Federal personnel manual system

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Federal personnel manual system
Portion of title:
FPM letter
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
United States Civil Service Commission
United States -- Office of Personnel Management
Publisher:
United States Civil Service Commission
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Frequency:
irregular
completely irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Personnel management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- United States   ( nal )
Civil service -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- United States   ( lcsh )
Personnel management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Issuing Body:
Vols for 1979- issued by: Office of Personnel Management.
General Note:
Description based on: 410-19 (Aug. 22, 1977); title from caption.
General Note:
Latest issue consutled: 292-23 (No. 3, 1983); title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021549616
oclc - 06727309
lccn - 2009238041
System ID:
AA00012996:00055


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
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Office of Personnel Management FP.ete 4-

Federal Personne Manual System Pubfished in advance
"M Let 340-3 of Incorporation in FPM
Letter 340
$k T: Part-time Employment and Job h r i rn-- BSREAIN t#M SLUNRW

SCWashington, D. C. 20415

Departments and Independent EstablishmenIs: Setme11,19

ter transmits a copy of a new OPM publication, Job Sharing for
pmloyees (attachment 1) and also announces a pilot project on job
"ari part-time employment that OPM will conduct in several cities.,
round
labor market becomes more competitive, public and private sector
are recognizing the value of alternative work arrangements in
.$4g and retaining quality employees. The need to balance work and
aonibilities has led many employees to seek flexibility in their

widely-reported trends explain why this issue has become of
pag concern to employees.
,'Xeentage of working mothers has risen dramatically and is expected
tinue.,In 1976, 31 percent of mothers with children under age I
LAthe labor force; in 1987, 51 percent of these mothers worked.
J mber of Americans 65 years and older has grown twice as fast as any
_,group.- A survey reports that 1 in every 4 workers over 30 provides
peof care to an aging parent or other relative.

.At System's Protection Board recently reported on the reasons
'lyee gave for eaving the "Government. According to MSPB, 14
Those surveyed left because of the desire to pursue nonwork
or-continue education, difficulties in getting adequate day care;
had~t poblems; or unsatisfactory working hours or shifts. The
tyof part-time work schedules might have made it possible for at
frtion of these employees to remain with the Government.
ing
Ikt is a way for management to offer part-time work schedules in
ao where full-time coverage is needed. The attached publication,
'nfor Federal Em ~lo ees, gives detailed information on how to
job shairing arrangement and make it work effectively. (A future
jkktinwill offer agencies the opportunity to purchaset-additional
agthe publication.)

_FPromotion Vacancy Announcements
ngfull-time vacancies, agencies must accept applicAtions from
xig teams within the area of consideration. Each memlaer of the
Sbe among the best qualified in order for the team tosbe selected.
thaionwhere job sharing would not be workable, the selecting
is free to select a single individual from the best-qualified
nuy agency vacancy announcements for full-time positions already
Sa statement that job sharers may apply; OPM strongly encourages
..actice.


:Staffing Policy Division, Career Entry and Employee
Development, (202) 606-0960. or FTS 266-0960
340, Part-time (General)





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Federal Employees

When two part-time employees voluntarily share the duties and
responsibilities of a full-time position, the employees are job shar-
ing. Generally, a job sharing team means two employees at the
same grade level, but other arrangements are possible. Job sharers
are pan-time employees and are subject to personnel policies on
that basis. See appendix A.

In today's shrinking labor market, employers recognize that more
flexible work schedules are necessary to attract and maintain a
quality workforce. Many workers, primarily but not exclusively
women with child care or elder care responsibilities, do not want to
maintain a full 40-hour schedule (plus commuting time and lunch
breaks) for their entire career. Other individuals-those with health
problems, with certain handicapping conditions, or who want to
pursue other interests--are also interested in working on a reduced
schedule. Job sharing is a way to permit employees to work part
time in positions where full-time coverage is required.

