus should be solely the instruments themselves, including their

physical nature, playing techniques, and differences in the sounds produced. Others feel








that the investigation of more general areas of music (e.g., scales, chords, and notes)

along with issues such as the emotional/psychological effects of instruments on their

performers must also be contained within organology. One of the top researchers of the

field, G. Doumon, puts it best when she writes, "Organology should be primarily the

study of actual musical instruments, but the study cannot disregard musical

production...or data on the use of the instruments, socio-cultural factors and beliefs

which determine that use, or the status and training of the players" (1992, 247).

Among the variety of intended purposes originally planned for this project, its

major functions included detailing and cataloguing the world musical instruments in the

SOAS collection. In order to accomplish this, however, a number of necessary pre-steps

were involved in the process. The first task was to locate the instruments, tracking them

down in the many storage rooms and seldom-frequented closets of the large SOAS

basement. After they were found and identified, a significant amount of information was

gathered and compared among similar instruments in order to compile a record of their

physical characteristics. A photographic documentation of each musical instrument

owned by the Centre for Music Studies was then completed with the help of a school

photographer and several rolls of film.

After completing these preliminary steps, I began systematic organological

research. The majority of this work was spent in the libraries of the University of

London, both that of the SOAS campus and that of the main UL buildings. Aside from

the notable quantity of data found with immediate relevance to the instruments

themselves, I was surprised by the considerable extent to which culturally related

information turned up during the search. The sources of reference I utilized for this








project, although originally found through my organological investigation, provided me

with alternative means of locating facts pertinent to the social context of these

instruments. These sources, while not footnoted within the text of this project, are fully

described in the Bibliography located at the end of the work.

The SOAS collection emphasizes Asian and African instruments and is

particularly rich in chordophones, idiophones, or membranophones. There are only a few

aerophones featured in the collection (a sizeable majority of it is percussive in character

or requires tightly drawn strings for sound). A number of the percussive instruments are

indigenous to Africa, especially the membranophones, while many of the chordophones

originate in the Asian sub continent. Although most of the instruments can be traced to

one of these regions, this does not, however, mean to suggest that a noteworthy selection

of musical tools from other places does not exist at SOAS.

The first section of the Inventory concerns the classification of much of the SOAS

collection under the heading "Individual Instruments." This segment features both a brief

description and a list of noteworthy physical characteristics for each of the identified

musical instruments, excluding those that constitute the ensembles owned by the Centre

for Music Studies. Among the specifics of the details listed for each instrument is its

Classification Number. This particular number reflects an instrument's arrangement

within the Hombostel-Sachs classification system for musical instruments, a method of

organization quite similar to the Dewey-Decimal System used with books. At their most

basic level, the numbers differentiate between four main categories of instruments: a

number beginning with a 1 indicates an idiophone, a 2 denotes a membranophone, a 3

signifies a chordophone, and a 4 marks an aerophone.








The second half of the Inventory is composed of the literal and visual recording of

two original ensembles owned by the Centre for Music Studies which are both native to

different parts of Asia. The first of these, generally known as the Mahori Ensemble,

comes from Thailand and is made up of over twenty types of instruments. The other

form of ensemble, referred to as a gamelan, is represented at the School by two distinct

examples from Bali and Java. These gamelan examples share similar instruments but

have quite unique histories. The historical backgrounds of all these ensembles, along

with photographs and the other physical details, are given in the thesis.

The various instruments in the SOAS collection are used for several different

purposes. A common application requires their exhibition in front of a group of students,

usually a class of the Centre for Music Studies. The Centre will on occasion bring

foreign musical students to England to teach performance techniques on the instruments.

These foreign artists/students enjoy teaching the intricacies of playing one of their native

instruments to interested SOAS students. African students frequently come to SOAS and

help teach drum lessons to others while taking classes.

Other examples of these instruments being used for the spreading of knowledge

have already been mentioned. These can take place with the gamelan ensemble, both the

Javanese and Balinese versions. The Centre teaches instruction on these gamelans,

normally in the form of courses that rank high among the popular ones. Other training is

given on the Thai Mahori Ensemble. Although in Thailand, many various sizes of the

ensemble can be found, ranging in their number of instruments from having one of each

to having many, SOAS owns alternate total counts for each.








The large majority of the instruments are kept in several basement rooms at the

main building of the SOAS campus. Others are located in classrooms where instruments

are brought in to illustrate lectures, in professors' offices, or in the Centre's main office.

At times, many of the instruments from the collection are kept in the Museum across the

front plaza for exhibits.

This Inventory has been created with several purposes in mind; certain preference

has been given to individual tasks, however, in order to complete them within the given

time frame. Priority was given to the location and identification of all the instruments.

Only after this was accomplished was I able to begin taking measurements, value

estimates, assessing condition, and photographing. It was only then, after I had finished

these physical concerns that I started the detailed cultural and historical research for

every instrument contained in the collection.





Atumpan


The atumpan, a West African talking drum, is one of the most
important drums of the Akan people of Ghana. It is a large barrel drum
carved from a single, wide block of wood, such as a section of a tree trunk.
Its single membrane is a piece of animal hide stretched over the open end
of the drum at its top; it is fastened to the drum by means of cords which
are tied around several wooden pegs affixed to the upper part of the bulge
in the side of the drum. The atumpan is frequently played in pairs, with
one drum having a slightly different tone as the other, by the master-
drummer who strikes the membranes with two hooked beater sticks. It
can be played in an upright position or leaning on a support, usually a
thick wooden frame.
The atumpan is generally considered a drum of prestige; rarely is it
found in ensembles as a supporting drum. Its various uses include
playing an integral role in ceremonies which call to deceased ancestors
through the use of a rhythmic formula, as a general call for assemblage,
and to drum a beat in accompaniment to a chief's proverbs. It may also be
utilised in ensembles such as the kpanda dance, which alternates the
singing of a chorus with the singing of sets of two males and two females.
In performances such as these, the atumpan is played in conjunction with
other drums, gourd rattles, and clapperless bells. Related drums include
the atukpani of the Ewe in Ghana and the atungblan of the Baule people
of the Ivory Coast.





SOAS Information Atumpan

Area / Country of Origin: West Africa (Ghana)

Hornbostel / Sachs Classification Number: 211.221.1-86

Number of Instruments: 2

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: diameter (membrane): (1) 24.0 cm
diameter (bottom end): (1) 20.6 cm
length (total); (1) 70.1 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 100 each


(1) 22.1 cm
(1) 19.8 cm
(1) 70.4 cm





Balafon


The Mandinka balafon, also known as the bala or balafou, is a type
of wooden xylophone from Africa which usually consists of 18 to 21 keys
cut from rosewood and suspended on a wooden frame. Attached to the
underside of the individual keys are gourd resonators of graduated sizes,
so that the smallest gourd is underneath the highest key and the largest
gourd is below the lowest. The keys are struck with a pair of beaters held
one in each hand and are often played in pairs, with one musician playing
the basic melody as another improvises over it. Tuning scales for the
Balafon can be pentatonic, hexatonic, or heptatonic.
The balafon originates from among the first tuned instruments
known to man. Early forms consisted of two or three slabs of a sonorous
type of wood laid across a player's legs. Gradual development led to bars of
wood being cut to specific lengths to obtain a definite scale pattern.
Eventually gourd resonators were added for extra resonance, thus
increasing the volume.
The instrument is played widely among the Susu people of
Western Guinea, linguistically part of the Mande family, who are known
for their highly melodic playing styles. Popular legends of the area give
clues to its history among these people. In one such legend, that of
Sunjata Keita, the bala belonged to rival Sumanguru Kante, the King of
the Susu. Once Sunjata's musician heard the sounds of the bala being
played, he became so entranced that he learned how to play it on his own,
eventually becoming a master and earning the nickname "Bala" Fasigi
Kouyate.
The balafon is also played in Cameroon, where the popular bikutsi
music is primarily performed upon it (among many other instruments).
This type of music was originally designed as blood-stirring war rhythms,
utilising various drums and rattles to provide loud, repetitive beats.
Eventually Beti women began to use these fast-paced sounds to hide
chants concerning taboo subjects such as sexuality, and would accompany
these verses with a rigorous dance. In time whole "balafon orchestras"
were incorporated into this music as a greater demand for it produced a
larger pool of musicians. Modern bikutsi is often loud and colourful,
characterized by much screaming and clapping. As in other contemporary
music played in Guinea, the Balafon is frequently amplified to
accommodate its role in electric groups.





SOAS Information Balafon

Area / Country of Origin: Africa

Hornbostel / Sachs Classification Number: 111.222

Number of Instruments: 4

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: all playable, but one has several broken gourd
resonators, another one has broken frame legs

Physical Dimensions: Note: all measurements listed are in centimetres
total length: (1) 86.4 (1) 69.9 (1) 50.3 (1) 110.7
width (short/long key): (1) 32.4/42.2 (1) 26.7/29.1 (1) 20.1/26.7 (1) 28.7/44.8
height (frame): (1) 10.4-11.4 (1) 21.2 (1) 10.8-11.4 (1) 10.8-14.5

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 400 each





Changgo


The changgo, one of the most widely used Korean instruments, is a
hourglass-shaped drum with two membranes. The drum has two bowls
of slightly different sizes connected by a hollow narrow waist, giving the
right skin a slightly higher pitch than that of the left. While early versions
of the drum were made by connecting two separate but interlocking bowls,
its body is now usually constructed out of a single section of paubownia
trunk, although some pottery examples do exist. The two membranes of
the instrument are skins stretched around circular metal rings which
remain unattached to the body. They are held in place at both ends of the
drum by cord which is threaded through metal hooks placed at eight
points on each ring and is laced between them. The metal hooks rest
upon pieces of rice straw, which provides a suitable grip for them. Because
of this lacing, the rings and membranes are significantly larger than the
circumference of either end of the body.
The changgo can be played in a variety of situations, and thus a
number of different positions, such as while seated, standing, or dancing.
It is also occasionally placed on a wooden stand, The drum is played by
beating the membranes with either one stick and the palm of one hand or
by using two sticks, one held in each hand. When one stick is used, called
a yol ch'ae, it strikes the right skin; the more contemporary hammer-
shaped kunggul ch'ae is employed to strike both ends.
The importance of this drum is apparent in the large number of
situations in which it is employed. This instrument often accompanies
Korean vocal music such as shijo, three-line poems which are sung, kagok.
or lyric songs, and minyo, traditional Korean folksongs. The changgo
plays an important role in sanjo music, which are scattered melodies for a
solo instrument and a drum. It also can be found in various ensembles of
the area, including those performed for the court and in shaman
ceremonials.
Although the changgo is usually thought to be indigenous to Korea,
the earliest forms of hourglass drums probably developed in China.
Because of little evidence, however, whether this drum diffused to Korea
or developed independently there is not entirely certain. A bell engraving
in the Shilla (57 BC AD 935) Sangwon temple and a tomb painting from
Koguryo (37 BC AD 668) provide the earliest records of its existence,
pointing to its use during the Three Kingdoms period. A manuscript





dated AD 1076 from the Koryo dynasty (AD 918 1392) indicates that is was
widely regarded as a "folk" instrument, most likely used during farming
activities. In that same year, however, the Taeakso or Great Music Office
left records showing its use in Tang or Chinese music ensembles.
More evidence comes from the Akhak Kwebom, written long after
the events it describes took place, which states that the drum was used in
China by both the Han and the Wei (206 BC AD 265). Although used by
foreigners the changgo itself is not described as a "foreign" instrument,
lending support to the notion that it was used by the Han after their
dynasty was over. Other sources show that an hourglass drum was taken
from Korea to Japan in the 8th Century AD, where it was used for a type of
Korean music known as komagaku.
In modem Korea, small and large changgo are often differentiated
in society, pointing to a significant variation in the uses of the two. For
example, in the South Kyongsang and Cheju provinces the small versions
of this drum are the exclusive property of shamans. The large drums are
thought to be more recent, gradually developing from the older, smaller
types, but as with the rest of its history the evidence is inconclusive.