Public and private sector employers report job sharing serves a
wide range of useful purposes in addition to recruiting and retain-
ing employees who seek more flexibility in their work lives.
Schedisg Frtxility
Two people are available for one job and can be in different places
at the same time. Job shares can overlap during peak periods, can
increase hours to handle extra workload, can trade work time to
cover each other's absences, and can have schedules set to match
workload flow (for example, early morning and late afternoon).
Job Enhancement
Two employees bring a wider range of skills to the job. In a pilot
project in Wisconsin State Government, researchers found job shar-
ors tended to supervise each other, catch errors, and exchange in-
sights leading to better job performance.
CSar Savgs
Job sharing offers an alternative to layoffs when full-time em-
ployees are willing to reduce hours. Overtime can be kept down if
job sharers increase regularly scheduled hours. Job sharing cuts
turnover of "burned out" employees and results in increased pro-
ductivity from "fresher" employees.

There is no definitive list of jobs "suitable" for job sharing, and no
law or regulation limits part-time or job sharing to specific jobs or
grade levels. Any job may be filled by a part-time employee or by a
team of job sharers when the arrangement meets the needs of the
agency and the employeess. The State of Michigan found a key
element in successful job sharing was not the particular set of du-
ties, but the qualities of the job sharers themselves and the support
they received from the organization.






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half of the job with an outside candidate locpolitan area open
competitive examining or under one of the special noncompetitive
appointing authorities.
Employees in certain metropolitan areas may be able to find job
sharing partners--and agencies can find current and former em-
ployees for part-time and job shared positions--through an OPM
pilot project, The OPM Connection. OPM area offices (listed in
the Government section of local telephone directories) can,provide
more information about the location and operation of the pilot
projects.

The experirate as members of a team rather than as com-
petitors, be flexible, and have a strong commitment to the job and
to making the job sharing arrangement work They must have
complementary skills, knowledge and abilities--and also compatible
work styles.

When two job sharers at the same grade level are jointly respon-
sible for all the duties and responsibilities of the full-time position,
there is no need to restructure the position. Each team member
should have a copy of the original position description to which a
statement has been attached to show that the incumbent is a job
sharer jointly responsible for carrying out all the duties and re-
sponsibilities of the position.
When the job sharers will be individually responsible only for
portions of the job, or when the job sharers are at different grade
levels, separate position descriptions are required to reflect the
actual duties and responsibilities of each employee. Each job
sharer must have a position description that accurately reflects his
or her duties and responsibilities.

The decision on whether job sharers should be jointly responsible
for the entire position or only for separate functions depends on
the job and the abilities of the job sharing team. To determine the
arrangement for a particular job, the supervisor (with assistance
from the personnel office, if needed) should examine the position
description and decide which tasks will be shared, i.e., handled by
whichever team member is on duty, and which will be assigned to a
specific individual, based on skills and experience. For example,
one sharer could have the lead on a particular project, caseload, or
function with the other serving as back-up. In some cases, tasks
will be divided between the sharers, but overall responsibility for
the position-will be shared.


as back-up. In some cases, tasks
will be divided between the sharers, but overall responsibility for
the position-will be shared.






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For job sharing to be truly successful, everyone with whom the job
shares have contact must be able to assume that any information
given to one team member will reach the other. In other words,
supervisors, co-workers, and clients expect to communicate with
"the position" via the person on duty at the time. The job sharers
must have a workable communication system which serves the
purpose without detracting from their ability to get the work done.
Appendix C gives suggestions for maintaining good communications.

Although a supervisor may decide to authorize a job sharing ar-
rangement on a trial basis, in any case the approval and the de-
cision to terminate is at management's discretion. T'b preclude later
misunderstandings, this point should be made clear before the job
sharers begin work. In addition, it should be decided in advance
what will be done if one partner is unable to maintain the agreed-
upon schedule, goes on extended leave, resigns, takes another job.
If the "remaining" partner would be expected to work full-time until
the other job sharer is replaced, this should be made clear at the
beginning.
When it is necessary to end a particular job sharing arrangement,
the agency may reassign one or both of the job shares to other
part-time positions or to other full-time positions. In a 1985 deci-
sion (774 F. 2D 475), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal
Circuit ruled that RIF procedures were not appropriate for separa-
ting a job sharer when the agency wished to replace the job sharers
with a full-time employee. The court said that a simple change in
work schedule from part-time to full-time did not constitute a
reorganization, one of the appropriate uses for RIF procedures.
See Appendices D and E on solving problems.

Agencies may not refuse to accept applications from individuals
solely because they are part of a job sharing team. Each job sharer
must be evaluated individually to determine eligibility. If both are
among the best qualified, they must be referred as a team to the
selecting official. In situations where job sharing arrangements
would not be appropriate, the selecting official has full authority to
select a single candidate from among the best qualified. (A mem-
ber of a job sharing team may also apply as an individual and be
considered on that basis.)