SOAS Information Changgo

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 211.242.1-81

Number of Instruments: 12

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good; two are missing both membranes

Physical Dimensions: note: measurements listed are ranges between the
smallest and largest instruments
length (total): 45.7 58.7 cm
diameter (end of body): 24.4 31.1 cm
diameter (total with membrane): 40.4 44.5 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 1,600 (total)


L !~:~y;!~:~.-




Darabukka


The darabukka is a single-membrane drum which is the most
common Arab and Maghreb membranophone. It is made from clay or
pottery and has the general shape of a cylinder which swells out slightly at
the top. The membrane itself is made of various animal skin. It is played
by beating the skin with both hands, and frequently accompanies other
instruments, proving or helping to provide the rhythm. The skin or
membrane is often heated immediately before a performance to give it the
desired tone.
In Turkey, a similar drum exists which is called a deblek, dumbelek,
or the Kurdish demblik. This drum is almost identical to the darabukka
in size and shape, but is made out of other materials besides pottery, such
as wood and metal. Another related drum is a smaller instrument known
as the taarija and is played in the same fashion as a tambourine held in
one hand while beaten in rhythmic time with the other.
The early history of the darabukka is largely unknown, but its many
uses in Middle Eastern societies provide clues to its origins and its crucial
role in the music of the region. When the Arabs were driven out of
Spain, which they referred to as Al-Andalus, different musical schools
spread out around the area surrounding Morocco. These groups
employed orchestras of varying size, instrumentation, and styles to both
continue the various traditions of music and help create new ones. One
widely used style, the andalous orchestra, typically utilised the darabukka
along with the rebab, oud, kamenjah, kanun, and taarija. Another type of
music which developed out of these traditional styles is the popular form
known as chaabi. These groups, largely centring in and around Morocco,
cover a broad range of musical styles but always include a darabukka, a
hadjouj (bass gimbri), and a bendir.





SOAS Information Darabukka

Area / Country of Origin: Islamic Middle East and North Africa

Classification Number: 211.261.1-811

Number of Instruments: 2

Primary uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: one is playable but has a badly chipped body; the other
has a severely damaged membrane

Physical Dimensions: length (total): (1) 40.6 cm (1) 38.5 cm
diameter (head): (1) 25.4 cm (1) 21.6 cm
diameter (bottom): (1) 17.2 cm (1) 14.6 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 1 @ 300; 1 @ 150





Djembe


The djembe is a single-headed drum common in the Senegambian
region of Africa. It has a goblet-shaped body constructed of wood, over
which its membrane is tightly stretched. This provides the drum with a
slightly higher pitch than other drums found in the area. The membrane
itself is made from a piece of well-dried animal hide. It is played in a
number of positions, such as seated, standing, or dancing, but is always
beaten with both hands of the drummer.
The djembe is sometimes referred to as the drum "par excellence"
of the Wassoulow region in Africa where it is frequently played.
Generally described as a Manding drum, it is often associated with two
other types of Manding drums. The first kind, the tama, is a variable-
pitched drum, known to the Western world as the major African talking
drum. The pitch is controlled be adding or releasing tension from its laces
which run the length of its hourglass-shaped body. The other type of
drum is the doundoun, a double-headed drum played with a heavy stick.
Among its many uses, a primary one was to announce the arrival of a
king or other important royalty.





SOAS Information Djembe

Area / Country of Origin: Africa

Classification Number: 211.231.1-81

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: height (total): 56.6 cm
diameter (head): 28.2 cm
diameter (bottom): 19.7 20.3 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate value: 200





Haegum


The haegum is a two stringed fiddle of Korea which has its origins
in similar instruments of Central Asia. Its two strings are made of twisted
silk strands stretched down a thin fretless neck and across a soundbox near
the bottom of the instrument. The soundbox consists of a well-varnished
resonating chamber covered by a thin strip of paulownia wood, which is
glued down to the lip of the resonator. This board is considered the most
fragile part of the instrument and is often replaced several times
throughout the life span a haegum. The strings are of differing thickness
and are tuned a fifth apart by two long wooden pegs (chua) protruding out
from the top of the neck where it curves inward. These strings are set into
motion through the use of a bow which is permanently threaded between
them; this bow constructed of loosely woven horse hair attached to a
wooden rod.
The haegum is held vertically, with the left knee or sole of the right
foot of the player supporting the soundbox while sitting in a position
similar to the half-lotus. The posture of the player is crucial to the success
of the performance; the correct tone of the instrument can only be attained
by the correct playing position. The right hand bows in a horizontal
motion, while the left hand is used to pull the strings to achieve the
desired tone.
The haegum's name derives from a tribe which once lived in the
Chinese Xinjiang region. Historical evidence suggests that the haegum
came to Korea from Central Asia perhaps as early as the 11th or 12th
Centuries AD; the poem "Hanlim Byol-kog" written during the reign of
King Ko-jong (AD 1214-1259) refers to a performance of the haegum with
the komun'go. The early forms of the instrument differed from modern
ones in some fundamental ways, including the bow made of horsetail
hair, which did not appear on the haegum until the 15th Century AD,
around the same time as it began to be used in the Chinese tangak music.
In modern times, the instrument is used in many types of ensemble
music, partly due to its similarity in sound to the human voice. It is also
employed in the folk sanjo music, although it has not gained the same
popularity as the kayagum.




SOAS Information Haegum

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 213.313.71


Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard)
diameter (resonator): 8 9 cm
length (total): 65 70 cm
length (bow): 55 65 cm

Ownership: Dr. Keith Howard

Approximate Value: 600





Hne


The hne is a Burmese oboe with a conical bore and a double reed. It
is made in two different sizes, tuned about a fifth apart; the large hne gyi is
around fifteen centimetres bigger than the smaller hne galei. Both oboes
can play a range of two octaves. There are seven equidistant fingerholes at
the front of the instrument and one thumb-hole at the back. Its conical
metal staple (thabut) at the top of the hne is shaped to continue the
smooth taper of the body. Its reed is made from the young leaves of a
toddy palm which have been soaked and smoked for many months prior
to their cutting and bending to shape. Between six to eight fan-shaped
layers of the palm are bound to each other and the staple with thick cord.
The reed itself is often soaked in green tea just before it is used for a
performance. The hne also usually features a flared metal bell at its lower
end, which is attached to the top of the instrument by a red cord. This bell
is connected to the body very loosely and does not affect the pitch of the
hne, although it is thought to "sweeten the tone."
The hne has a characteristically loud sound which is not well-suited
for indoor performance; it is generally considered an outdoor instrument.
It has been incorporated into a wide variety of performance situations,
ranging from small rural ensembles which accompany daily events of
village life to large professional orchestras, playing to spirit worshipping
ceremonies and stage concerts alike. It also has an important role in many
religious/ritualistic performances. When it is required for indoor use, its
place is usually filled by the palwei, a small bamboo flute.




SOAS Information Hne

Area / Country of Origin: Burma


Classification Number: 422.112.2


Number of Instruments: 1 Hne galei
1 Hne gyi
3 reeds

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology


Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard)
Hne galei length (total): 26 cm
Hne gyi length (total): 40 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: unavailable





Kanun


The kanun, also known as the qanun, is a popular Mediterranean
and Maghreb box zither or dulcimer of a flat trapezoidal design. It can
have a varying number of strings, with 70 to 100 being most common,
although it can have as few as 42 in Turkey. These strings, arranged in
courses of threes, are tuned by a complex system of levers. The Egyptian
kanun is typical of most in the region, having 72 strings made of gut,
which are played in 24 treble chords. When tuned to its quarter tones, it
produces a soft tone which is highly melodic.
The kanun is thought to be a very difficult instrument to master; in
areas where it is found a saying exists that states "it takes half a lifetime to
learn how to play, and the other half to learn how it is tuned." The
instrument is usually played while seated, with the kanun resting on the
lap of the player. The number of plectra used can vary according to an
individual playing style, but at least one is always present, worn on the
fingertip of the player.
The invention of the kanun is often credited to the great Arab
philosopher Al Farabi, however this is most likely untrue as similar
instruments existed in nearby regions before his time. It probably
developed from a related type of zither used by the Phoenicians. A major
improvement to the classic forms of the kanun was the installation of its
complicated system of tuning levers, first introduced in the 18th Century
AD. The instrument has remained largely unchanged from that time to
the present.
Because of its difficulty in playing, the kanun player often enjoys a
high status in the communities where it is played. This is seen in the fact
that the expert on the instrument is also commonly the leader of the area's
classical orchestra; this is for example the usual practice of the takht
orchestras in Egypt. The kanun is typically found in the regions
surrounding the Mediterranean, where it generally retains its name
despite varying stylistically from culture to culture. This is illustrated in
Greece, where although its use is not widespread, it is known as the
kanonaki.





SOAS Information Kanun

Area / Country of Origin: Mediterranean

Classification Number: 322.221.1

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (long/short side): 108.1 / 53.9 cm
width: 51.3 cm
height (including tuning pegs): 8.9 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 500





Kayagum


The kayagum is a popular Korean half-tube long zither with twelve
silk strings. The soundboard of the instrument is constructed of
paulownia wood while the backboard is often a different wood, such as
chestnut. Its stings rest on twelve relatively large movable bridges in the
shape of a bird's foot, one for each string. Reserve strings are kept in coils
behind each cord loop. There are two general methods for tuning the
kayagum, one is for chamber and ensemble music and the other is
primarily employed for folk and sanjo pieces.
The kayagum is regarded as the instrument of choice for playing in
a solo capacity among other Korean chordophones. It is played with the
board resting flatly on the knees of a cross-legged musician, so that its body
stretches to the left. The strings are set into motion by a plucking or
flicking action of the player's fingers on the right side of the instrument.
Such devices as vibrato and microtonal shading are utilised by pressing
the strings downward to the left of the frets.
Two major types of kayagum exist: the older pobgum and the more
recent sanjo kayagum. The pobgum features a wide soundboard which
sets the strings far apart from each other. The lower end has a
characteristically T-shaped piece protruding from both sides. This form of
the instrument is used primarily in Korean chamber and orchestral music.
As its name implies, the sanjo kayagum is commonly played in folk and
sanjo music, It is identifiable by its thin soundboard, which accounts for
the lesser amount of space found between its strings. It often is decorated
with an ivory or mother-of-pearl inlay.
The kayagum originates in the kingdom of Kaya in South Korea,
which also gives the instrument its name. Legend has it, according to Kim
Pu-shik in Samguk Sagi or History of the Three Kingdoms, that this
ancient federation of tribal states was ruled by King Kashil, who developed
an affinity for the music produced by the Chinese zheng, another long
zither. He was so entranced with this instrument that he ordered a new
version of it to be made, similar but different. A musician from the region
of Songyol called U Ruk was ordered to compose twelve pieces for it, but
he fled to the kingdom of Shilla, under the rule of King Chinhung, in AD
551. Here his talents were recognized and students were placed under his
tutelage. After his musical compositions were considered too unrefined,
his pupils shortened his works to five, eventually delighting U Ruk when





he heard them. These pieces were added to the court repertoire and they
are still played today.
Other evidence surrounding the usage of the Korean word "ko"
suggests that a half-tube zither may have been in use in the country as
early as the time of Mulgyeja, a musician who lived during the reign of
Naehae (AD 196 230). Korean excavations have unearthed a jar and a
steamer lid with images of women playing a zither with horns at its base.
These horns have been seen as analogous to those of the pobgum, and
provide support for the kayagum's long history.
During the 19th Century, the less elegant sanjo kayagum developed
out of those grand versions used for court and chamber music, for use in
folk and sanjo music. This type of music was originally met with
resistance from the upper classes, however it gradually increased in
popularity due to its use by important musicians. Sanjo is often thought
of as having developed from shinawi, a form of improvised music
performed in shaman rituals of the Cholla province. The musician Kim
Chang'jo is singularly credited with popularising sanjo music, which is no
longer improvised.
The kayagum remains a very important instrument in Korea in
modern times. This is due in part to the very high regard in which zithers
have historically held in this society, particularly among members of the
ruling and upper classes. The kayagum is sometimes associated with
femininity, and is frequently thought of as a women's instrument.





SOAS Information Kayagum

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 312.22.5

Number of Instruments: 11

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: note: measurements given are a range between the
smallest to largest instruments
length (total): 143.0 155.6 cm
width (thin/wide end): 16.8 25.7 cm/20.3 25.7 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 2000 each





Khaen


The khaen is a Thai mouth organ with reed pipes, similar to the
Chinese sheng and the Japanese sho. It is usually constructed from strong,
hollow cane or light, slender lengths of bamboo. When bamboo is used,
its nodes must first be hollowed through. Fourteen to sixteen pieces of the
cane or bamboo roughly the width of an adult finger are used, with a
metal reed placed into each pipe the same distance from the bottom end.
Sections of the pipes are placed in two rows of seven or eight pairs, with
the longest pair in the front of the instrument and gradually decreasing in
length so that the shortest pair is in the back. The reeds inside the pipes
must all be facing the same direction, outward, and must be side-by-side.
A mouthpiece, called the tao or tao nom is fashioned out of a piece
of slender, barrel-shaped hardwood which is first hollowed out through
the centre. It is longer than all of the pipes and has a rectangular hole on
its top and bottom through which the pipes are fastened so that the reeds
are inside of the mouthpiece. All small openings are closed with a
caulking mixture, usually beeswax and lead powder, so no air escapes
when blown. The second through eighth pair of pipes in the khaen are
pierced with finger holes about four to five centimetres above the
mouthpiece, while the first pair have thumb holes slightly closer to the
mouthpiece. It is often bound at the bottom of the instrument, and again
just below the top of the smallest and largest pairs.
The khaen is played by both inhaling and exhaling, producing a
continuous stream of sound. Fingertips are used to open and close the
holes to provide the desired tone of the instrument. The khaen is
extremely popular among the Northeast provinces of Thailand and also
among the people of Laos, where it is primarily used in folk songs and for
solo pieces of music. Often many khaen are played simultaneously in a
group, to a powerful effect. It is also occasionally included in kherang sai
ensembles, or string groups.
Specifically, the khaen is primarily used in the Northeast Thai
region of Isaan, an area associated with droughts, spicy foods, good boxers,
and music. The common folk style of musical performance is known as
mor lam, a term which actually refers to a master of the lam singing
tradition. Vocals are sung in an Isaan dialect closely resembling Laotian,
which is spoken among its northern neighbours. The accompanying
music to this singing style is played on the khaen, the phin (a two or four




stringed guitar), and ching (sets of small temple bells). Modem mor lam
developed out of all-night festivals in which narratives and "singing
jousts" were held, accompanied by continuous dancing. This type of
music has become quite popular in the area, and large contemporary
groups are often employed to provide the music. These groups usually
consist of electrified instruments, and the khaen is gradually becoming
replaced with the synthesiser.





SOAS Information Khaen

Area / Country of Origin: Northeast Thailand / Laos

Classification Number: 422.312.2

Number of Instruments: 7

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (measurements given in range)
length (longest pipes): 80.3 cm 111.8 cm
width (across side when playing): 8.9 cm 10.2 cm
width (side facing player): 3.1 cm 4.1 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 30 each




Komun'go


The komun'go is a half-tube long zither of Korea with six strings
made of twisted silk. These strings are stretched over a long paulownia
wood soundboard which is attached to a backboard constructed of chestnut
wood. A thin strap of leather protects the wood where the strings are
fastened to the board. The second, third, and fourth strings pass over
sixteen graduated frets and are tuned by turning round pegs at the bottom
of the instrument. The first, fifth, and sixth strings are stretched over
movable bridges which resemble the shape of a bird's foot and are tuned by
moving the bridges to the left or right.
The player of this instrument sits cross-legged and supports the
zither with the right knee from below and the left knee from behind. In
the proper position, the body of the komun'go should stretch away to the
left of the player's body. The strings are set into motion by striking them
in a forward and backward motion at its upper right end with a small
bamboo rod called the shi or sultae. The left hand of the player pushes the
strings laterally while the right hand hold the shi.
The komun'go is generally used for two distinct types of Korean
music: the chamber and court repertoire and sanjo and folk music. When
performing chamber music, the fourth and fifth strings are often tuned to
B flat while the sixth string is an octave lower. In addition, the first string
is E flat, and both the second fret of the second string and the sixth fret of
the third string are B flat. When playing sanjo music on the komun'go,
the instrument, which is sometimes found in a smaller size, is commonly
tuned one or two semitones higher than for its chamber tuning,
In the Samguk Sagi (the History of the Three Kingdoms) Kim Pu-
shik recants a Korean legend regarding the origin of the komun'go. This
tells of the old record of Shilla which stated that a Chinese qin was kept in
Koguryo which no one was able to play. The king, who desired to hear its
sound, offered an incentive to anyone who could master the instrument.
This led a musician of the region, Wang San-ak, to rebuild it as the
komun'go and master it, eventually composing many important pieces of
music for it. This record also states that the original qin arrived from
either the Early Qin (722 481 BC) or the Western Qin (AD 265 316),
providing formidable room for speculation about the true period of its
arrival. The legend itself has been challenged due to the fact that it was




written in a time when it was quite fashionable to give a king undeserved
credit for such inventions.
Actual evidence for the existence of the komun'go comes from a
prototypical version of the instrument depicted on tomb paintings from
Koren, created in the period between the 4th and 7th Centuries AD. Other
information from the Unified Shilla period of AD 668 935 alludes to its
importance as King Kyongdok made a considerable effort to save its
extinction between AD 742 764 by teaching its playing methods to new
students.
Because of its utilisation of the shi for stick plucking, the komun'go
is often thought to be in some way related to the Chinese pipa, which
incorporates a similar method of setting its strings into vibration.
Whereas the kagayum is seen as relating to femininity, its relative the
komun'go is more associated with masculinity, and is often thought of as
a man's instrument. It too holds an important place in society, and has
long been revered with prime importance by members of Korea's ruling
classes.





SOAS Information Komun'go

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 312.22.6

Number of Instruments: 2

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: at least one broken fret on each instrument

Physical Dimensions:
length (total): (1) 138.43 cm (1) 143.7 cm (1) 152.2 cm
width (thin/broad end): (1) 15.7/19.1 cm (1) 15.7/20.1 cm (1) 16.5/19.6cm

Ownership: 2 Centre for Music Studies (SOAS);

Approximate Value: 2000 each





Kora


The kora is a large West African harp-lute whose African names
include the Saron, Bolon, and Kasso. It has a body made of gourd which is
covered with a membrane of sheepskin. Its neck is a cylindrical, slightly
curved length of wood extending through the entire instrument. A
number of leather rings are wrapped around the neck above the body; the
strings of the kora stretch from these rings over a high bridge to the
bottom of the gourd. Each string passes over a specific notch, the number
of which depends on the number of strings. The usual number of strings
is 21, but up to 25 can be used. The effect of the notch is to raise each string
above the sounding board as it reaches the resonator.
The kora is often played in an upright standing position while it is
balanced against the trunk of the musician. The bottom of the instrument
rests on the player's midsection, with the strings facing the musician. The
strings are vibrated by plucking them with the fingers of each hand, which
must also grasp two lengths of stick or wood protruding from the top of
the resonator. Three different tunings are used, depending on the
occasion in which it is played.
The kora is played primarily in the area including and surrounding
Guinea and Senegambia for a wide variety of pieces and occasions, though
a number of popular kora players have recently emerged out of Mali. This
is also the general location where the instrument is thought to have
originated. In Senegambia, griots known as jeli use it as a musical
accompaniment to a type of poetic flattery. The Wolof peoples of the
region hold a high place in their society for these griots or gewels, who are
those select few who memorise the extensive family histories of a group of
people. They, for example, are called upon to sort out matters of lineage
when royal succession is questioned, and also serve as court advisors to
the Wolof kings. Another of their duties is frequently to provide
entertainment at social events, which includes play-acting, storytelling,
dancing, and singing. He often accompanies himself with the kora, and
thus is considered the "musician" of community. The kora also enjoys a
relatively high status in the societies, consistently being the most popular
of the instruments of the jeli.





SOAS Information Kora

Area / Country of Origin: West Africa

Classification Number. 323

Number of Instruments: 5

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good, but all have at least one broken string

Physical Dimensions: (measurements given in range)
length (total): 122.7 cm 139.2 cm
width (resonator): 45.7 cm 53.7 cm
depth (resonator): 24.0 cm 25.9 cm

Ownership: 4 Centre for Music Studies (SOAS); 1 Ms. Lucy Duran

Approximate Value: 1500 total





Koto


The koto is a name given to a group of individually bridged
Japanese long zithers which have anywhere from five to fifty strings. It
has a long convex board nearly semicircular in circumference on one side,
the other being flat. The body of the koto tapers slightly towards the lower
end. The strings of the instrument are held in place by two knobs at the
back of the instrument and run around the lower end, connecting to the
top by means of a row of pegs. The strings themselves are normally made
from silk threads twisted together and are vibrated by the use of plectra
worn on the performer's right thumb, fore-finger, and middle-finger.
The koto is played by dampening the strings with the left hand,
changing their pitch by pressing down on the dead section. Through this
practice, the pitch of the instrument can be raised one whole tone. It is
frequently tuned to a pentatonic scale without semitones, and many
players regularly employ the use of harmonics.
While many forms of this instrument exist in Japan, those most
closely related to it but found elsewhere in South-East Asia include the
Chinese qin and the Korean komun'go. The Japanese koto, however, is
thought to derive from the hitsu no koto, an early type of long zither
whose origins are difficult to trace and is now obsolete. This chordophone
had at its most 50 strings; gradual modification cut the number down to
25. It was eventually replaced by the more common so no koto,
containing 13 or 14 strings which pass over as many bridges.
Another form of this instrument is found in the yamato koto, also
known as the wagon, a Japanese classical unfretted long zither. Its six
fitted silk strings are played simultaneously with a sweeping motion of the
plectrum. This, believed to be an indigenous instrument, is said to have
developed from the bows of six hunters, laid side-to-side and strummed.
It once played an important role in the worship of Japanese sun gods,
providing a musical accompaniment to prayer. Modern forms of this
instrument are slender, relatively flat, and slightly trapezoidal.
The koto has been an important instrument of the Japanese gagaku,
or court music, for over a thousand years. It was originally reserved
exclusively for the playing of classical Chinese music, but has become quite
popular in modem times. Generally considered a household item, its
contemporary significance can be seen in the growing number of women
who now play the koto.