When job sharing programs are planned for organizations where
employees are represented by a labor organization with exclusive
recognition by law, agencies must notify the union and bargain in
good faith on any negotiable proposals the union submits. Al-
though not a replacement for collective bargaining, labor-manage-
ment cooperation i.e., discussion and informal understandings,
could help agencies in the development of successful job sharing
programs.




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Appendix B: Scheduling Options for Job Sharers

SId ealy the supervisor and the job sharing team should jointly determine how the
: work week will be divided. While the needs of the office are paramount a successful
wangement will obviously have to meet the needs of the employees as well
S lpendung on the work and the job sharing team, a number of options are possible,
u Jchuding split days, split weeks, alternate days, and alternate weeks. Commuting
may make it impractical to schedule job shares for half days, five days a week



p|en iemployee could work Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday; the other, Thursday and Friday.
..l ..f.. week the team members could reverse so that each would work a total of 5 days per
flllll piod. (Note that the number of hours worked by each team member may be the same
1liOe00 nt, and the combined hours may total 40 hours or more or less.)

!t sharer could work consecutive weeks, beginning on a Wednesday.

llft.member of the team could work Monday, Thesday; the other, Thursday and Friday. On
!.,'t*htisdaly, both employees could work a full or half day, depending. on the need for
,i4ai ppig time. (A certain amount of overlap time may be necessary.)
Aihanrers want to work on alternate weeks, certain scheduling requirements must be met
.A a part-time employee to be regularly scheduled--and eligible to earn leave--he or she
1 hbur of work scheduled in each week of the bi-weekly pay period. Also, a part-time
maiy not be scheduled for more than 32 hours per week. Within these requirements,
a.er could be scheduled* for 32 hours in week A and 1 hour in week B. The other job
siuld be scheduled for 1 hour in week A and 32 hours in week B. The employees would
;ba... k annual leave (or be granted leave without pay) for the 1 hour in the week he or she
to e' "off." See FPM Chapter 340, section 1-4, for information on permitting part-time
to work more than their scheduled hours. Job sharing on a 6-months-on, 6-months-off
..... be handled differently. In this situation the employees would be considered full-time
i ujM be granted leave without pay at the agency's discretion.

iiM lspmples might give the impression that job sharers' time on the job must be mutually
.i..... While this will be true in most cases, employees can overlap some or all of the time,
an the nature of the work and the availability of space and equipment.

Shlaziing offers supervisors considerable flexibility in scheduling. Temporary rearrangement of
ldoes not require paperwork (see FPM Chapter 340, section 1-4), but consideration needs to
hNta. to employee concerns such as child care or class schedules. Job sharing also allows the
~it inso to match work schedules to workload peaks. For example, one job sharer could work
Ani yuly morning tour and the other, a tour late in the day, with no coverage in the middle of the
14. rather, since job sharers can often swap schedules to cover for each other's absences, the
lE..ithas the benefit of a built-in backup system. (Advance arrangements should make clear the
b0lit0ions under which one team member would be expected to work additional hours in the
since of the other and how work will be performed if one of the job sharers were to leave the




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S Appendix D: A Message to Job Sharers

The success of job sharing will be measured not by whether the arrangement creates
7.. .. oblems'--anythn new is bound to--but by how well and how quickly you, the job
&awa resolve them to everyone's satisfaction.

Dn the fbiowing excerpt from The Job Sharing Handbook \ a San Francisco-based
aeprofit organization called New Ways to Work offers some practical advice.


"tr a few weeks of working you may find that your schedule needs adjusting. Sometimes it
a a matter of insufficient overlap time, but more often it is the realization that your chosen
Mhiedule does not conform as well as it could to the work flow. It may be that you are
: wbrg more hours than you've contracted for because once you are at work you have
0I1.ffiiculty leaving. This can be more a problem with self-discipline than with your schedule,
lpt readjusting your work time canhelp. The ideal job-sharing situation is one in which the
Iebpk wr allows the sharers to freely adjust their work time as long as the work gets done.
S Tur employer may not be comfortable allowing you that much freedom, and you may have
t. .,: tiate with your supervisor for changes in work time. Each time you do you will be
't9ing a case for more efficient use of your paid work hours.