SOAS Information Koto

Area / Country of Origin: Japan

Classification Number: 312.21

Number of Instruments: 3

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance / organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions:
length (total): (2) 183.5 cm (1) 183.8 cm
width (thin/broad end): (2) 23.1/25.7 cm (1) 22.4/24.9 cm
depth: (2) 4.6-8.3 cm (1) 5.1-8.9 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 3000 each




Mbira


The mbira or sansa is an African idiophone consisting of a varying
number of split cane or metal tongues fitted to a wooden board or
resonator so that one end of each tongue can vibrate freely. It is played by
grasping the instrument in both hands while flexing and releasing the free
ends of the tongues or keys to create the desired sound. It is commonly
played attached to or inside a large, circular gourd to provide extra
volume, but can also be played by itself or more recently, amplified
through the means of an electric pick-up. Jingles or some type of rattling
seeds can be added as well, giving the mbira more of a rhythmic sound.
The pitch of the mbira is determined by the length of the individual
tongue, and can be adjusted relatively easily. The tongues are arranged on
the resonator in a definite graduated scale sequence, which tend to be a
heptonic and/or equipentonic tuning. On more elaborate versions of the
instrument the tongues are placed in various levels, allowing for a greater
number of tones.
The first account of the mbira in Western literature comes from
Joao dos Santo's description of a nine-tongue ambira in AD 1586;
frequently overlooked is that dos Santo could have been referring to either
a mbira or a xylophone, both of which have similar areas of distribution.
That the mbira is quite old and most likely indigenous is rarely disputed,
however. The split cane versions of the instrument are probably older
than those made with metal tongues, and closest to their original forms.
Of the many various types of mbira, it is usually thought that the 8-key
kalimba, now found north of the Zambezi, pre-dates the others.
The mbira is called many different names in the many regions
where it is played: the sansa to the Lunga of Zaire, mbira among Bantu
speakers, and marimba or marimbula (not to be confused with a wooden
xylophone of a similar name) is used by occupants of the areas around the
Congo. It is the Shona of Zimbabwe, however, that generally have the
highest development of the instrument. This is true not just in the
variety and complexity of the mbira and the pieces of music played on it,
but also in its significance to the cultures of these peoples. Traditional
religions play an important role in the lives of the Shona, governing
many aspects of their existence. The role of music in religious ceremonies
is to provide a link between the living and the dead spiritual worlds.
Thus the power of the mbira on these occasions lies in its assistance in the




possession of spirit mediums. Not strictly confined to these ceremonies,
mbira music is frequently played simply because of its pleasant sound, and
certain pieces of music are used for purposes including war chants and
storytelling.
Shona oral history and folklore show that the mbira has had a long
and continuous presence in the Zimbabwe. In fact the mbira was most
likely in existence in the 10th Century AD when the Shona first settled on
the Zimbabwean Plateau. Other evidence shows that it was already very
well established by the 16th Century AD, when the first Westerners
arrived and documented the instrument. Through the circumstances
surrounding the slave trade over the next few centuries, the mbira was
taken with Africans to the New World, where it still exists in some forms
in modern Central and South America.
Over the course of its long life span, musicians and instrument-
makers alike have modified the mbira by adding notes, changing the
design of the soundboard and resonator, utilising different materials, and
experimenting with varying tunings. Because of this, many varieties exist
in Africa, each with unique repertoires of music and functions within
their cultures. Some of these include the 10-key Hurungwe karimba, the
19-key karimba, the 24-key mbira dzaVadzimu, the 24-key hera/matepe
mbira, and the 26-key njari mbira.





SOAS Information Mbira

Area / Country of Origin: Southern Africa (Zimbabwe)

Classification Number: 122.12

Number of Instruments: 9

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length: 22.1 cm
width: 18.4 cm
keys: 9.3 16.2 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 450 total





Mong


The mong is a gong of Southeast Asia, particularly used in
Thailand. It is a wide-flanged bossed gong with a typical diameter of 30 45
centimetres. It is usually hung on a tripod or wooden stand which is
slightly larger than the gong and struck with a padded beater. The mong
has a characteristic design in its centre consisting of a six-pointed painted
gold star with lines protruding out from each of its points.


SOAS Information Mong
Area / Country of Origin: South-eastern Asia (Thailand)
Classification Number: 111.241.1
Number of Instruments: 1
Primary Uses by SOAS: organology
Physical Condition: good
Physical Dimensions: gong diameter: 27.9 cm width: 6.4 cm
frame length: 39.9 cm height: 64.2 cm
Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)
Approximate Value: unavailable





Nepalese Instruments


The musical ensemble known as pancai baja is a widespread and
regular feature of ordinary life throughout Nepal; this is remarkable
considering the country is made up of over thirty distinct cultural groups.
It is a mixed musical ensemble, featuring combinations of certain
aerophones, membranophones, and idiophones. The pancai baja has been
played in Nepal as early as the 14th Century AD, when it was introduced
to the area from Northern India by Rajputs and other Hindu migrants
fleeing Muslim domination. Along with an advanced knowledge of
agricultural and technological advancements, they brought many other
facets of their rich and unique cultural heritage. Among these included an
assortment of shawms and kettledrums of Middle Eastern origin which
the Hindus adopted from the Muslims, in time becoming the Nepalese
pancai baja.
This ensemble is played exclusively by a caste of musicians whose
other occupation is tailoring, named after the large kettledrum found in
almost all of these ensembles, damaha. This caste has an extremely low
social status and are generally considered "untouchables;" contact with
them frequently requires ritual cleansing ceremonies. Despite this social
standing, they are thought to be auspicious and they serve their
communities well by providing an indispensable service music.
The sahanai is a oboe or shawm with a curved conical-bore, a
feature unique to the area. It is the main melody instrument of the pancai
baja, being rhythmically supported by differing combinations of other
drums and cymbals. Its compound double reed is constructed of four
leaves on a pirouette, mounted on a brass staple which fits into the top of
its curved body. It has eight equidistant fingerholes without a thumb-
hole, but the eighth is redundant is can be left out. The instrument ends
in a flared metal bell, and they tend to vary widely from region to region
within Nepal, as do the other instruments. Its body is made in two halves
from a thick chunk of smoothed wood, joined together with a glue of
thick, heated cane juice. The sahanai is played using a circular breathing
method.
The dholak is a double headed barrel drum which has two
unpitched heads attached to each other by V-lacing over rims of slightly
unequal sizes. The small head (pothi) is played with the drummer's hand
while the larger head (bhale) is beaten with a thick wooden stick (gajo).




Depending on the region, examples of this drum vary widely in size, but
they are all constructed in a similar manner. It is thought that a hollowed
block of chatiwan wood produced the best tone, but the dholak is often
made of whatever is locally available. Cow or goat skin is used for its
membranes, while the leather thongs which lace them together are made
from bullock hide. The drum plays the major rhythmic beat of the
ensemble.
The damaha is a large unpitched kettledrum constructed from
copper. The copper which its body is made from weighs roughly four
kilograms before it is melted and beaten into shape over a mould using
large metal hammers. The membrane is made of very thick bullock or
buffalo hide, stretched tightly over the top of the copper drum. Again, its
size depends largely on where it is made, as there are no specific
measurements for drum makers to adhere to. It is played with both one
beater (gajo) or two, depending on its location. The damaha is also
occasionally performed in pairs to add a resonance to its deep bass sound.
This drum often plays rhythmic components in conjunction with a pair of
cymbals sometimes used, the jhyali.
The narsinga is a large conical-bore natural horn made from finely
beaten copper which has an integral mouthpiece. The shapes and sizes of
the instrument vary from long and slender to thick and short; older
examples tend to be longer than more recent ones. They take a general S-
or C shaped appearance, with the C shape being more common. Its
important trumpet-like mouthpiece is constructed of two layers of copper,
an outer casing and an inner core.





SOAS Information Nepalese Instruments


Area / Country of Origin: Nepal

Classification Numbers: Sahanai: 422.112.2
Dholak: 211.222.1-81
Damaha: 211.11-8
Narsinga: 423.121.22

Number of Instruments: 1 of each

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: playable

Physical Dimensions: Sahanai length (total):
Dholak diameter (small/large heads): 14.5/16.8 cm
height: 36.2 cm
Damaha diameter: 35.6 cm height: 23.9
beater: 36.6 cm
Narsinga length (total): 203.7 cm
diameter (mouthpiece/end): 2.3 / 14.0 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)


Approximate Value: 250





Pakhavaj


The pakhavaj or pakhvaz is an Indian membranophone with two
heads, closely related to the bamya of the tabla, but larger and able to
achieve a finer tone. The two drum faces are held to the body of the
instrument by plaits (gajra), and to each other by means of a leather strap,
which is laced between them. Cylindrical wooden blocks called gattha are
used to tune the membranes, while finer tuning is accomplished by
striking the plaits with a small hammer. The pakhavaj is held
horizontally in the ground or the lap of the drummer, and is played by
beating the drum heads with both hands.
The name pakhavaj derives from the terms paksha (sides) and
vadya (instrument) or avaz (sound). The term itself entered Hindi
language in the early 15 Century AD, which is when the earliest literary
references to it were made. The instrument is quite similar to the
mridanga but is slightly longer and more asymmetrical compared to its
membranophonic relative.
This instrument is used as an accompaniment in the bharud, a
simple folk play of Maharshtra. In this, action and dramatic themes are
scarce as it is more of a narration on some aspect of daily life in song. The
storyteller, always a man, often wears a sari or another simple costume
and incorporates some kind of minor dance along with his song. This
type of performance is also known as a rupaka in Indian literature, and is
over 700 years old. St. Eknath in the 15 Century AD used them extensively
to promote tolerance, detachment, and clean living. They usually employ
one main narrator/singer, three chorus singers with tal (cymbals), and one
pakhavaj player. The pakhavaj is tuned three quarter-tones below the
singer's tonic range.
This drum is also closely associated with Hindustani music,
particularly with the dhrupad style of singing and as the rhythmic partner
of the vina. Although not as popular today as the pairing of the sitar and
tabla, it is still used to accompany the kathak dance.





SOAS Information Pakhavaj

Area / Country of Origin: India

Classification Number: 211.252.1-813

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length (total): 60 cm
diameter (right head): 16 cm
diameter (left head): 25 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 200





Phin


The term phin is a generic name for plucked chordophones of
Thailand, coming from a similar root as the South Asian terms bin and
vina. Whereas it once was used to refer to early stick zithers of the 13th
Century AD on onward, it is now used to denote a number of
instruments of widely varying shapes, sizes, and numbers of strings.
Common types of phin which hail from Northeast Thailand are two to
four string lutes which are used to accompany the popular mouth organs
of the region, the khaen (see previous description).