.0After you have worked together for a few weeks you may experience a drift in your relation-
ship. It may be that one of you is becoming the dominant partner--the person who always
:1--j apnds to an emergency situation, or stays late to finish up work, or comes in extra days to
a with unexpected crises. In some partnerships one person naturally grows into a domi-
J nt role. In others, one sharer seems always to be assigned to or volunteers for the glamour
tabka while the other provides support. These sharing issues need to be discussed regularly so
.i ;:..'you and your partner can find solutions to the imbalance.


..... .... .-messages from your partner and co-workers aren't getting through (notices of meetings are
:pttming to you late, tasks are being done twice, and clients and coworkers are complaining that
they have already explained that to your'partner), you have communication problems--the
kind that employers envision when they question whether people can share a job. Partners
need to communicate every day by means of phone calls or taped messages, in addition to
keeping logs and writing memos. In the early stages of sharing a job there is no such thing as
too much communication. As your work routine develops, you will train yourselves to
communicate regularly and to maintain an appropriate level of written and verbal information
exchange.




1 Reprinted from The Job Sharing Handbook by Barney Olmsiead and Suzanne Smith, with permission from Ten
Speed Press, P.O. Box 7123, Berkeley, CA 94707.
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A potential for friction exists between partners around decision making and task distribution.
A sharer with an assertive personality or longer work history may make independent
Judgments in areas where a discussion between partners should take place. Or one sharer
L ay end up doing all the routine tasks-typing ("because you're faster") or filing ("I never have
i:d: to put it away"). One may have a different perception of what it means to get the job
I: 4" do; and thus work longer hours to finish or polish work which his or her partner considers
iii alii d and satisfactory.

~I ty of your part-time schedule can grow into resentment between you and. your fellow
iiMIII rkei a In truth, many people would like to work part-time, but what stops them is the
i tion that they would be paid on a part-time basis. Remind your colleagues that they
owv.lk part-time, and have more free time if they can adjust their budget, the way you did.

.b.i selretype of part-time employees as less serious workers who don't pull as much of the
load as full-timers do is widely held in the workplace. If you encounter it in a co-
*mrker, remind him or her that you have contracted for a smaller part of the load, that you
.,k part of a position and your partner works the other part.

Ml.ika::balance in the relationship with a supervisor can negatively affect sharers' ability to
i ncollabodiE' ratively as equals. An uneven relationship can develop when one sharer has
me*rly held the job full time, when partners change, or when one sharer gets along better
ih !if the manager. It can result in the dominant partner getting all the feedback and
.iimiiiin ent while the other remains in a shadow where it is difficult to be seen or to

t ".': supervisor who comes into a new job and has to supervise a job-sharing team can
rpt: an effective sharing arrangement. After he or she has been on the job a few weeks,
S "et time to talk about any reservations regarding job sharing that might remain and work out
I VIs to deal with them. This can make an enormous difference in a manager's attitude.

of the thorniest problems are caused by expectations that have not been fully discussed.
i qtiaMploycrs and sharers have had more experience with the concept of job sharing than with
||S|i i(cice. Personnel policies have yet to develop for job sharers, and shared jobs are still
ia*0i ed as exceptions to the rule. Sharers may expect more freedom in determining their work
|i|iii es, than an employer is ready to give them. Or an employer may expect shares to cover
iAjR h other when one is sick or on vacation but finds that one sharer is attending school and is
.1 .lfd into a rigid classroom schedule that does not allow for change.




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Be sure the schedule is not leaving the work unit short of staff
during busy bours; make necessary schedule adjustments. Explain
that the employee is following the appropriate schedule. Remind
co-workers that part-time employees receive only a percentage of
full-time pay and accruals.

Post the part-time employee's schedule in a convenient location
(near the telephone) so co-workers can tell the caller when the
employee will be in.


Review the co-worker's decision on what needs to be handled
immediately and what can wait for the part-time employee. Set
guidelines in this area. Determine if the schedule arrangement
(such as 2 workdays followed by 3 days off) is causing problems.
Consider ways to distribute urgent matters more equitably.
Consider that the absence of full-time employees from the office
might be contributing to the problem. Change the part-time em-
ployee's schedule.

Convey by attitude, words and assignments that the employee is a
valuable and respected part of the unit. Be sure people deal with
the part-time employee on matters under his or her jurisdiction;
don't let people go around the employee. See if anything in the
employee's behavior is contributing to the image.

Be sure the employee works with other employees on projects or
assignments. Look for patterns in meeting schedules, office com-
munications and informal networking that isolate the employee.
Make sure the part-time employee is properly oriented to the job,
agency and people.


Adjust assignments if one job sharer is getting higher priority as-
signments. Review job responsibilities with each job sharer; sum-
marize responsibilities in writing. See if changes would better
match the job sharer's skills with the assignments.

As with a full-time employee, discuss assignments and establish
reasonable deadlines. Also, see if one job sharer's delays are
causing the second job sharer to miss deadlines. Distribute the
work differently. Consider the individual's strengths and weak-
nesses, to balance work assignments fairly. Be sure to reward and
praise job sharers equally for equal performance. Encourage the
job sharers to talk over their differences and recommend their
own solutions.






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Attachment 2 to FPM Letter 340-3 (1)


on.t Go Away...


WO Part-time!


Pio glwf wf k w and famuy napmasiiaes guio g you dan?
Do haat pmrbems make it hd for yo ato wk a 40iourw eek
C=Mar yeu go back to sdal if here w as enxa hras in the day?
At i ds tm hs yow a me same nmn-wrwk hoar more vahaMe than SS7
SiyWEd a pat-dae awk shade he ym balame campeg demmndr

( J o part-im employee? Why do employee afer job sharing?
part-time employee has a career or In addition to providing the opportunity for em-
jl.ii appointment (or a permanent ap- ployees to work part-time in positions where full-
k i the excepted service), is eligible for time coverage is required, job sharing provides
ban0iefi, and works between 16 and 32 hours management with extra flexibility: team members
a prearranged schedule. For employees may have different strengths; they may be able to
Lot'. continue to work full-time, part-time em- fill in for each other's. absences; and both may be
s a'way to maintain a career and income. able to work extra hours when there are unexpect-
ed workload surges.
Wp Ih siw harinhe?
4lli1 h a^ is a form of part-time employment in How can a full-time employee change to a part-
..iM ...s.ichedules of two part-time employees are time or job sharing schedule?
..ips to cover the duties of a single ful-time Although procedures vary from agency to agency,
|x;|iipg Fo example, job shares can each work a the first step is for an employee to discuss the idea
gi ofpa the day or week. with his or her immediate supervisor. If a part-
.. i e time schedule is not appropriate for the employ-
liE .pO i m and grade levpl are s ee suita fr part- ec's current position, job sharing may be feasible.
:1l4l Eloym~ient amdar job sharing? Agency personnel offices may be able to help the
Employees are currently working in a wide employee identify other positions in the agency
iyof positions at all levels. (Job sharersm, though which could be filled on a part-time or jobshared
i i number, also work in clerical, technical, basis.
-h kacinksltat and professional joBS.) Any job may be
I' lildpy a part-time employee or a team of job shakers For more information, call your agency contact
hliatEn the arrangement meets the needs of the office-
;aU1 the empfyee(s).
~Y~j~;~~il~`~~ed workload surges.








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Attachment 3 to FPM Letter 340-3


U. S. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
AUTOMATED APPLICANT REFERRAL SYSTEM
AGENCY ID REQUEST FORM


UJGS7IF G AGENCY This fIrm must be signed by your personnel officer. Complete only SECTION 1.
Retain a copy fir your records and send the original to Staffing Service Center,
4685 Log Cabin Drive, Maco;n GA 31-29, AT77N AGENCY ID Coordinator.



#AON I


Y CONTACT


b. PHONE NUMBER


ICY NAME AND ADDRESS
i idi appear on FAXed outputs.)
ppa on^


QONE NUMBER
wfIale. Otherwise, include area code.)


LJI | -LLLJ-LWJ


*OUTING INFORMATION
440 Ia printed on a cover sheer fr all FAX transmittals. Please include your name, organization, room number
44petr Informaon that will ensure delivery from your office FAX machine to your desk.)




NATUREE DATE
-------------------------------------


(FOR OPM USE ONLY)


I I L 11J


Clerk


Date


~....A ......... .u 7


-at


-- -- --- -




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

lllllllll ll3 1262 08729 3113lll
3 1262 08729 3113




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