SOAS Information:
Area / Country of Origin: Thailand
Classification Number: 321.322
Number of Instruments: 1
Primary Uses by SOAS: organology
Physical Condition: poor; missing several strings
Physical Dimensions:
Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)
Approximate Value: unavailable




Piano


The piano is a Western instrument invented to eliminate the
problem created by the harpsichord of an inability to sound a string with
any variation in tonal qualities, i.e.. a "lack of colouring." This was solved
by the creation of a lever which slung a hammer against a corresponding
string when a finger pressed a key. The force of the pressure with which
the key was pressed was thus answered in an equal force in the sounding
of the tone.
As the piano is a fairly recent phenomena with its developments
taking place in a Western world preoccupied with recognizing
achievements (the unrelenting sense of "due credit"), its history details a
number of specific instrument-makers. Hebenstreit, a virtuoso performer
of the dulcimer, travelled Europe in the early 18th Century performing
and telling his audience of how delicate and powerful strings could sound
if beaten with soft, cloth-covered hammers. In 1709, Cristofori of Florence
published designs of an excellent piano, the first description of such an
instrument. This early model even included an upright springing
escapement device which set the hammer free automatically after it struck
the string. The concept of a piano did not become popular, however, until
Marius of Paris and Schroter of Germany presented nearly simultaneous
works to the Paris Academy and Dresden Courts, respectively. The idea
then caught on and grew in interest, resulting in a number of instrument
makers competing to try to refine the early designs.
Silbermann of Freiberg (Germany) became the first and best maker
of early grand pianos. Their lesser cousins, known as German square
pianos, began to be produced in reasonably large numbers in a very short
period of time. These versions of the instrument contained action with a
hammer which was both connected and disconnected from the key. The
escapement feature, first found on the early Cristofori model, did not
become popular until the 1770s.
Especially popular on early pianos were stops which gave notes
differing timbres; they had been a desirable feature on the harpsichords of
the time. On the pianos these often took the strange forms of handles to
be pulled, lifted, or operated by the knees. The first pedal stop was
developed by John Broadwood, an English piano maker, on a piano of
1782. In 1760 a dozen Saxon piano makers travelled to England, jobless
after the Seven Years War. Thus the balance of power among the piano-




producing countries shifted from Germany to Britain, where these
instruments gradually become of higher quality until English pianos were
considered the best in the world. London was the leading centre of piano
music when, in 1768, J.C. Bach gave the world its first piano recital. The
new English pianos rejected the square German form, opting instead for a
heavy and sturdy body, a projecting keyboard with 88 keys, and two
standard pedal stops.
Around this time in Austria, however, the related families of Stein
and Streicher created a special type of Viennese grand piano, the
distinguishing quality of which was its delicate clavichord-like touch.
Although greatly admired, the venture was never to become popular and
these type of pianos were never developed further.
By the time of Beethoven, the tides had once again shifted to Paris,
which had become the leading centre of both the construction and
composition of music for the piano. Parishioners must share credit with
Americans though, strange bedfellows they may be, for the invention of
the modem piano. Erand, a Frenchman, made his pianos with much
heavier and more durable strings and added a thicker soundboard. Due to
this, the range of the keyboard became greatly increased and the pitch was
raised. The tremendous pressure which was then shifted to the metals
eventually led to a full cast-iron frame, developed by Babcock of Boston,
Massachusetts. Erand, in 1821, gave the hammer action an intermediate
rest, from which it fell back only after the player's finger left the key, called
double-escapement. This became the definitive form of action, as a whole
stronger and much more reliable.
The last step in the evolution of the modem piano was the creation
of an over-strung scale, which was a new way of stringing in which the
treble strings were fanned out with the bass strings crossing them at a
slightly higher level. Thus no strings had to run along less resonant
borders and the closeness of the bass and treble strings favoured
harmonics when the right pedal was depressed. The sound was then
much stronger than in the older versions of the piano. It was originally
produced by Babcock, who patented it in 1830, but not until Steinway and
Sons invented the standard form in 1855 did it become a regular feature.





SOAS Information Piano

Area / Country of Origin: Europe
(specific) London John Brimsmead and Sons

Classification Number: 316.2

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance (practice)

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (total): 151.8 cm
height (total): 117.4 cm
length (black/white key): 9.6/14.8 cm
width (black/white key): 1.1/1.7 2.2 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 500





Pipa


The pipa is a short-necked Chinese lute with four or six strings and
an oblong circular or pear-shaped body. Its silken strings are attached to a
crossledge on the soundboard near the lower end and do not run beyond
it. The upper ends of these strings are tied to four (or six, if six strings)
long tuning pegs which jut out from the top of the neck. The curved
section of the instrument is covered with a flat soundboard, typically
constructed of Tung wood. On the neck of the pipa are four large rounded
ridges of ivory, horn, or wood, which are used as frets on certain occasions.
Above and below these the neck is often decorated with inlaid pieces of
ivory. This lute contains ten to twelve frets on the neck and body, over
which all of the strings run. At the top of the neck there is a scroll made of
hardwood which bends towards the back of the instrument.
The pipa is played while held upright on the thighs of the player.
The strings are often tuned to a scale such as 1 4 5 8, the melody being
played on the highest string with the thumb and first finger of the right
hand. The other fingers of this hand are used for ornamental devices
called lun. Several strings can also be played together, producing a
"rhythmic roll." The pipa is able to be played with a plectrum, and often
is. The strings are stopped with the left hand; usually the first, second, or
third fingers are the active ones.
Chinese documents dating from between AD 126 through AD 270
suggest that the pipa originated among northern or western foreigners
who came to the area during this time, bringing the instrument with
them. Another possible origin can be found in the writings of Ku Chin Yo
Lu, who believes that it was invented at the end of the reign of Ch'in Shih
Huang after the suppression of the ancient music in the 3rd Century BC.
Regardless of it where its long history began, this old form of the lute had
four strings originally and twelve chu or frets. An essay from the 3rd
Century AD indicates that this instrument was commonly matched up
with twelve pitch-pipes. Other early texts such as those of Shih Ming and
Fen Su T'ung I show that these were played with a sweeping movement of
the hand, lending support to the argument that they were most likely
originally designed as a lute rather than ones which evolved from a
zither.
The bent-neck or modern version of the pipa is first referred to in
the 7th Century AD Sui History, which states that it came from Hai-liang




in what is now the Kansu province in the early 5th Century AD. This type
is related to the Japanese biwa in both size and shape, but the biwa has no
frets and is made with soundholes in the resonator. The biwa, an
important instrument in its own right, played a major role in the imperial
court orchestras of the T'ang dynasty and is still common today. Ancient
examples of both instruments are still on display in the Imperial Treasury,
Shosin at Nara, Japan.
The pipa, unlike other Chinese instruments, is rarely seen in
religious ceremonies, major exceptions being its use by many Taoist and
certain Buddhist priests. It is used on stage for T'an Huang music at
Soochow, when the leader plays the Hsien tzu. Another modem use of
this lute is in plays of the Wen Shu style. A curious and more recent
phenomenon is found in how it is a much more common instrument
among men in the north of China, while women are the chief players of
the pipa in the South. Regardless of this unique gender distribution, it is
generally performed in a solo context.





SOAS Information Pipa

Area / Country of Origin: China

Classification Number: 321.322-6

Number of Instruments: 6

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length (total): 101.7 cm
width: 3.7 31.4 cm
depth (resonator): 6.6 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 300 each





Ponglang


The ponglang, also known as the bong lang or the kaw law, is a type
of wooden xylophone played by the Lao people in the Kalasin province of
North-eastern Thailand. It has between twelve to twenty-one keys
constructed of hardwood and arranged in an ascending order. Two holes
are cut at either end of each key and a cord is laced through them, affixing
all the keys together on one rope. The upper end of the ponglang is then
tied to a tree while the lower end is tied around the player's leg. Two
beaters are used, one for each hand of the player.
The Thai instrument bears a resemblance to the calung renteng of
West Java, though the order of the keys and the types of beaters used are
different. The ponglang probably has its origins in ancient but similar
instruments from the highlands of Vietnam. While this Vietnamese
xylophone may have diffused to Thailand hundreds of years ago, the
modern versions of the ponglang only attained their present forms within
the last century.





SOAS Information Ponglang

Area / Country of Origin: Northeast Thailand

Classification Number: 111.212

Number of Instruments: 7

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (all measurements given in centimetres,
length (total):
(1) 107.1 (1) 101.9 (1) 88.9 (1) 72.4 (2) 48.5
width (small key/large key):
(1) 28.4/39.4 (1)27.2/37.6 (1)20.1/57.9 (1)32.5/37.5 (2)14.0/35.6
height (total):
(1) 2.0 (1) 2.5 (1) 5.5 (1) 7.6 (2) 3.4

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 10 each


(1) 39.4

(1)16.5/34.5

(1)3.2




Puk/Yonggo


The puk and yonggo are small Korean double-headed barrel drums
used in rural bands and to accompany p'ansori music. They are both
constructed in a similar fashion; the main difference is that the highly
decorative yonggo or "dragon drum" (so-called because of the depictions of
dragons commonly painted on its sides) has membranes fastened down
with a row of wooden or metal pegs. The term puk is actually a generic
name for a barrel drum in Korea, but more specifically refers to folk
versions of the yonggo, drums which resemble this instrument but lack
the attention to detail and often durability. In both cases the heads of the
drums are pieces of cow-skin, usually laced to each other with a leather
thong on the puk.
These drums can be played in a variety of positions, such as hung
across the body for use in a military processional band or dancing, or stood
on its side for use when the played is seated. When played in p'ansori
music, the drummer beats the left head with the palm of his hand and
strikes the right head and the rim with a stick. It is also played by striking
one head with two soft-ended beaters.
In addition to being played in the p'ansori, the puk is also employed
for shamanistic and Buddhist music, farmers' band music, and mask
dance music. The puk, being utilised for more folk-style performance
lacks the small metal rings characteristically affixed to the sides of the
yonggo, instead a piece of cloth is wrapped through the strings and around
the player if it is to be played in a moving or standing position.




SOAS Information Puk/Yonggo

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 211.222.1 -7 (yonggo) -81 (puk)

Number of Instruments: puk 4; yonggo 2

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance / organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: puk: (measurements in range) length: 23.6 24.8 cm
diameter (membranes): 37.5 40.6 cm
yonggo: length: (1) 18.1 cm (1) 17.8 cm
diameter (membranes): (1) 38.7 cm (1) 38.1 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies

Approximate Value: 100 each





Qin


The qin is a seven stringed plucked zither of China and is regarded
as one of the most important Chinese instruments. It is a horizontal
psaltery made of a soundboard of curved sections with a raised ridge near
the broader end and closed on the bottom with a flat board, normally
containing two round openings. Its body has traditionally been made of
Tung wood, but more recent versions of the instrument utilise other
woods such as Shan wood. The surface board has thirteen marks along
the outward side which correspond to the twelve months of the year plus
one extra for the leap year. The qin has seven strings made of silk which
tied to two jade or wooden pegs fixed under the surface near the upper
end. These strings are brought up over the head and are stretched along
the length of the soundboard, ending in a knot tied onto the raised ridge.
Loops of silk are passed over the knots which rise through the two holes
in the tail of the instrument and are fixed into the loose pegs. When these
pegs are turned, the strings are tightened by the twisting action of the silk
loops. These strings are tuned in the Chinese pentatonic scale.
Playing the qin well is quite complicated as special notations and
fingering methods must first be learned. The instrument is limited in
volume, yet is wide in tone range and refined in timbre, making the qin
suitable for both solo performance and classical compositions. Its music is
very accessible and the instrument is often thought of as the most delicate
in the Chinese repertoire.
Traditionally an instrument of students and scholars, the qin has
long been a favourite subject of poets and painters. It is one of the most
exalted and possibly oldest of all Chinese instruments, probably the area's
first chordophone. Its invention is credited to Fu-hsi in 2900 BC, when its
first number of strings was five; not until the Chou dynasty was the typical
number raised to seven, with more strings added to larger versions. The
qin was popular and produced in a relatively high number through the
ages, with the result that ancient examples of the instrument abound -
many qin from the Tang and Ming dynasties survive. The art of qin was
protected during the Cultural Revolution; largely through personal
connections with the "notorious" Kang Sheng, the chief of Mao's Secret
Police, qin masters were generally left to practice and play in peace through
the duration of this period. Despite its high status, however, the qin
remains largely an instrument of music conservatories.





SOAS Information Qin


Area / Country of Origin: China


Classification Number: 312.22


Number of Instruments: 3


Primary Uses by SOAS: organology


Physical Condition: good


Physical Dimensions: (standard)
length (total): 126.5 cm
width (broad end): 20.5 cm


Ownership: Centre for Music Studies


Approximate Value: 300 each


1i-..
'''jf, N-'"


'.r :'' ''' l l -

i i i





Ruan


The ruan is a long-necked Chinese lute which bears a resemblance
to the better-known yu-qin but has a characteristically longer fretboard;
both are in the style of a "moon lute" with a large circular resonating
chamber. The ruan's neck is made from hardwood and features between
twelve to sixteen raised frets before it is inserted into the large round
resonating chamber, covered by a thin wooden soundboard. Its four silk
strings run from four long tuning pegs at the top of the instrument down
the neck and are tied to a bridge glued to the bottom of the resonator. The
lute is played with the musician's fingernails or with a small wire
plectrum.
The ruan derives its name from Ruanxian, the name of a musician
of the 3rd Century AD. It originates from the Qin or Han dynasties (221 BC
- AD 220), and was first known as Qin Hanzi or Qin pipa. It was renamed
ruanxian during the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907) and has been portrayed in
various paintings as a member of ensembles with other string
instruments since this time. Originally only one size of the ruan existed,
but now soprano, alto, tenor, and bass versions can be found, coming
about partly in order to increase the instruments effectiveness in modem
Chinese orchestras.





SOAS Information Ruan

Area / Country of Origin: China

Classification Number: 321.322-5/6

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (total): 88.4 cm
width (resonator): 39.9 cm
width (neck): 4.4 5.6 cm
depth: 7.9 cm

Ownership: Cheng Yu

Approximate Value: 300





Sarangi


The sarangi is a bowed Indian chordophone made from a single
block of wood which has been hollowed out and partially covered with a
parchment. A bridge is placed on the belly in the middle of the of the
membrane-covered resonating chamber and the sides are pinched to
facilitate bowing. Four tuning pegs are affixed to the hollow head, to these
three gut strings and one drone string of brass are tied. Modern sarangi
have some 35-40 sympathetic strings running under the main strings;
these are fastened to small pegs on the right side of the fingerboard and
head. Tuned according to the scale of the specific raga being played, these
sympathetic strings are made of metal such as brass or steel.
The sarangi is played with the head of the instrument resting
against the left shoulder of the player, the bottom resting on the lap. Its
horsetail hair bow is held in the right hand while the left hand stops the
strings on their sides, not pushing them down to the soundboard as in
many other chordophones.
The sarangi enjoys a prominent position in the North of India as a
key instrument in the accompaniment of major musical concerts and
performances; its Southern India place being taken primarily by the violin.
It is well-suited for solo performance as well as taking part in various
instrumentations and backing vocal music. The sound of the instrument
is often compared to the human voice. Related Persian instruments
include the dotara, charter, ohad sarangi of Punjab, and chihcara of Uttar
Pradesh, all folk instruments from which the sarangi probably developed
in the 17th Century AD to accommodate new styles of music.





SOAS Information Sarangi

Area / Country of Origin: Northern India

Classification Number: 321.322

Number of Instruments: 3

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: 1 moderate; 2 poor

Physical Dimensions: (standard)
length (total): 58.8 64.2 cm
width (resonator): 8.5 10.2 cm
width (neck): 5.6 8.1 cm
height (total): 7.4 13.3 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: no assigned value possible





Shakuhachi


The shakuhachi is a vertical, endblown Japanese notched flute. It is
usually constructed of bamboo, and is unique among endblown flutes
because of its thickness. This aerophone is made to a standard length of
21.5 inches and terminates in a wide flare. It has four fingerholes which
yield a chromatic scale by the means of half-stopping. The inside of the
shakuhachi is often lacquered to protect it from the moisture of the
player's breath. There is no notch on the end of the instrument, yet the
underlip of the player almost completely covers the open end. This style
of playing alludes to an older form of Japanese notched flute known as the
tung hsiao. The shakuhachi produces a mellow sound, and has proven to
be quite difficult not just to master, but also to simply play.
The history of endblown flutes has its origins in China, where they
are usually thought to have been invented in the 12th or 11th Centuries
BC. These were later associated with Confucian rites and welcomed by
Buddhists across the area. The early endblown flutes were called hsiao or
kuan, although evidence from the 7th Century BC shows that they existed
as a notched flute known as the yo. It earned this name due to its standard
length, which measured almost exactly one Chinese foot, or yo. The yo, in
its first forms, had three fingerholes and were considered mainly as
dancers' instruments (it is interesting to note that these gradually
developed into the dancer's wand and have been used as such in ritual
dances since the 16th Century AD).
These flutes eventually diffused to areas surrounding China such as
Korea, where it was known as the yak, and Japan, where records indicate
that the shakuhachi was first received from China by Japanese Buddhist
priests in AD 935. The shakuhachi holds a very specific role in Japanese
society, where since the 16th Century AD it has been played by komuso.
These were samurai who entered priesthood and roamed through country
with the flute at their lips. Out of this came the tradition of shakuhachi
players wearing large baskets over their heads to avoid recognition. The
playing of this instrument is reserved solely for men, and it is widely used
in the popular san kyoku trio, consisting of the shakuhachi, koto, and
shamisen. These musical groups came into existence in the 19th Century
AD. A short version of the shakuhachi is called the hitoyogiri, which was
first played by mendicant priests in the Muromachi period (AD 1534 -1615),
but are now almost obsolete.





SOAS Information Shakuhachi

Area / Country of Origin: Japan

Classification Number: 421.111.12

Number of Instruments: 2

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length (total): 54.6 cm
width: 3.6 5.1 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 300 each


7.7 "M. '. .




Shamisen


The shamisen or sangen is a type of long-necked lute from Japan
with three strings. Its body consists of a small, heavy frame made of a
hardwood such as redwood, and covered on both its front and back faces by
a skin. Usually taking a suared shape, more circular examples do exist.
The body, its resonator, is pierced by a plano-convex stick roughly a yard
long. Its three silk strings are tuned by long lateral pegs and are set into
motion by the use of a heavy plectrum. The traditional Japanese tuning
consisted of a ground-tone, a fourth, and a seventh, however in more
recent times tunings such as 1 5 8 are very common.
The shamisen is thought to have been brought to the Far East from
western Asia as late as the second half of the 16th Century AD. Its
counterpart in the Persian world is the tanbur or sitar, of which it may
owe some of its ancestry. In China, where a few versions are occasionally
found, it is known as the san hsien, which literally means "three strings."
The original form of the Japanese word was jamisen, or "snakeskin,"
which could derive from the skins used to cover the resonator frame.
This word was eventually changed, perhaps to sound more like its
Chinese name. Folk versions of the shamisen can be found throughout
Japan and are generally of slightly poorer quality, being made of available
local materials. The gotten, from the Southwest area of Japan, is an
example of one of these.
The shamisen in modern times is most often played in the trio
known as san kyoku. This popular form of a musical group consists of
one aerophone, the shakuhachi, and two chordophones, the shamisen
and koto, which give the group a distinct, melodic sound. This form of
instrumentation has had a relatively short life, coming into existence only
within the past 200 years.





SOAS Information Shamisen

Area / Country of Origin: Japan

Classification Number: 321.322-6

Number of Instruments: 3 shamisen; 1 gotten

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: 1 shamisen's head needs reglueing

Physical Dimensions: shamisen (1) and gotten (la)
length (total): (1) 98.2 cm (1) 98.2 cm (1) 100.8 cm
width (resonator): (1) 19.7 cm (1) 20.8 cm (1) 22.6 cm
width (neck): (1) 2.54 cm (1) 2.8 cm (1) 2.54 cm
depth (resonator): (1) 9.9 cm (1) 9.5 cm (1) 9.8 cm

Ownership: 3 shamisen Centre for Music Studies .(SOAS)
1 gotten Dr. David W. Hughes

Approximate Value: 3 shamisen 500 each
1 gotten E100


(la) 91.8 cm
(la) 17.2 cm
(la) 2.8 cm
(la) 7.4 cm





Sitar


The sitar is a long-necked Indian lute, and enjoys the distinction of
being the most popular type of these chordophones in Northern India. It
has four to seven strings, held to the body by both frontal and lateral pegs.
Its body is made of gourd or a hollow wood covered with a wooden belly.
The sitar has a broad neck, which carries movable frets which can be
repositioned for the purpose of producing different scales. Although it has
several strings, the melody is often only played on one string, often that
which has the highest pitch. The unique shape and elongated, wide neck
of the instrument necessitate that it be played horizontally, usually resting
on the lap of the player or on the floor. The wire or metal strings are set
into motion by plucking them with a tiny wire plectrum worn on the
right thumb of the player.
The sitar is probably related to the pandore and the tamboor, Persian
chordophones (lutes) shown in Mesopotamian figures, plaques, and seals
from around 2000 BC. The Greeks first called this the pandoora, a name
taken from the Sumerian pant-ur. The tamboor of Arabia is a similar lute
with a pear-shaped resonator and a long, fretted neck. The Persian word
for this three-stringed instrument was seh-tar, providing a natural link
with the name for the modern Indian instrument. Early three-stringed
chordophones did exist in ancient India, they were known as the tritanti,
but whether they were lutes or zithers is not discernible from the available
evidence. There are, however, difficulties tracing the sitar to a pre-Islamic
Indian origin, which may lend support to the idea that they (or a not-too-
distant ancestor) were brought to India from elsewhere.
In Indian society, a legend exists which tells of the invention of the
sitar as belonging to Amir Khusro, but a well-documented chronicle of
court music and musicians of the time, the Ain-i-Akbari by Fazal, does not
even mention it. The possibility exists that it was already in India at the
time, but had not entered the realm of chamber music, perhaps being an
instrument of folk music, but it seems rather unlikely. Its popularity then
belongs more to modern times and its origins remain somewhat
mysterious. It is played and revered the most in contemporary Northern
India, specifically in the Kashmir region, where the combination of sitar
and tabla are utilised for the performance of a wide array of music.





SOAS Information Sitar

Area / Country of Origin: India

Classification Number: 321.322-6

Number of Instruments: 4

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: 1 good
2 moderate
1 poor


Physical Dimensions:
length (total): (1) 120.0 cm (1) 126.5 cm
width (resonator): (1) 32.5 cm (1) 33.0 cm
width (neck): (4) 8.9 cm
depth (body): (1) 27.2 cm (1) 25.2 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 2000 total


(1) 122.6 cm
(1) 32.4 cm

(1) 26.9 cm


(1) 126.7 cm
(1) 34.2 cm

(1) 28.5 cm





Si Wa


The si is a pair of small Burmese hemispheric cymbals, between
three to five centimetres in diameter, joined together by a short string.
The string is wrapped around the performer's fingers on one hand to
accommodate the player striking the cymbals against each other to produce
their high-pitched sound. They are usually played to accompany vocalists
and ensembles, where they mark the unaccented beats of a bar.
The si are frequently played together with the wa or gyat, small
wooden clappers of Burma consisting of two pieces of wood joined with a
hinge. They are held in the other hand of a vocalist (the hand not holding
the si) and used to sound the accented beats of a bar of ensemble music.
When used together in this way, they are referred to as si wa.



SOAS Information Si Wa


Area / Country of Origin: Burma
Classification Number: Si 111.142 Wa 111.12
Number of Instrument: 1 of each
Primary Uses by SOAS: organology
Physical Condition: good
Physical Dimensions: Si diameter: 3 5 cm
Wa length: 7 -15 cm
Ownership: Dr. Richard Widdess
Approximate Value: unavailable





Sogo


The sogo, which translates as "small drum," is a small hand-held
frame drum of Korea. Its thin wooden handle projects outward from one
point on the shallow frame and is grasped by the hand of the drummer. It
has two small membranes fastened onto the wooden frame in various
ways, usually being laced or pegged on. It is commonly played in
conjunction with many other sogo because the sound it produces by itself
is quite faint. It is principally used by dancers in farmer's bands and chorus
members of ipch'ang troupes.

SOAS Information Sogo
Area / Country of Origin: Korea
Classification Number: 211.322
Number of Instruments: 7
Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance
Physical Condition: good
Physical Dimensions: diameter: 20.3 21.5 cm height: 5.7 cm
Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)
Approximate Value: 20 each





Tabla


The word tabla in its common usage generally refers to a pair of
tuned Indian membranophones. It is also the specific name for the right
hand drum of the pairing, as opposed to the bamya, bahya, or dagga which
is what the smaller left hand drum is called. The tabla is constructed of a
hollowed, cylindrical block of wood and covered with a parchment that
has a distinguishing round black mark on it. The bamya is similarly
constructed, but slightly thinner and retains its cylindrical shape
throughout, where the tabla widens near the bottom. Both instruments
are tuned by small, round blocks of wood wedged under the leather straps
which hold the membranes in place around the sides of the drums; these
are always found on the bamya but not necessarily on the tabla. These
straps are laced in either a W or Y formation.
The membranes of the tabla are treated with a paste called syahi, a
permanent loading on the tabla, but optional on the bamya. This paste
consists of a mixture of finely-ground iron powder which has been heated
and cooled, glue, paste of wheat flour, and a charcoal powder. This is
applied layer by layer, and covers only part of the surface of the skin.
Originally these instruments had two membranes and were played in a
horizontal position, but were gradually played vertically, therefore
eliminating the need for a second skin.
The pair are played by beating differing parts of the surface of the
membranes with the fingers of both hands, the tabla drum being always to
the right of the bamya. The name of the drums probably derives from
Mid-West Asian peoples who travelled to India, bringing with them their
own generic term for drums tabl. The pair produce soft and gentle tones,
which usually sound perfectly complimentary, and are often considered
instruments of chamber music. In Indian society the tabla player is known
as the Tabalchi, and is often respected for the rhythmic talent necessary to
master the drums.
The tabla is thought to have developed from the pot or kettledrum,
which is a simple drum consisting of a skin stretched atop the opening of a
pot and fastened on to it and played with the hands. Its exact origins are
questionable; there is evidence to support two opposing theories. The first
of these suggests that it diffused to India long ago from Arabic and Persian
areas. Currently, however, there seems to be more information in favour
of the idea that the tabla may be indigenous to India, originating in local





areas of pre-Islamic times. Evidence comes from a kettledrum shown in a
dancing scene of the Pawaya panel, which survives from the 3rd Century
AD. Other support is shown in the sculptures of pairs of vertical drums
which date from the 6th to 7th Centuries AD. Also, the practice of
applying paste to the membranes of drums is a very old practice in India.
In popular Indian lore, the history of the tabla is quite simple and
straightforward; its invention is usually credited to Amir Khusro.
However, as almost all other Muslim innovations are generally said to
derive from him as well, it is unlikely that this is a realistic answer. Most
early representations of the tabla come from around the 18th Century AD
or after. The most reasonable explanation for the development of these
drums then is that the small conical drums of ancient India were
gradually modified until they came to resemble the modem versions of
the instruments.





SOAS Information Tabla

Area / Country of Origin: India

Classification Number: tabla 211.11-81
bamya 211.211.2

Number of Instruments: 5 pairs

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (measurements in range)
height (bamya total): 26.9 27.7 cm
diameter (bamya membrane): 15.2 17.1 cm
height (tabla total): 26.9 28.5 cm
diameter (tabla membrane): 24.9 26.9 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: 600 total





Tambourine


The tambourine is a small single headed frame drum of Near
Eastern origin which enjoys a long history of use throughout the world. It
is constructed from a shallow ring of wood for a frame, over which a
membrane is stretched on one side. Modern European versions typically
have their coverings nailed to the frame, while examples from elsewhere
show that many other cultures glue it to the shell. Small metal discs or
jingles are loosely attached in a single row or in pairs along openings in
the frame. Tension altering devices are also found in some contemporary
tambourines; this is primarily a feature of the last century.
Playing styles can vary greatly from culture to culture, just as the
specific dimensions change dramatically throughout the areas of it usage.
Some of the more popular methods of playing the tambourine include a
thumb role, holding the instrument aloft and shaking it rhythmically,
sounding the jingles by flicking it violently with the wrists, or rubbing a
wet finger in a circular motion. Most ways of utilisation include both the
instrument acting as a membranophone (striking the head) while
simultaneously acting as an idiophone (shaking it to a certain beat).
The ancestry of the tambourine goes back at least as far as ancient
civilisations such as those of the Assyria and Egypt. The Old Testament
makes several references to the tof, an instrument which has been
generally identified with the tabret or timbrel, both precursors to the
jingle-attached tambourine. The instrument has certainly been played in
Britain since prehistoric times; the Gauls left evidence of its existence as
did the Romans, who popularised jingles and bells fastened to the sides.
The great empires established by the Greeks and Romans were thus fond
of the instrument, and often it was (and still to some extent today)
associated with joy, feasting, and celebration. Places were it retains its
popularity in modem times include China, India (where it is called the
daph), Peru (chilchil), Greenland (aelyau), Southeast Europe, and Central
Asia (daire).






SOAS Information Tambourine

Area / Country of Origin: (originally) Near Eastern

Classification Number: 212.311

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology / performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: diameter: 22.1 cm
height: 5.8 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: unavailable






Tambura


The tambura, which bears a resemblance to the sitar, is a long-
necked lute of India. Its long, broad neck is unfretted and cuts away
squarely at its terminating end; its soundboard is slightly convex. It has
four strings, for both melodic and sympathetic purposes, which run the
length of the instrument. Its body is made of wood, while its resonating
bowl is constructed of differing materials, depending on the region where
it is made. In Southern India, the resonator is fashioned out of the same
piece of wood the neck was carved from, but in the North a large pumpkin
gourd (tumba) is more frequently used while the neck is made from a
separate wooden block, making the final product larger than its Southern
counterpart.
Functionally, the most important feature of the tambura is its wide
bridge, which is typically made of ebony, ivory, or camel bone. It is curved
in the direction of right angles to the strings, and slopes in the direction of
their length. It is made of one solid piece and stands on two broad legs. It
is the slope of this bridge which provides the instrument with its beautiful
tone. The fine tonal modulation is enhanced by the placement of five
threads of cotton, silk, or wool under each string on the bridge.
The tambura is the classical drone lute of India, and its four strings
are tuned to intervals of fourth or fifth notes with octave unisons. Three
of its strings are made of steel, and one is made of brass wire. Once set into
vibration, they are never stopped but rather merely plucked with the right
forefinger. The tambura is played in a seated position, often cross-legged,
due to its irregular shape and size.
The origin of the tambura is usually attributed to the Middle East,
specifically to the areas of Iran, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. It is not believed
to be indigenous because the first accounts of the instrument in Indian
literature and art do not occur until the end of the Middle Ages. The
ancient Greek instrument called the pandura is often thought to be quite
similar in form to the modern eastern plucked tambura, however this is
questionable due to a lack of supporting evidence. The name itself is
thought to be Indian in origin, with Iran modifying it to tumbura and
Arabians to tunbur. The Middle Eastern instrument may have in fact
evolved from the Indian version of the fingerboard, because it has frets
which the tambura is lacking.






SOAS Information Tambura

Area / Country of Origin: India

Classification Number: 321.322-5

Number of Instruments: 3 (2 full sized; 1 smaller version)

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (total): (1) 138.9 cm (1) 135.4 cm
width (resonator): (1) 37.1 cm (1) 37.4 cm
width (neck): (1) 9.0 cm (1) 7.1 cm
depth (resonator): (1) 34.3 cm (1) 33.9 cm

Ownership: 2 Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)
1 privately owned by former SOAS student

Approximate Value: 2 owned by SOAS are worth 300 each






Tanso


The tanso is an end-blown notched bamboo pipe of Korea. It has
five fingerholes with the first underneath the instrument for the thumb.
A related Korean flute is the T'ungso, also an end-blown or vertical
notched aerophone. The tanso is generally acknowledged as being the
easiest Korean flute to learn how to play and thus is a natural stepping-
stone in learning more complex flutes like the taegum. Because of its
relative simplicity, it is taught in many Korean schools. Skill is required,
however, as correct breath control and lip positioning is needed before
ever learning playing techniques and methods. Even when these have
been accomplished, the proper tone of the tanso is hard to sustain for long
periods of time.
The history of the tanso in Korea is difficult to determine with
much precision. While some court records show that it did not appear in
Korea from China until the reign of King Sunjo (AD 1801-1834), other
sources suggest that its Korean arrival might have been much earlier,
perhaps in the 15th of 16th Centuries AD. It is fairly certain, however, that
the instrument arrived in Korea from China.
The tanso belongs to the repertoire of court musical instruments
and plays a key role in the Yongsan hoesang ensemble. It also frequently
accompanies shijo and kagok performances. Particularly popular is when
the tanso is paired with either the yanggum dulcimer or the saenghwang,
a type of mouth organ. In addition to these, the instrument can be heard
in a folk music context, such as when it accompanies some Kyonggi and
Sodo music in the central and Northwest regions of Korea.





SOAS Information Tanso

Area / Country of Origin: Korea

Classification Number: 421.111.12

Number of Instruments: 5

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length: 40 43 cm

Ownership: Dr. Keith Howard

Approximate Value: 20 each






Ugubhu


The ugubhu, also known as the ugubo, ugubu, ugumbu, and
inkohlisa, is an unbraced single string musical bow of the Zulu people of
Southern Africa. It is a large bow, normally ranging from between one to
five metres in length and has a gourd attached at its lower end which acts
as a resonator. Its single undivided string is made of twisted cow-tail hair
and is set into vibration by striking it with a thin, light stick or a piece of
thatching grass. The instrument is similar in construction and use to a
number of other African gourd-resonated musical bows, including the
Ngoni gubo, Swazi ligubhu, Sotho thomo, Tswana segwana, and Xhosa
Uhadi. The major difference between the ugubhu and these, however, is
that the size of the hole in the gourd resonator of the Zulu instrument is
significantly smaller than the openings in the others.
The ugubhu is played by holding it vertically in front of the
musician so that the circular hole in the gourd faces his or her left
shoulder or breast. The pitch of the bow is varied by finger-stopping and
harmonic partial above each fundamental can be selectively amplified by
positioning the gourd resonator closer or further away from the musicians
chest. It is generally played in the context of a self-accompaniment while
the player is singing.
The particular ugubhu found in the musical instrument collection
of the Centre for Music Studies at SOAS is of significant interest because of
its unique and important history. It was presented as a gift to the
distinguished former SOAS lecturer David Rycroft by the accomplished
Zulu musician Princess Constance Magogo kaDinzulu, who is also the
mother of the Zulu Chief Gatcha Buthalezi. For further information or
reference, please see Rycroft's article entitled "The Zulu Bow-Songs of
Princess Magogo" featured in African Music (1975-6. 5/4:41-96).






SOAS Information Ugubhu

Area / Country of Origin: Southern Africa

Classification Number: 311.121.221-4

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses By SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: (standard) length (total): 164.1 cm
width (at most): 9.9 cm
diameter (resonator): 20.6 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: irreplaceable






Valiha


The valiha is a tube zither of Madagascar, and is found there in
three distinct types, each with its own defining features. The most widely-
known version is he one which most resembles the Southeast Asian tube
zithers. It is constructed of a length of bamboo cane containing an
internode and two unequal and open sections at either end. The
internode acts as a resonating chamber with a varying number of
soundholes cut into it; the sections of bamboo at the ends help to amplify
the sound. Traditionally its fourteen strings have been raised from the
outer layers of the node, being reinforced at the ends, but modern ones
feature metal strings bound with wire or oxhide. These are raised by
rectangular bridges made from gourd which can be arranged to produce a
number of different tunings.
The most common type of valiha in Southern Madagascar is
constructed of two pieces of wood bound together with wire and has an
independent amplifier, usually a wooden box or an oil can. This version
has ten gut strings which rest on triangular bridges. The Northern
Madagascar type of valiha is made from hollowed-out halves of a raffia
stem held together by means of wooden pegs and a tie of raffia at its ends.
Its stings, raised sections of the outer layers of the stem, are also held in
place by ties. Its bridges are rectangular and are movable to provide a
number of tunings.
The valiha, originating in Southeast Asia, originally was played
only at sacred rituals, being held in a very high regard, but now takes a
much more secular role in music. The ceremonies it once was restricted
to included rites involving deceased ancestors, possession rituals, and a
music genre called osika which involved other magical/religious
practices. The role of the valiha in the latter rituals has eventually been
replace by the accordion, introduced within the last two hundred years.
The playing of this chordophone was also limited to male members of the
aristocracy in years past, but has since revised its role and a number of
women have now become accomplished musicians on it. In the past one
hundred years it has become a symbol of national unity and pride on the
island, and is a common sight to visitors and tourists there.






SOAS Information Valiha

Area / Country of Origin: Madagascar

Classification Number: 312.12

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: broken beyond repair

Physical Dimensions: length: 106.1 cm
diameter: 7.9 cm

Ownership: donated to Centre for Music Studies by Dr. David W. Hughes

Approximate Value: 20






Vina


The Indian vina is a half-tube long zither with two large resonating
gourds, suspended from each end. It contains four or five wire strings
which run the length of the stick and are plucked with a wire plectrum.
These strings produce a clear and delicate melodic sound, although
occasionally chords are played on them. Steel strings may also be added
outside the melody strings to contribute to a "jingling and sparkling"
treble in the higher octave. On the length of the stick there are around
twenty movable frets (the number may vary) which can be repositioned
easily to sound the different intervals on the Indian scale. The tone of the
vina is secured in both gourd resonators, which help to significantly
increase the volume of the strings.
The typical playing position is with one gourd resting on the left
shoulder while the other one is kept under the right arm. The
soundboard is held obliquely across the chest of the player. As with the
tambura, different regions produce varying sizes of vinas; Southern vinas
are often much larger than their Northern counterparts.
The name vina is much older than the instrument itself. It was
originally used as a term for an ancient Egyptian harp, the vin or bint.
When harps lost their popularity and disappeared from India over 1000
years ago, people began to use the name in reference to stick zithers. The
name was most likely a general term for all chordophones, of which
zithers certainly fit. Stick zithers first appear in a 7th Century AD relief in
the temple at Maualipuram. Vinas are consecrated to Sarasuati, the
goddess of wisdom, and are popular instruments commonly played in
both secular and sacramental music. They have also been incorporated
into most marriage ceremonies as one of the most important instruments.
The present term however is loosely applied to all plucked chordophones
in Indian music, and many different versions of the classical vina exist.





SOAS Information Vina

Area / Country of Origin: India

Classification Number: 312.222-6

Number of Instruments: 1 with stand + 1 small folk vina

Primary Uses by SOAS: organology

Physical Condition: real vina is good; folk vina is in poor condition

Physical Dimensions: length (total): (1) 128.8 cm (1) 104.4 cm
width (bottom resonator): (1) 33.9 cm (1) 25.8 cm
width (top resonator): (1) 27.7 cm (1) 15.9 cm
width (neck): (1) 5.5 7.0 cm (1) 5.3 6.1 cm

Ownership: Centre for Music Studies (SOAS)

Approximate Value: large vina is valued at 500; value of small folk vina
is unavailable





Yangqin


The yangqin, whose name translates literally to "the foreign or
Western qin," is a dulcimer very much like the Persian santur. It consists
of a thin trapezoidal box, usually with a cover, across the top of which
many strings of brass wire run. These strings are usually arranged in
groups of threes (but can be anything from two to four) in twelve to
sixteen groups in total. Either end of each wire is wrapped around tall
tuning pegs on both sides of the instrument which have square heads. At
the ends of the soundboard are fixed ridges which raise each string;
various numbers of bridges are inserted into the central section of the
board. These bridges have rectangular sections raised which lift
alternating groups of strings up while the next group falls down into the
low section of the bridge. Thus each bridge in the middle of the yangqin
simultaneously raises and lowers alternating groups of strings such that
more than one note can be sounded by the same group.
The yangqin is placed so that the longer end of the trapezoid is
closer to the player, and the strings are set into motion by striking them at
various points with two delicate and springy bamboo hammers (Qin Chu).
In playing, the musician constantly strikes two sets of strings together in
rapid alteration, often ending in a long note held by positioning the
quivering hammers against the strings. Due in part to its foreign origins,
the specifics of the yangqin vary from instrument to instrument probably
more than any other in the Chines musical repertoire. It can be played in
a solo performance setting or can be paired with the violin and guitar in
accompaniment of songs and ballads.





SOAS Information Yangqin

Area / Country of Origin: China

Classification Number: 322.221

Number of Instruments: 1

Primary Uses by SOAS: performance

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (long/short side): 117.3 cm/80.1 cm
width: 50.8 cm
height (without bridges): 10.2 10.9 cm

Ownership: Cheng Yu

Approximate Value: 650







Unidentified Instruments


Side-blown long aerophone, possibly from Africa







q e
'.". i e.


Wooden cylindrical membranophone, possibly from North-Central Africa














Thai Mahori Ensemble


Musical Instrument Inventory

Fall 1997















General Information
The Thai mahori musical ensemble is one consisting of mainly string and
percussive instruments. Several sizes of the ensemble exist, from the
small version with one type of each instrument called wong mahori,
khrer-ang lek, to the mid-size group containing two of each type, the
wong mahori, khrer-ang khu, to the large ensemble featuring a varying
number of musicians and instruments, the wong mahori, khrer-ang yai.
The instruments played in the Thai Mahori ensemble are listed on the
following pages.


Total Value for Mahori Ensemble: 12,000





Chablek and Chabyai
,.,;L ,:,",... .. "i'. q .:.:% ... :,. :


The chablek and chabyai are pairs of small metal cymbals with a flat shape
and a round knob protruding upwards from their centre. They are
differentiated from another small pair of Thai percussive cymbals, the
ching, by being larger, wider and of a thinner metal. Each individual
cymbal in a pair has a small cord which is passed through a hole at the top
of the knob and often ends in a tassel; this cord does not connect the pair as
in the ching. Of these two pair, the smaller is called the chablek and the
slightly larger pair is known as the chabyai. They both serve the function
of playing a rhythmic tempo in accompaniment to other instruments or
performance. These names are onomatopoetic, deriving from the high
pitched sound they make when struck together.






Chablek and Chabyai


Classification Number: 111.142

Number of Instruments (Chablek): 5 pairs
(Chabyai): 1 pair + 1 individual

Physical Condition (both): good

Physical Dimensions (Chablek):
diameters: (1 pair) 12.5 cm (1) 10.4 cm (3) 13.2cm
(Chabyai):
diameters: (1 pair) 24.4 cm (1 ind.) 22.6 cm





Ching


The ching is the name for another pair of small percussive cymbals made
of thick metal in the shape of a hollow cone. They are played by striking
them against each other in the hands of the player. At the top of the cone
a cord is passed through small holes at the top of both the cymbals,
connecting them. A knot is tied at each end of the cord which prevents it
from slipping through the cymbals. The cord itself is held in the players
hand and is wrapped around various fingers. The ching also gets its name
from its high tone, also making it onomatopoetic. The pair is used to
accompany instrumental ensembles, song, dance, and musical/dancing
dramas, keeping the time while beating the rhythm.

Classification Number: 111.142

Number of Instruments: 3 pairs

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: diameters: (2 pairs) 6.2 cm (1) 8.4 cm





Glong Khaek


The glong khaek is a double-headed membranophone with a long,
cylindrical body made of hardwood. Its two heads are of unequal sizes and
are made of either calf- or goatskin. These membranes were originally tied
down with split cane or rattan but are now commonly tied with leather
thongs. They are used in pairs, with each drum in the pair producing
slightly different pitches. The drum which has a lower pitch is known as
the "female" while the higher-sounding glong khaek is the "male" of the
pair. The heads are beaten with the palms and fingers of both hand; both
heads of the drum are played in a performance. Complex rhythms are
created by alternating beats within the pair. The glong khaek was
originally used in royal processions, such as when a king was carried out
on the royal barge or on an elephant.

Classification Number: 211.212.2-81

Number of Instruments: 2

Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: diameter large membrane: (1) 27.4 cm (1) 27.9 cm
diameter small membrane: (1) 23.5 cm (1) 23.5 cm
total length: (1) 63.3 cm (1) 63.5 cm





Glong That


The glong that, one of the most popular Thai instruments, is a large barrel-
shaped membranophone with two heads. Its body is made from a solid
block of a strong hardwood so that its inside is hollowed and its outside is
smoothed and polished. The drum heads on both ends of the body are
made from the hide of a cow or water buffalo. These are stretched tightly
over the open ends and fastened with a row of pegs called sae. A black
circle is frequently painted on the membranes to help protect them against
wear. Two beaters are used to play the instrument, although usually only
one membrane is struck. A metal ring is attached to the middle of the side
of the body, which allows two poles to pass through; they tilt and support
the drum during a performance. Before its use a pasty mixture of cooked
rice and ash is often applied to the heads for the purpose of tuning them.
The glong that has a long history of use and is probably an indigenous
membranophone.






Glong That

Classification Number: 211.222.1-7

Number of Instruments: 2


Physical Condition: good

Physical Dimensions: length (body): (2) 51 cm
diameter of heads: (2) 46 cm





Grab Puang


.4 .. '" .


,.-:n '. ." .
.: ..y .. : ":.;,.. .


The grab puang is a percussive instrument made of thin pieces of wood,
ivory, or sheets of brass placed between two end-pieces of hardwood or
ivory. These end-pieces are larger and thicker than the other pieces and
curve out slightly. A small hole is made in one end of each piece, and a
cord fastened through in a fan-like manner. It is played by striking it
against the open palm of one hand while being held in the other. The grab
puang is used to accompany singing and dancing, and to help keep rhythm
in instrumental ensembles.


Classification Number: 111.12


Number of Instruments: 2


Physical Condition: 1 good, 1 missing end-piece


Physical Dimensions: length (end pieces): 22 cm





Grab Sepha


























The grab sepha is an idiophone made from a pair of rectangular blocks of
hardwood. One side of each block is slightly convex while the other is
shorter and relatively flat. The wood is sanded, smoothed, and polished so
that it can be easily played in the hands of the player. The pair is held in
an upward-turned palm of the hand and is rolled back and forth to
produce a rhythm. These instruments are primarily employed in the
sepha chant, a recitation type of singing, but can also be used for rhythmic
purposes in ensemble performances.

Classification Number: 111.212

Number of Instruments: 1 pair

Physical Condition: good


Physical Dimensions:


length: 21.5 cm
width: 3.9 cm
depth: 3.4 cm




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EBG995CIP_SIS569 INGEST_TIME 2012-10-26T20:09:27Z PACKAGE AA00013035_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES